WorldWideScience

Sample records for oil bypass filter

  1. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Performance Evaluation - January 2003 Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence R. Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-01-01

    This report details the initial activities to evaluate the performance of the oil bypass filter technology being tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass systems from the puraDYN Corporation. Each bus averages about 60,000 miles a year. The evaluation includes an oil analysis regime to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil and to detect undesirable contaminants. Very preliminary economic analysis suggests that the oil bypass system can reduce life-cycle costs. As the evaluation continues and oil avoidance costs are quantified, it is estimated that the bypass system economics may prove increasingly favorable, given the anticipated savings in operational costs and in reduced use of oil and waste oil avoidance.

  2. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Performance Evaluation - First Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zirker, L.R.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-31

    This report details the initial activities to evaluate the performance of the oil bypass filter technology being tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass systems from the puraDYN Corporation. Each bus averages about 60,000 miles a year. The evaluation includes an oil analysis regime to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil and to detect undesirable contaminants. Very preliminary economic analysis suggests that the oil bypass system can reduce life-cycle costs. As the evaluation continues and oil avoidance costs are quantified, it is estimated that the bypass system economics may prove increasingly favorable, given the anticipated savings in operational costs and in reduced use of oil and waste oil avoidance.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. R. Zirker; J. E. Francfort; J. J. Fielding

    2006-03-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation final report documents the feasibility of using oil bypass filters on 17 vehicles in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) fleet during a 3-year test period. Almost 1.3 million test miles were accumulated, with eleven 4-cycle diesel engine buses accumulating 982,548 test miles and six gasoline-engine Chevrolet Tahoes accumulating 303,172 test miles. Two hundred and forty oil samples, taken at each 12,000-mile bus servicing event and at 3,000 miles for the Tahoes, documented the condition of the engine oils for continued service. Twenty-eight variables were normally tested, including the presence of desired additives and undesired wear metals such as iron and chrome, as well as soot, water, glycol, and fuel. Depending on the assumptions employed, the INL found that oil bypass filter systems for diesel engine buses have a positive payback between 72,000 and 144,000 miles. For the Tahoes, the positive payback was between 66,000 and 69,000 miles.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation - Sixth Quarterly Report, January - March 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy; Larry Zirker

    2004-06-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (January-March 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. This quarter, the heavy-duty buses traveled 88,747 miles, and as of the end of March 2004, the eight buses have accumulated 412,838 total test miles without requiring an oil change. This represents an avoidance of 34 oil changes, which equates to 1,199 quarts (300 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, furthermore, 1,199 quarts of waste oil not generated.

  5. Recycling used automotive oil filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.

    1994-02-01

    Over 400 million used automotive oil filters are discarded in the United States each year, most of which are disposed of in landfills wasting valuable resources and risking contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. This article summarizes U.S. bureau of Mines research evaluating scrap prepared from used automotive oil filters. Experimental results show that crushed and drained oil filters have a bulk density that is higher than many typical scrap grades, a chemical analysis low in residual elements (except tin due to use of tin plate in filters), and an overall yield, oil-filter scrap to cast steel, of 76% to 85%, depending on the method used to prepare the scrap.

  6. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  7. A biological oil adsorption filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasila, Antti

    2004-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore.

  8. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  9. Reduced embolic load during clinical cardiopulmonary bypass using a 20 micron arterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabur, G N S; Willcox, T W; Zahidani, S H; Sidhu, K; Mitchell, S J

    2014-05-01

    To compare the efficiency of 20 and 40 µm arterial line filters during cardiopulmonary bypass for the removal of emboli from the extracorporeal circuit. Twenty-four adult patients undergoing surgery were perfused using a cardiopulmonary bypass circuit containing either a 20 µm or 40 µm arterial filter (n = 12 in both groups). The Emboli Detection and Classification system was used to count emboli upstream and downstream of the filter throughout cardiopulmonary bypass. The mean proportion of emboli removed by the filter was compared between the groups. The 20 µm filter removed a significantly greater proportion of incoming emboli (0.621) than the 40 µm filter (0.334) (p=0.029). The superiority of the 20 µm filter persisted across all size groups of emboli larger than the pore size of the 40 µm filter. The 20 µm filter removed substantially more emboli than the 40 µm filter during cardiopulmonary bypass in this comparison.

  10. Qualification Lab Testing on M1 Abrams Engine Oil Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION LAB TESTING ON M1 ABRAMS ENGINE OIL FILTERS FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 483 by Kristi K. Rutta U.S...the originator. UNCLASSIFIED QUALIFICATION LAB TESTING ON M1 ABRAMS ENGINE OIL FILTERS FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 483 by Kristi K...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Qualification Lab Testing on M1 Abrams Engine Oil Filter 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-15-C-0030 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  11. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C

    2014-03-15

    Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, -27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and -1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems.

  12. Enhanced microfiltration devices configured with hydrodynamic trapping and a rain drop bypass filtering architecture for microbial cells detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christophe; Teo, Cheng Yong; Zhu, Liang; Peh, Xue Li; Ji, Hong Miao; Chew, Bi-Rong; Murthy, Ramana; Feng, Han Hua; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2008-05-01

    Ultra-fine (drop bypass architecture, which significantly reduces the likelihood of clogging at the cost of limited cell loss. The new rain drop bypass architecture configuration has a substantially lower pressure drop and allows a better efficiency in trapping protozoan cells (Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia) in comparison to our previous generation of a microfilter device. A modified version displaying sub-micron filter gaps was adapted to trap and detect bacterial cells (Escherichia coli), through a method of cells labeling, which aims to amplify the fluorescence signal emission and therefore the sensitivity of detection.

  13. Sputter deposition of thin film MIM capacitors on LTCC substrates for RF bypass and filtering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Jack [Missouri University of Science and Technology; O' Keefe, Matthew J. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Wilder, Kristina [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Eatinger, Ryan [Kansas State University; Kuhn, William [Kansas State University; Krueger, Daniel S. [Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies; Wolf, J. Ambrose [Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies

    2011-08-31

    Thin film capacitors for RF bypass and filtering applications were sputter deposited onto low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates. The capacitors were configured in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) design featuring 200 nm thick Al electrodes and a 300 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric layer, with dimensions varied between ~150x150 μm and ~750x750 μm. DC current-voltage measurements (E ≤ 5 MV/cm) coupled with impedance analysis (≤15 MHz) was used to characterize the resulting devices. More than 90% of the devices functioned as capacitors with high DC resistance (>20 MΩ) and low loss (tan δ <0.1). A second set of capacitors were made under the same experimental conditions with device geometries optimized for high frequency (≥200 MHz) applications. These capacitors featured temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) values between 500 and 1000 ppm/°C as well as low loss and high self-resonant frequency performance (ESR <0.6 Ohms at self-resonance of 5.7 GHz for 82 pF). Capacitance and loss values were comparable between the capacitor structures of similar areas at the different frequency regimes.

  14. Gaussian Filtering with Tapered Oil-Filled Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Scolari, Lara; Weirich, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A tunable Gaussian filter based on a tapered oil-filled photonic crystal fiber is demonstrated. The filter is centered at X=1364nm with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 237nm. Tunability is achieved by changing the temperature of the filter. A shift of 210nm of the central wavelength has been observed by in...... by increasing the temperature from 25°C to 100°C. The measurements are compared to a simulated spectrum obtained by means of a vectorial Beam Propagation Method model....

  15. Effect of Fluid Bypassing on the Experimentally Obtained Darcy and Non-Darcy Permeability Parameters of Ceramic Foam Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnejad, Shahin; Saffari Pour, Mohsen; Jonsson, Lage Tord Ingemar; Jönsson, Pӓr Göran

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic foam filters (CFFs) are used to remove solid particles and inclusions from molten metal. In general, molten metal which is poured on the top of a CFF needs to reach a certain height to build the required pressure (metal head) to prime the filter. To estimate the required metal head, it is necessary to obtain permeability coefficients using permeametry experiments. It has been mentioned in the literature that to avoid fluid bypassing, during permeametry, samples need to be sealed. However, the effect of fluid bypassing on the experimentally obtained pressure gradients seems not to be explored. Therefore, in this research, the focus was on studying the effect of fluid bypassing on the experimentally obtained pressure gradients as well as the empirically obtained Darcy and non-Darcy permeability coefficients. Specifically, the aim of the research was to investigate the effect of fluid bypassing on the liquid permeability of 30, 50, and 80 pores per inch (PPI) commercial alumina CFFs. In addition, the experimental data were compared to the numerically modeled findings. Both studies showed that no sealing results in extremely poor estimates of the pressure gradients and Darcy and non-Darcy permeability coefficients for all studied filters. The average deviations between the pressure gradients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples were calculated to be 57.2, 56.8, and 61.3 pct. The deviations between the Darcy coefficients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples found to be 9, 20, and 31 pct. The deviations between the non-Darcy coefficients of the sealed and unsealed 30, 50, and 80 PPI samples were calculated to be 59, 58, and 63 pct.

  16. Determination of ultraviolet filter activity on coconut oil cosmetic cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyati, Eni

    2017-08-01

    A research on determination of ultraviolet (UV) filter activity of cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has been done. The cream was made by mixing the oil phase (coconut oil, stearic acid, lanolin and cetyl alcohol) at 70°C and the water phase (glycerin, aquadest and triethanolamine) at 70°C, while stirring until reached a temperature of 35°C. It was made also a cream with inorganic sunscreen TiO2 and organic sunscreen benzophenone-3 as a comparison. To study the UV filter activity, each cream was determined the UV absorption using UV spectrophotometer. The results show that cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material absorbs UV rays in the region of UV-C, whereas the cream with TiO2 absorbs the UV rays from UV-C to UV-A and cream with benzophenone-3 absorbs the UV rays from UV-B to UV-A region. This means that, the cosmetic cream with coconut oil as raw material has an activity as UV-C filter. If this cream is expected to have an activity as a sunscreen, it must be added an inorganic or organic sunscreen or a mixture of both as an active materials.

  17. Application of Parallel Algorithm Approach for Performance Optimization of Oil Paint Image Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mukherjee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performance of image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model. There are various popular image filters, which consumes large amount of computing resources for processing. Oil paint image filter is one of the very interesting filters, which is very performance hungry. Current research tries to find improvement in oil paint image filter algorithm by using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially. I have also observed in various blogs and forums, the questions for faster oil paint have been asked repeatedly.

  18. Evaluation of performance loss of paraffin oil loaded filtering facepieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombolini, Francesca; Listrani, Stefano; Campopiano, Antonella; Plebani, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Penetration measurements through commercially available filtering facepieces were performed with monodisperse DEHS aerosols ranging from 0.03 μm to 0.40 μm (either singly charged or neutralized), before and after 500 mg of paraffin oil loading. The distinct behavior of Coulomb and polarization capture efficiency is studied: as in the case of non loading also in the case of loading 500 mg of paraffin oil, the electrostatic capture mechanisms are mainly due to the Coulomb contribution up to aerosol particle diameter of about 0.10 μm, just when the polarization contribution becomes substantial. Both Coulomb and polarization capture mechanisms are influenced by the presence of 500 mg of paraffin oil, resulting less effective than the oil unloaded case of about 12% and 11%, respectively. By the occupational hygiene point of view, there is a degradation in the filter performance due to oil loading that the user does not realize because there is no remarkable variation in the breathing resistance.

  19. Study on Performance Improvement of Oil Paint Image Filter Algorithm Using Parallel Pattern Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mukherjee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed study on the performanc e of oil paint image filter algorithm with various parameters applied on an image of RGB model . Oil Paint image processing, being very performance hungry, current research tries to find improvement using parallel pattern library. With increasing kernel-size, the processing time of oil paint image filter algorithm increases exponentially.

  20. Transport of Organic Oil Components from Immobile and Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseby, O.; Haugan, A.; Sagen, J.; Muller, J.; Bennett, B.; Larter, S.; Kikkinides, E.S.; Stubos, A.K.; Yousefian, F.; Thovert, J.-F.; Adler, P.M.

    2001-12-01

    An experimental study, as well as theoretical and numerical models, are used to validate a methodology to exploit conventional geochemical data with regard to the concentration profiles of organic components occurring naturally in hydrocarbon reservoir oils. The experiment was designed to study transport of organic compounds from immobile oil during water injection. A homogeneous oil-filled core sample was made heterogeneous by drilling a hole through its central axis and filling it with a highly permeable material. Under the present conditions, diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters controlling the transport, and the effect of partitioning could be accounted for by a simple normalization. The experimental results are well described by a simple 2-D analytical model which assumes instantaneous removal of solutes from the oil-water interface. The experimental results are also well described by two numerical models, of which one is a full featured reservoir scale model, suitable for applications of the methodology to reservoir scale cases. (author)

  1. Transport of Organic Oil Components from Immobile and Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseby, O.; Haugan, A.; Sagen, J.; Muller, J.; Bennett, B.; Larter, S.; Kikkinides, E.S.; Stubos, A.K.; Yousefian, F.; Thovert, J.-F.; Adler, P.M.

    2001-12-01

    An experimental study, as well as theoretical and numerical models, are used to validate a methodology to exploit conventional geochemical data with regard to the concentration profiles of organic components occurring naturally in hydrocarbon reservoir oils. The experiment was designed to study transport of organic compounds from immobile oil during water injection. A homogeneous oil-filled core sample was made heterogeneous by drilling a hole through its central axis and filling it with a highly permeable material. Under the present conditions, diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters controlling the transport, and the effect of partitioning could be accounted for by a simple normalization. The experimental results are well described by a simple 2-D analytical model which assumes instantaneous removal of solutes from the oil-water interface. The experimental results are also well described by two numerical models, of which one is a full featured reservoir scale model, suitable for applications of the methodology to reservoir scale cases. (author)

  2. Development and characterization of ultra lightweight, highly selective, filter media for oil-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghernejad, Lida

    Emulsions formed by oil-water mixtures can cause serious issues at different stages of crude oil production, produced water remediation, and oil spills. Efficient, cost-effective processes for separation of oil--water emulsions or dispersions are critical and highly desirable. Filters are among the most common means employed to separate oil-water emulsions into their corresponding components. To conduct single step gravity-based or centrifugal separation of oil--water mixtures into their pure phase, it is essential that the filter be hydrophilic and oleophobic both in air and water. The filter medium should also have high surface porosity, which affects the rate of permeation of one phase. It should be stable at operating temperatures and pressures and be resistant to degradation by chemicals in the feed stream. Favorable oil rejection characteristics, resistance to fouling by organic and inorganic foulants and low cost of production are also important. The goal of this project is to develop ultra-lightweight filters that are durable, highly porous and able to selectively separate oil-water mixtures, from non-woven cellulose based materials by electrospinning. Since electrospinning is a cost-effective, scalable method that can be used to fabricate filters with very thin nanoscale fibers and nano-dimension pores, and cellulose is a very cheap and abundant ingredient, these filters may be considered as novel tools for efficient, cost-effective separation of oil-water emulsions in industry. Currently there is a growing demand for highly porous selective filters for oil-water mixtures in the petroleum industry. These filters are beneficial to both manufacturers and consumers. This research focuses on the development and characterization of the new filter material and evaluation of its suitability for oil-water separation in the field.

  3. Embolic capture with updated intra-aortic filter during coronary artery bypass grafting and transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation: first-in-human experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Webb, John G

    2014-12-01

    We report our first-in-human clinical experience in the use of the new version of the EMBOL-X intra-aortic filter (Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, Irvine, Calif) to capture embolic material during transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation and cardiac surgery. Five patients were enrolled into the first-in-human clinical assessment of the new version of the EMBOL-X intra-aortic filter. Three patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, and 2 patients underwent transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation. During coronary artery bypass grafting, the filter was deployed before clamping of the aorta and removal of the aortic clamp. In contrast, the filter was deployed before aortic puncture for transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation and kept in the aorta throughout the entire procedure. The filter introducer sheath and filter were easily placed and removed without difficulty. There were no complications related to the use of the filter. Postoperative examination of the retrieved filters revealed the presence of multiple microemboli in the filters from all 5 cases. Histologic study revealed various kinds of tissue and thrombus. This first-in-human clinical experience has demonstrated the safety and feasibility of using the new version of the EMBOL-X intra-aortic filter during either cardiac surgery or transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We believe that the combination of the transaortic approach without aortic arch manipulation and the use of the EMBOL-X filter with a high capture rate is a promising strategy to reduce the incidence of embolic complications during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  5. Lubrication Oil Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prediction With Particle Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the costs of wind energy, it is necessary to improve the wind turbine availability and reduce the operational and maintenance costs. The reliability and availability of a functioning wind turbine depend largely on the protective properties of the lubrication oil for its drive train subassemblies such as gearbox and means for lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection. The wind industry currently uses lubrication oil analysis for detecting gearbox and bearing wear but cannot detect the functional failures of the lubrication oils. The main purpose of lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection is to determine whether the oils have deteriorated to such a degree that they no longer fulfill their functions. This paper describes a research on developing online lubrication oil health condition monitoring and remaining useful life prediction with particle filtering technique using commercially available online sensors. The paper first presents a survey on current state-of-the-art online lubrication oil condition monitoring solutions and their characteristics along with the classification and evaluation of each technique. It is then followed by an investigation on wind turbine gearbox lubrication oil health condition monitoring and degradation detection using online viscosity and dielectric constant sensors. In particular, the lubricant performance evaluation and remaining useful life prediction of degraded lubrication oil with viscosity and dielectric constant data using particle filtering are presented. A simulation case study is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed technique.

  6. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4% for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  7. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Wong, Jessica X H; Kwok, Honoria; Li, Xiaochun; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane) to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4%) for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  8. Comparison of New Technology Integrated and Nonintegrated Arterial Filters Used in Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery: A Randomized, Prospective, and Single Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Gürsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Innovative cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB settings have been developed in order to integrate the concepts of “surface-coating,” “blood-filtration,” and “miniaturization.” Objectives. To compare integrated and nonintegrated arterial line filters in terms of peri- and postoperative clinical variables, inflammatory response, and transfusion needs. Material and Methods. Thirty-six patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery were randomized into integrated (Group In and nonintegrated arterial line filter (Group NIn groups. Arterial blood samples for the assessments of complete hemogram, biochemical screening, interleukin-6, interleukin-2R, and C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after surgery. Need for postoperative dialysis, inotropic therapy and transfusion, in addition to extubation time, total amount of drainage (mL, length of intensive care unit, and hospital stay, and mortality rates was also recorded for each patient. Results. Prime volume was significantly higher and mean intraoperative hematocrit value was lower in Group NIn, but need for erythrocyte transfusion was significantly higher in Group NIn. C-reactive protein values did not differ significantly except for postoperative second day's results, which were found significantly lower in Group In than in Group NIn. Conclusion. Intraoperative hematocrit levels were higher and need for postoperative erythrocyte transfusion was decreased in Group In.

  9. Stability and filtering capacity of diesel oil; Estabilidade e filtrabilidade do oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marcelo Vieira; Rocha, Mauro Iurk [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Combustiveis]. E-mails: marvial@petrobras.com.br; miurk@petrobras.com.br; Zotin, Fatima Maria Zanon [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: fzotin@uerj.br; Pinto, Ricardo Rodrigues da Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Recursos Humanos. Gerencia de Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologias]. E-mail: rcp@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The increasing demand for the reduction in the emission of polluting agents by diesel motors has led to the use of more advanced injection systems. These systems are increasingly reducing clearances and portray more restrictive filtering capacity, protecting them from the release of fuel particles. Those particles may originate in the degradation of oil products, formed by the acid-catalyzed condensation between aromatic compounds and heterocyclic nitrogens. These compounds appear in the various chains used in the composition of the fuel. We address here the aspects influencing the stability to oxidation and fuel filterability as well as the methods used to assess the degradation capacity of several diesel oil formulations. (author)

  10. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  11. Nonisothermic filtering in working oil fields. Neizotermicheskaya fil'tratsiya pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishayev, M.G.; Rozenberg, M.D.; Teslyuk, Ye.V.

    1985-01-01

    A description is made of the effect of water injected in large volumes at low temperature on the development indicators and the oil output coefficient, as well as their dependence on the thermal methods of bed modification. An examination was made of the mechanism for displacing oil from the beds during thermal flooding, temperature mode of the bed beyond the displacement front and in those regions where there is no displacement front. Examples are given of determining the filtering indicators and the technical and technological indicators of working in displacement of oil by water.

  12. Oil droplets of bird eyes : Microlenses acting as spectral filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2014-01-01

    An important component of the cone photoreceptors of bird eyes is the oil droplets located in front of the visual-pigment-containing outer segments. The droplets vary in colour and are transparent, clear, pale or rather intensely yellow or red owing to various concentrations of carotenoid pigments.

  13. Filter clogging and power loss issues while running a diesel engine with waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, S.; Yu, C.W.; Lim, T.H. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Penang (Malaysia)

    2003-07-01

    As with other vegetable oils, the high viscosity of waste cooking oil (WCO) poses some challenges to engine operation. One of them is filter clogging. In this research, it was found that heating to above 55 deg C was effective in preventing clogging. However, the head loss across the filter was about 6 times higher than that of diesel. Generally, the lower calorific values of vegetable oils are held responsible for the reduction in maximum power of the engine. While running with WCO, the maximum power of the engine was reduced by 10.9 per cent from that with diesel. Raising the fuel tank level and dividing the flow through two filters to compensate for the higher head loss across the filter reduced the maximum power loss to 5.0 and 8.8 per cent respectively. Therefore, higher head loss in the filter is also responsible for the loss of maximum power. In terms of combustion, WCO had a shorter ignition delay compared with diesel, resulting in a less intense premixed combustion phase. The CO and NO emissions were on the average 8.4 and 16.2 per cent higher than those for diesel. (Author)

  14. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation (Devonian) of the Michigan Basin using horizontal drains. Final report, April 28, 1994--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.R.; Pennington, W.D.

    1998-09-01

    Total hydrocarbon production in the Michigan Basin has surpassed 1 billion barrels (Bbbls) and total unrecovered reserves are estimated at 1--2 BBbls. However, hydrocarbon production in Michigan has fallen from 35 MMbbls/yr in 1979 to about 10 MMbbls/yr in 1996. In an effort to slow this decline, a field demonstration project designed around using a horizontal well to recover bypassed oil was designed and carried out at Crystal Field in Montcalm County, MI. The project had two goals: to test the viability of using horizontal wells to recover bypassed oil from the Dundee Formation, and to characterize additional Dundee reservoirs (29) that are look alikes to the Crystal Field. As much as 85 percent of the oil known to exist in the Dundee Formation in the Michigan Basin remains in the ground as bypassed oil. Early production techniques in the 137 fields were poor, and the Dundee was at risk of being abandoned, leaving millions of barrels of oil behind. Crystal Field in Montcalm County, Michigan is a good example of a worn out field. Crystal Field was once a prolific producer which had been reduced to a handful of wells, the best of which produced only 5 barrels per day. The demonstration well drilled as a result of this project, however, has brought new life to the Crystal Field. Horizontal drilling is one of the most promising technologies available for oil production. The new well was completed successfully in October of 1995 and has been producing 100 barrels of oil per day, 20 times better than the best conventional well in the field.

  15. Treatment of Slightly Polluted Wastewater in an Oil Refinery Using a Biological Aerated Filter Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wenyu; ZHONG Li; CHEN Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The slightly polluted wastewater from oil refinery contains some COD, oil pollutants and suspended solids (SS). A small-scale fixed film biological aerated filter (BAF) process was used to treat the wastewater. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT), air/water volume flow ratio and backwashing cycle on treatment efficiencies were investigated. The wastewater was treated by the BAF process under optimal conditions: the HRT of backwashing cycle of every 4-7 days. The results showed that the average removal efficiency of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 84.5%, 94.0% and 83.4%, respectively. And the average effluent concentration of COD, oil pollutants and SS was 12.5, 0.27, 14.5the BAF process is a suitable and highly efficient method to treat the wastewater.

  16. Modelling and measurement of wear particle flow in a dual oil filter system for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Morten; Eriksen, René Lynge; Fich, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Wear debris is an indicator of the health of machinery, and the availability of accurate methods for characterising debris is important. In this work, a dual filter model for a gear oil system is used in conjunction with operational data to indicate three different system operating states. The qu...... particle generation is made possible by model parameter estimation and identification of an unintended lack of filter change. The model may also be used to optimise system and filtration performance, and to enable continuous condition monitoring.......Wear debris is an indicator of the health of machinery, and the availability of accurate methods for characterising debris is important. In this work, a dual filter model for a gear oil system is used in conjunction with operational data to indicate three different system operating states....... The quantity of wear particles in gear oil is analysed with respect to system running conditions. It is shown that the model fits the data in terms of startup “particle burst” phenomenon, quasi-stationary conditions during operation, and clean-up filtration when placed out of operation. In order to establish...

  17. Experimental research on accelerated consolidation using filter jackets in fine oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol van, F.; Yao, Y.; Paaseen van, L.; Everts, B. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Geotechnology

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed prefabricated vertical drains used to enhance the dewatering of fine oil sand tailings. Filtration tests conducted with thickened tailings on standard PVD jackets were presented. Potential clogging mechanisms included clogging of the filter jacket by particles, blinding of the jackets by filter cake, the decreased permeability of consolidated tailings around the drain, and the clogging of the filter jacket with bitumen. Polypropylene and polyester geotextiles were tested in a set-up that replicated conditions observed at 5 to 10 meters below mud level in an oil sand tailings pond. A finite strain consolidation model was used to interpret results obtained in the experimental study. The relationship between the void ratio and hydraulic conductivity was investigated. Results of the study showed that neither the bitumen nor the fines in the sludge cause serious blinding of the filter jackets during the 40 day test period. The consolidation process was adequately simulated with the finite strain consolidation model. tabs., figs.

  18. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2004-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling and analysis partitioning interwell tracer tests in heterogeneous and fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs. The streamline approach is generalized to model water injection in naturally fractured reservoirs through the use of a dual media approach. The fractures and matrix are treated as separate continua that are connected through a transfer function, as in conventional finite difference simulators for modeling fractured systems. A detailed comparison with a commercial finite difference simulator shows very good agreement. Furthermore, an examination of the scaling behavior of the computation time indicates that the streamline approach is likely to result in significant savings for large-scale field applications. We also propose a novel approach to history matching finite-difference models that combines the advantage of the streamline models with the versatility of finite-difference simulation. In our approach, we utilize the streamline-derived sensitivities to facilitate history matching during finite-difference simulation. The use of finite-difference model allows us to account for detailed process physics and compressibility effects. The approach is very fast and avoids much of the subjective judgments and time-consuming trial-and-errors associated with manual history matching. We demonstrate the power and utility of our approach using a synthetic example and two field examples. Finally, we discuss several alternative ways of using partitioning interwell tracer tests (PITTs) in oil fields for the calculation of oil saturation, swept pore volume and sweep efficiency, and assess the accuracy of such tests under a variety of reservoir conditions.

  19. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING BYPASSED OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS AND FRACTURED RESERVOIRS USING PARTITIONING TRACERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2003-08-01

    We explore the use of efficient streamline-based simulation approaches for modeling partitioning interwell tracer tests in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Specifically, we utilize the unique features of streamline models to develop an efficient approach for interpretation and history matching of field tracer response. A critical aspect here is the underdetermined and highly ill-posed nature of the associated inverse problems. We have adopted an integrated approach whereby we combine data from multiple sources to minimize the uncertainty and non-uniqueness in the interpreted results. For partitioning interwell tracer tests, these are primarily the distribution of reservoir permeability and oil saturation distribution. A novel approach to multiscale data integration using Markov Random Fields (MRF) has been developed to integrate static data sources from the reservoir such as core, well log and 3-D seismic data. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, the behavior of partitioning tracer tests in fractured reservoirs is investigated using a dual-porosity finite-difference model.

  20. An Integrated Approach to Characterizing Bypassed Oil in Heterogeneous and Fractured Reservoirs Using Partitioning Tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2006-12-31

    . The approach is very fast and avoids much of the subjective judgments and time-consuming trial-and-errors associated with manual history matching. We demonstrate the power and utility of our approach using a synthetic example and two field examples. We have also explored the use of a finite difference reservoir simulator, UTCHEM, for field-scale design and optimization of partitioning interwell tracer tests. The finite-difference model allows us to include detailed physics associated with reactive tracer transport, particularly those related with transverse and cross-streamline mechanisms. We have investigated the potential use of downhole tracer samplers and also the use of natural tracers for the design of partitioning tracer tests. Finally, we discuss several alternative ways of using partitioning interwell tracer tests (PITTs) in oil fields for the calculation of oil saturation, swept pore volume and sweep efficiency, and assess the accuracy of such tests under a variety of reservoir conditions.

  1. Linear variable filter based oil condition monitoring systems for offshore windturbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesent, Benjamin R.; Dorigo, Daniel G.; Şimşek, Özlem; Koch, Alexander W.

    2011-10-01

    A major part of future renewable energy will be generated in offshore wind farms. The used turbines of the 5 MW class and beyond, often feature a planetary gear with 1000 liters lubricating oil or even more. Monitoring the oil aging process provides early indication of necessary maintenance and oil change. Thus maintenance is no longer time-scheduled but becomes wear dependent providing ecological and economical benefits. This paper describes two approaches based on a linear variable filter (LVF) as dispersive element in a setup of a cost effective infrared miniature spectrometer for oil condition monitoring purposes. Spectra and design criteria of a static multi-element detector and a scanning single element detector system are compared and rated. Both LVF miniature spectrometers are appropriately designed for the suggested measurements but have certain restrictions. LVF multi-channel sensors combined with sophisticated multivariate data processing offer the possibility to use the sensor for a broad range of lubricants just by a software update of the calibration set. An all-purpose oil sensor may be obtained.

  2. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  3. A new approach involving a multi transducer ultrasonic system for cleaning turbine engines' oil filters under practical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo; Chang, Soon Woong; Bui, Hong Ha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a green technology that can clean turbine engine oil filters effectively in ships using ultrasound, with ultrasonic devices having a frequency of 25kHz and different powers of 300W and 600W, respectively. The effects of temperature, ultrasonic cleaning times, pressure losses through the oil filter, solvent washing, and ultrasonic power devices were investigated. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of three modes (hand washing, preliminary washing and ultrasonic washing) were compared to assess their relative effectiveness. Experimental results revealed that the necessary ultrasonic time varied significantly depending on which solvent was used for washing. For instance, the optimum ultrasonic cleaning time was 50-60min when the oil filter was cleaned in a solvent of kerosene oil (KO) and over 80min when in a solvent of diesel oil (DO) using the same ultrasonic generator device (25kHz, 600W) and experimental conditions. Furthermore, microscopic examination did not reveal any damage or breakdown on or within the structure of the filter after ultrasonic cleaning, even in the filter's surfaces at a constantly low frequency of 25kHz and power specific capacity (100W/gal). Overall, it may be concluded that ultrasound-assisted oil filter washing is effective, requiring a significantly shorter time than manual washing. This ultrasonic method also shows promise as a green technology for washing oil filters in turbine engines in general and Vietnamese navy ships in particular, because of its high cleaning efficiency, operational simplicity and savings.

  4. Dual-channel filter photometer system for biocomponent content determination in diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Jacek; Prohuń, Tomasz

    2008-07-01

    Currently, infrared spectrometry is the most often used method of determination of the biocomponent content in diesel oil, but this is also an expensive and time-consuming process. In this study, a portable, low-cost dual-channel filter photometer system is presented which meets the requirements of the European standard for biocomponent concentration measurements in diesel fuel. The results obtained using this novel system are reported and compared to the measurements made using a standard infrared spectrometer for biodiesel concentration between 0% and 20% by weight. The advantages of the new system, such as its adaptability to the different environmental conditions of analysis, are also discussed.

  5. Evaluating the use of PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of nuclear canister filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-18

    This document details the distinction between using PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of filters. This document is developed to justify the use of PAO rather than DOP for evaluating the performance of filters in the SAVY 4000 and Hagan containers. The design criteria (Anderson et al, 2012) for purchasing SAVY 4000 containers and the Safety Analysis Report for the SAVY 4000 Container Series specified that the filter must “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45 μm mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter.”This corresponds to a leakage percent of 0.03% (3.0x10-2). The density of DOP oil is 985 kg/m3 and the density of PAO oil is 819 kg/m3. ATI Test Inc measured the mass mean diameter of aerosol distributions produced by a single Laskin type III-A nozzle operating at a 20 psig air pressure as 0.563 μm for DOP oil and 0.549 μm for PAO oil. (See Appendix A.) For both types of oil in this document, the single fiber method calculated the leakage percent to be 4.4x10-5 for DOP oil and 4.7x10-5 for PAO oil. Although the percent error between these two quantities is 7.7%, these calculated leakage percent values are more than two orders of magnitude less than the criterion specified in the SAVY canister SAR. As a point of reference, the photometer used to measure the SAVY canister filter performance cannot resolve values for the leakage percent below 1.0x10-5. Additionally, over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 μm to 3.0 μm, there was less than 4.0x10-5 error between the calculated filter efficiency for the two types of oil at any particular particle size diameter. In conclusion, the difference between using DOP and PAO for testing SAVY canister filters is of inconsequential concern.

  6. Variation in penetration of submicrometric particles through electrostatic filtering facepieces during exposure to paraffin oil aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Carmela; Listrani, Stefano; Tranfo, Giovanna; Tombolini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Several studies show the increase of penetration through electrostatic filters during exposure to an aerosol flow, because of particle deposition on filter fibers. We studied the effect of increasing loads of paraffin oil aerosol on the penetration of selected particle sizes through an electrostatic filtering facepiece. FFP2 facepieces were exposed for 8 hr to a flow rate of 95.0 ± 0.5 L/min of polydisperse paraffin aerosol at 20.0 ± 0.5 mg/m(3). The penetration of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DEHS) monodisperse neutralized aerosols, with selected particle size in the 0.03-0.40 μm range, was measured immediately prior to the start of the paraffin aerosol loading and at 1, 4, and 8 hr after the start of paraffin aerosol loading. Penetration through isopropanol-treated facepieces not oil paraffin loaded was also measured to evaluate facepiece behavior when electrostatic capture mechanisms are practically absent. During exposure to paraffin aerosol, DEHS penetration gradually increased for all aerosol sizes, and the most penetrating particle size (0.05 μm at the beginning of exposure) shifted slightly to larger diameters. After the isopropanol treatment, the higher penetration value was 0.30 μm. In addition to an increased penetration during paraffin loading at a given particle size, the relative degree of increase was greater as the particle size increased. Penetration value measured after 8 hr for 0.03-μm particles was on average 1.6 times the initial value, whereas it was about 8 times for 0.40-μm particles. This behavior, as well evidenced in the measurements of isopropanol-treated facepieces, can be attributed to the increasing action in particle capture of the electrostatic forces (Coulomb and polarization), which depend strictly on the diameter and electrical charge of neutralized aerosol particles. With reference to electrostatic filtering facepieces as personal protective equipment, results suggest the importance of complying with the manufacturer

  7. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  8. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lozano-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to diode array detection (DAD and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product, secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones, flavones (luteolin and apigenin and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  9. Oil accumulation in intact olive fruits measured by near infrared spectroscopy-acousto-optically tunable filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellincontro, Andrea; Caruso, Giovanni; Mencarelli, Fabio; Gucci, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the reliability of the near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)-acousto-optically tunable filter (AOTF) method to measure mesocarp oil content in vivo against nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) determinations using three different olive cultivars at different stages of ripening. In the partial least squares model carried out for the cultivar 'Arbequina', the coefficient of determination in calibration (R(2)c) was 0.991, while the coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R(2)cv) was 0.979. For the cultivar 'Frantoio' the indexes were 0.982 and 0.971, respectively; while for the cultivar 'Leccino' R(2)c was 0.977 and R(2)cv was 0.965. Finally, for the combined model (sum of the three varieties) these indexes were 0.921 and 0.903, respectively. The residual predictive deviation (RPD) ratio was insufficient for the predictive model of cultivar 'Leccino' only (1.98), whereas in the other cases the RPD ratios were completely sufficient, within the estimation range over 2.5-3 (2.61 in the global model, and 4.23 in the cultivar 'Frantoio'), or in describing a large capacity with values greater than 5, as in the cultivar 'Arbequina' (9.58). NIR-AOTF spectroscopy proved to be a novel, rapid and reliable method to monitor the oil accumulation process in intact olive fruits in the field. The innovative approach of coupling NIR and NMR technologies opens up new scenarios for determining the optimal time for harvesting olive trees to obtain maximum oil production. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Mosquito knock-down and adulticidal activities of essential oils by vaporizer, impregnated filter paper and aerosol methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from 12 medicinal plants were evaluated by three different bioassay methods (Vaporizer, Filter paper and Aerosol for Knock-down and adulticidal efficacy on the filarial vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on screening results the effective plants were selected for investigating Knock-down and adulticidal potential against adult female of the laboratory-reared mosquito species, Cx. quinquefasciatus. In vaporizer bioassay method four different doses (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used. Four different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 10% were used both filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods. Five essential oils (calamus, camphor, citronella, clove and eucalyptus were identified as potential treatments in vaporizer bioassay. The result showed that the knock down time decreased with increased concentration in clove oil treatment; the Knock-down time (KT 50 = 46.1 ± 0.1, 38.5 ± 0.1, 30.7 ± 0.2, and 20.1 ± 0.1 minutes was recorded at 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% /cm3 respectively. In filter paper method nine essential oils were identified as potential treatments. After 1 hr exposure period clove oil recorded the lowest median Knock-down time (KT50 which was calculated as 9.15 ± 0.1min/cm2. Followed by citronella (KT50 =11.4 ± 0.1 min and eucalyptus (KT50 =11.4 ±0.1min oils since they recorded lower median Knock-down time. All the twelve essential oils were identified as potential treatments in aerosol activity. The lethal time decreased when the concentration increased. At 5 % concentration the median lethal time (LT50 for clove oil was calculated as (LT50=3.80 ± 0.1minutes. The Cinnamon oil was effective which recorded (LT50 = 1.99 mins as median lethal time. Camphor (LT50 =19.6± 0.1 min oil were found to be less toxic by aerosol method. These results suggest that clove oil and cinnamon oil have the potential to be used as a eco-friendly approach for the control of the major important filaria vector Cx. quinquefasciatus

  11. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Class II field project has demonstrated that economic quantities of hydrocarbons can be produced from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. The site selected for the demonstration horizontal well was Crystal Field, a nearly abandoned Dundee oil field in Montcalm County, Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well, the TOW 1-3, drilled as a field demonstration pilot was successful, producing at rate of 100 bbls of oil per day with a zero water cut. Although the well is capable of producing at a of 500+ bbls/day, the production rate is being kept low deliberately to try to prevent premature water coning. Cumulative production exceeded 50,000 bbls of oil by the end of April, 1997 and lead to the permitting and licensing of several dozen Dundee wells by project end. Twelve of these permits were for continued development of Crystal Field. Two long horizontal wells were drilled successfully in Crystal after the TOW 1-3, but were disappointing economically. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The addition of several horizontal wells will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 million barrels.

