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  1. Assessment of Fish Biodiversity in Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Obe Bernardine Wuraola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of sustainable exploitation of the fishery resourcesof Oni River, Ogun State, Nigeria, the fish biodiversity assessment was carried out. This was conducted by enumerating and identifying fish species composition, measuring the fish length, fish weight, assessing the fish abundance and biomass, determining the length-weight relationships and the length-frequency of the fishes. Altogether, 592 fishes were sampled comprising twenty-eight (28 species belonging to sixteen (16 families. The families identified included: Cichlidae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Channidae, Malapteruridae, Gymnarchidae, Bagridae, Mochokidae, Polypteridae, Pantodontidae,Schilbeidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae, Characidae, Notopteridaeand Distichodontidae. The family Mormyridae was the most abundant with 163 members followed by Cichlidae with 161 members. The least represented family was Schilbeidae with only two (2 members. On the species level, Tilapia zillii had the greatest number of representation with seventy (70 members, followed by Oreochromis niloticus with fifty-eight (58 members.

  2. Monthly spatial occurrence of phytoplankton and zooplankton in River Ogun, Abeokuta, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria

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    Dimowo, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the monthly spatial occurrence of phytoplankton and zooplankton in River Ogun, Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria. This was carried out for seven months between December, 2011 and June, 2012 in 4 stations. A total of 41 species of phytoplankton and 16 zooplankton species from 5 classes respectively were recorded. Zooplankton was dominated by Cladocera throughout the study period while phytoplankton was dominated by blue green algae (Cyanophyta or Cyanobacteri...

  3. An Investigation on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Science in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Sakariyau, A. O.; Taiwo, Michael O.; Ajagbe, Olalere W.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the attitudes of secondary school students towards science in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred senior secondary school students consisting of 84 males and 116 females were selected from five secondary schools using stratified random sampling techniques. A 20-item Attitude to Science…

  4. Evaluation of rare earth elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest Nigeria.

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    Ayedun, H; Arowolo, T A; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A

    2016-06-11

    Rare earth elements in our environment are becoming important because of their utilization in permanent magnets, lamp phosphors, superconductors, rechargeable batteries, catalyst, ceramics and other applications. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of rare earth elements (REE) and the variability of their anomalous behavior in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. REE concentrations were determined in 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Lagos State groundwater is enriched with REE [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [0.365-488 (69.5 ± 117)] µg L(-1) than Ogun State groundwater [sum REEs range (mean ± SD)]; [1.14-232 (22.6 ± 41.1)] µg L(-1). Boreholes are more enriched with REEs than wells. Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (R = Pearson) was recorded in Lagos State groundwater between sum REEs and Fe (R = 0.55). However, there were no significant correlations between sum REEs, pH (R = 0.073) and HCO3(2-) (R = 0.157) in Ogun State groundwater. Chondrite-normalized plot shows that Lagos groundwater exhibits positive Ce anomaly, while Ogun State groundwater does not. The source of REE in Lagos State may be from the ocean and leaching from wastes dumpsites, while the source in Ogun State groundwater may be from the rocks.

  5. Economic Efficiency of Small Scale Farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Adeyemo, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava holds a prominent position as a food and industrial crop in the Nigerian economy. Thus, there are government initiatives to support its mass production for domestic use and export. This study investigated the efficiencies of cassava production in Odeda Local Government of Ogun State. A random sample of 200 cassava producers was taken and subjected to budgetary and stochastic frontier analyses. Results indicated that most of the farmers were male (90% with more than half (53% above 50 years of age. Land holding by inheritance (78% was prevalent. The gross margin and profit were N105, 775 and N95. 738,10 respectively. Cost ratio (1.8 and percentage profit (80% indicated that cassava farming was profitable in the area. Total variable and labour costs were 91.6% and 68.2% of the total cost respectively. The return to scale was 1.024. Farm size (0.771 and quantity of planting stakes (0.203 significantly (p ≤ 0.01 affected cassava production. Age and farming experience contributed to technical inefficiency while cost of fertilizer, cost of herbicides, membership of cooperative and level of education enhanced technical efficiency. Efficiency of cassava growers ranged between 88.69 and 100 with a mean of 89.4. It was concluded that cassava production was highly profitable in the area and farmers operated with maximum efficiency given the current technology. Farmers were advised to reduce labour costs and thus increase profit margin.

  6. Identification and prevalence of tetracycline resistance in enterococci isolated from poultry in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Funmilola A Ayeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in Nigeria both for human and animal infections because of its cheapness and ready availability. The use of tetracycline in animal husbandry could lead to horizontal transfer of tet genes from poultry to human through the gut microbiota, especially enterococci. Therefore, this study is designed to identify different enterococcal species from poultry feces in selected farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria, determine the prevalence of tetracycline resistance/genes and presence of IS256 in enterococcal strains. MaterialsandMethods: Enterococci strains were isolated from 100 fresh chicken fecal samples collected from seven local poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria. The strains were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, amoxycillin/claulanate, and of loxacin were performed by disc diffusion method. Detection of tet, erm, and van genes and IS256 insertion element were done by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results: Sixty enterococci spp. were identified comprising of Enterococcus faecalis 33 (55%, Enterococcus casseliflavus 21 (35%, and Enterococcus gallinarium 6 (10%. All the isolates were resistant to erythromycin (100%, followed by tetracycline (81.67%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (73.33%, ofloxacin (68.33%, vancomycin (65%, and gentamicin (20%. None of the enterococcal spp. harbored the van and erm genes while tet(M was detected among 23% isolates and is distributed mostly among E. casseliflavus. IS256 elements were detected only in 33% of E. casseliflavus that were also positive for tet(M gene. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that tetracycline resistance gene is present in the studied poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria and underscores the need for strict regulation on tetracycline usage in poultry farming in the studied

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Adediwura A Fred-Jaiyesimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several plants considered toxic are sometimes identified in traditional medicinal recipes. This study identified and inventoried the plants and plant parts identified as toxic in targeted local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: By administering tested questionnaires, information on the poisonous or toxic plants, poisonous parts, poisonous effects, modes of poisoning, and antidotes was obtained. Results and Conclusion: Ninety-two species belonging to 43 families were identified as toxic plants and these were mainly members of the Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae families. The botanical names, poisonous parts, common names, vernacular names, modes of poisoning, antidotes, and poisonous effects are presented in a table.

  8. Parental Involvement, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Olatoye, R. A.; Ogunkola, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and…

  9. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF CYCLE TRADERS IN THE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL STAPLES IN MAMU, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

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    Olubanjo, O.O.; Womiloju, S.O.; Akanni, Kassim Adekunle

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzed the performance of cycle traders in the marketing of foodstuffs in Mamu, Ogun State, Nigeria. A survey was carried out in the boundary market over five cycle market days across one hundred and fifty (150) foodstuffs traders. Cycle traders were grouped into fifteen (15) homogenous foodstuffs trading categories. Descriptive analytical tools were then used to analyse the socio-demographic characteristics of foodstuffs marketers in the market. Further, quantitative analytical t...

  10. Pregnancy detecting plants used in Remo and Ijebu areas of Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Fred-Jaiyesimi, Adediwura; Taiwo, Jolaade

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Background: Plants and plants extracts are employed in cultures for religious purposes, as beauty therapies, in the detection and management/treatment of diseases. Materials and Methodology: In this study, an ethnobotanical studies of plants used in detecting pregnancy in Ijebu and Remo areas of Ogun State were carried out using semi-structured to obtain demographic data, local names of plants, the morphological parts used. Furthermore, a phytochemical analysis of two of the identified plants was performed. Topical and urine tests of plants in detecting pregnancy were designed to mimic procedures used in traditional medicine for detecting pregnancy. Results: Five plant species were identified belonging to the families Araceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Rubiaceae in the survey. The identified plants had the use value (UV) of 0.25 (Culcasia scandens), 0.17 (Ipomoea mauritiana), Boerhavia diffusa while Launea taraxacifolia and Chassalia kolly had the UV of 0.08, respectively. B. diffusa L, C. kolly (Schumach) Hepper tested positive for the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. The onset and duration of symptoms of both B. diffusa and C. kolly leaves at 2000 and 1000 mg were dose-dependent. The hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of B. diffusa and C. kolly exhibited pruritus and restlessness in the in vivo model while the urine of pregnant women caused black spots on the leaves of L. taraxacifolia (Willd) Amin Ex. C. Jeffrey. Conclusion: This study reports a rare knowledge of using plants in detecting pregnancy in the Remo and Ijebu areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. PMID:28163967

  11. Assessment of the Economics and Resource-Use Efficiency of Rice Production in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    A. Muhammad-Lawal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is a major importer of rice in the world with over 756 million USD annual expenditure on rice importation. This is probably due to insufficient domestic production occasioned by inefficient utilization of resources and other farm inputs. This study is therefore designed to estimate the costs and returns to rice production; and analyze resource use efficiency in rice production in Ogun State, Nigeria. A three-stage sampling technique was used to select a total of 120 rice farmers. Gross margin and regression analyses were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that an average small scale rice farmer realizes a gross margin of N 90, 634.35 per hectare. While farm size, labour and crop production systems account for 80.5% (coefficient of multiple determination, R2 of the changes in rice production, the study revealed that farm size, labour and seeds were grossly underutilized in rice production. The study therefore recommends the need for policy that would enhance increase in the allocation of land, seeds and labour in the production of rice.

  12. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  13. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    R. O. KAREEM; S. B. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to fost er development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  14. Community perceptions of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

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    Akeju, David O; Vidler, Marianne; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Sawchuck, Diane; Qureshi, Rahat; von Dadelszen, Peter; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Dada, Olukayode A

    2016-06-08

    Pre-eclampsia is a complication of pregnancy responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. When undetected or poorly managed, it may progress to eclampsia which further worsens the prognosis. While most studies examining pre-eclampsia have used a bio-medical model, this study recognizes the role of the socio-cultural environment, in order to understand perceptions of pre-eclampsia within the community. The study was conducted in Ogun State, Nigeria in 2011-2012. Data were obtained through twenty-eight focus group discussions; seven with pregnant women (N = 80), eight with new mothers (N = 95), three with male decision-makers (N = 35), six with community leaders (N = 68), and three with traditional birth attendants (N = 36). Interviews were also conducted with the heads of the local traditional birth attendants (N = 4) and with community leaders (N = 5). Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed in NVivo 10 software. There was no terminology reportedly used for pre-eclampsia in the native language - Yoruba; however, hypertension has several terms independent of pregnancy status. Generally, 'gìrì âlábôyún' describes seizures specific to pregnancy. The cause of hypertension in pregnancy was thought to be due to depressive thoughts as a result of marital conflict and financial worries, while seizures in pregnancy were perceived to result from prolonged exposure to cold. There seemed to be no traditional treatment for hypertension. However for seizures the use of herbs, concoctions, incisions, and topical application of black soap were widespread. This study illustrates that knowledge of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are limited amongst communities of Ogun State, Nigeria. Findings reveal that pre-eclampsia was perceived as a stress-induced condition, while eclampsia was perceived as a product of prolonged exposure to cold. Thus, heat-related local medicines and herbal concoctions were the

  15. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study

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    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran; Olurinde O Oni; Albert A Salako

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA) of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun...

  16. NUTRITIONAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF HONEY SAMPLES OBTAINED FROM OGUN STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

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    M. O. ADENEKAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are no detailed studies on the nutritional and microbiological characteristics of honeyproduced in Ogun State in the Southwestern part of Nigeria. This paper investigated thesecomponents in honeys produced from different parts of this state. A total of 10 honey samples peryear were collected for the years 2008 – 2010. These were separately analyzed for their physicalproperties, nutritional and microbiological components in the laboratory. The results of thephysical properties showed that honey samples obtained from Ago-Iwoye has the lowest pH of3.48, which was significantly different from the pH values of 5.06, 5.21 and 4.06 obtained fromhoney samples from Abeokuta, Ibefun and Ilisan honey samples respectively. There wassignificant difference in moisture contents of honey samples obtained from Ogere (16.19 %, Otta(19.14 % and Ijebu-Ode (18.21 %, while the percentage ash contents of 0.78 % obtained fromhoney samples collected from Abeokuta was not significantly different from the value of 0.75 %obtained from Ago-Iwoye honey (P ≤ 0.05. However, the value of 1.11 mg 100 g-1 forhydroxymethylfurfural obtained from Ago-Iwoye honey samples was not significantly differentfrom the value of 0.32 mg 100 g-1 in honey samples obtained from Sagamu.The value for glucose ranged from 18.42 – 30.16 g 100 g-1, while fructose sugar varied between25.42 – 38.21 g 100 g-1. Minimum protein value of 0.02 % was obtained from Ijebu-Ode honey,while the maximum of 0.51 % was obtained from honey samples from Ilisan. Results of theelemental nutrient showed that potassium was the most abundant element in honey samples withthe range value of 14.78 – 17.42 mg 100 g-1 followed by calcium, which varied from 2.13 – 11.25mg 100 g-1. However, result of microbiological properties showed that the total plate count variedfrom 0.2 – 3.4 cfu g-1, whereas total coliforms were not detected in honey samples collected fromAgo-Iwoye, Otta, Ibefun, Ife and Sagamu

  17. An Assessment of Records Management Practice in Selected Local Government Councils in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Bakare, Abdullahi A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What government does/fails to do is conveyed to the public largely by records and information of various types in the public service, without which there will be no government. When records are poorly managed, much time is involved in sorting and locating needed information from large volumes of records. The rate of records misplaced or lost from which useful information for decision making is usually obtained makes it difficult to provide concise and up-to-date records of both past and present operations, raising the challenge of effective record-keeping. Thus this study examined records management practices in selected local government councils in Ogun State, Nigeria, adopting the descriptive survey research method using questionnaires for data collection. Its population comprised 415 records of personnel in the selected councils, of which 208 were sampled using simple random technique. From the 208 copies of the questionnaire administered on the registry personnel, 150 copies were useable, with a 72.12% response rate. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. The results indicated a prevalence of paper as the dominant medium for recording/conveying information in the councils with most of these being either in active state, semi-active, and vital and were kept and maintained in the registry, while in-active records were kept in the records store. Storage facilities for record-keeping were insufficient. Security measures against unauthorized access to records were by restrictions and subject users to managerial clearance. The study concluded that council records were in chaos and recommended the formulation of coherent records management policy, adequate budgetary provision, and adequate finance.

  18. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

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    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

  19. A Microbiological Study of Dermatophyte Infection among Primary School Children in Mowe, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    A.F. Ayorinde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the most prevalent species of Dermatophytes, the age group and sex most affected could form the basis for control and cure. Investigations were carried out on the distribution of Dermatophytes of the scalp (Tinea capitis among primary school children in two primary schools in Mowe-Ofada area of Ogun State, Nigeria. One of the schools (NUD primary school located in an urban area while the other (St David’s primary school is situated in a rural area. A total of seventy-eight children were examined. The samples were collected by scraping and the use of sterile swab. Fungal culturing and microscopy methods were later used to identify the Dermatophytes. Out of 78 children examined 45 (57.7% were positive while 33 (42.3% were negative. The species identified include: Microsporum audouinii 3 (6.7%, Trichophyton tonsurans 8 (17.8%, Trichophyton terrestre 4 (8.9%, Trichophyton mentagrophyte 3 (6.7%, Microsporum gypseum 2(4.4%, Microsporum canis 3 (6.7% and Trichophyton verrucosum 4 (8.9%. The infection was more prevalent in males (94.8% than in females (5.1% with T tonsurans (42.1% have the highest percentage of infection, while M. gypseum (4.9% had the least. There was a significant difference (p>0.005 in Dermatophytes infection from the two schools, St David’s primary school 32(71.1% and NUD primary school, 13(28.9%. T. tonsurans (10.4% was the most prevalent species in both schools, while the least was M. gypseum (2.6%. The highest infection occurred among the 5-7 age bracket (53.3%, (p>0.005 compared with other age brackets. Ages 12-14 (15.6% had the lowest number of infections.

  20. A survey of rabies virus antibodies in confined, hunting and roaming dogs in Ogun and Oyo States, Southwestern Nigeria

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    Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for rabies virus (RABV antibodies in apparently healthy confined, hunting and roaming dogs by a community-based approach. Methods: Sera from 230 (80 confined, 92 hunting and 58 roaming dogs in some urban and periurban communities in Ogun and Oyo states, Southwestern Nigeria were screened for RABV antibodies using the indirect ELISA method. Results: Analysis of administered questionnaires showed that of 80 confined dog owners, 37 were aware of anti-rabies vaccination (i.e. they were informed while 17 were negligent and 26 uninformed. Of the 230 sera tested, only 13 (5.7% from vaccinated confined dogs in Oyo state were positive (i.e. had optimal RABV antibody titres (mean 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42–0.67 while all confined dog sera in Ogun state were negative. Eleven (12.0% and 14 (24.1% of the hunting and roaming dogs respectively had sub-optimal RABV antibody titres while the rest were negative. Conclusions: Evidently, these groups of dogs are a totally unprotected and susceptible dog population that can serve as potential reservoirs of RABV in the study area. Responsible pet ownership, vaccination of hunting and roaming dogs, and community-based active rabies surveillance are therefore advocated in Nigeria.

  1. Helminthiasis and hygiene conditions of schools in Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria.

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    Uwem Friday Ekpo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. METHODS AND FINDINGS: THREE PRIMARY SCHOOLS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4-15 y, of whom 146 (56.8% were boys and 111 (43.2% were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (chi(2 = 18.85, df = 2, p<0.0005. A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage

  2. Urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children in settlements around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria: implications for control.

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    Mafiana, C F; Ekpo, U F; Ojo, D A

    2003-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children below the age of 5 years in three settlements around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of 209 children screened, 150 (71.8%) had an infection, with no significant difference between males and females; 42.9% of infants were infected. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased significantly with age (P infections were light (men and women revealed that infection in preschool children was primarily because of exposure occasioned by the mothers' domestic (washing and bathing) and occupational (fishing) activities, while older children could go swimming on their own. Although the participants claimed that using a different water supply may not be effective in combating the disease, as their entire existence was tied to the reservoir, we propose that health education geared towards changing behaviour and attitudes is necessary. As preschool children are a source of both contamination and transmission, control programmes must take them into account.

  3. Sources and effects of work-related stress among employees in foreign-owned manufacturing companies in Ogun state, Nigeria

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    Ajibade David

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the sources and effects of work-related stress among employees in foreign owned manufacturing companies in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study used cross sectional descriptive design and a total of three hundred and two (302 respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique from five randomly selected foreign-owned manufacturing companies. Data were collected using questionnaire and statistically analysed using frequencies, percentages and weighted means. The study reveals factors such as unfavourable physical working conditions, job insecurity, poor career development, and long working hours fostering stress on employees in the sampled companies. The study further reveals that respondents suffered consequences such as restlessness, anxiety and nervous indigestion, headache, neck ache, and inability to concentrate. This study however has implication for management of foreign-owned manufacturing organization. Based on this, appropriate recommendations were made application of which will help to ensure enabling workplace environment and thus reduce the effects of stress on employees.

  4. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Three different rivers in Ogun and Ondo states were investigated for both micro and macro-biota of the water bodies. Several physical and chemical properties of these rivers were determined. The pH value of the studied water bodies was essentially neutral with salinity values between 0.02 - 4.0‰. Microalgae communities were represented by three divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers (Ondo state), while at Ibefun River (Ogun state), five divisions: Cya...

  5. Retrenchment Exercise on Educational Institutions and Government Parastaltas in Ogun-State, Nigeria

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    Odufowokan Benard Adesina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, attempts have been made to examine the effects of retrenchment on implementing state as well as the Nigerian nation at large. We have examined the colossal impact mass retrenchment would have on the states` economic growth and national development. A descriptive research design was used to collect data while information were gathered from interview corroborated the findings. The sample consists of 1000 participants who were randomly selected from list of educational institutions in Ogun-State. 10 schools were selected each from primary, secondary and tertiary institutions totalling 30 schools while 20 other organizations ranging from Power Holding Corporation, Aviation, LG, and Ministry of Environment. 10 men and 10 women were chosen each from the 50 units. A questionnaire with 25 different performance indicators that reflected individual and institutional level performance was used. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts. From the findings, it was revealed that rather than being a corrective measure, retrenchment has had negative impact on the affected individual, implementing state and the nations` development in general.  Therefore, we concluded on a note that, for the nation to progress socially and economically to better the lots and wellbeing of the entire Nigerian citizenry, concerted efforts have to be made towards the nations` policy, implementation of various government reforms, training and re-training of personnel in work places and basic information communication technology needed in search for jobs.

  6. Challenges of Small Ruminants Production in Selected Urban Communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Okanlade Lawal-Adebowale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production has become a common trend in urban communities whereby a number of people reared farm animals such as sheep and goats for social and economic reasons. Notwithstanding the associated advantages of livestock production, effective urban production of the small ruminants is greatly challenged by a number of factors. Based on this, the study was conducted with a view to identifying factors that challenged effective sheep and goat production in selected urban communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State. From the selected 12 urban communities where sheep and goats were reared, a total of 217 rearers were non-randomly selected using snow balling sampling method. A reliable and validated interview guide was used alongside field observation to obtain information on challenges to sheep and goats production in the urban areas. The results showed that the challenges were feed, health/disease, environmental, marketing and routine management related. All the respondents (100% experienced challenges such as high cost of feeding, theft of the farm animals, problem of off -season feeding and problem of sourcing feed variety for the animals. The chi-square test showed that a significant relationship exists between the respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics (sex: χ2 = 21.06, df =4; age: χ2 = 43.26, df = 16; education: χ2 = 78.09, df = 12; occupation: χ2 = 62.57, df = 16; income: χ2 = 56.35, df =16 and the encountered challenges (p

  7. Challenges of Small Ruminants Production in Selected Urban Communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanlade A. Lawal-adebowale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production has become a common trend in urban communities whereby a number of people reared farm animals such as sheep and goats for social and economic reasons. Notwithstanding the associated advantages of livestock production, effective urban production of the small ruminants is greatly challenged by a number of factors. Based on this, the study was conducted with a view to identifying factors that challenged effective sheep and goat production in selected urban communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State. From the selected 12 urban communities where sheep and goats were reared, a total of 217 rearers were non-randomly selected using snow balling sampling method. A reliable and validated interview guide was used alongside field observation to obtain information on challenges to sheep and goats production in the urban areas. The results showed that the challenges were feed, health/disease, environmental, marketing and routine management related. All the respondents (100% experienced challenges such as high cost of feeding, theft of the farm animals, problem of off -season feeding and problem of sourcing feed variety for the animals. The chi-square test showed that a significant relationship exists between the respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics (sex: χ2 = 21.06, df =4; age: χ2 = 43.26, df = 16; education: χ2 = 78.09, df = 12; occupation: χ2 = 62.57, df = 16; income: χ2 = 56.35, df =16 and the encountered challenges (p < 0.05. Based on this, it was concluded that the identified challenges to urban sheep and goat production remained serious issues in the study area. It was thus recommended that conscious efforts should be put up by rearers of the small ruminants to ensure safety of their animals and good feeding routine for increased productivity and beneficial returns.

  8. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Akhigbe Ivbade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5% were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2% of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6% of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2% of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6% of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1 was detected only in 2 samples (20%, shiga toxin 2 (stx2 was extracted only in 6 samples (60%, stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%, intimin gene (eaeA in 5 samples (50%, and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA gene was isolated in 7 (70% samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products.

  9. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  10. HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria

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    E Amoran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR = 54.21, C.I = 23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR = 4.80, C.I = 2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR = 0.78, C.I = 0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR = 1.43, C.I = 0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low

  11. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Ayodele Ibukun A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps (16 and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56 in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a

  12. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewu, Durojaye A; Ayodele, Ibukun A

    2009-12-04

    Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility

  13. Strategies to reduce barriers in reporting herbal use to the health-care provider among women of childbearing age in two communities in Ogun state, Nigeria

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    Florence F Folami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has increased tremendously in the past decades. Herbs in this study involved the use of plant products in their raw or cooked forms which have not been subjected to laboratory investigations for their safety and efficacy. Objective: To explore strategies to reduce barriers in reporting herbal use to the health-care provider among childbearing age women in two communities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used to explore strategies to reduce barriers in reporting herbal use to the health-care provider. The study population constitutes childbearing age women that attend two private hospitals and one comprehensive health center in two communities of Ogun state, Nigeria. Out of the 270 patients who were randomly sampled for the study, 250 agreed to participate (response rate: 92.6%. Results: The mean age of the participants was 29.3 years ± 5.5 and 77.6% were married. The majority (69% had used herbal medicines in the last 6 months before seeking medical care, and 66% did not disclose the use of herbal medicines to health-care providers. Conclusion: Health-care professionals should routinely include herbal remedy category in the list of drug history when asking about the patient's drug. This will help identify herbal remedy use and assist to take precautions relating to safety. Patients and traditional birth attendants should be educated through community mobilization and educational programs about alternative medicines particularly herbal. The disclosure of CAM use and its adverse outcomes should be encouraged by health-care professionals.

  14. Urban Socio-Economic Variables and Intra-Urban Trips in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olayiwola, Solanke Muse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relative influence of socio-economic variables of urban centers on intra-city tripgeneration. Data were collected on sixteen socio-economic variables and household trip generation in fourteen urbancenters of the state. The nature and degree of relationships between socio-economic variables and trips generated wereestablished through simple bivariate correlation technique. Multiple regression analysis was used to explain variablesthat predict trips generated. The princi...

  15. Of Ogun State Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 100 respondents were interviewed in ten . communities using the simple ... malaria (o 0_ 10), cost of tubers (a M1), cost of firewood used (ci a 10), and ownership of a cassava farm (0 0,0 1) were the significant factors affectilng the ...

  16. Ogun State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-08

    May 8, 2008 ... with Master's Degree than those with N.C.E qualification would not mind employing former mentally ill ... teachers is important in modifying hisVher pupils' personality ... relationship: employing a treated mentaly ill person as a.

  17. A survey of malaria and some arboviral infections among suspected febrile patients visiting a health centre in Simawa, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, Adenola F; Oyeyiga, Ayorinde M; Nosegbe, Nwakaego O; Folarin, Onikepe A

    2016-01-01

    Most febrile patients are often misdiagnosed with malaria due to similar symptoms, such as fever shared by malaria and certain arboviral infections. This study surveyed the incidence of malaria, chikungunya and dengue infections among a number of suspected febrile patients visiting Simawa Health Centre, Ogun State, Nigeria. Venous blood samples were obtained from 60 febrile patients (age 3-70 years) visiting the centre between April and May 2014. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was used to detect the presence of chikungunya (CHK) antibodies (IgM), dengue (DEN) virus and antibodies (NS1, IgM and IgG) and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax). Malarial confirmatory tests were by microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the polymorphic region of Glutamate-Rich Protein (GLURP) gene. The complexity of P. falciparum infection in the community also determined by the use of nested PCR. These three mosquito-borne infections were observed in 63% (38) of the patients. The prevalence of CHK, DEN and malarial infections singularly were 11%, 0% and 63%, respectively, whereas malaria with either CHK or DEN infections were 24% (9) and 3% (1), respectively. No subjects were positive for CHK and DEN co-infection. Malarial microscopic confirmation was in 94% (32) of the malaria RDT-positive samples, 50% (17) were successfully analysed by nested PCR and the mean multiplicity of infection was 1.6 (1-3 clones). One patient sample harboured both P. falciparum and P. vivax. The study reports the presence of some arboviral infections having similar symptoms with malaria at Simawa, Ogun State. The proper diagnosis of infectious diseases is important for controlling them.

  18. Effect of Socio-economic Factors on Fish Catch in Lower Ogun River, Isheri-olofin and Ihsasi, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Nafisat Bolatito, Ikenweiwe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of socioeconomic factors on fish catch around the Lower OgunRiver in Isheri-Olofin area (downstream and Ishasi (upstream.Two hundred and fifty (250 respondents were randomly sampled.The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chisquare. It was found that a large percentage (74.4% ownedpersonal fishing craft. 18% of the respondents have not had anyformal education, 38.4% had attended primary school, 42.4%had attended secondary school, and 1.2% had attended a tertiaryinstitution. Majority (62% of the respondents were marriedwhile 31.2 % were single. The result shows that 98.4% of the respondents constitutes male while the remaining 1.6% constitutesfemale. 70.4 % of the respondents fall within the age bracket of15–40 years while the remaining 29.6 % are elderly with agerange of 41-66 years. It was also discovered that there is a significance decline in the abundance of catch in the downstreamcompared to the upstream. There is significant difference betweenthe two stations in all socioeconomic factors evaluated.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON JOB STRESS LEVEL IN FOREIGN-OWNED MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA

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    Ajibade David

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of socio-demographic factors on level of job stress in foreign-owned manufacturing companies in Ogun State, Nigeria with the specific objectives of investigating level of job stress as well as the socio-demographic characteristics influencing the job stress level. This study used cross sectional analytical design with quantitative approach. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and the data collected were statistically analyzed using percentage and weighted mean; while the hypotheses formulated were tested using spearman rank correlation and multiple regressions. The results of the study showed that with the exception of gender (P<0.05; coeff r = -0.003, and employees’ department (P<0.05; coeff r = -0.003 that impacted negatively on employees stress level, other socio-demographic characteristics such as age (P<0.05: coeff r = 0.074, marital status (P<0.05; coeff r = 0.125, educational level (P<0.05; coeff r = 0.037, employees’ cadre (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.038, years of working experience (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.146, income (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.025 and employees’ position (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.103 had positive impacts on the employees’ job stress level. This concludes that socio-demographic factors exert significant influence on employees’ job stress level. It is recommended that employers should always take into consideration employees’ socio-demographic characteristics when assessing their job stress level because it can provide useful information on specific individual characteristics influencing stress level in workplace.  Keywords: socio-demographic, stress, employees, cross sectional analytical, Ogun

  20. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

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    Taofikat Abosede ADESALU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different rivers in Ogun and Ondo states were investigated for both micro and macro-biota of the water bodies. Several physical and chemical properties of these rivers were determined. The pH value of the studied water bodies was essentially neutral with salinity values between 0.02 - 4.0‰. Microalgae communities were represented by three divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers (Ondo state, while at Ibefun River (Ogun state, five divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Pyrrhophyta were identified. Diatoms dominated these water bodies, with Navicula radiosa Kutz. at Ifara River, Fragilaria sp. in Oluwa River, while out of 90 algal taxa identified in Ibefun river, 64 were diatoms species belonging to 26 genera, with Melosira sp. and Synedra sp. recording the highest numbers of cell count. Dinoflagellates recorded only Peridinium sp. while Phacus orbicularis Hubner and Trachelomonas sp. dominated the euglenoids. For the zooplankton composition at Ibefun, rotifers (75.95% were represented by Brachionus sp., which recorded 62.03%, and Gastropus sp. with 13.92% of the total zooplankton, thus dominated the spectrum, while the copepod recorded 22.78% of the total organisms, with Copilia sp. and Euchirella sp. having 8.86% each. The macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 3 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, with the dominant group Insecta accounted for 57% of the total individuals (7 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Hirudinea accounted for 29% and 14% respectively of the total individuals at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers. At Ibefun River, the macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 5 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, Bivalves, Oligochaeta and Insecta, with bivalves being the dominant group (51.7% of the total individuals, as 64 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Insecta accounted for 26.6% and 21.9% respectively of the total individuals. The dominant taxon, Macoma cumana

  1. Predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area in Ogun State, Western Nigeria: A community-based study

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    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Worldwide, it has been estimated that violence against women is as serious a cause of death and incapacity among women of reproductive age as cancer, and a greater cause of ill health as traffic accidents and malaria combined. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age group in Sagamu local government area (SLGA of Ogun State, Nigeria. Settings: The study was conducted in SLGA Ogun State, which is located in the South Western part of Nigeria. A total of 500 women were interviewed in this study. One participant per each household was selected into the study. Methodology: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between April 22, and May 13, 2013. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the participants into the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. Results: The overall rate of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months among respondents was 16.0% and was the most common (65.0% among age 25–39 years (P = 0.003 and those with primary education (P = 0.001. About 12.3% of the respondents had an abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Those who had abnormal GHQ were strongly statistically associated with intimate partner violence (P = 0.0001. Strain relationship (odds ratio [OR] =3.7, confidence interval [CI] =1.74–7.87, thinking that violence is acceptable (OR = 1.96, CI = 1.24–3.09 were predisposing factors for intimate partner violence while being mentally healthy (OR = 0.51, CI = 0.34–0.75 reduce the occurrence of violence by half after controlling for the effect of confounders. Conclusion: This study suggests that women education and healthy mental health is essential to the reduction of violence among intimate partners. Resolving it requires the provision of counseling services by educational and mental health sectors working together at the community

  2. Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ≈ TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

  3. Prevention practices influencing frequency of occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis among sickle cell patients in Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Jimoh, Ahmed Babatunde; Ojo, Omotola; Kuponiyi, Temitope

    2017-01-01

    Africa is the most affected continent with 200,000 new born affected by sickle cell anemia annually with of 5% of under five deaths. Nigeria has the largest sickle cell gene pool in the world with about 2% of all babies born to Nigerian parents. This study therefore sets out to assess the prevention practices influencing the frequency of occurrence of vaso-occlusive crisis among patients in Ogun State. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Abeokuta South Local Government Area Ogun State. A consecutive non randomized sampling of all the sickle cell patients that attend the selected facilities was recruited into the study. Data were collected with the use of questionnaires which were interviewer administered. A total of 415 patients were recruited into the study. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 20.0. Two- third [64.8%] of study participants have crisis twice or more in a month. The frequency of crisis was statistically significantly associated with the age of the child [p = 0.006], use of anti-malaria prophylaxis [p = 0.006], analgesics [p = 0.0001], taking of plenty fluid [p = 0.001] and soothing herbs [p = 0.0001]. Lifestyle factors such as giving balance diet [p = 0.217], restriction from strenuous activities [p = 0.08], and attending Clinic appointments regularly [p = 0.126] were not statistically associated with reduction in the frequency of crisis. Logistic regression analysis shows that predictors of frequent crisis were individuals who were using prophylaxis antimalarial drugs [OR = 0.12, CI = 0.05-0.33] and analgesics [OR = 0.15, C.I = 0.06-0.34]. The study reveals that majority of the participants have high frequency of crisis in a month. Drug prophylaxis rather than lifestyle factors may be more important in the prevention of vaso-occlusive crisis among sickle cell patients.

  4. Utilization of Extension Information among Pig Farmers in Oke-aro Farm Settlement in Ogun State of Nigeria

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    Agbelemoge Adeyanju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the utilization of extension information among pig farmers in Oke-Aro farm settlement of Ogun state. The study employed multistage and purposive sampling techniques in selecting pig farmers for the study. Results from the study revealed that most of the pig farmers were male (51.7% majority of them (51.6% were within the age range of 31 and 40 years. Also, 31.7% of them were primary farmers so also, 80.8% of the farmers were Christians and only 16.7% were muslims. 69.2% of the sampled farmers were married while only 2.5% were single. 50.8% had primary education and only 25% had B Sc/HND qualifications. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. The farmers believed that all the information sources met their needs at different levels but they gained maximally when all the information sources were utilized. The prominent constraints among others affecting pig farmers were wrong timing of extension agents` visits 87%, irregular visits 79% and unavailability of message when needed 78%. Furthermore, it was discovered that major disease affecting pig farmers production was swine fever 44.2%. The study concluded that significant relationships existed between the level of utilization of extension information and age (X2= 11.59 p< 0.05, previous job of the respondents (X2 = 16.59, p < 0.05 and the awareness of extension information by respondents (X2 = 1.30, p < 0.05. Also, the analysis of variance of the constraints and level of utilization of extension information was significant (F = 3.24, p < 0.05.Hence, it was recommended that pig farmers be mobilized to have access to extension information with incentives to enhance utilization. Also, the present extension system must be strengthened with involvement of non-governmental agencies and extension divisions of agricultural input service unit to help boost production. Finally, the terms and conditions for granting agricultural loans and insurance scheme must be

  5. FARM SUCCESSION PLANS AMONG POULTRY FARMERS IN OGUN STATE

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    Fasina O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing of farmers in Nigeria and especially in capitalized sectors of agriculture requires attention to enhance sustainability and food security. The study thus examined the farm succession plans of 60 long established poultry farmers purposively selected from the Poultry Association of Nigeria in Ogun State Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and the Chi square analysis were used to present the findings of the study. Mean age of respondents was 61years. Their children were mostly over 18years (65%. Poultry farms were solely owned (76.7% with mean age of 17.9 years. Succession rate i.e. identification of a successor was eighty percent and were mostly respondents children (63.3%. This choice was based on their level of involvement in the business (63.6%. Majority (60% were not willing to fully retire from farming until death. Chi square analysis revealed age of farmer was significantly related to succession rate.

  6. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in secondary schools in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obed, R.I., E-mail: rachelobed@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Ademola, A.K. [Department of Physical Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota (Nigeria); Vascotto, M. [Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Giannini, G. [The Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Radon measurements were performed in secondary schools in the Oke-Ogun area, South-west, Nigeria, by solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). About seventy CR-39 detectors were distributed in 35 high schools of the Oke-Ogun area. The CR-39 detectors were exposed in the schools for 3 months and then etched in NaOH 6 N solution at 90 deg. C for 3 h. The tracks were counted manually at the microscope and the radon concentration was determined at the Radioactivity Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy. The overall average radon concentration in the surveyed area was 45 {+-} 27 Bq m{sup -3}. The results indicate no radiological health hazard. The research also focused on parameters affecting radon concentrations such as the age of the building in relation to building materials and floor number of the classrooms. The results show that radon concentrations in ground floors are higher than in upper floors. - Highlights: > We measured radon concentration levels in a sample of schools in Oke-Ogun, Nigeria. > We analyzed the main factors that affect indoor radon levels. > Dependence of radon concentrations on floor levels confirmed the influence of soil as main source of indoor radon.

  7. The effect of health education intervention on the home management of malaria among the caregivers of children aged under 5 years in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatungase, Kehinde O; Amoran, Olorunfemi E; Alausa, Kabir O

    2012-05-17

    Malaria is currently the most important cause of death and disability in children aged under 5 years in Africa. A health education interventional study of this nature is essential in primary control of an endemic communicable disease such as malaria. This study was therefore designed to determine the effect of health education on the home management of Malaria among the caregivers of children under 5 years old in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples for this study and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. The intervention consisted of a structured educational program based on a course content adapted from the national malaria control program. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study, with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups, and were followed up for a period of 3 months when the knowledge and uptake of insecticide treated net was reassessed. There was no statistically significant differences observed between the experimental and control groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics such as age (P = 0.99), marital status (P = 0.48), religion (P = 0.1), and income (P = 0.51). The majority in both the experimental (75.0%) and control (71.5%) groups use arthemisinin-based combination therapy as first line home treatment drugs pre intervention. Post health education intervention, the degree of change in the knowledge of referral signs and symptoms in the experimental group was 52.8% (P < 0.0001) while it was 0.2% in the control group (P = 0.93). Tepid sponging improved by 45.0%, paracetamol use by 55.3%, and the use of herbs and other drugs were not significantly influenced in the experimental (P = 0.65 and 0.99) and control group (P = 0.89 and 0.88), respectively. Furthermore, there was a

  8. Radiological safety assessment and determination of heavy metals in soil samples from some waste dumpsites in Lagos and Ogun state, south-western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Kolapo Ademola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of naturally occurring radionuclides and heavy metals in 5 major dumpsites around Lagos and Ogun State, Nigeria, was carried-out to determine the natural radionuclide and heavy metals in the dumpsites and to evaluate the hazards these may have on the public. Radionuclide concentrations were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI (Tl detector. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the soil samples were 23.1 ± 2.5, 35.1 ± 2.1 and 318.9 ± 27.4 Bq kg−1, respectively in Ojota, 32.1 ± 6.1, 44.2 ± 16.0 and 377.4 ± 9.0 Bq kg−1 in Ojo, 18.2 ± 4.8, 28.4 ± 3.1 and 340.9 ± 12.1 in Igando, 26.3 ± 9.0, 38.1 ± 1.1 and 531.1 ± 23.0 in Agbara and 15.3 ± 3.6, 22.3 ± 1.7 and 840.9 ± 42.0 in Ogijo, respectively. The results of 226Ra and 232Th are lower than the world average but higher for 40K (UNSCEAR, 2000. The analysis of the heavy metal concentrations indicated that there is presence of Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in high proportion. These metals are toxic and may cause severe problem with prolonged exposure. Monitoring the accumulation of these metals in soil samples is very important and the practice of cultivating the land for planting vegetables and legumes by farmers around the dumpsites must be discouraged to prevent the transportation of these toxic metals into human system.