  12. The Effect of Aromatherapy with Lavender Essential Oil on Anxiety and Stress in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression and anxiety are among the most common mental disorders before and after surgery. Aromatherapy is a treatment that has grown substantially in recent years in comparison with other complementary and alternative medicines (CAM to relieve anxiety. Objectives This study investigated the effect of inhaling lavender essence on the physiological and psychological status of patients who are candidates for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Methods This randomized clinical trial was performed on 60 patients who were undergoing CABG surgery at the hospitals of Artesh Jomhory Eslami (AJA University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Patients who met specific inclusion criteria were selected and randomly allocated into two groups: a control group that inhaled room air and an experimental group that inhaled from a piece of cotton impregnated with two drops of lavender essence. This intervention was done on the morning of surgery. To evaluate these measures, a Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS questionnaire was filled out by the patient before and after the intervention. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics. Results After the intervention, the study results showed statistically significant differences between the two study groups in heart rate (mean = 78.83, P = 0.02 and anxiety level (mean = 6.63, P = 0.02. However, the differences between the two groups were not significant regarding stress level (mean = 8.63, P = 0.55 and other physiological variables. Conclusions Inhalation aromatherapy is an effective method for reducing the heart rate and the level of anxiety in patients before CABG surgery. Given that the physiological and psychological health of patients are important responsibilities for nurses, aromatherapy can be considered a safe and effective relaxation method before invasive interventions. Learning this method is recommended for students and nurses.

  13. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Annual report, April 1994--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J.

    1995-08-01

    Crystal Field in Montcalm County, MI, was selected as a field trial site for this project. Analysis of production data for Crystal Field suggests that an additional 200,000 bbls of oil can be produced using one strategically located horizontal well. Total addition production from the Crystal Field could be as much as 6--8 MMBO. Application of the technology developed in this project to other Dundee fields in the area has the potential to increase Dundee production in Michigan by 35%, adding 80--100 MMBO to ultimate recovery. This project will demonstrate through a field trial that horizontal wells can be substantially increase oil production in older reservoirs that are at or near their economic limit. To maximize the potential of the horizontal well and to ensure that a comprehensive evaluation can be made, extensive reservoir characterization will be performed. In addition to the proposed field trial at Crystal Field, 29 additional Dundee fields in a seven-county area have been selected for study in the reservoir characterization portion of this project.

  14. Effect of fibrous filter properties on the oil-in-water-emulsion separation and filtration performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Swarna; von Arnim, Volkmar; Stegmaier, Thomas; Planck, Heinrich

    2011-06-15

    Separation of secondary emulsions of dispersed droplet size less than 10 μm, by means of fibrous medium is a very complex but important process. The study investigates the influence of thin fibrous filter properties, i.e. surface energy, pore size and porosity on the separation performance of an isooctane in water emulsion (0.2%, mean drop size 2 μm). Experiments were carried out on five different filter media with a wide variation in their pore size (2-51 μm), surface energy (14-46 mN/m) and porosity (0.46-0.87) at similar process conditions. Filter media with different wettability are obtained by applying various hydrophobic and hydrophilic coatings. All the used coatings contain nanoparticles (25 nm) to impart nanoscale surface roughness at the single fiber surface. Besides emulsion properties and operating conditions, the phase separation mechanism and performance highly depends on pore size, surface energy and porosity of the filter media. More complete coalescence takes place at reduced pore size and at a surface preferentially wetted by the dispersed phase. Whereas when the pore size equals to the influent droplet size, then the surface wettability of filter is less effective and the separation mechanism is governed by inflow velocity. The emulsion inflow velocity and pressure drop are significantly affected by the filter media air permeability but do not depend on filter surface energy.

  15. A highly efficient, stable, durable, and recyclable filter fabricated by femtosecond laser drilling of a titanium foil for oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sen; Cao, Qiang; Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Tianyuan; Peng, Qing

    2016-11-01

    It has been a long standing challenge to efficiently separate oil and water since prehistoric times, and now it has become even more desirable in oily wastewater purification and oil spill cleanup. Here we introduce a super oil-water separation filter with superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity, fabricated using femtosecond laser micro-hole drilling of a titanium foil. Such a simply-made filter, without any modification, can achieve a separation efficiency exceeding 99% in eight typical oil-water mixtures. It remains highly efficient after 40 cycles of recycling and after suffering erosion by corrosive media. Furthermore, the used filter, polluted with oil, could be recovered by ultraviolet illumination. The flux of filtered water is tunable by simply selecting the aperture of the microhole or the spacing between adjacent microholes. Such advanced functionality is due to roughness and the TiO2 layers on the ablated surface during fabrication. With superhydrophilic and superoleophobic surfaces, this oil-water filer is also suitable for applications in anti-fouling, anti-smudge, anti-fog, and self-cleaning.

  16. Numerical Simulation on the Performance of Aviation Oil Filters%航空润滑油过滤器特性的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐让书; 常柱宇; 牛玲; 邵长浩

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical model of the aviation oil filter was built by the computational fluid dynamics(CFD)meth-od.The effect of resistance on the filter was simulated based on the porous media model,and the filter was replaced by por-ous jump surfaces(porous jump)to imitate the filter pressure drop.The filtration efficiency was simulated by the discrete phase model(DPM),and the user-defined function(UDF)was applied to the surface of the porous jump for trapping parti-cles in the calculation.The flow field of the aviation oil filter was analyzed,and the relationships between the pressure loss, filtration efficiency of aviation oil filter and the oil inlet velocity were researched,which provided a reference for the avia-tion oil filter structure optimization.%采用计算流体力学(CFD)的方法建立网式航空滑油滤的数学模型。利用多孔介质模型来模拟滤网的阻力效应,用多孔阶跃面代替滤网来模拟滤网的压降;应用离散相模型模拟过滤效率,在多孔阶跃面上应用用户自定义函数(UDF)对颗粒进行捕集,对该模型进行计算,得到过滤器的三维内部流场分布及其压力损失和过滤效率与润滑油进口速度的关系,为航空滑油滤的优化设计提供了参考。

  17. Direct determination of lead in urban particulate material and lubricating oil with thin silver films electrically vaporized from membrane filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, J.M.; Sacks, R.D.

    1985-06-01

    A rapid, direct method for the determination of lead in suspended solid particles is described. Particles are collected on a polycarbonate membrane filter coated with a thin film of high-purity Ag. The metal film does not affect filtration properties of the membrane. The thin film and sample are atomized and excited in the high-temperature plasma produced by the electrical vaporization of the Ag film. The Pb concentration is determined by emission spectroscopy. Sample introduction and standardization techniques are presented. Sample particle size and loading effects are considered. A high-inductance, longer-duration discharge is more useful for larger samples and for larger particles than a low-inductance, shorter-duration discharge. Analytical results are presented for Pb in NBS standard reference material SRM 1648 (urban particulate material) and lubricating oil spiked with Pb powder. 14 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Hydrated calcareous oil-shale ash as potential filter media for phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Ago; Vohla, Christina; Mõtlep, Riho; Mander, Ulo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2008-02-01

    The P-retention in hydrated calcareous ash sediment from oil-shale burning thermal power plants in Estonia was studied. Batch experiments indicate good (up to 65 mg P g(-1)) P-binding capacity of the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment, with a removal effectiveness of 67-85%. The high phosphorus sorption potential of hydrated oil-shale ash is considered to be due to the high content of reactive Ca-minerals, of which ettringite Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O and portlandite Ca(OH)2 are the most important. The equilibrium dissolution of ettringite provides free calcium ions that act as stable nuclei for phosphate precipitation. The precipitation mechanism of phosphorus removal in hydrated ash plateau sediment is suggested by Ca-phosphate formation in batch experiments at different P-loadings. Treatment with a P-containing solution causes partial-to-complete dissolution of ettringite and portlandite, and precipitation of Ca-carbonate and Ca-phosphate phases, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)-EDS studies. Thus, the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment can be considered as a potential filtration material for P removal in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.

  19. Control of oil-wetting on technical textiles by means of photo-chemical surface modification and its relevance to the performance of compressed air filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahners, Thomas, E-mail: bahners@dtnw.de [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West gGmbH (DTNW), Adlerstr. 1, 47798 Krefeld (Germany); Mölter-Siemens, Wolfgang; Haep, Stefan [Institut für Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Bliersheimer Str. 60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Gutmann, Jochen S. [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West gGmbH (DTNW), Adlerstr. 1, 47798 Krefeld (Germany); Universität Duisburg-Essen, Physikalische Chemie and CENIDE, Universitätsstr. 2, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The oil repellence of textile fabrics was increased following the Wenzel concept. • Fiber surfaces were micro-roughened by means of pulsed UV laser irradiation. • Subsequent UV-induced grafting yielded pronounced oil repellence. • The grafting process conserved the delicate topography of the fiber surfaces. • The modified fabrics showed favorable drainage behavior in oil droplet separation. - Abstract: A two-step process comprising a surface roughening step by excimer laser irradiation and a post-treatment by photo-grafting to decrease the surface free energy was employed to increase the oil repellence of technical fabrics made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The modification was designed to improve the performance of multi-layer filters for compressed air filtration, in which the fabrics served to remove, i.e. drain, oil separated from the air stream. In detail, the fibers surfaces were roughened by applying several laser pulses at a wavelength of 248 nm and subsequently photo-grafted with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-decyl acrylate (PPFDA). The oil wetting behavior was increased by the treatments from full wetting on the as-received fabrics to highly repellent with oil contact angles of (131 ± 7)°. On surfaces in the latter state, oil droplets did not spread or penetrate even after one day. The grafting of PPFDA alone without any surface roughening yielded an oil contact angle of (97 ± 11)°. However, the droplet completely penetrated the fabric over a period of one day. The drainage performance was characterized by recording the pressure drop over a two-layer model filter as a function of time. The results proved the potential of the treatment, which reduced the flow resistance after 1-h operation by approximately 25%.

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 3 days in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Life After Bypass After bypass surgery, your doctor will recommend that you join a cardiac rehabilitation program. These programs help you make lifestyle changes ...

  1. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... bypass surgery is not a quick fix for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. After this surgery, you must eat healthy foods, control portion sizes of ...

  2. Phosphorus removal using Ca-rich hydrated oil shale ash as filter material--the effect of different phosphorus loadings and wastewater compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõiv, Margit; Liira, Martin; Mander, Ulo; Mõtlep, Riho; Vohla, Christina; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2010-10-01

    We studied the phosphorus (P) binding capacity of Ca-rich alkaline filter material - hydrated oil shale ash (i.e. hydrated ash) in two onsite pilot-scale experiments (with subsurface flow filters) in Estonia: one using pre-treated municipal wastewater with total phosphorus (TP) concentration of 0.13-17.0 mg L(-1) over a period of 6 months, another using pre-treated landfill leachate (median TP 3.4 mg L(-1)) for a total of 12 months. The results show efficient P removal (median removal of phosphates 99%) in horizontal flow (HF) filters at both sites regardless of variable concentrations of several inhibitors. The P removal efficiency of the hydrated ash increases with increasing P loading, suggesting direct precipitation of Ca-phosphate phases rather than an adsorption mechanism. Changes in the composition of the hydrated ash suggest a significant increase in P concentration in all filters (e.g. from 489.5 mg kg(-1) in initial ash to 664.9 mg kg(-1) in the HF filter after one year in operation), whereas almost all TP was removed from the inflow leachate (R(2) = 0.99). Efficiency was high throughout the experiments (median outflow from HF hydrated ash filters 0.05-0.50 mg L(-1)), and P accumulation did not show any signs of saturation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Darrel [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Brown, Lewis [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Lynch, F. Leo [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Kirkland, Brenda L. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Collins, Krystal M. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Funderburk, William K. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2010-12-31

    The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115°C (239°F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66°C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 μm diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly

  4. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  5. Assist in the recovery of bypassed oil from reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico. Annual report, February 18, 1993--February 18, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenewerk, P.A.

    1994-03-17

    The objective of this research is to assist the recovery of non-contacted oil from known reservoirs on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Thus far, research has consisted of data collection from Minerals Management Service (MMS), literature and operators; detailed studies of several screened reservoirs; modification of three public domain simulators; development of a predictive model; and design and construction of several laboratory experiments for studying attic oil recovery. The methodology for data collection from MMS, literature and operators is keyed on 208 sands containing 1,289 reservoirs, representing 60% of the original oil in place (OOIP) in the Gulf of Mexico. This data collection has been completed after several delays concerning confidentiality agreements between MMS, DOE, and LSU and its subcontractors. Secondary recovery by downdip gas injection in steeply dipping oil reservoirs has been widely used successfully since the 1950`s. Methane and nitrogen have been the primary gases used. Reservoirs which had been subjected to this type of recovery or had the potential to be subjected to this type of recovery were screened for detailed studies. Three reservoirs were identified which possessed the proper criteria and which had data available for detailed studies, the B-35-K and B-65-G reservoirs of South Marsh Island Block 73 Field and Reservoir 3 of Field 2, which was blind-coded by operator request. Detailed data sets for simulating these reservoirs were created. This included the review and analysis of the geology of the reservoirs to define reasonable grid configurations for use in the simulator and review of well histories, including production, gas injection, and pressure data.

  6. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  7. The features of the chemical and mineralogical composition and the formation conditions of sediments in the filters and filtrational zones of the oil wells in the Velizhansk water inlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobachev, A.D.; Drydin, V.M.; Sidorenkov, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Based on a study of the chemical composition of the silt sediment taken from the filters of operational oil wells in the Velizhansk water inlet located in the Tyumen region, where iron hydroxide and calcium carbonate are the primary compounds, the silt deposition conditions are determined. Hydrochloric acid treatment is recommended for cleaning the filters, based on the feature of the chemicals and mineralogical composition of the silt sediment.

  8. A field pilot-scale study of biological treatment of heavy oil-produced water by biological filter with airlift aeration and hydrolytic acidification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Junming; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Song, Zhaozheng; Zhang, Zhenjia; Zhang, Beiyu; Zhang, Guangqing; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Heavy oil-produced water (HOPW) is a by-product during heavy oil exploitation and can cause serious environmental pollution if discharged without adequate treatment. Commercial biochemical treatment units are important parts of HOPW treatment processes, but many are not in stable operation because of the toxic and refractory substances, salt, present. Therefore, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of hydrolytic acidification-biological filter with airlift aeration (HA-BFAA), a novel HOPW treatment system. Four strains isolated from oily sludge were used for bioaugmentation to enhance the biodegradation of organic pollutants. The isolated bacteria were evaluated using 3-day biochemical oxygen demand, oil, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals as evaluation indices. Bioaugmentation enhanced the COD removal by 43.5 mg/L under a volume load of 0.249 kg COD/m(3) day and hydraulic retention time of 33.6 h. The effluent COD was 70.9 mg/L and the corresponding COD removal was 75.0 %. The optimum volumetric air-to-water ratio was below 10. The removal ratios of the total extractable organic pollutants, alkanes, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons were 71.1, 94.4, and 94.0 %, respectively. Results demonstrated that HA-BFAA was an excellent HOPW treatment system.

  9. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...

  10. Bypass Flow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

  11. The Best Bypass Surgery Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Jensen, Birte Østergaard; Gluud, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Recent trials suggest that off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) reduces the risk of mortality and morbidity compared with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CCAB) using cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with a moderate- to high-risk of complications after CCAB may have addit...

  12. Aortic valve bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens T; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Arendrup, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In aortic valve bypass (AVB) a valve-containing conduit is connecting the apex of the left ventricle to the descending aorta. Candidates are patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis rejected for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI...

  13. Partial Ileal Bypass Undone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Schouten, J.A.; Hoitsma, H.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Partial ileal bypass (PIB) for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia was introduced 20 years ago. About 110 cases have been described. We know of only 1 case of restoration of intestinal continuity; no details were given. We report here the second case of PIB in the Netherlands; the operation was r

  14. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle grow hardened and narrowed. You may try ... these treatments don't help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new ...

  15. Experimental laparoscopic aortobifemoral bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Y M; Chin, A K; Thompson, T A

    1995-08-01

    The goal of the present study is to develop a technique for laparoscopic aortobifemoral bypass. Piglets weighing between 60 and 78 kg were anesthetized with halothane. The lateral retroperitoneal approach was preferred to the more familiar anterior transperitoneal approach and was successfully completed in 19 piglets. The piglets were placed in the right lateral decubitus position. The first port (2 cm) was inserted halfway between the tip of the 12th rib and the iliac crest. Four other trocars were placed in the retroperitoneum after balloon inflation had allowed creation of a space which permitted visualization of the aorta from the left renal artery down to the aorto-iliac junction. After evacuation of the retropneumoperitoneum, the cavity was maintained using an abdominal lift device and a retractor. Using this approach, we performed four aorto-bifemoral bypasses (end-to-end aortic anastomosis) after conventional intravenous heparinization (100 IU/kg) in less than 4 h. Blood loss did not exceed 250 ml and the hematocrit remained stable. Postmortem evaluation of the grafts revealed they were positioned as in a conventional bypass, their limbs having followed in the created retroperitoneal tunnels along the path of the native arteries. No mortality occurred before sacrifice of the animals. We believe that this first performed series of totally retroperitoneal laparoscopic aortobifemoral bypasses in the porcine model is useful in preparation for human application due to the anatomical similarities in the periaortic region.

  16. Effects of membrane-filtered soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil on chemical and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of a membrane filtration in soy hull pectin purification and evaluate combined effects of soy hull pectin and pre-emulsified fiber/oil (PE) on chemical composition and technological properties of low fat and low salt meat emulsions. Soy hull pectin was purified through two different methods (alcohol-washed (ASP) and membrane-filtered (MSP)). Insoluble soy hull residues after pectin extraction were incorporated with sunflower oil and water for the PE preparation. Meat emulsion was formulated with 58 % pork, 20 % ice, 20 % pork backfat, and 2 % NaCl as control. A total of six low fat and low salt meat emulsions (1 % NaCl and 10 % backfat) was manufactured with 1 % pectin (with/without ASP or MSP) and 10 % PE (with/without). The pectin content of ASP and MSP was 0.84 and 0.64 g L-galacturonic acid/g dry sample, respectively. The inclusion of soy hull pectin caused similar results on chemical composition, color, cooking loss, and texture of the meat emulsions, regardless of the purification method. In addition, positive impacts of the combined treatments with soy hull pectin and PE compared to single treatments on cooking loss and texture of the meat emulsions were observed. Results suggest that membrane filtration could be an effective alternative method to purify pectin, instead of alcohol-washing, and both soluble pectin and insoluble fiber from soy hulls could be used as a functional non-meat ingredient to manufacture various low fat and low salt meat products.

  17. Relationship of femorodistal bypass patency to clinical outcome. Iloprost Bypass International Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, H R; Schroeder, T V; Simms, M H;

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between bypass patency, limb survival and clinical symptoms after femorodistal bypass procedures.......To investigate the relationship between bypass patency, limb survival and clinical symptoms after femorodistal bypass procedures....

  18. Filtration of activated granulocytes during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery : A morphologic and immunologic study to characterize the trapped leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, JJJ; de Vries, AJ; Gu, YJ; van Oeveren, W

    Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery induces an inflammatory reaction among others by activation of granulocytes. Leukocyte filtration has been shown to reduce the postoperative morbidity mediated by activated granulocytes. However, little is known about the mechanism of filter-leukocyte interaction, This

  19. Filtration of activated granulocytes during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery : A morphologic and immunologic study to characterize the trapped leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, JJJ; de Vries, AJ; Gu, YJ; van Oeveren, W

    2000-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery induces an inflammatory reaction among others by activation of granulocytes. Leukocyte filtration has been shown to reduce the postoperative morbidity mediated by activated granulocytes. However, little is known about the mechanism of filter-leukocyte interaction, This

  20. Design of Vacuum Oil Filter Control System Based on PLC%基于PLC的真空滤油机控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴银凤; 温如春

    2011-01-01

    分析透平油滤油机的工作原理,指出其控制系统应该具有的功能,进行控制系统的硬件设计和PLC控制程序设计,详细介绍PLC的地址分配以及控制程序的编制方法,并给出系统程序流程图.该系统自运行以来,各项功能正常,设备运行稳定,具有一定的实用价值.%The working principle of turbine oil filter was analyzed. The functions of the control system were pointed out. The hardware and PLC control program were designed. The address assignment of PLC and the programming method of the control program were introduced. The flow diagram of the system program was given. All the functions are normal and the facilities is stable since it runs. So this system has some utility value.

  1. Survival of the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in filtered seawater and seawater containing ovarian fluid, crude oil and serum-enriched culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.

    2001-01-01

     The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (NA-VHSV) could be recovered for up to 40 h in natural filtered seawater (27 ppt) with a 50% loss of infectivity after approximately 10 h at 15°C. Addition of 10 ppb North Slope crude oil to the seawater had no effect on virus survival. However, when various concentrations of teleost ovarian fluid were added to seawater, virus could be recovered after 72 h at 0.01% ovarian fluid and after 96 h at 1.0%. When cell culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum was added to the seawater, 100% of the virus could be recovered for the first 15 d and 60% of the virus remained after 36 d. These findings quantify NA-VHSV infectivity in natural seawater and demonstrate that ovarian fluid, which occurs naturally during spawning events, significantly prolongs the survival and infectivity of the virus. The extended stabilization of virus in culture medium supplemented with serum allows for low titer field samples to be collected and transported in an unfrozen state without significant loss of virus titer.

  2. 曝气生物滤池处理石油采出水的动力学特性研究%Kinetic Performance of Oil-field Produced Water Treatment by Biological Aerated Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德林; 王建龙; 刘凯文; 周定

    2007-01-01

    The biological aerated filter (BAF) was used to treat the oil-field produced water. The removal efficiency for oil, COD, BOD and suspended solids (SS) was 76.3%-80.3%, 31.6%-57.9%, 86.3%-96.3% and 76.4%-82.7%, respectively when the hydraulic loading rates varied from 0.6m·h-1 to 1.4m·h-1. The greatest part of removal, for example more than 80% of COD removal, occurred on the top 100cm of the media in BAF. The kinetic performance of BAF indicated that the relationship of BOD removal efficiency with the hydraulic loading rates in biological aerated filters could be described by cr/ci=1-exp(-2.44/L0.59). This equation could be used to predict the BOD removal efficiency at different hydraulic loading rates.

  3. Treatment of wastewater from an oil refinery sour water stripping unit using an aerated submerged biological filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaswamy, J.; Veenstra, J.N. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to determine the kinetic constants for an Aerated Submerged Biological Filter (ASBF) used to reduce the toxicity of a petroleum refinery Process wastewater. The system was run at three different organic loadings and data were collected at steady state conditions for each loading. This data along with data obtained for three other loading conditions done a previous study (1) were used to determine the biokinetics constants which are required for the design of a full scale system. To measure the acute toxicity reduction, a 48- hour static bioassay was done on the ASBF unit influent and effluent. An attempt was also made to identify a significant fraction contributing to the toxicity by running the samples through a clinoptilolite column and then running a bioassay on the treated samples. At lower loading conditions (14.0 g COD/m{sup 2}/day), the ASBF gave maximum reduction of monitored parameters except ammonia. At the highest loading condition (24.0 COD/m{sup 2}/day), the reductions were smaller because the unit seemed to be operating near maximum organic loading capacity. Bioassays showed the LC{sub 50} generally increased after ASBF treatment, indicating toxicity reduction. The bioassays done on the samples treated by clinoptilolite showed further increase in the LC{sub 50} for the ASBF unit effluent indicating that ammonia may be a toxic fraction in the effluent. The kinetic constants were analyzed using the models proposed by Eckenfelder (2) and Korengay and Andrews (3). The proportionality constant for the former was equal to 0.00458 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/day. The area capacity constant for the latter was 22.8 g/m{sup 2}/day and the saturation constant 88.8 mg/{ell}. A model proposed by Kincannon and Stover (4) was also used to predict the kinetic constants. From this model the maximum specific substrate removal rate was determined to be 33.3 g/m{sup 2}/day and the proportionality constant was equal to 23.7 g/m{sup 2}/day.

  4. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ceberut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of neural tumors though rarely seen in the thorax. The combination with coronary artery diseases is also rare. Here we describe a 66 year-old male who had undergone one-stage combined surgery for thoracic ancient schwannomas removal and coronary artery disease. The masses were, respectively, 13 cm in the middle mediastinum and 5 cm in diameter originating from the intercostal nerve. The tumors were successfully removed using sternotomy, and then a coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Here we discuss this rare tumor in relation to the relevant literature.

  5. Heart bypass surgery incision (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the left part of the chest between the ribs. This incision is much less traumatic than the traditional heart bypass surgery incision which separates the breast bone. Minimally invasive heart bypass surgery allows the patient less pain and a faster recovery.

  6. Spiritual Bypass: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashwell, Craig S.; Glosoff, Harriet L.; Hammond, Cheree

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of spiritual bypass has received limited attention in the transpersonal psychology and counseling literature and has not been subjected to empirical inquiry. This study examines the phenomenon of spiritual bypass by considering how spirituality, mindfulness, alexithymia (emotional restrictiveness), and narcissism work together to…

  7. 硅油对生物滴滤塔处理邻二甲苯废气的影响%Effect of Silicone Oil on the Removal of o-Xylene from Waste Gases in Biotrickling Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐百龙; 夏银锋; 王向前; 王俏丽; 刘楠; 李伟

    2014-01-01

    The strengthening effect of silicone oil in the biological treatment of o-xylene was studied in this paper. In shaker experiments, we investigated the solubilization effect of silicone oil on o-xylene and its influence on the activity of microbial degradation. Results showed that silicone oil has obvious solubilization effect on o-xylene, meanwhile, no influence on the activity of microorganisms. After biofilm was formed in the bio-tricking filter, the removal efficiency of o-xylene was investigated with 5%silicone oil (v/v) in the liquid phase. Under the same experimental conditions, the removal efficiency of o-xylene increased obviously when adding silicone oil with an inlet concentration of 600 mg⋅m-3. It was observed that, the biotrickling filter with silicone oil in the liquid phase exhibits enhanced efficiency in the removal of o-xylene, and the removal efficiency is about 10%higher than ordinary biotrickling filter. From the above results, it can be concluded that silicone oil can strengthen biological treatment of o-xylene.%研究了硅油对生物法处理有机废气的强化效果。在摇床实验中考察了硅油对邻二甲苯的增溶效果,及其对微生物降解活性的影响情况。结果表明硅油对邻二甲苯有明显的增溶效果且对微生物的活性无影响。在生物滴滤塔挂膜稳定后,考察了加入5%硅油后邻二甲苯在生物滴滤塔中的去除效率变化。相同实验条件下,当进气浓度在600 mg⋅m-3左右时,硅油可以使邻二甲苯的去除效率明显增加。研究结果显示,添加硅油的生物滴滤塔在去除邻二甲苯废气方面效率更高,去除效率比普通生物滴滤塔高10%左右。根据以上实验结果可以得出结论,硅油能有效提高生物法处理邻二甲苯废气的效果。

  8. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Chandra Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery carried out on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in a pregnant woman is associated with poor neonatal outcomes although maternal outcomes are similar to cardiac surgery in non-pregnant women. Most adverse maternal and fetal outcomes from cardiac surgery during pregnancy are attributed to effects of CPB. The CPB is associated with utero-placental hypoperfusion due to a number of factors, which may translate into low fetal cardiac output, hypoxia and even death. Better maternal and fetal outcomes may be achieved by early pre-operative optimization of maternal cardiovascular status, use of perioperative fetal monitoring, optimization of CPB, delivery of a viable fetus before the operation and scheduling cardiac surgery on an elective basis during the second trimester.

  9. Filter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  10. Cardiopulmonary bypass in Jehovah's Witnesses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jehovah's Witnesses do not accept heterologous blood transfusion for religious ... cuit allowed successful open-heart surgery using cardiop- ulmonary bypass. .... 2 after isovolaemic hacmodilution and was between 5.8g% (Hct. 17.4%) and ...

  11. Rapid one-step purification of single-cells encapsulated in alginate microcapsules from oil to aqueous phase using a hydrophobic filter paper: implications for single-cell experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Hyun; Jang, Miran; Park, Je-Kyun

    2014-10-01

    By virtue of the biocompatibility and physical properties of hydrogel, picoliter-sized hydrogel microcapsules have been considered to be a biometric signature containing several features similar to that of encapsulated single cells, including phenotype, viability, and intracellular content. To maximize the experimental potential of encapsulating cells in hydrogel microcapsules, a method that enables efficient hydrogel microcapsule purification from oil is necessary. Current methods based on centrifugation for the conventional stepwise rinsing of oil, are slow and laborious and decrease the monodispersity and yield of the recovered hydrogel microcapsules. To remedy these shortcomings we have developed a simple one-step method to purify alginate microcapsules, containing a single live cell, from oil to aqueous phase. This method employs oil impregnation using a commercially available hydrophobic filter paper without multistep centrifugal purification and complicated microchannel networks. The oil-suspended alginate microcapsules encapsulating single cells from mammalian cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HepG2, and U937) and microorganisms (Chlorella vulgaris) were successfully exchanged to cell culture media by quick (~10 min) depletion of the surrounding oil phase without coalescence of neighboring microcapsules. Cell proliferation and high integrity of the microcapsules were also demonstrated by long-term incubation of microcapsules containing a single live cell. We expect that this method for the simple and rapid purification of encapsulated single-cell microcapsules will attain widespread adoption, assisting cell biologists and clinicians in the development of single-cell experiments. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Bypass rewiring and robustness of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junsang; Hahn, Sang Geun

    2016-08-01

    A concept of bypass rewiring is introduced, and random bypass rewiring is analytically and numerically investigated with simulations. Our results show that bypass rewiring makes networks robust against removal of nodes including random failures and attacks. In particular, random bypass rewiring connects all nodes except the removed nodes on an even degree infinite network and makes the percolation threshold 0 for arbitrary occupation probabilities. In our example, the even degree network is more robust than the original network with random bypass rewiring, while the original network is more robust than the even degree networks without random bypass. We propose a greedy bypass rewiring algorithm which guarantees the maximum size of the largest component at each step, assuming which node will be removed next is unknown. The simulation result shows that the greedy bypass rewiring algorithm improves the robustness of the autonomous system of the Internet under attacks more than random bypass rewiring.

  13. Bypass Rewiring and Robustness of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Junsang

    2016-01-01

    A concept of bypass rewiring is introduced and random bypass rewiring is analytically and numerically investigated with simulations. Our results show that bypass rewiring makes networks robust against removal of nodes including random failures and attacks. Especially, random bypass rewiring connects all nodes except the removed nodes on an even degree infinite network and makes the percolation threshold $0$ for arbitrary occupation probabilities. In our example, the even degree network is more robust than the original network with random bypass rewiring while the original network is more robust than the even degree networks without random bypass. We propose a greedy bypass rewiring algorithm which guarantees the maximum size of the largest component at each step, assuming which node will be removed next is unknown. The simulation result shows that the greedy bypass rewiring algorithm improves the robustness of the autonomous system of the Internet under attacks more than random bypass rewiring.

  14. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2005-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  15. Current peripheral bypass surgery: various clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, Alexander te

    2011-01-01

    Substantial post-operative edema occurs in the majority of patients who undergo peripheral bypass surgery due to severe peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The pathophysiological mechanisms that underlay edema formation following peripheral bypass surgery include hyperemia, an increased capillary per

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Preventing Thermal Bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This project highlights the importance of continuous air barriers in full alignment with insulation to prevent thermal bypasses and achieve high energy performance, and recommends use of ENERGY STAR's Thermal Bypass Inspection Checklist.

  17. Current peripheral bypass surgery: various clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, Alexander te

    2011-01-01

    Substantial post-operative edema occurs in the majority of patients who undergo peripheral bypass surgery due to severe peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The pathophysiological mechanisms that underlay edema formation following peripheral bypass surgery include hyperemia, an increased capillary per

  18. Research on water and oil-repellent finish of polyester needle punched nonwoven filter material%涤纶针刺滤料的拒水拒油整理工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小敏; 崔运花

    2015-01-01

    使用FG-910含氟拒水拒油整理剂对涤纶针刺滤料进行拒水拒油整理,研究了在整理过程中五个主要因素对整理效果的影响规律,并进行了正交优化试验. 结果表明:最佳的整理工艺参数是浸渍温度55 ℃、浸渍时间25 min、FG-910质量浓度60 g/L、焙烘温度150 ℃和焙烘时间150 s,在该条件下整理可使涤纶针刺滤料的拒水等级和拒油等级都达到8级,且透气率变化率达到18.75%,可有效地改善滤料的过滤性能.%Used fluorinated reagent FG-910 to do water an filter material , the influence of five major factors on the finishing effects was studied , and then did orthogonal optimization test .The results showed that the optimum finishing process as follows:dipping temperature was 55 ℃, dipping time was 25 min, FG-910 concentration was 60 g/L, curing tempera-ture was 150 ℃and curing time was 150 s.Under this condition water-repellency and oil-repellency grade of polyester needle punched filter material has reached eight , and the permeability has reached 18.75%, which improved the filtration performance of filter media effectively . d oil repellent finishing for polyester needle punched

  19. 润滑油加氢装置反冲洗过滤器的改造应用%Improvement and Application of the Backwashing Filter in Lubricating Oil Hydrogenation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田建军

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the smooth running of lubricating oil hydrogenation plant, and eliminate the negative effect of existing backwashing filter on filter elements, high pressure feed pump assembly, catalyst bed pressure drop, catalyst activity, catalyst life and so on during the manual flushing, the manual backwashing filter was replaced by automatic one. After the improvement, the backwashing frequency and backwashing slop oil quantity were greatly reduced, about 3 266 000 RMB per year can be directly saved. In addition, the existing manual backwashing filter was changed into the main products filter by slightly and artfully modifying the process, which can not only make full use of existing resources, but also eliminate the potential quality accident of main products caused by any impurities, particles and so on.%  某润滑油加氢厂为了确保生产平稳运行,消除现有反冲洗过滤器在手动冲洗时对其滤芯、高压进料泵组件、催化剂床层压降和催化剂活性及寿命等的负面影响,将手动反冲洗过滤器改造为自动反冲洗过滤器,从而大大降低了进料过滤器的反冲洗频率和反冲洗污油量及公用工程的消耗量,每年可直接节省费用约326.6万元。此外,将现有进料手动反冲洗过滤器转化为主产品重质润滑油基础油出装置过滤器,不仅合理利用了现有资源,而且消除了主产品重质润滑油基础油出装置时可能带有杂质、颗粒等造成产品质量事故的潜在隐患。

  20. Perforation in the bypassed stomach following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasavas, Pavlos K; Yeaney, Woodrow W; Caushaj, Philip F; Keenan, Robert J; Landreneau, Rodney J; Gagné, Daniel J

    2003-10-01

    Access to the bypassed stomach is difficult following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). The bypassed stomach is not readily available for endoscopic or radiographic evaluation. Diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease and its complications in the excluded stomach becomes difficult. We present a case of perforation in the bypassed stomach following LRYGBP secondary to peptic ulcer disease.

  1. 40 CFR 403.17 - Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Bypass. 403.17 Section 403.17... GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.17 Bypass. (a) Definitions. (1) Bypass means the intentional diversion of wastestreams from any portion of an Industrial...

  2. Undiagnosed phaeochromocytoma following infrainguinal bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Schroeder, T V

    1998-01-01

    We present a rare case of undiagnosed phaeochromocytoma following infrainguinal bypass surgery. The patient, a 59-year-old lady, had a one year history of hypertension following a first femoro-tibial bypass and presented as a cardiorespiratory emergency in the admission room following her...... contralateral femoro-tibial bypass. The patient recovered after some days in intensive care despite a delayed diagnosis....

  3. In situ bypass og diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Panduro; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E

    1993-01-01

    From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 in situ bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients. Preoperative risk-factors were equally distributed among diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM) patients, except for smoking habits (DM:48%, NDM:64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (DM:45%, NDM:29%, p...

  4. Deep-water sediment bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Christopher J.; Jackson, Christopher A L; Hodgson, David M.; Hubbard, Stephen M.; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.

    2015-01-01

    Submarine gravity flows are a key process for transporting large volumes of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. The location, volume, and character of the sediment bypassed by these flows dictates the areal extent and thickness of the associated deposits. Despite its importance, sediment b

  5. Bypass materials in vascular surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidt, Daniela; Roll, Stephanie; Kulp, Werner; Müller-Nordhorn, Jaqueline; Vauth, Christoph; Greiner, Wolfgang; Willich, Stefan N.; von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Arteriosclerotic changes can lead to circulatory disturbances in various areas of the human vascular system. In addition to pharmacological therapy and the management of risk factors (e. g. hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, and lifestyle), surgical interventions also play an important role in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Long-segment arterial occlusions, in particular, can be treated successfully with bypass sur-gery. A number of different materials are available for this type of operation, such as autologous vein or pros-thetic grafts comprised of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron®. Prosthetic materials are used especially in the treatment of peripheral artery disease, such as in aortoiliac or femoropopliteal bypass surgery. The present report will thus focus on this area in order to examine the effectiveness of different bypass materials. Among the efforts being made to refine the newly introduced DRG system in Germany, analysing the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery is particularly important. Indeed, in its current version the German DRG system does not distinguish between bypass materials in terms of reimbursement rates. Differences in cost structures are thus of especial interest to hospitals in their budget calculations, whereas both private and statutory health insurance funds are primarily interested in long-term results and their costs. Objectives The goal of this HTA is to compare the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery in terms of their medical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as well as with regard to their ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to point out the areas in which further medical, epidemiological and health economic research is still needed. Methods Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), as well as by

  6. Bypass materials in vascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stephan N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arteriosclerotic changes can lead to circulatory disturbances in various areas of the human vascular system. In addition to pharmacological therapy and the management of risk factors (e. g. hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, and lifestyle, surgical interventions also play an important role in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Long-segment arterial occlusions, in particular, can be treated successfully with bypass sur-gery. A number of different materials are available for this type of operation, such as autologous vein or pros-thetic grafts comprised of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Dacron®. Prosthetic materials are used especially in the treatment of peripheral artery disease, such as in aortoiliac or femoropopliteal bypass surgery. The present report will thus focus on this area in order to examine the effectiveness of different bypass materials. Among the efforts being made to refine the newly introduced DRG system in Germany, analysing the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery is particularly important. Indeed, in its current version the German DRG system does not distinguish between bypass materials in terms of reimbursement rates. Differences in cost structures are thus of especial interest to hospitals in their budget calculations, whereas both private and statutory health insurance funds are primarily interested in long-term results and their costs. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to compare the different bypass materials used in vascular surgery in terms of their medical efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as well as with regard to their ethical, social and legal implications. In addition, this report aims to point out the areas in which further medical, epidemiological and health economic research is still needed. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information

  7. Ultraviolet filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaath, Nadim A

    2010-04-01

    The chemistry, photostability and mechanism of action of ultraviolet filters are reviewed. The worldwide regulatory status of the 55 approved ultraviolet filters and their optical properties are documented. The photostabilty of butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (avobenzone) is considered and methods to stabilize it in cosmetic formulations are presented.

  8. Bypass Gástrico BII.

    OpenAIRE

    Himpens, Jaques

    2014-01-01

    Hay varias técnicas de bypass gástrico para la reducción del peso, la cual se decide dependiendo de la historia, hábitos dietéticos, evaluación psicológica, estado médico, reflujo gastroesofágico, diabetes. El bypass gástrico Roux-en-Y es la única opción en 50% de los pacientes debido a reflujo, diabetes o ambas. Estos pacientes tienen ciertas características como el IMC, síndrome metabólico y diabetes. Los pacientes obesos presentan mayor resistencia a la insulina, que se encuentra regulada ...

  9. Reconnaissance Report Yolo Bypass, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    proximity of these plans, a plan for one area could not be constructed separately without creating major hydraulic impacts to the other area. In essence ...native woody species which may be commonly found include eucalyptus , acacia, giant reed, and honey locust. Yolo Bypass. In the project area, vegetation...forbs form an often dense ground cover. Non- native woody species which may be commonly found include eucalyptus , acacia, giant reed and honey locust

  10. Numerical simulation of an alternative to prevent hydrates formation in a bypass section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Lucilla Coelho; Oliveira Junior, Joao Americo Aguirre; Fonte, Clarissa Bergman [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software Ltda. (ESSS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Fabricio Soares da; Moraes, Carlos Alberto Capela [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to evaluate the feasibility of MEG (monoethylene glycol) injection as an alternative to prevent hydrate formation in a bypass section, present in an inlet module of a separation device of a subsea separation system. As the bypass section is open to the main pipeline, MEG will probably be dragged due to secondary flows generated by the main flow stream. The MEG removal rate is estimated, as well as the internal heat transfer between the currents and the heat loss to the external environment in order to estimate the temperature in the equipment. In a first step, the MEG removal was evaluated considering the heat transfer between the liquid phase (composed of water, oil and MEG) and the gas phase as well as the heat transfer by forced convection to the external environment. In a second step, the influence of a thermal insulation layer around the bypass line, reducing the heat loss to the external environment, was studied. Both simulations (with or without thermal insulation) showed the establishment of secondary flows in the open connection between the main line and bypass line, promoting the removal of MEG from the bypass section and enabling other components of the liquid phase and/or gas to enter in the bypass line. This MEG removal is faster when thermal isolation was considered, due to the fact that higher temperatures are established in the bypass, maintaining the liquid phase with lower densities and viscosities. With regard to temperature, the insulation was able to keep higher temperatures at the bypass line than those obtained without insulation, indicating that the combination of MEG injection and thermal insulation may be able to avoid the critical condition for hydrate formation. (author)

  11. Numerical simulation of an alternative to prevent hydrates formation in a bypass section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Lucilla Coelho; Oliveira Junior, Joao Americo Aguirre; Fonte, Clarissa Bergman [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software Ltda. (ESSS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Fabricio Soares da; Moraes, Carlos Alberto Capela [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to evaluate the feasibility of MEG (monoethylene glycol) injection as an alternative to prevent hydrate formation in a bypass section, present in an inlet module of a separation device of a subsea separation system. As the bypass section is open to the main pipeline, MEG will probably be dragged due to secondary flows generated by the main flow stream. The MEG removal rate is estimated, as well as the internal heat transfer between the currents and the heat loss to the external environment in order to estimate the temperature in the equipment. In a first step, the MEG removal was evaluated considering the heat transfer between the liquid phase (composed of water, oil and MEG) and the gas phase as well as the heat transfer by forced convection to the external environment. In a second step, the influence of a thermal insulation layer around the bypass line, reducing the heat loss to the external environment, was studied. Both simulations (with or without thermal insulation) showed the establishment of secondary flows in the open connection between the main line and bypass line, promoting the removal of MEG from the bypass section and enabling other components of the liquid phase and/or gas to enter in the bypass line. This MEG removal is faster when thermal isolation was considered, due to the fact that higher temperatures are established in the bypass, maintaining the liquid phase with lower densities and viscosities. With regard to temperature, the insulation was able to keep higher temperatures at the bypass line than those obtained without insulation, indicating that the combination of MEG injection and thermal insulation may be able to avoid the critical condition for hydrate formation. (author)

  12. Filter Cake Oil-Wax as Raw Material for the Production of Biodiesel: Analysis of the Extraction Process and the Transesterification Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, L.; Hernández, Y.; Mantell, C; Casdelo, N.; E. Martinez de la Ossa

    2015-01-01

    The viability of using the waste obtained in the manufacture of sugar from sugarcane for the production of biodiesel has been analyzed. Two fundamental stages are necessary to obtain biodiesel; the first stage is the extraction process from the waste oil materials and the second is the transesterification reaction. Four techniques, Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, have been analyzed. For Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction,...

  13. 便携式输油滤油设备的研制与应用%Development and Application of Portable Oil Delivery and Filtering Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓莉; 尚雪梅; 杜彦亭; 樊琛

    2016-01-01

    According to the cleanness of the oil in the hydraulic machinery problem and oil transportation problem, developed a portable oil transmission, multi-stage filtration equipment. Firstly the hydraulic circuit is designed , then integrated design is adopted for hydraulic system and the whole structure and the structure of each part are developed; Practice shows that the device was applied to production meets the requirement; At the same time, the equipment used as a teaching device applied to hydraulic course teaching has improved the teaching effect.%针对液压机械中油液的清洁问题及油液输送问题,研制了便携式油液输送、多级过滤设备.首先对该设备液压回路进行了设计;然后对液压系统采用集成化设计,并对该设备整体结构及相关零部件进行了研制;实践表明将该设备应用于生产中,满足使用要求;同时该设备可作为示教装置应用于液压课程的现场教学,提高了教学效果.

  14. Food Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1995-01-01

    A typical food-processing plant produces about 500,000 gallons of waste water daily. Laden with organic compounds, this water usually is evaporated or discharged into sewers.A better solution is to filter the water through

  15. Design of Reversible Multipliers for Linear Filtering Applications in DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakshith Saligram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipliers in DSP computations are crucial. Thus modern DSP systems need to develop low power multipliers to reduce the power dissipation. One of the efficient ways to reduce power dissipation is by the use of bypassing technique. If a bit in the multiplier and/or multiplicand is zero the whole array of rowand/or diagonal will be bypassed and hence the name bypass multipliers. This paper presents the column Bypass multiplier and 2-D bypass multiplier using reversible logic; Reversible logic is a more prominent technology, having its applications in Low Power CMOS and quantum computations. The switching activity of any component in the bypass multiplier depends only on the input bit coefficients. The semultipliers find application in linear filtering FFT computational units, particularly during zero padding where there will be umpteen numbers of zeros. A bypass multiplier reduces the number of switching activities as well as the power consumption, above which reversible logic design acts to further almost nullify the dissipations

  16. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure... the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  17. Coronary Artery Bypass in Octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yen Chien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD has increased with the expansion of life span among the elderly population in the world. Hence, the issue of the coronary artery bypass in octogenarians has attracted more attention. Recent literature about the topic revealed nearly the same excellent results as those in the younger population under the newly developed operative techniques and improving concept in perioperative management and postoperative care. In this article, we review the current status of the procedure that was thought to be dangerous in the earlier era, including its risk factors, result, and benefit.

  18. History of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Eugene A

    2015-06-01

    The development of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), thereby permitting open-heart surgery, is one of the most important advances in medicine in the 20th century. Many currently practicing cardiac anesthesiologists, cardiac surgeons, and perfusionists are unaware of how recently it came into use (60 years) and how much the practice of CPB has changed during its short existence. In this paper, the development of CPB and the many changes and progress that has taken place over this brief period of time, making it a remarkably safe endeavor, are reviewed. The many as yet unresolved questions are also identified, which sets the stage for the other papers in this issue of this journal.

  19. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    , oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses......%. The increased insulin responses after the operation, one of the important mechanisms whereby these operations cause diabetes remission, is clearly due to a combination of the increased glucose absorption rates and the exaggerated GLP-1 secretion. The hormonal changes are therefore very important...

  20. Effects of bypass system on PCDD/F emission and chlorine circulation in cement kilns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Fu, Jianying; Chen, Tong; Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-10-01

    A bypass at the kiln inlet allows the effective reduction of alkali chloride cycles and thus perhaps affects the emission of PCDD/Fs. Effects of bypass system on PCDD/F emission and chlorine circulation were studied in two typical dry cement kilns with 5000 ton/day clinker capacity in China and named CK1 and CK2, respectively. Firstly, the emission level of PCDD/Fs with the operation of bypass system was estimated in CK1, to certify that bypass system has a perfect adaption to the cement kiln regarding the PCDD/F emission even with the refuse derived fuel (RDF) as the replacement of fuel. On the other hand, the operating conditions in the CK2 were scrutinised by monitoring the concentrations of SO2, NH3 and HCl. In addition, the characteristics of raw meal, clinker, bag filter ash and bypass ash were also investigated by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), metal and chlorine analysis. The balance of chlorine showed that 18 % of the possible accumulated chlorine could be ejected from the cement kiln system when 2 % of kiln exhaust gas was extracted. Furthermore, the emission level of PCDD/Fs in the main flue gas also decreased from 0.037 ± 0.035 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) to 0.019 ± 0.007 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) with a reduction efficiency of 48.2 %. Most importantly, PCDD/F emission from the bypass system was proven to have rather minor effect on the total emission factor. The congener distributions of PCDD/Fs were also analysed in the flue gas and fly ash, before and after application of bypass system, to find cues to the formation mechanism.

  1. Epicardial ultrasound in coronary artery bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budde, R.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1 Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is traditionally performed via a median sternotomy approach on cardiopulmonary bypass (arrested heart). Since the mid 1990ties, beating heart, minimally invasive and even totally endoscopic CABG are (re)explored. In all approaches to CABG, the

  2. Multimodality imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, Liesbeth Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes multiple imaging modalities to examine coronary artery bypass grafts, and the research which was performed to further develop noninvasive imaging techniques to detect stenoses in native coronary arteries and bypass grafts in patients who experienced recurrent chest pain after

  3. Multimodality imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, Liesbeth Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes multiple imaging modalities to examine coronary artery bypass grafts, and the research which was performed to further develop noninvasive imaging techniques to detect stenoses in native coronary arteries and bypass grafts in patients who experienced recurrent chest pain after c

  4. [Cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehner, T; Boehm, O; Probst, C; Poetzsch, B; Hoeft, A; Baumgarten, G; Knuefermann, P

    2012-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a standard procedure in cardiac surgery; however, apart from its therapeutic options a CPB might also initiate systemic and organ-specific complications, such as heart failure, renal and pulmonary dysfunction, impaired coagulation as well as neurological and cognitive dysfunction. The immunological response to the extracorporeal circulation generates systemic inflammation which often meets the definition of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The main inducers of SIRS are contact of blood with the artificial surfaces of the CPB, mechanical stress which affects the blood components and the extensive surgical trauma. Hence, a number of technical and surgical developments aim at reduction of the inflammatory response caused by the CPB. By reason of surgical demands, the majority of cardiothoracic procedures still depend on the use of CPB; however, there is an on-going development of new techniques trying to reduce the surgical trauma and the negative consequences of CPB. Here, minimized systems with biocompatible surfaces have been shown to be effective in attenuating the inflammatory response to CPB. Alternative procedures such as off-pump surgery may help to avoid CPB-associated complications but due to specific limitations will not replace conventional bypass surgery.

  5. Research on leakage loss and sealing of the scroll vacuum pump of oil-filter%滤油机涡旋真空泵泄漏损耗及密封研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤明; 陈栋; 王立存; 杨旭; 张国进

    2013-01-01

    The research of backing scroll vacuum pump is an important aspect of the development of vacuum oil-filter.The existing clearance between two scroll disks causes the leakage loss when scroll vacuum pump is working,which will affect its ultimate vacuum and working performance.Analyze the radial and tangential leakage of scroll vacuum pump,then the power consumption of leakage was calculated.The principle and characteristics of sealing strips introduced,and some sealing measures were put forward,which has very important theoretical significance and practical value to improve the pumping speed and working performance of scroll vacuum pump.The scroll vacuum pump will be popularized in the waste oil treatment industry in the future.%在真空滤油机研发过程中,对其真空获得设备前置涡旋真空泵的研究是一个重要的方面.涡旋真空泵在运行过程中,动、静涡旋盘之间间隙的存在导致了气体泄漏损耗,该因素会影响涡旋真空泵的极限真空度及其工作性能.分析了涡旋真空泵的径向泄漏及切向泄漏,计算了泄漏消耗的功率,说明了密封条原理和特点,提出了径向间隙和轴向间隙的密封措施,对提高涡旋真空泵抽速、改善其机构性能方面具有重要理论意义和工程实用价值,涡旋真空泵将在油处理行业得到进一步推广应用.

  6. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  7. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  8. Notch filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A notch filter for the selective attenuation of a narrow band of frequencies out of a larger band was developed. A helical resonator is connected to an input circuit and an output circuit through discrete and equal capacitors, and a resistor is connected between the input and the output circuits.

  9. A Series-LC-Filtered Active Trap Filter for High Power Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    current control of the auxiliary converter, which can be challenging considering that the switching harmonics have very high orders. In this paper, an Active Trap Filter (ATF) based on output impedance shaping is proposed. It is able to bypass the switching harmonics by providing nearly zero output...... impedance. A series-LC-filter is used to reduce the power rating and synthesize the desired output impedance of the ATF. Compared with the existing approaches, the compensated frequency range is greatly enlarged. Also, the current reference is simply set to zero, which reduces the complexity of the control...

  10. ANALISA PENENTUAN FAKTOR DOMINAN KEGAGALAN DESAIN KOMPONEN SEAT ASS’Y OIL FILTER DENGAN METODE FMEA (FAILUR MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS DI PT. SELAMAT SEMPURNA TBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Novrizal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Filter oli terdiri dari berbagai macam komponen dan beberapa diantaranya adalah seat, elco  dan  seat  assy.  Kadangkalanya komponen-komponen tersebt  mengalami kegagalan desain. Dari bermacam-macam bentuk kegagalan yang berasal dari klaim pelanggan yang terangkum dalam Rekaman Klaim Pelanggan, ada yang memerlukan perhatian serius. Yaitu potensi kegagalan yang dominan. Untu mengetahui klaim yang dominan terhadap (potensial failure, dilakukan analisa terhadap bermacam-macam kegagalan yang ada.Kegagalan- kegagalam tersebut yang pada awalnya berbentuk kasus, ditransformasikan kedalam bentuk angka/nilai, yang  mana  nilai-nilai tersebut adalah sebuah standar  yang  telah  ditetapkan didalam Referensi Manual Potential Failure Mode and Efects Analysis (Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motor Corporation. Dari nilai-nilai yang telah ditetapkan, yaitu nilai Detection serta nilai severity yang diperoleh dari brainstorming serta pengalaman team, serta nilai occurance yang diperoleh dari penghitungan nilai PPM yang kesemua Potensi kegagalan tersebut ditransformasikan kedalam Possible failure Rates, didapat nilai RPN. Nilai RPN itu adalah hasil perkalian dari ketiga unsur diatas. RPN yang telah dibuat listnya menggambarkan bahwa RPN dengan nilai 192, Potensial Failure Mode; Tinggi titik emboss tidak seragam, menduduki peringkat tertinggi. Meskipun demikian, Potential Failure yang lainpun juga perlu ditindak lanjuti sesuai hasil analisanya, yang mana perbaikan dilakukan dengan skala prioritas, dari RPN tertinggi ke RPN terendah. 

  11. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  12. Filter Cake Oil-Wax as Raw Material for the Production of Biodiesel: Analysis of the Extraction Process and the Transesterification Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Casas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability of using the waste obtained in the manufacture of sugar from sugarcane for the production of biodiesel has been analyzed. Two fundamental stages are necessary to obtain biodiesel; the first stage is the extraction process from the waste oil materials and the second is the transesterification reaction. Four techniques, Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, have been analyzed. For Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, the organic solvent (hexane was maintained for all experiment. In supercritical fluid extraction two solvents were evaluated: pure CO2 and mixtures of CO2 and 5% (v : v methanol. The reaction kinetics of the transesterification reaction with an acidic catalyst and a basic catalyst were analysed. The results show that the supercritical extraction process produces a better product for the subsequent transesterification reaction. This finding is attributed to the high selectivity of carbon dioxide in the recovery of fatty acids and triglycerides in comparison with other solvents.

  13. Electroencephalography during surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashein, G; Nessly, M L; Bledsoe, S W; Townes, B D; Davis, K B; Coppel, D B; Hornbein, T F

    1992-06-01

    After more than 30 yr of use, electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass has not gained wide clinical acceptance. To assess its utility to predict central nervous system injury, two-channel recordings were made from 78 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and anesthetized with fentanyl/diazepam/enflurane. The perfusion regimen included the use of high pump flow, a bubble oxygenator, and no arterial tubing filter. Target values were 28-32 degrees C for the minimum rectal temperature, 60-80 mmHg for mean arterial pressure, and 20-25% for hematocrit. Eight descriptors of the Fourier power spectra of the EEG were calculated off-line, and outcome comparisons were made with the results from neuropsychological tests. Among 58 patients yielding complete data of acceptable quality, a statistically significant reduction in total power was observed from prebypass to postbypass, accompanied by an increase in the fractional power in the theta and beta frequency bands and in the spectral edge frequency. The shifts in total and theta power were weakly associated with short-term but not with long-term changes in neuropsychological scores. Nearly 40% of the patients' EEGs were corrupted with electrical noise at some time during bypass. In 15 patients selected for having high-quality recordings and no neuropsychological deficit, an extensive statistical analysis failed to reveal any consistent variation in the EEG descriptors with hypothermia. Under the conditions studied, it appears that for other than gross signal dropout, the strong background variability in the EEG makes it have little value for detecting harbingers of brain injury.

  14. Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zakkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB revolutionized cardiac surgery and contributed immensely to improved patients outcomes. CPB is associated with the activation of different coagulation, proinflammatory, survival cascades and altered redox state. Haemolysis, ischaemia, and perfusion injury and neutrophils activation during CPB play a pivotal role in oxidative stress and the associated activation of proinflammatory and proapoptotic signalling pathways which can affect the function and recovery of multiple organs such as the myocardium, lungs, and kidneys and influence clinical outcomes. The administration of agents with antioxidant properties during surgery either intravenously or in the cardioplegia solution may reduce ROS burst and oxidative stress during CPB. Alternatively, the use of modified circuits such as minibypass can modify both proinflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

  15. Changing trends in emergency coronary bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganti, Manjula; Brister, Stephanie J; Yau, Terrence M; Collins, Susan; Badiwala, Mitesh; Rao, Vivek

    2011-10-01

    Patients undergoing emergency coronary artery bypass grafting represent a unique and high-risk population that remains challenging for cardiac surgeons. We examined the changing trends in patients undergoing emergency bypass grafting over the past 20 years. We conducted a retrospective review of our database between 1990 and 2009 and patients were divided into 2 groups based on year of operation: 1990-1999, n = 393; 2000-2009, n = 184. The primary outcomes of interest for this study are operative mortality and incidence of low cardiac output syndrome. The percentage of patients undergoing emergency coronary bypass grafting has decreased from 2.7% to 1.7% over time. The percentage of patients with dyslipidemia, hypertension, triple vessel disease, peripheral vascular disease, and left main disease increased over time (P emergency bypass grafting. The independent predictors of low cardiac output syndrome were small body surface area, congestive heart failure, shock, myocardial infarction, earlier decade (1990-1999) and increased age. Despite a changing preoperative risk profile, the operative mortality of emergency coronary artery bypass grafting has remained stable over the years. However, mortality remains significantly above the observed mortality in elective bypass grafting. Continued improvements in the management of heart failure and the care of the elderly will likely result in reduced risks of emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of the magnetic test-filter for magnetic control of ferroimpurities of fuels, oils, and other liquids (phenomenological and physical models)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sandulyak; Alexander, Sandulyak; Vera, Ershova; Maria, Polismakova; Darya, Sandulyak

    2017-03-01

    It is noted that in most cases, mechanical impurities of technological liquides are ferroimpurities, possessing ferromagnetic properties; therefore for their control (as well as for the decision taking on the possible use of magnetophoresis devices for their removal) the preference should be given to magnetic methods. In the development of the existing options of magnetic control, used in metrology of ferroimpurities control (including ferrography), the main provisions of the relatively new, tested on a number of process liquids (including fuels and lubricants) poly-operational experimental calculation method is set out. Unlike already practiced experimental methods, it allows the implementation of more objective control. Operational data of magnetic control of ferroimpurities in motor oils, gasoline, diesel fuel and others are given. Based on the phenomenological approach (using the method of functional legalization of mass-operational charachteristics in semi-logarithmic coordinates) the expressions for calculating the operating masses (including the forecasted ones outside of the experiment), and, most importantly, for the calculation of the total mass for unlimited and limited number of operations are obtained. Along that expressions (with the relevant data) for determination of the error control during the limitation of the number of operations and inverse expression for the required number of operations subject to the margin of error are receieved. Based on the physical approach (assuming concepts of absorption screen of exponential type) the design formulas correlated with the phenomenological ones for calculating operating mass and the total mass of ferroimpurities (including the residual) in the analyzed sample probe are obtained. The physical meaning of the number of parameters, which were previously considered exclusively empirical, is figured out.

  17. 30 CFR 57.19018 - Overtravel by-pass switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtravel by-pass switches. 57.19018 Section... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19018 Overtravel by-pass switches. When an overtravel by-pass switch is installed, the... switch is held in the closed position by the hoistman. The overtravel by-pass switch shall...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19018 - Overtravel by-pass switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtravel by-pass switches. 56.19018 Section... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19018 Overtravel by-pass switches. When an overtravel by-pass switch is installed, the... switch is held in the closed position by the hoistman. The overtravel by-pass switch shall...

  19. 34 CFR 76.677 - Continuation of a bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuation of a bypass. 76.677 Section 76.677... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Procedures for Bypass § 76.677 Continuation of a bypass. The Secretary continues a bypass until the Secretary determines that the grantee or subgrantee will meet...

  20. Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. These samples provided a concrete link between tricresyl phosphates and a homologous series of synthetic pentaerythritol esters from oil and contaminants found on the sample paper. The second step was to test 184 used aircraft filters with the same gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry system; of that total, 107 were standard filters, and 77 were nonstandard. Four of the standard filters had both markers for oil, with the homologous series synthetic pentaerythritol esters being the less common marker. It was also found that 90% of the filters had some detectable level of tricresyl phosphates. Of the 77 nonstandard filters, 30 had both markers for oil, a significantly higher percent than the standard filters. PMID:25641977

  1. Coronary Bypass Surgery in a 105-Year-Old Patient with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temucin Noyan Ogus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery bypass grafting is one of the routine daily surgical procedures in the current era. Parallel to the increasing life expectancy, cardiac surgery is commonly performed in octogenarians. However, literature consists of only seldom reports of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients above 90 years of age. In this report, we present our management strategy in a 105-year-old patient who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution.

  2. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  3. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  4. Doppler spectral characteristics of infrainguinal vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the velocity profile of femoropopliteal and femorocrural vein bypasses, 128 patients undergoing infrainguinal vein bypass surgery entered a postoperative Duplex surveillance protocol, which included clinical assessment and Duplex scanning, using Doppler spectral analysis...... of arteriovenous fistulas the initially antegrade diastolic velocity was replaced by a retrograde flow within 3 months, whereas a forward flow in diastole was sustained in grafts with patent fistulas. Abnormal Duplex findings in 31 patients led to angiography and revision in 13 cases. Four revised grafts failed......, while nine remained patent at follow-up 1-12 months later. Ten (56%) of 18 non-revised bypasses with abnormal Duplex findings failed within 9 months compared to 1 (1%) of 76 bypasses with a normal velocity profile (p analysis provides...

  5. The Effect of Repeat Cardiopulmonary bypass on Epicardial Microflow and Graft Flow during Intra-operative Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective The relationship between graft blood flow, epicardial microflow,mean arterial pressure and hemorheologic changes was studied during intraoperative heart failure.Methods These parameters were done to evaluate the use of repeated cardiopulmonary bypass supportfor the intraoperative heart failure following aorto-coronary bypass surgery. Included in this study were10 patients with a mean age of 7 0 and unstable angina undergoing coronary bypass grafting and suffer-ing from intraoperative heart failure. The epicardiai microflow, graft flow, mean arterial pressureand blood cell filterability were measured. Resluts During heart failure, the mean arterial pressurefell by 41 % ( P < 0. 01 ), graft flow by 67 % ( P < 0. 01 ) and epicardialmicro flow by 64 % ( P <0. 01 ). After 1 5 to 56 min of assisted cardiopulmonary bypass support, the epicardial mioroflow andgraft flow were partially restored, while red cell and white cell filterability was reduced by 31% and644 % respectively ( P < 0. 01 ). There were significant correlations between graft flow, epicardial mi-croflow, blooxd cell filterability and cardiopulmonary bypass time. All patients recovered and were dis-charged from the hospital. Conclusion It is concluded that the use of temporary assisted CPB sup-port to treat intrapoperative heart failure allows the recovery of the myocardium and thereby restores themean arterial pressure. The recovery of graft flow and epicardial flow occurred to a lesser extent. TheCPB support seemed to be suitable for about 60 rain probably because of increasing disturbance to theblood cell filterability, graft flow and the epicardial microcirculation.

  6. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Monsanto may bypass NIH in microbe test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Marjorie

    1985-01-11

    The Monsanto Company is planning to ask the Environmental Protection Agency for clearance to field test a genetically engineered microbial pesticide, bypassing the traditional approval process of the National Institutes of Health. Although only federally funded institutions are required to obtain NIH approval for genetic engineering tests, Monsanto is the first company to bypass the NIH regulatory process, which has become mired in a lawsuit brought by Jeremy Rifkin.

  8. Prophylactic digitalization for coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L W; Dickstein, R A; Fruehan, C T; Kane, P; Potts, J L; Smulyan, H; Webb, W R; Eich, R H

    1976-05-01

    One hundred and twenty patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass procedures were randomly placed into control and digitalized groups. All were initially in normal sinus rhythm and without evidence of congestive heart failure. Supraventricular arrhythmias occurred in 17 of 66 controls and in only three of 54 digitalized patients (P less than 0.01). There was no evidence of digitals toxicity. Based on this evidence we recommend prophylactic digitalization for patients having aortocoronary bypass operations.

  9. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter J.

    2012-03-13

    Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

  10. MHD Energy Bypass Scramjet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.; Bogdanoff, David W.; Park, Chul; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Revolutionary rather than evolutionary changes in propulsion systems are most likely to decrease cost of space transportation and to provide a global range capability. Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion is a revolutionary propulsion system. The performance of scramjet engines can be improved by the AJAX energy management concept. A magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) generator controls the flow and extracts flow energy in the engine inlet and a MHD accelerator downstream of the combustor accelerates the nozzle flow. A progress report toward developing the MHD technology is presented herein. Recent theoretical efforts are reviewed and ongoing experimental efforts are discussed. The latter efforts also include an ongoing collaboration between NASA, the US Air Force Research Laboratory, US industry, and Russian scientific organizations. Two of the critical technologies, the ionization of the air and the MHD accelerator, are briefly discussed. Examples of limiting the combustor entrance Mach number to a low supersonic value with a MHD energy bypass scheme are presented, demonstrating an improvement in scramjet performance. The results for a simplified design of an aerospace plane show that the specific impulse of the MHD-bypass system is better than the non-MHD system and typical rocket over a narrow region of flight speeds and design parameters. Equilibrium ionization and non-equilibrium ionization are discussed. The thermodynamic condition of air at the entrance of the engine inlet determines the method of ionization. The required external power for non-equilibrium ionization is computed. There have been many experiments in which electrical power generation has successfully been achieved by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) means. However, relatively few experiments have been made to date for the reverse case of achieving gas acceleration by the MHD means. An experiment in a shock tunnel is described in which MHD acceleration is investigated experimentally. MHD has several

  11. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  12. [Simplified laparoscopic gastric bypass. Initial experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Miguelena, Luis; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Ríos-Cruz, Daniel; Marín-Domínguez, Raúl; Castillo-González, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Obesity surgery includes various gastrointestinal procedures. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the prototype of mixed procedures being the most practiced worldwide. A similar and novel technique has been adopted by Dr. Almino Cardoso Ramos and Dr. Manoel Galvao called "simplified bypass," which has been accepted due to the greater ease and very similar results to the conventional technique. The aim of this study is to describe the results of the simplified gastric bypass for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution. We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of all patients undergoing simplified gastric bypass from January 2008 to July 2012 in the obesity clinic of a private hospital in Mexico City. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with morbid obesity underwent simplified gastric bypass. Complications occurred in 10% of patients; these were more frequent bleeding and internal hernia. Mortality in the study period was 0%. The average weight loss at 12 months was 72.7%. Simplified gastric bypass surgery is safe with good mid-term results and a loss of adequate weight in 71% of cases.

  13. An experimental study of nerve bypass graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jie; LI Xue-shi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the use of a nerve "bypass" graft as a possible alternative to neurolysis or segmental resection with interposition grafting in the treatment of neuroma-in-continuity. Methods: A sciatic nerve crush injury model was established in the Sprague-Dawley rat by compression with a straight hemostatic forceps. Epineurial windows were created proximal and distal to the injury site. An 8-mm segment of radial nerve was harvested and coaptated to the sciatic nerve at the epineurial window sites proximal and distal to the compressed segment (bypass group). A sciatic nerve crush injury without bypass served as a control. Nerve conduction studies were performed over an 8-week period. Sciatic nerves were then harvested and studied under transmission electron microscopy. Myelinated axon counts were obtained. Results: Nerve conduction velocity was significantly faster in the bypass group than in the control group at 8 weeks (63.57 m/s±5.83 m/s vs. 54.88 m/s±4.79m/s, P<0.01). Myelinated axon counts in distal segments were found more in the experimental sciatic nerve than in the control sciatic nerve. Significant axonal growth was noted in the bypass nerve segment itself. Conclusion: Nerve bypass may serve to augment peripheral axonal growth while avoiding further loss of the native nerve.

  14. Use of rigid bronchoscopic forceps in the difficult retrieval of the Günther Tulip inferior vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Charles T; Dixon, Robert G; Stavas, Joseph M

    2007-10-01

    Retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters may, over time, become incorporated into the wall of the IVC, making subsequent removal difficult. The authors present a case in which a Günther Tulip filter was placed prophylactically before gastric bypass surgery. The retrieval hook of the filter became incorporated into the wall of the IVC, preventing the filter from being snared. Eventually, the filter was freed from the wall of the IVC and successfully removed by using rigid bronchoscopy forceps; however, the filter was damaged in the process.

  15. "Orpheus" cardiopulmonary bypass simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard W; Pybus, David A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe a high-fidelity perfusion simulation system intended for use in the training and continuing education of perfusionists. The system comprises a hydraulic simulator, an electronic interface unit and a controlling computer with associated real-time computer models. It is designed for use within an actual operating theatre, or within a specialized simulation facility. The hydraulic simulator can be positioned on an operating table and physically connected to the circuit of the institutional heart-lung machine. The institutional monitoring system is used to display the arterial and central venous pressures, the ECG and the nasopharyngeal temperature using appropriate connections. The simulator is able to reproduce the full spectrum of normal and abnormal events that may present during the course of cardiopulmonary bypass. The system incorporates a sophisticated blood gas model that accurately predicts the behavior of a modern, hollow-fiber oxygenator. Output from this model is displayed in the manner of an in-line blood gas electrode and is updated every 500 msecs. The perfusionist is able to administer a wide variety of drugs during a simulation session including: vasoconstrictors (metaraminol, epinephrine and phenylephrine), a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside), chronotropes (epinephrine and atropine), an inotrope (epinephrine) and modifiers of coagulation (heparin and protamine). Each drug has a pharmacokinetic profile based on a three-compartment model plus an effect compartment. The simulation system has potential roles in the skill training of perfusionists, the development of crisis management protocols, the certification and accreditation of perfusionists and the evaluation of new perfusion equipment and/or techniques.

  16. Internal Maxillary Bypass for Complex Pediatric Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Lu, Shuaibin; Qian, Hai; Shi, Xiang'en

    2017-07-01

    Complex pediatric aneurysms (PAs) are an unusual clinicopathologic entity. Data regarding the use of a bypass procedure to treat complex PAs are limited. Internal maxillary artery-to-middle cerebral artery bypass with radial artery graft was used to isolate PAs. Bypass patency and aneurysm stability were evaluated using intraoperative Doppler ultrasound, indocyanine green videoangiography, and postoperative angiography. Modified Rankin Scale was used to assess neurologic function. Over a 5-year period, 7 pediatric patients (≤18 years old) were included in our analysis. Mean age of patients was 14.4 years (range, 12-18 years), and mean size of PAs was 23.6 mm (range, 9-37 mm). All cases manifested with complex characteristics. Proximal artery occlusion was performed in 3 cases, complete excision following aneurysmal distal internal maxillary artery bypass was performed in 2 cases, and combined proximal artery occlusion and aneurysm excision was performed in the 2 remaining cases. Mean intraoperative blood flow was 61.6 mL/minute (range, 40.0-90.8 mL/minute). Graft patency rate was 100% during postoperative recovery and at the last follow-up examination (mean, 20 months; range, 7-45 months). All patients had excellent outcomes except for 1 patient who died of multiple-organ failure. Internal maxillary artery bypass is an essential technique for treatment of selected cases of complex PAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  18. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  19. Pilot oil atlas for Louisiana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Kimbrell, C.; Gao, Weigang

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary research team of engineers, geologists, and computer scientists was assembled at LSU to develop unproved methods for prospecting for bypassed oil and to support oil and gas producers in Louisiana. The overall objective of the project was to develop methods for extending the producing life of several types of reservoirs by reducing the amount of oil being bypassed and abandoned. As part of this work, the team collected information available from public sources for several example reservoirs. One task of the project was to develop a format for the compilation of the extensive but cumbersome Louisiana reservoir data so that it could be used by government and industry to evaluate the resource and plan future activities. The existing information system maintained by Louisiana is a Production Audit Reporting System (PARS). It was designed to allow auditing of oil and gas production and severance taxes associated with this production. It was not intended to be used as a database for determining reservoir recovery efficiency or prospecting for oil and gas. Its use for these purposes, however, has been increasing. The database format suggested in this report would allow production information to be easily displayed by reservoir as well as by lease, unit, or well. The data collected as part of the bypassed-oil study was used to illustrate the proposed new format. This pilot database, or atlas, contains information available for 15 reservoirs. It is recommended that LSU continue to compile and publish database information on the potential for bypassed oil in Louisiana`s active reservoirs. This technology-transfer activity should focus each year on those active reservoirs involved in hearings of the Louisiana Office of Conservation. It should also focus on reservoirs being screened by LSU for EOR.