  9. Chemical speciation of some heavy metals and human health risk assessment in soil around two municipal dumpsites in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriyomi Ogunbanjo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and health risk posed by heavy metals from municipal landfill cannot be over emphasized. However, the toxicity and fate of metal in the soil is dependent on its chemical form and therefore quantification of the different forms of metal is more meaningful than the estimation of its total concentration. This study investigated the chemical form and potential hazards of heavy metal pollution at two municipal landfills in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected around the landfills and chemical form of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Fe were studied, using the Tessier Five-step sequential chemical extraction procedure. The results showed that Cu and Fe were speciated into residual fractions with averages of 23.9 and 31.3% respectively, while Cd and Zn were associated with Carbonate fractions with respective averages of 20.3 and 20.6%. The order of mobility and bioavailability of these metals are: Cd > Pb > Cu > Zn > Fe. A comparison of the result of total extractible metals with standard set by USEPA reveals that Cd and Cu level in the dumpsite soils are far above the critical permissible limit of 3.0 and 250 mg kg−1, respectively which potent a health risk. Assessment of soil pollution level using geoaccumulation index (Igeo revealed that the landfill was extremely polluted by Cd (Igeo > 5. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were no significant correlations (p < 0.05 among all the metals, suggesting that they are all from different anthropogenic sources. The cancer risk ranged from 1.36E−01 to 2.18E−04 and 5.82E−01 to 9.35E−04 for Children and Adult respectively. The level of cancer risk falls above the threshold values (10−4–10−6 which US Environmental Protection Agency considered as unacceptable risk. Based on the above findings, it was suggested that environmental management policy should be implemented to decrease the environmental risks.

  10. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  11. Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Sam-Wobo , M.A. Adeleke , O.A. Jayeola , A.O. Adeyi , A.S. Oluwole , M. Ikenga , A. Lawniye , J. Gazama , A. Kagni , T.O. Kosoko , O. Agbeyangi , S. Bankole , L. Toé , C.F. Mafiana & L. Yameogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05. The prevalence ofonchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skinsnip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value incertifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibilityof onchocerciasis elimination in the study area.Conclusion: Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance inannual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in thestudied communities.

  12. Epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis along Ogun River System, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Wobo, S O; Adeleke, M A; Jayeola, O A; Adeyi, A O; Oluwole, A S; Ikenga, M; Lawniye, F; Gazama, J; Kagni, A; Kosoko, T O; Agbeyangi, O; Bankole, S; Toé, L; Mafiana, C F; Yameogo, L

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and community microfilarial load (CMFL) of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun river System, southwest Nigeria. Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system. The microfilarial load of the community was estimated. The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05). The prevalence of onchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skin snip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value in certifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibility of onchocerciasis elimination in the study area. Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance in annual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in the studied communities.

  13. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in secondary schools in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Vascotto, M; Giannini, G

    2011-11-01

    Radon measurements were performed in secondary schools in the Oke-Ogun area, South-west, Nigeria, by solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). About seventy CR-39 detectors were distributed in 35 high schools of the Oke-Ogun area. The CR-39 detectors were exposed in the schools for 3 months and then etched in NaOH 6 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. The tracks were counted manually at the microscope and the radon concentration was determined at the Radioactivity Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy. The overall average radon concentration in the surveyed area was 45 ± 27 Bq m(-3). The results indicate no radiological health hazard. The research also focused on parameters affecting radon concentrations such as the age of the building in relation to building materials and floor number of the classrooms. The results show that radon concentrations in ground floors are higher than in upper floors.

  14. Attraction and retention of qualified health workers to rural areas in Nigeria: a case study of four LGAs in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Campbell, Princess C

    2011-01-01

    INTRTODUCTION: A shortage of health workers is a major problem for Nigeria, especially in rural areas where more than 70% of the population live. At the primary care level, trained community health officers provide services normally reserved for doctors or medical specialists. The community health officers must therefore be supported and motivated to provide effective quality healthcare services. This study aimed to determine factors that will attract and retain rural and urban health workers to rural Nigerian communities, and to examine differences between the two groups. A cross-sectional survey measured health workers' work experience, satisfaction with, and reasons for undertaking their current work; as well as reasons for leaving a work location. Data were also gathered on factors that attract health workers to rural settings and also retain them. RESULTS; Rural health workers were generally more likely to work in rural settings (62.5%) than their urban counterparts (16.5%). Major rural motivators for both groups included: assurances of better working conditions; effective and efficient support systems; opportunities for career development; financial incentives; better living conditions and family support systems. The main de-motivator was poor job satisfaction resulting from inadequate infrastructure. Rural health workers were particularly dissatisfied with career advancement opportunities. More urban than rural health workers expressed a wish to leave their current job due to poor job satisfaction resulting from poor working and living conditions and the lack of career advancement opportunities. Motivational factors for attraction to and retention in rural employment were similar for both groups although there were subtle differences. Addressing rural health manpower shortages will require the development of a comprehensive, evidence-based rural health manpower improvement strategy that incorporates a coordinated intersectoral approach, involving partnership

  15. Prevalence and effect of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth infection on labour input in rice-growing communities of Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are public health problems in communities which lack basic social amenities with poor hygienic conditions. Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence and effect of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths infection on labour input on rice production in 9 rice-growing communities of Ogun State. Parasitological examinations of urine and faecal samples, and structured questionnaires were conducted on 243 consented individuals from May 2009 to March 2010. The results showed an overall prevalence of 17% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for hookworms, 2% for Trichuris trichiura, 1% for Schistosoma haematobium and 1% for Schistosoma mansoni. A. lumbricoides and hookworms were more prevalent in Agbajege (25%, and varied in the other 8 communities. T. trichiura was prevalent in three communities, Agbajege (5%, Akodu (4.2%, and Moloko-Asipa (4.8 %; S. haematobium was prevalent only in Ayedere (2.6% and Lufoko (8%, while S. mansoni was prevalent only in Moloko-Asipa (9.5%. Infections among the gender were varied as 26.3 % of males and 33.8 % of females had an overall prevalence of: A. lumbricoides (16.8%, hookworms (11.8%, T. trichiura (1.6%, S. haematobium (1.1% and S. mansoni (1.1%. On frequency of infection to incapacitation per year, 45% of respondents were incapacitated 1-2 times, 27% 3-4 times and 19% were incapacitated more than 4 times. Understanding the effect of these two diseases will not only improve the health status of residents but also increase their productivity and ensure food security.

  16. Fadama III Beneficiaries' Adherence to Project Guidelines in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fadama III Beneficiaries' Adherence to Project Guidelines in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... necessary recommendations to the implementers for proper management. ... Beneficiaries were over expectant of the benefits accruable from the project, ...

  17. Sustainable use of land and water under rainfed and deficit irrigation conditions in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adeboye, O.B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Human population is increasing faster than ever in the history. There is an urgent need to scale up food production in order to meet up with food demands, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria, more than 95% of the crop production is

  18. Sustainable use of land and water under rainfed and deficit irrigation conditions in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adeboye, O.B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Human population is increasing faster than ever in the history. There is an urgent need to scale up food production in order to meet up with food demands, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria, more than 95% of the crop production is do

  19. Sustainable use of land and water under rainfed and deficit irrigation conditions in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adeboye, O.B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Human population is increasing faster than ever in the history. There is an urgent need to scale up food production in order to meet up with food demands, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria, more than 95% of the crop production is do

  20. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in dwellings in Oke-Ogun area, South-Western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Ogundare, F O

    2012-03-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 77 dwellings randomly selected in 10 districts in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, South-western Nigeria was carried out using CR-39 detectors. The CR-39 detectors were placed in the bedrooms and living rooms and exposed for 6 months and then etched in NaOH 6.25 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. Mean concentrations amount to 255 ± 47 and 259 ± 67 Bq m(-3) in the living rooms and bedrooms, respectively. The lowest radon concentration (77 ± 29 Bq m(-3)) was found in Igbeti, whereas the highest was found in Okeho (627 ± 125 Bq m(-3)). The annual exposure of dwellers was estimated to fall radon level in this part of the country may be attributed to its geographic location. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for radon concentration in dwellings in the area.

  1. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal levels as indicators of environmental pollution in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E O; Adelowo, O A; Ajimoko, Y R

    2007-06-01

    Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25- 8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69- 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10-19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95-20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44%) was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (PClarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (PClarias gariepinus were significantly (PClarias gariepinus from Ogun River. The study therefore provides a rational use of biomarkers of oxidative stress in biomonitoring of aquatic pollution.

  2. Effects of Oil Spillage on Vegetation, Land and Water Odu-Gboro Sagamu, Ogun State, South-Western Nigeria) Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, O.

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the impacts of oil spill on the physical environment with particular attention paid to the NNPC/PPMC pipeline system. It focuses on the environmental impacts of oil pollution in Nigeria, and discusses the increasing environmental contradictions of the area, and its influence on global warming. Nigeria's economy is highly dependent on earnings from the oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. Since the discovery of oil in Nigeria in 1956, the country has been suffering the negative environmental consequences of oil exploration and exploitation. Between 1976 and 1996 a total of 4647 incidents resulted in the spill of approximately 2,369,470 barrels of oil into the environment. The study traces the effects of the oil spillage on the environment to determine whether oil spill is a major factor responsible for environmental pollution. By the use of remotely sensed data and other ancillary data, the major causes of oil spill in the region were identified; the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the environment, and it also determined the environmental impacts on land and water. Field observation and laboratory analysis of soil and water were used. Gas chromatography was used to determine the TPH concentration in soil extract and water extracts. Liquid-liquid extraction method was used for water and spectro-radiometer which is a very efficient process commonly used to determine spectral signature of various soil, water and plant samples obtained from the study area. Based largely on the GIS analysis, the findings showed that the main cause of oil spill is vandalism along the pipeline right of way; Vandalism which is an act of sabotage had the highest percentage compared to equipment failure, accident from oil tankers and accidental discharge during pipeline repairs. TPH were present at the site with soil samples having the high values, and the environmental impact on soil

  3. Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEYWORDS: Cataract, intra-ocular lens, visual acuity, astigmatism ... extraction followed by adequate visual rehabilitation developing countries because of problems of handling by spectacles ..... visual impairment in Ikenne Local Government.

  4. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus from Nigeria Ogun River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Ajimoko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione (GSH concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25-8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69- 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10-19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95-20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44% was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001. On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001 whereas there was a significant decrease (41% in the gills (P<0.05 compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of

  5. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E. O.; Adelowo, O. A.; Ajimoko, Y. R.

    2007-01-01

    Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25–8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69– 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10–19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95–20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44%) was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001). On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001) whereas there was a significant decrease (41%) in the gills (P<0.05) compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of

  6. MAPPING OF RIVER WATER QUALITY USING INVERSE DISTANCE WEIGHTED INTERPOLATION IN OGUN-OSUN RIVER BASIN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEBAYO OLUBUKOLA OKE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of water resources involves inventory, conservation, efficient utilization, and quality management. Although, activities relating to quantity assessment and management in terms of river discharge and water resources planning are given attention at the basin level, water quality assessment are still being done at specific locations of major concern. The use of Geographical Information System (GIS based water quality information system and spatial analysis with Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation enabled the mapping of water quality indicators in Ogun and Ona catchment of Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria. Using 27 established gauging stations as sampling locations, water quality indicators were monitored over 12 months covering full hydrological season. Maps of seasonal variations in 10 water quality indicators as impacted by land-use types were produced. This ensured that trends of specific water quality indicator and diffuse pollution characteristics across the basin were better presented with the variations shown along the river courses than the traditional line graphs. The production of water quality maps will improve monitoring, enforcement of standards and regulations towards better pollution management and control. This strategy holds great potential for real time monitoring of water quality in the basin with adequate instrumentation.

  7. Producer response to retail egg price in Ogun State Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... producer price would be an effective incentive for increasing production. ... and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), this paper examined producer response to ... In addition an overhaul of the egg marketing strategy to favour the producers is ...

  8. Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Ogun state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... different studies to identify Cryptosporidium spp. (Kaur et al., 2002; Mahdi .... Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, .... Empty rectum and caudal abdominal pain with crepitating .... 1.pdf, retrieved 25-05-2012. Anonymous ...

  9. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  10. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Omitola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and biotransformation responses in relation to condition factor and contaminant burden in tilapia species from Ogun River, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Regoli, Francesco; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    A major development in fishery science has been the Fulton's condition factor (CF) as a reliable physiological index of fish growth and health status (Fulton 1902). As a general rule, CF-value greater than 1 (>1) should be regarded as an indicator for good growth and health. Therefore, exposure of fish to contaminants in the environment will be expected to produce a reduction in scope for growth, since energy for growth will be allocated to overcome stressful conditions. In the present study, we hypothesized that tilapia species from Ogun River (Nigeria) are experiencing severe contaminant-induced obesogen effects leading to high CF (≥ 2) in fish with pathological alterations. The environmental obesogen hypothesis has related the interaction between environmental pollutants and PPAR isoform activation In this respect, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and biotransformation responses in relation to contaminant burden were investigated in a total of 1074 specimens of Tilapias species (Tilapia guineensis, Sarotherodon galileaus and Oreochromis niloticus) collected from three areas with different degrees of anthropogenic contamination and from a putative control site along the Ogun River. Liver mRNA expression of cytochrome cyp1 isoforms (cyp1a, 1b and 1c) and PPAR isoforms (ppar-α, β and γ) were analyzed using validated real-time PCR. Fish were also analyzed for CF and muscle contaminant burden (aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls). A significant increase in mRNA expression of cyp1- and ppar isoforms was observed in fish from polluted areas, and these results paralleled data on PCBs and PAHs tissue concentrations. Further, cyp1 isoforms showed clear sex-related differences, with higher mRNA expression in male fish than in females. Principal component analysis revealed a relationship between cyp1 isoforms, ppar-α, β, PCBs and PAHs and these interactions may suggest a crosstalk

  12. Creativity Fostering Behaviour as an Index of Productivity and Capacity Building among Lecturers in Selected Universities in Ogun and Oyo States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawale, Sunday G.; Adeniyi, Emmanuel O.; Olubela, OpeOluwa I.

    2010-01-01

    The need for creative thinking and behaviour is more acute in our contemporary society than before. Therefore, this study tried to investigate creativity fostering behaviour as an index of productivity and capacity building among lecturers in selected universities in Ogun and Oyo States. To achieve this, multi-stage sampling technique was…

  13. Analysis of the Dependence of Power Outages on Lightning Events within the Ijebu Province, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J.O. Adepitan; E.O. Oladiran

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed at developing a model for lightning-induced outages in Nigeria from results obtained on determining the proportion and rate of lightning-induced outages out of the total power outages experienced in Ijebu province of Nigeria. Power outage records for Ijebu province, comprising Ijebu-Ode and Sagamu areas, Ogun state, Nigeria for the years 2002-2006 were collected from Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN). Unintentional stochastic outages were separated from those due to deli...

  14. OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publicity. In Nigeria, our traditional society has a rich socio-cultural .... membership size loyalty and also finance profitable investment by cooperatives which ... the method of channeling loans to rural women through cooperatives. Such credits ...

  15. (NTFPs) in Kogi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... gathering non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in Kogi. State, Nigeria. Awe F. ..... fact that they need money to purchase the food they ... have the intention of maintaining valuable skills and passing on ... Information for Agricultural Development in ACP. Countries. Spore ... The Analysis of Price and Markets.

  16. arinta waterfall, ekiti state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    The supervising ministry on tourism and forestry in Ekiti State, Nigeria in charge of this site ... not only as an alternative to mass tourism, but also as a ... Being a nature based tourism; it takes ..... slope in the past in order to reduce water run-.

  17. Analysis of Fish Demand in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto, Nigeria M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Available online at http://ajol.info/index.php/njbas/index. Nigerian Journal .... X1 = Retail price of fish in naira (kg). X2 = Retail ... 180. 100. Primary Occupation. Farming. 22. 12. Trading. 8. 27. Civil Service. 87. 48. Artisan ... the joint influence of all the explanatory variables on ..... two urban centers in Ogun State, Nigeria. An.

  18. Impact of the Digital Divide on Computer Use and Internet Access on the Poor in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayo, Omolara; Thompson, Randall; Thompson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    We recruited 20 community members in Ido Local Government Area, Oyo state and Yewa Local Government Area, Ogun state in Nigeria to explore experiences and perceptions of Internet access and computer use. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using open-ended questions to collect qualitative data regarding accessibility of information and…

  19. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF HEAVY OIL AND BITUMEN FIELDS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, belt of bituminous sand stretches to the East of Ijebu-Ode (Ogun State in the district of Siluko and Akotogbo, Okitipupa (Ondo Sate and Edo State. It covers a distance of approximately 110 km and lies in the upper cretaceous sequence of the Abeokuta formation in the eastern Dahomey Basin. Reserves of bituminous sand in Nigeria is estimated to be around 30- 40 billion barrels with a possibility to extract 3654 × 106 barrels. From the approximately 30-40 billion barrels of oil sand, Ogun State has more than 40% in reserve. However, this huge stock of oil sand in Nigeria is yet to be exploited. This article provides an assessment of technological solutions for the design and development of tar sand fields in Nigeria. Reserves of oil sand in Nigeria are the biggest in the whole of Africa

  20. BORNO STATE, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    predicted. The knowledge of this projection will help the policy makers in. Borno state towards the ... Staple foodstuff of interest in this study are maize, cowpea, millet, ... intercept b| is the growth rate and X is the time. The prices of these ...

  1. Effect of Principals' Leadership Style on Teachers' Attitude to Work in Ogun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbesan, Sunday O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate why some principals prefer to embrace certain leadership styles and the effect of such styles on the teachers' attitude to work. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of teachers and principals from the secondary schools in Abeokuta…

  2. Effectiveness and sustainability of remedial actions for land restoration in Abeokuta urban communities, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal-Adebowale, Okanlade

    2016-04-01

    Land as a major collective human property faces a great deal of threats and eventual degradation from both natural and human causal factors across the globe. But for the central role of land in human's sustenance and quality living, man cannot afford to lose its natural asset and as such takes mitigating or remedial actions to save and restore his land for sustainable use. In view of this, the study assessed the causal factors of land degradation in urban areas of Abeokuta and effectiveness and sustainability of the taken remedial actions to stem the tide of land degradation in the study area. The selected communities were purposively selected based on the observed prevalence of degraded lands in the areas. A qualitative research approach which encompasses observational techniques - participant/field observation, interactive discussion and photographic capturing, was used for collection of data on land degradation in the study area. A combination of phenomenological, inductive thematic analysis and conversation/discourse analysis was employed for data analysis. The results showed land gradients/slopes, rainfall, run-offs/erosion, land-entrenched foot impacts, sand scraping/mining, poor/absence of drainage system and land covers as causal factors of land degradation in the study area. The employed remedial actions for restoration of degraded land included filling of drenches with sand bags, wood logs, bricks and stones, and sand filling. The study though observed that filling of drenches caused by erosion with rubles/stones and construction of drainage were effective remedial actions, good drainage system was presumed to be the most appropriate and sustainable remedial action for land restoration in the study area.

  3. Community perceptions of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Ogun State, Nigeria: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Akeju, DO; Vidler, M; Oladapo, OT; Sawchuck, D.; Qureshi, R; von Dadelszen, P; Adetoro, OO; Dada, OA; CLIP Nigeria Feasibility Working Group,

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-eclampsia is a complication of pregnancy responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. When undetected or poorly managed, it may progress to eclampsia which further worsens the prognosis. While most studies examining pre-eclampsia have used a bio-medical model, this study recognizes the role of the socio-cultural environment, in order to understand perceptions of pre-eclampsia within the community. Methods The study was conducted in ...

  4. Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. ... This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in ... of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor.

  5. The Role of Women's Creativity and Innovations in the Nigerian Informal Sector of Oke Ogun Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alese, Oluwatoyin Dorcas

    2011-01-01

    This study was guided by the desire to advance whether concerted effort could enhance the creativity and innovations of women towards empowerment. Other purposes include: establishing the level of empowerment towards attaining good growth in building the informal sector economy and enhancing the status of women in Oke Ogun zone of Nigeria;…

  6. Nigeria (A Cohort Analysis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The international movement against female circumcision gained momentum in the past two decades. Although recent studies report ... Affecting the Health of Women and Children, Ogun State Chapter, Abeokuta, Ogun State .... cohort effect in trends or provided plausible ... and other international rights movements drew.

  7. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  8. Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun–Olarinmoye EO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 WO Adebimpe,1 JO Bamidele,2 OO Odu,2 IO Asekun-Olarinmoye,3 EO Ojofeitimi41Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Health, School of Public and Allied Health, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaObjectives: To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo.Materials and methods: Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents' self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0.Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3% of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP, 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%, ignorance (32.6%, misinformation (25.1%, superstition (22.0%, and culture (20.3%. Some reasons were proffered for respondents' nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents' approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and

  9. FLUID FLOW INTERACTIONS IN OGUN RIVER, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya and G.Akin Bolaji

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface and groundwater interaction is an important aspect of the hydrologic cycle that borders on the watershed assessment, protection and restoration. In groundwater/surface water interactions, the groundwater component is much greater than the surface water but is much less visible and attracts less public interest. The mixing between surface and groundwater enables them to import their characteristics upon one another thereby counting a change in their parameters. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams to major river valleys. Many scientists have studied the physical aspects of groundwater/surface water interactions, but it is in recent times that these interactions have been looked upon in relation to their ecological implications. With the coming of a more holistic approach to environmental flows and environmental protection, surface water/groundwater (SW/GW interactions should receive heightened attention at multidisciplinary scale and more so, by policy makers and watershed managers. It is generally understood in conceptual form that surface water therefore has the ability to enhance or detract from groundwater quality and vice versa, yet little is known about the processes by which these two entities interact (Gardener, 1988. In the past, emphasis has been placed on studying the physical and chemical effects that groundwater has on surface water but it is also important to look at the ecological role surface water and groundwater interactions can play in maintenance of environmental flows in a river basin. In area where surface water and groundwater directly interacts, the important issue commonly raised in recent times are not only concern with water quality but related with ecology and biodiversity. Therefore, there is a need for thorough understanding of the surface water and groundwater interactions within catchments so as to enhance the sustainable development and management of water resources system. The analytical technique discussed in this paper is an aid to assess the relationship of surface and subsurface hydrology to enlighten a broad audience on the importance of this relationship to environmental flow regulations. The target goals of this paper includes making a case for environmental flows in planning for water allocation and to gain the attention and create awareness that will support future research in environmental flow assessments.

  10. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Fermented Cassava Flour “Lafun” Available in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adebayo-Oyetoro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microorganisms involved in the fermentation and spoilage of fermented cassava flour were investigated. The water samples used at the different processing sites were also investigated to determine their safety status. There was predominance of Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus spp., and Escherichia coli in all samples. Coliforms were observed to be present in all of the processing water. In the fermented cassava flour, the total bacterial count ranged between 4.9×106 cfu/mL from Eleso, Bakatari, and Oja Odan processing sites and 8.10×106 cfu/mL in Eruku processing site. The majority of the microorganisms involved in the spoilage of “lafun” were found to be Aspergillus niger which ranged between 4.6×105 cfu/mL in Eleso and 8.1×105 cfu/mL in Kila. The control sample prepared in the laboratory had a low microbial load compared to samples collected from various sites and markets.

  11. Bibliotherapy as a Problem-Solving Skill of Counsellors and Teachers for Character and Skills Development in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem, Magaji

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disturbance is a psychological situation in which one's feelings are heightened, causing anxiety to set in. This disturbance can lead to low academic achievements in affected students. It takes away children's attention from realities and this affect their academic, character and skills development that are of benefit to the individual…

  12. Contributions of Self-Efficacy and Problem Solving Skills on Secretaries' Job Performance in Ogun State Public Service, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosede, Subuola Catherine; Adesanya, Adebimpe Olusola

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining the contributions of self-efficacy and problem solving skills to the job performance of secretaries. The study also ascertained the relationship among self-efficacy, problem solving skills and job performance of the secretaries. The study employed the descriptive research design. Ten (10) secretaries were…

  13. Land Holding Rights of Fulani Pastoralists and its Effect on their Agropastoral Production System in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodiya, CI.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on land holding rights of the Fulani pastoralists and its effect on their agropastoral production system. It was discovered that among the land holding rights options available for land users in Yoruba communities where the Fulanis are settled, leasehold right was the viable option for the pastoralists. The implications of this is that the Fulani pastoralists cannot use the allotted lands for viable social and economic activities such as building of modern houses, establishment of small cottage industry and cultivation of permanent or cash crops such as Oil palm, Cacao, Kola etc since they are holding the land in their custody on a temporary basis. Therefore, their economic activities were limited to production of arable crops. From the average land size of about 5 ha available to majority of the pastoralist, between 0.5 and 1 ha are used for building livestock sheds, residential housing units and storage silos. Land size of about 1ha or more are cultivated for crop production and grazing pad. The situation of the pastoralists calls for government intervention in order to ensure that they have access to secured land rights. This is essential as it will make it possible for the pastoralists to become empowered to use allotted land for viable economic activities that would enhance their living status and meaningfully impact on the economy and development of their areas of settlement.

  14. Economics of yam marketing in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of yam marketing in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria. ... of 64 yam traders using a structured questionnaire and multi stage sampling technique. ... 25 percent in the level of satisfaction derived from a kilogram of yam sold in the market.

  15. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... collected and subjected to physical, chemical and microbial analysis to determine their ... that the surface and borehole/well Water sources are microbiologically polluted.

  16. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Health Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the ...

  17. Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFubara KG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalada G McFubara,1 Elizabeth R Edoni,2 Rose E Ezonbodor-Akwagbe21Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Community Health Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, NigeriaBackground: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower.Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted.Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital.Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state's common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources.Keywords: health manpower, development, health care education

  18. Sharecropping Contract Experience in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert Ukaro Ofuoku

    2015-01-01

    Sharecropping has been an age long practice from ancient times. Some scholars saw the practice as being exploitative of the tenants, yet it is still being practiced. The reasons behind it continual practice need to be unveiled. This study was therefore conducted to examine the sharecropping contract experience in Delta State, Nigeria. The landlords decided to practice sharecropping as a result of emigration of their household members, farm size and cost of labours, some of them gave age and their primary occupation as factors for their decisions to opt for sharecropping arrangement. The yields were shared on the basis of 60% for the landlord to 40% for the tenant. The landlords provided all the equipment and inputs, while the tenant's carried out all the farm operations. They faced the constraints of stress, but were able to cope with them, because of hospitals and health centres nearby. The result of the test of hypothesis confirmed the reasons given for deciding on sharecropping arrangement. It was concluded that sharecropping was not exploitative. It was recommended that the practice of sharecropping should be encouraged and not diversified into other sources of livelihood should do so.

  19. NIGERIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health workers in Nigeria are particularly at increased risk of ... and none to our knowledge in the University ofNigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH). ... level of hepatitis B vaccination and no post exposure prophylaxis among health.

  20. The State and Empowerment Policies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joseph Chukuma Duru

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since independence in 1960, successive governments in Nigeria have come up with various poverty alleviation strategies aimed at empowering Nigerians in rural and urban areas. Several of these programmes not withstanding, poverty in Nigeria remains an issue of great concern as over 75 per cent of the citizens live below poverty line.This paper seeks to examine the constructions of empowerment in Nigeria's poverty alleviation programmes with particular focus on the Obasanjo regime's Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP. Methodologically, the paper utilizes predominantly secondary sources of data given its nature. And our findings reveal that poverty subsists in Nigeria despite all counter measures because the programmes and empowerment strategies so far adopted have remained remedial, and have fundamentally failed to address basic issues like enhancing the productive base of the society and youth empowerment. Thus, the paper concludes that poverty alleviation programmes can only make meaning when they seek a radical transformation of the society through qualitative and mass education both in rural and urban centres among other things.

  1. Refugee Education: The State of Nigeria's Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A.; Oni, Gbolabo J.

    2017-01-01

    The spate of insurgences and conflicts in the country and around the sub-region has led to the increased presence of refugees and Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in Nigeria. This has resultant challenges on the basic needs of refugees and IDPs at different levels. One of the highest priorities of refugees and IDPs communities is education.…

  2. (ED) by men in Edo state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. (Eshiobo) Irekpita

    2017-05-03

    May 3, 2017 ... b Dept. of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria c Dept. of ... good evidence of a cause–effect relationship. Hypertension, dia- ..... women with breast cancer documented that cultural beliefs, tra- ditional medicine .... Because of the sensitive nature of the topic in the African setting,.

  3. DISTRI BUTION IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relatively reduced resistance to diseases in the body, which portentous food ... sources per capital per day in Nigeria is averaged of 10% of the total protein ... of this committee was not made public to users thus its proper evaluation and adequacy ... grant loan to fanners because of the high risk and uncertainty involved.

  4. Re-Assessing the Relevance and Efficacy of Yoruba Gods as Agents of Punishment: A Study of Sango and Ogun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Akanji Okunola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this paper was to investigate the relevance and efficiency of Yoruba gods in the administration of punishment and justices on crime commitment. Two Yoruba gods (Sango and Ogun were principally chosen. Six hundred (600 participants were conveniently sampled from three localities from three geo-political states in the western part of Nigeria. Univariate and bivariate analyses were used in the description of the samples and frequency distribution tables were employed in the presentation of the data. The results show that Yoruba natives still fear and respect these gods. The gods are still relevant and efficient in the administration of punishment on crime commission. The Yoruba natives show preference for the non-conventional punishments of these gods to modern criminal justice systems. Finally, the paper recommends the opinion survey polls on the inclusion of the invocations of these gods in the criminal justice systems of Nigeria and the likely implementations of the invocations in official swearing in ceremony for political and public office holders and the administration of the invocations in Nigerian courts of law.

  5. Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 1500 students in post-secondary institutions in southwest Nigeria showed that the concept of ... in vocational training who engage in sporadic and ..... Pharmacy shops. 26.7 ..... preference about emergency contraception: a survey.

  6. Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initial Experience with the Utility of the Infrared Diode Laser in Kaduna,. Nigeria. ... The follow up observation period ranged from none to one year in this initial study. ..... (generally abroad) for logistics and/or financial reasons. Concerning ...

  7. NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BLOOD DONORS IN PORT HARCOURT: THE QUESTION OF BLOOD SAFETY .... drug use, high risk sexual activity, injecting with .... constitutes further evidence of the need for efficient ... centers (including ours) in Nigeria under pressure to.

  8. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuonye II

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Abali Chuku,2 Ikechi Gareth Okpechi,3 Ugochukwu Uchenna Onyeonoro,4 Okechukwu Ojoemelam Madukwe,5 Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka Okafor,6 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah5,71Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, 5Ministry of Health, Nnamdi Azikiwe Secretariat, 6Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria; 7Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground and objectives: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria.Material and method: This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity. Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance.Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20

  9. Frequency of human toxocariasis in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Ajayi

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa was used to examine sera of 104 children and adults in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria for anti-toxocaral antibodies, out of which 31 (29.8% were reactive. The seropositive rates were 30.4% for adults, 29.6% for children, 34% for females and 25.9% for males. However, the differences were not significant by age and sex. A highly significant association (p 0.05.

  10. The State of Ex-Situ Conservation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Israel BOROKINI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans. There are several methods of ex-situ conservation being practiced in various parts of the world. However, the ex-situ conservation methods used in Nigeria include botanic and zoological gardens, arboretum, genebanks and in-vitro storage, a few DNA banks and cryopreservation efforts, and there are no active pollen banks. This paper reviews the state of the ex-situ conservation sites in Nigeria in order to bridge the information gaps on the ex-situ conservation of genetic resources in Nigeria. The research institutions, Universities and relevant non-Governmental organizations involved in the conservation of genetic resources ex-situ were taken into account, while their germplasm collections were stated. The challenges faced by ex-situ germplasm conservation were discussed and the role of the Government in improving those situations was emphasized.

  11. Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  12. Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Jus, Nigeria. There is dearth of information on the effect of the IUD on client weight during the period ol' use. ... predispose to_anaemia and some degree of weight loss. .. Methoa': A .... women With heavy menstrual periods, dysmenorrhoea ...

  13. Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    influenza, or bird flu , in a 22-year-old deceased female from Lagos. She is believed to be the first human to have died from the disease in Sub-Saharan...countries.71 A new strain of bird flu was detected in Nigeria in August 2008. 71 For

  14. Assessment of Field-Grown Cucurbit Crops and Weeds within Farms in South-West Nigeria for Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ibitaiyewa AYO-JOHN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops and weeds in selected locations in Ogun and Osun, in southwest Nigeria, in June, 2012. In all, 38 leaf samples were collected in Ogun state and 52 in Osun state from cucurbit crops and weeds. Leaf samples were tested against  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV,Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV using Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the fields surveyed had virus symptom incidences of 100% except for melon fields in Osun state with incidences of between 10 and 30%. In Ogun state, the occurrence of CMV was 5/31 (16.1% while MNSV was detected in Lagenaria siceraria and T. occidentalis and it occurred in 6.5% of the leaf samples. In Osun state, CMV was detected in watermelon, melon and weeds found in all locations surveyed. The occurrence of CMV was 9/38 (23.7% in the cucurbit crops and in 78.6% (11/14 of the weeds. PRSV and WMV also occurred in mixed infection with CMV in 7.1% respectively. CMV was the most widespread and prevalent virus infecting cucurbit crops and weeds.Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops

  15. Causes of maternal mortality in Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Boniface Oye-Adeniran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality remains a major problem in many parts of the world including Nigeria.Understanding the causes of maternal mortality is crucial in confronting the challenge of unyielding high rates. The aim of this study was to determine the direct and indirect causes of maternal mortality in Lagos State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is a descriptive cross-sectional survey. The study population consisted of adults residing in Lagos State, Nigeria. The sample size used for this study was 29,988. The respondents were selected by multistage sampling from all the local government areas in the state. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data entry, cleaning, validation and analysis were done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 15.0. Results: Among the 29,988 respondents, 306 (1.0% gave a history of married sisters who died during pregnancy, childbirth or during the postpartum period. Of the 306, 138 (45.1% died during pregnancy; 107 (34.9% died during childbirth, and 61 (19.9% died during the postpartum period. Abortion, ectopic pregnancies and hypertension were the most commonly mentioned cause of death during pregnancy, while anemia, prolonged labor and obstructed labor were the common causes during childbirth. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , infection and malaria were the common causes of maternal death during the 6 weeks after end of pregnancy/childbirth. Conclusions and Recommendation: Over half of the maternal deaths in Lagos State occurred during labor and immediately postpartum. Community education on the importance of having skilled attendants at delivery must be provided. Emergency obstetric care should be available, accessible and affordable at health facilities, and efforts must be made to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions by increasing contraceptive use. The malaria control efforts should be intensified.

  16. Analysis of Marketing of Garri in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebewore S O; Idoge D E

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the marketing of a cassava-based product (garri) in Delta State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 168 respondents using structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed in selecting 168 respondents from six markets in Delta State where garri is produced and marketed. Data was analyzed by the calculation of percentages, means and running of regression. The study revealed that the marketing of garri in Delta State was predominantly a female activity. The study also revealed that the garri was marketed in three channels and that 46.4% were retailers. The study further revealed a reasonable degree of freedom of entry and exit in the garri business in Delta State. Each trader or marketer was able to earn an average profit margin of N2 190.00 (for garri marketers), while the marketing margins for garri was 13.1%. Although the marketers were faced with some challenges the average profit per marketer per month was reasonably high (N40 722). The study further showed that the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers to a large extent had a positive influence on the quantity of garri sold in the study area. From the findings it was recommended that storage facilities, extension services and good road network among others should be provided to improve the marketing of garri in Delta State, Nigeria.

  17. Empirical Evidence from Kaduna State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    public extension agency owned by State government and mass media. ... creating awareness and facilitating the adoption of these innovations. ... fisheries, women are mainly involved in processing and marketing (Uchola 2000 .... decision among Farmers in Markurdi, Benue State. ... agriculture and social research.

  18. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  19. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  20. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  1. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chito Clare Ekwealor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples collected from 201 farmers with lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses were processed and the organisms identified. Questionnaires were used to obtain other necessary data and were statistically analyzed. Of the 2,580 rice farmers screened, 201 (7.79% showed positive lesions. Organisms recovered included Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megnini, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus scleriotorum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Scopulariopsis sp., Chrysosporium sp., Eupenicillium javanicum, Fusarium sp., Penicillium aculeatum, and Penicillium pinophilum. At the end of this work, onychomycosis was observed to be the most prevalent with nondermatophyte molds now becoming very important agents of cutaneous mycoses among rice farmer.

  2. Ocular injuries in industrial technical workers in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.T.Edema; A.E.Omoti; F.B.Akinsola; P.A.Aigbotsua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the types and causes of eye injury in industrial workers. Methods: A cross sectional study of the pattern of ocular injuries in Delta state of Nigeria was carried out over 3 months. Five hundred workers were interviewed and examined using the Snellen's chart, pen-torch, direct ophthalmoscope, magnifying loupe and the Perkin's hand-held applanation tonometer. Results: All the 500 workers were males. One hundred and twenty-three workers (24.6%) reported a history of ocular injury at work. The most common causative agents were sand dust, 53 workers (25.1%); cake dust, 27 workers (12.8%) and chemicals, 32 workers (15.1%). The main types of ocular injury were corneal/ conjunctival foreign bodies, 79 workers (64.2%); burns, 35 workers (28.5%) and blunt injury, 9 workers (7.3%). Only 36 (7.2%) workers used protective eye devices at work. Thirteen workers (2.6%) developed monocular blindness from ocular injury. Conclusion: Ocular injury at work is common and few workers wear protective devices at work in industries in Delta state, Nigeria. Industrial workers should have regular eye services and wear eye safety devices at work.

  3. Child fostering and adoption in Nigeria: a case study of Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child fostering and adoption in Nigeria: a case study of Kwara State and literature review. ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... A retrospective analysis of case records in government owned family welfare institutions in the state between ...

  4. Verification of Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Shafique Sani; Danawi, Hadi; Cain, Loretta; Sharma, Monoj

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. The goal of the study was to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina State, Nigeria. The study is a retrospective record review using extracted data from NNT records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The prevalence of NNT and mortality rate were 336 cases and 3.4 deaths per 100 000 population, respectively, whereas the prevalence of NNT and mortality rate reported through the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system were 111 cases and 1.0 death per 100 000 population, respectively. The study shows underreporting of NNT in the existing IDSR system. Active surveillance is a good strategy for verifying underreporting of NNT in the surveillance system. The IDSR system should be strengthened with the capacity to detect events associated with a disease toward global elimination.

  5. The Classroom Environment: A Major Motivating Factor towards High Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in South West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomolafe, Comfort O.; Adesua, Veronica O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of the classroom environment as a motivating factor in enhancing the academic performance of secondary school students in South West Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey type. The population of this study comprises all students of senior secondary schools in South West Nigeria which consist of Lagos, Ogun,…

  6. Rural livelihood and food poverty in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of livelihood activities on food security status of rural households in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 150 households through a multi-stage sampling procedure. The majority of the rural residents were in their economic active years, had diversified their livelihood activities so as to increase their income stream and also mitigate against shocks. The highest food poverty headcount was observed among female crop farming non-farming households with one to six members while all households with more than 12 members were food poor. Severity of food poverty decreased with years of farming experience, educational status and farm size of crop farmers and those engaged in non-farm activities. The probability of a rural household being food poor reduced with household head’s attainment of primary education and land ownership but increases with being headed by a woman and having high dependency ratio.

  7. Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAYODE Joshua

    2006-01-01

    The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed.

  8. Geographical information systems (GIS) and risk maps of urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical information systems (GIS) and risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Parasitology ... occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis and population at risk in Ogun State, Nigeria ... Article Metrics.

  9. Transportation constraints to rural health accessibility in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Transportation constraints to rural health accessibility in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ... Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary ...

  10. Assessments of natural radioactivity and determination of heavy metals in soil around industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Kolapo Ademola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in soil samples from industrial dumpsites in Sango-Ota were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl detector. The mean activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was 3.0 ± 1.2, 33.3 ± 9.8 and 122.1 ± 20.6 Bqkg−1 , respectively. Radium equivalent activities were calculated to assess the hazards arising from the use of the soil sample in agriculture. All the calculated values were lower than the world average. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples were 33.6, 2.9, 3.8, 2.7, 48.9, 1,5, 34.5 and 0.8 mg l -1 for Cu, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb were higher than the natural permissible range in soil. Therefore, the government should discourage the use of the soil around dumpsites for planting because of the presence of heavy metals in the sites.

  11. A Multicenter Study of Beta-Lactamase Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Reveals High Level Chromosome Mediated Extended Spectrum β Lactamase Resistance in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folasoge A. Adeyankinnu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the ever increasing problem of multiresistant bacteria, we instituted a surveillance program with the aim of identifying the basic molecular properties of ESBL in our environment. About 197 isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected and tested for ESBL production and antimicrobial susceptibility. Plasmid profiles were determined and curing ability was tested. ESBL prevalence was 26.4% for all isolates tested, with E. coli having a greater proportion. There was absolute resistance to ampicilin, tetracycline, and co-trimaxole among tested isolates. There was above average susceptibility to the 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Plasmid profiles of tested isolates ranged from 9 kbp to 26 kbp with average of 14.99±2.3 kbp for E. coli and 20.98±1.8 kbp K. pneumoniae, 9.6% of ESBL positive E. coli plasmids were cured, while 3.9% of K. pneumoniae plasmids were cured after treatment. The present study shows an upsurge in ESBL acquisition by gram negative bacteria and evidence of cocirculation of varying subtypes of ESBL with both plasmid transmissible and chromosome encoded subtypes. This calls for universal surveillance and more effort towards molecular epidemiology of this public health treatment.