  20. Fractured inferior vena cava filter strut presenting as a penetrating foreign body in the right ventricle: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Prathap; Mahtabifard, Ali; Young, J Nilas

    2008-01-01

    Migration of a fractured strut of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter to the heart is a rare complication. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman who had this complication eight months after infrarenal IVC filter placement. She presented with chest pain. The broken arm of the IVC filter had migrated to the heart and penetrated the free wall of the right ventricle. It was removed successfully by cardiac surgery without the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  1. Modeling Sediment Bypassing around Rocky Headlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. A.; Largier, J. L.; Pasternack, G. B.; Erikson, L. H.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Barnard, P.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment bypassing rocky headlands remains understudied despite the importance of characterizing littoral processes and sediment budgets for erosion abatement, climate change adaptation, and beach management. This study was developed to identify controlling factors on and the mechanisms supporting sediment bypassing. Sediment flux around four idealized rocky headlands was investigated using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D and spectral wave model SWAN. The experimental design involved 120 simulations to explore the influence of headland morphology, substrate composition, sediment grain size, and oceanographic forcing. Headlands represented sizes and shapes found in natural settings, grain sizes ranged from fine to medium sand, and substrates from sandy beds to offshore bedrock reefs. The oceanography included a constructed representative tide, an alongshore background current, and four wave conditions derived from observational records in the eastern Pacific Ocean. A bypassing ratio was developed for alongshore flux between upstream and downstream cross-shore transects to determine the degree of blockage by a headland. Results showed that northwesterly oblique large waves (Hs = 7 m, Tp = 16 s) generated the most flux around headlands, whereas directly incident waves blocked flux across a headland apex. The headland shape heavily influenced the sediment fate by changing the relative angle between the shoreline and the incident waves. The bypassing ratio characterized each headland's capacity to allow alongshore flux under different wave conditions. All headlands may allow flux, although larger ones block sediment more effectively, promoting their ability to be littoral cell boundaries compared to smaller headlands. The controlling factors on sediment bypassing were determined to be wave angle, shape and size of the headland, and sediment grain size. This novel numerical modeling study advances headland modeling from the generic realm to broadly applicable classes of

  2. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  3. NOVEL MICROWAVE FILTER DESIGN TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FILTERS, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, PHASE SHIFT CIRCUITS, BANDPASS FILTERS, TUNED CIRCUITS, NETWORKS, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , LOW PASS FILTERS, MULTIPLEXING, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, WAVEGUIDE FILTERS, WAVEGUIDE COUPLERS.

  4. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The litera......This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines...

  5. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Muhammad Y.; Hunter, Ian C.

    2016-10-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  6. Variable volume combustor with an air bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-02-07

    The present application provides a combustor for use with flow of fuel and a flow of air in a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within a liner and an air bypass system position about the liner. The air bypass system variably allows a bypass portion of the flow of air to bypass the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  7. 46 CFR 154.550 - Excess flow valve: Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Bypass. 154.550 Section 154.550... and Process Piping Systems § 154.550 Excess flow valve: Bypass. If the excess flow valve allowed under § 154.532(b) has a bypass, the bypass must be of 1.0 mm (0.0394 in.) or less in diameter. Cargo Hose...

  8. Benchmarking Compressed Sensing, Super-Resolution, and Filter Diagonalization

    CERN Document Server

    Markovich, Thomas; Sanders, Jacob N; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Signal processing techniques have been developed that use different strategies to bypass the Nyquist sampling theorem in order to recover more information than a traditional discrete Fourier transform. Here we examine three such methods: filter diagonalization, compressed sensing, and super-resolution. We apply them to a broad range of signal forms commonly found in science and engineering in order to discover when and how each method can be used most profitably. We find that filter diagonalization provides the best results for Lorentzian signals, while compressed sensing and super-resolution perform better for arbitrary signals.

  9. The Application of Double-swirl High-efficiency Automatic Backwash Filter in Treatment of Oil-stained Turbid Circulating Water%双旋流高效自动反冲洗过滤器在含油浊环水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈升权; 林自力; 李建勇; 闫海贺

    2013-01-01

      近几年来一种高分子合成纤维做为循环水处理系统中的过滤器新型填料得到迅速发展,它是表面经过特殊处理的柔性纤维材料,具有纳污率高、不易粘油、便于反洗再生、过滤精度高的特性,是一般颗粒滤料无法比拟的。%A new type of high polymer synthetic fiber used as filter fillings in circulat-ing water treatment system has been rapidly developing in recent years. Specially treated on the surface, this flexible fiber material has extraordinary characteristics of high dirt contain-ing capacity, resistance to oil sticking, easiness for backwash regeneration and high filter fineness.

  10. Protective Effect of Heparin-coated Circuits on the Platelets during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯伦; 胡志伟; 杨运海; 黄如清; 范慧敏; 孙宗全

    2003-01-01

    To observe the protective effect of heparin-coated circuits (HCC) on the platelet function during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). 23 patients with heart valve replacement were studied. The system heparin dose was 3 mg/kg in the control group (n= 15) and heparin-coated circuits in the HCC group (n = 8). Platelet count, α-granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140) concentrations were determined before CPB, at 60 min of CPB, 30 and 60 min after protamine administration, first 12 h after CPB, respectively. At end of CPB the arterial filters in the circuits were observed by electron microscopy. The amount of first 12-h postoperative blood loss was measured. There was significant reduction in platelet loss during and after CPB in the HCC group in contrast to the control group during CPB (P<0.05). During the first 12 h, postoperative blood loss was reduced in the HCC group as compared with that in the control group (218±61 ml, vs. 332±118 ml, P<0.05). Electron microscopy showed that in the HCC group the filter meshes and their fringes were clear and fragments of floccules were occasionally seen, without adherent cells or only few adherent cells on their surfaces, whereas several cellular and fibrous components were found to adhere to the surfaces of the filter meshes in the control group. This study indicates that heparin-coated circuits might reduce the platelet loss and activation during CPB and improve hemocompatibility of cardiopulmonary bypass equipment.

  11. 21 CFR 870.3545 - Ventricular bypass (assist) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventricular bypass (assist) device. 870.3545... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3545 Ventricular bypass (assist) device. (a) Identification. A ventricular bypass (assist) device is a device that...

  12. Obstructive and enteropathic syndromes after jejunoileal bypass surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasick, D.; Karasick, S.

    1981-05-15

    Small bowel bypass procedures for morbid obesity have been associated with many postoperative complications. With the use of the Scott procedure, the bypassed or excluded small bowel segment has recently been the focus of 2 syndromes - 'bypass enteritis' and 'defunctioned bowel syndrome'. We describe these postoperative complications and present their significant radiologic features.

  13. 21 CFR 870.4430 - Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction....4430 Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control is a device which provides the vacuum and control for a cardiotomy return sucker...

  14. 20 CFR 631.18 - Federal by-pass authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal by-pass authority. 631.18 Section 631... Procedures § 631.18 Federal by-pass authority. (a) In the event that a State fails to submit a biennial State... Secretary's intent to exercise by-pass authority and an opportunity to request and to receive a...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  16. 旋转圆板型陶瓷膜过滤器平衡过滤油水乳浊液特性研究%Study on the Charicteristics of Filtration of Oil/Water Emulsion with a Circular Plate with Ceramic Membrane Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿布都瓦依提·玉苏甫; 王建华; 阿不都拉·艾尼瓦尔

    2012-01-01

    采用旋转圆板型陶瓷膜过滤器对5%的O/W(油/水)乳浊液进行了精密平衡过滤.过滤压力为50,100,150 kPa和圆板旋转速度为125,250,500 r/min时,对过滤速度和过滤量的影响进行了对比分析.结果表明,转速为250 r/min,压力为50 kPa时,达到过滤平衡的时间最短且运行稳定,过滤速度较高过滤量较大,在此条件下过滤效果较为理想.%The 5% 0/W (oil/water) emulsion was accurately filtrated by the circular plate with ceramic membrane filter. When the filter pressure was 50 kPa,100 kPa and 150 kPa and the speed of rotation was 125 r/min, 250 r/min and 500 r/min, it could compare and analyse the influnce of filtration speeds and a-mount of filtration. The result inJicated that when the speed of rotation was 250 r/min and filter pressure was 50 kPa?the time of reaching to filtration balance was the shortest and it was stable. The higher the filtration rate was,the larger the amount of filtration was. Therefore,the optimal condition was the speed of rotation 250 r/min and filter pressure 50 kPa for the filtration of 5% O/W (oil/water) emulsion.

  17. Bypassing BDD Construction for Reliability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Nikolskaia, Macha; Rauzy, Antoine

    2000-01-01

    In this note, we propose a Boolean Expression Diagram (BED)-based algorithm to compute the minimal p-cuts of boolean reliability models such as fault trees. BEDs make it possible to bypass the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) construction, which is the main cost of fault tree assessment....

  18. Robotically-Assisted Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry A. Folliguet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Robotic surgery enables to perform coronary surgery totally endoscopically. This report describes our experience using the da Vinci system for coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods. Patients requiring single-or-double vessel revascularization were eligible. The procedure was performed without cardiopulmonary bypass on a beating heart. Results. From April 2004 to May 2008, fifty-six patients were enrolled in the study. Twenty-four patients underwent robotic harvesting of the mammary conduit followed by minimal invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB, and twenty-three patients had a totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB grafting. Nine patients (16% were converted to open techniques. The mean total operating time for TECAB was 372±104 minutes and for MIDCAB was 220±69 minutes. Followup was complete for all patients up to one year. There was one hospital death following MIDCAB and two deaths at follow up. Forty-eight patients had an angiogram or CT scan revealing occlusion or anastomotic stenoses (>50% in 6 patients. Overall permeability was 92%. Conclusions. Robotic surgery can be performed with promising results.

  19. Intraoperative arteriography during femoral-popliteal bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J E; Bekassy, S M; DeBakey, M E

    1975-07-01

    Minor technical errors may jeopardize the patency of femoral-popliteal bypass grafts. In an attempt to detect such errors, intraoperative arteriography has been routinely employed. It allows immediate recognition and correction of the most common abnormal findings: intraluminal debris, intimal dissection, distal thrombosis, arterial spasm, and kinking of the graft.

  20. Cephalic veins in coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P; Jakobsen, Erik; Lerbjerg, G

    1996-01-01

    Various alternative conduits for aortocoronary bypass grafting have been suggested when the saphenous vein quality is inadequate. During a 10-year period we have used the cephalic vein in 39 patients. Eighteen entered an angiographic follow-up study. A total of 31 arm vein grafts were used with 4...

  1. Planetary science: Bypassing the habitable zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-08-01

    In our own solar system, Venus is too hot, Mars is too cold and Earth is just right. Simulations show that making an icy planet habitable is not as simple as melting its ice: many icy bodies swing from too cold to too hot, bypassing just right.

  2. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  3. Cephalic veins in coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P; Jakobsen, Erik; Lerbjerg, G;

    1996-01-01

    Various alternative conduits for aortocoronary bypass grafting have been suggested when the saphenous vein quality is inadequate. During a 10-year period we have used the cephalic vein in 39 patients. Eighteen entered an angiographic follow-up study. A total of 31 arm vein grafts were used with 4...

  4. Percutaneous retrieval of a vena cava filter from the right atrium: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasuli, P. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mehran, R. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); French, G. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Turek, M. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Lalonde, K.A. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cardinal, P. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Migration of vena cava filters can occur spontaneously, but it can also occur as a result of entanglement of the filter with a guidewire, particularly during 'blind' (unguided) insertion of a central venous line. When a filter migrates to the heart, traditional practice has been either to leave the filter in place or to remove it surgically by means of open heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. We found only 6 reports of successful percutaneous retrieval or repositioning of a vena cava filter (Table 1). We describe a new interventional technique for retrieving a filter from the right atrium and a novel endosurgical method for removing a filter from the innominate vein. (author)

  5. Filter quality of pleated filter cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wan; Huang, Sheng-Hsiu; Chiang, Che-Ming; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2008-04-01

    The performance of dust cartridge filters commonly used in dust masks and in room ventilation depends both on the collection efficiency of the filter material and the pressure drop across the filter. Currently, the optimization of filter design is based only on minimizing the pressure drop at a set velocity chosen by the manufacturer. The collection efficiency, an equally important factor, is rarely considered in the optimization process. In this work, a filter quality factor, which combines the collection efficiency and the pressure drop, is used as the optimization criterion for filter evaluation. Most respirator manufacturers pleat the filter to various extents to increase the filtration area in the limit space within the dust cartridge. Six sizes of filter holders were fabricated to hold just one pleat of filter, simulating six different pleat counts, ranging from 0.5 to 3.33 pleats cm(-1). The possible electrostatic charges on the filter were removed by dipping in isopropyl alcohol, and the air velocity is fixed at 100 cm s(-1). Liquid dicotylphthalate particles generated by a constant output atomizer were used as challenge aerosols to minimize particle loading effects. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure the challenge aerosol number concentrations and size distributions upstream and downstream of the pleated filter. The pressure drop across the filter was monitored by using a calibrated pressure transducer. The results showed that the performance of pleated filters depend not only on the size of the particle but also on the pleat count of the pleated filter. Based on filter quality factor, the optimal pleat count (OPC) is always higher than that based on pressure drop by about 0.3-0.5 pleats cm(-1). For example, the OPC is 2.15 pleats cm(-1) from the standpoint of pressure drop, but for the highest filter quality factor, the pleated filter needed to have a pleat count of 2.65 pleats cm(-1) at particle diameter of 122 nm. From the aspect of

  6. Post-Bypass Extensive Ascites due to Splanchnic Bypass and the Effectiveness of Hyperalimentation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Temizkan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reperfusion edema may develop in the early periods of chronic ischemic tissue reperfusion. Reperfusion edema may be represented after the splanchnic bypass with ascites, abdominal distension, and liver and kidney function impairment. In this article, we are reporting the hyperalimentation treatment and its results for the common ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, after a coeliac and superior mesenteric artery bypass. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 124-128

  7. Audiometric changes after coronary artery bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorsandi M T

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hearing is one of the most significant senses; There fore, any defect can be frightening. The incidence of sever hearing loss following coronary artery bypass surgery has been estimated as one per thousand. This Prospective study carried out to determine hearing effects of coronary artery bypass surgery."nMethods: age, audiometric changes before and after surgery (hearing levels at multiple frequencies, speech reception threshold and speech discrimination score, minimum blood pressure during the operation, and the time on bypass, measured on One hundred consecutive patients who candidate for coronary artery bypass surgery and the results analysed."nResults: One hundred patients completed the tests. Based on hearing changes found on pre- and post-operative tests, the patients were divided into 3 groups: Those with no change (47 patients according to their audiometric results; those with slight changes ≤10 db (43 patients; and those having average deficits of more than 10 db (10 patients. All the patients were male. None of the patients had complete or severe sensorineural hearing loss. The third group had more prolonged pumping duration when compared with the others groups (p=0.002. Furthermore, 90 percent of patients with a sensorineural hearing loss more than 10 db had diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia as risk factors."nConclusion: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a sequela in patients who undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery; however, it was usually mild and asymptomatic. Pumping time during the operation is a significant factor in occurring of this complication. With proper treatment of underlying diseases and eliminating the risk factors with improvement of our cardiopulmonary pumps we probably can get better hearing results.

  8. Evaluation of properties for lubricant filter in diesel engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新泽; 程天; 张彩香

    2004-01-01

    The properties of lubricant filters in diesel engines directly affect operation of the lubricant system,and lubricant filters are apt to be impacted by many factors. Therefore, scientific and sensible methods evaluating the properties for lubricant filter diesel engines are necessary to monitor filter properties on line and dynamically. This paper applies ferrographic techniques and adopts sampling methods that oil specimens are synchronously obtained in front of and behind filter elements to monitor the filters of ISUZU DA - 220 diesel engine in two FDS0 forklifts. Results show that the combination of ferrographic techniques and above sampling methods is effective in analyzing the whole operating process of filters used in diesel engines. The service life and ruined type of filter can be estimated through the relationship between ferrographic readings in front and behind of filter and operation time. Furthermore, through a great deal of tests, a series of experimental curves of readings and time and characteristic parameters for filters used in different machines can be gained, which has guiding significance to the selection and maintenance of the filters. But because of the limitation of the ferrographic technique, the debris on the substrate prevents determination of sizes. It is difficult to judge accurately the size of debris that a filter can filter.

  9. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openin

  10. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openings and closi

  11. Hybrid Data Assimilation without Ensemble Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office is preparing to upgrade its three-dimensional variational system to a hybrid approach in which the ensemble is generated using a square-root ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the variational problem is solved using the Grid-point Statistical Interpolation system. As in most EnKF applications, we found it necessary to employ a combination of multiplicative and additive inflations, to compensate for sampling and modeling errors, respectively and, to maintain the small-member ensemble solution close to the variational solution; we also found it necessary to re-center the members of the ensemble about the variational analysis. During tuning of the filter we have found re-centering and additive inflation to play a considerably larger role than expected, particularly in a dual-resolution context when the variational analysis is ran at larger resolution than the ensemble. This led us to consider a hybrid strategy in which the members of the ensemble are generated by simply converting the variational analysis to the resolution of the ensemble and applying additive inflation, thus bypassing the EnKF. Comparisons of this, so-called, filter-free hybrid procedure with an EnKF-based hybrid procedure and a control non-hybrid, traditional, scheme show both hybrid strategies to provide equally significant improvement over the control; more interestingly, the filter-free procedure was found to give qualitatively similar results to the EnKF-based procedure.

  12. Methane gas seepage - Disregard of significant water column filter processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Schmale, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Marine methane seepage represents a potential contributor for greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is discussed as a driver for climate change. The ultimate question is how much methane is released from the seafloor on a global scale and what fraction may reach the atmosphere? Dissolved fluxes from methane seepage sites on the seabed were found to be very efficiently reduced by benthic microbial oxidation, whereas transport of free gas bubbles from the seabed is considered to bypass the effective benthic methane filter. Numerical models are available today to predict the fate of such methane gas bubble release to the water column in regard to gas exchange with the ambient water column, respective bubble lifetime and rise height. However, the fate of rising gas bubbles and dissolved methane in the water column is not only governed by dissolution, but is also affected by lateral oceanographic currents and vertical bubble-induced upwelling, microbial oxidation, and physico-chemical processes that remain poorly understood so far. According to this gap of knowledge we present data from two study sites - the anthropogenic North Sea 22/4b Blowout and the natural Coal Oil point seeps - to shed light into two new processes gathered with hydro-acoustic multibeam water column imaging and microbial investigations. The newly discovered processes are hereafter termed Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism. Spiral Vortex describes the evolution of a complex vortical fluid motion of a bubble plume in the wake of an intense gas release site (Blowout, North Sea). It appears very likely that it dramatically changes the dissolution kinetics of the seep gas bubbles. Bubble Transport Mechanism prescribes the transport of sediment-hosted bacteria into the water column via rising gas bubbles. Both processes act as filter mechanisms in regard to vertical transport of seep related methane, but have not been considered before. Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism represent the

  13. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R

    2015-01-01

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  14. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  15. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  16. Effects of rainfall pattern and fertilizer nitrogen on nitrogen loss in bypass flow in vertisols at the onset of rain season under tropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owino C.O.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bypass flow is a major avenue of fertilizer nitrogen (N loss from Vertisols under environments characterized by alternating dry and wet seasons. The study quantified the effects of rainfall intensity and frequency, and fertilizer N source and rate on N content of bypass flow in a Vertisol. We carried out two experiments. Experiment I comprised of 2 wetting status, 2 rainfall intensities, and 3 N sources. Experiment II involved 3N sources, 3N rates, and 3 levels of rainfall frequencies. In both Experiments, bypass flow was collected, filtered and analyzed for mineral N content. Wetting soil with 30mm of precipitation in 1h before fertilizer application resulted in significantly (p<0.05 higher bypass flow and mineral N content than did the no-wetting treatments. Rainfall intensity and frequency, and N rate significantly (p<0.05 increased mineral-N recovered in the bypass flow. The 3 N sources used are susceptible to loss in bypass flow.

  17. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.G.

    1981-05-19

    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  18. Fracture behavior of advanced ceramic hot gas filters: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Majumdar, S.; Sutaria, M.; Bielke, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of mechanical/microstructural evaluation, thermal shock/fatigue testing, and stress analyses of advanced hot-gas filters obtained from different manufacturers. These filters were fabricated from both monolithic ceramics and composites. The composite filters, made of both oxide and nonoxide materials, were in both as-fabricated and exposed conditions, whereas the monolithic filters were made only of nonoxide materials. Mechanical property measurement of composite filters included diametral compression testing with O-ring specimens and burst-testing of short filter segments with rubber plugs. In-situ strength of fibers in the composite filters was evaluated by microscopic technique. Thermal shock/fatigue resistance was estimated by measuring the strengths of filter specimens before and after thermal cycling from an air environment at elevated temperatures to a room temperature oil bath. Filter performance during mechanical and thermal shock/fatigue loadings was correlated with microstructural observations. Micromechanical models were developed to derive properties of composite filter constituents on the basis of measured mechanical properties of the filters. Subsequently, these properties were used to analytically predict the performance of composite filters during thermal shock loading.

  19. Method of securing filter elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  20. Bypass systems for shared outlets. Bypass-systemen voor gemeenschappelijke afvoersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkhof, W.; Huijzer, E.L.; Beltman, H.A.

    1993-05-01

    In stacked buildings large pressure differences can occur when appliances with individual air supply pipes are connected to a communal outlet. This can be prevented by using a so-called bypass system, which couples the air supply pipe directly to the combustion gases outlet. In case of overpressure on the air supply of an appliance, air will be transported to the combustion gases outlet around the appliance. Descriptions are given of two GASTEC-developed indoor systems: a mechanical bypass system and an aerodynamic bypass system. The aerodynamic system has been optimized for a retrofitting boiler project in Assen, Netherlands. In this project a communal heating system has been replaced by individual central heating boilers. The appliance used was a high-efficiency boiler, the NEFIT Turbo 21. The disadvantage of the mechanical bypass system is one of the moving parts: the valve, which is too sensitive for pollution and failures. Large pressure difference reductions are possible by means of the aerodynamic bypass system. Recirculation can be prevented by high-speed injection of the combustion gases in the combustion gases outlet. 13 figs., 26 tabs., 2 appendices, 2 refs.

  1. Coronary artery bypass grafting for Kawasaki disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hong-wei; CHANG Qian; XU Jian-ping; SONG Yun-hu; SUN Han-song; HU Sheng-shou

    2010-01-01

    Background Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of pediatric ischemic heart disease. The incidence of serious coronary sequelae is low and about 2%-3% of patients with KD, but once myocardial infarction occurs in children, the mortality is quite high and 22% at the first infarction.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with KD.Methods Eight patients with a history of KD underwent CABG between October 1997 and July 2005. The number of bypass grafts placed was 2 to 4 per patient (mean 2.5±0.8). Various bypass grafts were used in patients, i.e. the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) in 3 patients, bilateral internal mammary artery (IMA) in 2 patients, LIMA plus gastroepiploic artery (GEA) in 1 patient and total saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) in 2 patients. The combined procedures included ventricular aneurysmectomy in 1 patient, mitral valve plasty in 1 and right coronary aneurysmectomy in 1. One patient was not able to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), after being supported with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), the patient was weaned from CPB successfully.Results One patient died of low cardiac output syndrome and acute renal failure 19 days after operation. Other patients recovered and were discharged uneventfully. During the follow-up that ranged from 3 to 57 months (mean 27 months),clincal angina disappeared or improved. Cardiac function was in Class Ⅰ-Ⅱ (NYHA).Conclusion CABG is a safe and effective procedure for Kawasaki coronary artery disease. However long-term results need to be followed up.

  2. Power turbine bypass for improved compression braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, R.M.; Lutz, T.P.; Stang, J.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a turbocompound engine having a power turbine bypass control. It comprises an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft, an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold; turbocharger means connected with the intake and exhaust manifolds for converting exhaust gas energy into mechanical energy for boosting intake air pressure; power turbine means for producing mechanical energy from energy remaining in the exhaust gases exiting the first turbine.

  3. Patient's Perception About Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelminda Maria Bulhões Mendonça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of coronary artery disease referred for heart surgery has an important psychological component. The purpose of this study was to access the difficulties experienced by individuals awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and to determine strategies that facilitate adaptation to a new lifestyle, modified by the disease. METHODS: A qualitative, exploratory study involving patients admitted to a university teaching hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Semi-structured interviews were performed in accordance with a previously defined script based on the study objective. Each transcription was read in its entirety to verify the representativeness, homogeneity and pertinence of the data obtained (pre-analysis, followed by separation of categories of analysis. RESULTS: The descriptions of this study show that patients admitted to the completion of coronary artery bypass grafting experience a wide range of psychological difficulties, considering that surgery acquires interpretations that vary according to individuals' subjectivity. The patients recognized the benefit of being able to discuss their feelings as a means of diminishing their fear and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Helping patients find resources to confront more positively the daily hospitalization is an important aspect for the health care professionals who assist them. This goal can be achieved through modification of the biomedical model of care for a biopsychosocial view. The investment of time and attention is of fundamental importance and aims to overcome existing deficiencies that interfere with the outcome of patients after cardiac surgery.

  4. Atypical complications of gastric bypass surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Myrosia T. [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)]. E-mail: mmitchell@radiology.bsd.uchicago.edu; Pizzitola, Victor J. [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Knuttinen, M-Grace [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Robinson, Tiffany [University of Chicago, Department of Internal Medicine, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gasparaitis, Arunas E. [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 2026, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Although gastric bypass surgery continues to grow in popularity for weight loss and weight maintenance in the morbidly obese, there has been little attention given to the imaging of complications associated with these surgeries. The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the variety of gastric bypass surgery complications that can be identified radiographically, with attention to the more unusual complications. This study was performed with institutional Internal Review Board approval. We performed a 5-year retrospective review of all patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery, had complications of the surgery, and had studies performed in our department to image these complications. These studies consisted of contrast fluoroscopy and CT. We identified the more common complications of anastomotic stenoses and anastomotic leaks. We also identified six unusual complications as follow: (1) internal herniation through the small bowel mesentery, (2) internal herniation through the transverse mesocolon, (3) external herniation through the abdominal wall incision, (4) enterocutaneous fistulas, (5) antiperistaltic construction of the Roux-en-Y, and (6) incorrect anstomoses of the Roux limbs resulting in a Roux-en-O configuration. Our findings show that a thorough understanding of expected postoperative bowel configuration is essential in the evaluation of these patients. In addition, fluoroscopic evaluation should assess not only anatomy, but also motility.

  5. Generalized Hampel Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Ronald K.; Neuvo, Yrjö; Astola, Jaakko; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    The standard median filter based on a symmetric moving window has only one tuning parameter: the window width. Despite this limitation, this filter has proven extremely useful and has motivated a number of extensions: weighted median filters, recursive median filters, and various cascade structures. The Hampel filter is a member of the class of decsion filters that replaces the central value in the data window with the median if it lies far enough from the median to be deemed an outlier. This filter depends on both the window width and an additional tuning parameter t, reducing to the median filter when t=0, so it may be regarded as another median filter extension. This paper adopts this view, defining and exploring the class of generalized Hampel filters obtained by applying the median filter extensions listed above: weighted Hampel filters, recursive Hampel filters, and their cascades. An important concept introduced here is that of an implosion sequence, a signal for which generalized Hampel filter performance is independent of the threshold parameter t. These sequences are important because the added flexibility of the generalized Hampel filters offers no practical advantage for implosion sequences. Partial characterization results are presented for these sequences, as are useful relationships between root sequences for generalized Hampel filters and their median-based counterparts. To illustrate the performance of this filter class, two examples are considered: one is simulation-based, providing a basis for quantitative evaluation of signal recovery performance as a function of t, while the other is a sequence of monthly Italian industrial production index values that exhibits glaring outliers.

  6. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  7. Dynamic Experimental Study of a Multi—bypass Pulse Tube Refrigerator with Two—bypass Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YonglinJu; ChaoWang; 等

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic experimental apparatus to measure the instantaneous velocity and pressure in the multibypass pulse tube refrigerator(MPTR) was designed and constructed.Some important experimental results of the instantaneous measurements of the velocity and the pressure in the MPTR with twobypass tubes during actual operation are prsented.The effects of the middle-bypass version on the dynamic pressure and mass flow rate at the cold end of the pulse tube are ev aluated from experimental measurements.DC-flow phenomena are observed in this MPTR.The reasons of the multi-bypass version improved the performance of pulse tube refrigertor are given.

  8. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  9. Extra-intracranial standard bypass in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandow, Nora; von Weitzel-Mudersbach, Paul; Rosenbaum, Sverre;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic atherosclerotic vessel occlusion and cerebrovascular hemodynamic insufficiency may benefit from extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. Due to demographic changes, an increasing number of elderly patients presents with cerebrovascular hemodynamic insufficiency. So far......, little data for EC-IC bypass surgery in elderly patients suffering occlusive cerebrovascular disease are available. We therefore designed a retrospective study to address the question whether EC-IC bypass is a safe and efficient treatment in a patient cohort ≥70 years....

  10. A marked increase in gastric fluid volume during cardiopulmonary bypass

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Major physiological stress occurs during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. This is related to hypothermia and artificial organ perfusion. Thus, serious gastrointestinal complications, particularly upper gastrointestinal bleeding, sometimes follow cardiac surgery. We have compared the antisecretory effects of a preanesthetic H2 antagonist (roxatidine, cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group, n = 15) and a proton pump inhibitor (rabeprazole, cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI group, n = 15) in patie...

  11. Hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏肇伉; 周成斌; 张海波; 祝忠群

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value and blood lactate levels were monitored. The levels of catecholamine, cortisol and insulin were measured pre-bypass and then again 30 minutes later. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels were monitored continuously during the bypass. Fetal hepatic PAS staining was also carried out.Results There were no changes before and during the bypass in fetal blood pressure, heart rate and blood gas. However, pH values decreased and blood lactate levels increased (P<0.05). The fetal catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly (P<0.01), while the levels of insulin did not change. The blood glucose and free fatty acid levels increased at the beginning of the bypass (P<0.01), and then gradually slowed down during the bypass. The fetal hepatic PAS staining showed that hepatic glycogen was consumed in large amounts. After 30 minutes of bypass, the fetal lamb would not survive more than 1 hour.Conclusion The fetal lamb has a strong negative reaction to cardiopulmonary bypass.

  12. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in women following gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlac, Janne Foss; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in women following gastric bypass, compared with adipose women without surgery and with a normal weight control population. DESIGN: Historical controlled cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: All women undergoing gastric bypass during...... the period 1996-2011, and subsequently giving birth. METHODS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes in women without gastric bypass matched on age, parity, plurality, year, and body mass index, and normal weight women. RESULTS: In 415 women giving birth after gastric bypass we found...

  13. Endovascular exclusion of aortoesophageal fistula after coarctation extraanatomical bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Patrick O; Gemayel, Gino; Mugnai, Damiano; Murith, Nicolas; Kalangos, Afksendiyos

    2014-07-01

    Extraanatomical bypass has been advocated as the primary technique in adolescents or adults presenting with aortic coarctation. This approach carries significant morbidity, and graft-related complications may be more important in the young patient population. A 52-year-old man who had previously undergone extraanatomical bypass of aortic coarctation was diagnosed with a distal anastomotic pseudoaneurysm and aortoesophageal fistula. This was managed by proximal bypass plugging with an occluder, endovascular exclusion with a stent-graft in the thoracic descending aorta covering the pseudoaneurysm, and coarctation balloon dilation. Aortoesophageal fistula is a late complication observed after extraanatomical bypass for coarctation. This case illustrates this rare complication.

  14. Computer Aided Filter Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    FIR filter can be described in the following. [Ref. 2] 1. FIR filters with exact linear phase can be easily designed. Linear phase filters are important...response for the four cases of linear phase filter , i.e., even or odd symmetry with an even or odd number of terms, can be written in the form: H (eJ ) = e...Ansari, The Design and Application of Optimal FIR Fractional Phase Filters , IEEE on Acoutics, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 2, 1987, pp.896-899. 77 14

  15. A unified Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Allen R.

    2017-01-01

    When considering problems of linear sequential estimation, two versions of the Kalman filter, the continuous-time version and the discrete-time version, are often used. (A hybrid filter also exists.) In many applications in which the Kalman filter is used, the system to which the filter is applied is a linear continuous-time system, but the Kalman filter is implemented on a digital computer, a discrete-time device. The two general approaches for developing a discrete-time filter for implementation on a digital computer are: (1) approximate the continuous-time system by a discrete-time system (called discretization of the continuous-time system) and develop a filter for the discrete-time approximation; and (2) develop a continuous-time filter for the system and then discretize the continuous-time filter. Generally, the two discrete-time filters will be different, that is, it can be said that discretization and filter generation are not, in general, commutative operations. As a result, any relationship between the discrete-time and continuous-time versions of the filter for the same continuous-time system is often obfuscated. This is particularly true when an attempt is made to generate the continuous-time version of the Kalman filter through a simple limiting process (the sample period going to zero) applied to the discrete-time version. The correct result is, generally, not obtained. In a 1961 research report, Kalman showed that the continuous-time Kalman filter can be obtained from the discrete-time Kalman filter by taking limits as the sample period goes to zero if the white noise process for the continuous-time version is appropriately defined. Using this basic concept, a discrete-time Kalman filter can be developed for a continuous-time system as follows: (1) discretize the continuous-time system using Kalman's technique; and (2) develop a discrete-time Kalman filter for that discrete-time system. Kalman's results show that the discrete-time filter generated in

  16. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    . The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Gravimetric Determination of Sediment in Turbine Engine Lubricating Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    noncombustible sediment present in aircraft turbine engine lubricating oils . Both MIL-L-7808 and MIL-L-23699 lubricants were investigated. These...temperature. When these oils were heated to 140 F, they easily passed through a silver membrane filter. A test procedure for the gravimetric measurement of particulate contamination in turbine engine lubricating oils is proposed. (Author)

  18. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  19. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  20. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  1. Reoperative coronary bypass grafting without cardiopulmonary bypass through a small thoracotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, PW; Grandjean, JG; Mariani, MA

    Background. The danger of coronary reoperations is mainly hidden in the reopening of the sternum and in the manipulation of the heart and the old grafts. Therefore, the minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass procedure seems an ideal technique for coronary reoperations if only the left

  2. On streak breakdown in bypass transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Philipp; Brandt, Luca; de Lange, H. C.; Henningson, Dan S.

    2008-10-01

    Recent theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations performed at the Department of Mechanics, KTH Stockholm, and the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, are reviewed, and new material is presented to clarify the role of the boundary-layer streaks and their instability with respect to turbulent breakdown in bypass transition in a boundary layer subject to free-stream turbulence. The importance of the streak secondary-instability process for the generation of turbulent spots is clearly shown. The secondary instability manifests itself as a growing wave packet located on the low-speed streak, increasing in amplitude as it is dispersing in the streamwise direction. In particular, qualitative and quantitative data pertaining to temporal sinuous secondary instability of a steady streak, impulse responses both on a parallel and a spatially developing streak, a model problem of bypass transition, and full simulations and experiments of bypass transition itself are collected and compared. In all the flow cases considered, similar characteristics in terms of not only growth rates, group velocity, and wavelengths but also three-dimensional visualizations of the streak breakdown have been found. The wavelength of the instability is about an order of magnitude larger than the local boundary-layer displacement thickness δ∗, the group velocity about 0.8 of the free-stream velocity U∞, and the growth rate on the order of a few percent of U∞/δ∗. The characteristic structures at the breakdown are quasistreamwise vortices, located on the flanks of the low-speed region arranged in a staggered pattern.

  3. Indications and Outcomes of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Extracranial-to-intracranial Arterial Bypass for Cerebral Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gazyakan, MD, MSc

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The collaboration of neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons in performing EC-IC bypass can result in excellent outcomes with a high bypass patency rate and few complications, particularly for prophylactic EC-IC bypass.

  4. Flow characteristics in narrowed coronary bypass graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernad, S. I. [Romanian Academy – Timisoara Branch, Mihai Viteazul Str. 24, RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Bosioc, A.; Totorean, A. F. [University Politehnica of Timisoara, Department of Hydraulic Machinery, Mihai Viteazul Str. 1, RO-300222, Timisoara (Romania); Bernad, E. S.; Petre, I. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes Timisoara, P-ta Eftimie Murgu, 2, Timisoara (Romania)

    2016-06-08

    Tortuous saphenous vein graft (SVG) hemodynamics was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Computed tomography (CT) technology is used for non-invasive bypass graft assessment 7 days after surgery. CT investigation shown two regions with severe shape remodelling first is an elbow type contortion and second is a severe curvature with tortuous area reduction. In conclusion, the helical flow induced by vessel torsion may stabilize the blood flow in the distal part of the SVG, reducing the flow disturbance and suppressing the flow separation, but in the distal end of the graft, promote the inflammatory processes in the vessels.

  5. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I/Relinquishes (Principle II Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine′s attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass or lumen--restoration (plasty has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time.

  6. Bypass variants of Zgornji Hotič

    OpenAIRE

    Vozelj, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    In my Graduation Thesis we presented the solution of road through Zgornji Hotič. This road si daily very busy, because the road is the main connection between the capital of Slovenia and the region Zasavje. The discussed road through Zgornji Hotič is problematic because of dangerous sections of the road and nearby buildings, which lower the transportability and safety of the road. As a solution we have decided to make a bypass between the south-end of Zgornji Hotič and the river Sava. We have...

  7. Hemodynamics Simulation of Stenosed Coronary Bypass Graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-jun; QIAO Aike; DU Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    By means of FEM, the physiological blood flow in coronary bypass graft is simulated. The stenosis in coronary artery is involved in the graft model,and the deformation of graft end to allow the surgical suture with a smaller diameter coronary is taken into consideration. The flow pattern, secondary flow and wall shear stress in the vicinity of anastomosis are analyzed. It is shown that a zone of low wall stress and high wall stress gradient exists downstream the toe. The floor opposed to the anastomosis is an area of high wall stress and high wall stress gradient. Both the toe downstream and the anastomosis bottom floor are prone to intimal hyperplasia.

  8. Work on the Geneva motorway bypass

    CERN Multimedia

    État de Genève, DCTI, Direction du génie civil

    2006-01-01

    Work on the airport section of the Geneva motorway bypass is continuing and will require the temporary closure of two sliproads allowing traffic to make a U-turn near the airport and the Palexpo exhibition centre. The sliproads on the French and Lausanne sides will be closed until autumn 2006. U-turns will still be possible via clearly marked deviations. For further information: www.autoroute-aeroport.ch We would like to thank you in advance for your understanding. Civil Engineering Department, DCTI, State of Geneva

  9. Flow characteristics in narrowed coronary bypass graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Bosioc, A.; Bernad, E. S.; Petre, I.; Totorean, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    Tortuous saphenous vein graft (SVG) hemodynamics was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Computed tomography (CT) technology is used for non-invasive bypass graft assessment 7 days after surgery. CT investigation shown two regions with severe shape remodelling first is an elbow type contortion and second is a severe curvature with tortuous area reduction. In conclusion, the helical flow induced by vessel torsion may stabilize the blood flow in the distal part of the SVG, reducing the flow disturbance and suppressing the flow separation, but in the distal end of the graft, promote the inflammatory processes in the vessels.

  10. Three-zone pupil filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-07-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of three zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters.

  11. Improvements to Filter Debris Analysis in Aviation Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    filter patch containing the ferromagnetic debris is typically of most interest as critical oil- wetted components are typically made from ferrous alloys ...are typically manufactured using special steels with specific alloying elements. Elemental analysis using a Scanning electron Microscope (SEM) with...debris patch (left) and extracted ferrous debris patch (right) 2.2.1 Results A total of 48 filters were analysed during the trial from all four

  12. Dacron or PTFE for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass. a multicenter randomised study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L P; Lepäntalo, M; Fossdal, J E

    2007-01-01

    To compare polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and polyester grafts (Dacron) for above knee femoropopliteal bypass.......To compare polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and polyester grafts (Dacron) for above knee femoropopliteal bypass....

  13. Computed tomography perfusion evaluation after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.C.; Riordan, A.J.; Smit, E.J.; Jong, H.W. de; Zwan, A. van der; Velthuis, B.K.; Viergever, M.A.; Dankbaar, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Perfusion imaging is increasingly used for postoperative evaluation of extracranial to intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. Altered hemodynamics and delayed arrival of the contrast agent in the area fed by the bypass can influence perfusion measurement. We compared perfusion asymmetry obt

  14. Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass s

  15. Renal tubular acidosis secondary to jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Ladefoged, Jens; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1985-01-01

    Renal handling of acid and base was studied in patients with persistent metabolic acidosis 3-9 years after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Excretion of acid was studied before and after intravenous infusion of NH4Cl and excretion of bicarbonate after infusion of NaHCO3. Bypass patients...

  16. Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass

  17. 20 CFR 631.38 - State by-pass authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State by-pass authority. 631.38 Section 631.38 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Administration § 631.38 State by-pass authority....

  18. Computed tomography perfusion evaluation after extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Pieter C.; Riordan, Alan J.; Smit, Ewoud J.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.; van der Zwan, Albert; Velthuis, BK; Viergever, Max A.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Perfusion imaging is increasingly used for postoperative evaluation of extracranial to intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. Altered hemodynamics and delayed arrival of the contrast agent in the area fed by the bypass can influence perfusion measurement. We compared perfusion asymmetry obt

  19. Lower leg electrical impedance after distal bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G K; Bolbjerg, M L; Heegaard, N H;

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance was determined in 13 patients following distal bypass surgery to evaluate lower leg oedema as reflected by its circumference. Tissue injury was assessed by the plasma concentration of muscle enzymes. After surgery, the volume of the control lower leg increased from 1250 (816...... to be a useful method for the evaluation of lower leg oedema after distal bypass surgery....

  20. Diagnostic tools for post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, M.; Ubels, F. L.; van Beek, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its evident success, several late complications can occur after gastric bypass surgery. One of these is post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia. No evidence-based guidelines exist in the literature on how to confirm the presence of this syndrome. This study aims to describe and compare the tes

  1. Sen perforation af tyndtarm efter laparoskopisk gastrisk bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanager, Lene; Sigild, Ulf Henrik; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    We present two cases in which the patients were admitted to a local hospital with acute abdominal pain four or five months after having undergone laparoscopic gastric bypass. In both cases, operation revealed a perforation of the small bowel close to the distal anastomosis. In the first case...... bypass but as our two cases illustrate they are important to keep in mind....

  2. Reverse bias protected solar array with integrated bypass battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for protecting the photovoltaic cells in a photovoltaic (PV) array from reverse bias damage by utilizing a rechargeable battery for bypassing current from a shaded photovoltaic cell or group of cells, avoiding the need for a bypass diode. Further, the method mitigates the voltage degradation of a PV array caused by shaded cells.

  3. The in situ saphenous vein bypass graft: radiologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, W; Nozick, J; Richmand, D; Rodgers, B; Simpson, A; Argila, C; Honickman, S

    1986-03-01

    The use of the in situ saphenous vein for bypassing arterial occlusions in the lower extremities appears to have a higher patency rate than other bypass procedures but presents unique technical problems, such as lysing valves and occluding venous tributaries. Forty-four patients undergoing in situ bypasses had preoperative arteriograms. Special attention was paid to the small runoff vessels around the ankle, which are not suitable for reversed bypass procedures but may be adequate for in situ bypasses. Eight patients also had preoperative saphenous venograms, which revealed surgically important abnormalities in six cases. Postoperative arteriograms obtained within 2 weeks in 10 patients and within 2-12 months in 15 patients revealed persistent arteriovenous fistulas in four patients, stenoses in nine, occlusions in five, and progressive disease in the nonbypassed arteries in five patients. Early recognition of these problems led to 11 surgical repairs; nine repairs used the interventional radiologic procedures of balloon angioplasty, transcatheter embolization, and catheter thrombolysis. In this group of 44 patients, five patients died with patent bypasses and three patients required amputation despite functioning bypasses. Only four amputations were attributed to bypass failure. This low figure may be due to the close cooperation of the vascular surgeons and the vascular radiologists in dealing with these complicated cases.

  4. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended.

  5. Efficiency Biliopancreatic bypass surgery in bulimia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu I Yashkov

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A clinical significance in the treatment of bulimia nervosa patients with morbid obesity had already been raised [10, 13], but we did not find publications on the effectiveness of bariatric surgery in these cases. There is also information about the possibility of applying the operation bilio-pancreatic bypass, effective in patients with morbid obesity with uncontrolled eating behavior for the treatment of patients with anorexia BILIM not suffering from morbid obesity. In this article the data of clinical observation of a small sample of patients. As a result, the treatment of these patients found that severe nervous BILIM can be seen as a latent form of morbid obesity. The choice of treatment should depend not only on the initial body weight of the patient, but also on the severity of the nervous BILIM. Unsuccessful attempts at organized-balanced, conservative treatment of patients with severe bulimia nervosa may be considered a variant of surgical treatment, while bilio-pancreatic bypass surgery is considered as the most preferred operation, compared with the installation of the gastric balloon and others. All candidates for surgical treatment of obesity must identify clinical signs of bulimia nervosa, as this may influence the choice of method of operation. Further study of the role of hyperinsulinemia, secretion of ghrelin, leptin, intestinal peptide may contribute to the elucidation of the true causes of bulimia nervosa, probably has a similar origin with morbid obesity.

  6. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  7. An Active Trap Filter for Switching Harmonics Attenuation of Low-Pulse-Ratio Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2017-01-01

    , but generally susceptible to filter parameter variations and harmonic resonances. This paper hence presents an alternative Active Trap Filter (ATF), based on a series-LC-filtered inverter, for attenuating switching harmonics in a flexible, while yet not cost burdensome, approach. A direct impedance synthesis...... method has also been proposed for the ATF to better enforce its active switching harmonic bypassing ability. Compared with conventional schemes for controlling active power filters, the proposed method is more readily implemented, since it requires neither current reference generation nor high......-bandwidth current control loop. Moreover, the use of a series LC-filter at its ac-side helps the ATF to reduce its inverter voltage and power ratings. Compensated frequency range of the ATF can hence be enlarged by using a comparably higher switching frequency and a proper step-by-step design procedure...

  8. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  9. Crux vena cava filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin H; Johnson, Eric D; Kopchok, George E; Fogarty, Thomas J; Arko, Frank R

    2009-09-01

    Inferior vena cava filters are widely accepted for pulmonary embolic prophylaxis in high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. While long-term complications have been associated with permanent filters, retrievable filters are now available and have resulted in the rapid expansion of this technology. Nonetheless, complications are still reported with optional filters. Furthermore, device tilting and thrombus load may prevent retrieval in up to 30% of patients, thereby eliminating the benefits of this technology. The Crux vena cava filter is a novel, self-centering, low-profile filter that is designed for ease of delivery, retrievability and improved efficacy while limiting fatigue-related device complications. This device has been proven safe and user-friendly in an ovine model and has recently been implanted in human subjects.

  10. CrowdFilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Lind; Wallace, Byron C.; Kraska, Tim

    for complex multi-criteria search problems through crowdsourcing. The CrowdFilter system is capable of supporting both criteria-level labels and n-gram rationales, capturing the human decision making process behind each filtering choice. Using the data provided through CrowdFilter we also introduce a novel......Multi-criteria filtering of mixed open/closed-world data is a time-consuming task, requiring significant manual effort when latent open-world attributes are present. In this work we introduce a novel open-world filtering framework CrowdFilter, enabling automatic UI generation and label elicitation...... multi-criteria active learning method; capable of incorporating labels and n-gram rationales per inclusion criteria, and thus capable of determining both clear includes/excludes, as well as complex borderline cases. By incorporating the active learning approach into the elicitation process of Crowd...

  11. Conservative Noise Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M.Jamjoom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Noisy training data have a huge negative impact on machine learning algorithms. Noise-filtering algorithms have been proposed to eliminate such noisy instances. In this work, we empirically show that the most popular noise-filtering algorithms have a large False Positive (FP error rate. In other words, these noise filters mistakenly identify genuine instances as outliers and eliminate them. Therefore, we propose more conservative outlier identification criteria that improve the FP error rate and, thus, the performance of the noise filters. With the new filter, an instance is eliminated if and only if it is misclassified by a mutual decision of Naïve Bayesian (NB classifier and the original filtering criteria being used. The number of genuine instances that are incorrectly eliminated is reduced as a result, thereby improving the classification accuracy.

  12. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminelakis Stavros N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

  13. Elimination of gaseous microemboli from cardiopulmonary bypass using hypobaric oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Keith E; Rosinski, David J; Schonberger, Robert B; Kubera, Cathryn; Mathew, Eapen S; Nichols, Frank; Dyckman, William; Courtin, Francois; Sherburne, Bradford; Bordey, Angelique F; Gross, Jeffrey B

    2014-03-01

    Numerous gaseous microemboli (GME) are delivered into the arterial circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These emboli damage end organs through multiple mechanisms that are thought to contribute to neurocognitive deficits after cardiac surgery. Here, we use hypobaric oxygenation to reduce dissolved gases in blood and greatly reduce GME delivery during CPB. Variable subatmospheric pressures were applied to 100% oxygen sweep gas in standard hollow fiber microporous membrane oxygenators to oxygenate and denitrogenate blood. GME were quantified using ultrasound while air embolism from the surgical field was simulated experimentally. We assessed end-organ tissues in swine postoperatively using light microscopy. Variable sweep gas pressures allowed reliable oxygenation independent of carbon dioxide removal while denitrogenating arterial blood. Hypobaric oxygenation produced dose-dependent reductions of Doppler signals produced by bolus and continuous GME loads in vitro. Swine were maintained using hypobaric oxygenation for 4 hours on CPB with no apparent adverse events. Compared with current practice standards of oxygen/air sweep gas, hypobaric oxygenation reduced GME volumes exiting the oxygenator (by 80%), exiting the arterial filter (95%), and arriving at the aortic cannula (∼100%), indicating progressive reabsorption of emboli throughout the CPB circuit in vivo. Analysis of brain tissue suggested decreased microvascular injury under hypobaric conditions. Hypobaric oxygenation is an effective, low-cost, common sense approach that capitalizes on the simple physical makeup of GME to achieve their near-total elimination during CPB. This technique holds great potential for limiting end-organ damage and improving outcomes in a variety of patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  15. Renal intratubular crystals and hyaluronan staining occur in stone formers with bypass surgery but not with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Coe, Fredric L; Gillen, Daniel; Lingeman, James E; Bledsoe, Sharon; Worcester, Elaine M

    2008-03-01

    Whether idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers form inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) crystal deposits bears on pathogenetic mechanisms of stone formation. In prior work, using light and transmission electron microscopy, we have found no IMCD crystal deposits. Here, we searched serial sections of papillary biopsies from a prior study of 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, 4 intestinal bypass patients with CaOx stones, and 4 non-stone-forming subjects, and biopsies from an additional hitherto unreported 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers and 1 bypass patient using polarized light oil immersion optics, for deposits overlooked in our original study. We found no IMCD deposits in any of 1,500 serial sections from the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, nor in 87 additional sections from a frozen idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former biopsy sample processed without exposure to aqueous solutions. Among 4 of the 5 bypass patients but in none of the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers or 4 normal stone formers, we found tiny birefringent thin crystalline overlays on scattered IMCD cell membranes. We also found IMCD lumen deposits in two bypass patients that contained mixed birefringent and nonbirefringent crystals, presumably CaOx and apatite. In the bypass patients, we observed focal apical IMCD cell hyaluronan staining, which was absent in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. The absence of any IMCD deposits in 1,500 serial sections of biopsies from 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers allows us to place the upper limit on the probability of their occurrence at approximately 0.002 and place the lower limit of their size at the resolution of the optics (crystal lesion.

  16. Comparisons Between Asphaltenes from the Dead and Live-Oil Samples of the Same Crude Oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aquino-Olivos, M.A.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.

    2003-01-01

    Asphaltenes precipitated from pressure-preserve bottomhole oil samples have been obtained for three oils at different pressures, using a bulk high-pressure filtration apparatus. The precipitates captured on the filter were recovered, the asphaltenes defined by the n-heptane insolubility were extr...

  17. Complement activation in coronary artery bypass grafting patients without cardiopulmonary bypass - The role of tissue injury by surgical incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Mariani, MA; Boonstra, PW; Grandjean, JG; van Oeveren, W

    1999-01-01

    Study objectives: Complement activation is a trigger in inducing inflammation in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and is usually thought to be induced by the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), In this study, we examined whether tissue injury caused by chest surgical inci

  18. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  19. Fundamentals of Stochastic Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of stochastic filtering is to determine the best estimate for the state of a stochastic dynamical system from partial observations. The solution of this problem in the linear case is the well known Kalman-Bucy filter which has found widespread practical application. The purpose of this book is to provide a rigorous mathematical treatment of the non-linear stochastic filtering problem using modern methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the theoretical analysis of numerical methods for the solution of the filtering problem via particle methods. The book should provide sufficient

  20. A marked increase in gastric fluid volume during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Kudo, Mihoko; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kushikata, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Major physiological stress occurs during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. This is related to hypothermia and artificial organ perfusion. Thus, serious gastrointestinal complications, particularly upper gastrointestinal bleeding, sometimes follow cardiac surgery. We have compared the antisecretory effects of a preanesthetic H2 antagonist (roxatidine, cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group, n = 15) and a proton pump inhibitor (rabeprazole, cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI group, n = 15) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and also compared in patients undergoing a off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group, n = 15). Gastric pH (5.14 ± 0.61) and gastric fluid volume (13.2 ± 2.4 mL) at the end of surgery in off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 groups was significantly lower and higher than those in both cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 (6.25 ± 0.54, 51.3 ± 8.0 mL) and cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI (7.29 ± 0.13, 63.5 ± 14.8 mL) groups, respectively although those variables did not differ between groups after the induction of anesthesia. Plasma gastrin (142 ± 7 pg/mL) at the end of surgery and maximal blood lactate levels (1.50 ± 0.61 mM) in off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 group were also significantly lower than those in both cardiopulmonary bypass-H2 (455 ± 96 pg/mL, 3.97 ± 0.80 mM) and cardiopulmonary bypass-PPI (525 ± 27 pg/mL, 3.15 ± 0.44 mM) groups, respectively. In addition, there was a significant correlation between gastric fluid volume and maximal blood lactate (r = 0.596). In conclusion, cardiopulmonary bypass may cause an increase in gastric fluid volume which neither H2 antagonist nor PPI suppresses. A significant correlation between gastric fluid volume and maximal blood lactate suggests that gastric fluid volume may predict degree of gastrointestinal tract hypoperfusion. PMID:21765601

  1. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  2. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  3. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  4. 金属滤筒吸收-红外分光光度法测定淬火油烟的浓度%Determination of Quenching Oil Fumes Concentration by Metal Filter Cylinder-Absorption and Infrared Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡兆祥

    2014-01-01

    Quenching oil fume in the heat treatment process was collected with automatic tracking method. Fiter which collected oil fumes was placed in teflon sleeve with lid. Ultrasonic cleaning was carried out in lab, cleaning liquid was moved in the volumetric flask, then oil content was determined by infrared spectrophotometry. In the range of 0.0-100 mg/L, standard oil concentration detection value was linear with standard value, the correlation coefficient r=0.999 6. The recovery was 85.9%-106.2%, the relative standard deviation was 1.05%-1.92%(n=6), and the detection limit was 0.25 mg/m3. The method is sensitive and accurate, it can be used for testing the effect of enterprises oil fume control, and environmental protection department supervision and monitoring in enterprises fume emission concentration.%用自动跟踪法采集热处理工艺中淬火油烟,将收集油烟的滤芯置于带盖的聚四氟乙烯套筒,用四氯化碳作溶剂进行超声清洗,清洗液移入容量瓶中定容,用红外分光光度法测定油烟含量。在0.0~100 mg/L范围内,标准淬火油质量浓度实测值与与标准值呈良好的线性,相关系数r=0.9996。加标回收率为85.9%~106.2%,相对标准偏差为1.05%~1.92%(n=6),检出限为0.25 mg/m3。该方法灵敏度高,测定结果准确,可用于企业油烟治理效果的验收检测及环保部门对企业淬火油烟排放浓度的监督监测。

  5. 油田废弃核桃壳滤料的污染物分析及其对土壤的影响研究%Contaminations of Waste Walnut-Shell Filtering Materials and the Impact on Soil Environment in Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳吉; 匡丽; 王宝辉; 汪怀远

    2012-01-01

    核桃壳滤料广泛应用于油田污水处理,每年因此产生大量的废弃核桃壳滤料,由于将其露天堆砌在地面上,滤料上的污染物在降水、风力、地表径流等的作用下发生迁移,直接影响到堆砌场地周边的土壤、大气、水源的质量.采用标准方法对油田废弃核桃壳滤料上的污染物组成进行分析的结果表明,主要污染物为原油、CaCO3和Cd2+、Pb2+重金属离子,污染物总含量较高,与原油组成相比,废弃核桃壳滤料上的芳烃含量增加较多,饱和烃和胶质有所减少.借助一维对流-弥散方程建立了模拟石油类污染物在土壤中迁移转化规律的数学模型,通过室内土柱实验确定模型参数,同时验证模型的准确性.将实验及模拟的结果相结合可知,该模型可以用来模拟石油类污染物在土壤中的迁移规律,符合y=y0+A1exp(-x/t1 )+A2exp(-x/t2)规律.研究结果为油田废弃滤料对土壤环境的影响及治理提供了参考.%Due to high surface area, excellent adsorption and desorption, and low cost, walnut shell is widely used for filtering materials of the produced water in oil field. A lot of waste walnut-shell filtering materials are discharged in the oil production. The waste walnut shell filter is generally discarded on the soil. So, it is obvious that effect of the pollutions from the waste walnut shell on the soil, atmosphere, and water by the way of precipitation, wind and surface water. In this paper, the contaminations of waste walnut shell filter from oil field were analysed by national standard methods. It was found that the content of crude oil, CaCO3, Cd2+ and Pb2+ reached 17.55%, 1.51%, 1.33 mg·kg‐1 and 317.3 mg·kg‐1, respectively, and the high COD origins from pollutions. Compared with the average crude oil, the aroma fraction was concentrated in the waste walnut shell while the saturated hydrocarbon and colloid composition was decreased. The reason was that the aroma was stable

  6. Clinical evaluation of the Terumo Capiox FX05 hollow fiber oxygenator with integrated arterial line filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptula, Joseph; Valleley, Melinda; Glogowski, Kimberly; Detwiler, John; Hammel, James; Duncan, Kim

    2009-12-01

    Perfusion techniques and equipment in pediatric open heart surgery have continued to focus on decreasing prime volumes and lowering surface areas of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. While this has improved drastically over the last 20 years, greater demand is being placed on the perfusionist to reduce the deleterious effects of bypass without compromising safety or efficiency. Specifically, manufacturers of disposable perfusion equipment have focused on providing pediatric perfusionists with oxygenators that provide the smallest prime and surface area possible while attempting to maximize performance. Recently,Terumo Cardiovascular has introduced the Capiox FX05, a neonatal hollow fiber oxygenator that includes an integrated arterial line filter. The FX05 provides a blood flow range of 0.1-1.5 L/min and a low priming volume of 43 mL. Additionally, it is coated with X Coating, a biocompatible, hydrophilic polymer surface coating that reduces platelet adhesion and protein denaturation. The purpose of this study was to test the FX05 for gas transfer, blood path resistance, and blood handling characteristics in a standardized clinical setting. Heat exchange coefficients were also calculated during the cooling and warming period. Other data analyzed includes bypass circuit prime volumes and initial patient hematocrit along with the total operative homologous blood donor exposures. In summary, the FX05 offers good gas exchange capabilities and a low pressure drop during normal cardiopulmonary bypass parameters along with the safety of an integrated arterial line filter. Furthermore, the FX05 with integrated filter allows a reduction in overall bypass prime volume and surface area while promoting the reduction of homologous blood transfusions, optimizing hemostasis.

  7. Bypass technology enhances the efficiency of wind power plants; Bypass-Technologie erhoeht WEA-Effizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebach, Thorsten [EKS Engel GmbH und Co. KG, Wenden (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    A reliable operation of wind power parks significantly depends on a trouble-free data communication. If one or more network participants break down, then it depends on the topology whether the complete power distribution system is available or not. An optical bypass such as it is supplied by EKS Engel GmbH and Co. KG (Wenden, Federal Republic of Germany) offers a remedial action.

  8. Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael G.; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie; Brunner, Gregory; Zhang, Jianshun (Jensen); Fisk, William J.

    2011-07-01

    Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to ˜150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50% RH). Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of ˜1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L min -1 (face velocity = 0.013 m s -1), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8-10 L min -1). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes ( m/ z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts ( m/ z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of additives, rather

  9. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Chen, Wenhao; Apte, Michael; Li, Nuan; Spears, Michael; Almosni, Jérémie; Brunner, Gregory; Zhang, Jianshun (Jensen); Fisk, William J.

    2011-05-01

    Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to {approx}150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50percent RH). Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of {approx}1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L/min (face velocity = 0.013 m/s), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8 to 10 L/min). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes (m/z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts (m/z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of additives

  10. Transient Diabetes Insipidus Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; Yilmaz, Yunus Keser; Bolat, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) results from inadequate output of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland (central DI) or the inability of the kidney tubules to respond to ADH (nephrogenic DI). ADH is an octapeptide produced in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB) has been shown to cause a six-fold increased circulating ADH levels 12 hours after surgery. However, in some cases, ADH release may be transiently suppressed due to cardioplegia (cardiac standstill) or CPB leading to DI. We present the postoperative course of a 60-year-old man who developed transient DI after CPB. He was successfully treated by applying nasal desmopressin therapy. Relevant biochemical parameters should be monitored closely in patients who produce excessive urine after open heart surgery.

  11. Current status of coronary artery bypass surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Surgical revascularization for atherosclerotic heart disease, also called coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), was first performed in 1962, and is one of the great achievements in medicine. Relief of angina, improvement of exercise tolerance, and the realization of survival benefit have been documented.1 CABG has been used in multi-vessel disease and left main stenosis for over 40 years.2 In the last two decades the mortality of CABG has decreased to less than 2% despite an aging population with increased risk factors. However, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially with drug-eluting stents, has been challenging CABG, While PCI has improved, CABG has also progressed with better peri-operative management, a higher use of arterial grafting, off-pump surgery, and improved techniques with minimally invasive surgical options.3,4

  12. Factor V Leiden and Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark; Marcoux, Jo-Anne; Olson, Marnie; Bezaire, Jennifer; Dalshaug, Gregory

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a patient with factor V Leiden with an antithrombin III activity of 67% who received a successful aortic valve replacement supported by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A safe level of anticoagulation was achieved by monitoring activated clotting time (ACT) and heparin concentration ensuring adequate anticoagulation throughout the procedure. Results from ACT, heparin dose response, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography are given. Factor V Leiden patients can be safely anti-coagulated using heparin for CPB procedures when monitored with ACT, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography. Postoperative chest tube losses were 360 mL, less than half our institutional average. Anticoagulation for the pre-and post-operative phase is also discussed.

  13. Emergent cardiopulmonary bypass during pectus excavatum repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Craner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectus excavatum is a chest wall deformity that produces significant cardiopulmonary disability and is typically seen in younger patients. Minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum or Nuss procedure has become a widely accepted technique for adult and pediatric patients. Although it is carried out through a thoracoscopic approach, the procedure is associated with a number of potential intraoperative and post-operative complications. We present a case of cardiac perforation requiring emergent cardiopulmonary bypass in a 29-year-old male with Marfan syndrome and previous mitral valve repair undergoing a Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum. This case illustrates the importance of vigilance and preparation by the surgeons, anesthesia providers as well as the institution to be prepared with resources to handle the possible complications. This includes available cardiac surgical backup, perfusionist support and adequate blood product availability.

  14. Air quality. How to give it back its original purity? The proliferation of air cleansers. Filters must be changed regularly. Measurement of the filtering efficiency of air treatment systems. The air treatment plants on the way of certification. Essential oils in a high building; Qualite de l'air. Comment lui rendre sa purete originelle? La proliferation des purificateurs d'air. Il faut changer les filtres regulierement. Mesure de l'efficacite de filtration des systemes de traitement d'air. Les centrales de traitement d'air sur la voie de la certification. Des huiles essentielles dans un immeuble de grande hauteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumel, N.

    2000-07-01

    Outside air is polluted while the ambient indoor air is saturated with microorganisms. Inside buildings, the aeraulic networks are the link between both environments and the privileged place to clean the air using filtering systems. However, the notion of air quality is still badly perceived by owners, in particular in tertiary buildings. In France, efforts have to be made on the maintenance of aeraulic networks by hygiene specialists. Air quality inside buildings must be taken into consideration using communication and regulations. This dossier takes stock of the problem of air quality and of the available means to ensure a good air quality inside residential and tertiary buildings. The maintenance of air filters in one of the key points. It should be integrated in the general maintenance concept of buildings. The dossier includes a study of the in-situ measurement of the filtering efficiency of air treatment systems. This method is described in the Eurovent recommendation 4/10 of 1996. It has been experimented by the French technical centre of aeraulic and thermal industries (Cetiat) and the results are reported in the study. The performances of air treatment plants are now certified by Eurovent. This European organization has defined a program of tests which is conformable with the European EN 1886 and EN 13053 European standards. Finally, a new protocol of air decontamination based on the micronizing of essential oils in the aeraulic network of a 29 floors building is presented. (J.S.)

  15. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a one dimensional filter in a non-orthogonal direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computin

  16. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  17. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and inter...

  18. Vena cava filter; Vena-cava-Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Die fulminante Lungenembolie zaehlt zu den Haupttodesursachen in der westlichen Welt. In der Mehrzahl der Faelle sind tiefe Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombosen ursaechlich verantwortlich. Ist eine antikoagulative/-thrombotische Therapie nicht (mehr) moeglich oder unwirksam, kann bei drohender Emboliegefahr die Vena-cava-Filterimplantation indiziert sein. Die Filterimplantation ist eine einfache und sehr sichere Intervention. Dennoch muss bei der Indikationsstellung beruecksichtigt werden, dass die Datenlage zur Wirksamkeit sehr limitiert ist. So wird aktuell ueber eine Reduktion des Thrombembolierisikos um 30% bei Embolierezidiven von knapp 5% und fatalen Lungenembolien von 1% unter Filterprophylaxe berichtet, bei einem Risiko von bis zu 20% fuer die filterinduzierte Vena-cava-Thrombose. (orig.)

  19. Alongshore sediment bypassing as a control on river mouth morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Nardin, William; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    River mouths, shoreline locations where fluvial and coastal sediments are partitioned via erosion, trapping, and redistribution, are responsible for the ultimate sedimentary architecture of deltas and, because of their dynamic nature, also pose great management and engineering challenges. To investigate the interaction between fluvial and littoral processes at wave-dominated river mouths, we modeled their morphologic evolution using the coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Model experiments replicate alongshore migration of river mouths, river mouth spit development, and eventual spit breaching, suggesting that these are emergent phenomena that can develop even under constant fluvial and wave conditions. Furthermore, we find that sediment bypassing of a river mouth develops though feedbacks between waves and river mouth morphology, resulting in either continuous bypassing pathways or episodic bar bypassing pathways. Model results demonstrate that waves refracting into the river mouth bar create a zone of low alongshore sediment transport updrift of the river mouth, which reduces sediment bypassing. Sediment bypassing, in turn, controls the river mouth migration rate and the size of the river mouth spit. As a result, an intermediate amount of river discharge maximizes river mouth migration. The fraction of alongshore sediment bypassing can be predicted from the balance between the jet and the wave momentum flux. Quantitative comparisons show a match between our modeled predictions of river mouth bypassing and migration rates observed in natural settings.

  20. CFD Analysis of Core Bypass Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W. Johnson; Hiroyuki Sato; Richard R. Schultz

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is exploring the potential for the VHTR which will be either of a prismatic or a pebble-bed type. One important design consideration for the reactor core of a prismatic VHTR is coolant bypass flow which occurs in the interstitial regions between fuel blocks. Such gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The existence of the gaps induces a flow bias in the fuel blocks and results in unexpected increase of maximum fuel temperature. Traditionally, simplified methods such as flow network calculations employing experimental correlations are used to estimate flow and temperature distributions in the core design. However, the distribution of temperature in the fuel pins and graphite blocks as well as coolant outlet temperatures are strongly coupled with the local heat generation rate within fuel blocks which is not uniformly distributed in the core. Hence, it is crucial to establish mechanistic based methods which can be applied to the reactor core thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, which have a capability of local physics based simulation, are widely used in various industrial fields. This study investigates core bypass flow phenomena with the assistance of commercial CFD codes and establishes a baseline for evaluation methods. A one-twelfth sector of the hexagonal block surface is modeled and extruded down to whole core length of 10.704m. The computational domain is divided vertically with an upper reflector, a fuel section and a lower reflector. Each side of the sector grid can be set as a symmetry boundary

  1. CFD Analysis of Core Bypass Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W. Johnson; Hiroyuki Sato; Richard R. Schultz

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is exploring the potential for the VHTR which will be either of a prismatic or a pebble-bed type. One important design consideration for the reactor core of a prismatic VHTR is coolant bypass flow which occurs in the interstitial regions between fuel blocks. Such gaps are an inherent presence in the reactor core because of tolerances in manufacturing the blocks and the inexact nature of their installation. Furthermore, the geometry of the graphite blocks changes over the lifetime of the reactor because of thermal expansion and irradiation damage. The existence of the gaps induces a flow bias in the fuel blocks and results in unexpected increase of maximum fuel temperature. Traditionally, simplified methods such as flow network calculations employing experimental correlations are used to estimate flow and temperature distributions in the core design. However, the distribution of temperature in the fuel pins and graphite blocks as well as coolant outlet temperatures are strongly coupled with the local heat generation rate within fuel blocks which is not uniformly distributed in the core. Hence, it is crucial to establish mechanistic based methods which can be applied to the reactor core thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes, which have a capability of local physics based simulation, are widely used in various industrial fields. This study investigates core bypass flow phenomena with the assistance of commercial CFD codes and establishes a baseline for evaluation methods. A one-twelfth sector of the hexagonal block surface is modeled and extruded down to whole core length of 10.704m. The computational domain is divided vertically with an upper reflector, a fuel section and a lower reflector. Each side of the one-twelfth grid can be set as a symmetry boundary

  2. Weighted guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times.

  3. Robustifying Vector Median Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Gregori

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement.

  4. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  5. Naive Bayesian for Email Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a method of email filter based on Naive Bayesian theory that can effectively filter junk mail and illegal mail. Furthermore, the keys of implementation are discussed in detail. The filtering model is obtained from training set of email. The filtering can be done without the users specification of filtering rules.

  6. The Staphylococcus aureus FASII bypass escape route from FASII inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Claire; Halpern, David; Kénanian, Gérald; Pathania, Amit; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Lamberet, Gilles; Gruss, Alexandra; Gloux, Karine

    2017-07-17

    Antimicrobials targeting the fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway are being developed as alternative treatments for bacterial infections. Emergence of resistance to FASII inhibitors was mainly considered as a consequence of mutations in the FASII target genes. However, an alternative and efficient anti-FASII resistance strategy, called here FASII bypass, was uncovered. Bacteria that bypass FASII incorporate exogenous fatty acids in membrane lipids, and thus dispense with the need for FASII. This strategy is used by numerous Gram-positive low GC % bacteria, including streptococci, enterococci, and staphylococci. Some bacteria repress FASII genes once fatty acids are available, and "constitutively" shift to FASII bypass. Others, such as the major pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, can undergo high frequency mutations that favor FASII bypass. This capacity is particularly relevant during infection, as the host supplies the fatty acids needed for bacteria to bypass FASII and thus become resistant to FASII inhibitors. Screenings for anti-FASII resistance in the presence of exogenous fatty acids confirmed that FASII bypass confers anti-FASII resistance among clinical and veterinary isolates. Polymorphisms in S. aureus FASII initiation enzymes favor FASII bypass, possibly by increasing availability of acyl-carrier protein, a required intermediate. Here we review FASII bypass and consequences in light of proposed uses of anti-FASII to treat infections, with a focus on FASII bypass in S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal Variation of Climatological Bypassing Flows around the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; ZHANG Renhe

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated diagnostically the seasonal variation of the bypassing flows caused by the splitting effect of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).The relationships among the splitting bypassing flows around the TP to precipitation in China,the westerly jet stream,and the thermal status over the TP are revealed.The bypassing flows occur from the 1st to the 22nd pentad and from the 59th to the 73rd pentad,respectively,and they disappear from the 29th to the 58th pentad.They are strongest in winter from the 1st to the 22nd pentad and from the 59th to the 73rd pentad,respectively.During the rebuilding of the bypassing flows from mid-October to mid-February,they are the main cause of precipitation over southeastern China.The enhancement of the bypassing flow intensity in March cau cause the precipitation to increase in the early stage of the persistent spring rain over southeastern China.From winter to summer,the seasonal transition of the bypassing flows in the lower troposphere precedes that of the westerly jet stream axis in the upper troposphere to the west of the TP by ~4 pentads,while from summer to winter lags by ~4 pentads.The seasonal variation of the thermal status over the TP plays an important role in the bypassing flows around the TP.The strengthening of the heating over the TP weakens the bypassing flows,and the increase in cooling over the TP is related to the rebuilding and strengthening of the bypassing flows.

  8. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on gastrointestinal perfusion and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaer, J A; Shaw, A D; Wild, R; Swift, R I; Munsch, C M; Smith, P L; Taylor, K M

    1994-02-01

    Gastric mucosal tonometry was used to determine the adequacy of gastrointestinal perfusion in 10 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization. Patients were prospectively randomized to receive either pulsatile or nonpulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass. All patients showed a reduction in gastric mucosal perfusion during bypass, manifested by a reduction in the gastric mucosal pH, which occurred independently of variations in the arterial pH. In the group of patients receiving nonpulsatile flow, this reduction was significantly greater (p < 0.05). Cardiopulmonary bypass using nonpulsatile flow is associated with the development of a gastric mucosal acidosis, which may have implications for the development of postoperative complications.

  9. Asendan Desendan Aortic Bypass: Atan Kalpte Mediyan Sternotomi Yoluyla Onarim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Akyuz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 9-month-old patient presenting for redo aortic arch surgery because of recoarctation. In present case, ascending-to-descending aortic bypass via median sternotomy was performed without cardiopulmonary bypass with good result. In spite of the fact that the different surgical and intervention treatment options of aortic coarctation are quite satisfactory, a certain group of patients need reoperation because of recoarctation. The recoarctation repair of the aorta with the extra-anatomic aortic bypass is considered a low-risk procedure with high success rate.