  12. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun state of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Facully of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various

  13. Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of citrus marketing in Benue and Kano states of Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Market concentration measures were applied to a cross sectional data of sampled wholesalers and retailers.

  14. The Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Anambra State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Anambra State, Nigeria: Exploring Gender, ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... domestic violence etc. are gender related factors that exacerbate prevalence of HIV.

  15. Local government financial autonomy in Nigeria: The State Joint Local Government Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Okafor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the statutory financial relations and financial autonomy of local government in Nigeria, and the freedom of local government to generate revenue from its assigned sources without external interference. It focuses particularly on a financial instrument called the State Joint Local Government Account (SJLGA and how its operations have positively or negatively affected the financial autonomy of local government councils and the inter-relations between state and local government in Nigeria.

  16. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey ...

  17. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100% were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers in Osun state and 58.8% in Ogun state stated that they did not receive information on the banned pesticides from government agencies but through other channels. More than half of the marketers (52.9% in Ogun, 55% in Kwara and 47.1% in Osun strongly disagreed that government should place a ban on pesticides. Availability of banned pesticides in their stock, insufficient information from the concerned government agricultural agencies, and fear of short supply of approved pesticides are among the reasons proffered by the marketers for not supporting the ban of pesticides. Relevant government regulatory agencies should conduct a comprehensive inventory of pesticides offered for sale by the marketers of agrochemicals. There should be massive public awareness programme, and wellcoordinated association for all the marketers of agrochemicals. Agrochemical manufacturers should translate instructions and warnings on pesticide labels to local languages understood by the farmers.

  18. HOUSING POLICIES AND MARKET FAILURES IN ONDO STATE NIGERIA

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    Afolabi Francis FATUSIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One major factor that account for housing market crises in developing countries is the seeming disconnect between housing policies and housing markets in these countries. This paper examines the links between housing policy and urban housing market dynamics in context of developing world drawing from the housing market situation in selected urban centres in Ondo state of Nigeria. The data utilized were derived from the study of housing situations in the selected urban centres. Thus 180 questionnaires were administered on selected household heads and key officials of major agencies and organizations including government departments involved in housing provision and development in the state. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive analysis where appropriate. The study revealed that housing policies introduced over the years have had little impact on housing production and by implication urban housing market in the study cities. The study also revealed a disconnect between these policies and housing provision and trends in terms of quality, quantity, affordability and accessibility to housing. The paper argued that these were so because institutions connected to efficient functioning of these policies were inefficient, ineffective and sometime over ambitious and so more often than not, set goals were not met. The study concluded by suggesting more commitment on the part of Federal and Ondo state governments to ensure these policies dovetail to housing consumers.

  19. Small Scale Industries and Poverty Reduction in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Francis Fatusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ondo State of Nigeria is part of the National Millennium Goal of halving poverty by the year 2015. This paper examines the contribution of small scale industrial enterprises toward achieving this goal, relying on questionnaire which was administered on 353 proprietors and 706 workers randomly. Data were also collected from government agencies and organizations that were responsible for formulating and implementing policies on these categories of industrial establishments. These were analyzed using descriptive means. The study discovered substantial contribution of these enterprises to improvement in income, job creation and linkage with other enterprises, factors necessary for poverty reduction. It was also discovered that even the least proprietor earns an average of $2.8 per day (apart from profits which are mostly saved in cooperative societies and age grade associations which is above poverty line. It also discovered a bias toward Ondo Central which is the most cosmopolitan region in the state in terms of the magnitude of these impacts at reducing poverty. The study concluded by recommending improved support by the government to grow the sector to further reduce poverty in the state.

  20. Results of Cataract Outreach Services in a State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Lawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: A blindness prevalence survey in 1996 indicated that estimates of 40000 are blind from cataracts in Kano state, northwestern Nigeria. Many more were severely visually impaired. Eye care personnel and other resources for eye care delivery are located at the state capital. The state Ministry of Health organized an outreach program. The aim was to operate on 750 cataract patients and measure the visual acuity at two weeks follow up. METHOD: Patients were registered and examined. Cataract patients with accurate four quadrant light projection, briskly reacting pupils and normal intra ocular pressures were selected and had manual extra capsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implantation. Post operative medications were administered. Patients were reviewed at 2 weeks follow up after discharge during which their visual acuity was measured and recorded. RESULTS: 868 cataract patients were operated. Thirty two percent of the patients were blind before surgery and 77% of these had bilateral cataracts. The proportion of those who had posterior chamber intra ocular lens (PC IOL was 85%. The proportion of patients who regained normal vision was 43% and overall, 94% had vision of 6/60 or, better after surgery compared with 20% in this category before surgery, (WHO vision category 0 and 1. CONCLUSION: Cataract outreach service is essential in reducing cataract blindness. There is need to follow up patients although the vision recorded for this study was obtained at two weeks follow up. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 225-228

  1. Traumatic death from rival gang violence in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleye-Fubara, D; Bob-Yellowe, E

    2005-10-01

    A prospective autopsy study in Rivers State, Nigeria, was undertaken to evaluate the patterns of death as a result of rival gang clashes and to highlight the menace of rival gang violence. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2003 medico-legally autopsied bodies in Rivers State, where death was the result of gang violence, were studied after being served with the coroner's form. In all cases, standard autopsy procedures were adopted and reports were issued. A total of 58 bodies were autopsied for the study. Three (5.2%) were females and 55 (94.8%) were males, giving a female to male ratio of 1:18.3. The age group of 10-29 years recorded the highest frequency of death (65.6%) with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.7%). Gang violence and politically motivated mob action were the most common precipitating factors (60.3% and 20.7% respectively). Firearms (41.4%) was the most common method applied for the killing. Death was more common in the rural areas of Rivers State. Gang clashes, volatile political rallies, illegal drug peddling and illegal oil bunkering should be banned and stringent laws be passed. Such laws should also cover gun handling and should be enforced.

  2. Work Stress among Professionals in Building Construction Industry in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eziyi Offia Ibem

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify key stress factors among professionals in building construction industry in Nigeria. This is in view of the fact that to date, very little is known about work stress among professionals in building construction industry in this country. The study involved the administration of questionnaire to 107 professionals including architects, builders, civil/structural engineers and quantity surveyors randomly selected from 60 ongoing building projects in Anambra, Ogun and Kaduna States, Nigeria. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and findings show that the principal sources of stress were high volume of work, uncomfortable site office environment, lack of feedback on previous and ongoing building projects, and variations in the scope of work in ongoing building projects. The paper suggests that taking responsibility for work which one has adequate capacity to handle, establishing realistic budgets and time frame for project delivery, provision of spatially adequate, visually and thermally comfortable site offices, adoption of appropriate job design practice and education of professionals on stress management strategies will reduce the incidence of stress among professionals in building industry in Nigeria.

  3. chemical properties of soil in rivers state, nigeria *ch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    chemical properties and the spatial extent ... the core and decreased with increasing distance from the core. ... Key words: Charcoal, Soil, Change index, Niger Delta, Nigeria ..... practices. References. Agbenin, J.O. (1995), Laboratory manual for Soil.

  4. AMONG IN-SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN DELTA STATE. NIGERIA '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: In-school adolescents. knowledge of HIV. sexual behavior. Nigeria. NTRODUCTION ... Survey (NARHS) reports that there is a high level of awareness about ..... itn/cage R. Sexual risk behavior among young people in itamenda.

  5. Maize Contract Farming Experience in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert Ukaro Ofuoku; Joseph Unuetara Agbamu

    2016-01-01

    Many reviews and evaluations of contract farming and its importance for small-scale farmers in the developing nations have been conducted. While some scholars opined that contractual terms were unfavourable to farmers, others considerd them as being beneficial to them. These contrasting views were not likely to discourage it since it provided encouragement for farmers' involvement in markets. It was therefore worthwhile to investigate previous experiences with the aim of improving on it. This study investigated contract farming entered into by farmers in Delta State of Nigeria and livestock feed companies with the objective of seeking ways to make such contractual agreements beneficial to small-scale farmers. The study utilized convergence of science approach. The study unveiled the constraints experienced by farmers and they included technical and institutional challenges. The technical problem was the planting date, while the institutional problem was the contractual arrangements. It was recommended that all the stakeholders in the contract should converge and negotiate technological adoptions of the improved maize varieties; contract needed to be clearly defined and risks and uncertainties should be parts of the contract; scientific investigations should be carried out to determine the best planting date; and there was need for legislation to particularly protect farmers in contract farming.

  6. Internal fixation at ECWA Hospital, Egbe, Kogi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaja, S B

    2002-01-01

    Forty two (42) cases of fractures treated by internal fixation at Egbe Hospital ECWA, Kogi State, Nigeria were analysed retrospectively. Most of the patients requiring internal fixation were young male patients in their reproductive years 26 patients were under 50 years of age out of which 22 patients were males (84.6%) whilst only 4 patients (15.4%) were females. Internal fixation was found to be commoner in males: 31 patients (73.8%) than in females: 11 patients (26.2%). Fractures requiring internal fixation are commoner in the lower limbs than in the upper limbs (Ratio 6:1). The femur is the commonest site of internal fixation, 22 cases (54.2%) followed by the tibia, 6 cases (14.3%). Majority of the patients, 28 cases (67%) left the hospital under 50 days whereas when treated conservatively most will be in the hospital for up to 100 days. Only about 60% of the cases require blood transfusion and even a more cautious approach could reduce this percentage. 13 (31%) of the cases had fever post-operatively which was not necessarily due to infection. Based on its advantages, internal fixation is therefore encouraged and should only be performed by a surgeon who has adequate experience, equipment, instruments and a good operating theatre setting.

  7. Farmers’ Media Use Pattern in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Adamu Madu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in eight villages in zone two of the Agricultural Development Project in Adamawa State, Nigeria to examine farmers’ media use pattern. The study reveals that information on most of the agricultural practices, were sought and found on radio. Marketing and fertilizer information was sought and found in interpersonal media (fellow farmers and extension agents respectively. This study also reveals that farmers actually found agricultural information on agricultural practices in the media sources from which they sought them. Finally it can be concluded that radio, extension agents and fellow farmers are still the most frequently used sources for obtaining information on improved agricultural practices. These findings suggest that more agricultural radio programs with local relevance should be broadcast on a regular basis as it would increase not only the knowledge base of farmers, but may as well lead to increased adoption and utilization. While farmers appear to differentiate media appropriate for specific practices, extension agencies should package marketing information for direct dissemination to farmers. Farmers’ high non-seeking behavior of improved agricultural practices, post harvest handling information calls for concerted effort by authorities to intensify campaigns to educate farmers of the scheme’s ability. It is thus imperative to revitalized extension system to increase farmers contact with extension agents through attendance of agricultural shows, demonstrations and other fairs.

  8. Ostrich Management practices in three states of Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshelia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify management practices associated with ostrich farming in Kano, Kaduna and Plateau States of Nigeria. Seven farms were purposively selected as units of analysis. Primary data were generated by means of a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, administered to the sampled respondents. A simple inductive statistics was applied to the primary data. The result reveals a commercial production of ostrich by 86 % with all the farms engaged in production of other livestock species. Similarly, all the farms had shelter for chicks and breeders which were all erected using wire mesh and poles at above 5 feet fencing level. More over, 100 % of the farms were densely stocked (below 500 m2 for a pair of ostrich with facilities below recommended levels. The result also showed that 100 % of the farms compound feed locally using premix without no providing grit and low (14 % usage of succulent feed. About 29 % of the farms use endoparasitic and anthelminthic drugs as health management practices. On the reproductive practices, only trio (29 % and colony (71 % configurations were practiced. The prominent biosecurity measures include division of farm into disease control unit (100 % and employee enlightenment (86 %. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 64-67

  9. Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    words, crises are states of events afler a consistent level of conflict and violence have ..... constructed and constantly modified. People choose to be ... citizenship and the inflation of the idea of ethnie consciousness out of all proportion in ...

  10. Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Principle 11 of the International Association of Deposit Insurers (IADI) Core Principles (CP 11) states that deposit insurers are required to have available to them all funding mechanisms necessary to ensure the prompt reimbursement of depositors’ claims. One of the Essential Criteria under CP 11 is that the size of the fund, the “fund reserve ratio”, should be based on “clear, consistent and well-developed criteria.” Currently, the Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) sets its reser...

  11. Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

    The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0

  12. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, I A

    2008-12-01

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  13. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankiti, O. O.; Ikeh, E. I.; Arowolo, O. A.; Nwankiti, A. J.; M. O. Odugbo; T. Seuberlich

    2013-01-01

    Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10%) goats and no she...

  14. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  15. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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    J. I. Awu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM, Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated data was further subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA on difference between means of parameters and graphical method to determine the spatial variation of the water quality characteristics. The time variations of the water quality characteristics as compared with the spatial variations showed that for some variables, there was statistical difference between the means of parameters with respect to time and space at various levels of significance. These include Phosphorus (5%, Copper (1%, Iron (5%, Nickel (5%, Cadmium (1%, Salinity (1%, Bacteria (1% for time variation; and Sulphate (1%, Chemical Oxygen (5%,Nickel (1%, Arsenic (1%, Zinc (1%, Cadmium (1%, Bacteria (1% for spatial variations during dry season and Chemical Oxygen (5%, Nickel (1%, for spatial variation during rainy season. Based on the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria guidelines for drinking water, the results of microbial analysis also indicated that the selected river waters were polluted with disease causing microorganisms, such as E.Coliform, Salmonella, Bacillus Subtilis. Therefore, the river waters are not good for drinking. The consumers of water obtained from the three rivers are likely to suffer the following: typhoid, fever, intestinal problem, diarrhea, skin rash, cholera. Necessary recommendations such as treating the water with bio-sand filter before use, amongst others, were made.

  16. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  17. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  18. Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…

  19. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  20. Youth Empowerment in Higher Education for Sustainable Development of Developing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpiken, William E.; Ukpabio, Godfrey U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was an attempt to examine youth empowerment in higher education for sustainable development of developing communities in Cross River State in Nigeria. In Cross River State developing communities, youths are in the majority and form a very strong formidable force in the society we live, study, but are not empowered while in school nor…

  1. Epidemiological survey of hypertension in Anambra state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... of Nigeria would be useful in developing intervention programs to control it and prevent its consequences. Objective: .... factors such as salt consumption, physical exercise, family history of ... priests, parents (for children below the consenting age of 18) ... BMI and obesity index were calculated as follows: 2.

  2. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS.

  3. The Ongoing Campaign of Terror in Nigeria: Boko Haram versus the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Egiegba Agbiboa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Boko Haram remains arguably the biggest problem confronting Nigeria today, with consequences going beyond security into the political and socio-economic aspects of governance. This Islamist group from northeastern Nigeria has killed at least 3,500 people since 2009 when it first launched its Islamic insurgency to wrest power from the Nigerian government and create an Islamic state under the supreme law of sharia. The group’s active gnawing at the religious, ethnic, and regional fault-lines of Nigeria not only threatens the country’s peace and unity, but holds serious transnational implications. The objective of this paper is to answer three fundamental questions about the extremist group: Who is Boko Haram? Why does the group rebel? How has the Nigerian State responded? The paper also touches on Boko Haram’s growing connection to transnational terrorist groups like al-Qaeda and al-Shabaab as a form of survival strategy.

  4. Police corruption and the national security challenge in Nigeria: a study of Rivers State Police Command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngboawaji Daniel Nte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to make a modest attempt to examine the linkage between police corruption and national security in such a developing country like Nigeria. In doing this, the study selected Rivers State - a key state in the Niger Delta for specific analysis. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approach to get an in-depth insight into the problem under study. A sample size of 200 was selected, while a 4-Likert questionnaire was administered to the selected respondents. The study found out that police corruption in Nigeria is structural as part of the wider web of corruption in Nigeria. It also showed that poor working conditions/ poverty are aggravating factors of police corruption in Nigeria. Furthermore, poor recruitment policies also contribute to police corruption. More so, the study found out that there is an inverse relationship between police corruption and national security in Nigeria. Finally, on the basis of these findings, the study offered useful recommendations that could help stem this social problem.

  5. Measles Morbidity and Mortality Trend in Nigeria: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Retrospective Study in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeeb O. Bola Oyefolu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This hospital-based retrospective cohort study was undertaken with a view to determine the epidemiological trend of measles in Lagos State, Nigeria Methods: Medical records of clinically diagnosed measles patients from nine referral public hospitals in Lagos State between 1998 and 2007 were retrieved, transcribed and reviewed. Data were analyzed using standard methods. Results: A total of 35,500 clinically confirmed cases and 835 deaths (case fatality rate = 2.35%/10 years were recorded. The mean incidence was estimated at 19 cases per 100,000 population/year. A consistent seasonality pattern of measles was observed for the study period. The under-fives accounted for the highest reported cases (76.30% while, the under-1 year recorded highest mortality (53.8%. Notable shift of measles vulnerability from under-1year to under-fives was observed. Although there was significant difference between cases and deaths among the age groups (p0.05. Conclusion: This study recorded high incidence and case fatality of measles, which poses serious public health threat. Poor demographic data collection and storage were revealed thus, computerization of medical records for collection, storage and retrieval of data is imperative for adequate planning and control of measles imperil in Nigeria. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1:12-18

  6. A Study of Power Relations in Doctor-Patient Interactions in Selected Hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores power relations in clinical interactions in Nigeria. It seeks to investigate the use of power between doctors and patients during consultations on patient-centred approach to medicine in selected public and private hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective is to establish how doctors' projection of power, using the…

  7. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Nwankiti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10% goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrPSc, using Bio-Rad’s TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown.

  8. Economics of Waterleaf (Talinumtriangulare Production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm A. Enete

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the profitability level of waterleaf production in three selected agricultural zones of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data obtained from a random sample of 60 waterleaf farmers and analyzed using descriptive statistics, profitability ratios and regression analysis. The result of the analysis shows that the majority (90% of the farmers had some level of formal education. Labour had the highest percentage (58% of total cost of production, suggesting that waterleaf production was labour intensive in the area.  The average net income per hectare per waterleaf production cycle was N322,413 while the average total cost was N89,307.18. Labour cost constituted the highest percentage of total variable cost. The profitability index (0.78, rate of returns on investment (361%, rate of returns on variable cost (482%, and operating ratio (0.21 suggest that waterleaf production was profitable in the study area. The identified major factors that enhance the output of waterleaf were the application of poultry manure, bigger household size (cheap labour, level of education of the farmer and level of capital. These observations underscore the need for the provision of credit facilities and some kind of adult education programme for the farmers. These will respectively ensure that they apply the right quantity of purchased inputs (like fertilizers, hired labour and capital in their production process and improve their human capital.Cette étude a porté sur l’analyse du taux de rentabilité de la production de grassé dans trois régions agricoles de l’état d’Akwa Ibom, au Nigeria. Des données primaires obtenues à partir d’un échantillon aléatoire de 60 cultivateurs de grassé ont été analysées à l’aide de statistiques descriptives, de ratios de rentabilité et d’une analyse de régression. Les résultats montrent que la majorité (90 % des cultivateurs a un certain degré d’éducation formelle

  9. Analysis of Classroom Management Problems in Primary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghuvbu, Enamiroro Patrick; Atakpo, Theresa Edirin

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies classroom management problems, their causes, and possible ways to reduce these problems in primary schools located in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 600 teachers selected from twelve local government areas participated in this study. Data were collected in a checklist containing 27 items and a two section questionnaire…

  10. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Bullying in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Mary Juliana; Okoli, Georgina; Obeten, Okoi Okorn; Akeke, M. N. G.

    2016-01-01

    This research is an evaluation of the impact of causes, consequences and effects of bullying in academic setting on student academic performance in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research made use of purposive and random sampling techniques made up of 302 students. Questionnaire served as the data collection instrument.…

  11. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  12. Assessing Principals' Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined principals' quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. "Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance…

  13. Political Empowerment of Women through Literacy Education Programmes in EDO and Delta States, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…

  14. Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osa, Osayimwense

    1983-01-01

    Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

  15. Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Secondary Schools Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Nwachukwu, Kelechukwu I.; Ali, Domiya Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The study determined Relationship between Students' Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Correlation design was adopted for the study. Four hypotheses which determined the relationships between the components of expectancy beliefs: ability, tasks difficulty, and past…

  16. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  17. Business Studies Academic Performance Differences of Secondary School Juniors in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.

    2012-01-01

    The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…

  18. Principals' Administrative Styles and Students' Academic Performance in Taraba State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Suleiman; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the relationship between principals' administrative styles and students' academic performance in Taraba State secondary schools, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between initiative structure of leadership styles, consideration structure of leadership styles, participatory structure of…

  19. Political Empowerment of Women through Literacy Education Programmes in EDO and Delta States, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olomukoro, Caroline O.; Adelore, Omobola O.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the political empowerment of women through literacy education programmes in Edo and Delta States in the South-South Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A sample of 1022 women was randomly drawn from the different levels of literacy classes organised by the Agency of Adult and Nonformal Education and non-governmental and private…

  20. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  1. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  2. Visual Representativeness in Junior Secondary School English Language Textbooks in Use in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduabuchi, Chinyere Henrietta; Ekwe, Bernedett

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from research findings seems to corroborate with the assertion that the students' constant difficulties in the comprehension of English language texts may have emanated from the limited visual representativeness in most of the recommended textbooks in use in Junior Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Textbooks help to equip…

  3. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  4. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  5. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajoju, Samuel A.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement in children's education and the academic achievement of primary six pupils in Edo State, Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was employed in this study. The sample consisted of 1,895 primary six pupils (1,024 males and 863 females drawn from 37,908 primary six pupils in…

  6. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

  7. Attitude of Local Dwellers towards Ecotourism in the Okomu National Park, Edo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digun-Aweto Oghenetejiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring local community support for national parks is viewed as a paramount ingredient for conservation and sustainability. This is advocated for the park to meet its conservation goals. The Okomu National Park (ONP, Edo State, Nigeria, is one of such protected areas of lush green rain forest requiring conservation.

  8. Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

  9. Conditions Restraining the Teaching of Major Nigerian Languages in Secondary School in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidi-Ehiem, Ugochi Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the conditions handicapping the teaching of major Nigerian languages in secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A random sample of 953 students and 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 1555 copies of questionnaire…

  10. Optimizing job satisfaction through motivation in the face of Economic crisis among Nigeria's University staff

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    Babatunde B.O.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined job satisfaction through motivation in the face of economic crisis among universities staff in Nigeria with reference to the University of Ado Ekiti and Olabisi Onabanjo University Ogun State Nigeria. This study adopted the descriptive survey research design. A total of 100 respondents were selected for the study using stratified sampling technique. Two sets of questionnaire were used for data collection. chis - square model was used to test the hypothesized research questions generated for the study. The finding revealed that effective application of motivational strategies in the university will definitely improve the level of their job satisfaction in most of the institution especially in Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the Irregularities in promotion have to be looked into and corrective measure has to put in place to ensure free passage of staff from one level to the order as at when due. Conducive working environment has to be created to enhance job satisfaction of the staff.Training, workshop, seminars and conference programme has to be usually organized for the workers to update their working knowledge and skill in their respective area.There should be a cordial relationship between staff union and the management of the University and if any mater arises it must be settled amicably.

  11. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

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    Mustafa Adelaja Lamina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  12. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  13. The development of poultry farms risk assessment tool for avian influenza in Imo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O

    2014-09-01

    This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70.

  14. Patients’ perception of quality service delivery of public hospitals in Nigeria using analytical hierarchy process

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    Emmanuel Olateju Oyatoye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients are recently more aware and conscious. This is because of the belief that a high level of quality can translate into patient satisfaction. This is critical for healthcare providers as they deal with life. This recognition by both the service provider and service receivers made the government to establish units of service commission (SERVICOM in each of the governmental agencies including hospitals in Nigeria to monitor the level of quality of service delivery. However, to what extent do patients’ perceptions about health services seem to have been largely recognized remain unclear by health care providers, despite the (SERVICOM units in public institutions in Nigeria? Method: A cross-sectional analytical study using convenient sample method, based on the fact that not every patient of the selected hospitals can be chosen, was performed on 400 patients who received health services at four different public hospitals in Ogun state Nigeria. The selection of these hospitals was based on the zones in the state (Egba, Ijebu, Remo and Yewa area of Ogun-state. The instrument was a valid and reliable analytical hierarchy process based questionnaire containing five service quality dimensions. Data were analyzed using SPSS, Expert choice and Microsoft Excel software to determine the perception of patients towards service quality delivery in pairwise comparison of judgment consistent at less than 10%. Results:The results showed the composite priorities of the patients’ perception with respect to determinants of the patients’ perception towards quality of services delivered in the public hospitals in Nigeria. The most important factor to patients was the reliability dimension with composite priority 0.24 or 24% followed by the responsiveness dimension with 0.22 assurance dimension 0.21, tangibility dimension with 0.21, and the least determinant factor was the empathy dimension with 0.1101. Conclusion: Based on the results, the

  15. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; P.I. Ater

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  16. SUSTAINING OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION FOR CAREER CHOICE AND DEVELOPMENT IN STUDENTS OF TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Moses Ikebe Odo

    2015-01-01

    This study takes on the issue of sustaining occupational information for career choice and development in students of technical colleges in Enugu State, Nigeria. The method adopted for this study was the survey design and the population included were all final year students of the three government technical colleges in Enugu State of Nigeria. The technical colleges were sampled as follows: Government Technical College, Enugu (156 students); Government Technical College, Nsukka (148 students);...

  17. Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria

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    Emmanuella N. Akange

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67

  18. Is Zakah Effective to Alleviate Poverty in a Muslim Society?: A Case of Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Abdussalam, Onagun Isiaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kwara State is one of the Muslim-dominated states in Nigeria, where Islamic economic instrument of zakah is expected to play vital role in alleviating the problem of poverty in the society. One of the objectives of zakah is to economically circulate the wealth and resources from the rich to the poor and eventually realize fair distribution of those wealth and resources in a Muslim society. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of zakah in the poverty reduction of the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria, particularly, the poor Muslim women. The study employs mixed method of data collection whereby the primary data are explored using the questionnaire and interview designed for the potential respondents during the on-going academic research programme 2013/2014 academic session of 360 sample size. Similarly, verses from Holy Qu’ran and Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh are used in the study. For the secondary data, existing literature and studies on zakah are also used. Data gathered are analysed using frequencies, percentages and inferential statistics via SPSS 20.0. The findings show that zakah and its institution are not significantly related to and effective in reducing poverty among the poor Muslims in Kwara State, Nigeria. However, recommendations are made towards introduction of standard institution of zakah in the State in order to assist in poverty reduction among the poor Muslims.

  19. Pattern of skin disorders in a rural community in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    west Nigeria. All consenting adults and children with parental consent that presented for the screening ... Keywords: pattern, skin disorders, skin infection, rural, community, Nigeria ..... Skin diseases in South-east Nigeria: a current perspective.

  20. Increasing the success rate of groundwater exploration in developing nation using geophysical methods: Case of a small community in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiorho, S. A.; Omole, D.; Aizebeokhai, A.

    2016-12-01

    About 35 percent of Nigeria's population of the more than 180 M relies on groundwater. Due to the lack of an adequate water supply system within Ogun State, many homes result to drilling their own private wells. Most groundwater is sourced from shallow wells (less than 30 m) and is often of poor water quality. The number of borehole failures is also alarming. Several entrepreneurs have seized on the lack of adequate water supply to drill for groundwater. Several of these wells have either failed or are not adequate for the purposed use of the water. There also appears to be no proper coordination of the citing of these wells. To increase the success rates of the boreholes, the use of geophysical methods amongst others is recommended. This study examines the exploration for groundwater and water quality in Ogun State in Nigeria, using Ota as an example. Ogun State has both significant surface and groundwater resources. However, due to the indiscriminate and lack of proper waste disposal, the vast majority of the surface waters and shallow well waters are impaired making them unsuitable for many users. To access a deeper groundwater source, a geophysical survey was performed to assist in finding a possible location for a borehole. A geophysical survey using the vertical electric sounding (VES) with Schlumberger configuration was carried out. The data shows that there are five layers within the proposed borehole site. Based on the data, it was suggested that a well be placed at a depth between 65-75 m (213-246 ft.). The borehole was drilled to 67m. This depth, from the literature, corresponds to the Abeokuta formation. A pump was installed at 66 m (217 ft.) depth and the first 50 feet of the borehole was grouted to prevent surface water from getting into the hole. A pumping test was performed for about two hours. While this was noteworthy, the data is not made available to any centralized body. No water chemistry was undertaken and more still needs to be done with

  1. Leadership and the Failed State Status of Nigeria (2010 -2012. An Enquiry

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    Jide Ibietan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of leadership in redressing the failed state status of Nigeria with a focus on the present administration (between 2010 and 2012. For the past three years, Nigeria has been keeping the ugly company and ranking consistently as the fourteenth on the list of failed states, but the governing elites have been making spirited campaigns and slow haste in explaining away this situation. Through heavy reliance on secondary sources of data, the utilization of elite theory as framework, backed by the analytical approach to the issues raised/discussed, the paper observed that the ranking of Nigeria on the failed state index ignores some historical facts and current situational realities which make the failed criteria suspect and questionable. There is therefore the need to rethink and tinker with some of these criteria to reflect socio-economic and political performance in realistic terms. Purposeful and people –centered approach to governance capable of redressing the dysfunctions of the Nigerian state is also canvassed.

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries. Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output, while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.

  3. IMPACT OF TOURISM ON LIVELIHOOD OF COMMUNITIES ADJOINING ECODESTINATIONS IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mm aduabuchi Ijeomah, Henry

    2015-01-01

     The purpose of this study is to analyse various prevailing impacts of different tourism sites and activities on communities adjoining eco-destinations in Plateau State, Nigeria. The study was designed to collect data on impacts of tourism using structured questionnaire, field observations and interviews. A total of 410 questionnaires were administered at random to household heads from ten selected communities bordering five surveyed ecotourism centres. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi s...

  4. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe; A.A., Adigun; Jubril Olayinka, Animashaun

    2014-01-01

    Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 ran...

  5. Child sexual abuse in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria: a sociological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorodion, F I

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the reported cases of child rape in Benin City, the capital of Edo State in Nigeria. The conditions that make children, particularly females, more vulnerable to sexual abuse are explored. The organization of family life places children in a dependency cycle that makes rape both inevitable and invisible. Change that is responsive to family needs is more likely to have a positive effect in preventing child rape.

  6. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. EKUNWE; FIONA O. OGBEIDE

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. ...

  7. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice, Magdalene N.; Haruna M. Kazeem; Clara N Kwanashie; Nanven A. Maurice; Emmanuel O. Ngbede; Adamu, Helen N.; MSHELIA, Wayuta P.; Edeh, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n =...

  8. An Appraisal of Educational Technology Usage in Secondary Schools in Ondo State (Nigeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi Victor ADEOLUWA; Olukayode Solomon ABODERIN; Oladele Dennis OMODARA

    2013-01-01

    This study examined and appraised the use of Educational Technology in secondary schools in Ondo State South West, Nigeria. The study investigated the level of availability of Educational Technology facilities in schools, attitude of teachers toward educational technology, the perceived benefits of using Educational Technology, the problems facing the use of Educational Technology in secondary schools and Application of Educational Technology in schools by teachers. The descriptive survey des...

  9. Dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Y.J. Atuman; A. B. Ogunkoya; D.A.Y. Adawa; A.J. Nok; M.B. Biallah

    2014-01-01

    A study of dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates was carried out in Bauchi the capital city of Bauchi State, Nigeria using direct street counts and questionnaire survey administered on 10% of the city streets selected by stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data in order to determine the dog to human population ratio, dog management and care, cases of dog bites, consequences of the bites and frequencies of rabies outbreak. The estimated dog popula...

  10. Prevalence of scoliosis in secondary school children in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenyo, M S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

    2005-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of various parameters associated with scoliosis in school children in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria, a two-year prospective study was carried out. The study was carried out in selected secondary schools in Osogbo township, Osun state, Nigeria. A team consisting of one consultant orthopeadic surgeon, one consultant epidemiologist, community health consultant, two laboratory scientists and one clerk performed the school screening. Simple random sampling was used to select the study population. Informed consent was obtained from the school principals, the students, and the parents of the students. A total of 410 children 190(46.3%) males and 220(53.7%) females aged 9-14 years old were screened. Thirty (7.31%) children had signs of scoliosis but only five (1.21%) had radiological evidence of scoliosis. Prevalence of scoliosis in the study group was 1.2%. A sensitive test for detection of scoliosis was forward bending test. Thoracic curve was most common. Cost of screening was affordable. School screening is simple, and cost effective. This study found that scoliosis is not common in school children in Osogbo, Osun state, Nigeria and therefore does not pose as a major public health problem. However, all the children who had radiological evidence of scoliosis were not aware of this prior to the screening exercise. Early detection has implication for choice of management--an advantage of the screening programme.

  11. Patterns and Drivers of Mobile Telephony for Sustainable Livelihood among Rural Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jubril Olayinka Animashaun; Segun Bamidele Fakayode; Kazeem Adebayo Idris; Khairat F Adedokun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is acknowledged that mobile phones, as an asset, exhibits multiple functionalities and diverse applications that cut across all forms of capital accumulation necessary for sustainable livelihood. However, empirical result is sparse in Nigeria as to the impact of mobile phones on asset accumulation. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of mobile phone use and intensity of use for sustainable capital formation in among farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. Spec...

  12. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  13. Bancroftian filariasis among the Mbembe people of Cross River state, Nigeria

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    O.E. Okon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Bancroftian filariasis is a major public health and socioeconomic problemsin the humid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A study was undertaken to investigatethe status of the disease in some rural communities of Cross River State, Nigeria, with a view toenriching the epidemiological baseline data of the disease in Nigeria.Methods: A total of 897 Mbembe people living in six major villages of Obubra Local GovernmentArea of Cross River State, Nigeria were examined between December 2008 and June 2009 forlymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti.Results: Out of the 897 persons examined, 139 (15.5% were positive for microfilariae in theirblood smear. Infection varied significantly among villages (p 0.05. The overall mean microfilarial density among the total population was 9.9 mf/50 μl.The occurrence of microfilaria in the peripheral blood of the infected persons was neither age norsex specific (p >0.05. The most important clinical manifestations were hydrocele (9.7% andlymphoedema (2.3%. Overall disease prevalence was (6.8%.Conclusion: Government effort on the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTIproject should be complimented with albendazole distribution to the endemic communities.Environmental sanitation should also be intensified to eliminate the breeding sites of the mosquitovectors.

  14. The Effect of Agricultural Development Project (ADP on the Rural Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

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    Umar Adamu Madu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Majority of communities in Nigeria are rural dwellers and agrarian by occupation. Development strategy for a country whose rural population are mainly farmers cannot be achieved without first sustained growth in rural income and standard of living primarily from agriculture. It was based on this that the state wide Agricultural Development Project (ADP was established to raise productivity, income and standard of living of rural farmers in Nigeria. This study assesses the effect of the ADP activities on the wellbeing of the rural farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data for this study were collect on annual crop output, annual income, farm size, use of improved technology, access to credit among farmers, farmers’ training and rural infrastructure development. The data were sourced using structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The statistical analysis used to determine the effect to the project on the participating farmers include, descriptive statistics and comparability test for difference (T-test analysis. The results indicates that Adamawa ADP had positive and significant impact on rural farmers productivity, income, access to credit, standard of living as measured by assets ownership. However, the project did not have significant impact on the rural infrastructure, adoption of improved technologies and farm sizes, even though the change from before and after ADP activities was positive. The study recommends that much attention should be paid to the provision of rural infrastructure and the needed improved technologies. The study also recommends that the two tiers of government in Nigeria should adequately fund the project to efficiently cope with its responsibility of developing the rural sector.

  15. Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria

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    Olowe OA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,1 Bukola W Aboderin,1,2 Olayinka O Idris,3 Victor O Mabayoje,4 Oluyinka O Opaleye,1 O Catherine Adekunle,1 Rita Ayanbolade Olowe,1 Paul Akinniyi Akinduti,5 Olusola Ojurongbe1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Medical Microbiology Unit, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; 3Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria Purpose: To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The majority of subjects were aged ≥40 years (41.6% and were female (61.9%. Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05. A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%, cefotaxime (77.7%, and cefuroxime (75.7% was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 µg/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of

  16. Assessment of the quality of tuberculosis surveillance data in six selected states in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu U Onyeonoro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of TB program interventions, identify deficiencies, and inform policies and programs. These data are also used for advocacy, resource mobilization, and allocation, both nationally and internationally. This study is aimed at verifying the reliability of the data collated and submitted from the direct observation therapy strategy (DOTS facilities to the National TB Program (NTP in some selected states in Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 facilities providing TB services were purposively selected from six states in Southern Nigeria, based on the treatment success rate as reported in 2009. In each selected facility, the following records were reviewed for concordance: Patient treatment cards and facility TB register, facility TB register and facility laboratory register, facility TB register and local government area (LGA TB register, and LGA TB register and TB quarterly reports. Furthermore, a total of 273 patients were selected for interview to validate the information contained in the treatment cards. Results: Agreement between the data sources was relatively high, though higher in some states than the others. Agreement between patient treatment card and facility TB register, and facility TB register and laboratory register were 97% and 85%, respectively. The lowest concordance was observed between the facility TB register and the LGA TB register. All the patients interviewed confirmed the information as recorded in their treatment cards. Conclusion: The study revealed that NTP data in Southern Nigeria is fairly reliable; however, there are variations observed among the states and at various levels. This study underlines the need to improve TB surveillance data in some states, particularly at the facility and at the LGA levels.

  17. An Assessment of the State of Maintenance of Public Hospital Buildings in Southwest Nigeria

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    Olumide Adenuga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the state of maintenance of public hospitalbuildings in Southwest Nigeria, and in the process identifi es thesignifi cant difference(s in the operational state of Federal andState-owned public hospitals within the study area. In achievingthe aim, the study adopts a survey technique with a total of552 questionnaires, comprising 206 sampled maintenancestaff and 346 users of public hospitals. The survey covers 46public hospitals representing 40% of the total number of publichospitals existing in Southwest Nigeria. The 46 public hospitalsconsist of all the 11 Federal-owned hospitals and 35 randomlyselected State-owned. Data collected are analysed using theKendall Coeffi cient of Concordance and Pearson Chisquare. Thefi ndings of the study reveal that the state of maintenance of publichospital buildings is good. While the structure/fabric and physicalconditions are rated highly, the services are poorly rated. Thisstudy, which hypothesises that there is no difference in the stateof maintenance, fi nds statistical difference in the performance ofthe services. It recommends that Federal and State governmentsaddress neglect in the services sector and plan their maintenanceprogrammes more effectively.

  18. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

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    T.I. Borokini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.

  19. School health services and its practice among public and private primary schools in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuponiyi, Olugbenga Temitope; Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Kuponiyi, Opeyemi Temitola

    2016-04-06

    Globally the number of children reaching school age is estimated to be 1.2 billion children (18% of the world's population) and rising. This study was therefore designed to determine the school health services available and its practices in primary schools in Ogun state, Western Nigeria. The study was a comparative cross-sectional survey of private and public primary schools in Ogun state using a multi-stage sampling technique. Participants were interviewed using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire and a checklist. Data collected was analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0. A total of 360 head teachers served as respondents for the study with the overall mean age of 45.7 ± 9.9 years. More than three quarters of the respondents in both groups could not correctly define the school health programme. There were no health personnel or a trained first aider in 86 (47.8%) public and 110 (61.1%) private schools but a nurse/midwife was present in 57 (31.7%) and 27 (15.0%) public and private schools. (χ(2) = 17.122, P = 0.002). In about 95% of the schools, the teacher carried out routine inspection of the pupils while periodic medical examination for staff and pupils was carried out in only 13 (7.2%) public and 31 (17.2%) private schools (χ(2) = 8.398, P = 0.004). A sick bay/clinic was present in 26 (14.4%) and 67 (37.2%) public and private schools respectively (χ(2) = 24.371, P = 0.001). The practice of school health programme was dependent on the age (χ(2) = 12.53, P = 0.006) and the ethnicity of the respondents (χ(2) = 6.330, P = 0.042). Using multivariate analysis only one variable (type of school) was found to be a predictor of school health programme. (OR 4.55, CI 1.918-10.79). The study concludes that the practice of the various components of school health services was poor but better in private primary schools in Nigeria. Routine inspection by teachers was the commonest form of health appraisal. This may suggest that more health personnel need to

  20. Nigeria's National Health Act: An assessment of health professionals' knowledge and perception

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    Osahon Enabulele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria's National Health Act 2014 (NHA 2014 was signed into law on October 31, 2014. It provides a legal framework for the regulation, development, and management of Nigeria's Health System. This study assessed the knowledge and perception of the NHA 2014 by health professionals. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted in December 2015, in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. Data entry and analysis were done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA statistical software, with Pearson's Chi-square, which is used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at a P < 0.05. Results: The study population comprised 130 health professionals (medical doctors/dentists, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory scientists, and other health-related professionals in attendance at a medical conference. The respondents' age ranged from 21 to 75 years with a mean age of 44.53 ± 12.46 years. Medical practitioners accounted for 82.3% of the respondents. Although most (79.2% respondents had a good perception of the NHA 2014 with majority (86.2% claiming they were aware of the act, majority (73.8% exhibited poor knowledge of the act. A little more than half (53.1% of the respondents believed that the NHA 2014 will help to reduce strike actions in the health sector. Conclusion: Although health professionals in Nigeria have good awareness and perception of the NHA 2014, their knowledge of the Act is poor.