  10. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  11. 34 CFR 300.198 - Continuation of a by-pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuation of a by-pass. 300.198 Section 300.198... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.198 Continuation of a by-pass. The Secretary continues a by-pass until the Secretary determines that the SEA, LEA...

  12. 34 CFR 300.192 - Notice of intent to implement a by-pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of intent to implement a by-pass. 300.192... EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.192 Notice of intent to implement a by-pass. (a) Before taking any final action to implement a by-pass,...

  13. 34 CFR 300.191 - Provisions for services under a by-pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provisions for services under a by-pass. 300.191... EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.191 Provisions for services under a by-pass. (a) Before implementing a by-pass, the Secretary consults...

  14. Linitis Plastica of the bypassed stomach 7 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, Filip Wn; Gys, Ben; Moreels, Tom; Michielsen, Maartje; Gys, Tobie; Lafullarde, Thierry

    2016-06-03

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is currently the preferred surgical procedure to treat morbid obesity. It has proven its effects on excess weight loss and its positive effect on comorbidities. One of the main issues, however, is the postoperative evaluation of the bypassed gastric remnant. In literature, cancer of the excluded stomach after RYGB is rare. We describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with gastric linitis plastica in the bypassed stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, diagnosed by means of laparoscopy and Single-Balloon enteroscopy, and it's clinical importance. Linitis plastica of the excluded stomach after RYGB is a very rare entity. This case report shows the importance of long-term postoperative follow-up, and the importance of Single-Balloon enteroscopy for visualization of the bypassed stomach remnant, when other investigations remain without results. This case report is only the second report of a linitis plastica in the bypassed stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  15. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  16. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  17. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1...... filter and the DD2 filter. It also contains functions for Unscented Kalman filters as well as several versions of particle filters. The toolbox requires MATLAB version 7, but no additional toolboxes are required....

  18. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  19. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  20. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  1. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  2. Rodent models of cardiopulmonary bypass: utility in improving perioperative outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, F.

    2008-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical and anesthesia techniques, subtle neurologic injury still remains an important complication after cardiac surgery. Because the causes are multifactorial and complex, research in an appropriate small animal model for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is warranted. This thesis

  3. Value of Optical Bypass in Packet Ring Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper firstly examines the value of optical bypass scheme in packet ring networks. An Integer Linear Program (ILP) formulation is presented and analytical results under different traffic patterns are given.

  4. Severe hypoglycaemia post-gastric bypass requiring partial pancreatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patti, M E; McMahon, G; Mun, E C;

    2005-01-01

    was assessed in all three patients. RESULTS: All three patients had evidence of severe postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and hypoglycaemia. In one patient, reversal of gastric bypass was ineffective in reversing hypoglycaemia. All three patients ultimately required partial pancreatectomy for control...

  5. [Psychoprophylaxis in patients after coronary artery bypass graft operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymaszewska, Joanna; Chładzińska-Kiejna, Sylwia; Górna, Renata; Kustrzycki, Wojciech

    2004-05-01

    The paper presented problems of quality of life and psychosocial functioning of patients following coronary artery bypass grafting operations. Possibilities of psychoprophylactic effects towards these patients and its efficacy were described.

  6. Predicting the need for blood during cardiopulmonary bypass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    from the depot. Supply logistics of banked blood may be problematic during car- ... delivery that occurs on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In spite of patient ... whole body oxygen consumption, there is a time lapse before stable.

  7. Induction and detection of disturbed homeostasis in cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R; Meerman, FT; Eijsman, L; Wildevuur, WR; Wildevuur, CRH; van Oeveren, W

    2004-01-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) haemodynamic alterations, haemostasis and the inflammatory response are the main causes of homeostatic disruption. Even with CPB procedures of short duration, the homeostasis of a patient is disrupted and, in many cases, requires intensive postoperative treatment

  8. Prolonged successful therapy for hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myint, K S; Greenfield, J R; Farooqi, I S;

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia following gastric bypass surgery (GBS) is increasingly recognised. However, its pathophysiology remains unclear. Some patients require pancreatectomy. Medical therapy with calcium channel blockers, acarbose and diazoxide has been reported to be beneficial...

  9. Antiplatelet therapy at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremke, Michael; Tang, Mariann; Bak, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this multicentre cohort study was to examine the relationship between antiplatelet therapy (APT) at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and postoperative bleeding complications, transfusion requirements and adverse cardiovascular events. METHODS: A matched...

  10. Canals, Bypass Canal, Published in 2002, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Canals dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is described as 'Bypass Canal'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  11. Air Filter Simulation by Geodict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-peng; Kitai Kim; Changhwan Lee; Jooyong Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discussed the relationship of filter efficiency and pressure drop with the porosity, fiber diameter and filter thickness by Geodict. We found that filter efficiency will increase when filter porosity and fiber diameter decreasing or filter thickness increasing. And the pressure drop has a linear relationship with filter thickness and non-linear relationship with filter porosity and fiber diameter. We also compared the simulation results with the real test results by TSI 3160. Although there are some differences, I think Geodict can be used to predict filter efficiency and pressure drop.

  12. A Series-LC-Filterd Active Trap Filter for High Power Voltage Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    current control of the auxiliary converter, which can be challenging considering that the switching harmonics have very high orders. In this paper, an Active Trap Filter (ATF) based on output impedance shaping is proposed. It is able to bypass the switching harmonics by providing nearly zero output...... impedance. A series-LC-filter is used to reduce the power rating and synthesize the desired output impedance of the ATF. Compared with the existing approaches, the compensated frequency range is greatly enlarged. Also, the current reference is simply set to zero, which reduces the complexity of the control...

  13. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, Marco; Abegg, Kathrin; Seyfried, Florian; Lutz, Thomas A; le Roux, Carel W

    2012-06-11

    Currently, the most effective therapy for the treatment of morbid obesity to induce significant and maintained body weight loss with a proven mortality benefit is bariatric surgery. Consequently, there has been a steady rise in the number of bariatric operations done worldwide in recent years with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) being the most commonly performed operation. Against this background, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms by which gastric bypass induces and maintains body weight loss. These mechanisms are yet not fully understood, but may include reduced hunger and increased satiation, increased energy expenditure, altered preference for food high in fat and sugar, altered salt and water handling of the kidney as well as alterations in gut microbiota. Such changes seen after gastric bypass may at least partly stem from how the surgery alters the hormonal milieu because gastric bypass increases the postprandial release of peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), hormones that are released by the gut in the presence of nutrients and that reduce eating. During the last two decades numerous studies using rats have been carried out to further investigate physiological changes after gastric bypass. The gastric bypass rat model has proven to be a valuable experimental tool not least as it closely mimics the time profile and magnitude of human weight loss, but also allows researchers to control and manipulate critical anatomic and physiologic factors including the use of appropriate controls. Consequently, there is a wide array of rat gastric bypass models available in the literature reviewed elsewhere in more detail. The description of the exact surgical technique of these models varies widely and differs e.g. in terms of pouch size, limb lengths, and the preservation of the vagal nerve. If reported, mortality rates seem to range from 0 to 35%. Furthermore, surgery has been carried out almost exclusively in male

  14. Palliative surgical bypass for unresectable periampullar y carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivendra Singh; Ajay Kumar Sachdev; Adarsh Chaudhary; Anil Kumar Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Around 60% to 80% of patients with periampullary carcinoma are unresectable either due to distant metastasis or local vascular invasion. With the advancement of endoscopic interventional procedures, the role of surgical bypass has diminished. However, surgical bypass is still appropriate in patients with unresectable disease discovered at the time of surgery. This study was conducted to assess the results of palliative surgical bypass for patients with unresectable periampullary carcinoma at our hospital, a tertiary referral center of Northern India. METHOD:The study group comprised 204 patients who had undergone surgical bypass for advanced periampullary carcinoma over the last 15 years. RESULTS:Between January 1990 and December 2004, 204 patients (128 males, 76 females) consisting of 179 patients with carcinoma of head of the pancreas, 14 patients with ampullary carcinoma, 8 patients with lower end cholangiocarcinoma and 3 patients with duodenal carcinoma underwent surgical bypass. Their average age was 51 years (range 20-78 years). Both biliary and gastric bypasses were done in 158 (77.45%), biliary bypass alone in 37 (18.13%), and gastric bypass alone in 9 (4.32%). Biliary bypass was done by Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, and gastric bypass by retrocolic gastrojejunostomy. The overall postoperative mortality and morbidity were 0.98%and 26.9%, respectively. The patients who died had undergone previously endoscopic intervention. Complications included wound infection in 12.25% of the patients, bile leak in 5.12%, delayed gastric emptying in 5.38%, ascitic leak from drains in 8.8%, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 1.96%. The incidences of wound infection and bile leak both were signiifcantly higher in patients who had had preoperative biliary stenting. None of the patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y hepati-cojejunostomy+retrocolic gastrojejunostomy required any intervention later in their life. CONCLUSIONS:Surgical bypass is a safe procedure with

  15. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  16. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  17. Night Blindness and Vitamin A Deficiency following Jejunoilieal Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Paul C; Canny, Christopher L.

    1989-01-01

    A 42-year-old man who developed severe night blindness 15 years following jejunoileal bypass surgery for morbid obesity is described. Ophthamological testing, including dark adaptation, electroretinography and serum vitamin A levels, confirmed a diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency. Oral vitamin A 25,000 iu/day for two months resulted in a full recovery of visual deficits. Nutritional vitamin A deficiency is discussed in the context of intestinal bypass surgery.

  18. Severe peripheral neuropathy following gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Maryniak, O.

    1984-01-01

    Severe weakness in the limbs developed in a young woman 3 1/2 months after successful gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Electromyography confirmed the clinical impression of generalized axonal polyneuropathy. Vitamin B replacement therapy was started. The gastric bypass was not reversed, and the patient continued to lose weight while undergoing rehabilitation. After 10 months she had almost fully recovered. Her total weight loss was 76 kg. Neuropathy is an uncommon but serious compli...

  19. Association of sex with patency of femorodistal bypass grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, H R; Schroeder, T V; Simms, M H;

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence for superior patency in infra-inguinal bypass procedures in men compared to women. A large, prospectively planned series was investigated in order to confirm this finding and to determine the origin of this difference in outcome.......There is evidence for superior patency in infra-inguinal bypass procedures in men compared to women. A large, prospectively planned series was investigated in order to confirm this finding and to determine the origin of this difference in outcome....

  20. Preparation of Anionic Waterborne Epoxy Resin Emulsion and its Application for Oil Filter Paper%阴离子水性环氧树脂乳液的制备及其在机油滤纸中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄相璇; 覃秋菊; 徐守萍; 秀芳; 程江; 杨卓如

    2013-01-01

    An anionic waterborne epoxy resin emulsion was synthesized based on bisphenol-A novolac epoxy resin (NEP). The modification agents used are benzoic acid (BA) and maleic anhydride (MA). The anion waterborne bisphenol-A novolac epoxy resin (WNEP) emulsion was prepared by phase inversion emulsification technique, and was applied to treat the oil filter paper as impregnating agent. The chemical structure and surface chemical composition of the WNEP were characterized respectively by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The granularity analyzer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to examine the emulsion particle dispersion and microscopic properties of WNEP emulsion. The thermal degradation of WNEP with different ring-opening ratios and filter papers impregnated by them were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The contact angle of impregnated filter paper surface and water was measured by static contact angle test. It was observed that the WNEP with 35%ring-opening ratio shows good results, and it could significantly improve the thermal stability and water resistance of the impregnated oil filter paper.%  以双酚 A酚醛环氧树脂( NEP)为基础树脂,以苯甲酸(BA)为开环剂,将NEP的部分环氧基团打开合成含羟基的双酚A酚醛环氧树脂(BNEP)。通过马来酸酐(MA)与 BNEP上的羟基反应,在BNEP上引入羧基亲水性基团和碳碳双键,制得自乳化的阴离子双酚A酚醛环氧树脂(WNEP)。然后将其通过相反转乳化技术制备成WNEP乳液并作为浸渍剂应用于机油滤纸上。采用傅里叶红外光谱仪(FT-IR)和多功能光电子能谱仪(XPS)对WNEP的化学结构与被浸渍滤纸表面的化学成分进行表征,证明成功合成了WNEP。通过粒度分析仪和透射扫描电子显微镜(TEM)对WNEP乳液的粒子分布和形貌进行分析。对不同开环率的WNEP树脂和被浸渍滤纸进行热失重分析(TGA),并用表面

  1. Dip filters; Filtros de echado recursivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrales Vargas, A.; Chavez Perez, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    In exploration seismology, dip filters are used to enhance subsoil images by attenuating coherent noise and other signals. They can be applied in frequency-wavenumber (f-k), frequency-distance (f-x), time-wavenumber (t-k) or time distance (t-k) domains. Fourier domain assumes constant dips. Recursive dip filters are applied in t-x domain, as they do not have this limitation. However, we have to determine their optimal parameters by trial and error. Recursive dip filters are based on single order Butterworth filters, by adding the wavenumber. Their amplitude spectrum is a surface. We perform a bilinear transform to digitize the filter and pass from the f-k to the t-k domain. We obtain the t-x domain filter by inverse transforming through wavenumber and by using a three-coefficient approximation (leading to a tridiagonal matrix). For the sake of illustration in geophysical engineering, we apply these filters to a shallow field record, to attenuate the air wave and random noise, and to a marine seismic section to enhance a fault zone. Both examples show that these filters are useful and practical to enhance seismic data. Their use is easier and more economical than median filters, utilized nowadays in commercial software for the oil industry. [Spanish] En sismologia de exploracion, los filtros de echado se utilizan para enfatizar imagenes del subsuelo, atenuado ruido coherente y otras senales. Pueden aplicarse en los dominios de frecuencia y numero de onda (f-k), frecuencia y distancia (f-x), tiempo y numero de onda (t-k) o tiempo y distancia (t-x). En el dominio de Fourier suponemos echados constantes. Los filtros de echado recursivos se aplican en el dominio t-x, careciendo de esta limitante. Sin embargo, tenemos que recurrir al ensayo y error para determinar sus parametros optimos. Los filtros de hecho recursivos se basan en filtros de Butterworth de orden uno, anadiendo el numero de onda. Su espectro de amplitud es una superficie. Utilizamos la trasformada

  2. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes that are......OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... that are universal to all studies of the effects of intervention effects. There is no published outline for instrument choice or development that is aimed at measuring outcome, was derived from broad consensus over its underlying philosophy, or includes a structured and documented critique. Therefore, a new proposal...

  3. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imagin...

  4. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  5. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  6. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  7. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  8. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  9. Cryogenic coaxial microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Tancredi, G; Meeson, P J

    2014-01-01

    At millikelvin temperatures the careful filtering of electromagnetic radiation, especially in the microwave regime, is critical for controlling the electromagnetic environment for experiments in fields such as solid-state quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We present a design for a filter consisting of small diameter dissipative coaxial cables that is straightforward to construct and provides a quantitatively predictable attenuation spectrum. We describe the fabrication process and demonstrate that the performance of the filters is in good agreement with theoretical modelling. We further perform an indicative test of the performance of the filters by making current-voltage measurements of small, underdamped Josephson Junctions at 15 mK and we present the results.

  10. One-dimensional Arterial Network Model for Bypass Grafts Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Ghigo, Arthur; Wang, Xiaofei; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-01-01

    We propose an arterial network model based on 1D blood hemodynamic equations to study the behavior of different vascular surgical bypass grafts in case of an arterial occlusive pathology: an obliteration or stenosis of the iliac artery. We investigate the performances of three different bypass grafts (Aorto-Femoral, Axillo-Femoral and cross-over Femoral) depending on the degree of obliteration of the stenosis. Numerical simulations show that all bypass grafts are efficient since we retrieve in all cases the normal hemodynamics in the stenosed region while ensuring at the same time a global healthy circulation. We analyze in particular the Axillo-Femoral bypass graft by performing hundreds of simulations by varying the values of the Young's modulus [0.1--50 MPa] and the radius [0.01--5 cm] of the bypass graft. We show that the Young's modulus and radius of commercial bypass grafts are optimal in terms of hemodynamic considerations. The numerical findings prove that this approach could be used to optimize or pl...

  11. Bypass Selection for Control of Heat Exchanger Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lin; LUO Xionglin; HOU Benquan; BAI Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Considering the flexibility and controllability of heat exchanger networks (HENs),bypasses are widely used for effective control of process stream target temperatures.However,the optimal location for the bypass is generally difficult to design with the trade-off between controllability and capital investments.In this paper,based on the steady-state model of heat exchanger networks the optimal bypass location was firstly selected by iteratively calculating the non-square Relative Gain Array (ns-RGA).To simplify the calculation process,rules of bypass selection were also proposed.In order to evaluate this method,then,the structural controllability of heat exchanger networks was analyzed.With both the consideration of the controllability and capital investments,the bypasses locations were finally selected.A case study on the HEN in Crude Distillation Unit was presented in which the ns-RGA and structural controllability were used to select bypasses and also to evaluate the results.

  12. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing coronary bypass burgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Kirilova, Kremena; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the cerebroprotective effect of piracetam on cognitive performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients scheduled for elective, primary and isolated coronary bypass surgery were randomised either to piracetam or placebo group. The study was performed in a double blind fashion. Patients received either 12 g piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after surgery we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total number of 120 patients were enrolled into the study. Preoperative overall cognitive function were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed a deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (placebo-pre: -0.06+/-0.99 vs placebo-post: -1.38+/-1.11; ppiracetam-pre: 0.06+/-1.02 vs piracetam-post: -0.65+/-0.93; ppiracetam patients performed significantly better compared to the placebo patients after the operation and had a less decline of overall cognitive function (pPiracetam has a cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. It reduces an early postoperative substantial decline of neuropsychological abilities.

  13. Progress on Complications of Direct Bypass for Moyamoya Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinlu; Shi, Lei; Guo, Yunbao; Xu, Baofeng; Xu, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) involves progressive occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery resulting in formation of moyamoya-like vessels at the base of the brain. It can be characterized by hemorrhage or ischemia. Direct vascular bypass is the main and most effective treatment of MMD. However, patients with MMD differ from those with normal cerebral vessels. MMD patients have unstable intracranial artery hemodynamics and a poor blood flow reserve; therefore, during the direct bypass of superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis, perioperative risk factors and anesthesia can affect the hemodynamics of these patients. When brain tissue cannot tolerate a high blood flow rate, it becomes prone to hyperperfusion syndrome, which leads to neurological function defects and can even cause intracranial hemorrhage in severe cases. The brain tissue is prone to infarction when hemodynamic equilibrium is affected. In addition, bypass vessels become susceptible to occlusion or atrophy when blood resistance increases. Even compression of the temporalis affects bypass vessels. Because the STA is used in MMD surgery, the scalp becomes ischemic and is likely to develop necrosis and infection. These complications of MMD surgery are difficult to manage and are not well understood. To date, no systematic studies of the complications that occur after direct bypass in MMD have been performed, and reported complications are hidden among various case studies; therefore, this paper presents a review and summary of the literature in PubMed on the complications of direct bypass in MMD. PMID:27499690

  14. Progress on Complications of Direct Bypass for Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinlu; Shi, Lei; Guo, Yunbao; Xu, Baofeng; Xu, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) involves progressive occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery resulting in formation of moyamoya-like vessels at the base of the brain. It can be characterized by hemorrhage or ischemia. Direct vascular bypass is the main and most effective treatment of MMD. However, patients with MMD differ from those with normal cerebral vessels. MMD patients have unstable intracranial artery hemodynamics and a poor blood flow reserve; therefore, during the direct bypass of superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis, perioperative risk factors and anesthesia can affect the hemodynamics of these patients. When brain tissue cannot tolerate a high blood flow rate, it becomes prone to hyperperfusion syndrome, which leads to neurological function defects and can even cause intracranial hemorrhage in severe cases. The brain tissue is prone to infarction when hemodynamic equilibrium is affected. In addition, bypass vessels become susceptible to occlusion or atrophy when blood resistance increases. Even compression of the temporalis affects bypass vessels. Because the STA is used in MMD surgery, the scalp becomes ischemic and is likely to develop necrosis and infection. These complications of MMD surgery are difficult to manage and are not well understood. To date, no systematic studies of the complications that occur after direct bypass in MMD have been performed, and reported complications are hidden among various case studies; therefore, this paper presents a review and summary of the literature in PubMed on the complications of direct bypass in MMD.

  15. Holographic interference filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Damon W.

    Holographic mirrors have wavelength-selection properties and thus qualify as a class of interference filters. Two theoretical methods for analyzing such structures are developed. The first method uses Hill's matrix method to yield closed-forms solutions in terms of the Floquet-Bloch waves within a periodic structure. A process is developed for implementing this solution method on a computer, using sparse-matrix memory allocation, numerical root-finding algorithms, and inverse-iteration techniques. It is demonstrated that Hill's matrix method is valid for the analysis of finite and multi-periodic problems. The second method of theoretical analysis is a transfer-matrix technique, which is herein termed thin-film decomposition. It is shown that the two methods of solution yield results that differ by, at worst, a fraction of a percent. Using both calculation techniques, a number of example problems are explored. Of key importance is the construction of a set of curves that are useful for the design and characterization of holographic interference filters. In addition to the theoretical development, methods are presented for the fabrication of holographic interference filters using DuPont HRF-800X001 photopolymer. Central to the exposure system is a frequency-stabilized, tunable dye laser. The types of filters fabricated include single-tone reflection filters, two types of multitone reflection filters, and reflection filters for infrared wavelengths. These filters feature index profiles that are not easily attainable through other fabrication methods. As a supplement to the body of the dissertation, the computer algorithms developed to implement Hill's matrix method and thin-film decomposition are also included as an appendix. Further appendices provide more information on Floquet's theorem and Hill's matrix method. A final appendix presents a design for an infrared laser spectrophotometer.

  16. The Endogenous Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Brad Baxter; Liam Graham; Stephen Wright

    2007-01-01

    We relax the assumption of full information that underlies most dynamic general equilibrium models, and instead assume agents optimally form estimates of the states from an incomplete information set. We derive a version of the Kalman filter that is endogenous to agents' optimising decisions, and state conditions for its convergence. We show the (restrictive) conditions under which the endogenous Kalman filter will at least asymptotically reveal the true states. In general we show that incomp...

  17. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  18. Contactor/filter improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  19. Mining dust filter. Bergbaustaubfilter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igelbuescher, H.; Hoelter, H.

    1988-12-28

    A dust filter for application underground, whose casing is designed as a transportable unit combinable with further casings and fitted with removable filter pockets. These filter pockets have a frame which seals towards the casing and with the lattices on which the filter cloth is stretched and with spacers holding the said lattices at a distance. Each casing as such has inspection ports that are operationable optionally on either side, and clean and crude gas channels on its upper side. The ends of these channels have coupleable head pieces, so that connection is made easy when casings are arranged in a line. Each crude gas channel is connected to the inside of the casing by means of perforations in the floor of said channel, whereas the clean gas channel, for its part, is in connection with the inside of the casing by means of a channel on the head side of the casing. It is thus possible to create a dust filter having practically any desired output by arranging individual modules in line, in which connection each individual module is reliably transportable on the facilities available below ground, as pre-fabricated above ground. Stable support of the sides of the filter cloths is ensured by the lattice that consists of reciprocally cranked longitudinal and transverse wires. 10 figs.

  20. Evaluation of four pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass circuits in terms of perfusion quality and capturing gaseous microemboli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, R K; Lin, J; Dogal, N M; Qiu, F; Kunselman, A; Wang, S; Ündar, A

    2012-11-01

    This study compared four pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits with four different hollow-fiber membrane oxygenators and their specific reservoirs, Capiox RX15, Quadrox-i pediatric, Quadrox-i pediatric with integrated arterial filter (IAF) and KIDS D101, in a simulated CPB circuit identical to that used in the clinical setting at our institution to test their ability to maintain hemodynamic properties, remove gaseous microemboli (GME), and to test the amount of blood "stolen" by the arterial filter purge line. The circuit was first primed with Ringer's Lactate solution, then red blood cells were added and the hematocrit was maintained at 30%. A 5-cc bolus of air was injected just proximal to the venous reservoir over a thirty-second interval and GME were monitored using an Emboli Detection and Classification quantifier. Transducers were placed at pre-oxygenator, post-oxygenator and distal arterial line (post-filter) positions. Flow probes were also placed both pre and post filter. The injections were made at three flow rates, hypothermic and normothermic temperatures, and with the purge line in both the opened and closed positions. Six injections were done at each of the 12 experimental conditions. Results demonstrated that GME in the arterial line increased with increasing temperature and flow rate. The Capiox RX15 had the least GME in the arterial line at all experimental conditions. The KIDS D101 had the largest pressure drop and the lowest retention of hemodynamic energy, while the Capiox had the lowest pressure drop. All of the oxygenators had a similar amount of "stolen" blood flow and it was consistently under 10% of the total flow reaching the patient.

  1. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K.; Kumar, Parveen; Carr, William RJ; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Mini-gastric bypass (MGP) is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile) reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English. PMID:27251826

  2. Post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantavasinkul, Prapimporn C; Torquati, Alfonso; Corsino, Leonor

    2016-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is a highly effective treatment for severe obesity, resulting in substantial weight loss and normalizing obesity-related comorbidities. However, long-term consequences can occur, such as postbariatric surgery hypoglycaemia. This is a challenging medical problem, and the number of patients presenting with it has been increasing. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most popular bariatric procedure, and it is the surgery most commonly associated with the development of postbariatric surgery hypoglycaemia. To date, the pathogenesis of this condition has not been completely established. However, various factors - particularly increased postprandial glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion - have been considered as crucial mediator. The mechanisms responsible for diabetic remission after bariatric surgery may be responsible for the development of hypoglycaemia, which typically occurs 1-3 h after a meal and is concurrent with inappropriate hyperinsulinaemia. Carbohydrate-rich foods usually provoke hypoglycaemic symptoms, which can typically be alleviated by strict dietary modifications, including carbohydrate restriction and avoidance of high glycaemic index foods and simple sugars. Few patients require further medical intervention, such as medications, but some patients have required a pancreatectomy. Because this option is not always successful, it is no longer routinely recommended. Clinical trials are needed to further determine the pathophysiology of this condition as well as the best diagnostic and treatment approaches for these patients.

  3. Postoperative abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guohua

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic experiences on the patients who suffered abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB. Methods A total of 2349 consecutive patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery with CPB in our hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were involved. The clinical data of any abdominal complication, including its incidence, characters, relative risks, diagnostic measures, medical or surgical management and mortality, was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of all the patients, 33(1.4% developed abdominal complications postoperatively, including 11(33.3% cases of paralytic ileus, 9(27.3% of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, 2(6.1% of gastroduodenal ulcer perforation, 2(6.1% of acute calculus cholecystitis, 3(9.1% of acute acalculus cholecystitis, 4(12.1% of hepatic dysfunction and 2(6.1% of ischemia bowel diseases. Of the 33 patients, 26 (78.8% accepted medical treatment and 7 (21.2% underwent subsequent surgical intervention. There were 5(15.2% deaths in this series, which was significantly higher than the overall mortality (2.7%. Positive history of peptic ulcer, advanced ages, bad heart function, preoperative IABP support, prolonged CPB time, low cardiac output and prolonged mechanical ventilation are the risk factors of abdominal complications. Conclusions Abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with CPB have a low incidence but a higher mortality. Early detection and prompt appropriate intervention are essential for the outcome of the patients.

  4. Current status of mini-gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K Mahawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mini-gastric bypass (MGP is a promising bariatric procedure. Tens of thousands of this procedure have been performed throughout the world since Rutledge performed the first procedure in the United States of America in 1997. Several thousands of these have even been documented in the published scientific literature. Despite a proven track record over nearly two decades, this operation continues to polarise the bariatric community. A large number of surgeons across the world have strong objections to this procedure and do not perform it. The risk of symptomatic (bile reflux, marginal ulceration, severe malnutrition, and long-term risk of gastric and oesophageal cancers are some of the commonly voiced concerns. Despite these expressed fears, several advantages such as technical simplicity, shorter learning curve, ease of revision and reversal, non-inferior weight loss and comorbidity resolution outcomes have prompted some surgeons to advocate a wider adoption of this procedure. This review examines the current status of these controversial aspects in the light of the published academic literature in English.

  5. SUrgical versus PERcutaneous Bypass: SUPERB-trial; Heparin-bonded endoluminal versus surgical femoro-popliteal bypass: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensvelt, M.M.A.; Holewijn, S.; Fritschy, W.M.; Wikkeling, O.R.; Walraven, L.A. van; Wallis de Vries, B.M.; Zeebregts, C.J.A.; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment options for the superficial femoral artery are evolving rapidly. For long lesions, the venous femoropopliteal bypass considered to be superior above the prosthetic bypass. An endoluminal bypass, however, may provide equal patency rates compared to the prosthetic ab

  6. SUrgical versus PERcutaneous Bypass : SUPERB-trial; Heparin-bonded endoluminal versus surgical femoro-popliteal bypass: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensvelt, Mare M. A.; Holewijn, Suzanne; Fritschy, Wilbert M.; Wikkeling, Otmar R. M.; van Walraven, Laurens A.; de Vries, Bas M. Wallis; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endovascular treatment options for the superficial femoral artery are evolving rapidly. For long lesions, the venous femoropopliteal bypass considered to be superior above the prosthetic bypass. An endoluminal bypass, however, may provide equal patency rates compared to the prosthetic ab

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of automotive engine oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Rachid; Gupta, Neelam

    2002-02-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology were combined to develop a portable spectrophotometer for use in engine oil analysis to identify and quantify oil contaminants and residue products, Preliminary measurements were taken with a field-portable AOTF-based spectrometer (2 to 4.5 micrometers ) and an FTIR spectrometer (2 to 25 micrometers ) for comparison. Absorption spectra of used and unused oil samples were measured and compared to determine absorption changes between the various samples resulting from oil degradation and any chemical reactions that might have taken place during high- temperature engine lubrication. These preliminary results indicate that IR spectroscopy can be used for oil quality monitoring in automotive engines, which will help predict and prevent engine failure and degradation. This work can be extended to other remote sensing applications, such as the monitoring of environmental oil spills.

  8. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and resulted in a twofold less DHA concentration in the plasma of piglets compared with fish

  9. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  10. Fractional vortex dipole phase filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam

    2014-10-01

    In spatial filtering experiments, the use of vortex phase filters plays an important role in realizing isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper, we report the use of a vortex dipole phase filter in spatial filtering. A dipole made of fractional vortices is used, and its filtering characteristics are studied. It is observed that the filter performance can be tuned by varying the distance of separation between the vortices of the dipole to achieve better contrast and output noise suppression, and when this distance tends to infinity, the filter performs like a 1-D Hilbert mask. Experimental and simulation results are presented.

  11. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  12. An IIR median hybrid filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter H.; Sartori, Michael A.; Bryden, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of nonlinear filters, the so-called class of multidirectional infinite impulse response median hybrid filters, is presented and analyzed. The input signal is processed twice using a linear shift-invariant infinite impulse response filtering module: once with normal causality and a second time with inverted causality. The final output of the MIMH filter is the median of the two-directional outputs and the original input signal. Thus, the MIMH filter is a concatenation of linear filtering and nonlinear filtering (a median filtering module). Because of this unique scheme, the MIMH filter possesses many desirable properties which are both proven and analyzed (including impulse removal, step preservation, and noise suppression). A comparison to other existing median type filters is also provided.

  13. Two-zone pupil filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Campos, Juan; Escalera, Juan C.; Ledesma, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The performance of pupil filters consisting of two zones each of constant complex amplitude transmittance is investigated. For filters where the transmittance is real, different classes of potentially useful filter are identified and optimized. These include leaky filters with an inner zone of low amplitude transmittance, pure phase filters with phase change of π, and equal area filters. The first of these minimizes the relative power in the outer rings for a given axial resolution, the second maximizes the Strehl ratio for a given transverse resolution, and the third minimizes the relative power in the outer rings for a given transverse resolution. Complex filters can give an axially shifted maximum in intensity: the performance parameters calculated relative to the true focus are investigated for some different classes of filter, but filters with phase change not equal to π are found to give inferior performance to the real value filters.

  14. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.J.; Zaladonis, L.A.

    1987-07-22

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station. 6 figs.

  15. Multilevel Mixture Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture Kalman filter is a general sequential Monte Carlo technique for conditional linear dynamic systems. It generates samples of some indicator variables recursively based on sequential importance sampling (SIS and integrates out the linear and Gaussian state variables conditioned on these indicators. Due to the marginalization process, the complexity of the mixture Kalman filter is quite high if the dimension of the indicator sampling space is high. In this paper, we address this difficulty by developing a new Monte Carlo sampling scheme, namely, the multilevel mixture Kalman filter. The basic idea is to make use of the multilevel or hierarchical structure of the space from which the indicator variables take values. That is, we draw samples in a multilevel fashion, beginning with sampling from the highest-level sampling space and then draw samples from the associate subspace of the newly drawn samples in a lower-level sampling space, until reaching the desired sampling space. Such a multilevel sampling scheme can be used in conjunction with the delayed estimation method, such as the delayed-sample method, resulting in delayed multilevel mixture Kalman filter. Examples in wireless communication, specifically the coherent and noncoherent 16-QAM over flat-fading channels, are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multilevel mixture Kalman filter.

  16. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  17. NOTCH FILTER USING SIMULATED INDUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.SUSAN,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of analog filters at low frequencies is not possible because the size of inductors becomes very large. In such cases, the simulated inductors using operational amplifiers are used. This paper deals with the implementation of notch filter using band pass filter which uses simulated inductor where the direct implementation of notch filter using simulated inductor is not possible because of floating inductor. The design of notch filter and the simulation done in PSPICE is presented.

  18. Improved directional-distance filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new spatial-distance weighting function.By combining the weighting function and the traditional directional-distance filter (DDF) in a novel way,a new vector filter-the adaptive distance-weighted directional-distance filter (ADWDDF)-is presented.The experimental results show that the proposed solution provides better filtering performance and preserves better image chromaticity and edge or detail information compared with the traditional DDF and some other typical vector filters.

  19. DOE HEPA filter test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This standard establishes essential elements of a Department of Energy (DOE) program for testing HEPA filters to be installed in DOE nuclear facilities or used in DOE-contracted activities. A key element is the testing of HEPA filters for performance at a DOE Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. Other key elements are (1) providing for a DOE HEPA filter procurement program, and (2) verifying that HEPA filters to be installed in nuclear facilities appear on a Qualified Products List (QPL).

  20. Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).

  1. Nylon 6,6 Nonwoven Fabric Separates Oil Contaminates from Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Ortega

    Full Text Available Industrial oil spills into aquatic environments can have catastrophic environmental effects. First responders to oil spills along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States have used spunbond nylon fabric bags and fences to separate spilled oil and oil waste from contaminated water. Low area mass density spunbond nylon is capable of sorbing more than 16 times its mass in low viscosity crude oil and more than 26 times its mass in higher viscosity gear lube oil. Nylon bags separated more than 95% of gear lube oil contaminate from a 4.5% oil-in-water emulsion. Field testing of spunbond nylon fences by oil spill first responders has demonstrated the ability of this material to contain the oily contaminate while allowing water to flow through. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of nylon as an oil filter is due to the fact that it is both more oleophilic and more hydrophilic than other commonly used oil separation materials. The nylon traps oil droplets within the fabric or on the surface, while water droplets are free to flow through the fabric to the water on the opposite side of the fabric.

  2. Nylon 6,6 Nonwoven Fabric Separates Oil Contaminates from Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erin S.; Ortega, Albert E.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial oil spills into aquatic environments can have catastrophic environmental effects. First responders to oil spills along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States have used spunbond nylon fabric bags and fences to separate spilled oil and oil waste from contaminated water. Low area mass density spunbond nylon is capable of sorbing more than 16 times its mass in low viscosity crude oil and more than 26 times its mass in higher viscosity gear lube oil. Nylon bags separated more than 95% of gear lube oil contaminate from a 4.5% oil-in-water emulsion. Field testing of spunbond nylon fences by oil spill first responders has demonstrated the ability of this material to contain the oily contaminate while allowing water to flow through. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of nylon as an oil filter is due to the fact that it is both more oleophilic and more hydrophilic than other commonly used oil separation materials. The nylon traps oil droplets within the fabric or on the surface, while water droplets are free to flow through the fabric to the water on the opposite side of the fabric. PMID:27411088

  3. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  4. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  5. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  6. Effects of Syngas Cooling and Biomass Filter Medium on Tar Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Thapa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification is a proven technology; however, one of the major obstacles in using product syngas for electric power generation and biofuels is the removal of tar. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate effectiveness of tar removal methods by cooling the syngas and using wood shavings as filtering media. The performance of the wood shavings filter equipped with an oil bubbler and heat exchanger as cooling systems was tested using tar-laden syngas generated from a 20-kW downdraft gasifier. The tar reduction efficiencies of wood shavings filter, wood shavings filter with heat exchanger, and wood shavings filter with oil bubbler were 10%, 61%, and 97%, respectively.

  7. Photovoltaic-module bypass-diode encapsulation. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-20

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented in this annual report. A comprehensive survey of available pad-mounted PN junction and Schottky diodes led to the selection of Semicon PN junction diode cells for this application. Diode junction-to-heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1/sup 0/C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150/sup 0/C. Based on the results of a detailed thermal analysis, which covered the range of bypass currents from 2 to 20 amperes, three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed and fabricated. Thermal testing of these modules has enabled the formation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally-mounted packaged diodes. An assessment of bypass diode reliability, which relies heavily on rectifying diode failure rate data, leads to the general conclusion that, when proper designed and installed, these devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  8. Thermal activation of dislocations in large scale obstacle bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobie, Cameron; Capolungo, Laurent; McDowell, David L.; Martinez, Enrique

    2017-08-01

    Dislocation dynamics simulations have been used extensively to predict hardening caused by dislocation-obstacle interactions, including irradiation defect hardening in the athermal case. Incorporating the role of thermal energy on these interactions is possible with a framework provided by harmonic transition state theory (HTST) enabling direct access to thermally activated reaction rates using the Arrhenius equation, including rates of dislocation-obstacle bypass processes. Moving beyond unit dislocation-defect reactions to a representative environment containing a large number of defects requires coarse-graining the activation energy barriers of a population of obstacles into an effective energy barrier that accurately represents the large scale collective process. The work presented here investigates the relationship between unit dislocation-defect bypass processes and the distribution of activation energy barriers calculated for ensemble bypass processes. A significant difference between these cases is observed, which is attributed to the inherent cooperative nature of dislocation bypass processes. In addition to the dislocation-defect interaction, the morphology of the dislocation segments pinned to the defects play an important role on the activation energies for bypass. A phenomenological model for activation energy stress dependence is shown to describe well the effect of a distribution of activation energies, and a probabilistic activation energy model incorporating the stress distribution in a material is presented.

  9. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  10. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  11. Clinical evaluation of the air removal characteristics of an oxygenator with integrated arterial filter in a minimized extracorporeal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Marco C; Boers, Chris; de Vroege, Roel; C Kelder, Johannes; Yilmaz, Alaaddin; Bruins, Peter

    2011-04-01

    The use of minimized extracorporeal circuits (MECC) in cardiac surgery is an important measure to increase the biocompatibility of cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). These circuits eliminate volume storage reservoirs and bubble traps to minimize the circuit. However, the reduction in volume may increase the risk of gaseous microemboli (GME). The MECC system as used by our group consists of a venous bubble trap, centrifugal pump, and an oxygenator. To further reduce the risk of introducing GME, an oxygenator with an integrated arterial filter was developed based on the concept of minimal volume and foreign surface. We studied the air removal characteristics of this oxygenator with and without integrated arterial filter. The quantity and volume of GME were measured with precision at both the inlet and outlet of the devices. Our results showed that integration of an arterial filter into this oxygenator increased GME reducing capacity from 69.2% to 92%. Moreover, we were able to obtain data on the impact of an arterial filter on the exact size-distribution of GME entering the arterial line. The present study demonstrates that an MECC system and oxygenator with integrated arterial filter significantly reduces the volume and size of GME. The use of an integrated arterial filter in an MECC system may protect the patient from the deleterious effects of CPB and may further improve patient safety.

  12. Styrene removal from polluted air in one and two-liquid phase biotrickling filter: steady and transient-state performance and pressure drop control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Eldon R; Montes, María; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2011-07-01

    A Sporothrix variecibatus-inoculated biotrickling filter (BTF) was examined for styrene removal, without and with the addition of silicone oil, at different empty bed residence times. The highest elimination capacities (ECs) were 172.8 (without silicone oil) and 670 g m(-3)h(-1) (with silicone oil), respectively, corresponding to a 4-fold improvement in presence of oil. The addition of silicone oil formed a well-coalesced emulsion of fungi and silicone oil, resulting in filter-bed clogging. Clogging prevention strategies adopted were; (i) lowering the volume ratio of silicone oil from 10% to 2% (v/v), and (ii) periodic increase in trickling rate of the medium from 50 to 190 mL min(-1). During shock-load experiments, the BTF with silicone oil (2% v/v) could withstand high styrene loads, of up to 1900 g m(-3)h(-1), when compared to the BTF without silicone oil (400 g m(-3)h(-1)).

  13. 基于油液光谱分析和粒子滤波的发动机剩余寿命预测研究%Research on Engine Remaining Useful Life Prediction Based on Oil Spectrum Analysis and Particle Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊; 贾云献; 蔡丽影; 林国语; 赵劲松

    2013-01-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring,fault diagnosis and prognosis,and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system.Because the complexity of machine system,its health state degradation process can't be simply cbaracterized by linear model,while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system,the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA,and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed.In the prediction model,according m the estimating result of system's posterior probability,its prior probability distribution is realized,and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is estahlished.Finally,the practical SOA data of some engine was amlyzed and forecasted by the above method,and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method.The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the new method.%油液光谱分析是机械磨损状态监测、故障诊断与故障预测的重要技术,基于光谱数据的机械状态剩余寿命预测有利于实现机械系统的最优维修决策.由于机械设备越来越复杂,其健康状态的退化过程很难用线性模型来表示,而粒子滤波(particle filter,PF)对非线性非高斯系统的处理能力,与经典Kalman滤波相比具有明显的优势,文章将PF预测方法运用于光谱分析,提出了基于PF和油液光谱分析技术的设备剩余寿命预测方法.在预测模型中实现了根据设备后验分布的估计值预测其先验分布概率,建立了基于PF的多步向前长期预测模型.最后,对某发动机实际的光谱分析数据进行了预测和分析,并与传统Kalman滤波方法的预测结果进行了比较,结果充分表明了本方法的有效性和优越性.

  14. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Juan G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the -stable and generalized- . We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the "normal" equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  15. Neuroprotective Strategies during Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Aida; Dhein, Stefan; Dähnert, Ingo; Klein, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Aortocoronary bypass or valve surgery usually require cardiac arrest using cardioplegic solutions. Although, in principle, in a number of cases beating heart surgery (so-called off-pump technique) is possible, aortic or valve surgery or correction of congenital heart diseases mostly require cardiopulmonary arrest. During this condition, the heart-lung machine also named cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has to take over the circulation. It is noteworthy that the invention of a machine bypassing the heart and lungs enabled complex cardiac operations, but possible negative effects of the CPB on other organs, especially the brain, cannot be neglected. Thus, neuroprotection during CPB is still a matter of great interest. In this review, we will describe the impact of CPB on the brain and focus on pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to protect the brain. PMID:27879647

  16. Vitamin deficiency after gastric bypass surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrana, Marc R; Davis, William E

    2009-10-01

    More than 60% of the adult US population now meets the criteria for being overweight or obese. Gastric bypass surgery has become a popular and effective way to combat this medical problem. Despite the success of these procedures, they are associated with many complications, including malnutrition, neurological compromise, and vitamin deficiency. Research has determined that even with multivitamin supplementation for life, a large percentage of bypass patients develop vitamin deficiencies. We present a case of beriberi after Roux-en-Y bypass that illustrates the importance of close follow up. A thorough review of vitamin deficiencies in this unique patient population is explored. Vitamin supplementation and treatment recommendations are compiled from the most up-to-date sources. Even patients on regular supplements should be closely monitored for vitamin deficiencies. Patient education regarding vitamin supplementation is vital; it should begin prior to surgery and continue throughout the postoperative period and beyond.

  17. A Comparative Performance Analysis of Low Power Bypassing Array Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlakalla Ravi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Low power design of VLSI circuits has been identified as vital technology in battery powered portable electronic devices and signal processing applications such as Digital Signal Processors (DSP. Multiplier has an important role in the DSPs. Without degrading the performance of the processor, low power parallel multipliers are needed to be design. Bypassing is the widely used technique in the DSPs when the input operand of the multiplier is zero. A Row based Bypassing Multiplier with compressor at the final addition of the ripple carry adder (RCA is designed to focus on low power and high speed. The proposed bypassing multiplier with compressor shows high performance and energy efficiency than Kuo multiplier with Carry Save Adder (CSA at the final RCA.

  18. Coronary artery bypass and superior vena cava syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T V; Masrani, K; Thomas, J L

    1999-01-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome is the obstruction of the superior vena cava or its main tributaries by benign or malignant lesions. The syndrome causes edema and engorgement of the vessels on the face, neck, and arms, nonproductive cough, and dyspnea. We discuss the case of a 48-year-old obese diabetic woman who was admitted with unstable angina. She had previously been diagnosed with superior vena cava syndrome. Urgent coronary artery bypass grafting was necessary Although thousands of coronary artery bypasses are performed every year, there are not many reports on patients with superior vena cava syndrome who successfully undergo cardiopulmonary bypass and coronary artery grafting with an internal mammary artery as the conduit. The results of the case and alternative recommended methods are discussed.

  19. Rankine cycle load limiting through use of a recuperator bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.

    2011-08-16

    A system for converting heat from an engine into work includes a boiler coupled to a heat source for transferring heat to a working fluid, a turbine that transforms the heat into work, a condenser that transforms the working fluid into liquid, a recuperator with one flow path that routes working fluid from the turbine to the condenser, and another flow path that routes liquid working fluid from the condenser to the boiler, the recuperator being configured to transfer heat to the liquid working fluid, and a bypass valve in parallel with the second flow path. The bypass valve is movable between a closed position, permitting flow through the second flow path and an opened position, under high engine load conditions, bypassing the second flow path.

  20. Proposal of bypass in heat recovery system with sucking air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siažik, Ján; Malcho, Milan; Rezničák, Štefan

    2016-06-01

    Waste heat is utilized in a wide variety of technologies for a number of reasons. But the significant one such reason is use of the energy contained for example in waste water or waste heat that would otherwise left unused. Other considerable reason it is also reduces primary costs to operate the technology. The article deals with the arrangement section of the unit in heat recovery systems where the entry of waste gases into defluorinastion device. The technologies re-use heat often use the bypass. Bypass fulfill their duty in equipment failures, for example heat exchanger where it is not possible to stop the operationimmediately and the hot combustion gases can flow bypass without interrupting operation.

  1. Domain wall filters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, O; Neuberger, H; Witzel, O; Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  2. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computing perspective. An implementation scheme for normal covolution and f

  3. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  4. Magnetic-Optical Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Formicola, I; Pinto, C; Cerulo, P

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic-Optical Filter (MOF) is an instrument suited for high precision spectral measurements for its peculiar characteristics. It is employed in Astronomy and in the field of the telecommunications (it is called FADOF there). In this brief paper we summarize its fundamental structure and functioning.

  5. Enhanced Optical Filter Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, David

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a supplement to the classic texts by Angus Macleod and Philip Baumeister, taking an intuitive approach to the enhancement of optical coating (or filter) performance. Drawing from 40 years of experience in thin film design, Cushing introduces the basics of thin films, the commonly used materials and their deposition, the major coatings and their applications, and improvement methods for each.

  6. Ozone decomposing filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L.

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  7. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  8. Digital hum filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, R.W.; Anderson, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    Data may be overprinted by a steady-state cyclical noise (hum). Steady-state indicates that the noise is invariant with time; its attributes, frequency, amplitude, and phase, do not change with time. Hum recorded on seismic data usually is powerline noise and associated higher harmonics; leakage from full-waveform rectified cathodic protection devices that contain the odd higher harmonics of powerline frequencies; or vibrational noise from mechanical devices. The fundamental frequency of powerline hum may be removed during data acquisition with the use of notch filters. Unfortunately, notch filters do not discriminate signal and noise, attenuating both. They also distort adjacent frequencies by phase shifting. Finally, they attenuate only the fundamental mode of the powerline noise; higher harmonics and frequencies other than that of powerlines are not removed. Digital notch filters, applied during processing, have many of the same problems as analog filters applied in the field. The method described here removes hum of a particular frequency. Hum attributes are measured by discrete Fourier analysis, and the hum is canceled from the data by subtraction. Errors are slight and the result of the presence of (random) noise in the window or asynchrony of the hum and data sampling. Error is minimized by increasing window size or by resampling to a finer interval. Errors affect the degree of hum attenuation, not the signal. The residual is steady-state hum of the same frequency. ?? 1994.

  9. Particle filter based entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Driessen, Hans; Bagchi, Arunabha; Mandal, Pranab K.

    For many problems in the field of tracking or even the wider area of filtering the a posteriori description of the uncertainty can oftentimes not be described by a simple Gaussian density function. In such situations the characterization of the uncertainty by a mean and a covariance does not capture

  10. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  11. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  12. TR PIV Experimental Investigation on Bypass Transition Induced by a Cylinder Wake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhan-Qi; JIANG Nan

    2011-01-01

    @@ The process of laminar to turbulent transition induced by a cylinder wake is studied by time-resolved(TR)particle image velocimetry(PIV) in a water channel.The combination of multi-scale local-averaged structure function analysis with criteria is used to identify the generation of secondary transverse vortex structure andto track its evolution along the streamvise.At the beginning of transition,with the decent of cylinder wake vortex,the secondary vortex structure is induced near the vall.As the secondary vortex moves dovnstream,it is induced to lift up by the wake vortex,meanwhile they are diffused and dissipated.According to the method of spatial conditional average,a low-speedhump is found in the near-wallregion along the bypass transition zone,accompanied by a low-speed region in the free stream occupied by the vake vortex.With further downstream,the hump in the near-wall region becomes more and more obvious.At the later stage of transition zone,hairpin vortex can be seen by conditional-averaged low-pass filtered vorticity.The hairpin head is almost vertical to the wall with an inclination angle of about 90°,which is attributed to the additional lift-up behavior induced by wake vortex.It can be concluded that in the process of bypass transition,the wake vortex would not only induce the secondary vortex but also leaven its growth and evolution,resulting in the robust and rapidly growing hairpin vortex.%The process of laminar to turbulent transition induced by a cylinder wake is studied by time-resolved (TR)particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a water channel. The combination of multi-scale local-averaged structure function analysis with criteria is used to identify the generation of secondary transverse vortex structure and to track its evolution along the streamwise. At the beginning of transition, with the decent of cylinder wake vortex, the secondary vortex structure is induced near the wall. As the secondary vortex moves downstream, it is induced to lift

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  14. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  15. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  16. Flow of Hydrolysed Polyacrylamide Mother Liquor through Filter Bag: Detecting the Effects of Formulation and Process Properties on Pressure Drop

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Ming Feng; Xin Fang; Huan-Huan Ding

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysed polyacrylamide (HPAM) mother liquor is mainly used to extract oil. The HPAM solution is needed to filter the impurity using a bag filter before it is injected into the oil well. Therefore, the pressure drop of HPAM mother liquor must be less than 0.02 MPa in the processing of impurity filtration. The influence factors on pressure drop need to be researched. In this work, the computational fluid dynamics program (CFD) was used to research some key influence factors on pr...

  17. Clinical outcomes in randomized trials of off- vs. on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Penninga, Luit; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes of off- vs. on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in randomized trials.......To assess the clinical outcomes of off- vs. on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in randomized trials....

  18. Managing the Inflammatory Response after Cardiopulmonary Bypass : Review of the Studies in Animal Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liguori, Gabriel Romero; Kanas, Alexandre Fligelman; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review studies performed in animal models that evaluated therapeutic interventions to inflammatory response and microcirculatory changes after cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: It was used the search strategy ("Cardiopulmonary Bypass" (MeSH)) and ("Microcirculation" (MeSH) or "Inflammat

  19. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with mirror-imaging dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Sun, Hansong; Wang, Xianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Dextrocardia requires alterations in techniques during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We report two cases undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery and discuss techniques for the operative management of these patients.

  20. History and Current Status of Robotic Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jeffrey D; Srivastava, Mukta; Bonatti, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) is a minimally invasive endoscopic surgical approach using the daVinci robotic telemanipulation system to perform coronary artery bypass grafting on the arrested or beating heart...

  1. Tidlige erfaringer med duplexovervågning af femoropopliteale og -krurale vene-bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; von Jessen, Frants; Schroeder, T V

    1993-01-01

    Identification and correction of graft stenoses in femoropopliteal and -crural vein bypasses can prevent reconstruction failure. Sixty six consecutive vein bypasses entered a postoperative surveillance protocol, which implied clinical assessment, measurement of ankle blood pressure and duplex-sca...

  2. Reduced complement activation during cardiopulmonary bypass does not affect the postoperative acute phase response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goor, J.; Nieuwland, R.; van den Brink, A.; van Oeveren, W.; Rutten, 27818; Tijssen, J.; Eijsman, L.; Rutten, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In the present study the relationship was evaluated between perioperative inflammation and the postoperative acute phase response in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB circuits contained either non-coated-

  3. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  4. [Prevalence of early and late dumping after gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héraïef, R; Giusti, V

    2014-03-26

    Gastric bypass surgery is an effective treatment of obesity, bringing a significant weight loss and a major improvement of carbohydrate profile. However, in some patients, a deregulation in carbohydrate metabolism between insulin secretion and sensitivity is observed, whereupon early and late dumping happen. Their prevalence isn't well studied, although it seems that 10 to 20% of patients are affected. We've studied a cohort of 70 patients who undergone gastric bypass surgery at the CHUV. 18 (25.7%) patients have a positive anamnesis for early dumping and 10 (14.3%) for late dumping, being it superior as what is described in the literature.

  5. Dextrocardia with situs inversus totalis: coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Salila; Anis, Mariam; Darr, Umer

    2012-01-01

    Dextrocardia with situs inversus is a rare congenital abnormality involving a left-handed mal rotation of the visceral organs. The incidence of coronary artery disease is the same as that in the general population. Performing coronary artery bypass surgery on patients with dextrocardia poses a more challenging task. It is recommended that the right internal mammary artery be the first choice of graft for the anterior descending artery for a "situs inversus" situation. We report 2 cases of patients with Dextrocardia who developed coronary artery disease and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Also mentioned is the slight difference in our technique.

  6. Fibrin Adhesive: Clinical Application in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundaró, Pino; Velardi, Antonio R.; Santoli, Carmine

    1985-01-01

    Fibrin adhesive was used 72 times in a group of 67 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The indications were prophylactic sealing of potential sources of bleeding, topical hemostasis (control of bleeding sites dangerous or difficult to suture), and fixation of the graft in the optimal position. The method of glue application under varying circumstances is described and the results are reported. This experience suggests that in some cases the glue expedites the operation and makes it safer. We conclude that the fibrin sealing represents a valid aid in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:15227018

  7. Gene expression profile after cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marc; Bianchi, Cesario; Khan, Tanveer A; Xu, Shu; Liddicoat, John R; Voisine, Pierre; Araujo, Eugenio; Lyon, Helen; Kohane, Isaac S; Libermann, Towia A; Sellke, Frank W

    2003-11-01

    This study examines the cardiac and peripheral gene expression responses to cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. Atrial myocardium and skeletal muscle were harvested from 16 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting before and after cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. Ten sample pairs were selected for patient similarity, and oligonucleotide microarray analyses of 12,625 genes were performed using matched precardiopulmonary bypass tissues as controls. Array results were validated with Northern blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunoblotting. Statistical analyses were nonparametric. Median durations of cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest were 74 and 60 minutes, respectively. Compared with precardiopulmonary bypass, postcardiopulmonary bypass myocardial tissues revealed 480 up-regulated and 626 down-regulated genes with a threshold P value of.025 or less (signal-to-noise ratio: 3.46); skeletal muscle tissues showed 560 and 348 such genes, respectively (signal-to-noise ratio: 3.04). Up-regulated genes in cardiac tissues included inflammatory and transcription activators FOS; jun B proto-oncogene; nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3; MYC; transcription factor-8; endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1; and cysteine-rich 61; apoptotic genes nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; and stress genes dual-specificity phosphatase-1, dual-specificity phosphatase-5, and B-cell translocation gene 2. Up-regulated skeletal muscle genes included interleukin 6; interleukin 8; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11B; nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3; transcription factor-8; interleukin 13; jun B proto-oncogene; interleukin 1B; glycoprotein Ib, platelet, alpha polypeptide; and Ras-associated protein RAB27A. Down-regulated genes included haptoglobin and numerous immunoglobulins in the heart, and factor H

  8. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...... indicate that IIR filters are the most effective in a number of situations....

  9. Hereditary spherocytosis in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spegar, J; Riha, H; Kotulak, T; Vanek, T

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetically determined abnormality of red blood cells. It is the most common cause of inherited haemolysis in Europe and North America within the Caucasian population. We document a patient who underwent an aortocoronary bypass procedure on cardiopulmonary bypass. In view of the uncertain tolerance of the abnormal red cells in hereditary spherocytosis to cardiopulmonary bypass, we reviewed the patient's chart and analyzed recorded values of these parameters: free plasma haemoglobin, renal parameters, cystatin C, bilirubin, liver tests, urine samples. From the results, we can see that slight haemolysis-elevated bilirubin in the blood sample and elevated bilirubin and urobilinogen in the urine sample occurred on the first postoperative day. The levels of these parameters slowly decreased during the next postoperative days. There was no real clinical effect of this haemolysis on renal functions.

  10. Powered, air-purifying particulate respirator filter penetration by a DOP aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen; Moyer, Ernest; Jensen, Paul

    2006-11-01

    In 1995, new certification requirements for all nonpowered, air-purifying particulate filter respirators were put in place when 42 CFR 84 replaced 30 CFR 11. However, the certification requirements for all other classes of respirators, including powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs), were transferred to 42 CFR 84 from 30 CFR 11 without major changes. Since the inception of 42 CFR 84, researchers have learned that the efficiency of electrostatic filter media, in contrast with mechanical filter media, can be rapidly degraded by oil aerosols. Further, confusion may exist among respirator users, since electrostatic PAPR filters have the same magenta color assigned to high-efficiency filters for nonpowered particulate respirators that have been tested and certified for use against oil aerosols (i.e., P100 filters). Users may expect that the magenta color of certified PAPR filters indicates suitability for use against oil aerosols. This may not be the case. To illustrate the potential degradation of electrostatic PAPR filters, new filters certified under 42 CFR 84 were tested using a TSI model 8122 Automated Respirator Tester against charged and neutralized DOP aerosols with intermittent loading schedules. The performance of a magenta-colored electrostatic PAPR filter--one for which the manufacturer's user instructions appropriately indicates is not suitable for use in oily environments--was compared with the performance of several mechanical PAPR filters. In tests against both DOP aerosols, the electrostatic PAPR filter showed a significant decrease in performance at DOP loadings exceeding 400 mg, whereas mechanical filters showed no significant change in the performance except at extremely high loadings. The decreased performance of the electrostatic PAPR filter was found to be significantly greater when tested against a neutralized DOP aerosol when compared with a charged DOP aerosol. While laboratory tests show that the filtration efficiency of this electrostatic

  11. Development of DWDM Filter Manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DWDM technology is developing rapidly. Thin film narrow bandpass filter plays an important role in this field. This article presents some achievements in developing the DWDM narrow bandpass filters and also describes the results achieved by us.

  12. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 870.4210 Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter,...

  14. Natural headland sand bypassing; towards identifying and modelling the mechanisms and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Ab Razak, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural headland sand bypassing: Towards identifying and modelling the mechanisms and processes contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms and processes of sand bypassing in artificial and non-artificial coastal environments through a numerical modelling study. Sand bypassing processes in ge

  15. On-Pump Versus Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Elderly Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Susanne Juel; Houlind, Kim; Kjeldsen, Bo Juul;

    2012-01-01

    Conventional coronary artery bypass grafting performed with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass is a well-validated treatment for patients with ischemic heart disease. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) has been suggested to reduce the number of perioperative complications, especially...... in elderly patients....

  16. Fabrication of nanofiber non-wovens on the melt blowing die with air by-passes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Ting; Yang Kang; Wu Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    The air flow field of the melt blowing die with air by-passes is simulated. The results show that fibers fabricated on the die with air by-passes are much finer than those without air by-passes, which indicates an energy-saving approach to fabricating nanofibers on the melt blowing equipment.

  17. Fabrication of nanofiber non-wovens on the melt blowing die with air by-passes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the melt blowing die with air by-passes is simulated. The results show that fibers fabricated on the die with air by-passes are much finer than those without air by-passes, which indicates an energy-saving approach to fabricating nanofibers on the melt blowing equipment.

  18. On-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Kim Christian

    2013-01-01

    Off pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been purported to be safer than conventional coronary artery bypass surgery performed using cardiopulmonary bypass. This theory was supported by a number of early series, but failed to be confirmed by a number of small, randomized controlled trials . Co...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class II...

  20. Patient Bypass Behavior and Critical Access Hospitals: Implications for Patient Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiexin (Jason); Bellamy, Gail R.; McCormick, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the extent of bypass for inpatient care among patients living in Critical Access Hospital (CAH) service areas, and to determine factors associated with bypass, the reasons for bypass, and what CAHs can do to retain patients locally. Methods: Six hundred and forty-seven subjects, aged 18 years and older, who had been admitted to…

  1. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  2. Assessment of ceramic membrane filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Geyer, H.K.; Im, K.H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this project include the development of analytical models for evaluating the fluid mechanics of membrane coated, dead-end ceramic filters, and to determine the effects of thermal and thermo-chemical aging on the material properties of emerging ceramic hot gas filters. A honeycomb cordierite monolith with a thin ceramic coating and a rigid candle filter were evaluated.

  3. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  4. Filtered cathodic arc source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  5. Event Filter Dataflow Software

    CERN Document Server

    Meessen, C; Bosman, M; Karr, K M; Pacheco, A; Qian, Z; Touchard, F

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the software handling the flow of events through the Event Filter. This is the fourth iteration of the implementation of the code. When compared to previous versions, enhancements come from the feedback by users and can be seen as simplifications while the interfaces have been kept identical. The high level design of the dataflow is briefly reminded. Then, the details of the implementation of the components are given.

  6. Web Content Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Hidalgo, José María; Puertas Sanz, Enrique; Carrero García, Francisco Manuel; Buenaga Rodríguez, Manuel de

    2009-01-01

    Across the years, Internet has evolved from an academic network to a truly communication medium, reaching impressive levels of audience and becoming a billionaire business. Many of our working, studying, and entertainment activities are nowadays overwhelmingly limited if we get disconnected from the net of networks. And of course, with the use comes abuse. The World Wide Web features a wide variety of content that are harmful for children or just inappropriate in the workplace. Web filtering ...

  7. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  8. The influence of biomaterials on inflammatory responses to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, J M; Matata, B M; Yin, H Q; Esposito, A; Mahiout, A; Taggart, D P; Lowe, G D

    1996-05-01

    The nature of cardiopulmonary bypass and the complexity of the inflammatory response make the detection and interpretation of a biomaterial influence difficult. However, if mediation of the inflammatory response is considered to be an appropriate clinical goal, alteration to the biomaterial influence merits further investigation.

  9. Gastrointestinal motility during cardiopulmonary bypass : A sonomicrometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Kroon, TL; Elstrodt, JM; Rakhorst, G

    2006-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is known to impair the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the movement behavior of the gastrointestinal tract during CPB. This study was aimed to assess the gastrointestinal motility with sonomicrometry, a distance measurement using u

  10. Inpatient healthcare provider bypassing by women and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to a person's decision to seek care at a healthcare facility that is not the nearest one ... Methods: this study examined inpatient care facility bypassing in urban Bo, ... The locations of residential structures and hospitals were identified using a ...

  11. Blood concentrations of cefuroxime in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertholee, Daphne; ter Horst, Peter G. J.; Hijmering, Michel L.; Spanjersberg, Alexander J.; Hospes, Wobbe; Wilffert, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are at risk for severe postoperative infections. Prophylactic cefuroxime may help to reduce this risk, however sufficient concentrations, i.e. above the breakpoint (32 mg/L), are mandatory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the

  12. Prediction of bypass transition with differential Reynolds stress models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, K.J.A.; Henkes, R.A.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Boundary layer transition induced by high levels of free stream turbulence (FSl), so called bypass transition, can not be predicted with conventional stability calculations (e.g. the en-method). The use of turbulence models for transition prediction has shown some success for this type of flows, and

  13. Polarization for the by-pass SLAC/PEP collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1980-06-01

    It was suggested that one can collide the store e/sup +/ beam in PEP with the e/sup /minus// beam from SLAC to reach a center-of-mass energy higher than that achieved by the PEP colliding beams. Although the future of this PEP/SLAC collider is not yet certain, it is useful to first explore its physics possibilities. One possible version of the SLAC/PEP collider utilizes a by-pass at the interaction point; the stored beam is displaced vertically by a set of vertical bending magnets every time the linac beam arrives. One feature of this by-pass scheme that makes it attractive is that the amount of the vertical displacement of the by-pass can be chosen so that the spin polarization of the stored beam is made longitudinal at the point of interaction. In this note, we have studied the various depolarization effects of the stored e/sup +/ beam due to the perturbation of the by-pass magnets. 1 fig.

  14. Emergency bypass post percutaneous atrial ablation: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2010-11-01

    A 34-year-old male undergoing percutaneous atrial ablation procedure for paroxysmal fibrillation required emergency sternotomy for cardiac tamponade. The patient had been anticoagulated and had received plavix and aspirin prior to and during the ablation procedure. Seven units of red cell concentrate had been transfused in the cardiac catherisation laboratory. On arrival in theatre, the patient was hypotensive, but was awake on induction of anaesthesia. No recordable blood pressure with non-invasive monitoring was observed. A sternotomy was immediately performed and, on evacuation of the pericardium, a bleeding site was not visible. The patient was commenced on cardiopulmonary bypass. Bleeding site was identified and the defect closed. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass with minimal inotropic support and made an uneventful recovery. Bypass time was 38 minutes. A literature review showed a 1% incidence of post-ablation bleeding(1). The incidence of reverting to bypass for such an event has not been reported previously. During these procedures, it might be wise to have the cardiothoracic team notified while atrial ablation procedures are being performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  15. Pathophysiology and treatment of edema following femoropopliteal bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Slaa, A.; Dolmans, D. E. J. G. J.; Ho, G. H.; Moll, F. L.; van der Laan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial lower-limb edema affects the majority of patients who undergo peripheral bypass surgery. Edema has impairing effects on the microvascular and the macrovascular circulation, causes discomfort and might delay the rehabilitation process of the patient. However, the pathophysiology of this e

  16. Bypassing of a barrier by dissociated and superlattice dislocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhushan, Karihaloo

    1975-01-01

    Very simple procedures are used to calculate the upper and lower bounds for the applied stress required for the leading extended (superlattice) dislocation in a group of n coplanar screw dislocations of like sign with Burgers vector b to bypass a noncoplanar perfect screw dislocation with Burgers...... vector mb (m...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator. 870.4350 Section 870.4350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... gases between blood and a gaseous environment to satisfy the gas exchange needs of a patient during...

  18. Emergency EC-IC bypass for symptomatic atherosclerotic ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nitta, Junpei; Ishizaka, Shigetoshi; Kanaya, Kohei; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery has no preventive effect on subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid occlusion and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. A few studies have assessed whether an urgent EC-IC bypass surgery is an effective treatment for main trunk stenosis or occlusion in acute stage. The authors retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive patients who underwent urgent EC-IC bypass for symptomatic internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion between January 2003 and December 2011. Clinical characteristics and neuroimagings were evaluated and analyzed. Based on preoperative angiogram, responsible lesions were the internal carotid artery in 19 (32.8%) patients and the middle cerebral artery in 39 (67.2%). No hemorrhagic complication occurred. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed improvement of neurological function after surgery, and 74.1% of patients had favorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was associated with insufficient collateral flow and new infarction after bypass surgery.

  19. Fabric heart retractor for coronary artery bypass operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, S; Ishihara, A

    1993-06-01

    A new device for heart retraction during coronary artery bypass operations has been developed. It provides safe and steady support and an unobstructed view of the lateral, posterior, and inferior surfaces of the heart; in addition, it is easy to handle.

  20. Pathophysiology and treatment of edema following femoropopliteal bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Slaa, A.; Dolmans, D. E. J. G. J.; Ho, G. H.; Moll, F. L.; van der Laan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial lower-limb edema affects the majority of patients who undergo peripheral bypass surgery. Edema has impairing effects on the microvascular and the macrovascular circulation, causes discomfort and might delay the rehabilitation process of the patient. However, the pathophysiology of this e

  1. Clinical benefit of steroid use in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitlock, Richard P; Chan, Simon; Devereaux, P J;

    2008-01-01

    We sought to establish the efficacy and safety of prophylactic steroids in adult patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials reporting the effects of prophylactic steroids on clinical outcomes after CPB. Outcomes examined were mortality...

  2. Li-Ion Battery By-Pass Removal Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Pasquier, E.

    2005-05-01

    The reasons of the by-pass use on Space batteries is to avoid open circuit, short-circuit and dramatic performances drift on the power system. By-pass diodes are currently used in NiH2 batteries due to the high probability of open circuit at cell level. This probability is mainly linked to the possibility to have a hydrogen leak within the pressure vessel due to the high operating pressure (70 bars) that can induce cell open circuit. For the Lithium-Ion batteries, first items had bypass implemented by similarity, but: All the cell failure cases have been analyzed at battery level: - Cell Open circuit: In contrast to NiCd and NiH2 cells, Li-Ion cells can be put in parallel due to the fact the open circuit voltage (OCV) is linked to the State Of Charge (SOC). With cells in parallel, a battery open circuit failure can never be encountered even with a cell in open circuit. - Cell Short circuit: In case of cell short, the entire cells within the module will be shorted. - Cell capacity spread: If the capacities of cells in series are strongly diverging, the worst module limits the battery. In case the battery is no more able to deliver the requested power for which it was designed, the worst module has to be reversed. In reversal, a Li-Ion cell is self-shorted. So, the strong capacity decrease in one module leads to the short of this module. These three failure cases cover all the possible Li-Ion failure root causes. Considering these three events, the analysis demonstrates that the Li-Ion battery still functions in any case without any by-pass system because the design of the battery size always takes into account the loss of one module. Nevertheless, the by-pass removal should allow to: - Improve the battery reliability as each bypass unit represents a single - Reduce by at least 30 % of the total price of the battery, - Reduce significant weight at battery level, - Shorten the battery manufacturing lead time (at least 8 months for by-pass purchasing), - Avoid US

  3. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequat...... predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling....

  4. Reoperations for occluded arterial bypasses in the lower limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background We reviewed the outcomes of reoperations for 29 patients (30 limbs) who had undergone occluded arterial bypass in the lower limbs from May 1996 to September 2005. Methods The 30 lower limbs of the 29 patients with arteriosclerotic obstruction received 44 reoperations, including thrombectomy alone (group T, 27) and inflow or outflow reconstruction plus thrombectomy (group C, 17). Among the 17 operations in group C, 17.6% (3/17) were inflow reconstructions involving the axillary-femoral (1), aorta-iliac (1) and aorta-femoral (1) arteries, and 76.4% (13/17) outflow reconstructions involving the femoral-popliteal bypass-tibial (8), femoral-tibial (1), femoral-popliteal bypass-popliteal arteries below the knee (2), and the femoral-popliteal bypass-tibial-peroneal trunk (2). One patient (1 limb) underwent both inflow and outflow reconstructions with an iliac arterial stent and a graft-popliteal anastomosis patch. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts were used in the inflow or outflow reconstructions abve the knee. Autovenous grafts or autovenously combined PTFE grafts were used in the outflow reconstructions below the knee. Results The percentages of Fontaine stage III and IV before primary operation and reoperation were 60% (18/30) and 86.7% (26/30), respectively (P0.05). Among 42 reoperations, 19 failed within 1 month in groups T (16) and C (3) (P0.05). The rate of limb salvage was 64.29% (18/28). Conclusions The percentages of Fontaine stage III and IV before reoperation may be much higher than those before primary operation. Thrombectomy plus inflow/outflow reconstruction creates patency better than thrombectomy alone for re-occluded bypass.

  5. Sequestration of fentanyl by the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, G; Crean, P; Klein, J; Goresky, G; Villamater, J; MacLeod, S M

    1984-01-01

    Immediately following the connection of pediatric patients to cardiopulmonary bypass we have consistently observed a steep decrease in fentanyl plasma concentration (74 +/- 8.7%) (mean +/- SD), much greater than would have been expected from hemodilution alone (50.6% +/- 12.0%) (p less than 0.0001). Priming of the pump with 20 ng/ml of fentanyl before connection to the patients did not prevent this phenomenon. In order to study the possibility that fentanyl is sequestered by the bypass, levels of the primed drug in the bypass were assessed before connecting the pump to the children and a steep fall from 20 ng/ml to zero was shown before initiation of bypass. Pharmacokinetic assessment of fentanyl in a closed pump circuit showed that levels of 120 ng/ml fall to 2 ng/ml within 3 min and remain stable at the lower concentration for at least 30 min. Further studies have identified the membrane oxygenator as the major site of fentanyl sequestration. Concentrations across the membrane fall from 120 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml. The attached siliconized tubing is associated with a minor binding effect sufficient to reduce concentrations from 110 to 84 ng/ml. The pvc tubing, aluminium heat exchanger and plastic reservoir had no binding effect on fentanyl. The possibility that a decrease in fentanyl protein binding caused the fall in serum concentration was checked in 5 patients undergoing open heart surgery. After initiation of the cardiopulmonary bypass, there was a significant decrease in albumin serum concentrations from 32.0 +/- 2.3 mM to 15.0 +/- 1.6 mM (p less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Computer-assisted LAD bypass grafting at the open heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Christine; Gnahm, Claudia; Friedl, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Martin; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2009-02-01

    Open heart bypass surgery is the standard treatment in advanced coronary heart diseases. For an effective revascularization procedure, optimal placement of the bypass is very important. To accelerate the intraoperative localization of the anastomosis site and to increase the precision of the procedure, a concept for computer assistance in open heart bypass surgery has been developed comprising the following steps: 1. Preprocedural planning: A patient-specific coronary map with information on vessel paths and wall plaque formations is extracted from a multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). On this basis, the heart surgeon and the cardiac radiologist define the optimal anastomosis site prior to surgery. 2. Intraoperative navigation: During surgery, data are recorded at the beating heart using a stereo camera system. After registering the pre- and intraoperative data sets, preprocedural information can be transferred to the surgical site by overlaying the coronary map and the planned anastomosis site on the live video stream. With this visual guidance system, the surgeon can navigate to the planned anastomosis site. In this work, the proposed surgical assistance system has been validated for the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The accuracy of the registration mechanism has been evaluated in retrospective on patient data sets and the effects of breathing motion were quantified. The promising results of the retrospective evaluation led to the in-vivo application of the computer assistance system during several bypass grafting procedures. Intraoperative navigation has been performed successfully and postoperative evaluation confirms that the bypass grafts were accurately positioned to the preoperatively planned anastomosis sites.