  1. Distribution Pattern of Healthcare Facilities in Osun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Accessibility to healthcare facilities has generally been identified as a major indicator of development, and the existing spatial pattern of distribution of healthcare facilities play very prominent .... and the State's Hospital Management Board,.

  2. school students in akwa ibom state, south-south, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A self-administered questionnaire survey. Setting: The ... Key Words: Emergency contraception, tertiary school students, Akwa Ibom state. ... youths are now initiating sexual activity earlier and ..... prostitution & child abuse: a survey of.

  3. The Politics of States', Local Governments' Creation and Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    bombarded the then colonial government with an avalanche of requests for the creation of .... political support in their bid to gain the rein of governance especially from the ..... While big states can threaten the corporate existence and stability ...

  4. Aquifer transmissivity and basement structure determination using resistivity sounding at Jos Plateau State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaolisa, Casmir

    2006-03-01

    A geoelectric investigation involving twenty-six vertical electrical soundings was carried out at Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. The survey was aimed at determining the structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as computing the transmissivity for the aquifer in the area. The basement geometrymapproduced from the results of the survey indicates that the bedrock is undulating lying at depths between 30 m to 6.5 m. There is evidence of faulting and fracturing within the area. Computation of aquifer transmissivity values based on the results obtained made it possible to demarcate regions with good ground water potential in the area.

  5. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Gbeminiyi Richard Otolorin; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Asabe Adamu Dzikwi

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic...

  6. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  7. Assesment of Perceived Academic and Incentive Needs of Senior Secondary School Biology Teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mulkah Adebisi; Moradeyo, Ismail; Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Assessment of perceived academic and incentive needs of senior secondary school biology teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and fifty (250) biology teachers from the three senatorial district of Kwara State. A questionnaire was prepared, validated and used…

  8. Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

  9. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  10. Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size…

  11. Modelling Water-Sanitation Relationship in Edo State, Nigeria

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    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective understanding of water and sanitation supply in developing states such as Edo-state is a veritable tool in addressing uneven distribution of these utilities. This research study focuses on the evaluation of water and sanitation supply in the state using baseline and demand responsiveness approaches to capture data on water and sanitation supplies in all the 18 local government areas in the State. Variables such as coverage of access or no access to water and sanitation supply, sources of water and incidences of water-related diseases were captured and technically analysed. The output of the analysis revealed that 62% representing 1,346, 649, population could not access portable water, while 38% corresponding to 813,199 could fairly access portable water in 1993. However, coverage for safe drinking water between 1993 and 2002 in Edo-State is not significant at 95% confidence interval. In addition, 72% (2,009,566 population did not have any access to sanitation; while 28% (777,210 population had fair supply of sanitation. The regions with poor sanitation and water index are Etsako central, Etsako west, Esan west, Esan north-west, while Oredo, Akoko-Edo, Egor and Owan east have improved sanitation and water index. The results obtained also indicate widespread of water and sanitation related diseased in the State with the recorded highest cases of Schistosomaisis (134, 361:43%; Typhoid (81,981:27%; Cholera (62,191:20% and Diarrhea (29,893:10% respectively. Water harvesting is the major source of water supply in the Edo-state with 69.8% in Etsako West, 65.6% in Esan north East 65.5% in Etsako central while Oredo and Akoko-Edo had 5.9% and 4.3% respectively. Protected water supply from pipe borne water and borehole were noticeable in Oredo with 54.2%, 19.9% and Akoko-Edo with 5.2% and 6.0 respectively. The result on social sector expenditure shows that water and sanitation had least allocation of 18.4%, while Education, Health and

  12. Information Needs of Cassava Farmers in Delta State of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cassava development into new growth markets have attracted ... study assessed the information needs of cassava farmers in Oshimili North Local Government Area of Delta. State. Specifically ... rural farmers. This study .... sources such as extension worker, radio, television .... should be revitalized to complement the little.

  13. Road Traffic Accident Variations in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Synopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    This means that the dominant and strongest road traffic accident pattern of. Lagos State ... Kenya has one of the highest road fatality rates in relation to vehicle ownership ... the higher the accident and fatality rate as well as the severity and non- ..... On the other hand, the aggregate effect of these number of cycles of differing.

  14. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J. I. Awu; O. A. Ogunjirin; F. A. Willoughby; A. A. Adewumi

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM), Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated ...

  15. Health seeking behaviour among caregivers of under-five children in Edo State, Nigeria

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    Adesuwa Q. Aigbokhaode

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Timely and appropriate healthcare seeking behaviours if practiced by caregivers of under-five children can have a significant impact on child survival. This study assessed the knowledge of, and general health seeking practices among mothers of under-five children in Nigeria. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among caregivers of under-five children in Edo State, Nigeria, in 2013. A multi-staged sampling technique was used to recruit respondents. Data collection was done by means of a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire adapted from UNICEF/IMCI household baseline survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 370 caregivers (mean age: 31.1±5.9 years participated in the study. Almost all of them were females 368 (99.5%, 234 (63.2% had secondary education and 283 (76.5% were in the unskilled social class. Over 70%, 76%, 72%, 76% and 82% of participants did not know that being unable to eat/drink, fast breathing, blood in stool and convulsion, respectively, were symptoms of a child not feeling well. The place of primary care of children by caregivers was at home 142 (38.4%, chemist shop 91 (24.6% and health facility 80 (21.6%. Cost and long waiting time were major reasons for not seeking care in health facilities. Conclusion: This study showed poor health seeking practices among caregivers of under-five children in Edo State, Nigeria. There should be continuous education of  caregivers on recognition of danger signs in children and the need to seek appropriate medical care in health facilities.

  16. Assessment of disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns of health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria

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    Ehijie F.O. Enato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have systematically characterized drug-prescribing patterns, particularly at the primary care level in Nigeria, a country disproportionately burdened with disease. The aim of this study was to assess the disease profiles and drug-prescribing pattern in two health care facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. The medical records of 495 patients who attended a primary or secondary health care facility in Owan-East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between June and November 2009 were reviewed. Disease profiles and drug prescribing patterns were assessed. Data were analyzed based on the World Health Organization Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and core drug prescribing indicators. Five hundred and twelve clinical conditions were identified. Infectious disease was most prevalent (38.3%, followed by disorder of the alimentary tract (16.4%. Malaria was responsible for 55.6% of the infectious diseases seen, and 21.3% (109/512 of the total clinical conditions managed at the two health facilities during the study period. Consequently, anti-infective medications were the most frequently prescribed medicines (21.5%, followed by vitamins (18.2%. Use of artesunate monotherapy at both facilities (15.7%, and chloroquine at the primary health facility (24.9% were common. Paracetamol (41.8% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (24.9% were the most frequently used analgesic/antipyretic. At the primary health care facility, dipyrone was used in 21.6% of cases. The core drug prescribing use indicators showed inappropriate prescribing, indicating poly-pharmacy, overuse of antibiotics and injectio. Inappropriate drug use patterns were identified at both health care facilities, especially with regard to the use of ineffective antimalarial drugs and the use of dipyrone.

  17. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Auditing of Local Government Financial Reports in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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    Appah Ebimobowei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the effectiveness of auditing of local government accounts in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. To achieve the objective of the study, primary and secondary data were used. The secondary data include journals, textbooks and government publications and the primary data was collected using a well structured and tested questionnaire from two hundred and forty six respondents in the eight local government of Bayelsa State. The respondents were stratified to create subsets among different departments and then random sampling technique was used to select the number of subjects from each subset to collect data. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and spearman rank order correlation coefficient. The findings of the study suggest that auditing ensures proper stewardship reporting, administrative interference and inadequate qualified manpower does retard proper auditing of local government accounts in Bayelsa State. The study concludes that auditing of local government account is fundamental for the effective and efficient stewardship reporting by council officials without political and administrative interference of the financial activities of the councils with adequately qualified audit staff. Thus the study recommends among others that objectivity, integrity and transparency should be observed by auditors and council officials; restructuring of the various anti-corruption agencies in Nigeria; and improvement of auditors remuneration and fringe benefits to enhance performance.

  18. Climate change in Lagos state, Nigeria: what really changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojobi, Adebayo Olatunbosun; Balogun, Isaac Idowu; Salami, Adebayo Wahab

    2015-10-01

    Our study revealed periodicities of 2.3 and 2.25 years in wet and dry seasons and periodicities of 2 to 5 years on seasonal and annual timescales. Minimum temperature (Tmin), maximum temperature (Tmax) and evaporation recorded increases of 2.47, 1.37 and 28.37 %, respectively, but a reduction of 19.58 % in rainfall on decadal timescale. Periodicity of 8 to 12 years was also observed in annual Tmax. Cramer's test indicated a warming trend with significant Tmax increase in February, April, July, August, October and November during 2000-2009 on decadal monthly timescale, a significant decline in Summer rainfall but significant Tmax increase in Spring, Autumn and Winter on decadal seasonal timescale. The low correlation of rainfall with temperature parameters and evaporation indicates that advection of moisture into Lagos State seems to be the dominant mechanism controlling rainfall within the State alongside other tropical and extra-tropical factors. In addition, our study revealed that the persistent state of minimum temperature often precedes the arrival and reversal of the phase of maximum temperature. Furthermore, our study also revealed that extreme and high variable rainfalls, which are associated with the increased warming trend, had periodicities of 1 to 3 years with a probability of 86.45 % of occurring every 3 years between April and September. It is recommended that government and private sector should give financial and technical supports to climate researches in order to appropriately inform policy making to improve the adaptive capacity and resilience of Lagos State against climate change impacts and guard against maladaptation.

  19. [Traditional therapy of dracunculiasis in the state of Bauchi - Nigeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiyi, J P; Kela, S L; Tal, K M; Istifanus, W A

    1993-01-01

    Traditional medicinal treatments of guinea worm being applied in various parts of Bauchi State were investigated. Extracts of leaves of a number of plants were universally applied topically. Users perceived relief of pain and accelerated expulsion of worms and healing process. In particular, Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jaozeiro and Moringa olifera are known in nature to have relevant medicinal properties especially lessening of inflammation, relief of pain, or promoting healing or reducing secondary bacterial infections. The possibility was expressed that some of the herbs might be exerting useful effects and could be exploited for the effective treatment of guinea worm.

  20. Socio cultural and geographical determinants of child immunisation in Borno State, Nigeria

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    Abubakar Kawu Monguno

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunisation has been an important strategy for disease prevention globally. Despite proven successes in other settings, child immunisation has continued to be problematic in developing countries including Nigeria. In addressing the problems, policy in Nigeria is largely directed at overcoming socio cultural issues surrounding parents’ rejection of vaccines. However, determinants of immunisation have geographical implications as well. A cross sectional survey was used to select 484 mothers/ caregivers through a multi stage cluster sampling technique from the three senatorial districts of Borno State, Nigeria. Mothers or caregivers of children 12–23 months were interviewed using a structured questionnaire adapted from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2008. Socio cultural factors measured include mother’s education, religion, husband’s permission and sex of child while spatial variables include location i.e. whether rural or urban, and distance measured in terms of physical distance, cost and perception of physical distance. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the results. Data indicate that only 10.5% of children were fully immunised. Though immunisation uptake differed between the senatorial districts, this was not significant (P=0.1. In the bivariate analysis, mothers living in urban areas, <1 km to immunisation centre, their perception of travel distance and travel cost were the spatial predictors of immunisation while literacy and husband’s permission were the socio-cultural factors of significance. However, in the multivariate regression only two geographical factors i.e. living in an urban area [odds ratio (OR 3.42, confidence interval (CI 1.40–8.33] and mothers’ perception of distance (OR 4.52, CI 2.14–9.55 were protective against under immunisation while mother’s education was the only socio cultural variable of significance (OR 0.10, CI 0.03–0.41. It

  1. The challenges of waste management to Nigeria sustainable development: A study of Enugu State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu, Joy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solid waste management has become a debilitating factor towards sustainable development in Nigeria. The study therefore was carried out to evaluate the chains of problems militating against solid waste management in Nigeria with particular stress on Enugu State. The study adopted survey research method. Data collected through questionnaire were analyzed and hypotheses tested using Z-test statistical measure. The scientific investigation revealed among other things that resources normally voted by Government year by year to manage solid waste is always very meager. There is no environmental education at all as was observed during the field investigation. Furthermore, some of the waste management staff were poorly trained and no plan in the future to give them further training or to improve already acquired skill. Based on the findings, some of the major recommendations are that solid waste management should be provided with a separate head in the budget for the purpose of adequate revenue allocation, implementation and monitoring. The participation of the local communities in solid waste management should be encouraged. Environmental education should be intensified by both the state and local government. Also primary, secondary and tertiary schools curricula should inculcate detailed topics on solid waste management.

  2. Capacity building needs of poultry farmers for quail production in Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Olorunfemi Oluwasogo D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the capacity building needs of poultry farmers for quail production in Kwara State, Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to elicit information from 80 randomly sampled poultry farmers from the Poultry Association of Nigeria, Kwara State Chapter. The findings revealed that the majority (70.0% of the poultry farmers were male with a mean age of 44 years, married (75.0% and formally educated (98.75%. The poultry farmers were mostly (78.75% small-scale producers rearing less than or equal to 500 birds on their farms. Capacity building was highly needed for quail husbandry and management practices, feeding and nutrition, housing and equipment, processing and marketing of products, among others. Seven challenges were identified by the poultry farmers as severe challenges militating against the diversification of their poultry enterprise to include quail production. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between the poultry farmers’ capacity building needs for quail production and their age (X2 = 5.545, educational level (X2 = 11.859 and years of farming experience (X2 = 9.604. It was recommended that extension agencies should package a robust training programme for poultry farmers on the areas of capacity deficiencies indicated for quail production.

  3. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria

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    Magdalene N. Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6% of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n=5 and Trichophyton (n=5 genera. T. verrucosum (n=4 was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n=3, T. vanbreuseghemii (n=2, M. gypseum (n=2, and M. canis (n=2. Others include M. fulvum (n=2, T. mentagrophytes (n=1, T. equinum (n=1, T. soudanense (n=1, and M. gallinae (n=1. The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes.

  4. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Magdalene N; Kazeem, Haruna M; Kwanashie, Clara N; Maurice, Nanven A; Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Adamu, Helen N; Mshelia, Wayuta P; Edeh, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n = 5) genera. T. verrucosum (n = 4) was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n = 3), T. vanbreuseghemii (n = 2), M. gypseum (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 2). Others include M. fulvum (n = 2), T. mentagrophytes (n = 1), T. equinum (n = 1), T. soudanense (n = 1), and M. gallinae (n = 1). The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes.

  5. Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River State, Nigeria

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    Iboh Cletus I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1% were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P  0.05. The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 μl. There was a significant variation (P  Conclusions The National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme should intervene by expanding the distribution of albendazole and ivermectin to all endemic areas including Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria.

  6. Hypertension in rural communities in Delta State, Nigeria: Prevalence, risk factors and barriers to health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary I. Ofili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is a global health challenge and its prevalence is increasing rapidly amongst adults in many African countries. Some studies on the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension have been conducted in Nigeria, but none within Delta State. We assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors amongst adults in three villages in the Ibusa community in Delta State, Nigeria.Method: Homesteads were randomly selected and all consenting adults (≥ 18 years of age were recruited for this cross-sectional study (134 individuals: 48 men, 86 women. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements (weight, height and abdominal circumference were recorded. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure≥ 140/90 mmHg.Result: Hypertension prevalence in this rural community was 44%. Results from one village (Ogboli: 82% and ethnic group (Ibo: 50% were significantly higher than in others in the same variable category. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested increasing age, increasing body mass index and high salt intake as prominent risk factors for hypertension. Lack of funds and equipment shortage in clinics were most often reported as barriers to healthcare.Conclusion: A nutritional education programme to promote low-cholesterol and low-salt diets is recommended to specifically target people in higher-risk areas and of higher-risk ethnicity. Local barriers to accessing health care need to be addressed.

  7. Gender Issues in Entrepreneurial Development in Benue State (Nigeria and Counceling Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Egbe-Okpende

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of counselling on gender issues in entrepreneurial development in Benue State (Nigeria. Feminine or women constitute about 50 % of the population in Nigeria, and they make up 45% of the 70% unemployed population. In Benue State, there is low industrial and entrepreneurial skills development, so poverty and under-employment of the feminine gender is endemic. Hence, gender issues as relates to "the forgotten 50% of the world’s population" or as the forgotten factor in economic development was studied using a random sample of fifty working class women. The study examines how this problem can be addressed through counselling. The descriptive survey design was used with one main research question guiding the study. The data was analysed using percentages. The re-sults of the study revealed that forty (80% of the respondents with entrepreneurship development were influenced through education and counseling. Change in attitude of women as a result of education and their role in national development was investigated, and recommendations made on how to help women to fulfil their role by bridging the gender gap.

  8. ORAL PERFORMANCE OF ÌRÈGÚN MUSIC IN YAGBALAND, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Olusegun Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance is one of the major arts in most African countries. Among the Yoruba in Nigeria several genre of oral performance has been researched and documented. These include the ijala, iwi, oriki ekun iyawo, Iyere Ifa, iwure , among others. However, very little attention and studies have been committed to oral performance of Ìrègún chants and songs in Yagbaland. This paper, therefore, focuses on the evaluation of oral performance of Ìrègún chants and songs among Yagba people in Kogi State, located in North central of Nigeria. Primary data were collected through 3 In-depth and 3 Key Informant interviews of leaders and members of Ìrègún musical groups. In addition to 3 Participant Observation and 3 Non-Participant Observation methods from Yagba-West, Yagba-East and Mopamuro Local Government Areas of Kogi State, music recordings, photographs of Ìrègún performances, and 6 chants were purposefully sampled. Secondary data were collected through library, archival and Internet sources. Although closely interwoven, Ìrègún performance is structured into preparation, actual and post-performance activities. While chanting, singing, playing of musical instruments and dancing forms the performance dimensions. Iregun music serves as veritable mirror and cultural preserver in Yagba communities.

  9. Blood characteristics, microbial and gastrointestinal parasites of street pigeons (Columba Livia in Owerri Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Opara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the haematological and biochemical indices and the naturally occurring haemo and gastrointestinal microbes of 150 matured street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The PCV, WBC, MCV, MCH and total bilirubin values of the female pigeons were significantly (p0.05 between the two group. Out of 150 street pigeons examined for prevalence of parasites, 70 (46.70% of them were infected with gastro-intestinal parasites of which 30 (42.93% were males and 40 (57.1% were females. Four gastro-intestinal parasites were identified with Trichomonas sp. giving the highest prevalence rate (42%, followed by Eimeria sp. (28%, and whereas Coccidia sp. and Ascaridia sp. returned the least with each having the prevalence rate of (14%. Results of haemo -parasitological examination of thin blood smears revealed haematozoa of two genera: Haemoproteus sp. which was more common gave a prevalence rate of 40 (66% for the male and 70 (87% for the female pigeons. Plasmodium sp. with prevalence of 20 (33% and 10 (12% in male and female pigeons respectively. Fecal cultures recorded high growth of bacterial organisms, of which Proteus sp. returned 50 (83% and Enterococcus sp. returned 10 (16%. In totality, 40% of the pigeons had bacterial infections. In conclusion, the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites in street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. However, these parasites did not cause any visible deleterious effects in the blood parameters of the pigeons examined.

  10. Factors related to induced abortion among young women in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nancy; Winfrey, William; Chatterji, Minki; Moreland, Scott; Dougherty, Leanne; Okonofua, Friday

    2006-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest death rate from induced abortion in the world, and young women in southern Nigeria are particularly likely to terminate their pregnancies. This study assesses the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among 602 young women aged 15-24 who were surveyed in Edo State, Nigeria, in 2002. We find that 41 percent of all pregnancies reported by the young women surveyed were terminated, and we estimate the age-specific abortion rate for 15-19-year-olds in Edo State at 49 abortions per 1,000 women, which is slightly higher than previous local estimates and nearly double the countrywide estimate for women aged 15-49. We construct explanatory multivariate models to predict the likelihood that a young woman has experienced sexual intercourse, has become pregnant, and has undergone an induced abortion, controlling for important demographic and risk-behavior factors. Young women unmarried at the time of the interview are found to be significantly more likely than married women to have had an abortion. Young women who have experienced transactional or forced sex are also significantly more likely to report ever having had an abortion, as are young women who have experienced more than one pregnancy. We conclude with suggestions for modifying the content and target populations of behavioral change messages and programs in the area.

  11. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  12. optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, MOSHOOD ABIOLA POLYTECHNIC, ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE. NIGERIA. ... computer algorithms to model and simulate flow ... optimization is of great importance in design of internal.

  13. Impact of health education intervention on malaria prevention practices among nursing mothers in rural communities in Nigeria

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    Olorunfemi Emmanuel Amoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malaria is the most prevalent parasitic endemic disease in Africa, which is preventable, treatable and curable. This study aims to assess the effect of health education intervention on the knowledge, attitude, and prevention practices amongst mothers of under-five children in a rural area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study design was a quasi-experimental study carried out in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage random sampling technique was used in choosing the required samples and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information. A total of 400 respondents were recruited into the study with 200 each in both the experimental and control groups and were followed up for a period of 3 months. Results: There was no statistically significant differences observed between the experimental and control groups. Knowledge of indoor spraying increased from 14.7% to 58.2% (P < 0.001 and window and door nets increased from 48.3% to 74.8% (P < 0.001. The proportion of those with ITN use increased from 50.8% to 87.4% (P < 0.001 while those with practice of maintaining clean environment also increased from 40.4% to 54.5% (P < 0.001. There were no significant changes in all the practice of malaria prevention methods in the control group. Conclusion: This suggests that malaria control can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort.

  14. NETWORK PERFORMANCE AND QUALITY OF SERVICE EVALUATION OF GSM PROVIDERS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Agubor C.K., Chukwuchekwa N.C, Atimati E.E., Iwuchukwu U.C., Ononiwu G.C.

    2016-01-01

    Network performance and quality of service evaluation of GSM Providers in Nigeria is presented in this paper.. The study used Lagos State of Nigeria as a case study in which three major towns – Ikoyi, Abule-Egba and Agege were covered. Since the commencement of GSM services in the country, the quality of service (QoS) being delivered by the four major Operators - MTN, GLO, Etisalat and Airtel, has been an issue of concern both to the subscribers and the national regulatory body. For this reas...

  15. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  16. Western and Traditional Educational Background of Midwives and Delivery Pain Control among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyira, Emilia James; Emon, Umoe Duke; Essien, N. C.; Ekpenyong, Affiong Onoyom

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate western and traditional educational background of midwives with regard to their effectiveness in delivery pain control in Cross River State-Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. The study adopted the survey design. The sample consisted of 360 post-natal…

  17. Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…

  18. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  19. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  20. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Students' Academic Performance in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Rivers State-Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagbor, Levi Doe

    2016-01-01

    The study examined factors that positively influence students' academic performance in public and private secondary schools in Rivers State-Nigeria. One research question addressed the objectives and problem of the study. The instrument used for the collection of data was the "Students' Academic Performance Questionnaire" (SAPQ),…

  1. Sports Participation and Social Personality Variable of Students in Secondary Schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…

  2. Effectiveness of Blended Learning and Elearning Modes of Instruction on the Performance of Undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Ogunlade, O. Olufunmilola; Osunlade, Olourotimi Rufus

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of blended learning and E-learning modes of instruction on the performance of undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria. It also determined if the student performance would vary with gender. Quasi experimental that employs pretest, posttest, control group design was adopted for this study. This involves three…

  3. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  4. A Perception of Examination Malpractice and Pupil's Academic Performance in Primary Science in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius-Ukpepi, Bernedette Umali; Enukoha, Obinna I.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study was to determine perception of examination malpractice and academic performance in Primary Science among sixth grade in Cross River State, Nigeria. In order to achieve the set objectives of this study, three hypotheses were formulated and tested. Two instruments were used for data collection. They were perception of…

  5. Use of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning of Political Science in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udim, Davies Kelvin; Etim, Eyo Akon

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of multimedia in teaching and learning of political science in University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A survey research was adopted and the tool employed for this research study was a questionnaire titled "Use of Multimedia in Teaching and Learning of Political Science in University of Uyo" (UMTLPSUU).…

  6. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  7. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  8. Nursery School Headteacher Leadership Behaviour Correlates of Nursery School Teachers Job Satisfaction in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Okoroafor Nnenna

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on nursery school head teacher leadership behaviour as it correlates to nursery school teacher's job satisfaction. Data were collected through a scale and returned by sample of two hundred and fifty nursery school teacher's in Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria.Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation…

  9. Violation of Students' Legal Rights as Correlate of Organization Climate in Imo State Secondary Schools, in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuna, M. C.; Mbonu, F. O.; Amanchukwu, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether violation of students' legal rights has relationship with organizational climate in secondary schools in Imo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and null hypothesis were put forward and tested in order to make one's decisions on the issues investigated. Relevant literature to the study was…

  10. Impact of Cloud Services on Students' Attitude towards Mathematics Education in Public Universities in Benue State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iji, Clement Onwu; Abah, Joshua Abah; Anyor, Joseph Wuave

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of cloud services on students' attitude towards mathematics education in public universities in Benue State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for the study is the researcher-developed Cloud Service Impact Questionnaire--CSIQ (Cronbach Alpha Coefficient = 0.92). The…

  11. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  12. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  13. The culture of violence and the scramble for political power in Oyo State, Nigeria (1999-2006)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kehinde, A.B

    2009-01-01

    ... have contributed to acrimonious politics in Nigeria. The case study of Oyo state was used in this research work because it is reflective of the role played by political violence, especially with the use of primordial political culture as a tool...

  14. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  15. A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

    2012-01-01

    Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

  16. Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

  17. Students' Perception of Causes and Effect of Teachers' Psychological Abuse in Senior Secondary Schools in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pur, Hamsatu Joseph; Liman, Mukhtar Alhaji; Ali, Domiya G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on the students' perception of the causes and effect of teachers' psychological abuse in senior secondary schools in Borno State, Nigeria. Different forms of psychological abuse, perceptions, causes and effect of psychological abuse were discussed. The main objective of the study is to determine the perception of…

  18. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  19. The role of community self help projects in rural development of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunleye-Adetona, C.I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempt to examine the impact of self-help projects in rural development using Irepodun Local Government Area as a case study, Kwara State, Nigeria. A sample of 200 respondents was interviewed through the use of questionnaire format. In the course of the study, it was revealed that income encouraged the people to embark on self help projects. Community unions / association contributed immensely in the execution of self help projects and the subsequent rural development. The Chi-square and correlation results, concluded that the inhabitants of the area are not equally satisfied with self help projects and amenities and that there is a relationship between population and self help projects and also that self help projects has increased the standard of living of the people in the area. There is an unequal distribution of self help projects in the study area. And since the level and efficiency of self help projects on rural communities normally influence the development of the rural areas, governments should therefore redirect its rural development towards capital and developmental projects in rural areas and make population be the focus for all communities in the rural areas. This will ensure an equitable distribution of self help projects an essential tool for balanced socio-economic development of the rural areas especially in Nigeria.

  20. Ethnobotanical study of fuelwood and timber wood consumption and replenishment in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, A T J; Oladele, F A

    2004-02-01

    A survey of both urban and rural communities in five Local Government Areas (LGA) of Oyo State in Nigeria showed that 76% of households depend on fuelwood for cooking. The total annual wood consumption for fuelling by bread bakers, food sellers and in domestic cooking was 5984 metric tons for the region. The sawmills in the study area also convert 79 889 metric tons of wood yearly into boards of different grades. Total wood consumption outstrips the quantity of wood extracted from the forests. The balance of over 60 000 metric tons of wood is sourced from neighbouring forest locations. The quantity of wood harvested for various purposes did not show a significant difference (p 0.05 existed in the quantity of wood actually consumed in the various LGAs. Moreover. the number of trees cut down outstrips the number of trees planted with a significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mean quantity of wood removed from the forests and the mean quantity replaced by reforestation. The practice in the study area was that of 'cut-eight-plant-one' which is at variance to the much publicized operation 'cut-one-plant-one'. The study concludes that residents of Ogbomoso in Nigeria have not shown positive disposition to tree planting. It therefore suggests scientific tree conservation strategies aimed at improved burning of fuel wood and maximized use of timber products as complementary efforts to enforced tree planting for conservation of our forests.

  1. Broadcast Media Intervention in Mental Health Challenge in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osakue Stevenson Omoera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available n most communities, especially in Africa, people with mental health challenges are denigrated; the society is not sympathetic with sufferers of mental illness. A lot of issues can trigger mental illness. These can be stress (economic stress, social stress, educational stress, etc; hereditary factors; war and aggression; rape; spiritual factors, to mention a few. Therefore, there is the need for understanding and awareness creation among the people as one of the ways of addressing the problem. Methodologically, this study deploys analytical, observation and interview techniques. In doing this, it uses the Edo State, Nigeria scenario to critically reflect, albeit preliminarily, on the interventionist role the broadcast media have played/are playing/should play in creating awareness and providing support systems for mentally challenged persons in urban and rural centres in Nigeria. The study argues that television and radio media are very innovative and their innovativeness can be deployed in the area of putting mental health issue in the public discourse and calling for action.

  2. Improving Maternal and Child Healthcare Programme Using Community-Participatory Interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP. The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health.

  3. Strengthening Health Systems Using HIV Services as an entry point in Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi O. Chirdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria, Jos University Teaching Hospital’s Community Directed Intervention (CDI approach to prevention and control of the spread of HIV/AIDS, in Plateau state, Nigeria commenced in July, 2008. Management of Tuberculosis and Sexually Transmitted Infections were also included in the package. METHODS: The project utilized the ‘hub and spoke’ principle with the Jos University Teaching Hospital as the hub. Provision of health services commenced in December, 2008 after a period of community sensitization, advocacy and mobilization as well as training and re-training of various cadres of health staff and volunteer community members. RESULTS: To date (July, 2009, thirty PHCs have been renovated and furnished; more than 300 healthcare workers trained, about 115 communities reached and about 8000 patients managed. Other outcomes of the project include equipping of the PHCs, strengthening of the PHC and referral systems, and improved community involvement in programme implementation. CONCLUSION: The project methodology utilized showed that it is possible to achieve additional long term benefits from programmes primarily aimed at controlling HIV/AIDS. It is recommended that other programmes adapt this methodology for the control of diseases, so as to achieve similar impact and strengthen existing health care systems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 563-568

  4. Trypanosomiasis in Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goats at Ikpa Abattoir, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Obioma Juliet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Goat serves as a major investment to most homes in Nigeria, mainly for provision of animal protein and income. The output of this animal is disturbed by Tsetse infestation which is the primary vector of Trypanosome. A survey of Trypanosomiasis of goat in Ikpa abattoir Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria was carried out between September and October 2010. This was aimed at determining the species of Trypanosome prevalent in the area and their infection rates among breeds of goat. 106 goats were sampled, among which 15(14.1% were positive for Trypanosome infection. The infection rates among the goat breeds were; Sokoto red (10.4% and West African Dwarf Goat (50.0%. The species of Trypanosome encountered were Trypanosoma vivax(66.7% and Trypanosoma brucei (33.3%. In the infection by sex, this was common among female goats in the various breeds examined and this stood as follows; 9.4% in Sokoto red and 4.7% in West African Dwarf goat. Considering the overall infection rate of Trypanosome in the breeds of goat in the study area, this was relatively high when compared with similar results in related areas; chemo prophylactic and insect control measures should be put in place to rescue the area.

  5. RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY IN GUM ARABIC PRODUCTION AMONG FARMERS IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

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    Wuranti Valla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the efficiency of resource utilization among gum Arabic farmers in Yobe State of Nigeria; towards determining the parameters that could promote the commercialization of the crop in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty gum Arabic farmers were selected by multi-staged random sampling from six local government areas, and structured questionnaires were administered to obtain data for the study. The data collected included farm size, cost of farm tools, cost of labour, yield of gum Arabic, total revenue from gum Arabic; and socio-economic variables such as age, marital status, family size and educational level. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgeting technique and production function analysis. Results indicated that gross income, gross margin and net farm income per hectare of N 30,000.00 (US Dollar 187.50, N 20,980.00 (US Dollar 131.13 and N 19,430.00 (US Dollar 121.44 were realized. Return to labour and naira investment were 3.08 and 1.84 respectively. Results also indicated that farm size, cost of farm tools, hired labour, family labour and transport cost were used within the rational zone but not at optimal levels.

  6. Serological evidence of brucellosis in goats in kaduna north senatorial district of kaduna state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Sackey, A K B; Kazeem, H M

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria.

  7. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  8. The State of Analytical Instruments in Some Environmental Pollution Control Laboratories in Nigeria

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    Dr. (Mrs. Bertha Abdu Danja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of the environmental laboratories involved in monitoring environmental pollution control in Nigeria has been studied in this research. The research was undertaken by visiting four analytical laboratories involved in environmental pollution control in Nigeria. The analytical laboratories visited are those of Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC Kaduna, Ashaka cement factory, regional laboratory of the Federal Ministry of Water Resources Gombe, and the National Reference laboratory Lagos. In these laboratories results were collected in the laboratories, interviews were carried out and analytical instruments available were documented. It was discovered that, in these laboratories many standard analytical instruments needed for quality environmental pollution control and monitoring are lacking. Comparison of analytical instruments found in these laboratories with those found in literature revealed that many needed analytical instruments are missing. It is the position of this work that the gap between the environmental analytical instruments found in literature and that found in the research laboratories is very large and calls for concern.

  9. Effect of urban household farming on food security status in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Yusuf Sulaiman A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important tool for reducing the effects of household food insecurity, unemployment and poverty which are major problems in urban areas in Nigeria. Food insecurity continues to worsen in some urban areas of the country and many households resulted into urban farming as a means of coping. The study investigated the effect of urban household farming on food security status in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data was collected for the study using structured questionnaire. Two-stage sampling technique was employed for this study. The first stage involved the random selection of two urban local government areas from Ibadan metropolis. This was followed with the selection of 110 urban farming households from these local government areas. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke and probit regression. Results showed that sex, years of schooling, marital status, household size, access to extension agent, hired labour and type of farming enterprises are determinants of food security. The study recommends the policies that make extension services accessible to urban farmers and also skills development among others.

  10. Lymphatic filariasis among the Ezza people of Ebonyi State, eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E; Ajayi, Ezekiel G; Onwuliri, Celestine O; Okoro, Onuabuchi U; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Amajuoyi, Oliver U; Ikpeama, Chidinma A; Ogbusu, Fidelia I; Meribe, Chidozie O

    2005-01-01

    A total of 1,243 Ezza people living in 10 communities of Ebonyi State, eastern Nigeria were examined between July 2002-January 2003 for lymphatic filariasis. This is the first time a filariasis survey due to Wuchereria bancrofti has been carried out in this state. Of the 1,243 persons examined, 210 (16.9 %) had W. bancrofti microfilariae. Infection varied significantly among communities and ages (p 0.05). The Ezza people are predominantly farmers and professional hired labourers. There was a close association between microfilaria rate and microfilaria -density in various age groups (r = 0.812; p taboo, bad water and food. Intervention strategies to be integrated into the on-going Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) project are discussed.

  11. Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B

    2002-02-01

    A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed.

  12. Nigerian Pidgin Variations in the Ikom-Ogoja Axis of Cross River State, Nigeria

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    Mercy Ugot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Paper focuses on lexical items in the Ikom Ogoja variety of Nigerian Pidgin (NP. This however does not mean that the regularized Nigerian Pidgin (NP is not being used in the area. However, factors such as contact with the substrate languages in the area and borrowing have all influenced the emergence of some variations in NP usage. The Paper highlights these variations in the Ikom-Ogoja axis of Cross River State in areas of borrowing, reduplication, metaphors and metaphorical extensions and euphemisms. This has helped to show the dynamism of NP which is constantly growing and expanding to suit the needs of a pluralistic society such as Nigeria in general and Cross River State in particular.

  13. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

    2013-10-15

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  14. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria

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    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at

  15. Availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care services in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Dele; Kabo, Ibrahim A; Sambisa, William; Akomolafe, Toyin; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Sadauki, Habib

    2015-03-01

    To report the availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Between June and July 2012, a cross-sectional survey of health facilities was conducted. Data on the performance of EmOC services between June 2011 and May 2012 were obtained from records of 20 general hospitals and 39 primary healthcare centers providing delivery services. Additionally, structured interviews with facility managers were conducted. Only 6 (10.2%) of the 59 facilities met the UN requirements for EmOC centers. None of the three senatorial zones in Bauchi State had the minimum acceptable number of five EmOC facilities per 500 000 population. Overall, 10 517 (4.4%) of the estimated 239 930 annual births took place in EmOC facilities. Cesarean delivery accounted for 3.6% (n=380) of the 10 517 births occurring in EmOC facilities and 0.2% of the 239 930 expected live births. Only 1416 (3.9%) of the expected 35 990 obstetric complications were managed in EmOC facilities. Overall, 45 (3.2%) of 1416 women with major direct obstetric complications treated at EmOC facilities died. Among 379 maternal deaths, 317 (83.6%) were attributable to major direct obstetric complications. Availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC services in Bauchi State, Nigeria, are suboptimal. The health system's capacity to manage emergency obstetric complications needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  16. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers

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    Abubakar Sadiq Umar, MBBS, MPH, MHPM, FWACP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey with records from 33,385 women between 15-49 years who had given birth between January 2003 and December 2008 in Yobe State. Bivariate Pearson’s Chi square test and two stages of Multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Results: Women with at least primary level education (adjusted OR (AOR = 2.40; CI 1.24 – 4.67, belonging to professional employment category (AOR = 12.07; CI 0.19 – 75.74 and those who had access to skilled health workers (AOR = 5.13; CI 2.50 – 10.52 are more likely to make the required number of ANC visits compared to those who are illiterates, unemployed and had no access to skilled health workers. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: This study demonstrated that educational level, family wealth income, and availability of skilled health worker were consistently associated with the number of ANC visits even after controlling for covariates. These three covariates are in tandem with the Millenium Development Goals (MDG 1 – eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 2 – universal basic education; MDG 3 – gender equality; and MDG 4 – maternal mortality. There is the need for inter-sectoral holistic intervention approach.

  17. Evaluation of Fadama II Road Infrastructure among Rural Communities in Adamawa State, Nigeria

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    Umar Adamu Madu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the role played by Fadama II on road development in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The data were obtained from 300 respondents who were randomly selected from Fadama II beneficiaries, non-beneficiaries within Fadama II communities and non-beneficiaries outside Fadama II communities. Based on propensity score matching (PSM and double difference estimator (DD, the data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and balancing test (t-test. The results showed that 30% of the roads were funded by Fadama II Project. Most of the roads were constructed and rehabilitated after the establishment of the project. Fadama II roads were found to be important for the beneficiaries’ activities. The analysis established that beneficiaries’ travel distance, travel time, waiting time and transport fares were reduced relative to non-beneficiaries. Road development has boosted marketing services for both farm and non-farm economic activities. Spill-over effect also manifests in the adjoining communities.

  18. Use of modern birth control methods among rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Ike; Obasi, O O

    2008-04-01

    This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of the respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. The most popular modern method was the condom (24.2%). This was followed by the IUD, used by only 2.5% of the respondents. Some of the identified factors that hindered the use of MBCM included perceived negative health reaction, fear of the unknown effects, cost, spouse's disapproval, religious belief and inadequate information. For a better understanding and utilization of MBCM, it is recommended that adequate educational campaign should be mounted in the rural areas on the advantages of MBCM. This campaign should target the men the more because they make the major decisions on MBCM use.

  19. An outbreak of dracunculiasis in a peri-urban community of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edungbola, L D; Watts, S

    1984-06-01

    An outbreak of dracunculiasis was investigated at Egbejila, a peri-urban community near the city of Ilorin, the capital of Kwara State, Nigeria. Of 589 persons examined in June 1983, 265 (45.0%) had active ulcers with protruding guinea worms. The infection rates among males (42.1%) and females (47.8%) were not statistically different (p greater than 0.1) but children below 10 years of age were significantly less infected than the older subjects (p less than 0.001). Altogether, 67.2% of the infected subjects had more than one guinea worm lesion while 54.7% were incapacitated by the infection. The peculiar circumstances which led to the spontaneous outbreak of dracunculiasis and contributed to its severity in this community after the construction of the Asa Dam to solve the problem of acute water scarcity in the Ilorin municipality, were identified and discussed.

  20. Tuberculosis in Humans and Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: Risk Factors Analysis

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    S. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22 respondent (5% amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2% had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association (≥0.05 was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle were found to be statistically significant.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SMALL- SCALE WOOD INDUSTRIES IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

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    Michael AKPAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental impactsassociated with Small Scale Wood Industries (SSWl inIkot Expene town, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three (3industrial locations, namely sawmill (SM, Furniture (Fand Wood Carving (WC, including a Control (C wererandomly sampled for the study. Data were collected withthe aid of measurements, using standard instruments,and compared with those of National (FMENV andInternational (WHO regulatory limits. Analysis ofVariance (ANOVA statistics was used in data analysis.Results revealed that the measured environmentalparameters (air quality, soil and noise pollutions did notdiffer significantly (P<0.05 from the 3 industrial locations,but significant differences between the various locationsand control were obtained.

  2. Analysis of Cassava Product (Garri Marketing in Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Olasore Abiodun Amos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is on analysis of cassava product (garri marketing in Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 150 respondents from the target group using a two-stage sampling procedure and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Gini Coefficient and Lorenz Curve. Gini Coefficient for all cassava product traders was estimated to be 0.624 or 62.4%. The estimated Gini Coefficient show high degree of inequality in the sales/income distribution. The Lorenz Curve plotted further revealed sales/income inequality among the traders. A wide gap between line of inequality and the plotted Lorenz Curve showed that there is a high inequality in the distribution of income among traders.

  3. Geophysical Investigation for Groundwater Development at Oyo State Housing Estate Ogbomosho, Southwestern Nigeria

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    Olagoke Peter Oladejo

    Full Text Available Water is life because it is one of the inevitable ingredients for life survival. The urge for ground water development is very high in Oyo state Housing Estate, Ogbomosho, Southwestern Nigeria. Because the site is experiencing structural developments and there is no other source of water nearby. Surface water is becoming inadequate, thus this study aimed at investigating the hydro geological prospects of the area with a view to delineating for groundwater and its development. Geophysical investigation was carried out in the study area using Very Low Frequency (VLF method. VLF profiling of 20 m inter stations and 50 m of inter profiling distances were established. This study revealed a number of conductive zones for ground water development for both domestic and commercial purposes.

  4. Bill-Postings as Pervasive Media Culture. Evidence from Edo Central District of Edo State, Nigeria

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    Osakue Stevenson Omoera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the problem of bill-postings as pervasive media culture, using Edo Central District (ECD of Edo State, Nigeria as a case study. To achieve the set task, it adopts an evaluative methodology. This is complemented by interviews and random photographic snapshots of indiscriminately posted-bills across the district under examination. This paper argues that the indiscriminately posted-bills are eyesores, which apart from not being aesthetically pleasing, exacerbate the environmental management challenge in the ECD. It further contends that the problem is a multilayered one, judging from the different kinds of posters that are commonly posted by diverse groups in society. Consequently, this study asserts that probing the sociological causes and implications of the menace of bill-postings could offer some insights on how to redress the situation. To this end, a number of suggestions are made, with a view to improving the condition of the physical environment in ECD.

  5. Bridewealth, marriage and fertility in the east-central states of Nigeria.

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    Isiugo-abanihe, U C

    1995-01-01

    "The paper examines the determinants of high bridewealth in the east-central states of Nigeria, inhabited by the Igbo, and relates high bridewealth to rising age at marriage among both men and women. High and rising bridewealth in Igboland is associated with the prevailing economic situation, socio-economic status of bride's parents, raising incidence of self-selection of marital partners in place of arranged marriages, and particularly increasing female education.... Rising age at marriage in Igboland cannot be understood only on the basis of increasing urbanization, female education and employment opportunities, but also on the basis of rising bridewealth which reduces the tempo of marriage....The study ends with an investigation of the determinants of marital fertility through the use of a causal model that includes bridewealth, age at marriage and other socio-economic variables." (SUMMARY IN ITA AND FRE)

  6. Assessment of the Impact of Extension Services on Fish Farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria

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    Agbebi, F. O.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the impact of access to extension services on fish farming in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the socio – economic characteristics of fish farmers, information disseminated to fish farmers, attributes of extension agents, and farmers’ access to extension services and farmers profitability. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the farmers and a sample size of 90 fish farmers was selected from the six local government selected. Analysis of data was carried out using frequency and percentage tables and Gross Margin analysis was used to determine the profitability of the farmers. There was relationship between farmers’ access to extension services and their profitability. It was recommended that extension agents should intensify their efforts in reaching farmers and passing useful information to them in order to increase farmers’ profitability.

  7. Effects of Family Size on Household Food Security in Osun State, Nigeria

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    Adebayo Oyefunke Olayemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated effects of family size on household food security in Osun state, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select 110 respondents for the study. A well structured questionnaire was used in collecting information from the respondents. The data were subjected to descriptive and Tobit regression analysis. The results of the study indicated that about 60.9% had family size of 5and 8 members. Only 24.5% were food secure. Coping strategies employed include borrowing money, relying on less preferred and expensive food. The constraints faced includes, poor access to credit (84.5%, and lack of input (81.8%. The study concludes that family size has negative impact on house food security. The study recommended that government and non government agency should intensified effort on importance of family planning and advocate small family size in rural area.

  8. Prevalence and prevention of malaria in pregnancy in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagbatsoma, V A; Omoike, B I

    2008-12-01

    The observational/longitudinal study was undertaken in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA), Edo State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of prevention on the prevalence of malaria during pregnancy. The study population comprised 4 groups viz; Group l, had 100 women protected with Insecticide Treated bed Nets (ITNs); Group 2, another 100 treated with Sulphadoxine - pyrimethamine (SP); Group 3, 100 protected with both ITN and SP, while Group 4, were 100 unprotected others who served as control. Venous blood was collected 7 days to expected date of delivery while placental blood was collected after delivery from the subjects for parasitaemia determination. Findings showed that all protective devices used were effective against malaria. Prevention used against malaria in pregnancy is a sure safe guard against maternal morbidity/mortality and should be encouraged. It is therefore, recommended that pregnant women should be health educated to appreciate the need for malaria prevention.

  9. Effect of exposure to solid wastes in relation to employment duration on some important markers of health and disease in waste management workers of Ogun State in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ekor, Martins

    2013-12-01

    Waste management workers (WMWs) around the world are at risk of work-related health disorders. The influence of employment duration on individuals occupationally exposed to solid waste was investigated in this study. The study comprised (n = 280) 180 WMWs and 100 controls. Employment duration was obtained from questionnaire survey and categorized into three groups: group I (0.5-2 years), group II (>2-4 years) and group III (>4-6 years). Blood sample (10 ml) was collected from the antecubital vein of subjects for analysis. WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) elevated inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp)) relative to control. While Cp increased, ESR and CRP decreased with increasing WMWs' employment duration. Alteration in oxidant/antioxidant markers was characterized by significant (p < 0.001) decrease in ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and catalase activity together with marked (p < 0.01) elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and uric acid (UA). TBARS, UA and FRAP increased while catalase decreased with WMWs' employment duration. In addition, WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) elevated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, which also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. The significantly (p < 0.01) decreased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels as well as the significantly (p < 0.001) elevated total leukocytes in WMWs increased with employment duration. Alanine aminotransferase increased and albumin decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in WMWs, and these changes also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. Data suggest that levels of alteration of important systemic markers of health/disease are related to WMWs' employment or exposure duration.

  10. Environmental Factors and Distribution of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria

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    H.A. Adie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of many parasitic diseases are influenced by environmental factors. Schistosomiasis prevalence is governed by the suitability of environmental factors for snail vector survival. The availability of resources on environmental indices in the World Wide Web facilitated this study which determined the effect of environmental factors on schistosomiasis distribution in Cross River State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered in 778 primary schools to determine the schistosomiasis status of the pupils. Mean values of environmental factors (Vegetation, temperature, altitude, land use, soil type and rainfall corresponding to the coordinates of study schools were extracted from archived, satellite sources and public domain digital databases for a period April 2009 to March 2010. The values for each of the environmental factors were displayed spatially on the Cross River State Map using Microsoft, paint brush software. The effect of the environmental variables was measured by superimposing the schistosomiasis infection map on the map of each of the factors. The number of positive schools was thereafter calculated corresponding to variations in environmental factors across the entire study area. The results showed a negative correlation between infection, vegetation and altitude. Prevalence was highest in areas with less photosynthetic activity (less vegetation. Prevalence was zero in altitudes >500 m above sea level. Land use and temperature showed a positive correlation with infection. Infection increased with corresponding increases in temperature. Infection was more in areas where intensive agricultural practices were ongoing. Infection was more in areas with deep lateritic soil type. The present study will facilitate a rapid mapping of schistosomiasis using environmental factors as guide in Nigeria.

  11. THE FACE OF DISABILITY IN NIGERIA: A DISABILITY SURVEY IN KOGI AND NIGER STATES

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    Natalie Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Leprosy Mission Nigeria conducted a disability survey in Kogi and Niger States of Nigeria in 2005, investigating the demographic characteristics of people with disabilities, including gender, age, religion, marital, educational, occupational, employment and economic status, understanding of disability and health-seeking behaviour.   Information was gathered from a convenience sample of participants, across 30 randomly selected towns and villages in the two states. Twelve trained bilingual research assistants were used, to translate the English language questionnaire verbally into the local language of each participant.  From the 1093 respondents studied, the most common disabilities involved vision (37%, mobility (32% or hearing (15%. A third of these were less than 21 years of age and had no occupation, and 72% were Muslim. Over half of them had no education, 20% had primary, 8% secondary, 2% tertiary and 18% had Islamic education. Common occupations were begging (16%, studying (14%, farming (11% and trading (8%.The majority were unemployed (61% due to their disability. Over 70% were not able to access disability specific health services and 37% had an assistive device. Services accessed included health - mainstream (90%, traditional (61% and counselling (58%; and other - rehabilitation (30%, assistive device provision (24%, welfare (22%, special education (15%, vocational training (10% and economic empowerment (4%.  These results are comparable with findings in other studies. Disability affects a person’s ability to participate in education, work, family life and religion, influences health-seeking behaviour and contributes to poverty.See supplementary file for Survey Questionnaire.DOI 10.5463/DCID.v1i22.11 

  12. Prevalence of and risk factors for trachoma in Kano state, Nigeria.

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    Caleb Mpyet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In northern Nigeria, trachoma is an important public health problem, but there are currently few population-based data on prevalence of disease and no formal trachoma control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Kano state, Nigeria, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling, combining examination for clinical signs of trachoma and application of questionnaires assessing potential household-level risk factors. A total of 4491 people were examined in 40 clusters, of whom 1572 were aged 1-9 years, and 2407 (53.6% were female. In 1-9 year-olds, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF was 17.5% (95% CI: 15.7-19.5%. In a multivariate model, independent risk factors for active trachoma were the presence of flies on the face (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.30-3.02; a dirty face (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.85-3.25 and presence of animal dung within the compound of residence (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.62-7.41. The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in persons aged ≥15 years was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.7-12.2%. Trichiasis was significantly more common in adult females than in adult males. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is an urgent need for a trachoma control program in Kano state, with emphasis given to provision of good quality trichiasis surgery. Particular effort will need to be made to identify women with trichiasis and engage them with appropriate services while also taking steps to secure azithromycin for mass treatment and ensuring personal and environmental hygiene.

  13. Determinants and perception of cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school teachers in Oyo state Nigeria.

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    Familoni, I F; Familoni, O B

    2011-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are common. They constitute an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of the risk factors may lead to attitudinal change with consequent reduction in prevalence. Secondary school teachers constitute a large literate workforce that has direct influence on students and indirectly on their parents and guardians. The aim of this study is to investigate the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria and also the determinants of such knowledge. Three hundred and fifty eight secondary school teachers from the Akinyele local government of Oyo State Nigeria completed a questionnaire seeking such information as which diseases constitute CVD and also identify risk factors for CVD. The determinants of such knowledge were investigated by the log likehood ratio using logistic regression. Two hundred and fifteen civil servants matched for age, sex and qualifications were enrolled as controls. Of the 358 teachers, 12.3% were current smokers, 32.1% drank alcohol. More of the civil servant controls patronized fast food joints. Over 80% of the teachers performed exercise regularly, majority being 'walking' (66.2%). Hypertension (84.5%) and heart attack (87.6%) were the most correctly identified CVD. The least correctly identified was peripheral vascular disease (18.6%). The longer the years of teaching, specialization in pure science and being male the more likely the knowledge of sedentary living as a risk factor. Other variables that reached statistical significance include knowledge of stress, smoking and advanced age. Generally the knowledge of the teachers is inadequate about CVD and the risk factors. Qualification in pure science and years of teaching did not radically affect this knowledge. The knowledge base of the teachers needs to be improved.

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital mutilation among doctors and nurses in Bayelsa state, Niger-Delta of Nigeria

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    Oyeyemi A.S; Ibrahim I.A; Ekine A.A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among doctors and nurses/midwives practising in public secondary and tertiary hospitals in Bayelsa state. Methods: One hundred and ninety seven (197) s...

  15. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria.

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    Igwe, Monday N; Bakare, Muideen O; Agomoh, Ahamefule O; Onyeama, Gabriel M; Okonkwo, Kevin O

    2010-06-13

    Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire were administered to the students. The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67+/-3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24+/-3.24, 10.76+/-3.50 and 9.01+/-3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p=0.000), domain 3 (p=0.029), domain 4 (p=0.000) and total score (p=0.000), with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p=0.769). The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r=0.319, p=0.000) and the number of weeks of posting in paediatrics (r=0.372, p=0

  16. The impact and determinants of donor support in Cross River State - Nigeria

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    Christopher A. Otu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact and determinants of donor support in Cross River State Nigeria by linking donor support program and economic growth in Cross River State, the impact of political, economic, corporate governance, and sound donor governance indicators on economic development indicator, and finally the impact economic governance indicators, corporate governance indicators, sound donor governance indicators, economic development indicator on flow of donor support indicator using a sample of 200 cross sectional respondents - government agencies, donor organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs, and private individuals. I use a well validated structured questionnaire method for data collection and use Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation for analysis. The results show among others a positive relationship between flow of donor support and indicators of quality of political and economic governance, and quality of the business environment, there existed a significant relationship between donor support and economic growth in Cross River State. Based on the result, it was recommended that maintaining a safe and attractive business environment is critical for sustained inflow of donor funds. Equally, channeling donor funds to agro-allied industrialization, manufacturing, health, and tourism would enhance economic development. Lastly mechanisms for conflict prevention, management, and resolution at both state and local government levels should be encouraged so as to influence more funding activities to the state.

  17. Critical factors in road infrastructure development in Osun state, south western Nigeria

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    Opawole, A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Road infrastructure has a very high economic impact on the rural/urban integration especially with the creation of Osun State in 1992. The correlation between road infrastructure and economic development has been well established in literature. This study examined road infrastructure development in Osun State, South-western Nigeria between1999 and 2008. Structured questionnaire administered on 74 construction professionals and 32 financial administrators with official cadre ranging between principal and director in the public service of the State provided quantitative data for the study. In addition, a field survey of (17 road projects budgeted for execution in the State during this period was carried out. Data obtained were analyzed using percentage and relative significance index. The result of the study indicated poor implementation incidence of road projects in the State which is attributed to funding and coordination issues. Findings from the study provide information for rethinking budgeting for road infrastructure development in developing economy where road infrastructure financing depends on public funding.

  18. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River State, Nigeria.

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    Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more

  19. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2016-06-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  20. Autonomy and Reproductive Rights of Married Ikwerre Women in Rivers State, Nigeria.

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    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-06-01

    A woman's lack of or limited reproductive autonomy could lead to adverse health effects, feeling of being inferior, and above all being unable to adequately care for her children. Little is known about the reproductive autonomy of married Ikwerre women of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study demonstrates how Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions with purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages. The collected data was analysed qualitatively with MAXQDA 11 using open and axial coding. The interviews and focus group responses reveal a low level of awareness of autonomy and reproductive rights amongst the Ikwerre women in Nigeria. While some educated women were aware of their reproductive rights, cultural practices were reported to limit the exercise of these rights. Participants reported that Ikwerre culture is a patriarchal one where married women are expected to submit and obey their husbands in all matters; and a good married woman according to Ikwerre standard is one who complies with this culture. Women's refusal of sexual advances from their husbands is described as not being acceptable in this culture; and hence rape in marriage is not recognized in Ikwerre culture. Education and awareness creation on the importance of women's reproductive autonomy could improve their reproductive rights and autonomy in marital settings. Overcoming the patriarchal aspects of Ikwerre culture-for example, the greater value placed on male children than female children and treating women as incompetent individuals-is necessary to promote gender equality as well as help improve women's reproductive autonomy.

  1. Cataract blindness, surgical coverage, outcome, and barriers to uptake of cataract services in Plateau State, Nigeria

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    Ojo P Odugbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to estimate the prevalence of blindness due to cataract, assess visual outcomes of cataract surgery, and determine the cataract surgical coverage rate and barriers to uptake of services among individuals aged 50 years or older in Plateau State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of 4200 adults 50 years or older was performed. Multistage stratified random sampling, with probability proportional to size was used to select a representative sample. The Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services protocol was used. Statistical significance was indicated by (P 0.05. The prevalence of monocular blindness due to cataract was 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.6%. The cataract surgical coverage for subjects with visual acuity (VA less 3/60 was 53.8% in the entire cohort; 60.5% for males and 48% for females (χ2 = 2.49, P > 0.05. The couching coverage for subjects who were blind was 12%. A total of 180 eyes underwent surgical intervention (surgery or couching for cataract, of which, 48 (26.7% eyes underwent couching. The prevalence of bilateral (pseudo aphakia was 1.5%, (95% CI: 1.2-1.9% and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2-3.2% for unilateral (pseudo aphakia. Visual outcomes of the 180 eyes that underwent surgical intervention were good (VA ≥ 6/18 in 46 (25.6% eyes and poor (VA < 6/60 in 105 (58.3% eyes. Uncorrected aphakia was the most common cause of poor outcome (65.1%. Most subjects who underwent cataract surgery were not using spectacles 74 (71.2%. Cost and lack of awareness were the main barriers to uptake of cataract surgery services. Conclusion: Couching remains a significant challenge in Nigeria. The outcomes of cataract surgery are poor with the lack of aphakic correction being the main cause of the poor outcomes.

  2. Jihadi Groups and State-Building: The Case of Boko Haram in Nigeria

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    Sarah Ladbury

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The following article considers the extent to which the Nigerian jihadi group, Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JAS, also known as Boko Haram, is transforming its model of governance from domination by violence and force to governance through civil administration and public support. Drawing on over four years of research and programming in north-east Nigeria, the authors consider three aspects of such a transformation: the development of institutions, the propagation of an ideology and programmes to win over the hearts and minds of the wider population, and the role assigned to women and girls. The article finds that JAS has established little in the way of a civilian administration in the areas that have come under its control. Likewise, the movement has apparently made no concerted effort to project a vision of a future society or concrete benefits of the envisaged caliphate that would generate a level of public support. Moreover, the brutal treatment of women and girls belies any attempt by the movement to promote a positive vision of the role of women, even as wives and mothers. In this, JAS is seen to differ from a number of other jihadi movements that have relatively sophisticated approaches to generating popular support and recruiting members. The article goes on to suggest a number of reasons for JAS’s failure to move towards a polity that is more consensual and less dependent on violence, as well as its implications for those who would seek to restrain the expansion and ideological reach of jihadist groups. It concludes by offering suggestions of how the government can seize the opportunity presented by this lack of a state-building strategy, in order to show the people of north-east Nigeria that it can offer a better alternative.

  3. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2017-09-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  4. Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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    Ishola Gbenga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.

  5. PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG FIREFIGHTERS IN RIVERS STATE, SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kingsley Enyinnah; Oraekesi, Chidi Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and firemen (firefighters) may be especially predisposed to it or even exacerbate pre-existing hypertension as a result of the nature of their job. This study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension among firemen in Rivers state, South-South Nigeria. Following ethical clearance, 125 consenting firemen of the Rivers State Fire Service were recruited in this descriptive cross sectional study. They responded to a pre-tested, structured, closed-ended self-administered questionnaire which probed their socio-demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice towards hypertension. Also, their blood pressures heights and weights were measured from where Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. A WalkThrough Survey for immediate work place situation and safety was carried out. Data collected were later analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical tools. There was a 9.6% prevalence of hypertension among this group of workers in Rivers State. The workforce was essentially young with a modal age group of between 31-36 years. The attendant associated risk factors included altered sleep patterns, over weight and smoking which were all statistically significant P hypertension was high (96%), the behaviour of respondents towards prevention and control of hypertension was poor. There is hypertension among firemen of the Rivers State Fire Service occasioned by modifiable risk factors despite adequate knowledge. It is recommended that intensive health education, early detection and treatment be instituted among this group of workers.

  6. Determinants of Repayment of Loan Beneficiaries of Micro Finance Institutions in Southeast States of Nigeria

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    Eugene Chukwuemeka Okorji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the loan repayment, its determinantsand socio-economic characteristics of microfinance loanbeneficiaries in the Southeast states of Nigeria. It was carriedout in three states of the five southeast states. Using a multistagesampling technique, a total of 144 loan beneficiaries in thethree segments of MFIs, namely; formal (commercial and developmentbanks; semi-formal (NGOs-MFIs and informal(ROSCAS, “Isusu” and co-operative societies were randomlyselected and interviewed in the three states. An ordinary leastsquare (OLS multiple regression analysis was carried out toisolate and examine the determinants of loan repayment fromthe respondents’ perspective. Results showed that beneficiarieshad low level of education, operated enterprises at a relativelysmall scale, had large family size and were of middle age.Further, it was found out that the majority of the respondentswere involved in farming enterprise (crop and poultry eventhough trading was the most prominent single non-farmingenterprise (trading, processing and artisanship. The result affirmedthat the informal sector respondents recorded the bestrepayment rate, followed by the respondents of semi-formaland the banks brought the rear. Outstanding among the determinantsof loan repayments from the respondents’ perspectivewere; loan size, level of education, experience, profitabilityand portfolio diversity. These, therefore deserve special attentionin loan administration of MFIs.

  7. Visual Representativeness in Junior Secondary School English Language Textbooks in Use in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

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    Chinyere Henrietta Maduabuchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from research findings seems to corroborate with the assertion that the students’ constant difficulties in the comprehension of English language texts may have emanated from the limited visual representativeness in most of the recommended textbooks in use in Junior Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Textbooks help to equip teachers and learners with broad and factual information concerning what learners should learn by helping them to perform well in the learning environment and in external examinations. This study investigated the types of visual representativeness in Junior Secondary School English Language Textbooks in Ebonyi State vis-à-vis the curriculum content. An exploratory-interpretive design was used in the study. A total of 9 textbooks were selected out of the 18 English language textbooks used in Ebonyi State. The visual representativeness in the textbooks were analyzed using content and qualitative analysis. Simple Percentage and frequency counts were used in the interpretation of visual representativeness in JSS English Language in Use in Ebonyi State. This was done by taking the frequency of the visual representativeness in the textbooks based on the content specification on visual representativeness of topics in the curriculum. The findings showed that the English language textbooks used in junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria adopted decorational, representational, and transformational visuals. It was also found that the visual representativeness in some of the English language textbooks were inadequate. For instance, the Intensive English (books I, II, and III, had 14.2%, 8%, and 19.2% under represented visuals respectively, and 85.7%, 92%, and 80.8%  adequately represented visuals respectively, In New Concept English (books I, II, III , we had 14.3%, 23.8%, and 29.4% under represented visuals respectively, and 85.7%, 77.1%, and 70.5% adequately represented visuals respectively and Junior

  8. Anthropometric evaluations and assessment of school furniture design in Nigeria: A case study of secondary schools in rural area of Odeda, Nigeria

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    Adekunle Ibrahim Musa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on 621 schoolboys with age range of 12-17 years in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools in Odeda area of Odeda local government in Ogun State, Nigeria. Different anthropometric data were collected from these boys. It was observed from the results that all anthropometric dimensions of the school children increase with their age. Moreover, there exists a little difference between mean values of different anthropometric dimensions between the boys of 12-13 years (2.9% to 8.8%, 14-15 years (1.3% to 9.9%, and 16-17 years (1.4% to 5.5%. But the said differences become much higher (16.2% to 42.4% when the same were compared between the children of 12 years and 17 years. Therefore, it can be said that the design of furniture for the children of 12 years will not match the children of 17 years. If single furniture is designed by considering dimensions of the children from 12 years to 17years, it will also not suit the children of all age groups. Therefore, in the present investigation, all the students have been divided into three combined age groups, e.g., 12-13 years, 14-15 years, and 16-17 years, and the percentile values (5th, 50th and 95th of anthropometric measures, which will be helpful for designing of the classroom furniture.

  9. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2017-08-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  10. Building Development Practice in Flood Prone Area: Case of Ogbaru Council Area of Anambra State Nigeria

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    Peter Uchenna Okoye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the practice of building development in flood prone areas and how it has contributed to the menace of flooding in Ogbaru Council Area of Anambra State Nigeria. It was a survey research where questionnaires were distributed to heads of the selected households, in addition to physical observations on buildings within the selected households. Four towns out of sixteen towns that made up Ogbaru Council Area of Anambra State were purposefully selected. From these towns, 96 households each were randomly selected and a total of 384 questionnaires were administered to the head of each household or their representative, whereas 242 copies were completed, returned and found useful, thus, giving a response rate of 62.92%. The study found that siting of buildings on waterways, flood channels/plains, inadequate/lack of drains in the compounds, lack of planning restriction/developmental control, size of the building/area occupied by the building among others contribute greatly to the incessant flood menace in the study area. The study therefore deduced that some building practices such as those identified above have the ability of exacerbating the velocity and rate of flooding in the area which turned into natural disaster, and thus, recommended strict enforcement of building and urban development laws and control in the state to reduce indiscriminate erecting of building structures on waterways, including planlessness of our emerging urban centres.

  11. Dynamic surface soil components of land and vegetation types in Kebbi State Nigeria

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    Suleiman Usman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land and vegetation are important components of soil and provides many benefits to surface soil including protection against erosion, climate change impact and unacceptable degradation of soil particles. Visual Soil Assessment was used as a mechanism to assess and classify the land and vegetation types of some agricultural sites in Kebbi State, Nigeria. The aim was to get better understanding of the environmental soil function for sustainable crop production in dryland and fadama areas of the State. The assessment was able to put together combinations of different vegetation types and land age classes. It is valued that the land age classes possessed the characteristics of Holocene-natural, Holocene-anthropogeomorphic, Holocene-young-natural, young-anthropogeomorphic, very-young anthropogeomorphic and very-young natural. However, the vegetation types could be related to evergreen forest, short medium forest (scattered clustered, dwarf vegetation (scattered isolated, grass vegetation, thick vegetation, stony-grass vegetation (scattered sparse and short-length vegetation. The assessment provides an improve understanding of the current status of land and vegetation conditions of the study area and suggested regular soil management for sustainable crop production in the State.

  12. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2016-07-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  13. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state.

  14. A comparative analysis of teenagers and older pregnant women in the utilization of prevention of mother to child transmission [PMTCT] services in, Western Nigeria

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    Amoran Olorunfemi E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Most HIV/AIDS infections in women occur at a younger age, during the first few years after sexual debut. This study was therefore designed to assess factors associated with the knowledge and utilization of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT services by the teenage pregnant women when compared to mature pregnant women in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women [52 teenagers and 148 adults] attending the primary health care centres in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State, Nigeria within a 2 months period were recruited into the study. Results A total of 225 respondents were recruited into the study. The overall point prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection among those that had been tested and disclosed their result was 4 [2.8%]. The prevalence of HIV among the teenagers was 2 [7.4%] compared with 2 [1.8%] among older women. Only 85 [37.8%] of all respondents were tested through the Voluntary counseling and testing (VCCT programme and 53 (23.7% were aware of antiretroviral therapy while 35 (15.6% have ever used the PMTCT services before. There was no statistically significant difference in the knowledge of the teenage pregnant women when compared with the older women about mother to child transmission (MTCT [OR = 1.47, C.I = 0.57-3.95] and its prevention [OR = 0.83, C.I = 0.38-1.84]. The teenagers were 3 times less likely to use the services when compared with the older women. [OR = 0.34, C.I = 0.10-1.00]. Those from the low socio-economic background were about 6 times more likely to utilize PMTCT facilities when compared to those from high socioeconomic background [OR = 6.01, C.I = 1.91-19.19]. Conclusion The study concludes that the teenage pregnant women who were more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection did not utilize PMTCT services as much as the older pregnant women. Special consideration should be

  15. Evaluation of Maintenance Management Practice in Banking Industry in Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Olajide Julius Faremi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on maintenance management practice in banking industry in Lagos state, Nigeria. It assessed the operational state of bank buildings, the factors affecting maintenance management of bank buildings, the maintenance management strategy used in maintainingbank buildings and the adequacy of funds available for maintenance management of bank buildings within the study area. In achieving these objectives, opinions of maintenanceofficers and users of randomly selected banks were sampled through structured questionnaires. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis revealed the operational state of bank buildings in Lagos State as good, there is no significant difference in the perception of the maintenance staff and users as to the operational state. However, there is significant difference in the operational state of the old and the newgeneration bank buildings as the study reveals that the components and services of the buildings of the new generation banks are in better operational state than those of the old generation bank buildings. Maintenance officers ranked attitude of users and misuse of facilities as the most significant factor affecting maintenance management of bank buildings while users of the buildings ranked lack of discernable maintenance culture in the country asthe most significant factor responsible for poor maintenance management of bank buildings. The perception of the maintenance staff and users of bank buildings as regards factors responsible for poor maintenance management of bank buildings are significantly different. The study recommended proactive measures to keep hypothesized factors under check in other to overcome the prevailing maintenance problems of bank buildings. Top managementare to provide adequate funding for the running of maintenance operations and such funds should be properly monitored to ensure that it is judiciously utilized.

  16. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ogbonna Emerole; K. Charles Osondu; O. Chidozie Anyiro; O. Alexan Orji

    2013-01-01

    This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert) banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists) and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April) and rain season (May-October)...

  17. Assessment of gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry egg, a case study in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafis Odunlami; Peter Adebola Okuneye; Musekiku Adebayo Shittu; Ajani R. Sanusi; Issa Olalekan Eledgbede; Fatima Kies

    2016-01-01

    Gender has been seen as an important factor in the distribution and utilization of productive resources worldwide. In the agricultural sector, gender differential could influence the sourcing and efficient utilization of factors of production, particularly in the livestock sub-sector of the economy. This study assessed the gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry eggs production in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondent po...

  18. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo; C. A. Ike-Amadi; C. Ibebuike; F. U. Okike-Osissiogu; N.G. Agomoh

    2013-01-01

    A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial ...

  19. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, PMB 2240 Abeokuta, ... the antibiotics used in poultry is for treatment of ..... Compendium of veterinary ... technologies in microbial ecology aid in.

  20. FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (I

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    RICHARD INGWE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect datafrom primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the studyareas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.

  1. FLOOD RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN NIGERIA: INTEGRATING TRADITIONAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL METHODS OF MITIGATING AND ADAPTING TO FLOODING IN CROSS RIVER STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD INGWE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience and sustainable development in urban Nigeria: integrating traditional and non-structural methods of mitigating and adapting to flooding in cross river state, south-eastern Nigeria. We examined application of non-structural measures in addition to conventional structural approaches by Government Agency and community for flood management in Cross River State (Nigeria at: regional-ambit and community levels. We used focus group discussion in depth interview, and observation methods to collect data from primary and secondary sources. Our findings include: emphasis on structural flood control measures by government agencies contrasted to use of rudimentary non-structural approaches by communities. Conceptual frames proposed for managing disasters include: emphasizing future climate change impacts based on multiple scales (temporal, spatial and societal and emphasizing historical response to disasters without increasing the visibility of climate change. We conclude that community institutions, non-government/civil society organizations should lead public institutions in promoting flood resilience based on integrated non-structural to structural measures and show recent developments regarding civil society coalition committed towards promoting environmental governance in Nigeria. Frequent flooding associated with huge losses of lives and property in the study areas, as in most of urban Nigeria, persuade us to recommend that strategically placed civil society be supported by donor/funding organizations to promote integrated non-structural and traditional-structural measures to achieve urban flood resilience nationwide.

  2. The Prevalence and Determinants of Under-Five Mortality in Benue State, Nigeria

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    Issah N. Abu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence, and the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of under-five mortality in Benue State, Nigeria. Using a purposive random sampling technique, a total of 1,500 questionnaires were administered to women aged 15 to 49 years and who have ever given birth in 30 communities from 10 sampled local government areas in the state. In addition, focus group discussions and key informant interviews formed sources of data for this research. The analysis of data was carried out using descriptive statistics, child survival analysis, and probit regression model. The pattern of the prevalence of infant and child mortality showed that there are three major child killers in the study area: malaria (38.2%, complications at birth (29.5%, and measles (16.9%. The survival probability results show that children born to parents living in an urban area have more chances (72.6% of survival, as against 71.4% for children born to parents living in a rural area. The probit regression analysis showed that the pregnancies ever had by the mothers has a greater marginal effect on child survival (6.7% than the current age of mothers at birth (3.7% and the age of mother at marriage (0.9%. Based on the findings, recommendations such as empowerment and education of mothers are suggested.

  3. Effect of rural-urban migrants’ remittances on arable crop production in Delta State, Nigeria

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    Ofuoku Albert U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Delta State, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of rural-urban remittances on arable crop production. Twenty percent (20% of the registered arable crop farmers in Delta State were selected to arrive at 131 respondents for the study. Questionnaire and structured interview schedule were used to collect data from the respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics and contingency tables were used to treat the collected data. It was discovered that most (69.5% of rural-urban migrants were in the 11-30 age bracket. The remittances from rural farm households were far higher than the remittances from rural-urban migrants. The little remittances from the rural-urban migrants were added to the funds of the rural farm household, farm labour and inputs. The remittances from rural-urban migrants did not make any meaningful contribution to arable crop production. It was recommended that governments should make the rural areas attractive to young school learners/graduates, embark on enlightenment programme to expose the youths to agriculture related self-employment opportunities in the rural areas; and create enabling environment for the youths to operate as self-employed individuals in the rural areas.

  4. Neighborhood Deprivation and Self-Rated Health in Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Rasheed Kola Ojikutu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of neighborhood deprivation on the perception of the individuals about their own health in Lagos State, Nigeria. Respondents were required to rate their own health as "excellent, very good, good, fair, poor and very poor". The questionnaire contained questions on various aspect of the respondents neighborhood and their perception about them. It was found that most neighborhoods in Lagos State are deprived of basic essentials of life such as electricity, water, good roads and security. Over 43% of the respondents claimed to have visited a hospital two or more times and 43.7% had lost at least two neighbors in the past one year. Over half (57.8% of the respondents rated their own health as good, 36.6% ranked their own health as fair while only 5.6% claimed to have poor health. A fitted regression model ( r2 = 0.644 showed that variables such as number of dependants, income, occupation, type of residential accommodation, ownership of house, number of rooms occupied, mode and convenience of transportation, accessibility to water, electricity and good roads and security jointly determine the perception of an individual about his own health status.Key Words: Neighborhood, Deprivation, Self Rated Health, Security, ResidenceDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1364Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.193-210

  5. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

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    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  6. The Hydro Geophysical Investigation of Oyo State Industrial Estate Ogbomosho, Southwestern Nigeria Using Vertical Electrical Soundings

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    T.A. Adagunodo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to carry out hydro geophysical study of Oyo State industrial estate Ogbomosho with a view to determining the areas that are good for groundwater prospects and the areas that are not suitable for groundwater exploration. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES method was used to map Oyo State industrial estate Ogbomosho which lies within latitude 08°06' 07.4" and 08°06' 25.4" North and longitude 004° 15' 03.3" and 004°15' 49.0" East of Southwestern Nigeria. Ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES were carried out across the area using the schlumberger electrode array configuration with current electrode separation (AB varying from 130 to 200 m. Nine out of the ten modeled curves were H-type where the remaining one was KH-type. The geoelectric sections obtained from the sounding curves revealed 3-layer and 4-layer earth models respectively. The models showed the subsurface layers categorized into the topsoil, weathered/clay, fractured layers and the fresh bedrock. The weathered basement and fractured basement are the aquifer types delineated for the area. Flow net and bedrock relief map showed that the Southern, Northeastern and towards the base of Northwestern direction of the study area are good for borehole development.

  7. Investigations on the Occurrence and Associated Risk Factors of Avian Coccidiosis in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria

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    Shola David Ola-Fadunsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of poultry mortalities worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and associated risk factors of avian coccidiosis in Osun State, Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected and examined from 5,544 avian species that were brought for treatment at the state veterinary hospitals over a 10-year period. Parameters such as age, sex, season, and species of birds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. Overall prevalence of 41.3% was recorded. The year specific rate for avian coccidiosis was highest in 2007 (97.9% and lowest in 2006 (0.4%, while the month-specific rate was highest in November (85.7% and lowest in July 2006 (13.3%. There was a significantly (P<0.05 higher prevalence in young birds compared to adults, in males compared to females, and during the wet season compared to the dry season. Broilers (99.8% and cockerels (81.0% were the bird types with the highest prevalence rate. The high prevalence of avian coccidiosis in the study area shows that the disease is endemic and there is need to embark on a radical preventive measure to curtail the disease.

  8. Performance Assessment of Lokoja Confluence Beach as a Tourist Site in Kogi State, Nigeria

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    Samuel Oluwaseyi Olorunfemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beach tourism is a global phenomenon mainly in coastal areas of countries with unique and favorable shorelines. However, certain inland waterways serve same purpose of beach tourism. This research (as its objectives exposes the condition of amenities, identifies associated socio-economic benefits and reveals problems confronting the Lokoja Confluence Beach in Kogi State, Nigeria. A survey design (with the aid of questionnaires and interview guide was employed to obtain data from tourists, managers of the Confluence Beach and government officials at the State Tourism Board. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select respondent tourists. Univariate analysis was employed to obtain relevant information from collated data. The research findings revealed the existence of a few functional amenities and some uncompleted facility projects; diverse economic benefits to residents; problems of petty crime, diversion of funds and poor sensitization. Recommendations include provision of supplementary funds by the three tiers of government, development of strategic policy on marketing/sensitization and provision of amenities for indoor games close to the beach front.

  9. Transmission dynamics of Simulium damnosum in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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    K.N. Opara

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Onchocerciasis is endemic in some parts of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This study describes the entomological parameters of transmission in three rural communities of Akwa Ibom State, prior to ivermectin intervention in 2004. Methods: Blackflies were caught using human bait and 90% of the flies were dissected for parity. All parous flies were further dissected for the presence of filaria larvae. Monthly and annual biting rate, and transmission potential were calculated using standard methods.Results: A total of 4296 adult Simulium damnosum were caught on human bait, 4119 were dissected of which 208 (5.1% were infected with Onchocerca volvulus larvae. Transmission parameters varied significantly (p < 0.05 in the three villages. Annual biting rates, ranged from 9490 to 11,218 bites per person per year. The annual transmission potential ranged from 131 to 189 infective larvae per person per year, monthly biting rate and monthly transmission potential varied significantly (p < 0.05 in the three villages. Transmission was highly seasonal occurring during the peak of rainy season from August to October. There was no transmission during the dry periods — November to March, and the early rainy periods — April to May. The diurnal biting activity of the fly exhibited a bimodal pattern with a morning peak (0900–1000 hrs and a more marked evening peak (1600–1700 hrs. Interpretation & conclusion: The results indicate that there is a temporal and spatial variation in the transmission dynamics of S. damnosum in the study area.

  10. Economic Analysis of Floricultural Plants Production in Kwara State, North Central Nigeria

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    Muhammad-Lawal, A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the substantial contribution of floriculture to the Nigerian economy, there is still a low level of awareness on the potential of the horticultural subsector of the Nigerian agricultural sector to generate employment and reduce poverty. This study therefore carried out an assessment of the economics of floricultural plants production in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study specifically estimated the returns to farmer’s labour and management. It also assessed the determinants of returns to floricultural plant production in the state. Data used for the study were collected from the forty one registered floricultural plant producers in the study area using structured questionnaire. The farm budget and regression analyses were used for data analyses. The study revealed that returns to farmer’s labour and management was N174, 974.7/ha on the average. Use of manure, labour, farm size, experience, educational level and age of the farmer were found to have significant influence on farmer’s revenue. Inadequate capital to expand the scale of production was identified as the major constraints to floricultural plant production in the study area. The study therefore recommends that farmers be supported by making credit facilities available to them and that people be enlightened on the profitability potential of the enterprise.

  11. Emergency Contraception: Awareness, Perception and Practice among Female Undergraduates in Imo State University, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, Ec; Anolue, Fc; Ejekunle, Sd; Nzewuihe, Ac; Okeudo, C; Dike, Ei; Ejikem, Ce

    2014-11-01

    Limited knowledge and practice of contraception is a global public health problem. Unintended pregnancies are the primary cause of induced abortion. When safe abortions are not available, as in Nigeria with restricted abortion laws, abortion can contribute significantly to maternal mortality and morbidity. Adequate information on the awareness and the use of emergency contraception is necessary for planning interventions in groups vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy. The aim of the following study is to access the awareness, perception and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in Imo State University, South Eastern Nigeria. A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey using female undergraduates selected randomly from Imo State University, Owerri. A total of 700 students participated in the study. Awareness of emergency contraception was very high (85.1%) (596/700). The awareness was significantly higher amongst students in health related faculties than in the non-health related faculties (P = 0.01). The main sources of information were through friends (43.1%) (317/700) and lectures (22.1%) (192/700). High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was the most commonly known type of emergency contraception (70.8%) (422/596). Only 58.1% (346/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception approved of their use. The major reasons given by the 41.9% (250/596) who disapproved of their use were religious reasons (50.4%) (126/250) and that they were harmful to health (49.2%) (123/250). Two-third (67%) (46 9/700) of the students were sexually active and only 39.9% (187/469) of them used emergency contraception. High dose progestogen (postinor-2) was again the most commonly used method (70.8%) (422/596). The most common situation in which emergency contraception was used was following unprotected sexual intercourse (45.5%) (85/144). Only 34.6% (206/596) of those who were aware of emergency contraception identified correctly the appropriate time interval

  12. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Celestine A; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 - 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 - 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 - 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 - 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 1.0 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: (3)2) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 0.6 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: (3)2) in 2012. Case definitions are simple and understood by

  13. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in goats in selected states in Nigeria and the public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogugua, A J; Akinseye, V O; Ayoola, M C; Oyesola, O O; Shima, F K; Tijjani, A O; Musa, Aderemi N A; Adesokan, H K; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy A; Moriyon, I; Cadmus, S I B

    2014-09-01

    Available reports on brucellosis in Nigeria are largely confined to cattle while it is believed that other ruminants like sheep and goats are equally exposed to the disease. To have an insight into the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria, we conducted a cross-sectional study between June 2011 and May 2013 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats in some selected states in Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from goats at different locations and tested for antibodies to Brucella spp using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), samples positive by RBT were further subjected to Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Data collected to determine risk factors were also analysed using chi-square and logistics regression statistics. Out of a total of 2827 samples tested from the different states (Benue = 331; Borno =195; Oyo = 2155; Sokoto = 146), we recorded an overall seroprevalence of 2.83% (Benue = 17.30%; Borno = 2.05%; Oyo = 0.60% and Sokoto = 0.00%) by RBT. The cELISA further supported 9.45% (7/74) of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that the location (p = 0.004) and source (p brucellosis with sex (p = 0.179); age (p = 0.791) and breed (p = 0.369) not playing any major role. Our findings reveal a relatively low seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats screened except for Benue State. Since most of the goats sampled in the present study were from the abattoirs, further farm level investigations are required to determine the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria since they share common environment with sheep and cattle that are natural hosts of Brucella species which are of major public health threat.

  15. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 291 ... ... of Information and Communication Technologies among Extension ... and Adaptation Strategies Used by Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... of Integrated Pest Management in Edo and Ogun States of Nigeria ...

  17. ADOPTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES (RET) IN TOURISM INDUSTRY- (A CASE OF OSOGBO AND OLORUNDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sonubi, O.K.; Ogunjimi, A. A.; Adeyemo, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Hotel accommodation in Nigeria is comparatively more expensive than its neighbours in the sub region of West Africa. It is one of the most expensive globally. This is attributable to its operating environment. Any sustainable means of reducing running costs would be most welcome. A study on adoption of renewable energy technologies (RET) was conducted in Osogbo and Olorunda Local Government Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from registered hotels in the two local government are...

  18. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

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    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  19. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of peste des petits ruminants viruses from North central States of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminants is an endemic disease of sheep and goats in Nigeria and vaccination has been the method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported. This study was carried out to characterize PPR viruses from outbreaks in 2007 and 2009 from Kaduna and Plateau States. Results Of the 33 clinical samples analysed, 51.52% (n = 17) were positive for F protein gene primers (F1/F2). All the samples had a sequence similarity of 98-100% among them and 92-97% with the reference vaccine (Nig 75/1) strain. The deduced amino acid homology ranges between 96.3-99.7%. Phylogenetically all the Nigerian sequences cluster with Nig 75/1 and Nig 76/1 in lineage 1. Conclusions PPR is still a problem in Kaduna and Plateau States of Nigeria. The strains involved were genetically closely related to the vaccine strain (Nig 75/1) used in the country. Based on this study, the continued outbreaks in the Country is not due to the efficacy of the vaccine. Therefore, to achieve effective control and possibly eradication of PPR in Nigeria, the current control strategies should be revisited. PMID:21726444

  20. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of peste des petits ruminants viruses from North central States of Nigeria

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    Mwiine Frank N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants is an endemic disease of sheep and goats in Nigeria and vaccination has been the method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported. This study was carried out to characterize PPR viruses from outbreaks in 2007 and 2009 from Kaduna and Plateau States. Results Of the 33 clinical samples analysed, 51.52% (n = 17 were positive for F protein gene primers (F1/F2. All the samples had a sequence similarity of 98-100% among them and 92-97% with the reference vaccine (Nig 75/1 strain. The deduced amino acid homology ranges between 96.3-99.7%. Phylogenetically all the Nigerian sequences cluster with Nig 75/1 and Nig 76/1 in lineage 1. Conclusions PPR is still a problem in Kaduna and Plateau States of Nigeria. The strains involved were genetically closely related to the vaccine strain (Nig 75/1 used in the country. Based on this study, the continued outbreaks in the Country is not due to the efficacy of the vaccine. Therefore, to achieve effective control and possibly eradication of PPR in Nigeria, the current control strategies should be revisited.

  1. Survey of chemical disinfectants used by poultry farmers in Imo state, Nigeria.

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    I.U. Chima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen contamination can be prevented with aid of proper health care products such as disinfectants. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of common disinfectants and disinfection practice of poultry farmers in Imo State, Nigeria, in order to generate information needed for the proper regulation of disinfectant use in the area. Primary data were generated from structured questionnaires distributed to animal health practitioners and poultry farmers in the State. Results showed that farmers choice of disinfectants were dependent on cost and availability. Z-germicide® 10 (22.27% and Izal® with 9 (20.45% are more widely distributed in the various animal health outfits. This was closely followed by Lysol® 6 (13.63% and Diskol® 6 (13.63%. Morigard® 3 (6.81%, Dettol® and Septol® 3 (6.81% appeared each in three outfits. Vox® 1 (2.27% CID 20® 1 (2.27% a Virkon® 1 (2.27% occurred once and that is at the Avian influenza desk officer’s store. Izal® 140 (58.82 was more widely used by farmers followed by Z-germicide®, both of which are phenolic products. Morigad® with 2 (2.94% and Lysol® with 91.47%0 are also phenolic products. Altogether 76.47% of disinfectants used in Imo State were of phenolic products. Most poultry farms in the State did not use disinfectant footbath. Those that used them did not insist on workers or visitors dipping their feet in them before entering the farm house. They also did not reconstitute the disinfectants according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

  2. Elemental analysis of limestone samples from Ewekoro limestone deposit in southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiajunwa, E. I.; Nwachukwu, J. I.

    2000-10-01

    Limestone samples of different colours from Ewekoro limestone deposit in Ogun State, Nigeria were subjected to elemental analysis by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGME) techniques. The irradiation was by 2.5 MeV proton beams from the ion beam analysis (IBA) facility of the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights. Elemental composition and concentrations of 22 major, minor and trace elements were determined. The NIST geological standard, NBS278, was analysed for quality assurance. The concentrations of the major elements (Ca, Fe, K and Al) are similar in the samples while the other major elements differed. Calcium accounts for about 38%, giving 86.8% CaCO 3 content in the limestones. The major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Si, S and K), present in the limestones, were also found to be enriched in airborne particulate matter studied by earlier workers, thus confirming cement dust as the major contributor to the particulate matter within and around cement factories.

  3. The effects of migration and fertility on the age-sex structure of Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Esther Ugomma EJEKWUMADU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to appraise the influence of fertility and migration on the age-sex population structure of Lagos State, Nigeria. Respondents were randomly selected and given questionnaire to fill with regards to fertility and migration trends in the study area. Using partial correlation and multiple regression analyses, we determined the influence of migration and fertility on the age structure of the population. The combined effects of the partial correlation of fertility and migration were 0.66 (males and 0.79 (females. The regression analyses yielded influence of fertility of 9.6 and 11.7 for males and females respectively, which far outstrips the influence of migration of 6.4 and 1.5 for males and females respectively on the age-sex structure. Also, the base constant was –5.1 for females and –3.2 for males i.e. the minimum change in age of male and female populations that would occur before the influence of fertility and migration become noticeable. Finally, the socio-economic implications of the age-sex structure were highlighted.

  4. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: utilization of physiotherapy services in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2013-02-01

    Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 ± 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 ± 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 ± 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed.

  5. Studies on vesical schistosomiasis among rural Ezza farmers in the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosike, Jude C; Oguwuike, Uche; Nwoke, Bertram; Asor, Joe; Ikpeama, Chidinma; Nwosu, Dennis; Ogbusu, Fidelia

    2006-01-01

    Studies on vesical schistosomiasis and its snail vectors were carried out between October 2001-May 2002 among rural Ezza farmers inhabiting the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The people are predominantly farmers. Of the 2,104 urine specimens examined in 10 communities, 466 (22.1%) comprising 305 (23.7%) men and 161 (19.7%) women were infected with visible haematuria as the predominant presenting symptom. Ezza people associate bloody urine with sexually transmitted diseases. There were no significant differences in the prevalence rates amongst various villages and sexes (p > 0.05). There was a gradual increase in the disease prevalence as the subjects' age increases. About 78.3% of the infected persons are aged 0-20 years. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence, intensity and visible haematuria were significantly more ( p infected population, 183 (39.3%) and 283 (60.7%) were excreting 50 eggs/10 ml urine and above 50 eggs/10 ml urine respectively. Lack of visible haematuria is a more valid indicator of the absence of vesical schistosomiasis. Of the various snails collected during malacological survey, mainly B. globosus were infected. Possible control measures are discussed.

  6. Germination and Early Growth Assessment of Tamarindus indica L in Sokoto State, Nigeria

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    Abubakar Gwaram Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and early growth assessment of Tamarindus indica L. were conducted to determine the suitable medium for germination and seedlings establishment of the species in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The viable seeds of the study species were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and boiling water for one hour and by soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours. The treated seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing filter paper for germination assessment. The results indicated 68–95% germination of T. indica seeds within 3–19 days. Conc. H2SO4 treatment gave the highest germination percentage of 95%. T. indica seeds were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and sown into four (4 different potting mixtures for early growth assessment. Collar diameter, seedlings height, and leaf number were the parameters measured. Seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 had the highest seedlings height and leaf number, while the highest collar diameter was obtained from seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and poultry droppings (2 : 1. However, growing T. indica in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 after 30 minutes pretreatment was recommended.

  7. Rural youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria

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    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the level of youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and five youths were randomly selected from seven rural communities, fifteen youths from each village. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire, which was analysed using frequency count and percentages. Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypothesis of significance between the socio-economic characteristics and the level of participation in infrastructural development. Findings revealed that 56.2% of respondents were within the age category of 21-30 years, 62.9% were male, and 60% were single, while 56.2% of the respondents had secondary school level education. The study revealed the various roles played by youths in participating in infrastructural development as well as the associated constraints which include finance, availability of materials, technical knowledge and time. Age, marital status, educational level and years of residence were found to be significantly related to the level of participation of youths in infrastructural development. The study recommended the adequate budget allocation to rural areas as well as intensive training and educative programmes for effective participative development.

  8. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

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    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  9. Gender analysis of technology utilisation among small scale oil palm fruits processors in Ondo State, Nigeria

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    Koledoye Gbenga F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the types of improved technologies utilised, tracked gender involvement at the various stages of oil palm fruits processing activities with a view to highlighting differences in the utilisation of these technologies among male and female processors. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 240 (120 males and 120 females oil palm fruits processors using structured interview schedule. Focus Group Discussion (FGD and Gender Mapping (GM were used to elicit qualitative data. Data collected were summarised with the aid of descriptive statistics while t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results showed that sterilizer, digester and hydraulic hand press were utilised by both male and female processors. Results of t-test revealed that at P ≤ 0.01, significant differences were found between male and female processors level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies with male having a higher mean score than the female. The study concluded that gender differences exited in the level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies among male and female processors in Ondo State, Nigeria.

  10. Characterization of gold mineralization in Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria, using remote sensing

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    Talaat M. Ramadan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria is part of the Neoproterozoic to Early Phanerozoic terrane separating the west African and Congo Cratons. Three main gold-bearing shear zones were detected in the study area from the processed Landsat ETM+ images and extensive ground investigation. Field and petrographical studies indicate that the Neoproterozoic rocks are represented by a highly folded and faulted belt constituted of hornblende, muscovite and graphite schist. They are intruded by granondiorites and late to post granitic dykes. Extensive alteration zones were identified using high resolution QuickBird image along Garin Hawal shear zone. The alteration zones and associated quartz veins are generally concordant with the main NE–SW regional structural trend and are dipping to the NW. Geochemical studies indicate that the gold content reaches 8 g/t in the alteration zones, while it reaches up to 35 g/t in the quartz veins. Mineralogical studies indicate that the alterations are strongly potassium-enriched. Pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite, gypsum and quartz also occur. The main ore minerals are gold, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, galena and iron oxides. This study indicates that the alteration zones and the associated quartz veins in the muscovite schist are promising and need more detailed exploration for Au and Ag mineralization to evaluate their potential.

  11. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITIES AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

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    Nnanna M. AGWU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.

  12. EVALUATION OF AQUIFER CHARACTERISTICS IN ECHI, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA USING WELL LOGGING AND PUMPING TEST METHOD

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    Ochuko Anomohanran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the aquifer characteristics of groundwater at Echi, Delta State, Nigeria. This was carried out by conducting electrical resistivity and spontaneous potential loggings in a drilled well at the study location. Pumping test using a one kilowatt pumping machine was carried out in the well. The logs were interpreted while the record of the pumping test was analysed using the Jacob straight line method. The result showed that five lithologic formations which are lateritic sand, clay, fine sand, medium grain sand and coarse sand exist in the area and that groundwater exist in the third, fourth and fifth formations. The analysis of the log record showed that the water quality increased with respect to the depth of the well. The value of the conductivity of the aquifer obtained from the analysis of the log record was 5.8×10-3 mS/m while the transmissivity was obtained as 86.0 m2/day. The specific capacity of the aquifer was obtained as 0.258. These values obtained from the test well revealed that the aquifer contained good quality water suitable for drinking and other purposes.

  13. PROFITABILITY AND MARKETING EFFICIENCY OF MAIZE IN KWANDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

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    Zacharias Ternenge Nyiatagher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents profi tability and marketing effi - ciency of maize in Kwande Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Stratifi ed random sampling was used to select three hundred (300 maize marketers comprising producers (210, wholesalers (32 and retailers (58 in eight (8 major markets in the study area. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, marketing margin and marketing effi ciency. It was found that maize marketing in the study area was dominated by males (64.7% and young people (55.0% who are energetic enough to withstand the stress involved in the business. The marketing margin of an average maize marketer in the study area was N2,012.00 per 100kg and the percentage marketing margin was 37.2%. This showed that maize marketing in the study area was profi table and 100% retail price paid by the fi nal consumer resulted in farm-to-retail price spread or marketing margin of 37.2%. The marketing effi ciency (0.28 of mai ze in the study area indicated that the marketers were ineffi cient in maize business. It was recommended that government, non-governmental organizations and the rural populace should strive hard to improve the transportation network and the marketers should belong to marketing associations so that they can collectively access loans from rural banking institutions

  14. The profitability analysis of artisanal fishing in Asa River of Kwara state, Nigeria

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    M.O. Adewumi,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the profitability of artisanal fishing in river Asa in Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 80 respondents were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected by the use of structured set of questionnaires. Three research questions guided the study. Results of profitability analysis showed that an average fisherman makes a Gross Margin of ₦52883.99/fisherman/month. The problems of artisanal fishing included lack of storages facilities, lack of government support and seasonal change in the volume of the river. The study recommends among others; fishermen should be given adequate training and the required assistance on modern fishing techniques and use of modern fishing equipment to ensure sustainability. There is also the need to organise the farmers into cooperatives to enable them have better access to government programmes and credits. It is also recommended that the government should build mini cold rooms with good storage facilities to help the fishermen overcome the problem of fish spoilage which reduces the quality of their products.

  15. Multivariate Analysis Of Ground Water Characteristics Of Geological Formations Of Enugu State Of Nigeria

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    Orakwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis PFA and hierarchical cluster analysis CA was employed to evaluate and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data 77.305 of the variance. Out of nine parameters examined the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters borehole depth borehole casing static water level and dynamic water level loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.

  16. Agricultural Resource Access and the Influence of Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Rural Women in Borno State, Nigeria

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    C. Ojo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural resource access and the influence of socioeconomic characteristics among women in Borno State, Nigeria was the main objective of this study. The data for the study were generated by the use of structured questionnaire which was administered to 266 respondents obtained by the use of multistage random sampling technique. The techniques used to analyze the data generated for this study were descriptive statistics and the binary logistic regression analyses. The major findings of the study showed that respondent’s socioeconomic characteristics indicated high levels of illiteracy (59.4%, non-membership of cooperatives (89.8%, no extension contact (72% and low access to credit (89.4%. Access to production resources including fertilizers, agrochemicals, family and hired laours and land ownership were low. Some socio- economic factors influenced the likelihood of women’s access to production resources. These factors included cooperative membership, years of schooling, farm income, extension contact, off-farm income, family size, age, farming experience and farm size. It was recommended that agricultural development planners should work at enhancing rural women’s access to socioeconomic factors which enhance their access to production resources for more efficient agricultural productivity.

  17. Phytoremediation potential of Alocasia microrrhiza grown on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

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    Asaolu S. S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of enhanced phytoextraction on the accumulation of heavy metals by Alocasia microrrhiza cultivated on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The application of 1g/kg EDTA decreased the heights of plants relative to control, but significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in various tissues of the plant. Notably, concentration of Pb and Cu were greater than the threshold value of 100mg/kg, indicative of the fact that Alocasia microrrhiza could be a good candidate for Pb and Cuphytoextraction. BF, TF and RR values (1.1–1.6, (4.3-4.8 and (1.4–2.3 revealed the effectiveness of the plant to translocate Pb and Cu to their harvestable portion. RRs values greater than one also indicated the efficiency of plant under chelate-induced phytoextraction. However, the concentration of heavy metals did not vary significantly at p < 0.05 (LSD test in all dumpsites investigated.

  18. Survey for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza from Poultry in Two Northeastern States, Nigeria

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    Ibrahim Waziri Musa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI is a major global zoonosis. It has a complex ecological distribution with almost unpredictable epidemiological features thus placing it topmost in the World Organization for Animal Health list A poultry diseases. Structured questionnaire survey of poultry farmer’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP in two Nigerian states revealed the presence of risk farming practices that may enable avian influenza high chance of introduction/reintroduction. There existed significant statistical association between farmer’s educational levels and AI awareness and zoonotic awareness (. Poultry rearing of multiage and species (81%, multiple sources of stock (62%, inadequate dead-bird disposal (71%, and access to live bird markets (LBMs (62% constituted major biosecurity threats in these poultry farming communities. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test detected antibodies against H5 avian influenza (AI in 8 of the 400 sera samples; rapid antigen detection test kit (RADTK was negative for all the 400 cloaca and trachea swabs. These results and other poultry diseases similar to AI observed in this study could invariably affect avian influenza early detection, reporting, and control. We recommend strong policy initiatives towards poultry farmers’ attitudinal change and increasing efforts on awareness of the implications of future HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria.

  19. Rural women farmers’ assessment of credit oriented self-help groups in Delta State, Nigeria

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    Ofuoku Albert U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the perception of the rural woman about credit oriented self-help group in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 110 respondents was used for the study and data were collected from them with the use of structured interview schedule and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression equation model as the lead equation. It was revealed that the women farmers subscribed to self-help groups in order to be able to have access to credit (mean = 3.78, information (mean = 3.55, extension services (mean = 3.45. The respondents were satisfied with their respective self-help groups. However, they had some challenges such as inadequate access to extension services (mean = 3.55 and lack of commitment by the leaders (mean = 3.22 and members (mean = 3.19. Educational level and frequency of extension contact of the respondents were found to influence their perception on self-help groups at 5% level of significance. It is recommended that governmental and non-governmental organizations, and university agricultural extension departments should carry out a campaign on workshops for these groups on commitment and extension agencies should diversify their focus to include selfhelp groups and activities.

  20. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Bitrus, Asinamai Athliamai; Hamisu, Tasiu Mallam; Ayo, Ajurojo Oluwaseun

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14), sex (males - 19 and females - 181), and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120) were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and microtiter agglutination test (MAT). Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%), 10 (5.0%) and 18 (9.0%) were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (pbrucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds. PMID:27847417

  1. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  2. The effects of improved maize technology on household welfare in Buruku, Benue State, Nigeria

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    Victoria I. Audu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the welfare effects of improved maize technology in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study also examined the determinants of the adoption of improved maize technology. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting the primary data for the study. A multi-stage random technique was used in selecting 125 farm households for the study. The Logit and ordinary least square (OLS models were used in analyzing the data. The OLS results show that adoption of improved maize varieties is positively and significantly related to household welfare and thus has contributed to moving farm households out of poverty. Other variables found to be statistically significant in explaining household welfare are education, household size, and landholding. The Logit results show that age, household size, off-farm income, and education were found to be significant in influencing farmers’ adoption decisions. Some robustness checks were performed with different specifications of the Logit and OLS models as well as re-estimation with propensity matching score approach. Overall, the results are robust to different specifications.

  3. Assessing Inactivated Polio Vaccine Introduction and Utilization in Kano State, Nigeria, April-November 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadebe, Lynda U; MacNeil, Adam; Elmousaad, Hashim; Davis, Lora; Idris, Jibrin M; Haladu, Suleiman A; Adeoye, Olorunsogo B; Nguku, Patrick; Aliu-Mamudu, Uneratu; Hassan, Elizabeth; Vertefeuille, John; Bloland, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Kano State, Nigeria, introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in March 2015 and was the pilot site for an RI data module for the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS). We determined factors impacting IPV introduction and the value of the RI module on monitoring new vaccine introduction. Two assessment approaches were used: (1) analysis of IPV vaccinations reported in NHMIS, and (2) survey of 20 local government areas (LGAs) and 60 associated health facilities (HF). By April 2015, 66% of LGAs had at least 20% of HFs administering IPV, by June all LGAs had HFs administering IPV and by July, 91% of the HFs in Kano reported administering IPV. Among surveyed staff, most rated training and implementation as successful. Among HFs, 97% had updated RI reporting tools, although only 50% had updated microplans. Challenges among HFs included: IPV shortages (20%), hesitancy to administer 2 injectable vaccines (28%), lack of knowledge on multi-dose vial policy (30%) and age of IPV administration (8%). The introduction of IPV was largely successful in Kano and the RI module was effective in monitoring progress, although certain gaps were noted, which should be used to inform plans for future vaccine introductions.

  4. Assessment of building maintenance management practices of higher education institutions in Niger State - Nigeria

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    Ofide Blessing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions face immediate pressure to preserve existing building facilities within the campuses and enhance the capacity of their higher education system to address growing demands of an increasing influx of students and academic activities. There is no doubt that dilapidated and unhealthy buildings in a decaying environment depresses the quality of life and contributes in some measure to antisocial behaviours. The buildings of higher education institutions in Nigeria only receive top management attention when there is a problem. Hence, the paper assessed the building maintenance management practices of 6 higher institutions available (2 universities, 2 polytechnics and 2 colleges of education in Niger State. This was done by interviewing the Directors of Works of the 6 institutions using a structured interview method. The study revealed that there was no maintenance manual in any of the Works Department of the higher education institution, no user satisfaction survey has ever been conducted and none of the institutions had a computerised maintenance management system (CMMS in place. In addition to these, corrective maintenance was mostly adopted and there was inadequate staffing of the field operatives. All these shortcomings might be responsible for the backlog of maintenance work experienced in the institutions studied. A proactive maintenance system should be put in place, CMMS should be adopted to enhance effective maintenance work, and top management should be enlightened on the imperative of maintenance among other issues competing for funds within the institutions and be more flexible in allocation of resources to enhance maintenance works.

  5. Enterpreneurial Empowerment of People with Special Needs in Ondo and Osun States,Nigeria

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    Eyitayo Olufunmilayo Akinyemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the motivational factors for  entrepreneurial empowerment of people with special needs, and determined the level of knowledge, skills, attitudes and competences that are necessary to become self-employed and contribute to individual growth and societal development rather than living in poverty, liabilities as beggars along the roads in Ondo and Osun states, Nigeria. Exploratory survey was adopted, using interviews and focus group discussion. The study revealed that most deaf and dumb in the societies who are involved in entrepreneurial skills development are cobblers, dry cleaners, tailors, bricklayers, carpenters, and hair dressers; while some disabled are into music, typing, teaching and trading. At the same time many are still depending on members of the society for survival. Many disabled are not motivated into engaging in entrepreneurial activities as the attitude of the society towards them does not indicate these people could be useful in different entrepreneurial activities of their abilities, while some families use their disabilities as sources of income. It is therefore recommended that parents should understand that no matter the nature of their children’s disability, individual is useful in one area or the other; people with special needs should be encouraged to engage themselves in entrepreneurial skills development and establish them after graduation. Members of the society and the government in particular should create avenues to identify areas where each disabled is gifted, develop them to be useful for themselves and the development of the society.

  6. Agro-forestry practices and sustainable agriculture in yam producing communities of Niger state, Nigeria

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    Alamu L.O.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of farmland burden in terms of land degradation, bulky nature of and unavailability of inorganic fertilizers as well as time constraint in the formation of organic fertilizers, there is the need to shift to agro-forestry practices. The practice will make room for arable crop production and forest/tree crop production. Four autonomous communities were studied in Niger State Nigeria. The communities are generally known for yam production. One hundred and twenty farmers were randomly selected for the study in Koro, Gwari, Kadara and Kambari communities. Thirty yam farmers were selected in each community using random sampling technique. One hundred and twenty farmers were studied in all. Results were analysed using simple percentages and pie charts. Results show that there is a high level of consciousness of agro-forestry among the farmers. Shrubs such as Gliricidia sepium and Cajanus cajan are common and they make a cumulative percentage of 35.0% of tree species used for agro- forestry practices. Fruit trees such as Citrus species make a cumulative percentage of 31.0% while other tree species used includes but not exclusive to Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea and Terminalia species. It is recommended that youths and young farmers in the communities be more involved in agro-forestry practices of this nature for a sustainable practice to be ensured.

  7. Sample Selection Analysis of Wage Equation for Women In Ondo State Nigeria

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    Sola Olorunfemi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analysis wage equation for women in Ondo State Nigeria, in other to identify the determinant factors of their wages. Data collected from 250 women heads of households through a multi-stage random system technique were analyzed. In order to deal with the zero wage problem associated with those who did not work, various single – equation models were applied. These include wage equation estimated by ordinary least squares; Heckman two-step sample selection model (Heckit and Maximum Likelihood Estimation. The test on the sample selection coefficients in the Heckman two-step indicates presence of sample selection bias and that the use of the censored sample model would lead to incorrect estimates. It was discovered that the number of children in the household is negatively related to wage of the women in the region. The study suggested that child bearing by women should be reduced as large family size puts pressure on family income and hours of work.

  8. CASSAVA ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND GENDER PARTICIPATION IN UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

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    Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Study on cassava entrepreneurship and gender participation was carried out in Udi local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Quarterly data from a panel of thirty male-headed and thirty female-headed cassava-based farm households randomly selected followings a multistage sampling of ten out of 24 autonomous communities of the study area was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Both male and female entrepreneurs engaged more on three of cassava products namely Garri, Fufu and Tapioca on account of relatively better profits from them. Segregating male from female entrepreneurs, participation of males in cassava enterprise was negatively influenced by adult number of males, time spent on housework, and daily non-farm wage while participation of females in the enterprise was influenced by adult number of females in household, daily non-farm wage, time spent on housework and frequency of contact with extension agency with challenges of high operational costs, and poor packaging on the enterprise in the area. To bring male and female entrepreneurs at par in terms of resource needs, all social and cultural constraints on female access to arable land and credit should be addressed by law such that that there will be prohibition against any discrimination on women. We recommended provision of financial credit and grants for SMEs development to enable entrepreneurs (especially women purchase fertilizers and automated machines for processing, and packaging of the products to attract better prices.

  9. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  10. Fast Food Consumption Pattern among Youth in Ogbomoso Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Ogunniyi Laudia Titilola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast food has become a prominent feature of diet and has grown into a dominant dietary pattern among youth worldwide. It is difficult to escape noticing the colourful edifice and bill boards of these food outlets, one is probably just around the corner of your street. Mr Biggs, Tastes Fried Chicken, Sweet Sensation, Big Treat, Favourite etc. Due to competitive nature of the market many of the food outlets market have started to blend their menus with African cuisines like Pounded Yam, Amala, Moin-Moin, Eda, Semovita, Fufu etc.This study analyzed fast food consumption pattern among the youth in Ogbomoso metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data were collected randomly from two hundred (200 respondents with the use of structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Logit and Tobit regression analysis. Data analysis revealed that 68% of the respondents were male, 92% were singled, 86.5% had tertiary education, 71% are Christians while 72% of the respondents were students. Average age was 24.5 years. The factors affecting the respondents decision to consume fast food are gender, hours spent in watching television, income, education and hours spent at work/school.

  11. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogo, Josephine; Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5-10 years (42.6%) than that of 11-15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2-4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended.

  12. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF IMPROVED AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY ON CASSAVA PRODUCTIVITY IN KOGI STATE OF NIGERIA

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    Ilemona Adofu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the economic impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity in Kogi State, Nigeria. The results are drawn from a household survey covering the agricultural season of 2009/2010. The data obtained from interview schedule was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics for this study include frequency, percentages and means. The hypothesis was tested using chisquare. The result shows that 79.33% of the respondents adopt the use of improved variety within the period under study. The analysis done on the revenue of the respondents before and after the adoption of the improved agricultural technology shows that revenue of farmers after the adoption of innovations are better off than revenue generated before adoption by N27,750 on the average per farmer. This result shows that the impact of improved agricultural technologies on cassava productivity is positive. Additionally, the results attest to the importance of increasing agricultural productivity in tandem with improvements on the adoption and use of improved agricultural technologies and its availability to the reach of farmers with the farmers’ ability to store food. This findings is consistence with Idachaba and Ayoola, (1995 who observed that improved agricultural helped in increasing agricultural productivity.

  13. Assessment of use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in anambra state, Nigeria

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    E.N. Ajani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the use of indigenous maize storage practices among farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected by the use of interview schedule from a sample of 60 respondents. Percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for analyzing data collected for the study. Results revealed that the farmers were using indigenous technologies such as baskets, aerial (over fire in the kitchen, bare floors, among others in storing maize. The respondents indicated that they stored maize cobs undehusked in order to overcome wastage and obtained information about indigenous storage of maize from parents and fellow farmers. Major problems militating against effective storage of maize include: attack of pests such as rodents and weevils, diseases, termite attack and use of poor quality storage materials. The respondents indicated that use of materials free from termite, clearing of surroundings against fire disaster; use of durable materials treated with insecticides will help to solve the problems. The study recommends that provision of appropriate and affordable storage structures should be made available to the maize farmers in order to avoid wasting of the produce under storage. This will help to ensure food security among rural farm households.

  14. Trace metals in soils and plants from fadama farms in Ekiti State, Nigeria

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    E.I. Adeyeye

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of zinc, manganese, cobalt, selenium, copper, molybdenum, chromium, iron, aluminium, lead and cadmium were determined in plant organs (buds, flowers, fruits, seeds, leaves, stems, roots, cobs, styles, shaft, grains and efflorescences and underlying soils of three Fadama farms located in Ifaki-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti and Ikere-Ekiti of Ekiti State, Nigeria at 0–15 cm topsoil level. The pH levels were alkaline (7.0 plus or minus 0.3 – 8.1 plus or minus 0.7 while the soil texture ranged between loamy sand and sandy loam. There was similarity in Zn trend as was observed in Mn, Fe and Cu but they were of lower levels than Zn. Only Zn and Fe were mostly concentrated in the plant organs with Mn in very few plants. The index of bioaccumulation (ratio in plant/soil were recorded for only Zn and Fe with the degree of accumulation ranging from medium to intensive (0.87–1.34 in Fe but only intensive (1.41–4.42 in Zn.

  15. Assessing the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria.

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    Imogie, A O; Agwubike, E O; Aluko, K

    2002-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in modern health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 391 respondents comprising 48 TBAs, 309 childbearing mothers and 34 medical and para-medical professionals constituted the study sample. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions as well as validated questionnaires were the tools used for data collection. The results reveal that respondents believe that TBAs can play meaningful roles in family planning, screening of high-risk pregnant mothers, fertility/infertility treatment and maternal and child care services. Rural dwellers prefer to use the services of TBAs, as compared to their urban counterparts. Reasons for the preference included TBAs, availability, accessibility, cheap services and rural dwellers' faith in the efficacy of their services. There is, therefore, the need to restructure the training of TBAs as well as to fully integrate their services into the Nigerian orthodox healthcare delivery system especially as they affect rural settings.

  16. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbolade, Adebayo

    2012-10-31

    A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta.

  17. Cryptosporidiosis Among HIV-infected Patients with Diarrhea in Edo State, Midwesten Nigeria

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    Akinbo, F. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV infected and HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea in Edo State, Nigeria, as well as the effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count on the prevalence of cryptosporidial infection among the HIV patients. Stool samples were collected from 300 patients consisting of 200 HIV-infected and 100 HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea. Blood samples were collected from the HIV-infected patients. The stool samples were processed to detect Cryptosporidium species using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, as well as other intestinal parasites using saline and iodine preparations. The blood samples were used to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in HIV-infected patients compared with their HIV non-infected counterparts (39% vs 24% respectively, p=0.0097. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed only among HIV-infected patients and was the only parasite whose prevalence was significantly different between HIV-infected and HIV non-infected patients. CD4+ lymphocyte count of <200 cells/µL among HIV-infected was a risk factor for acquiring cryptosporidial infection (OR=18.776, 95% CI=6.299, 55.964. A cryptosporidial infection prevalence of 18% among HIV-infected patients was observed and CD4+ count of <200 cells/µL was a risk factor for acquiring the disease. Routine examination of diarrhogenic stools of HIVinfected patients for cryptosporidiosis is advocated.

  18. Rural Dwellers’ Perception of Human Trafficking and its Implication for Agricultural Production in Edo State, Nigeria

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    Ofuoku, A. U.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of rural dwellers on human trafficking in relation to its effect on agricultural production in the three Senatorial Districts of Edo State, Nigeria. A sample size of 120 household heads was used for the study. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data for the study. The data were analyzed using frequency counts, means and percentage while Chi-Square statistical model and Tobit regression analytical model were used to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that the household members were trafficked as a result of push and pull factors. The trafficked members of household were actively involved in farming practices before being trafficked. There is significant relationship between human trafficking and agriculture production. Shortage of farm labor, decreased farm size, reduced farm income, reduced farm output, extra expenditure on hired labor and storage of food supply by the community were perceived as effect of human trafficking on agriculture. Age of the household head and the household size had significant effect on the number of household member trafficked. Human trafficking has an adverse effect on agricultural production. Extension department should therefore integrate anti-human trafficking campaigns with their services to the farming population.

  19. Viral Agents of Diarrhea in Young Children in Two Primary Health Centers in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imade, Paul Erhunmwunse; Eghafona, Nosakhare Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viruses have been shown to be responsible for diarrhea among children during their early childhood. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus infection in young children with diarrhea in two primary health centers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 223 stool specimens were collected from children aged 0-36 months with clinical signs of diarrhea and 59 apparently healthy age-matched children as control. These specimens were investigated for three viral agents using immunochromatographic technique (ICT). The overall results showed that at least one viral agent was detected in 95/223 (42.6%) of the children with diarrhea while the control had none. The prevalence of rotavirus was 28.3%, adenovirus 19.3%, and norovirus 3.6%. There was a significant association between age group and infection (P < 0.0001). Seasonal pattern of enteric viruses was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The overall coinfection rate was 7.6% and rotavirus-adenovirus coinfection had the highest with 5.4%. Rotavirus was the most prevalent viral agent. Coinfections are not uncommon among the population studied. The most commonly associated clinical symptom of viral diarrhea in this study was vomiting. Viral diagnostic tests are advocated for primary health care facilities in this locality.

  20. Perception of Shea Nut Tree as an Economic Tree among Farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Rasheed Gbolagade Adeola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of shea tree to the people of south-westernNigeria cannot be over emphasized considering both theeconomic and environmental uses of the tree. However, effortshave not been made to propagate its production by the farmersas the shea tree still grows in the wild state. It would beworthwhile to investigate farmers’ perception of shea nut tree asan economic tree and their attitudes toward the conservationmeasures needed to prevent its extinction. Multi-stage samplingtechnique was used to select 160 farmers for the study. Astructured interview schedule was used to collect data from therespondents. Descriptive statistics of means and percentageswere used to describe the data while correlation coefficientswere employed to determine the relationships that exist betweenfarmers’ perception and their socio- economics characteristics.A larger percentage of the farmers claimed the awareness of thepotential products of shea nut trees. Majority (90.6% of the respondentsperceived shea tree as an economic tree and indicatedthat it provides income for women and children that gather thefruits. Most of the farmers had favourable attitude toward shea nuttree as an economic tree. Land ownership status (r = 0.536, age(r = 0.875, education (r = 0.725, farming experience (r = 0.508,household size (r = -0.817 and farm size (r = -0.673 hadsignificant influence on the perception of farmers. The studytherefore recommends that the extension agencies should playsignificant role in educating the farmers on the importance ofconserving the trees to sustain its economic benefits.

  1. Factors influencing CD4 cell count in HIV-positive pregnant women in a secondary health center in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinbami AA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Akinsegun A Akinbami,1 Abidoye Gbadegesin,2 Sarah O Ajibola,3 Ebele I Uche,1 Adedoyin O Dosunmu,1 Adewumi Adediran,4 Adekunle Sobande2 1Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 2Department Of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Haematology and Immunology, Ben-Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan, Ogun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria Background: Immunity in pregnancy is physiologically compromised, and this may affect CD4 count levels. It is well-established that several factors affect CD4 count level in pregnancy. This study aimed to determine the mean and reference range of CD4 count in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out at antenatal clinics of the Maternal and Child Center of a secondary health center in Lagos State, Nigeria. Records of HIV-positive pregnant women at various gestational ages, including CD4+ cell count at booking, packed cell volume (PCV at booking and labor, gestational age at delivery, and infant weight and sex were retrieved. The descriptive data was given as mean ± standard deviation (SD. Pearson's chi-squared test and correlation were used for analytical assessment. Results: Data were retrieved for a total of 143 patients. The mean age was 31.15±3.78 years. The mean PCV was 31.01%±3.79% at booking and 30.49%±4.80% during labor. The mean CD4 count was 413.87±212.09 cells/µL, with a range of 40 to 1,252 cells/µL. The mean infant weight was 3.05±0.45 kg, with a range of 2 to 5 kg. Age of the mother, gestational age, and PCV at booking were not statistically significantly associated with CD4 count. Conclusion: Maternal age, gestational age, and PCV at booking had no significant effects on CD4+ cell count levels in

  2. Distribution and occurrence of mosquito species in the municipal areas of Imo State, Nigeria

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    Ifeyinwa Celestina MGBEMENA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of the ecology of drainage - breeding mosquito vectors was conducted in the three urban centers (Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe of Imo State, Nigeria. Four drainage sites located around markets, residential, stream and hotel premises were selected in each urban centre. Dipping method of sampling was employed and a total of 8,820 mosquitoes comprising eight species namely; Aedes aegypti, Aedes vittatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tigripes, Culex horridus, Culex cinereus, Culex annuliorus and Anopheles gambiae were encountered; in Owerri and Orlu with Cx. cinereus being completely absent in Okigwe. Cx. quinquefasciatus was predominantly present in all drainage sites with the highest occurrence of 4,474(50.74% followed by Aedes aegypti 1814 (20.57%, An .gambiae 945(10.71%, Cx. tigripes 484 (5.48% Ae. vittatus 420 (4.76%, Cx. horridus 264 (02.99%, Cx. cinereus 261 (2.96%, Cx. annuliorus 159 (1.88%. Of all sites sampled, market drainages had the highest abundance of mosquitoes which was significantly higher than (ANOVA, P≤ 0.05 those found in the residential, streams and hotel premises. Residential drainages recorded the second highest density followed by stream/vegetation drainages and hotel drainages which had the least. The abundance and distribution of mosquitoes in Owerri (130.06 the State Capital was significantly higher (ANOVA, P≤ 0.05 than those for Orlu (93.44 and Okigwe (52.13. The mosquito species identified in this study are of public health importance and there is an urgent need to desilt and clean up these drainages for free flow of water. This will not only rid these species of breeding sites but also free the State of the diseases associated with these organisms.

  3. Estimating the sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI H5N1 in Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojimelukwe, Agatha E; Prakarnkamanant, Apisit; Rushton, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    This study identified characteristics of poultry farming with a focus on practices that affect the detection of HPAI; and estimated the system sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI H5N1 in commercial and backyard chicken farms in Bayelsa-State, Nigeria. Field studies were carried out in Yenegoa and Ogbia local government areas in Bayelsa state. Willingness to report HPAI was highest in commercial poultry farms (13/13) than in Backyard farms (8/13). Poor means of dead bird disposal was common to both commercial and backyard farms. Administering some form of treatment to sick birds without prior consultation with a professional was higher in backyard farms (8/13) than in commercial farms (4/13). Consumption of sick birds was reported in 4/13 backyard farms and sale of dead birds was recorded in one commercial farm. The sensitivity of passive surveillance for HPAI was assessed using scenario tree modelling. A scenario tree model was developed and applied to estimate the sensitivity, i.e. the probability of detecting one or more infected chicken farms in Bayelsa state at different levels of disease prevalence. The model showed a median sensitivity of 100%, 67% and 23% for detecting HPAI by passive surveillance at a disease prevalence of 0.1%, a minimum of 10 and 3 infected poultry farms respectively. Passive surveillance system sensitivity at a design prevalence of 10 infected farms is increasable up to 86% when the disease detection in backyard chicken farms is enhanced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria

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    Igwe Monday N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be influencing knowledge about childhood autism among these future health care professionals are unknown. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate medical, nursing and psychology students in south-eastern Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods One hundred final year undergraduate students were randomly selected from each of the Departments of Medicine, Nursing Science and Psychology respectively of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria making a sample size of three hundred. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to the students. Results The total mean score for the three groups of students on the KCAHW questionnaire was 10.67 ± 3.73 out of a possible total score of 19, with medical, nursing and psychology students having total mean scores of 12.24 ± 3.24, 10.76 ± 3.50 and 9.01 ± 3.76 respectively. The mean scores for the three groups showed statistically significant difference for domain 1 (p = 0.000, domain 3 (p = 0.029, domain 4 (p = 0.000 and total score (p = 0.000, with medical students more likely to recognise symptoms and signs of autism compared to nursing and psychology students. The mean score in domain 2 did not show statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.769. The total score on the KCAHW questionnaire is positively correlated with the number of weeks of posting in psychiatry (r = 0.319, p = 0

  5. Insecticide - treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a state-wide net distribution campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-West, C I; Alex-Hart, B A

    2011-09-01

    Malaria presents a huge health and economic burden to families living in malaria endemic areas. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is one of the global strategies in decreasing the malaria burden on vulnerable populations. The use of ITNs reduces clinical malaria by over 50% and all cause mortality in children by 15-30% when the overall population coverage is >70%. This study was aimed at establishing the level of household insecticide -treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a statewide scale -up distribution campaign. A descriptive, cross - sectional study was carried out in the Rivers State in November 2008 among household heads or their proxies to serve as a pre -intervention baseline for the scale -up distribution of insecticide treated bednets in the state. The households were selected by a multi -staged sampling technique: first stage being the selection of Local Government Areas (LGAs) from Senatorial districts, second stage the selection of communities from LGAs and final stage the selection of households. Data were collected using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO/FMoH and analyzed using the Epi -Info version 6.04d statistical software package. Hypothesis tests were conducted to compare summary statistics at 95% significance level. A total of 811 household heads or their proxies were interviewed. Their age ranged between 20 and 70 yr, with a mean of 47.96 ± 4.39 yr. The study showed that although 552 (68.1%) of the households owned bednets, only 245 (30.2%, 95% CI=27.1-33.5) of them owned long -lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Similarly, only 37.2% of those who owned ITNs slept under them the night preceding the survey. Household ITN ownership and utilization were low in the state. Incorporating behavour change communication package as part of the ITN distribution intervention is advocated to increase ITNs utilization in the state.

  6. Patterns and Drivers of Mobile Telephony for Sustainable Livelihood among Rural Farming Households in Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Jubril Olayinka Animashaun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it is acknowledged that mobile phones, as an asset, exhibits multiple functionalities and diverse applications that cut across all forms of capital accumulation necessary for sustainable livelihood. However, empirical result is sparse in Nigeria as to the impact of mobile phones on asset accumulation. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of mobile phone use and intensity of use for sustainable capital formation in among farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria. Specifically, 120 rural farming households were randomly sampled and count data on the number of calls made with respect to livelihood capitals generated. Binary Logistic regression and Zero-Inflated negative Binomial regression models were used in analyzing the data. The study revealed that 73% of the respondents have access to mobile phone use. The study identifies major uses of mobile phone for sustainable livelihood enhancement activities. Significant determinants of mobile phone use are; possession of formal education, household size, age, marital status, annual farm income, diversity of crop cultivated and the number of family members living outside the community (p<0.05. This study underscores the relevance of mobile phones for sustainable development and recommends the need for increased investment in facilitating access to mobile phone use across rural communities in Nigeria

  7. MONTHLY PRICE ANALYSIS OF COWPEA (BEANS AND MAIZE IN AKWA IBOM STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

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    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the price transmission and market integration of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Average monthly prices (measured in naira per kilogram of Maize and Cowpea in rural and urban markets were used in the analysis. The data was obtained from the quarterly publications of the Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP. The data covered the period; January 2005 to June 2013. The trend analysis showed that, prices of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets had exponential growth rates that were less than unity, which suggested a possible co-movement of these prices in the study area. Also, the Pearson correlation coefficient generated for the pair of rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans revealed significant linear symmetric relationships. The result implies the existence of symmetric market information flows between the rural and urban markets for Maize and Beans in the state. The Granger causality test revealed bi-directional relationships between the rural and urban price of Maize and Beans in the study area. The co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans. The coefficients of the price variables in the co-integration equations for Maize and Beans markets converged to unity or law of one price which implied perfect market integration in the long run. The results of the error correction model (ECM also confirm the existence of the short run market integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans in the study area. In addition, it was discovered that, the rural price of Maize adjusted faster to the stable state in the long run than the urban price. Likewise, the urban price of Beans adjusted faster than its corresponding rural price. The index of market connection (IMC supported the high short run market integration for prices of Maize and Beans in rural and urban markets. Based

  8. Monitoring of mass distribution interventions for trachoma in Plateau State, Nigeria.

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    Elizabeth A Cromwell

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA with antibiotics is a key component of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Guidelines recommend that where MDA is warranted the whole population be targeted with 80% considered the minimum acceptable coverage. In other countries, MDA is usually conducted by salaried Ministry of Health personnel (MOH. In Plateau State, Nigeria, the existing network of volunteer Community Directed Distributors (CDD was used for the first trachoma MDA. We conducted a population-based cluster random survey (CRS of MDA participation to determine the true coverage and compared this to coverage reported from CDD registers. We surveyed 1,791 people from 352 randomly selected households in 24 clusters in three districts in Plateau State in January 2011, following the implementation of MDA. Households were enumerated and all individuals present were asked about MDA participation. Household heads were questioned about household-level characteristics and predictors of participation. Individual responses were compared with the CDD registers. MDA coverage was estimated as 60.3% (95% CI 47.9-73.8% by the survey compared with 75.8% from administrative program reports. CDD registration books for comparison with responses were available in 19 of the 24 clusters; there was a match for 658/682 (96% of verifiable responses. CDD registers did not list 481 (41.3% of the individuals surveyed. Gender and age were not associated with individual participation. Overall MDA coverage was lower than the minimum 80% target. The observed discrepancy between the administrative coverage estimate from program reports and the CRS was largely due to identification of communities missed by the MDA and not reported in the registers. CRS for evaluation of MDA provides a useful additional monitoring tool to CDD registers. These data support modification of distributor training and MDA delivery to increase coverage in subsequent rounds of MDA.

  9. Profitability and Constraints Analysis of Women Entrepreneurs in Lagos State, Nigeria

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    A.O. Otunaiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research assessed the constraints limiting the success of women entrepreneurs in selected local government areas of Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 120 women entrepreneurs were selected from three Local Government Areas of Lagos State in a two-stage sampling procedure. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, constraint analysis, budgetary analysis and multiple regression analysis. The predominant primary occupation was found to be trading 45 with 92.5% of the women in their productive years. The finding also revealed that a vast majority (92.5% of the women entrepreneurs had formal education above primary level with 43.3% of them spent not less than 10 years in their business, which was presumed to benefit their enterprises. The women entrepreneurs faced certain constraints which affect their businesses, the highest ranked ones include; poor shop location (ranked 1st , lack of long term finance (ranked 2nd and competition from rivals (ranked 3rd among others. The women entrepreneurs earned 40 kobo on every 1 naira sale revenue. The multiple regression results revealed that main occupation, business membership strength, initial capital outlay and total variable cost had significant effect on the net income of the women. Policy options from the findings include: Increment in funds invested in the business enterprises of these women entrepreneurs alongside reduction in cost could boost the possible expansion of their enterprises; provision of psychological, moral and financial support from members of the family is needed for entrepreneurial development and Government should provide cheaper sources of credit to the women with little or no collateral to encourage their enterprises growth, self-reliance which are necessary ingredients for nation’s development.

  10. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

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    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14, sex (males - 19 and females - 181, and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120 were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, and microtiter agglutination test (MAT. Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%, 10 (5.0% and 18 (9.0% were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05. Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.

  11. Prevalence, distribution and pattern of gastric lesions in slaughtered pigs in south-western Nigeria

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    Oladipo O. Omotosho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric lesions, especially ulceration, cause significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The study was designed to assess its prevalence, distribution and pattern in pigs in south-western Nigeria. Slaughter house surveys were conducted on three government-established abattoirs in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states. Stomachs from 480 pigs were assessed for gross lesions, which were graded using a modification of a standard technique. Tissues from different regions of the stomach were routinely stained to assess histopathologic changes. Data were presented as frequency counts and analysed using analysis of variance and chi-square technique. Significance was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Gastric lesions were encountered across the four regions of the stomach with a point prevalence of 57.29%. The prevalence of lesions in the non-glandular region was 32.9%, with severe hyperkeratosis (13.13% being most frequently observed (p < 0.05. Erosions were significantly higher in the cardia (8.54% (p < 0.05, followed by fundus (8.33%. Gastric ulcers were significantly higher in the fundus (19.58% (p < 0.05. Scars of healed ulcers and lacerations were also observed in the fundus (5.42% (p < 0.05. The gastric lesion distribution across the four regions of the stomach and the occurrence of ulceration in the fundus showed an unusual pattern, which is rarely reported in other parts of the world. The reason for these findings in pigs in Nigeria is not fully understood; therefore, further studies are required to identify and manage these factors for increased productivity, improved animal welfare and enhanced food security.Keywords: prevalence; gastric; lesions; fundic ulcers; pigs

  12. Prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria

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    Njokama Fidelis O

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. Results The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%, selling in kiosks and shops (25.4% and farming (23.6%. No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048: this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004. Most of the children (82.2% involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively. Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002. A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. Conclusion It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.

  13. Elections and Electoral Tribunal in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... Through such elections, citizens participate in the governance ... the Nigeria's electoral history since its corporate existence as a sovereign state. .... not only corrupt, but unfit to correct the perceived anomalies in the Nigeria's.

  14. Assessment of knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria

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    Achor Justin U

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing public and professional awareness of autism spectrum disorders with early recognition, diagnosis and interventions that are known to improve prognosis. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses who are members of multidisciplinary teams that care for such children may be a major barrier to early interventions that could improve quality of life and prognosis in childhood autism. Factors that influence knowledge about childhood autism among these nurses are not known. This study assessed knowledge about childhood autism among paediatric and psychiatric nurses in Ebonyi state, Nigeria and determined the factors that could be influencing such knowledge. Methods Forty specialist paediatric and forty psychiatric nurses, making a total sample of eighty, were randomly selected from all the health care facilities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. A socio-demographic questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire were administered to them and the study was a point survey. Results The total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire among the nurses that participated in the study was 12.56 ± 3.23 out of a total of 19 possible. The mean score for the paediatric nurses was 11.78 ± 3.64 while psychiatric nurses had mean score of 13.35 ± 2.58. The mean scores in Domain 1 were 6.17 ± 1.75 for the paediatric nurses and 6.52 ± 1.43 for the psychiatric nurses. The mean scores in Domain 2 were 0.65 ± 0.48 for the paediatric nurses and 0.80 ± 0.41 for the psychiatric nurses. Domain 3 showed mean scores of 1.97 ± 1.25 for the paediatric nurses while psychiatric nurses scored 2.62 ± 1.23. Domain 4 yielded the mean scores of 2.97 ± 1.54 and 3.42 ± 0.98 for the paediatric and psychiatric nurses respectively. There was significant relationship between the total mean score on the KCAHW questionnaire for the two groups and the area of specialisation of

  15. Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwu, Ekenma Julia; Igbinosa, Igho Benjamin; Isaac, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas. In the past, there have been pockets of YF outbreaks in Nigeria that resulted in preventable deaths. Surveillance efforts towards avoiding another outbreak have been put in place with the aim of early detection and control. However, risk indices relating to the density of immature YF-mosquito vectors are given little consideration even though it is the first step in curbing a possible outbreak. Immature collections from 1538 houses in Ega, Oju, Otukpoicho and Otukpo in Benue State were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Risk indices such as house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI) were estimated. Molecular detection of YF was carried out on randomly selected Aedes larvae and pupae. Overall, 431,381 mosquitoes were collected in and around house premises. Thirteen species were identified: Ae. aegypti (Linneaus), Ae. africanus (Theobald), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), Ae. cumminsii (Theobald), Ae. luteocephalus (Newstead), Ae. simpsoni s.l. (Theobald), Ae. vittatus (Bigot), Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. nili (Theobald), Cx. nebulosus Theobald, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Lutzia tigripes (Grandpre and Charmoy) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald. The HI, CI and BI for Ae. aegypti were high in all the study locations, but low for Ae. lueteocephalus except in Ega. With 50 immature Aedes mosquitoes screened across locations, only Ae. aegypti from Ega were positive for YF. This study places Ega on a high alert of an impending YF outbreak. Thus, urgent steps to clear this area of potential mosquito sites are highly recommended.

  16. RURAL FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

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    A.U. Ofuoku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmer perception of their environment is a factor of climate change. Adaptation to climate change requires farmers to realize that the climate has changed and they must identify useful adaptations and implement them. This study analyzed the per-ception of climate change among rural farmers in central agri-cultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Climate change studies often assume certain adaptations and minimal examination of how, when, why, and conditions under which adaptations usually take place in any economic and social systems. The study was conducted by survey method on 131 respondents using struc-tured interview schedule and questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model to test that education, gender, and farming experience influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results showed that the farmers were aware of climate change. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from intensified agriculture, population explosion, increased use of fossil fuel, loss of in-digenous know practice to gas flaring. The effects of climate change on crops and livestocks were also identified by the rural farmers. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates, using different crop varieties, installing fans in livestock pens, and applying irrigation. Almost half of them did not adapt to climate change. The linear regression analysis revealed that education, gender, and farming experience influ-enced farmers’ perception of climate change. The major barriers to adaptation to climate change included lack of information, lack of money, and inadequate land.

  17. FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

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    Uju M.E. Dibua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s of urinary tract infections (UTIs in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch' method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2% from females and 12 (19.4% from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08% were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%. All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaves Growing in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

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    Gotep, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves growing in Vom, Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria was carried out to verify claims by the locals of its medicinal properties. We tested the extract for activity against Staphylococcus aureus (G+, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes (G-. The extract exhibited activity against the organisms in varying degrees. In the agar diffusion test, Y. enterocolitica showed the highest zone of inhibition (18 mm at the highest concentration of extract tested (20 mg/mL while E. coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 17, 16, 15, 14 and 16 mm respectively. At extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, Y. enterocolitica and P. aeruginosa did not show any zones of inhibition while E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, and K. aerogenes showed zones of inhibition of 7, 6, 6 and 7 mm respectively. Below extract concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, there was no zone of inhibition observed with any organism. The MIC of the extract against the organisms was 5 mg/mL except on S. aureus where the MIC was 2.5 mg/mL. The MBC of the extract was 10 mg/mL against Y. enterocolitica, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa and K. aerogenes, 5 mg/mL against E. coli and S. aureus. Preliminary phytochemical testing revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides while saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones were not present. The result gives scientific backing to the use of the leaves by the local people in the treatment of conditions usually associated with the organisms tested.

  19. Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

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    Umar, AdamuMadu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38% followed by livestock farmers (48.75%. The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25% and Agro-forestry (6.88%. The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

  20. Economic analysis of locust beans processing and marketing in ilorin, kwara state, Nigeria

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    C.O. Farayola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to estimate the economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data was used and purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents used for the study. A total number of 60 respondents were interviewed. The data collected were analyzed using inferential statistical tool such as regression analysis. Budgetary analysis technique was also used to analyze the profitability of locust bean processing and marketing in the study area. Majority of the processors and marketers are making profits; 68.3% operate above breakeven point while 26.7% operate at breakeven point and the rest 5% was below the breakeven point, this indicates that they neither profit nor lost. The regression analysis result shows that quantity processed, family size and years of experience in processing are significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while education level and stall rent is negative and significant at 1% and 5% respectively. F- Test also explained that independent variables are jointly significant at 1% probability level with an adjusted R2 of 78.9%. The overall rate of return on investment indicates that average rate of return is 0.5 (50%, which is positive. It is therefore concluded that profit made by the processors and marketers can be improved on by increasing the quantity of locust bean being processed through adoption of newly discovered method of processing and improved method of preservation, packaging and marketing of the product to international standard by reducing the odour of the product without the loss of essential nutrients and palability in order to generate foreign exchange. Also, rules and regulations against cutting of economic trees for alternative uses should be enforced to maximize their values.

  1. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

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    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  2. Hydrogeochemical attributes and ground water quality of Ngbo Community in Ohaukwu Area Council, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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    Omaka Ndukaku Omaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the hydrogeochemical attributes and quality of groundwater resources in Ngbo, Ohaukwu Area Council of Ebonyi State, Nigeria in order to determine whether boreholes in the area were suitable for potable uses. Eleven groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug boreholes between February and March, 2013. The physiochemical parameters of the samples were then analyzed to determine electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, major cations and anions, and trace metals. The quality of these characteristics was evaluated by comparing them to the Nigerian Institute of Standards, the Bureau of Indian Standards and the World Health Organization standards for drinking water quality. Mass abundance of the major ions was in the order of Mg2+ > Ca2+ for cations, Cl- > SO4 2 - > NO3 - > PO4 3 - for anions and Fe > As > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd for trace metals. Correlation analysis revealed both positive and negative correlations among the parameters. Also, one-way ANOVA tests revealed that no significant differences existed between physiochemical parameters (F = 1.004 < Fcrit =1.977, major cations and anions (F =0.547 < Fcrit =2.008 and trace metals (F = 0.772 < Fcrit = 1.940 regardless of the sampling location. Groundwater in the area was generally hard, alkaline and highly mineralized, making it unsuitable for drinking in some places due to high total hardness and TDS; but it was generally suitable for irrigation purposes. It is recommended that boreholes be flushed regularly to aid in the removal of mineralized deposits, and that regular hydrogeochemical studies be conducted in order to detect future deterioration of water quality

  3. Surface soil factors and soil characteristics in geo-physical milieu of Kebbi State Nigeria

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    Suleiman Usman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility (K factor is the most important tool for estimation the erosion. The aim of this study Soil factors and surface soil characteristics are important components of agricultural environment. They support surface and subsurface soils to perform many functions to agriculture and economic human developments. Understanding these factors would aid to the recognition of the values that our soil and land offered to humanity. It is therefore, aim of this study to visualise and examine the soil factors and surface soil characteristics in Kebbi State Nigeria. An Integrated Surface Soil Approach (ISSA was used in the classification and description of soil environment in the study region. The factors constituted in the ISSA are important components of soil science that theories and practice(s noted to provide ideas on how soil environment functioned. The results indicate that the surface soil environments around Arewa, Argungu, Augie, Birnin Kebbi and Dandi are physically familiar with the following surface soil characteristics: bad-lands, blown-out-lands, cirque-lands, fertile-lands, gullied-lands, miscellaneous and rock-outcrops.The major soil factors observed hat played an important role in surface soil manipulations and soil formation are alluvial, colluvial, fluvial and lacustrine; ant, earthworms and termite; and various forms of surface relief supported by temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind. Overall, the surface soil environment of the region was describe according to their physical appearance into fadama clay soils, fadama clay-loam soils, dryland sandy soils, dryland sandy-loam soils, dryland stony soils and organic-mineral soils.

  4. Analysis of Pig Marketing in Zango Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

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    Adesehinwa, AOK.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the profitability and efficiency of pig marketing in Zango Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A market survey of 50 pig traders from an urban market (Katsit and two rural markets (Zonkwa and Samaru Kataf was conducted to evaluate the structure, conduct and performance of the markets. Data were collected from the respondents through the use of a structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using Gini Coefficient, marketing margin and marketing efficiency. Empirical finding indicated that producer's share of what the final consumer paid was high (61%. The average marketing margin was 39%. The retailers had higher market margin than the wholesalers. The margin at Katsit (41.5% was higher than Zonkwa (36.74% and Samaru-Kataf (38.5%. Katsit market was more efficient than both Zonkwa and Samaru markets. Pig marketing is therefore, profitable but inefficient as shown by the market margin and efficiency analyses. The pig market was found to be oligopolistic. There were many buyers and sellers. Entry into marketing of pigs was easy except for the high size of operating capital. The market was found to be vertically integrated as various participants played some other roles besides their principal roles. Flow of information was free and widespread between assemblers and wholesalers. The market structures measured by Gini Coefficient of 0.59 for wholesalers and 0.66 for retailers indicated that there was a high degree of concentration in the market. The problems confronting pig marketers were also highlighted.

  5. DETERMINANTS OF ADAPTATION TO DEFORESTATION AMONG FARMERS IN MADAGALI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

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    S.B. Mustapha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of adaptation to deforestation among farmers in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule were used to obtain information from 200 respondents selected through simple random sampling techniques. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (chi-square test statistics. The result indicated that majority (84% of the respondents were male with 21-40 years of age representing 58.50%. The study also showed that most (45% of the respondents had attained post primary education with majority (80% having 6 and above years of farming experience. The respondents perceived fuel wood extraction as the major (42% cause of deforestation in the study area. The result showed that the most (30.50% frequently employed adaptation strategy against deforestation was reducing quantity of fire wood consumption. The study further showed that the factors which significantly influenced adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were age, farming experience and educational status with X2=9.216, 8.697 and 11.238 at P<0.05 respectively. While those factors which did not influence adaptation to deforestation among the respondents were gender, access to agricultural credit and access to extension services with X2=1.286, 7.923 and 5.862 at P<0.05 respectively. The major constraints faced by respondents in adaptation to deforestation were lack of capital and lack of accessible alternative energy. The study recommends that awareness campaign should be mounted to increase the level of knowledge of respondents on the significance of adaptation to deforestation. Respondents should also be encouraged towards establishment of adaptation cooperative societies in order to take advantage of some government policies and programmes.

  6. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

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    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  7. Assessment of Rural Farming Households WTP for Fertilizers and Agrochemicals in Kwawara State, Nigeria

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    Ademoye Emmanuel Akinboboye, Fadipe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the specific geographic and spatial location of rural areas in developing countries, to bring agrochemical to the rural farming households, it is argued, may have to come at a cost over and above the normal price it is sold in market. To this end, this work focuses on the willingness of rural farming households to pay more than the mean average regional retail price for agrochemicals in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered to 100 randomly sampled in the two agricultural development zones (ADP in the study area. Descriptive statistics and the Logistic Binary Regression model were fitted to examine factors that influence respondents’ decision to pay more than the prevailing average prices for access to agrochemicals in the study area. Findings indicated a high level of awareness of agrochemical use and modal responses to quantities used include: fertilizers (41-50Kg/ha, herbicides (<10liters/ha, and pesticides (<10liters/ha on the cultivation of yam, cassava and maize, which were the dominant arable crops in the study area. About 90% of the respondents purchase agrochemicals from their personal savings and less than 10% of the respondents got their agrochemicals from other sources (governmental, developmental agencies, ADP and farmers’ cooperative. Furthermore, 88% (p<0.01 of the respondents indicate willingness to pay more than the current average price to have access to agrochemicals and the logistic regression reveals that level of education (P<0.01, had a positive relationship with respondents’ to willingness to pay more for agrochemicals in the study area. Recommendations were made towards encouraging expanded use of agrochemicals throughenhanced marketing strategies that will facilitate contact of marketing agents to prospective customers located in the rural communities.

  8. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

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    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  9. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

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    Josephine Dogo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4% than that among boys (41.5% but not significantly different (p=0.402. The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6% than that of 11–15 years (50% but was not significantly different (p=0.524. Trichophyton rubrum (28.8% and Microsporum canis (22.7% were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5% and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%. There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p=0.02 and sharing of the same bed (p=0.002. This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended.

  10. Microbial Effects on Selected Stored Fruits and Vegetables under Ambient Conditions in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

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    S.E. Obetta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on the level of contamination due to bacterial and fungal infestations on some of the freshly supplied fruits and vegetables in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria is lacking. This study investigated the microbial load of some freshly supplied fruits and vegetables in Makurdi which included Apples, Banana, Carrots and Oranges. As part of food quality surveillance study, this work looked at the incidence of pathogen associated with fruits and vegetables from three locations in Makurdi. The samples were evaluated for bacterial (coliforms and mesophiles and fungal (mold and yeast loads. Results of the microbial test showed that Apple had the average absolute highest microbial load with mesophilic aerobic plate count of 127 log10CFU/in2, coliform, 71 log10CFU/in2, yeast, 30 log10CFU/in2 and mold, 22.3 log10CFU/in2. Carrot and Banana followed with average absolute mesophilic aerobic plate count of 122.3 log10CFU/in2 and 113 log10CFU/in2, coliform of 97.7 and 42.7 log10CFU/in2, yeast, 23.7 and 23.7 log10CFU/in2 and mold, 20.7 and 28 log10CFU/in2, respectively. Orange had the least microbial load with an average absolute mesophilic aerobic plate count of 27.3 log10CFU/in2, coliform - 30.3 log10CFU/in2, yeast - 21 log10CFU/in2 and a mold count of 29.3 log10CFU/in2. The ANOVA results showed highly significant effects (p<0.01 of bacteria, fungi and the fruit/vegetable types in the three locations. The interaction effects between the microbes and the fruit/vegetables were significant and increased with length of storage.

  11. Evaluation of Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Behaviour of Clothes in Borno State, Nigeria

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    Lawan A. Lawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available his study assesses cultural factors influencing consumer buying behaviour of clothes in Borno state, Nigeria. It was specifically carried out to examine consumer buying decision making process and assess cultural, economic as well as personal factors influencing clothes buying behavior. Data for the study were gathered through structured questionnaire administered by the researcher with the help of two research assistants, on a sample of 192 clothes buyers, out of which, 174 were duly filled and returned. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi square, Analysis of variance and multi-stage regression. Findings revealed a highly significant influence of cultural factors (T=14.83, P<0.000 on consumer buying behaviour of which the relative regression coefficient influences equivalence of societal norms (24.6% was the highest. The findings also indicated a highly significant influence of economic factors (T=11.89, P<0.000 factor on consumer buying behaviour with the highest relative regression coefficient influence equivalence exerted by income (20%. The study further revealed that age was the sole personal (endogenous factor variable influencing buying behaviour with the highest relative regression coefficient influence equivalence of over 65%. The study concluded that culture, either acting independently or in conjunction with economic and personal factors significantly influences buying behaviour of clothes. It was recommended that marketing managers should take cognizance of the fact that socio-cultural factors are some of the fundamental determinants of a person’s want and behavior and should therefore be considered when designing clothes for their markets.

  12. Kola Nut and Conflict Resolution Among the Igala People of Kogi State, Nigeria

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    Joel Abah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined Kola nut and Conflict Resolution among the Igala people of Kogi State, Nigeria. In a world ravaged by conflicts, certain Africans have kept the fire of brotherhood, through the breaking and eating of Kola nut. Literatures exist on Conflict Resolution, but no empirical study on the topic in question. The aims are to examine (a the types of Kola nut cotyledons and its relevance in conflict resolution (b the myths about Kola nut that enhances conflict resolution, and (c its role in conflict resolution. The qualitative approach was adopted. The sources of data were primary and secondary. The Primary Sources included 20 oral interviews. Purposive sampling was adopted. Content analysis was used to analyse. The secondary sources included books and an unpublished work. The findings reveal (a two types of Kola nut, (cola acuminata 0-7 cotyledons and cola nitida 2 cotyledons, (b As regards the myth, it is used to invite and welcome the ancestors during conflict resolution, whosoever harbours grudges against a neighbour after the kola had been eaten will come under the wrath of the ancestors, and (c It is the harbinger of peace. In conclusion, peace can only be guaranteed when there is security and justice, which could be embedded in a unifying factor(s, like the kola nut. Any community that finds this generally acceptable factor will experience a considerable level of peace, especially when acculturated into every aspect of the modern conflict resolution mechanisms, putting into consideration the indigenous socio-religious conflict resolution strategies.

  13. Re-evaluation of porcine cysticercosis in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria

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    Idika Kalu Idika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To re-evaluate the status of Taenia solium (T. solium cysticercosis in slaughter pigs due to the great economic and public health implication of the parasite and the increasing pig production and pork consumption in the area. Methods: The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria was evaluated using structured questionnaires and postmortem examination of pigs slaughtered in three major slaughter slabs in the area, namely, Orba, Ibagwa and Nsukka slaughter slabs. Questionnaires were distributed to willing butchers and pig marketers and completed copies were retrieved and analysed. The slabs were visited every other week during which a total of 379 pigs were examined. Pig carcasses were examined in accordance with standard meat inspection procedures. Briefly, carcasses were examined visually under natural light and palpated before longitudinal incisions were made in the heart, tongue, masseter, neck, intercostal, shoulder and thigh muscles. Carcasses containing cysticerci were recorded as positive for cysticercosis. The sex, age and breed of all animals examined were recorded. Results: T. solium cysticercosis prevalence of 3.3% (4/120, 4.3% (5/117 and 0% (0/142 were recorded for Ibagwa, Orba and Nsukka slaughter slabs respectively with an overall prevalence of 2.4% in the three study areas. The type of pig husbandry practiced was the most important factor influencing the prevalence of the infection. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that the majority of the respondents were not aware of the zoonotic implication of porcine cysticercosis irrespective of their educational background nor were they aware that epilepsy in the family could be associated with the infection in man. Conclusions: T. solium cysticercosis remains endemic in Nsukka area and is a potential major health hazard that must be addressed by an expanded and coordinated study, and control programs.

  14. Effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria

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    E.N. Mbah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was assessed to determine the effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria during November 2014 to June 2015. Interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. Results indicate that majority (76.3% of the respondents were males, middle aged and married. Major causes of rural-urban youth migration indicated by the respondents include inadequate employment opportunities in rural areas (M=3.6, search for better education (M=3.5, inadequate social infrastructure such as schools (M=3.4, poor medical care services in rural areas (M=3.4, looking for money through labour (M=3.4, apprenticeship programme (M=3.2, etc. Findings of the study also indicate that reduction of agricultural labour force (M=3.5, low agricultural productivity (M=3.3, high cost of labour (M= 3.3, reduction on demand for locally grown foods (M=2.9, decrease in dependency ratio in the rural areas (M=2.7, reduction on number of mouths to feed (M=2.7, among others were major effects of rural-urban youth migration among farm families. The study recommends that Nigerian government should provide adequate physical and social infrastructure in rural areas in order to encourage youths to remain in agriculture, reduce rural-urban youth migration as well as sustain agriculture for enhanced food security.

  15. Economic Implications of Food Demand in Akoko South West, Ondo State, Nigeria: Aids Approach

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    Adebisi Temitope Edun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of food consuming households, estimated the complete demand functions for some selected common food commodities, their prices and expenditure elasticities in Akoko South West (ASW local government in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study examined demand analysis for food in ASW, using primary data with the use of questionnaire on some selected food-consuming households within the study area. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics for estimating demographic variables. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that semolina constituted the largest share of the household total food expenditure, among the low income and rural households but mostly among the married and the medium-size male-headed households who had tertiary-education. The Almost Ideal Demand System results showed that besides being a normal good, price inelastic, and expenditure inelastic, semolina has changed from being a luxury to being a necessity and has become a major food staple in the ASW metropolis. In conclusion, the study discovered that the prices of rice, beans, yam, garri, wheat, yam flour, and semolina were significantly important in the share of household total food budget at constant real income. Finally, the study showed from the result that the importance of semolina in ASW metropolis diet will increase as economic growth continues. This study therefore recommends that effort should be made to boost economic activities of ASW zone. This will increase their income and consequently improve their spending on the nutritious food items. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  16. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL AND URBAN FARMING HOUSEHOLDS OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

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    Godwin Anjeinu Abu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined factors affecting household food security status among rural and urban farming households of Benue State, Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to obtain a sample of 180 respondents, 90 households head each from rural and urban areas. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Food Security Index, Surplus/Food Insecurity Gap, Factor analysis and Probit model. Using calorie intake method, the result revealed that 53.3% and 62.2% of rural and urban households respectively were food secured. The rural and urban food secure households exceeded the recommended calorie intake by 39% and 42% respectively, while the rural and urban food insecure households fell short of recommended calorie by 24% and 26% respectively. It was also found that income of households head (p<0.10, rural households size (p<0.01, and farm size (p<0.10 had a positive impact on household food security. On the other hand, age of household head (p<0.05 and urban household size (p<0.10 had a negative relationship with household food security. Constraints such as lack of access to credits, inadequate land availability, and poverty, infertility of the soil, lack of non-farm income generating activities, storage and processing problems were identified as some of the factors militating against the achievement of food security in the study area. It was recommended that credit be provided to farming households by government to reduce the constraint of not being able to access credit facilities, the agricultural policies which aimed at promoting farmers access to land and improving farm household productivity be encouraged and that farmers be provided with informal education through extension services on nutritional awareness and non-farm income generating activities.

  17. Prevalence of malocclusion and occlusal traits among adolescents and young adults in Rivers State, Nigeria.

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    Aikins, E A; Onyeaso, C O

    2014-03-01

    A systematic and well-organized dental care program for any target population in a community requires some basic information, such as the prevalence of the condition to be assessed. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among predominantly Rivers State adolescents and to compare the results with other authors. The sample which was randomly selected from seven secondary schools comprised 620 schoolchildren, 297 (48%) males and 323 (52%) females aged 13-20 years old with a mean age of 16.74 +/- 2.0 (SD) years. The children were examined for occlusal traits which included the occlusal antero-posterior relationship (Angles classification), overjet, overbite, openbite, crossbite, spacing and crowding. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) protocol was employed in their classrooms using wooden spatulae and orthodontic millimeter rulers under natural illumination. None of the subjects had undergone any form of orthodontic treatment. Results showed that about 11.8% had normal occlusions, 80.3% had Class I malocclusions, 6.3% had Class II malocclusions (Div 1, 3.9%; Div 11, 2.4%) and 1.6% had Class III malocclusions. About 70% had normal overjets, normal overbite was seen in about 56%, whilst in the maxillary arch 14.4% had crowding and 60% spacing. Open bite was present in 7.1% while crossbite was found in 17.1%. Significant gender differences were found for overbite, overjet and Angles classification (P < 0.05). Angles Class I malocclusion is the predominant occlusal pattern among these students. This finding compares favorably with other studies done in other parts of Nigeria.

  18. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

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    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.

  19. Dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates in Bauchi State, Nigeria

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    Y.J. Atuman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of dog ecology, dog bites and rabies vaccination rates was carried out in Bauchi the capital city of Bauchi State, Nigeria using direct street counts and questionnaire survey administered on 10% of the city streets selected by stratified random sampling. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data in order to determine the dog to human population ratio, dog management and care, cases of dog bites, consequences of the bites and frequencies of rabies outbreak. The estimated dog population of street counts and compound counts were 5310 and 7670, respectively. The overall human to dog ratio of 4.1:1 was established. The mean number of individuals per dog owning compound was 9.6 ± 0.498 (SEM and the mean number of dogs owned per dog owning compound was 2.3 ± 0.108 (SEM. Majority of the dogs owned were local breeds (62.8% aged between 1 and 5 years old and managed under partial or no confinement. The dogs were mostly used for security (69.5% purposes. Dog owners reported low vaccination coverage (26.4%, level considered not sufficient to prevent rabies transmission. About 12.4% of dog bite victims died and majority of which (71.43% manifested nervous signs before death. Domestic dogs have been shown to be tolerated and kept in Bauchi but poorly managed in terms of feeding, confinement and vaccination thereby constituting a continuous risk to domestic animals and humans.

  20. Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.

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    Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

    2013-02-01

    The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ≥ 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level.

  1. Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill.

  2. INFLUENCE OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF CASSAVA PRODUCING HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

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    Chibuzor NWACHUKWU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of commercialization on food security status of cassava producing households in Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically assessed the current level of commercialization among the households and estimated the food security status of the households operating at different levels of commercialization. The study employed multistage sampling technique in the selection of location and respondents from whom data and information were elicited using pretested and structured questionnaire. In the course of data analysis, descriptive statistics, household commercialization index and food security index were used. The current level of commercialization revealed that a typical cassava producing household sold on the average 51 percent of its output with total sales ranging from 5.60% to 90.00%, implying that the most commercialized cassava producing household sold 90.00% of the gross value of its total cassava production. More so, the food security status of the households at different levels of commercialization depicted that households operating at a low level of commercialization were few and there was a slight disparity between the proportion of those that were food secure and those that were food insecure while the majority seemed to operate at a medium level with more of the people attaining food security. On the overall, the proportion of households that were food insecure is more than those that were food secure as indicated by the food insecurity incidence. On the basis of the findings, the study recommended that government and other stakeholders should shoulder the responsibility of developing new initiatives that will transform the smallholders from subsistence oriented to market – oriented production system among others.

  3. An assessment of health practises among small-scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Jones A. Akangbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study examines the personal health practices of small scale farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Primary data were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire which was distributed to 120 small scale farmers. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages were used, as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation and analysis for empirical analysis. Results. Results revealed that more than half (55% smoke cigarettes, about 48% drink alcohol to a very great extent, while the majority (64.5% indicated they have not been screened to know their HIV status. On a positive note, the results further show that the majority 70%, 53.3%, 80% and 73.3% indicated that they eat a balance diet, engage in physical activity, practice safer sex, and regularly visit a health care centre, respectively. It also revealed that 77% have not attended any training on healthy living. The results of PPMC showed that the health knowledge of respondents had significant (p<0.01 influence on practices like cigarette smoking, eating a balance diet and regular visits to a health care centre. Conclusion. It was concluded that health threatening practices such as cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol among the majority of the respondents, coupled with their lack of health knowledge from health professionals, contributes to the poor health status of respondents which eventually negatively influences the labour efficiency of farmers. It is recommended that farmers should endeavour to make use of health literacy programmes introduced to them at local government level, and that the government should provide more of these health literacy programmes.

  4. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

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    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  5. Gender Issues on Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria; the Case of the National Fadama 1 Development Project in Abia State, Nigeria

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    C.I. Ezeh, C.O. Anyiro, I.O. Ehiemere, N.Q Obioma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the gender issues on poverty alleviation programmes; the case of the National Fadama 1 Development Programme in Abia State, Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used in the selection of the local government areas, communities and sample size of 150 respondents (75 men and 75 females. The instrument for data collection was via well structured and protested questionnaires. The result of the poverty profiles indicated that the poverty incidence of the male and female fadama1 farmers was 0.67 and 0.56 respectively. The result on the poverty gap (measures income shortfall showed that the men required 46.0 percent and the women 48.0 percent of the poverty line to get out of poverty. The result also posted the Gini-coefficient (measures the extent of inequalities in income distribution of the male and female fadama farmers to be 0.233 and 0.347 respectively. The result of the paired t-test revealed that the farm size and annual fadama farm income were statistically significant at 99.0% and 95.0%. Confidence level respectively. Policy aimed at annulling the land tenure system and replacing it with a gender sensitive system that will redistributive the fadama land equitably. The land tenure system which causes fragmentation of land should be abolished and a policy aimed at redistributing fadama land equitably put in place.

  6. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

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    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  7. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

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    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  8. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

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    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  9. Spatio-temporal dynamics of African swine fever outbreaks in Nigeria, 2002-2007.

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    Owolodun, O A; Yakubu, B; Antiabong, J F; Ogedengbe, M E; Luka, P D; John Audu, B; Ekong, P S; Shamaki, D

    2010-10-01

    African swine fever (ASF) was first introduced into Nigeria through Lagos state in 1997. The disease rapidly spread to Ogun state in 1998 and extended to the Niger Delta (Delta, Rivers and Akwa Ibom states) in the same year. In 1998, Kaduna, Plateau and Benue states all north of the country experienced ASF for the first time. Poor farm biosecurity, bad abattoir practices and extensive/free range pig farming systems led to extensive spread of the diseases to about 16 Nigerian states excluding the far northwest and north east. A total of 1036 field samples collected over a 6-year period covering 19 Nigerian states were analysed during the period under review; 805 samples were PCR positive and 231 negative. Positive samples were detected in all three surveillance phases and from all agroecological zones across the country. For the first time since its incursion, ASF was identified in some states; Bauchi, Adamawa Taraba and Gombe with chances of control very slim and further spread of the virus northward envisaged. Outbreaks of the disease are now a perennial problem with an increasing disease burden in areas where high numbers of pigs are produced in the country. The National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, since 2002 investigated ASF based on tissue submissions and reports made by individuals, private & commercial farms and agricultural bodies. We present an analysis of geographical and temporal distribution of ASF in the country from 2002 to 2007 and a review of historic outbreaks since the first incursion. Risk factors and prospects for control are discussed.

  10. Organizational Effectiveness for Effective Transformation of Sub-Sahara Africa: An Empirical Review of Anambra State Civil Service, Nigeria

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    Clementina Uchenna Agbionu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The public sector in Nigeria has suffered series of setbacks which were attributed to ineffective and inefficient management which immediately calls for transformation of the sector in order to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency in the performance of the sector for national development. Transformation for national development in Nigeria demands new tools to support the performance of the public sector. Organizational Effectiveness is a tool which describes the degree to which an organization realizes its goal. This paper intends to contribute its own quota to the transformation question by investigating the potential models and tools for understanding, explaining and measuring organizational effectiveness of the public sector organizations in Nigeria. To do this, the paper evaluated the immediate results of the work of NATO RTO HFM Task Group (TG 163 on “Improving Organizational Effectiveness of Coalition Operations which consists of researchers from eleven nations of the world. The paper used descriptive statistics and content analysis to analyze “Organizational effectiveness in the context of public organizations, and to categorize factors critical to organizational effectiveness. Based on the review of the models, the study developed a structured questionnaire which was used to collect the relevant data for the purpose of investigating the effect of the different factors that influence organizational effectiveness, expose inefficiencies in public organizations and determine measures to achieve better organizational effectiveness in Anambra State Civil Service. The findings revealed that the key areas of structure and processes, people and culture do not receive adequate attention in the Anambra State Civil Service. A major recommendation of the study is that the emphasis of the government should not be basically on the provision of resources but also on how the resources are effectively and efficiently managed especially during the

  11. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria.

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    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2012-10-22

    Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents' attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward

  12. Prevalence of Tinea capitis infection among primary school children in a rural setting in south-west Nigeria

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    Olusola Ayanlowo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophyte infection is a common skin disorder. Tinea capitis, infection of the scalp and hair shaft, is the most common dermatophytosis in children aged between six months and pre-pubertal age. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, causative agents and to identify predisposing factors among primary school children in a rural community in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Following a physical examination, children with a clinical diagnosis of tinea capitis had scalp and hair scrapings for microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was confirmed in 15.4%. Trichophyton mentagrophyte (51.7% and Microsporum aoudouinii (20.7% were the most prevalent organisms in this study. The most common predisposing factors were carrying of objects on the scalp; sharing of hair clippers, scissors, combs, towels and fomites. Low socioeconomic status coupled with overcrowding and poor hygiene was the major determinant of tinea capitis among the children. Tinea capitis remains a common infection among Nigerian school children. Health promotion and health education interventions are recommended to promote good hygiene, better living conditions, early identification and treatment.

  13. Uropathogens and diagnostic potential of pH and specific gravity in a rural community of Nigeria

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    Oyetunde Oyeyemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the association between urine pH and specific gravity (SG and occurrence of urinary tract pathogens involved in urinary tract infection (UTI in school pupils. Methods: Laboratory culture techniques and biochemical tests were carried out to identify the UTI-associated bacteria in school pupils’ urine of United Nursery and Primary School, IlaraRemo, in Ikenne Local Government area, Ogun State, Nigeria. Urine dip-stick tests were carried out on the samples to take pH and SG measurements. Results: The prevalence of urinary tract pathogens in the study population was 82.4%. This prevalence was not gender and age dependent (P > 0.05. Escherichia coli (E. coli (37.0% and Klebsiella (0.9% were the highest and least prevalent uropathogens. There was significant increase in proportion of subjects diagnosed with E. coli (37.5%, Staphylococcus aureus (32.0%, Klebsiella (57.1% in pH 9, pH 6 and pH 8, respectively (P 0.05. There were significant increase in proportion of subjects diagnosed with E. coli (50.0%, Proteus (56.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (44.0%, Klebsiella (71.4% in SG 1.010, 1.015, 1.015 and 1.010, respectively (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Therefore, the urine pH 9 and SG 1.010–1.015 are the best diagnostic indicators of UTI-associated uropathogens in school children.

  14. Lead and cadmium levels in cattle muscle and edible tissues collected from a slaughter slab in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, V O; Famakin, I O; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    Contamination levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in muscles, liver and kidney of 50 randomly selected, freshly slaughtered cattle in Ogun State, Nigeria were assessed using an official procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed that Pb and Cd were present in all of the tested samples. Mean Pb concentrations were 0.721 ± 0.180 mg kg(-1), 0.809 ± 0.220 mg kg(-1) and 0.908 ± 0.422 mg kg(-1) in muscle, liver and kidney tissues, respectively. Mean Cd concentrations were 0.157 ± 0.049 mg kg(-1), 0.172 ± 0.071 mg kg(-1) and 0.197 ± 0.070 mg kg(-1) in muscle, liver and kidney tissues, respectively. Pb and Cd levels in muscle versus kidney tissues and also in liver versus kidney samples were significantly different (p tissues were significantly higher than the International Standards while the mean Cd concentrations in liver and kidney samples were within the limits of these standards.

  15. Mentoring and Succession of Administrators: Critical Issues in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Lagos State, Nigeria

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    S.A. Oladipo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the quality of outcome in Nigerian secondary schools is declining at an alarming rate due to shortage of required resources as well as leadership challenges. The challenges have been observed to be as a result of lack of mentoring which is not a common practice in school management in Nigeria. Consequently, this study investigated the extent to which mentoring as a strategy for administrators' succession plan impacts on the performance of their duties in public and private secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design and administered a 25-item self-constructed questionnaire on participants. A total of 530 participants were randomly selected from the population of 4,350 senior teachers. The Participants were drawn from 145 secondary schools (91 public and 54 registered private in Education District IV of Lagos State. The findings showed that mentoring has significant impact on administrators' succession planning and that succession planning does not significantly differ in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State. The study concluded that leadership development is a critical factor in secondary school effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, serving administrators as well as prospective administrators should be regularly evaluated to determine their training needs at different career stages. There should also be mentoring related policies to enhance the managerial skills, sense of competence and effectiveness of the prospective administrators.

  16. Frequency Of Isolation Of Salmonella From Commercial Poultry Feeds And Their Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles, Imo State, Nigeria

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    Okoli IC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the frequency of isolation of salmonella and their microbial resistance profiles across different commercial poultry feeds sold in Imo State, Nigeria. Thirty-six bulk feed samples were colleted from 154 bag across different feed types and brands which included Guinea (GF, Top (TF, Vital (VF, Extra (EF, Animal care (AF and livestock (LF feeds. The salmonella isolated were tested against 14 anti-microbial drugs using the disc diffusion method. Bacterial load enumeration of the samples indicated a range of <30 colony forming unit (CFU to overgrowth at 104 serial dilutions. Eight feed samples (22.2% which cuts across the entire feed brands expect EF were positive for salmonella. The highest prevalence of 28.8% and 25.0% were recorded for LF and TF respectively, while VF, GF and AF had 11.1 and 10.0% respectively. Salmonella isolates showed high rates of resistance (51-100% against nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, tetracycline and ceftriazole, while moderate rates (31-50% were recorded for chloramphenicol, oxfloxacin and cotrimoxazole. Low resistance rates (1-30% were on the other hand recorded against ciprofloxacin and amoxycillin clavulanate (Augumentine, whereas zero resistance was demonstrated against pefloxacin, gentamycin, streptomycin and nalidixic. Commercial feeds form important channels for the dissemination of multi-drug resistant salmonella in Imo State, Nigeria.

  17. Retrospective study of disease incidence and other clinical conditions diagnosed in owned dogs in Delta State, Nigeria

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    Kundu F. Shima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, knowledge on the epidemiology of diseases of dogs is limited. A retrospective study of data from clinical records of six veterinary clinics was undertaken to determine the incidence of disease in owned dogs in Delta State, Nigeria from 2012 to 2014. Association between the diagnosed diseases and the studied variables was explored using Chi-Squared test statistics. This study revealed that most of the conditions presented to the veterinary clinics were preventable. Thirty-one (31 clinical conditions were diagnosed from 571 cases recorded, involving nonspecific (21.6%, infectious (70.9%; P=0.001 and non-infectious (7.5% diseases. The most occurring clinical conditions comprised helminthoses (21.4%, mange (10.5%, parvovirosis (8.4%, babesiosis (7.9%, septicemia (7.2%, gastroenteritis (7.0%, myiasis (7.0%, trauma (6.3%, poisoning (6.0%, ectoparasitism (3.7%, ascites (2.5%, dermatitis (2.3%, aural hematoma (1.2%, and orchitis (1.1%. Disease incidence was highest in Alsatian (40.3%, mixed/cross (33.1%, Rottweiler (7.0% and toy breeds (4.6%. Details on the least occurring diseases and the association between disease and the studied variables are given. The outcomes demonstrate the prevalence of the clinical conditions diagnosed, inadequate husbandry and veterinary care accorded to owned dogs in the State. Education of dog owners on preventive measures is paramount in alleviating some of these health problems.

  18. Digital Literacy Skills Among Librarians In University Libraries In The 21st Century In Edo And Delta States Nigeria

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    Emiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Libraries all over the world have been faced with the evolving technological advancement globalization and digitization of information. These have led to library automation digital and virtual libraries. This paper discussed the contemporary digital literacy skills DLS among librarians in university libraries the 21st century in Edo and Delta States of Southern Nigeria. The study was guided by six objectives and research questions and one hypothesis. The design of the study is descriptive survey and the population consists of all librarians from university libraries in the aforementioned states in Nigeria. The instrument used to generate data is the questionnaire and the date generated was analyzed using simple percentages and frequency count for research questions and SPSS version 14.0. The findings show that electronic mailing social networking use of PDAs mobile phones and internet surfing are the major DLS amongst librarians. It was also discovered that librarians acquired DLS through colleagues assistance trial and error IT programmes and formal education while librarians level of use of DLS is low amongst other findings. Researcher recommends that management of university libraries should provide training for librarians so as to help update their knowledge in application of digital skills and digital skill competence should be giving more attention during recruitment of librarians amongst others.

  19. Careseeking for childhood diarrhoea at the primary level of care in communities in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, Oluranti

    2016-12-01

    Risk factors for care-seeking choices for childhood diarrhea in Nigeria are poorly understood. They are essential to the control of childhood illnesses because diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality. This study explored the contributors to care-seeking choices in Cross River State, Nigeria. Caregivers of children aged 0-59months in 1240 randomly selected households in Cross River State were involved in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on demographics, knowledge of illness, and care-seeking patterns, and observed associations were explored using logistic regression. Care was given at home (50.4%, n=142; as recommended), at the health center (27%, n=76), and at the local drug store (19.1%, n=54). Main reasons for care sought were health education (31.9%, n=94), treatment cost (18%, n=53), and experiences (16.6%, n=49). Caregivers living in the mainly urban area of Calabar Municipality [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.81 (1.26-6.26)] and the mainly rural area of Obanliku [AOR=3.59 (1.94-6.64)], were more likely to give home treatment. Choice of treatment was only associated with area of residence. Influencers of care-seeking behavior, especially for childhood diarrhea, are complex and need to be better understood to encourage enhanced care for young children with diarrhea.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of HIV/AIDS among traditional birth attendants and herbal practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omowunmi, Ahmed; Nkiru, Odunukwe; Yekeen, Raheem; Chinyere, Efienemokwu; Muinat, Junaid; Segun, Adesesan; Olasubomi, Ogedengbe; Tekena, Harry; Lateef, Salako

    2004-11-01

    Recognising the widespread role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and herbal practitioners (HPs) in health care at community level in Nigeria, we set out to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to HIV infection and prevention. Questionnaires were administered to a convenience sample of 189 participants in 20 local government areas of Lagos State. We found that knowledge of modes of transmission of HIV was less than adequate and included lack of knowledge of the existence of HIV/AIDS amongst some practitioners, claims for the ability to treat HIV/AIDS, failure to name major avenues of transmission and confusion of HIV/AIDS with other conditions. The use of measures to prevent infection of clients and themselves showed that normal standards of infection control are not adhered to. Considering that as many as 60% of children born in Nigeria are delivered by traditional birth attendants and that use of the services of herbal practitioners extends across the entire society in both rural and urban settings, this is seen as reason for concern. It is suggested that better incorporation of TBAs/HPs into the well-developed primary health care system offers not only a way of overcoming the risks of infection posed by traditional health practices but also offers an opportunity to extend the reach of voluntary counselling and testing and prevention of mother-to-child infection programmes. The research has shown the need for appropriate training of TBAs, to enable them to recognise the risk of HIV infection in their own practices and to encourage them to adopt universal precautions against spreading infection. We also recommend that they be more extensively integrated as primary health care workers in VCT and PMTCT programmes in Nigeria. We further suggest that referrals made between the traditional practitioners and professional health care providers can be an effective and successful element of HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes.

  1. Chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: an evaluation of the spatial accessibility to healthcare for diagnosed cases in Edo State

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    Osaretin Oviasu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing problem in Nigeria, presenting challenges to the nation’s health and economy. This study evaluates the accessibility to healthcare in Edo State of CKD patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2009. Using cost analysis techniques within a geographical information system, an estimated travel time to the hospital was used to examine the spatial accessibility of diagnosed patients to available CKD healthcare in the state. The results from the study indicated that although there was an annual rise in the number of diagnosed cases, there were no significant changes in the proportion of patients that were diagnosed at the last stage of CKD. However, there were indications that the travel time to the hospital for CKD treatment might be a contributing factor to the number of diagnosed CKD cases. This implies that the current structure for CKD management within the state might not be adequate.

  2. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON POULTRY PRODUCTION IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

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    G.B. Adesiji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the effects of climate change on poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Eighty three (83 poultry farmers were interviewed to elicit relevant information in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that majority (93.3% of the respondents are aware of climate change, 78%, 98.8% and 86.7% of the respondents agreed that temperature fluctuation, increased in sunshine intensity and global warming has a negative effects on poultry production, 72.4% of the respondents agreed that prices of feed grains are usually high in hot and dry seasons which may affect cost of production and number of birds to raise for egg and meat production in the farm, 73.5% of the respondents agreed that climate change has effect on feed grain availability, this implies that high temperature and low rainfall are climatic factors that affect general grain harvest, their supply to the market and ultimately cost of poultry production. the findings further revealed that 94% of the respondents agreed that climate change affects egg and meat production pattern and 95.2% of the respondents agreed that moist climatic conditions encouraged the distribution and development of diseases. Infrential statistics shows that there is a significant relationship between respondents' socio-economic characteristics and perception of poultry farmers on effects of climate change on poultry production since p > 0.05 (r = 0.454, p= 0.001, the findings also shows that there is a significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics of respondents and their level of awareness of climate change since the p > 0.05 (r = 0.652, p = 0.001. it is recomended extension agents and other development agencies need to educate the poultry farmers more about the effects posed by climate change on poultry production and intensify awareness campaign to poultry farmers on how to reduce

  3. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HOLDER RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN EBONYI STATE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA

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    Nwaobiala C.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Swamp contact rice farmers. Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD. The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD. Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated

  4. Patients’ Knowledge about Causes and Solutions of Infertility in South West Nigeria

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    Olukunmi ‘Lanre OLAITAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility inability to conceive after exposure to continuous unprotected sex for twelve months, is a major cause of marriage conflict in south west Nigeria. Knowledge of causes and solutions to infertility among selected patients were assessed in 18 hospital/fertility centre across the 6 states in south west geo-political zone of Nigeria. Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge of patients about causes and solutions to infertility in south west Nigeria. Methods/study Design: A survey of a consecutive sample of 390 cases of infertility were carried out in 18 hospital/fertility centers with a total of 65 cases of infertility evaluated in each of the 6 States centers between 2009 – 2012. Chi-square statistics was employed to test the hypotheses formulated at α=0.05 level of significance. Results/Findings: The knowledge of causes and solutions to infertility in the patients were established in all the States; (Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo and Ekiti. The commonest causes of infertility among these patients were, RTIs, damaged fallopian tubes, anovulation, poor semen analysis, distorted uterus. Low libido, previous use of IUCDs and uterine fibroids representing 81%, 70%, 68.7%, 65.9%, 65.9%, 65.7%, 65.3% and 62% respectively. The least common causes were taking of psychoactive drugs and working in hot condition/wearing of tight underclothing which was seen in 33.7% and 38.5% of the patients respectively. The patients also have knowledge about solutions of infertility in this order, that ART, regular sexual intercourse, taking hormonal drugs, antibiotics of choice, multivitamins and surgical removal of fibroids as follows; 72.3%, 69.2% 69%, 66.9%, 65.4% and 64.6% respectively. However, the least common solutions according to the patients are seen thus; engaging in varieties of sexual styles/positions, adoption of a child, corrective tubal surgery and wearing of loose/free underclothing representing 25.1%, 33.6%, 33.8% and 35

  5. Reasons for Female Circumcision among Some Ethnic Groups in Bendel State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    OMORODION, Francisca Isi; MYERS, Robert A

    1989-01-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of the history of Abuja in the Central Nigerian region -- an area designated as the new Federal capital of Nigeria. We examine some aspects of inter-group relations and then reflect on technological and economic development in the area. In the course of discussion, we reflect on aspects of iron technology, textile, leather processing and pottery and comment on issues related to trade in the region.

  6. The Causes of Instability in Nigeria and Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    though it had previously epitomized the slogan “home of peace and tourism .”166 Here indigenous politicians and groups fear and denigrate Muslim...dressed if there is to be a lasting positive impact on the recurring crises in Nigeria. Nigeria’s chronically poorly performing economy puts pressure on...Reform/Transformation in West Africa. Washington DC: ACSS, October 19, 2012. Albert, Isaac O. “The Sociocultural Politics of Ethnic and Religious

  7. Reasons for Female Circumcision among Some Ethnic Groups in Bendel State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    OMORODION, Francisca Isi; Myers, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of the history of Abuja in the Central Nigerian region -- an area designated as the new Federal capital of Nigeria. We examine some aspects of inter-group relations and then reflect on technological and economic development in the area. In the course of discussion, we reflect on aspects of iron technology, textile, leather processing and pottery and comment on issues related to trade in the region.

  8. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthes in vegetables sold in Bali markets, Taraba State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ukwubile, Cletus A.; Yohanna, Emohseh

    2015-01-01

    In Nigeria, leafy vegetables form essential part of dietary foods especially in the South-eastern part. This is because of enormous supplements derived from them that affect human health positively. These benefits derived were however reduced drastically by incidence of soil-transmitted helminthes associated ailments in humans who consumed these vegetables on daily basis. This present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes in vegetables sold in Bali m...

  9. A Study of Pedagogical Approaches of Mathematics Teaching In Southwestern States of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abimbade A; Afolabi S.S

    2012-01-01

    Experimental research works on mathematics teaching methodology abound. These efforts were to minimize teaching-learning difficulties and poor learning outcomes of the students. Incidentally, most of the ‘beautiful’ research reports have not received feedback from users simply because survey research on this is rare. This study filled the gap by examining various teaching methods and strategies been used in the teaching of Mathematics in secondary schools of southwestern Nigeria. An elegant a...

  10. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

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    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  11. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria.

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    Dele Abegunde

    Full Text Available Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigeria's Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR and infant mortality rate (IMR are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5.At baseline (2012 and then at follow-up (2013, we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated.For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up.Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic

  12. Organizational Barriers Limiting Women’s Participation in Women-In-Agriculture (Wia Programme in Umuahia Agricultural Zone of Abia State, Nigeria

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    G.E. Ifenkwe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Development literature is replete with evidence of high level of involvement of women in agricultural production and value addition activities in Nigeria. This paper highlights organizational barriers limiting women’s participation in Women-in-Agriculture (WIA program, one of the women’s enabling agricultural program in Abia State, Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted in selecting one hundred and twenty women farmers studied. Simple statistical tools (frequencies and percentages were used in data analysis. The results show that agency-related and organizational problems accounted for over 80% of the constraints limiting participation in the program. They also differ significantly from client or farmer-related problems. Considering the huge financial investments in the agricultural sector, and the Federal Government’s policy thrust on food security, the paper recommends involvement of all stakeholders who must contribute their quota towards sustainable food security in Nigeria.

  13. Hospital Records (2006-2013 of Dogbite Cases and Laboratory Confirmation of Dog Rabies in Niger State, Nigeria

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    A. Garba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospital records of dog bite cases reported to the government hospitals across Niger State between January, 2006 and July, 2013 were investigated. Additionally, records of animal samples submitted to the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI, Vom-Nigeria for confirmatory rabies diagnosis during same period were investigated. Data on dog bite victims including year/month of bite, sex of victims, age and sites of bite were retrieved and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results indicated that a total of 223 cases were recorded with the highest number (40 cases recorded in 2012 and the least (10 cases recorded in 2013. Higher proportions of victims (66.8% were males and 46.2% of victims were children below the age of 15 years. Majority (81.3% of bite was inflicted on the legs and then to some extent (14.3% on the hands. A total of 1976 animal samples were submitted to NVRI, Vom for rabies diagnosis during the reporting period with 55.6% being confirmed positive but none was submitted from Niger State. Considering that over 81% of bite sites occurred on the legs, it suggests a possible prolong incubation period of rabies in victims. This may enhance misdiagnosis of rabies due to none or poor follow up of dog bite victims in our society. Similarly, non-submission of animal samples to NVRI, Vom from Niger State for rabies diagnosis suggest non-surveillance of rabies in the state. Enhanced surveillance of animal and human rabies in the state and Nigeria at large is highly recommended.

  14. Taboos of childbearing and child-rearing in Bendel state of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iweze, F A

    1983-01-01

    Certain marriage, childbearing, and child rearing practices within the Bendel State of Nigeria are outlined. In the rural communities early marriage is encouraged in order to ensure partners for eligible bachelors and "maidens of good repute." Childbearing and child rearing is incorporated within the framework of the extended family system, including monogamous and polygamous forms of marriages. Most marriages take place for the major purpose of childbearing. In Bendel State 2 types of birth attendants are prevalent. The traditional birth attendant (TBA) who does not have formal schooling and who acquires her skill and knowledge from either a relation or friend by means of an informal apprenticeship. In contrast the midwife has a formal--basic and professional--education and can only practice independently after passing the prescribed national examination and being registerd by the Nigerian Nursing and Midwifery Council. The midwife is responsible for the care of the woman during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum period. She is also responsible for the care of the baby during the same period and up to the age of 28 days. From the 3rd month of pregnancy onward, the midwife will carry out regular abdominal massage and palpation. This technique is used to loosen the nerves and relax the muscles, facilitating an easy pregnancy and delivery as well as correcting malpresentations. The mother to be will also make a paste with kola nuts and rub the paste on her abdomen every day to prevent thrush and other skin infections in the newborn baby. In the northern parts of the state, the young primigravida is sent to her parents for circumcision. This practice is dying out as the young mothers to be become more knowledgeable about the risk of infection and other problems. During pregnancy the husband tries to support all his wife's needs. The mother to be is encouraged to avoid places where people fight and quarrel so that the baby is peace loving when born. After

  15. Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…

  16. Teacher Self-Efficacy Enhancement and School Location: Implication for Students' Achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durowoju, Esther O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated the effect of teacher self-efficacy enhancement and school location on students' achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the study. Four Local Government Areas (two…

  17. Parenting Styles as Correlates of Adolescents Drug Addiction among Senior Secondary School Students in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…

  18. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  19. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  20. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…

  1. Impact of In-Service Training and Staff Development on Workers' Job Performance and Optimal Productivity in Public Secondary Schools in Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejoh, Johnson; Faniran, Victoria Loveth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of in-service training and staff development on workers' job performance and optimal productivity in public secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study used the ex-post-facto research design. Three research questions and three hypotheses were generated and tested using questionnaire items adapted from…

  2. Effects Of Membership Of Cooperative Organisations And Determinants On Farmer-Members Income In Rural Anambra State Nigeria

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    Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.

  3. A Study Of Power Relations In Doctor-Patient Interactions In Selected Hospitals In Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Qasim Adam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores power relations in clinical interactions in Nigeria. It seeks to investigate the use of power between doctors and patients during consultations on patient-centred approach to medicine in selected public and private hospitals in Lagos State, Nigeria. The objective is to establish how doctors' projection of power, using the discourse resources of transitivity, affects positively or negatively their relationship with patients. This study employs triangulation as its methodology. A judicious mix of quantitative and qualitative methods has been utilized to give the  study a scientific shape. Proportionate stratified random sampling and purposive sampling procedures were employed. The study employs the theoretical and analytical paradigms of Systemic Functional Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis. The findings revealed that doctors predominantly use this process to the benefit of the patients. Minimal level of intrusive and cooperative interruptions was also observed. It is expected that this study will give more visibility on the best way patients can be empowered by lessening doctors’ use of polar interrogatives and completely avoiding interruptive discourse in clinical interactions

  4. Socio-environmental factors and ascariasis infection among school-aged children in Ilobu, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Ofoezie, I E; Obiezue, R N N

    2009-03-01

    The risk factors predisposing children to ascariasis transmission in a rural community of Osun State, Nigeria were investigated from November 2005 to April 2006. Children below 16 years of age were examined at the household level after information on biodata, access to water supply and sanitation, socio-economic status of their parents and degree of cohabitation with their parents was collected using a questionnaire. Of 440 children examined, overall prevalence was 60% and median intensity was 1548 eggs per gram (epg) (min. 48 epg; max. 55464 epg). Infection patterns were gender comparable and age dependent, with peak prevalence (67.8%) occurring in children aged 5-9 years and peak median intensity (4368 epg) in children aged >or=15 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was influenced by patterns of water supply and sanitation, parents' educational background, number of biological parents living with a child and number of playmates a child has. These findings suggest that socio-environmental risk factors which play a role in disease transmission need to be taken into account when formulating sustainable control strategies for ascariasis and other intestinal parasites in Nigeria and elsewhere.

  5. Effect of brain-based learning strategy on students achievement in senior secondary school mathematics in Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Samuel Adejare Awolola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One dominant factor on how well students learn mathematics is the quality of teaching. Studies have shown that typical mathematics classroom is frosted with teaching technique that centered on explain – practice – memorize. There is a paucity particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the effect of brain-based learning strategy on the achievement regarding the learning of Mathematics of 522 Senior Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The moderator effect of cognitive style was also examined on independent variable (instructional strategy and dependent variable (mathematics achievement. The study adopted a pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design in a quasi – experimental setting. The ANCOVA statistic was used to analyzed the data collected fro the study. The result revealed significant main effect of treatment, (F(1,510 = 75.0; P < 0.05, cognitive style (F(1,510 = 23.78; P < 0.05 and significant interaction effect of treatment and cognitive style (F(1,510 = 5.027; P < 0.05 on achievement in mathematics. The result showed that brain-based instructional strategy enhanced students’ achievement in mathematics more than the conventional lecture method. It is therefore recommended that Teachers of mathematics should adopt the strategy in teaching mathematics in senior secondary school.

  6. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

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    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  7. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Dale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  8. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.

  9. Safety evaluation in mice of the childhood immunization vaccines from two south-eastern states of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oli; Angus; Nnamdi; Agu; Remigus; Uchenna; Oli; Ugochukwu; Chinedum; Nwoye; Charles; Ugochukwu; Ejiofor; Obiora; Shedrack; Esimone; Charles; Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To check the effects of the vaccines on the hematopoietic system and weight of mice after immunization.Methods:The study was done with the Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines donated by the Ministries of Health of Abia and Imo States of Nigeria.The vaccines were collected from the cold-chain stores and transported in vaccine carriers to the cold-chain facility in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital within 3 hours of collection.They were used to immunize a total of 160 mice.The Ethics Committee of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital,Nnewi of Anambra State,Nigeria approved the protocol.Results:Mice body weight changes test showed that the mice all had increased body weight at Days 3 and 7 post-immunization and none died during the 7 d post-immunization observation.The percentage weight gains of the mice compared with the control were 69%.70%,64%.63%,65%and 68%for oral polio vaccine,diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus.bacillus CalmetteGuerin,measles,yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines respectively collected from Imo State.The mice immunized with oral polio vaccine,pentavalent.bacillus Calmette-Guerin.measles,yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines collected from Abia State had 123%.114%,121%.116%,142%and 119%weight gain respectively compared with the control.Leukocytosis promoting toxicity test showed that none of the vaccines was able to induce proliferation of leukocytes up to ten folds.Leukopenic toxicity test showed that all the vaccines had an leukopenic toxicity test value higher than 80%of the control(physiological saline).Conclusions:The vaccine samples tested were safe and did not affect the hematopoietic system adversely.The storage conditions of the vaccines in the States’ cold-chain stores had not compromised the safety of the vaccines.

  10. Social and health reasons for lime juice vaginal douching among female sex workers in Borno State, Nigeria

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    Abdulkarim G. Mairiga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal douching with lime juice and other agents has been perceived to enhance sexual excitement through sensations of vaginal dryness, tightness or warmth, as well as prevent sexually transmitted infections and restore and tighten the vagina after delivery. Its effectiveness as a contraceptive has also been reported. However, the social and health reasons/consequences of such a practice have not been adequately documented in the communities of Borno State, Nigeria.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the extent of, reasons for, and the reproductive health effects of, the use of lime juice for vaginal douching among the commercial sex workers (CSWs in selected areas of the three senatorial regions of Borno State, Nigeria.Method: This was a community-based descriptive study conducted among female CSWs in selected communities of Borno State, Nigeria. A sample of 194 CSWs were randomly selected and interviewed on their sexual history and douching practices.Results: One hundred and twenty (62% respondents admitted practicing vaginal douching with lime juice, with 85% having been CSWs for a period greater than three years. More than half douched for sexual pleasure, hygiene and contraception. Significantly more lime juice users had increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs than non-users. Users had a higher prevalence of HIV infection than non-users. The Papanicouleaua (pap smear test for cervical lesions also showed that moderate to severe dysplastic changes were more prevalent among limejuice users.Conclusion: Many CSWs in this community use lime juice for douching, for various reasons. Indications are that its use is associated with a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infections and dysplastic cervical changes. Owing to confounding issues, such as the number of sexual partners, frequency of sexual exposure per day and the duration of exposure, it cannot, therefore, be

  11. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  12. A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

    2007-07-01

    This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

  13. Assessment of Land Management Practices in Food Crops Production among Small Scale Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Abdulazeez, Muhammad-Lawal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out an assessment of agricultural land management practices in food crops production among small scale farmers in Kwara Sate, Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the socio economic characteristics of crop farmers in Kwara State; ascertained the cropping patterns common among them; highlighted the soil conservation methods adopted by the farmers; examined the relationship between selected socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and their adoption of major agricultural land management practices; and investigated the constraints to adoption of sustainable agricultural practices among crop farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria A three stage random sampling technique was used in selecting a total of one hundred and forty four small scale food crops farmers. Descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression model and four point Likert-type scale were used to analyse the data for the study. The study revealed that food crops production in Kwara State is dominated by middle aged men who are poorly educated and have poor access to agricultural extension services. Half of the respondents (48.60% adopted cereal-based cropping systems. 48.6% of the farmers adopted a minimum of three management practices. Crop rotation was mostly adopted by all the farmers while irrigation was the least adopted by only 29.3% of the respondents. Furthermore, the study revealed that farm size, age, education status, number of contacts with extension agents, household size and number of farm plots of the respondents were the significant factors affecting their adoption of land management practices. The study also revealed that the major constraints to the use of sustainable crop management practices among the farmers included inadequate supply of fertilizer, inadequacy of labour and credit, poor knowledge of improved agricultural practices, poor transportation, low produce prices and high cost of production. The study recommended the need for training

  14. Decadal shoreline changes in the muddy coastline of Ondo State, Nigeria

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    TEMITOPE D. TIMOTHY OYEDOTUN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modifications du littoral décennales dans le l ittoral boueux de l'Etat d'Ondo , Nigeria . Les changements dans les positions du rivage à proximité du littoral boueux de l'Etat d'Ondo (sud - ouest du Nigeria sont étudiés, entre 1972 et 2014. Les mouvements de l'eau (HW rivage haut ont été étudiés en utilisant le système n umérique Shoreline Analyse (DSAS, une extension ArcGIS développé par l'USGS. Les ensembles de données comprend plusieurs éditions de photographie de Landsat et le Nigeria Imageries satellite. le Shoreline délimitées les unes des images année inclus les po sitions de HW, qui ont été calculées à partir du rivage Mouvement net (NSM et End Point Noter (EPR, le taux annuel de mouvement. Les résultats préliminaires montrent que les rivages de Ondo côte État ont connu un mouvement vers la terre constante au cour s des quatre décennies. Ces changements sont attribués à des attaques d'onde, l'augmentation des niveaux des marées dans le golfe de l'Atlantique du Bénin, la récente hausse du niveau de la mer, canalisation de la rivière qui réduisent le transport de sédi ments dans la zone côtière, l'extraction historique probable de sable et d'autres activités anthropiques dans la zone côtière.

  15. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of hypertensive patients in Ondo State, Nigeria.

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    Ijarotimi, O S; Keshinro, O O

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects (44.9% males and 55.1% females), was purposely selected from the study centres. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic parameters, nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes of the subjects. The quantities of subjects' dietary intakes were measured using household measurements. Weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured using electronic bathroom scale, standiometer and sphygmomanometer, respectively. The subject's urine was collected; and vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. The results showed the following means: age 52.4 +/- 2.38 years, weight 66.4 +/- 1.63kg, height 1.64 +/- 0.01m, body mass index (BMI) 24.13 +/- 0.69kg/m2, SBP 124.86 +/- 2.3mmHg and DBP 76.22 +/- 1.86 mmHg. Blood pressure (BP) of the subjects showed that 46.9% had optimal BP, 14.2% normal BP, 11.5% high normal BP, 12.8% mild hypertension, 9.7% moderate hypertension and 4.9% severe hypertension. For BMI, 8.8% were underweight, 47.1% normal, 30.3% overweight, 6.0% obesity class I, 6.0% obesity class II and 1.8% obesity class III. The proportion of hypertensive subjects that were obese was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than control subjects. Three-fifth of the control subjects had good nutrition knowledge compared to one-fifth of hypertensive subjects. The estimated mean energy intake was 8.46 MJ, protein 93.1g, carbohydrate 314.5g, fat 42.9g, fibres 5.6g and appreciable amount of vitamin C, calcium, zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The subjects' urinary vitamin C concentration was 32.49 +/- 2.53mg

  16. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Benue State, Nigeria.

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    Musa, Danladi I; Toriola, Abel L; Monyeki, Makama A; Lawal, Badamasi

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate demographic variation in the prevalence of overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) among 3240 children and adolescents (girls: n = 1714; boys: n = 1526) aged 9-16 years attending primary and secondary schools in Benue State of Nigeria. Participants' anthropometric characteristics (body weight, stature, body mass index: BMI and lean body mass: LBM) were determined using standard protocols. OW and OB were estimated using International Obesity task Force diagnostic criteria. Data were analysed with one-way anova and binary logistic regression method. Overall, 88.5%, 9.7% and 1.8% of the adolescents had normal BMI and were OW and obese, respectively. Prevalence of OW was higher among girls (20.3%) than boys (16.2%), whereas a relatively higher incidence of OB was noted among the boys (3.5%). Girls in urban areas had a significantly higher BMI (t524 = 3.61, P = 0.002) than their rural peers, but the rural girls were more significantly OW than their urban counterparts (BMI: t1186 = 2.506). Logistic regression models assessing the influence of age, gender and location on OW/OB in children (α(2) (3, N = 1014) = 6.185, P = 0.103) and adolescents (α(2) (3, N = 2226) = 1.435, P = 0.697) did not turn up significant results. In the gender-specific analysis, the younger boys' model was also not significant (α(2) (2, N = 488) = 1.295, P = 0.523) in contrast to the girls' (α(2) (2, N = 526) = 15.637, P = 0.0005), thus discriminating between OW and healthy weight among the children. Overall, the model explained 2.9-4.4% of the variance in weight status and correctly classified 76.8% of the cases. Age wise, the model yielded a significant odds ratio of 1.49, suggesting that the likelihood of being OW increases by a factor of 1.5 with a unit increase in age. Also, the likelihood of an urban girl becoming OW or obese was 0.57 times that of a rural girl. In general, girls in urban areas had higher prevalence of OW and OB than girls in

  17. Sexual risk behaviour among young people in Osogbo, Osun state Nigeria.

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    Mabayoje, V O; Akinwusi, P O; Fadiora, S O; Adeyeba, O A; Aderounmu, A O; Ebgewale, E B

    2005-10-01

    By analysing data randomly collected via administration of questionnaire by interview of individuals on sexual risk behaviour to 628 young people living in Osogbo, Nigeria, the results of the questionnaire revealed that the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 years for men and 16.5 years for women. Men tended to have multiple sexual partners more than the women (74.4% and 25.1%, respectively), while there was a highly significant relationship between sexually transmitted disease and multiple sexual partners among singles with Psex education at home, and in schools involving intensive counselling.

  18. Knowledge of nutritional and health needs of children among rural residents of Enugu north senatorial zone in Enugu State, Nigeria.

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    Okoye, Uzoma O; Ngwu, Christopher N; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2015-01-01

    The article assessed knowledge of the nutritional and health needs of children among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Focus group discussions were conducted with all male and female groups in four purposively chosen rural communities in Nsukka Senatorial zone of Enugu State. These generated data on participants' knowledge on the nutritional and health needs of the children as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. All the participants were married with mean age of 41 and 36 years for males and females, respectively. The participants had six and four children on the average for male and female participants, respectively. Findings show that participants demonstrate knowledge of basic dietary needs of children; however, actual practice is lacking. Men believe women have the sole responsibility for children's nutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding is not adhered to by participants. Some reservation still exists about immunization. Sustained health education on exclusive breastfeeding and child immunization targeting both sexes is still needed.

  19. Evaluation of school- and community-based HIV prevention interventions with junior secondary school students in Edo State, Nigeria.

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    Arnold, Robert; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Tenkorang, Eric; Holland, Daniel; Gaspard, Adeline; Luginaah, Isaac

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions delivered in rural communities and schools in Edo State, Nigeria designed to decrease youth vulnerability to HIV infection. The Ministry of Education approved Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme delivered in Junior Secondary Schools and a community-based initiative to raise AIDS Competency of rural communities were evaluated using a clustered randomized control trial and mixed qualitative-quantitative methods. Ten schools were assigned to each of three research arms: FLHE programme only, FLHE and community programme, and control. Results demonstrated positive effects on rejection of myths, attitudes related to abstinence and use of condoms, and sexual activity. Confidence in these results is supported by both levels of statistical significance and consistency in patterns of results across different levels of schooling. Results support expansion of delivery of the FLHE programme and development of community-based initiatives as effective methods of reducing youth vulnerability to HIV infection.

  20. Empowering teachers to change youth practices: evaluating teacher delivery and responses to the FLHE programme in Edo State, Nigeria.

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    Dlamini, Nombuso; Okoro, Felicia; Ekhosuehi, Uyi Oni; Esiet, Adenike; Lowik, A J; Metcalfe, Karen

    2012-06-01

    School-based programming is one of the most common approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention among youth. This paper presents the history and development of the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme in Edo State, Nigeria and results of evaluation of teacher actions and responses to training in its delivery. Results indicate that teachers benefited from the training, were aware of new and/or existing teaching resources and began to teach about HIV/AIDS. Teachers expressed that the programme facilitated open dialogue about HIV/AIDS. However, given limited human resources, FLHE was viewed as additional work to already overloaded teaching schedules. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education channel resources to enhance teachers' efforts towards combating HIV/AIDS. To facilitate learning about sexual health and family life, it is recommended that FLHE-based training be viewed as the first rather than the only step towards teacher professional development in this area.