  7. Patterned wafer inspection using spatial filtering for the cluster environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubenblatt, M A; Batchelder, J S

    1992-06-10

    Automated-process tool clusters are becoming increasingly prevalent in advanced semiconductor manufacturing plants, necessitating integrated inspection of patterned semiconductor wafers for defects and particulates. Integrated inspection tools must be small, sensitive, inexpensive, and fast in order to be compatible with the cluster environment. We show that intensity spatial filtering, with some refinements, can provide the required sensitivity and speed in a small, inexpensive package. By using dark-field illumination and a nonrectangular azimuthal orientation (e.g., 45 degrees ) to the primarily rectangular pattern, we show that the strongest diffraction from the pattern can be made to bypass the optical system entirely. This technique alleviates stringent scatter and antireflection requirements on the optics, and it permits the use of off-the-shelf components.

  8. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. See a map showing the largest oil spills ... Hurricane Season Meet the New CAMEO Chemicals Mobile App Revised: Sep 25, 2017 10:35pm | Site Map | ...

  9. Centrifuges cut oil change costs in half at NYC shopping mall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.J.

    1983-09-01

    This article describes the use of centrifuges in five double turbocharged engines in an energy plant at a New York City shopping mall. The result of the use of the centrifuges has been a marked decrease in the use of lubricating oil. While the mechanics formerly changed oil and filters twice a year, they now only change it when the oil analysis says they should. So far it has been estimated that an oil change is needed only once a year, cutting oil and filter usage in half. An estimated annual saving of $1000 for lubricating oil and $476 for the 28 filters on each engine, which is a direct savings of $7380 per year for all five engines.

  10. Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass for cerebral atherosclerotic disease: factors determining the bypass patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Murai, Yasuo; Tateyama, Kojiro; Tamaki, Tomonori; Mizunari, Takayuki; Matsukawa, Hideoshi; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2016-10-01

    Long-term patency of superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery for atherosclerotic disease and associated risk factors for loss of patency have rarely been discussed. We retrospectively analyzed long-term patency following STA-MCA bypass and evaluated various demographic and clinical factors to identify the ones predictive of postsurgical loss of patency using records of 84 revascularization procedures (58 patients, 45 males; mean age at surgery 63.6 years, range 31-78 years). Bypass patency was diagnosed based on magnetic resonance angiography or three-dimensional computed tomography. The mean follow-up period was 24.7 months (range 6-63 months). Decreased bypass patency was observed in 4 of 58 patients (6.9 %) who collectively underwent 6 bypasses (7.1 %) of 84. All cases of decreased bypass patency were first detected within 6 months of surgery. Bypass patency was not correlated with age, sex, number of anastomoses, postoperative cerebral infarction, or control of postoperative diabetes mellitus. We found a significant association of bypass patency with hyperperfusion (p = 0.01) and postoperative smoking (p = 0.0036). Furthermore, we found a significant association of hyperperfusion with STA diameter (p bypass patency in cerebral atherosclerotic disease patients. Careful monitoring of patency to prevent hyperperfusion and cessation of smoking are recommended, particularly within 6 months of the surgery.

  11. PV modules without bypass diodes; PV-Module ohne Bypass-Dioden? - Untersuchungen an einer PV-Fassade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukamp, H.; Kresse, A.; Leithold, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)]|[Ingenieurbuero A. Kresse, Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[Solare Systemtechnik GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    In order to protect solar modules against high output losses with non-homogeneous irradiation, bypass diodes which are mostly accommodated in the module connection socket are used. One would often gladly dispense with these connection sockets for integration of customer-specific large modules in facades. The question: ``Where will the diodes go?`` must then be satisfactorily answered. Both laminating the diodes in the module and their external accommodation cause extra expense elsewhere. It would be ideal if one could dispense with the bypass diodes altogether. This article tries to answer the question, in what conditions this is possible. Starting from the PV facade `Freiburg solar centre`, where one dispensed with the protective diodes, investigations are carried out experimentally and by means of simulation calculations. [Deutsch] Um Solarmodule bei inhomogener Bestrahlung vor hohen Verlustleistungen zu schuetzen, werden ueblicherweise Bypass-Dioden eingesetzt, die zumeist in der Modulanschlussdose untergebracht sind. Zur Fassadenintegration von kundenspezifischen Grossmodulen wuerde man manchmal gerne auf die Anschlussdosen verzichten. Hierfuer muesste zunaechst die Frage `wohin mit den Dioden?` befriedigend beantwortet werden. Sowohl die Einlaminierung der Dioden in das Modul, als auch deren externe Unterbringung versursachen an anderer Stelle einen erhoehten Aufwand. Ideal waere es, wenn man auf die Bypass-Dioden ganz verzichten koennte. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht die Frage zu beantworten, unter welchen Bedingungen dies moeglich ist. Ausgehend von der PV-Fassade `Solarzentrum Freiburg` - hier wurde auf den Einsatz von Schutzdioden verzichtet - werden experimentell und mittels Simulationsrechnungen Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt. (orig./RHM)

  12. A new procedure for treatment of oily slurry using geotextile filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M B; Cammarota, M C; Freire, D D C; Ehrlich, M

    2004-07-05

    A new procedure to mitigate the environmental impacts and reduce the cost of disposal of oil slurry is present in this paper. Waste from the petroleum industry has a high environmental impact. Systems for oil-water separation have been used to mitigate the contamination potential of these types of effluents. At the outlet of these systems, the oil is skimmed-off the surface, while the slurry is removed from the base. Due to the high concentration of contaminants, the disposal of this slurry is an environmentally hazardous practice. Usually this type of waste is disposed of in tanks or landfills after removal from the industrial plant. Basically, the proposed procedure utilizes drying beds with geotextile filters to both reduce the water content in the slurry and obtain a less contaminated effluent. Laboratory tests were carried out to simulate the drying system. Four types of filters were analyzed: two non-woven geotextiles, one woven geotextile, and a sand filter.

  13. Approximately liner phase IIR digital filter banks

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Ćertić; M. D. Lutovac; L. D. Milić

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM) are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with li...

  14. Numerical analysis for the matching of the core driven compression system in a double bypass engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; LIU Bao-jie

    2011-01-01

    The numerical analysis for the matching of the core driven compression system in a double bypass variable cycle engine was presented in this paper. The system consists of a one-stage-core driven fan stage (CDFS), an inner bypass duet and a five-stage high pressure compressor (HPC), providing two basic operating modes: the single bypass mode and the double bypass mode. Variable vanes are necessary to realize the mode switch of the system. The correct matching in the double bypass mode requires a proper combination of the mass flow, total pressure ratio and blade speed. The work capacity of the system decreases in the double bypass mode and the pressure ratio tends to decrease more for the CDFS and the front stages of the HPC. The overall system efficiency is higher in the double bypass mode. The radial distributions of aerodynamic parameters are similar in different modes. The notable redistribution of mass flow downstream the CDFS in the single bypass mode leads to strong radial flows and additional mixing losses. The absolute flow angles into the inner bypass increase for the inner span and decrease for the outer span when the system is switched from the single bypass mode to the double bypass mode.

  15. Arterial pressure and deltoid muscle gas tensions during cardiopulmonary bypass in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T H

    1978-07-01

    The results of this study demonstrate that standard techniques of conducting cardiopulmonary bypass produce low muscle oxygen and high muscle carbon dioxide tensions and, thus, little perfusion of skeletal muscle. Our findings also show that PmO2 and PmCO2 do not return to pre-bypass levels until the mean arterial blood pressure exceeds 12 kPa (90 torr) during bypass and that utilization of vasopressor drugs during bypass maintains the pressure; but at the expense of muscle blood flow. The data indicate that both high mean blood pressure and high flow are necessary during bypass to ensure skeletal muscle perfusion and suggest, when combined with preliminary animal findings, that this type of bypass perfusion may prove to be superior to standard techniques in hastening recovery after cardio-pulmonary bypass.

  16. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...

  17. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  18. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  19. Robust Kriged Kalman Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baingana, Brian; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Mateos, Gonzalo; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-11-11

    Although the kriged Kalman filter (KKF) has well-documented merits for prediction of spatial-temporal processes, its performance degrades in the presence of outliers due to anomalous events, or measurement equipment failures. This paper proposes a robust KKF model that explicitly accounts for presence of measurement outliers. Exploiting outlier sparsity, a novel l1-regularized estimator that jointly predicts the spatial-temporal process at unmonitored locations, while identifying measurement outliers is put forth. Numerical tests are conducted on a synthetic Internet protocol (IP) network, and real transformer load data. Test results corroborate the effectiveness of the novel estimator in joint spatial prediction and outlier identification.

  20. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  1. From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1989-01-01

    A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2......) The study of the new digital filtertype has led to design formulas for interdigital transmission line filters that are very simple compared to the hitherto known formulas. The accuracy is the same or better....

  2. Totally laparoscopic bypass surgery for aortoiliac occlusive disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lian-rui; GU Yong-quan; QI Li-xing; TONG Zhu; WU Xin; GUO Jian-ming; ZHANG Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Totally laparoscopic aortic surgery is still in its infancy in China.One of the factors preventing adoption of this technique is its steep learning curve.The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery for aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD).Methods From November 2008 to November 2012,12 patients were treated for severe AIOD with a totally laparoscopic bypass surgery at our university hospital.The demographic data,operative data,postoperative recovery data,morbidity and mortality were analyzed and compared with those of conventional open approach.Results Twelve totally laparoscopic aortic surgery procedures,including two iliofemoral bypasses (IFB),three unilateral aortofemoral bypasses (UAFB),and seven aortobifemoral bypasses (ABFB),were performed.Conversion to open procedures was required in three patients.The mean operation time was 518 (range,325-840) minutes,mean blood loss was 962 (range,400-2500) ml,and mean aortic anastomosis time was 75 (range,40-150) minutes.Compared with conventional open approach for aortofemoral bypasses performed concomitantly during this period,laparoscopic patients required fewer narcotics and a shorter in-hospital stay and earlier recovery.Postoperative complications developed in four patients,including a single patient with transient left hydronephrosis,ischemic colonic fistula and pneumonia,residual aortic stenosis proximal to the anastomotic site,and asymptomatic partial left renal infarction.All patients recovered and were discharged on postoperative Days 7-14 except one patient that died of respiratory failure on Day 46.All grafts were patent with follow-up imaging performed by Duplex examination,with a mean follow-up time of 10.7 (range,2-61) months.Conclusion Totally laparoscopic bypass surgery is a feasible and safe procedure forAIOD,but attention needs to be paid to improve laparoscopic skills of vascular surgery in order to minimize morbidity during the learning

  3. Simulating transport in and entrainment form nonwoven fibrous, knitted, and opne-cell foam filters

    OpenAIRE

    Golkarfard, V.; Mullins, B; King, A.; Abishek, S.; Kasper, G; Heikamp, W.

    2016-01-01

    The movement and re-entrainment of liquid droplets from three different filter media, namely fibrous, knitted, and open-cell foam was investigated numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A range of face velocities were considered which resulted in a range of oil transform rates and steady state saturation levels. It will be shown that liquid volume fraction in filters depends on velocity and time. The minimum velocity required for detachment of droplets was also identified. The ...

  4. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Nanoparticle optical notch filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinadhuni, Pradeep Kumar

    Developing novel light blocking products involves the design of a nanoparticle optical notch filter, working on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). These light blocking products can be used in many applications. One such application is to naturally reduce migraine headaches and light sensitivity. Melanopsin ganglion cells present in the retina of the human eye, connect to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN-the body's clock) in the brain, where they participate in the entrainment of the circadian rhythms. As the Melanopsin ganglion cells are involved in triggering the migraine headaches in photophobic patients, it is necessary to block the part of visible spectrum that activates these cells. It is observed from the action potential spectrum of the ganglion cells that they absorb light ranging from 450-500nm (blue-green part) of the visible spectrum with a λmax (peak sensitivity) of around 480nm (blue line). Currently prescribed for migraine patients is the FL-41 coating, which blocks a broad range of wavelengths, including wavelengths associated with melanopsin absorption. The nanoparticle optical notch filter is designed to block light only at 480nm, hence offering an effective prescription for the treatment of migraine headaches.

  6. Robust fault detection filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Randal Kirk

    The detection filter is a specially tuned linear observer that forms the residual generation part of an analytical redundancy system designed for model-based fault detection and identification. The detection filter has an invariant state subspace structure that produces a residual with known and fixed directional characteristics in response to a known design fault direction. In addition to a parameterization of the detection filter gain, three methods are given for improving performance in the presence of system disturbances, sensor noise, model mismatch and sensitivity to small parameter variations. First, it is shown that by solving a modified algebraic Riccati equation, a stabilizing detection filter gain is found that bounds the H-infinity norm of the transfer matrix from system disturbances and sensor noise to the detection filter residual. Second, a specially chosen expanded-order detection filter is formed with fault detection properties identical to a set of independent reduced-order filters that have no structural constraints. This result is important to the practitioner because the difficult problem of finding a detection filter insensitive to disturbances and sensor noise is converted to the easier problem of finding a set of uncoupled noise insensitive filters. Furthermore, the statistical properties of the reduced-order filter residuals are easier to find than the statistical properties of the structurally constrained detection filter residual. Third, an interpretation of the detection filter as a special case of the dual of the restricted decoupling problem leads to a new detection filter eigenstructure assignment algorithm. The new algorithm places detection filter left eigenvectors, which annihilate the detection spaces, rather than right eigenvectors, which span the detection spaces. This allows for a more flexible observer based fault detection system structure that could not be formulated as a detection filter. Furthermore, the link to the dual

  7. 液压机液压系统过滤器的选择与设计%Selection and design of hydraulic filter for hydraulic press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景海

    2012-01-01

    维护油液清洁对液压机液压系统十分重要.介绍了液压机液压系统中常用过滤器的种类及过滤器选型时应考虑的因素.%The cleanliness of the hydraulic oil is very important to the hydraulic system of hydraulic press.There are four common kinds of filter used in hydraulic system of hydraulic press as follows: high pressure filter,low pressure filter,water pressure filter,and air filter.Entry and exit size of filters,nominal pressure,filtering precision,and filter material should have been considered in the selection of the filter.

  8. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  9. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  10. Estimation of Oil Production Rates in Reservoirs Exposed to Focused Vibrational Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Chanseok

    2014-01-01

    Elastic wave-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being investigated as a possible EOR method, since strong wave motions within an oil reservoir - induced by earthquakes or artificially generated vibrations - have been reported to improve the production rate of remaining oil from existing oil fields. To date, there are few theoretical studies on estimating how much bypassed oil within an oil reservoir could be mobilized by such vibrational stimulation. To fill this gap, this paper presents a numerical method to estimate the extent to which the bypassed oil is mobilized from low to high permeability reservoir areas, within a heterogeneous reservoir, via wave-induced cross-flow oscillation at the interface between the two reservoir permeability areas. This work uses the finite element method to numerically obtain the pore fluid wave motion within a one-dimensional fluid-saturated porous permeable elastic solid medium embedded in a non-permeable elastic semi-infinite solid. To estimate the net volume of mobilized oil from the low to the high permeability area, a fluid flow hysteresis hypothesis is adopted to describe the behavior at the interface between the two areas. Accordingly, the fluid that is moving from the low to the high permeability areas is assumed to transport a larger volume of oil than the fluid moving in the opposite direction. The numerical experiments were conducted by using a prototype heterogeneous oil reservoir model, subjected to ground surface dynamic loading operating at low frequencies (1 to 50 Hz). The numerical results show that a sizeable amount of oil could be mobilized via the elastic wave stimulation. It is observed that certain wave frequencies are more effective than others in mobilizing the remaining oil. We remark that these amplification frequencies depend on the formation’s elastic properties. This numerical work shows that the wave-based mobilization of the bypassed oil in a heterogeneous oil reservoir is feasible, especially

  11. Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters: their use in anaesthesia and intensive care. Part 1 - history, principles and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, A R

    2011-01-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters are intended to replace the normal warming, humidifying and filtering functions of the upper airways when these structures are bypassed during anaesthesia and intensive care. Guidance on their use continues to evolve. The aim of this part of the review is to describe the principles of their action and efficiency and to summarise the findings from clinical and laboratory studies. Based on previous studies, an appropriate minimum target for moisture output is 30 and 20 g.m⁻³ for long-duration use in intensive care and short-duration use in anaesthesia, respectively. The practice of reusing a breathing system in anaesthesia, provided it is protected by a filter, assumes that the filter is effective. However, there is wide variation in the gas-borne filtration performance, and contaminated condensate can potentially pass through some filters under typical pressures encountered during mechanical ventilation.

  12. Spatial filters for high average power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Alvin C

    2012-11-27

    A spatial filter includes a first filter element and a second filter element overlapping with the first filter element. The first filter element includes a first pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a first distance. Each of the first pair of cylindrical lenses has a first focal length. The first filter element also includes a first slit filter positioned between the first pair of cylindrical lenses. The second filter element includes a second pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a second distance. Each of the second pair of cylindrical lenses has a second focal length. The second filter element also includes a second slit filter positioned between the second pair of cylindrical lenses.

  13. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  14. Wavelength Filters in Fibre Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Venghaus, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Wavelength filters constitute an essential element of fibre-optic networks. This book gives a comprehensive account of the principles and applications of such filters, including their technological realisation. After an introductory chapter on wavelength division multiplexing in current and future fibre optic networks follows a detailed treatment of the phase characteristics of wavelength filters, a factor frequently neglected but of significant importance at high bit rates. Subsequent chapters cover three-dimensional reflection of gratings, arrayed waveguide gratings, fibre Bragg gratings, Fabry-Perot filters, dielectric multilayer filters, ring filters, and interleavers. The book explains the relevant performance parameters, the particular advantages and shortcomings of the various concepts and components, and the preferred applications. It also includes in-depth information on the characteristics of both commercially available devices and those still at the R&D stage. All chapters are authored by inter...

  15. Initial clinical experience with the trabecular micro-bypass stent in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Detlev; Wetzel, Wolfgang; Haffner, David S; Hill, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of a trabecular micro-bypass stent designed to allow direct aqueous drainage from the anterior chamber into Schlemm's canal in patients with glaucoma. In this prospective case series of 6 patients with open-angle glaucoma, the microstent was inserted ab interno under local anesthesia in an ophthalmic operating room. Patients were seen postoperatively at 1 to 2 d, 1 wk, and 1, 2, 6, and 12 mo. All stents were successfully placed within Schlemm's canal. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) at preoperative baseline was 20.2+/-6.3 mm Hg (range, 14-31 mm Hg). Mean IOP decreased during the immediate postoperative period to approximately 12 to 13 mm Hg and was stabilized at 14 to 15 mm Hg with reduction of medication throughout 1 y of follow-up. No major complications occurred. According to observations reported in this feasibility study, the microstent was effective in reducing IOP and in decreasing the number of glaucoma medications required to control IOP. Implantation procedures were safe, and stents remained in place throughout the follow-up period. None of the complications traditionally associated with filtering surgery were reported. Further research on this stent in a larger group of patients is needed to assess its role in glaucoma therapy.

  16. Effects of experimental releases of oil and dispersed oil on Arctic nearshore macrobenthos. 1. Infauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, W.E.; Thomson, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental subsurface release of chemically dispersed oil at Cape Hatt, northern Baffin Island, resulted in short-term, relatively high oil concentrations in the waters of two adjacent bays, whereas untreated oil released onto the surface of a third bay could not be detected in the water below a depth of 1 m. Observations revealed no apparent short-term effects of untreated oil on shallow water infauna, whereas market acute effects on infauna, including emergence from the substrate and narcosis, were apparent in the dipsersed oil bays within 24 h of the release. Analysis of systematic samples at depths of 3 and 7 m showed that most affected animals recovered. Neither type of oil release caused any large-scale mortality of benthic infauna. Multivariate analyses showed no significant change in infaunal community structure, and effects attributable to oil were found in only 3 of 72 univariate analyses of density, biomass or size data for individual taxa. A progressive decrease in the condition of the filter-feeding bivalve Serripes groenlandicus in the reference bay was apparently the result of exposure to dilute dispersed oil for several days. A similar effect on condition in the surface deposit-feeding bivalve Mocoma calcarea was apparently caused by relatively low oil concentrations in the sediments of the dispersed and surface oil release bays. There were no apparent effects on recruitment in bivalve species with plantonic larvae, but density changes in the polychaete Spio indicated that oil in the sediments of the surface oil release and dispersed oil release bays affected reproductive processes. Effects on the condition of the bivalves were still evident two years post-spill in 1983, the last year of sampling. 75 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Semi-Hausdorff Fuzzy Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmana Gomathi Nayagam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fuzzy filters was studied by Vicente and Aranguren (1988, Lowen (1979, and Ramakrishnan and Nayagam (2002. The notion of fuzzily compactness was introduced and studied by Ramakrishnan and Nayagam (2002. In this paper, an equivalent condition of fuzzily compactness is studied and a new notion of semi-Hausdorffness on fuzzy filters, which cannot be defined in crisp theory of filters, is introduced and studied.

  18. Cuckoo Filter: Simplification and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eppstein, David

    2016-01-01

    The cuckoo filter data structure of Fan, Andersen, Kaminsky, and Mitzenmacher (CoNEXT 2014) performs the same approximate set operations as a Bloom filter in less memory, with better locality of reference, and adds the ability to delete elements as well as to insert them. However, until now it has lacked theoretical guarantees on its performance. We describe a simplified version of the cuckoo filter using fewer hash function calls per query. With this simplification, we provide the first theo...

  19. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  20. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  1. Enhanced oil spill detection sensors in low-light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Toomas H.; Ramboyong, Len; Roberts, Mark; Walters, Mark; Soyka, Thomas J.; Dixon, Roberta; Cho, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Although advances have been made in oil spill remote detection, many electro-optic sensors do not provide real-time images, do not work well under degraded visual environments, nor provide a measure of extreme oil thickness in marine environments. A joint program now exists between BSEE and NVESD that addresses these capability gaps in remote sensing of oil spills. Laboratory experiments, calibration techniques, and field tests were performed at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; Santa Barbara, California; and the Ohmsett Test Facility in Leonardo, New Jersey. Weathered crude oils were studied spectroscopically and characterized with LWIR, and low-light-level visible/NIR, and SWIR cameras. We designed and fabricated an oil emulsion thickness calibration cell for spectroscopic analysis and ground truth, field measurements. Digital night vision cameras provided real-time, wide-dynamic-range imagery, and were able to detect and recognize oil from full sun to partial moon light. The LWIR camera provided quantitative oil analysis (identification) for >1 mm thick crude oils both day and night. Two filtered, co-registered, SWIR cameras were used to determine whether oil thickness could be measured in real time. Spectroscopic results revealed that oil emulsions vary with location and weathered state and some oils (e.g., ANS and Santa Barbara seeps) do not show the spectral rich features from archived Deep Water Horizon hyperspectral data. Multi-sensor imagery collected during the 2015 USCG Airborne Oil Spill Remote Sensing and Reporting Exercise and the design of a compact, multiband imager are discussed.

  2. Axillobifemoral bypass: a brief surgical and historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishall, Priti L.; Matakas, Jason D.; English, Keara; Allyn, Katherine; Algava, Diane; Howe, Ruth A.; Downie, Sherry A.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) occurs when plaque accumulates in the arterial system and obstructs blood flow. Narrowing of the abdominal aorta and the common iliac arteries due to atherosclerotic plaques restricts blood supply to the lower limbs. Clinically, the lower limb symptoms of PAD are intermittent claudication, discoloration of the toes, and skin ulcers, all due to arterial insufficiency. Surgical revascularization is the primary mode of treatment for patients with severe limb ischemia. The objective of the surgical procedure is to bypass a blockage in an occluded major vessel by constructing an alternate route for blood flow using an artificial graft. This article presents information on aortoiliac reconstruction, with an emphasis on axillobifemoral bypass grafting.

  3. Dobutamine for inotropic support during emergence from cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J H; Tarhan, S; White, R D; Pluth, J R; Barnhorst, D A

    1976-04-01

    Dobutamine, a recently introduced derivative of dopamine, is reported to retain inotropic properties with less pronounced chronotropic and arrhythmogenic effects than isoproterenol. The drug was evaluated in two doses, 5 mug/kg/min and 10 mug/kg/min, in two groups of ten patients each, during emergence from cardiopulmonary bypass. A third group of five patients was studied similarly with isoproterenol, 0.02 mug/kg/min. Cardiac index increased 16 and 28 per cent eith the two doses of dobutamine, respectively, and 9 per cent with isoproterenol. Heart rate, in contrast, increased 6 and 15 per cent with dobutamine (not significant) and 44 per cent with isoproterenol (significant). Dobutamine seemed to associated with fewer arrhythmias than isoproterenol. It is concluded that dobutamine, 5-10 mug/kg/min, is suitable for use during emergence from cardiopulmonary bypass and may possess advantages over isoproterenol.

  4. Dacron or PTFE for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif P.; Lepäntalo, M.; Fossdal, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and polyester grafts (Dacron) for above knee femoropopliteal bypass. DESIGN: Multicenter randomised clinical trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 427 patients were randomised between 6mm Dacron (Uni-Graft, B. Braun Melsungen AG, 34212 Melsungen, Germany......) and PTFE (Goretex, W. L. Gore & Ass. Inc., Newark DE 19711, USA) above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts within 13 centres in Denmark (n=261), Norway (n=113) & Finland (n=53) between 1993 and 1998. Fourteen (3%) patients were excluded, leaving 413 patients with 208 Dacron and 205 PTFE grafts for analysis......-brachial pressures or imaging in case of doubt. RESULTS: The two-year primary patency rates for Dacron and PTFE were 70% and 57% (p=0.02), whereas the secondary patency rates were 76% and 65% (p=0.04), respectively. Primary patency at two years was significantly influenced by the number of patent crural vessels (two...

  5. Jugular-axillary vein bypass for salvage of arteriovenous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, K D; Hyde, G L

    1989-01-01

    Stenosis or occlusion of the subclavian vein can cause incapacitating upper extremity swelling and venous hypertension in the patient with an arteriovenous (AV) access. A case of subclavian vein occlusion is reported that was treated with internal jugular-axillary vein bypass. This procedure resulted in salvage of the access and rapid resolution of the associated upper extremity swelling. It was concluded that jugular-axillary vein bypass should be considered in patients who have massive upper extremity edema resulting from a functioning AV access and ipsilateral subclavian vein occlusion. Patients undergoing creation of an AV access who have had previous temporary subclavian catheters or previous early failure of an AV access should have phlebography before surgery.

  6. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieris, Rajeeva R; Fernando, Ravindra

    2015-08-30

    A 43-year-old male, with no previous history of mental illness, was diagnosed with coronary heart disease, after which he became acutely depressed and attempted suicide by ingesting an organophosphate pesticide. He was admitted to an intensive care unit and treated with pralidoxime, atropine, and oxygen. His coronary occlusion pattern required early coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. His family, apprehensive of a repeat suicidal attempt, requested surgery be performed as soon as possible. He recovered well from the OP poisoning and was mentally fit to express informed consent 2 weeks after admission. Seventeen days after poisoning, he underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and recovered uneventfully. Six years later, he remains in excellent health. We report this case because to the best of our knowledge there is no literature regarding CABG performed soon after organophosphate poisoning.

  7. In situ saphenous vein bypass surgery in diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L P; Schroeder, T V; Lorentzen, J E

    1992-01-01

    .005). Indication for surgery was gangrene or ulceration in 57% of diabetics, as opposed to 36% in non-diabetic patients (p = 0.0002). A femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in 18% of patients, whereas 82% received an infrapopliteal procedure, of which 42% were to the distal third of the calf or foot. Diabetic......From 1986 through to 1990 a total of 483 consecutive in situ infra-inguinal vein bypass procedures were performed in 444 patients, of whom 112 (25%) were diabetics (57 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and 55 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Based on a prospective vascular data registry...... this material was analysed to determine the influence of diabetes on the outcome. Preoperative risk factors were equally distributed among diabetic and non-diabetic patients, except for smoking habits (diabetics: 48%; non-diabetics: 64%, p = 0.002) and cardiac disease (diabetics: 45%; non-diabetics: 29%, p = 0...

  8. Arteriovenous fistulas aggravate the hemodynamic effect of vein bypass stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T G; Djurhuus, C; Pedersen, Erik Morre;

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of arteriovenous fistulas combined with varying degrees of stenosis on distal bypass hemodynamics and Doppler spectral parameters. METHODS: In an in vitro flow model bypass stenoses causing 30%, 55%, and 70% diameter reduction were induced...... 10 cm upstream of a fistula with low outflow resistance. Flow and intraluminal pressure were measured proximal to the stenosis and downstream of the fistula. The waveform parameters peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, pulsatility index, and pulse rise time were determined from midstream...... Doppler spectra obtained 10 cm downstream of the fistula. All measurements were carried out with open and clamped fistula. RESULTS: At 30% diameter reducing stenosis opening of the fistula induced a 12% systolic pressure drop across the stenosis but had no adverse effect on the Doppler waveform parameters...

  9. ANALYSIS OF 312 CASES OF REPEAT CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长志; 陆佩中

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate repeat coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 312 patients.Methods The data of 312 patients (average age 65±9 years) who had CABG operation in Hartford hospital were collected and analyzed. The mean duration follow up after the first CABG was 11.8±4.5 years. A total of 1069 bypass grafts were performed. Among them, 386 were arterial grafts such as internal mammary artery, radial artery and gastroepiploic artery; 682 were venous grafts and 1 Gore-Tex graft. Results The operative mortality was 4. 5%. Fifteen patients (4. 8%) had peri-operative myocardial infarction and 46 patients (15%) had low cardiac output syndrome. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) was used in 131 patients before, during and after operation. One hundred and nineteen patients weaned off IABP and recovered. ConclusionAlthough the difficulties and risk factors were increased, the results of redo CABG were still good.

  10. Development of particle filters for ships; Udvikling af partikelfiltre til skibe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, O.; Norre Holm, J.; Koecks, M. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2013-04-01

    The project has resulted in a solution with a well-functioning maritime particle filter which reduces the particle emission significantly. The visible smoke from the vessels funnel, which typically is seen while manoeuvring in the harbour, is also reduced to a minimum. The system is constructed in such a way that the exhaust gases can be bypassed around the filter unit, in this situation to ensure the engines operation in case of filter clogging. The system has been provided with safety functions to prevent an excessive exhaust gas back-pressure and there are fitted remote controlled exhaust valves. Some of the challenges in the project have been the requirement from the engine manufacturer of keeping a low turbocharger back-pressure, besides the space conditions aboard the test vessel and the achievement of sufficient temperatures for regeneration of the particle filter. To oppose the requirement of low exhaust gas back-pressure, the filter housing was designed with space for twice as many monoliths as originally planned. In the funnel casing the original installations were removed to make space for the filter housing, and the system was enlarged with electrically controlled exhaust valves to improve the daily operation of the crew. The regeneration issue was solved by mounting electric automatically controlled heating elements in the filter housing and by an ash exhaust system. Regeneration is carried out by the crew when the vessel lies in harbour in the evening after the last tour of the day. Before mounting the particle filter, measurements were carried out aboard, showing a compound of particle emissions with an expected high NO{sub x}-level of 8.33 g/kW, whereas the other emissions were lower than expected at first. Especially HC and CO were very low, but also the particle mass (PM) had a relatively low value of 0.22 g/kWh. After commissioning the particle filter, a significant reduction of 93% of the particle number (N) was observed. A reduction in N was

  11. Development of particle filters for ships; Udvikling af partikelfiltre til skibe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, O.; Norre Holm, J.; Koecks, M. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2013-04-01

    The project has resulted in a solution with a well-functioning maritime particle filter which reduces the particle emission significantly. The visible smoke from the vessels funnel, which typically is seen while manoeuvring in the harbour, is also reduced to a minimum. The system is constructed in such a way that the exhaust gases can be bypassed around the filter unit, in this situation to ensure the engines operation in case of filter clogging. The system has been provided with safety functions to prevent an excessive exhaust gas back-pressure and there are fitted remote controlled exhaust valves. Some of the challenges in the project have been the requirement from the engine manufacturer of keeping a low turbocharger back-pressure, besides the space conditions aboard the test vessel and the achievement of sufficient temperatures for regeneration of the particle filter. To oppose the requirement of low exhaust gas back-pressure, the filter housing was designed with space for twice as many monoliths as originally planned. In the funnel casing the original installations were removed to make space for the filter housing, and the system was enlarged with electrically controlled exhaust valves to improve the daily operation of the crew. The regeneration issue was solved by mounting electric automatically controlled heating elements in the filter housing and by an ash exhaust system. Regeneration is carried out by the crew when the vessel lies in harbour in the evening after the last tour of the day. Before mounting the particle filter, measurements were carried out aboard, showing a compound of particle emissions with an expected high NO{sub x}-level of 8.33 g/kW, whereas the other emissions were lower than expected at first. Especially HC and CO were very low, but also the particle mass (PM) had a relatively low value of 0.22 g/kWh. After commissioning the particle filter, a significant reduction of 93% of the particle number (N) was observed. A reduction in N was

  12. The impact of avoiding cardiopulmonary by-pass during coronary artery bypass surgery in elderly patients: the Danish On-pump Off-pump Randomisation Study (DOORS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Kim; Kjeldsen, Bo Juul; Madsen, Susanne Nørgaard;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation for ischemic heart disease provides improved quality of life and, in some patients, prolonged survival. Concern has, however, been raised about complications that may be related to the use of cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) and aortic cross-clampin...

  13. Filters and supports in orthoalgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, D. J.; Greechie, R. J.; Rüttimann, G. T.

    1992-05-01

    An orthoalgebra, which is a natural generalization of an orthomodular lattice or poset, may be viewed as a “logic” or “proposition system” and, under a welldefined set of circumstances, its elements may be classified according to the Aristotelian modalities: necessary, impossible, possible, and contingent. The necessary propositions band together to form a local filter, that is, a set that intersects every Boolean subalgebra in a filter. In this paper, we give a coherent account of the basic theory of Orthoalgebras, define and study filters, local filters, and associated structures, and prove a version of the compactness theorem in classical algebraic logic.

  14. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  15. Optimization of integrated polarization filters

    CERN Document Server

    Gagnon, Denis; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the design of small footprint, integrated polarization filters based on engineered photonic lattices. Using a rods-in-air lattice as a basis for a TE filter and a holes-in-slab lattice for the analogous TM filter, we are able to maximize the degree of polarization of the output beams up to 98 % with a transmission efficiency greater than 75 %. The proposed designs allow not only for logical polarization filtering, but can also be tailored to output an arbitrary transverse beam profile. The lattice configurations are found using a recently proposed parallel tabu search algorithm for combinatorial optimization problems in integrated photonics.

  16. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  17. Filter selection using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Devesh

    1996-03-01

    Convolution operators act as matched filters for certain types of variations found in images and have been extensively used in the analysis of images. However, filtering through a bank of N filters generates N filtered images, consequently increasing the amount of data considerably. Moreover, not all these filters have the same discriminatory capabilities for the individual images, thus making the task of any classifier difficult. In this paper, we use genetic algorithms to select a subset of relevant filters. Genetic algorithms represent a class of adaptive search techniques where the processes are similar to natural selection of biological evolution. The steady state model (GENITOR) has been used in this paper. The reduction of filters improves the performance of the classifier (which in this paper is the multi-layer perceptron neural network) and furthermore reduces the computational requirement. In this study we use the Laws filters which were proposed for the analysis of texture images. Our aim is to recognize the different textures on the images using the reduced filter set.

  18. Kalman filtering implementation with Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinbauer, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    1960 und 1961 veröffentlichte Rudolf Emil Kalmen seine Arbeiten über einen rekursiven prädiktiven Filter, der auf dem Gebrauch von rekursiven Algorithmen basiert. Damit revolutionierte er das Feld der Schätzverfahren. Seitdem ist der sogenannte Kalman Filter Gegenstand ausführlicher Forschung und findet bis heute Anwendung in zahlreichen Gebieten. Der Kalman Filter schätzt den Zustand eines dynamischen Systems, auch wenn die exakte Form dieses Systems unbekannt ist. Der Filter ist sehr lei...

  19. Assessing Patient bypass Behavior Using Taxi Trip Origin–Destination (OD Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gege Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many patients prefer to use the best hospitals even if there are one or more other hospitals closer to their homes; this behavior is called “hospital bypass behavior”. Because this behavior can be problematic in urban areas, it is important that it be reduced. In this paper, the taxi GPS data of Beijing and Suzhou were used to measure hospital bypass behavior. The “bypass behavior index” (BBI represents the bypass behavior for each hospital. The results indicated that the mean hospital bypass trip distance value ranges from 5.988 km to 9.754 km in Beijing and from 4.168 km to 10.283 km in Suzhou. In general, the bypass shares of both areas show a gradually increasing trend. The following hospitals exhibited significant patient bypass behavior: the 301 Hospital, Beijing Children’s Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and the Suzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The hospitals’ reputation, transport accessibility and spatial distribution were found to be the main factors affecting patient bypass behavior. Although the hospital bypass phenomena generally appeared to be more pronounced in Beijing, the bypass trip distances between hospitals were found to be more significant in Suzhou.

  20. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate