WorldWideScience

Sample records for offshore visando tratamento

  1. Offshore degasser vessel capacity versus performance qualitative evaluation for waste water treatment; Avaliacao qualitativa da capacidade versus desempenho de vaso degaseificador em plataformas offshore visando tratamento de agua produzida para descarte

    Melo, Marcel V.; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Daniel B.V.F. [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software (ESSS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Present work shows a qualitative evaluation of an offshore degasser vessel aiming the improvement of the water processing plant capacity. For such computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allowed the analysis of the flow pattern inside the vessel for different operational flow rates and internal geometries. This vessel is responsible for the process of water final polishing to be disposed into the sea. Original capacity of the vessel is 13.308 m{sup 3}/d, but after some changes in the outlet section, the processing capacity increased to 24.000 m{sup 3}/d, without changing its separation efficiency. However, as newer production predictions state that the new processing capacity should be increased to 26.000 m{sup 3}/d, there is some uncertainty on how would be this vessel behaviour, given the new operational condition. CFD analysis will be used to evaluate the flow characteristics inside the vessel (residence time distribution), therefore providing information on the separation performance for each one of the specified conditions and internal modifications. (author)

  2. Tratamentos superficiais visando à melhoria da aderência entre gesso e taliscas de bambu Surface treatments aimed at improving the adhesion between plaster and bamboo slivers

    Cibelle G Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O gesso é um aglomerante com aplicações sobretudo na fabricação de placas de forro, elementos decorativos e em paredes divisórias. No entanto, utilizando-se de uma baixa relação água/gesso e procedimentos tais como vibração, torna-se possível obter resistências mecânicas compatíveis para outras aplicações na construção civil, como é o caso de elementos estruturais. A investigação reportada no presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, experimentalmente, a possibilidade de se melhorar o compósito estudado. Foram realizados tratamentos para redução da absorção de água pelas taliscas, por meio da utilização de extrato vegetal B Carbon, resina polimérica e piche. Na tentativa de melhorar a aderência na interface gesso/bambu foram utilizados adesivo epóxi, massa plástica e piche, além de confeccionados corpos de prova de gesso reforçados com taliscas de bambu, tratadas com diferentes produtos, cuja eficiência foi avaliada em ensaios mecânicos. Observou-se que, para ocorrer uma boa aderência na interface do compósito, são necessários tratamentos complementares que reduzam os efeitos da instabilidade dimensional.The gypsum is a binder with applications primarily in the manufacture of ceiling tile, decorative elements and partition walls. However, using a low water/plaster ratio and procedures such as vibration, it is possible to obtain mechanical strength compatible to other applications in construction as in the case of structural elements. The research reported in this study aimed to evaluate experimentally the possibility of improving the compound studied. Treatments were carried out to reduce water absorption by slivers through the use of plant extract B Carbon, polymer resin, and tar. In an attempt to improve the adhesion at the interface plaster/epoxy adhesive, bamboo, plastic and tar mass were used. Test specimens were made of plaster reinforced with slivers of bamboo, treated with different products

  3. Desenvolvimento de controle avançado para processos de aeração por ar difuso visando aplicação em sistemas de tratamento de efluentes

    Tiago Magalhães Soares

    2010-01-01

    Sistemas de aeração são amplamente utilizados em estações de tratamento de esgotos sanitários e efluentes industriais, sendo a configuração mais utilizada os sistemas de lodos ativados. Neste trabalho, buscou-se a implementação e o teste de uma estratégia de controle avançado em um sistema de aeração. Foi utilizado um canal de aeração com recirculação de água como simulação de um tanque de aeração. Para consumir o oxigênio dissolvido na água, foi realizada a dosagem de hipossulfito de sódio n...

  4. Desempenho de um “wetland” vertical aplicado ao tratamento do efluente de um filtro anaeróbio em uma estação de tratamento de águas cinzas claras visando o reúso não potável em edificações residenciais

    Sarnaglia, Solange Aparecida Alho

    2014-01-01

    No tratamento de água cinza com vistas ao reúso predial os “wetlands” têm se mostrado como uma opção viável devido à boa remoção de poluentes, ao baixo custo de implantação e operação, além do baixo impacto ambiental quando comparados a outros sistemas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar físico-química e microbiologicamente a água cinza clara gerada em um edifício universitário avaliar a influência das cargas hidráulica e orgânica na remoção de matéria orgânica, turbidez e de c...

  5. INSETICIDAS APLICADOS VIA TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES VISANDO AO CONTROLE DAS MOSCAS BRANCAS (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. E MINADORA (Liriomyza sp. NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE WHITE FLY Bemisia tabaci GENN. AND LEAFMINER Liriomyza sp. IN BEAN CROPS BY SEED TREATMENTS

    Antônio Lopes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Realizou-se o presente experimento no campo experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, de março a maio de 1993, para avaliar o controle das moscas brancas (Bemisia tabaci, GENN. e minadora (Liriomyza sp. na fase inicial da cultura do feijoeiro, com produtos aplicados via tratamento de sementes. Os tratamentos constaram de: imidacloprid 700 PM nas dosagens de 140, 210, 280 e 350 gramas de ingrediente ativo (i.a/l00 kg de sementes; carbosulfan + zinco 250 TS nas dosagens de 375 e 500g i.a./100kg de sementes, comparados com o carbofuran 350 TS na dosagem de 525 g i.a./100kg de sementes (padrão. Pelos resultados, concluiu-se que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle da mosca minadora, com porcentagens de eficiência que variaram de 93 a 99%. Imidacloprid, a partir de 280g i.a./100kg de sementes, foi igual aos outros produtos em eficiência no controle da mosca branca, com porcentagens de controle variando entre 83 a 89%.

    A trial to control the white fly Bemisia tabaci, GENN. and leafminer Liriomyza sp. was carried out in Goiânia, state of Goiás. The treatments and dosages of the insecticides per 100kg of seed were: imidacloprid (140, 210, 280 and 350g a.i., carbofuran (525 g a.i., carbosulfan (375 and 500g a.i, plus an untreated check. The application of the treatments were made on the seeds. The results of the experiment showed that all insecticides were efficient in controlling the leafminer at all dosages tested and imidacloprid at the dosages of 280 and 350g a.i. per 100kg seed was similar in controlling the white fly in bean crops.

  6. Offshoring Process

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...... technical-rational calculation of the most efficient organisation of activities across national borders, but it is rather specific to the parent companies’ national contexts....

  7. Offshore Outsourcing

    Petersen, Bent; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Dovgan, Olesya

    While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor to internatio...... that outsourcing can be used proactively to promote expanded international operations.......While the extant literature on offshore outsourcing deals with this operation mode in isolation, and typically with a focus on cost effects, we address the broader question of how companies choose and use outsourcing as part of foreign operation mode development and as a contributor...

  8. Produção de biomassa de microalgas cultivadas em esgoto sanitário biodigerido visando a produção de biodiesel

    Silva, Débora Andreatta da

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: As microalgas apresentam potencial como agente biorremediador de efluentes e com a possibilidade de geração de energia pelo aproveitamento de sua biomassa e óleo. O custo de produção das microalgas está principalmente relacionado ao meio de cultivo e aproveitamento da biomassa. Desta forma, o objetivo desse estudo foi utilizar esgoto sanitário como meio de cultivo para a produção de biomassa de microalga visando o tratamento desse efluente. O esgoto possui alto teor de material orgâni...

  9. Avaliação pré-operatória visando ao uso do halo craniano no tratamento de deformidades rígidas da coluna vertebral Evaluación pre-operatoria del uso del halo craneal en lo tratamiento de las deformidades rígidas de la columna vertebral Preoperative evaluation for the use of cranial halo traction in the spine treatment of rigid deformities

    Lucas Sasdelli Soares de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia e a segurança do uso do halo craniano gravitacional como técnica de tratamento de deformidades rígidas da coluna vertebral e rever complicações associadas ao seu tratamento. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de dez pacientes com deformidades rígidas da coluna vertebral: cifose, escoliose, cifoescoliose e hiperlordose cervical. O critério para inclusão dos pacientes foi o uso do halo craniano gravitacional em um período pré-operatório e interoperatório em deformidades rígidas da coluna vertebral. Foram avaliados os prontuários dos pacientes e suas mensurações radiográficas foram feitas em um período pré-operatório, após instalação do halo craniano gravitacional, e no período pós-operatório. As variáveis estudadas foram idade, sexo, valor angular da curva principal, valor angular da curva secundária, valor angular da curva sagital maior, protocolo de tração e tipo de procedimento utilizado. RESULTADOS: em relação ao plano frontal, avaliou-se, no período pré-operatório, a média angular de 89,9º, decrescendo para 65º após a instalação do halo e 56,9º no pós-operatório. Analisando o plano sagital, observou-se no período pré-operatório o valor angular de 77,7º, decrescendo para 55,4º, com o uso do halo-colete, e 46,5º no pós-operatório tardio. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que o uso da tração halo craniana é um método eficaz no auxílio da correção das deformidades rígidas da coluna vertebral, visto que se conseguiu uma correção significativa das deformidades do período pré-operatório para os períodos pós-instalação do halo e pós-operatório, sem se observar lesão neurológica ou outra grave complicação.OBJETIVO: evaluar, retrospectivamente, la eficacia y la seguridad del uso del halo craneal gravitacional como técnica de tratamiento de deformidades rígidas de la columna vertebral, y rever complicaciones asociadas a su tratamiento. MÉTODOS: ha sido

  10. Tuberculose: sofrimento e ilusões no tratamento interrompido

    Wilma Suely Batista Pereira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo realizado em Porto Velho (RO, junto a doentes de tuberculose que interromperam o tratamento. A partir da abordagem qualitativa e do método hermenêutico-dialético de análise do material das entrevistas, foi possível inferir que os sujeitos deste estudo têm pouco conhecimento sobre tuberculose e tomam atitudes relacionadas ao impacto que o diagnóstico e o tratamento prolongado causaram a eles próprios e ao seu meio social. Para os doze entrevistados, a interrupção do tratamento relaciona-se a motivos enraizados no não-dito, efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos, desorganização dos serviços e ilusão de estar curado. Isto implica repensarmos nossas posições técnico-metodológicas e as relações profissional-doente, visando a uma abordagem que possibilite encararmos tuberculose-interrupção de tratamento como experiências vividas pelas pessoas, famílias e redes sociais por elas tecidas ao longo do tempo.

  11. Accessing offshoring advantages

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    . Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...

  12. Tratamento conjugado de lixiviado de aterro sanitário e esgoto sanitário em lagoas de estabilização rasas

    Campos, Andrezza Raphaella Costa

    2012-01-01

    A busca para desenvolver alternativas viáveis e eficientes para o tratamento do lixiviado de aterro sanitário, fez com que surgisse a iniciativa de pesquisar sobre o tratamento conjugado entre lixiviado de aterro sanitário e esgoto sanitário, visando tratar o lixiviado diluindo este no esgoto, reduzindo as elevadas concentrações de matéria orgânica e nitrogênio amoniacal, deixando em proporções adequadas ao tratamento convencional. Neste estudo, foi analisada a eficiência do processo de trata...

  13. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUAS CINZAS VISANDO REÚSO DOMÉSTICO

    Geraldo Rampelotto

    2014-01-01

    A produção e disseminação do conhecimento para as questões ambientais, considerando os aspectos sociais e econômicos, entre eles, o reúso de águas, aplicado para fins não potáveis vem ao encontro das premissas de planeta sustentável. As águas cinzas, quando devidamente tratadas, podem ser utilizadas para consumo não potável em edificações como, por exemplo, descarga de vasos sanitários, lavagem de pisos, lavagem de calçadas, irrigação de jardins, usos ornamentais como espelhos dágua e chafari...

  14. Melhoramento genético da mamona visando incremento de flores femininas

    Fernanda Bertozzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar métodos de seleção visando ao aumento de flores femininas na população FCA-UNESP-PB de mamona (Ricinus communis L.. A seleção foi realizada no município de Botucatu (SP, na safrinha de 2007. Por meio de seleção massal, foram selecionadas plantas com racemo primário estritamente feminino. Destas plantas, as que tinham reversão sexual foram autofecundadas. As avaliações foram realizadas na safrinha de 2008 em Botucatu e São Manuel (SP, onde foram comparados os tratamentos: método de seleção massal; método de seleção massal com autofecundação e testemunha (racemos de plantas colhidos ao acaso, sem seleção. Foram avaliados: porcentagem de flores femininas do racemo primário (%, produtividade de grãos (kg ha-1 e teor de óleo das sementes (%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com 30 repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância individual para cada local e conjuntamente para os dois locais, pelo teste F a 1% de probabilidade. Mediante os resultados conclui- se que o método de seleção massal com autofecundação foi aquele que proporcionou maiores valores de porcentagem de flores femininas no racemo primário, com ganho fenotípico realizado de 18% em Botucatu e 29% em São Manuel (SP. Por meio dos métodos de seleção, notou-se comportamento diferencial em relação aos locais para a característica produtividade de grãos, e o método seleção massal com autofecundação proporcionou a menor produtividade. No teor de óleo não houve diferenças significativas entre os métodos e os locais avaliados.

  15. Offshore wind energy developments

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  16. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new iss...

  17. From Offshoring to Backshoring

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring over time. The paper employs qualitative methodology and on the basis of two case studies of Danish companies, it develops a framework conceptualizing the stages of offshoring and highlights the factors driving the transition...... between these stages. The framework challenges the linear nature of offshoring and proposes the existence of ‘the pendulum effect’. The pendulum effect suggests that the modes of offshoring (i.e. captive and non-captive) and geographies of offshoring (i.e. home and abroad) are not static; rather...

  18. Panorama 2012 - Offshore hydrocarbons

    Serbutoviez, Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Technological progress is enabling production from offshore oil and gas fields at increasingly ambitious depths (3, 000 metres). Investment in offshore production is running at around $100 billion per year, accounting for one-fifth of all investment in oil exploration and development worldwide. However, the global economic crisis that broke at the end of 2008 and the accident involving the Macondo well temporarily disrupted the race to deep offshore technology. (author)

  19. Offshore Transmission Technology

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of offshore electricity transmission technologies. In particular this document is concerned with the use of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems and more specifically with the development of Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology. This report outlines the current state of the main technology groups required for offshore HVDC transmission as well as giving examples of offshore projects (both current and future). Finally some indications of likely unit costs for HV assets are given.

  20. Occupational health offshore

    Crosbie, A.; Davies, F.

    2002-07-01

    The proceedings contain the 29 papers presented at the conference plus the opening address from the chair of the Health and Safety Commission. The papers in the first session were concerned with policy, strategy and leadership and included a perspective from the offshore industry advisory committee, details of a health planning tool for occupational health assurance and lessons from occupational health management in the offshore sector. The two sessions on the second day dealt with occupational health in the offshore design process and case studies involving physical, chemical and biological agents. Topics included the need to consider occupational health when designing offshore installations, the development of a human factors engineering strategy in petrochemical engineering projects, measuring occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals, implementation of the noise at work regulations, hand arm vibration syndrome and issues with potable water maintenance. The two sessions on the third day were concerned with human factors and psychological health, and well-being and fitness for duty. Topics covered included circadian adaption to shift change in offshore shift workers, managing stress in the offshore environment, the role of employee assistance programmes in organisational stress management, health care and first aid (the revised ACOP), well-being at work, the medical and physical fitness of offshore emergency response rescue team members, the impact of health surveillance and promotion of offshore accident rates, and the implication of safety and heath of the aging of the workforce ion the Norwegian offshore industry.

  1. Offshoring research directions

    Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Outsourcing and offshoring provide companies with ways to achieve their business objectives better or more cost effectively or despite a shortage of specific resources. From a research point of view, outsourcing and offshoring have mostly been studied as something that large companies do, not small

  2. Organizational Adaptation in Offshoring

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Offshoring offers managers the promise of substantial economic benefits, but also comes with the risk of increased complexity and coordination challenges. We argue that offshoring firms must accumulate architectural knowledge to keep the cost of coordination of the geographically separated activi...

  3. Offshore Investment Funds

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Offshore investment funds are alleged to have engaged in trading behavior that is different from their onshore counterparts because they may be subject to less supervision and regulation. In particular, they may trade more intensely. They could also pursue more aggressively certain trading strategies such as positive feedback trading or herding that could contribute to a greater volatility in the market. Using a unique data set, this chapter compares the trading behavior in the Korean stock market between offshore investment funds with their onshore counterparts registered in the US and UK. There are a number of interesting findings. First, there is indeed evidence suggesting that the offshore funds trade more intensely than their onshore counterparts. Second, however, there is no evidence that the offshore funds engage in positive feedback trading. In contrast, there is strong evidence that the funds from the U.S. and U.K. do. Third, while offshore funds do herd, they do so far less than onshore funds in the U.S. or UK. Fourth, offshore funds hold less glamour stocks (e.g. stocks with high P/E in their portfolio than funds in the U.S. or U.K. do. Moreover, flight to glamour stocks during the in-crisis period is less evident in the case of offshore funds. In sum, offshore funds are no especially worrisome monsters.

  4. Offshore wind development research.

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  5. Global offshore pipeline markets

    Knight, R.; Parsons, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

  6. Offshore risk assessment

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  7. Assessing offshore wind potential

    Adelaja, Adesoji; McKeown, Charles; Calnin, Benjamin; Hailu, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes.

  8. Offshore wind energy prospects

    Gaudiosi, Gaetano

    1999-01-01

    In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organisations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the intensive use of its territory and its today high wind capacity. Really the total wind capacity in Europe could increase from the 1997 value of 4450 MW up to 40 000 MW within 2010, according the White Paper 1997 of the European Commission; a significant percentage (25%) could be sited offshore up to 10 000 MW, because of close saturation of the land sites at that time. World wind capacity could increase from the 1997 value of 7200 MW up to 60 000 MW within 2010 with a good percentage (20%) offshore 12 000 MW. In last seven years wind capacity in shallow water of coastal areas has reached 34 MW. Five wind farms are functioning in the internal seas of Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden; however such siting is mostly to be considered as semi-offshore condition. Wind farms in real offshore sites, open seas with waves and water depth over 10 m, are now proposed in North Sea at 10-20 km off the coasts of Netherlands, Denmark using large size wind turbine (1-2 MW). In 1997 an offshore proposal was supported in Netherlands by Greenpeace after the OWEMES '97 seminar, held in Italy on offshore wind in the spring 1997. A review is presented in the paper of European offshore wind programs with trends in technology, economics and siting effects. (Author)

  9. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...

  10. Whether and What to Offshore?

    Jensen, Peter Ørberg; Pedersen, Torben

    In this article, we explore the idea that offshoring of services and technical work should be regarded as a dynamic process that evolves over time. Firms gradually move from offshoring of simple, standardized activities towards offshoring of advanced activities when they accumulate experience...... with offshoring, and this type of offshoring comes with an entirely different set of characteristics compared to traditional, cost-seeking offshoring. Based on a unique survey among the total population of firms in the eastern region of Denmark, we analyze some of the dynamics of this process through a model...... that incorporates two different aspects of the process of offshoring. First, we approach the question of whether to offshore and establish a baseline that investigates the determinants of firms’ participation—or lack thereof—in offshoring. Secondly, we approach the question of what to offshore and the subsequent...

  11. Offshore Q & A

    AmberStohr

    2003-01-01

    Equity International, Asia, is a leading financial service provider in China, offering planning expertise for expatriates on investing their income and savings. I recently sat down with four senior wealth managers in Shanghai to discuss Equity's approach to offshore investing.

  12. Offshoring in textile industry

    MONTÓN GARCÍA, JORGE

    2015-01-01

    [ EN] This project is about offshoring in the textile industry, focusing in the rights violated in this process, this concept can be defined as the moving of various operations of a company to another country for reasons such as lower labor costs or more favorable economic conditions in that other country. The project describes the evolution of offshoring, which started in 1960’s and has continued since then; it was characterized primarily by the transferring of factories from the develope...

  13. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    Gerrits, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  14. Offshore in depth

    Ebdon, J F

    1968-08-01

    The world-wide scope of offshore areas is discussed. Offshore areas of the U.S. and the world are where one of the ''hottest'' hydrocarbon booms--drilling, production, and pipelining--are in action today. Most of the current activity in offshore exploration and drilling is crude oil directed. However, big non-associated natural gas finds have been made. Additionally, for every barrel of crude oil produced, either or both associated natural gas and dissolved natural gas are produced in some varying ratio as casinghead gas. Thus, with worldwide production of some 2.5-million bbl of crude oil per day from offshore areas of Free-World countries, there are vast volumes of casinghead natural gas produced, over and above that produced from non-associated natural gas wells to the seaward of land masses. If offshore gas of any classification is produced in commercial volumes close to onshore population centers, then the possibility of marketing is fairly good. If remote from population centers, it is usually flared or shut-in. The development of gas liquefaction and cryogenic tankers has started, but international ocean traffic in LNG is still in its infancy. Current offshore gas pipelines are described.

  15. A acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar no tratamento da paralisia cerebral

    Francisca Salete Pinheiro Chagas Ribeiro

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte crianças, com diagnóstico de paralisia cerebral (PC e sob tratamento clássico, fisioterápico e pedagógico, receberam piracetam (acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar. O objetivo foi melhorar os problemas de espasticidade, apredizagem, neurolabilidade, visando a um rendimento melhor do tratamento global da PC. O grupo medicado foi comparado com um grupo controle de 20 crianças que só eram objeto do tratamento habitual. A comparação mostrou resultados favoráveis no grupo medicado. A droga foi administrada na dose de 80 mg/kg/dia durante 10 semanas. Os critérios de avaliação dos resultados foram psicológicos, clínico, fisioterápico e pedagógico. A droga foi administrada em nova forma de apresentação: solução, para uso oral, a 6%.

  16. Tratamento da dor em queimados

    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  17. Caracterização, em escala de laboratório, do produto proveniente da calcinação do lodo de esgoto resultante do tratamento de águas residuárias.

    Leandro Cardoso de Morais

    2006-01-01

    O tratamento de efluentes de indústrias e efluentes domésticos é realizado em Estações de Tratamento de Esgoto as chamadas (ETE\\'s), onde se tem como produtos finais, uma corrente de água tratada e um resíduo sólido, o lodo de esgoto. A presente Tese tem como objetivo o estudo do processamento térmico do lodo de esgoto seco da ETE de Barueri, São Paulo, visando avaliar seu uso como fonte de energia e obter, por queima, um material cerâmico. Este trabalho foi proposto como uma alternativa para...

  18. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  19. Offshoring R&D

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    Companies are increasingly offshoring R&D activities. Many firms, however, experience difficulties related to virtual teamwork across cultures and time zones. The research question is: How does increasing R&D offshoring impact transparency of communication structures and knowledge sharing? Using...... case studies from Danish multinational corporations with R&D activities in China, India or Eastern Europe this paper analyses the impact observed in these companies in regard to communication structures and knowledge sharing in management of offshored R&D activities. The findings show that companies...... attempt to increase transparency through formalisation of knowledge and clear communication structures. However, the influence of tacit knowledge, horizontal communication and culture seem largely overlooked. Therefore the authors suggest a context based approach to transparency accustomed...

  20. Offshore atomic power plants

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  2. Offshore rectenna feasbility

    Freeman, J. W.; Hervey, D.; Glaser, P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary study of the feasibility and cost of an offshore rectenna to serve the upper metropolitan east coast was performed. A candidate site at which to build a 5 GW rectenna was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers, avoidance of shipping lanes, sea floor terrain, and relocated conditions. Several types of support structures were selected for study based initially on the reference system rectenna concept of a wire mesh ground screen and dipoles each with its own rectifier and filter circuits. Possible secondary uses of an offshore rectenna were examined and are evaluated.

  3. Offshoring and financial markets

    Gianfranco Battisti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the nature and extent of the offshore world, a grey area that is playing a major role in present-day economy. The main institutions moulding this peculiar environment are discussed: preferential tax regimes, tax havens and offshore financial centers. Their role in the globalised world is outlined after a scrutiny of the specialized literature, reports by non-governmental bodies and companies’ advertisings. Finally, we present a tentative reconstruction of its geographical organization, inclusive of cartographic representations of the main international networks.

  4. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... of services including includes legal advice, financing, insurance etc. The two value chains have a number of activities in common. Both include (1) a tender and concession phase where the energy company obtains the right to explore and produce energy from the authorities. (2) An exploration phase where...

  5. Gela offshore field

    Pagliughi, G

    1965-06-01

    The field of Gela, off the southern shore of Sicily, is the only producing offshore field in the Mediterranean. It produces from Triassic dolimite limestones of 434-m thickness, water level at -3517 m. It is a water-drive reservoir producing 10/sup 0/F API oil and has 79 wells, some of them on shore. Most offshore wells are directional wells from shore; there are also 2 fixed platforms and a special mobile platform. The wells are on pump (stroke, 72 in.; capacity 200 tons per day). The crude goes directly to a combination refinery-petrochemical complex at Gela.

  6. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  7. 2016 Offshore Wind Market Report

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spitsen, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report is intended to provide stakeholders with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide.

  8. Armazenamento de sementes de feijão submetidas a tratamentos sanitários alternativos

    Cristina Fernanda Schneider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar tratamentos alternativos em sementes de feijão visando à conservação da qualidade fisiológica e sanitária em diferentes ambientes de armazenagem. Sementes de feijão cultivar Mulatinho provenientes de cultivo orgânico de Marechal Cândido Rondon-PR, safra 2010/2011, foram submetidas aos tratamentos: testemunha; termoterapia: 60 °C em estufa de circulação forçada por três horas; folhas de Eucalyptus grandis: foram cortadas em pedaços pequenos e misturadas às sementes; e alho+óleo+cinzas: 100 gramas de alho e 500 mL de óleo Glycine max para cada 60 kg de sementes, sendo estes amassados e misturados às sementes, e, ao final, misturadas às cinzas. Após os tratamentos, as sementes foram armazenadas por 120 dias em embalagem impermeável e em condições ambientais controladas (10 ± 3 °C e 36 ± 3% de umidade e não controladas (mantidas em temperatura ambiente. Após o armazenamento foram determinados: grau de umidade, massa de mil sementes, 1ª contagem do teste de germinação, germinação final, índice de velocidade de germinação e sanidade. O tratamento testemunha armazenada em ambiente controlado proporcionou os melhores resultados, conservando a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes. 

  9. Pricing offshore wind power

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  10. Offshore environmental aspects

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Degraer, S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms (OWFs) is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the cumulative environmental impact of such farms. The major impacts are caused by the noise produced in the building phase, the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise in

  11. Floating offshore turbines

    Tande, John Olav Giæver; Merz, Karl; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    metric of energy production per unit steel mass. Floating offshore wind turbines represent a promising technology. The successful operation of HyWind and WindFloat in full scale demonstrates a well advanced technology readiness level, where further development will go into refining the concepts, cost...

  12. Nearshore versus Offshore

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of whichoffshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The question betweennearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...

  13. Advanced Service Offshore Outsourcing

    Brandl, Kristin; Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg; Lind, Manya Jaura

    2018-01-01

    the capabilities, where the deficient development of one capability can be mitigated by the development of another capability (firm-internal determinants). Grounded in organization and service production theory, the paper contributes to the thematic literature on service offshoring and literature on organizational...

  14. Tratamento terapêutico multi-profissional para endometriose com dor pélvica - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i1.633

    Raquel Pinto Caldeira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi citar os vários tipos de tratamentos de endometriose visando melhorar a dor pélvica presente. Realizamos uma revisão bibliográfica com artigos relacionados à dor pélvica e endometriose, e foram encontrados 65 artigos, excluídos 49, restando apenas 16. Concluímos que o uso de qualquer hormônio é eficaz no tratamento clínico medicamentoso para dor pélvica associada à endometriose. Dependendo da gravidade da doença encontrada, a prática ideal da laparoscopia consiste em realizar o diagnóstico e a extinção cirúrgica dos focos de endometriose no ato operatório. Toda paciente deve ser indicado ao tratamento multiprofissional que atenda às demandas físicas e psicológicas visando o alívio da dor, a melhora da qualidade de vida e principalmente a sua auto-estima.

  15. Offshore 2010. Final report; Offshore 2010. Sluttrapport

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    An overview of the accomplishments of the various projects that have received support from the Norwegian Research Council's program 'Offshore 2010'. The following projects are presented, some have English and some Norwegian project names: 'Critical parameters influencing inhibitor performance in multiphase flow', 'Development of the drilling optimization simulator (DDS) and a totally integrated drilling optimization system', 'Produksjonsoptimalisering og automatisk styring av broenner og roerledninger (PETRONICS)', 'Termisk isolerte undervannsroer for sikring av broenntransport over store avstander', 'Utvikling av magnetisk frekvensformer for styring av store subsea pumper paa havdyp ned mot 4000 meter', 'Flerfase stroemningsmaaler for permanent nedihulls installasjon', 'Hastighetsmaaling i flerfase stroemning ved passiv akustikk', 'Oil/water seperation offshore: optimized flow- and seperation behavior', 'Stroemningshastighet', 'A rock mechanics based reservoir simulation', 'MultiTool fase 2 - et flerbruksverktoey for nedihulls applikasjoner', 'Utvikling av undervanns olje-i-vann monitor for kontinuerlig maaling av lave oljekonsentrasjoner basert paa TR-LIFS', 'Subsea multipath ultrasonic liquid flow meter', 'Fluid characterization at elevated pressures and temperatures (Flucha II)'. The two main goals for the research program are 1. The development of new technology and competency in the field of downhole- and subsea processing and multiphase transportation, and 2. Innovation and commercialisation in small and medium sized companies (less than 100 employees). Some details on the financing and results are included (ml)

  16. Current trends in offshore technology

    Korsgaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Although this is a technical symposium concerning advances in the technology of producing oil and gas offshore, a keynote address would not be complete without mentioning non-technical factors which are extremely important for the business of producing oil and gas offshore. These are political factors and economic factors. Offshore operations are an easy target for political forces that are opposed to marine operations involving the production and transfer of hydrocarbons. For example, the oil pollution act of 1990 was a reaction to the Exxon Valdez grounding in Alaska and this act has added significantly to the risk and cost of operating offshore. Another example of this is that it is becoming more and more difficult to dispose of produced water offshore. Producing oil and gas offshore is a business that competes with other energy sources such as coal and oil and gas from wells on land. The offshore oil can only compete with these other resources by providing the same product at a competitive price. Since offshore operations are inherently more costly than land operations, the offshore oil field or gas field must be significantly larger than a land field in order to be produced. Also the offshore oil field or gas field is more susceptible to environmental risks from weather. On a more positive note, there are technical developments which are taking place and have continuously taken place to make offshore oil and gas both more economic and safer to produce. These developments are briefly discussed

  17. Offshore concrete structures

    Lamas Pardo, M.; Carral Couce, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shiphuidling industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built

  18. Estratégia de partida de reatores anaeróbios visando o tratamento de resíduos agrícolas

    Luiz Gustavo Fernandes Julião

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O Brasil é o maior produtor de café do mundo. Entretanto, a produção de café de qualidade lança em corpos d'água, grande quantidade de água residuária, principal resíduo do beneficiamento do grão. Desse modo, tecnologias que minimizam o impacto de descarte em rios são necessárias para conservação do meio aquático. Assim, a hipótese desse trabalho foi a utilização de microrganismos através da técnica de biorremediação, que por possuir alta taxa de remoção, devido ao processo biológico,...

  19. Influência do tratamento enzimatico sobre as características reológicas e microscópicas da polpa de acerola

    Luciana Balischi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de sucos e bebidas à base de frutas tem aumentado consideravelmente nos últimos anos. No Brasil, destaca-se a produção da acerola (alto teor de vitamina C e de seus derivados. Objetivando melhoramentos na fabricação de sucos e derivados de frutas tropicais, surgiram pesquisas visando a encontrar o melhor tratamento enzimático. Neste trabalho, estudou-se a variação que ocorre na reologia da polpa integral de acerola submetida ao tratamento enzimático, bem como a variação no diâmetro médio das partículas, para as melhores condições de tratamento obtidas. Duas enzimas comerciais foram testadas: Citrozym Ultra L e Pectinex Ultra SP-L, variou-se as temperaturas, as concentrações das enzimas e os tempos de tratamento As características reológicas e microscópicas da polpa sofreram alterações com o tratamento enzimático.

  20. Offshore Wind Power

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power......The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...

  1. Tegretol no tratamento da epilepsia

    Jorge Armbrust-Figueiredo

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available O Tegretol (5-carbamil-5H-dibenzo-b,L-azepina foi usado no tratamento de 68 pacientes com epilepsia; 54 apresentavam epilepsia temporal (42 com crises psicomotoras e 12 com crises complexas, 11 epilepsia focal de projeção não temporal e 3 epilepsia centrencefálica com crises P.M. Resultados satisfatórios foram observados em 82% dos 65 pacientes com epilepsia focal; os 3 pacientes com crises P.M. não foram influenciados pelo tratamento. A ação sobre as manifestações psíquicas que acompanhavam o quadro crítico ou intercrítico das crises ficou bem evidenciada. Os pacientes melhoraram de seus sintomas na grande maioria dos casos, conseguindo adaptar-se melhor no ambiente familiar, profissional e escolar. O efeito sobre as alterações eletrencefalográficas é moderado, e a evolução clínica não acompanha as modificações dos traçados. As doses usadas, em geral de 400 a 600 mg diários, são suficientes para o controle das crises na maioria dos casos e estão muito abaixo dos limites considerados como de segurança. As reações secundárias foram observadas em pequeno número de casos e foram sempre transitórias. O Tegretol representa, em nossa opinião, recurso de valor no trataemnto das epilepsias focais, particularmente nas crises psicomotoras.

  2. Efeito do tratamento com óleos essenciais sobre a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de milho (Zea mays)

    Domene, Maria Paula; Glória, Eduardo Micotti da; Biagi, João Domingos; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos; Martins, Leila

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO: O desenvolvimento de pesticidas é uma constante no setor agropecuário, visando oferecer produtos menos agressivos ao meio ambiente e novos princípios ativos, evitando o aparecimento de resistência. O estudo de alternativas aos fungicidas utilizados no tratamento de sementes tem nos óleos essenciais um campo para prospecção. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos dos óleos essenciais provenientes de folhas de C. citriodora e E. camaldulensis , em sementes de milho da varie...

  3. Offshore wind generators: realization?

    Roche, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the French legal context for the different aspects of the development of offshore wind farms in France: procedures related to electricity production installations (authorization or tender like what has been done for six sites), other administrative authorizations, and connection to the grid. Then, she addresses the various constraints: environmental, social and technical constraints (protected marine areas, constraints related to the tendering process), coast planning documents, tax policy. She finally discusses the installation dismantling

  4. Outsourcing software development offshore making IT work

    Gold, Tandy

    2004-01-01

    THE OFFSHORE IMPERATIVECrunching the Offshore Numbers: What the Financials PortendWelcome to the Definitive Guide on Offshore OutsourcingSetting the Stage: The Compelling Offshore StoryOffshore Outsourcing versus Traditional IT OutsourcingChallenges of Offshore OutsourcingChapter SummaryGetting Started in OffshoreExecutive Support and Communications: The Key to SuccessA Look at an Example of Enlightened Leadership: Handling Employee Impact at a Northeast Utilities CompanyWell-Planned and Executed Communications: A Critical Success Factor for Offshore Program InitiationEstablishing the Offshore

  5. Wind energy in offshore grids

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  6. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...

  7. The Economic Geography of Offshoring

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    when distinguishing between standardized and advanced activities. Asia attracts as many advanced activities as Western Europe while North America attracts more advanced activities even in manufacturing. Central and Eastern Europe attract offshoring in manufacturing and IT, but the activities...... that are offshored to these regions are typically not advanced. One important theoretical implication of this study is that a more detailed understanding of the nature of offshored activities is needed, since such attributes appear to be an important determinant of location choice....

  8. Offshore floating windmills

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to produce a general survey of the profitability of establishing floating offshore wind turbine arrays and to compare this with the cost and profitability of constructing offshore arrays with fixed foundations and arrays located on land sites. Aspects of design in all cases are described, also into relation to the special demands placed on dimensioning in relation to the types of location and foundation. The costs of the offshore arrays are evaluated in relation to capacity under conditions in Danish waters. The advantage of floating arrays is that they can be placed far out to sea where they can not be seen from the coast and thus not be considered to spoil the marine view. But as the water gets deeper the cost of floating foundations rises. It was found that it would not be technologically profitable to establish floating arrays at a depth of less than 30 - 40 meters which means that only the outer Danish waters can be taken into consideration. For depths of up to 70 meters, individual floating bases are more expensive than fixed ones but would be cheaper if a number of windmills could share the same anchor. For depths of more than 70 meters floating foundations would be the cheapest. The cost is dependent on the depth and distance from the coast and also on wind conditions. The main conclusion is that currently the cost of establishing wind turbine arrays in deeper outer waters on floating foundations is comparable to that of arrays sited at inner waters on solid foundations placed on the sea bed. (AB) (20 refs.)

  9. Offshore Wind Farms

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    : the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

  10. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  11. Dutch offshore skills assessed

    Schaap, P

    1988-11-01

    The position is described of the different Dutch industries involved in the oil and gas exploitation business in the North Sea. Mentioned are, in the first place, the activities of towing services Smit Tak, and Wijsmuller. A well known drilling contractor is Neddrill. Drilling rigs are often designed in cooperation with consulting engineers firms Protech International, Heerema Engineering, Global Engineering, KTI, Fluor, and Tebodin. Drilling rigs constructors Grootint, Mercon Steel Structures, Heerema Havenbedrijf, HCG, Boele, and IHC have a sound name in the offshore construction scene. Offshore contractors like Heerema, Smit Tak, Volker Stevin and Allseas Engineering should be mentioned too. Special attention is given to the operation of saving drilling rigs in the Ekofisk field. Years of exploitation of oil and gas from this field resulted in subsidence of the sea floor, which endangered the drilling rigs. Hydraudyne designed the hydraulic lifter necessary for this saving operation. Dutch firms in this field have an estimated yearly turnover of Dfl 3 x 10/sup 9/. 6 figs.

  12. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  13. OFFSHORING FOR SUSTAINABLE VALUE MANAGEMENT

    Thaddeus Oforegbunam Ebiringa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates offshoring as a strategic value management initiative using Cadbury Nigeria Plc as a case study. Through offshoring risks associated with inventory holding are hedged. A comparative analysis of in-house and offshored cost profiles as well as critical risk factors that affect firm value are evaluated. The result shows that offshoring led to immediate costs saving, freeing of funds previously held in inventory for other working capital investments as well as profitability for vendors. However, aside financial benefits to partners, it leads to increased stakeholders awareness, shared values, partnerships, teamwork and risk mitigation. It therefore follows that for sustainability of financial benefits of offshoring, concerted effort must be made by partners to ensure that critical drivers of value management are not compromised.

  14. Outsourcing/Offshoring Insights

    Tate, Wendy; Bals, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Findings: Both the geographical and governance dimensions are part of the rightshoring decision which is an important conceptual foundation for this special issue, as it invited insightful pieces on all of these phenomena (e.g. outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring, reshoring), acknowledging...... for future research out of the six papers are summarized in Table III. There is ample opportunity to further shed light on these suggestions as well as to cover parts of the “rightshoring” framework presented, that remain less covered here (e.g. insourcing and/or reshoring). Practical implications: The array...... of potential “rightshoring” options fosters clarity about the phenomena studied and their implications. The main practical implications of the six papers are summarized in Table II. Originality/value: The overall conceptual framework highlights the positioning of the final papers included into the special...

  15. Noise from offshore wind turbines

    Soendergaard, B.; Plovsing, B.

    2005-07-01

    Noise assessment of wind turbines through calculations is based on sound power levels measured according to e.g. IEC 61400-11. With larger wind turbines and distances some of the calculation models give erroneous results. Noise propagation over water is different from propagation over land. For that reason it is important be able to make valid noise assessments for offshore wind farms. A suggestion for an offshore measurement method is described and a survey of models for noise propagation offshore has been made. (au)

  16. Offshore wind power in Finland

    Holttinen, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the project were to estimate the technical offshore wind power potential of the Gulf of Bothnia, with cost assessments, to study icing conditions and ice loads, and to design a foundation suitable for the environmental conditions. The technical offshore potential from Vaasa to Tornio is huge, more than 40 TWh/a, although the cost of offshore wind power is still higher than on land. Wind turbines have not previously been designed for the icing conditions found in Gulf of Bothnia and the recommendations for load cases and siting of megawatt-class turbines are an important result of the project. (orig.)

  17. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Hvenekær Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Offshore vindenergi er i høj grad modnet i det seneste årti med en årligt installeret kapacitet på mere end1 GW. En vigtig faktor for den videre udvikling af offshore vindenergi i stor målestok, er en reduktion af de samlede udgifter til produceret energi. I betragtning af for eksempel faldet i olieprisen siden sommeren 2014 og dens fortsatte fald ind i 2015, er det endnu vigtigere at sænke omkostningerne til etablering af vedvarende energikilder såsom offshore vindenergi, for at nå frem til ...

  18. Domestic R&D and Offshoring

    Junge, Martin; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    survey and register data. No evidence is found for a lower probability of own R&D after offshoring takes place compared to before. Moreover, offshoring does not lead to lower R&D intensity in general. However, firms that offshore R&D activity have larger R&D intensity after offshoring has taken place...

  19. Integration of Wave and Offshore Wind Energy in a European Offshore Grid

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Sørensen, H. C.; Korpås, M.

    2010-01-01

    of offshore renewable energy sources. According to this, the paper covers i) public and private initiatives for offshore transmission networks, ii) the synergies between the wave and the offshore wind energy sector within an offshore grid, iii) power transmission options for offshore generation and iv...

  20. O psicanalista no tratamento da dor

    Sueli Pinto Minatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dor se manifesta como mal-estar do corpo e no corpo, e tende a ser encaminhada para tratamento médico. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a queixa dolorosa do ponto de vista do tratamento psicanalítico, retomando algumas acepções relacionadas ao tratamento da dor, encontradas na obra de Freud. Partimos da experiência no trabalho em hospital pediátrico, utilizando a análise do atendimento de pacientes com queixas de dor para definir e situar a dor no campo da psicanálise, e distingui-la do campo da medicina. No texto, pode-se acompanhar a dor como signo de sofrimento e diversas formas de abordá-la tanto pelo sujeito que a porta quanto pelas instituições que propõem seu cuidado.

  1. The economics of offshore wind

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. (author)

  2. Some characteristics of offshore operations

    Popov Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore operations are not on the margins of the world economy. They are an integral part of modern business practice. They have become one of the most important instruments in the contemporary globalized financial system. Offshore operations and tax havens are not only conduits for tax avoidance and evasion but belong more broadly to the world of finance, for the business of managing the monetary resources of an organization, country or individuals. Offshore business operating in tax havens is at the heart of a particular type of globalization that is characterized by a growing gap between the very rich and everyone else. Tax havens are financial conduits that, in exchange for a fee, use their one principal asset- their sovereignty to serve a nonresident constituency of accountants and lawyers, bankers and financiers, who bring a demand for offshore operations.

  3. The economics of offshore wind

    Green, Richard; Vasilakos, Nicholas [Department of Economics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents an overview of the main issues associated with the economics of offshore wind. Investment in offshore wind systems has been growing rapidly throughout Europe, and the technology will be essential in meeting EU targets for renewable energy in 2020. Offshore wind suffers from high installation and connection costs, however, making government support essential. We review various support policies used in Europe, concluding that tender-based feed-in tariff schemes, as used in Denmark, may be best for providing adequate support while minimising developers' rents. It may prove economic to build an international offshore grid connecting wind farms belonging to different countries that are sited close to each other. (author)

  4. Learning Paths to Offshore Outsourcing

    Maskell, Peter; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    A corporation’s offshore outsourcing may be seen as the result of a discrete, strategic decision taken in response to an increasing pressure from worldwide competition. However, empirical evidence of a representative cross-sector sample of international Danish firms indicates that offshore sourcing...... in low-cost countries is best described as a learning-by-doing process in which the offshore outsourcing of a corporation goes through a sequence of stages towards sourcing for innovation. Initially, a corporation’s outsourcing is driven by a desire for cost minimization. Over a period of time...... the outsourcing experience lessens the cognitive limitations of decision-makers as to the advantages that can be achieved through outsourcing in low-cost countries: the insourcer/vendor may not only offer cost advantages, but also quality improvement and innovation. The quality improvements that offshore...

  5. Tratamento do parkinsonismo com L-Dopa

    Nilton Luís Latuf

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos no tratamento de 54 pacientes parkinsonianos com L-Dopa. A intensidade dos sintomas foi avaliada mediante a escala NUDS (Northwestern University Disability Scales antes e após o tratamento. Os autores ressaltam a obtenção de melhores resultados no que respeita à rigidez e à discinesia, em comparação com o tremor. São apontados os efeitos colaterais, quase sempre de pequena intensidade e corrigíveis com a diminuição ou suspensão da administração medicamentosa.

  6. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshoring can be defined as the relocation of organizational tasks and services to foreign locations. At the same time as the scale and scope of offshoring have reached unprecedented levels in recent years, firms have increasingly been exposed to the challenges relating to managing an organizati...... implies an organizational reconfiguration consisting of three stages: disintegration, relocation and reintegration. We discuss the implications of this perspective and outline a research agenda....

  7. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  8. Lightweight Efficient Offshore Fenders

    Banke, Lars; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    At offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions from supply vessels.Normally the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not normally capable of resisting the impact load from of the boat. Therefore...... alternative designs are searched for the fender.Today, an often-used improvement of the fender is to fill it with grout or concrete. However, this improvement is not optimal since the fillingsincrease the weight of the finder beyond the crane capacity of the platform. This causes the need of crane boats...... for installation of the fender and eventually for removing it if new oil-risers are to be installed. The use of crane oats is expensive and weather dependent.Having these effects in mind a study of the energy absorption in the fender system, i.e. the fender itself and the frame, is needed for a furtherdevelopment...

  9. Offshore industry executives meet

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The future of the Gulf of Mexico is tied to the overall future of oil/gas on the international market as it relates to the US. Conquering this last frontier, possibly only through development of technology, was one of the themes covered in the 21st Annual Meeting of the National Ocean Industries Association held in early April, 1993 in Washington, D.C. Oil is the major source for foreign exchange but there are major uncertainties in predicting the future. The swing (imports vs. exports) is two million barrels per day. The big oil users (heavy industry) have reduced consumption. The last big uncertainty is the environmental policies of the West. Development of resources in the Gulf was the third record year in a row in 1992. The potential for hydrocarbon discoveries is significant, a substantial number of new fields have been made and significant discoveries are likely to continue. More than 100 trillion cubic feet of natural gas lies undiscovered offshore - 35% of undiscovered domestic resources. The oil potential exceeds nine billion barrels, more than any other basin except Alaska

  10. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade de emulsões O/A com cristais líquidos acrescidas de xantina para tratamento da hidrolipodistrofia ginóide (celulite)

    Gilsane Garcia Morais

    2006-01-01

    Atualmente, decorrente da cultura estética onde há o culto aos corpos esbeltos com aparência saudável e pele lisa, macia e viçosa, a hidrolipodistrofia ginóide, conhecida como celulite, tem sido um dos desafios para os dermatologistas e cirurgiões plásticos. Assim, temse testado diferentes formas de tratamentos entre as quais estão aplicações de cremes à base de xantinas visando a atenuação dos sintomas. O conhecimento das propriedades físicoquímicas de tais formulações é essencial para otimi...

  11. Offshore pipelaying dynamics

    Jensen, Gullik Anthon

    2010-02-15

    This thesis considers three issues regarding modeling of of offshore pipe laying dynamics. These are: (i) the formulation of an offshore pipeline installation operation as a control problem, (ii) the development and passivity analysis of a robotic pipe model for a submerged pipe string, suitable for real-time applications in closed- loop control systems, and (iii) the development and validation of a nonlinear FEM model for simulation and control of the elastic pipeline dynamics, including FEM dynamics of a pipeline combined with vessel dynamics, for simulation and control of pipe lay operations under dynamic positioning Pipeline installation is defined as the operation of positioning a pipeline along a reference path on the seabed from a surface vessel. In control terms, this can be stated as a path-following control problem, where the pipe touchdown point tracks the reference path. However, the only controllers for the touchdown point are the pay-out of pipe into the water, and the motion of the surface vessel. Considering that the pipe is an elastic body, and that both the pipe and the vessel are subject to environmental loads, the control problem that must be considered is a dynamic target-tracking problem, where the surface vessel must track a moving target position on the surface in order to control the position of the touchdown point. A target-tracking controller may be implemented as a guidance system, by extending the dynamic positioning system that is common for pipe lay vessels. An important component in the guidance system is the dynamic pipe model mapping touchdown and surface vessel position. Motivated by robotics, a compact system formulation is derived for the suspended pipeline by considering it as a hyper-redundant manipulator with an arbitrary number of links. This model captures the main dynamics of the pipe, including its geometric configuration and top tension. The model is in the state- space, and on a vectorial form using minimal coordinates

  12. IS OFFSHORING AN INTERNATIONAL PROCESS

    Paulo Roberto Gião

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to analyze the applicability of transaction cost economics - TCE (Coase, 1937; Williamson, 1975, 1979 through its characteristic make-or-buy expression, considering the offshoring pace and emerging economy firms. The make-or-buy decision must be flexible enough to explain offshoring characteristics and developed and emerging economy firms scenarios. As secondary objectives, and to show the trail to the main purpose, two research questions were identified and discussed during the paper: Is offshoring process an international movement only from developed countries to emerging economies? Is the main reason of offshoring the looking for low-cost work / activities? To achieve the proposed objectives, the structure of this paper begins with a reasonable or acceptable definition of offshoring. Some reasons (or “the reason” for the process are also another important starting point. The majority of articles referee the idea that low-cost is the main reason for offshoring, and if it is correct, transaction cost economics seems to be a good basis for our analysis purpose and integrative intention. Also some literature connections between offshoring and TCE are presented and, naturally TCE is presented in highlights for understanding these connections. Ending this section, some different arguments based on newer researches are presented by some authors presenting another perspective as the main reason. After this theoretical approach, a scenario analysis and some discussions are presented based on all possible interactions among firm from developed (DC and emerging economies (EE and examples of international corporations are presented to clarify and improve the understanding of our research questions and to build new contributions to international business theory.

  13. Tratamento do chorume de aterro de resíduos sólidos urbanos utilizando um coagulante à base de Tanino, tratamento biológico e ozonização

    Edir Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente produção de resíduos sólidos, demanda a realização de pesquisas visando atenuar os impactos ambientais decorrentes da destinação desses despejos. Sabe-se que as características qualitativas dos resíduos produzidos no Brasil, são predominantemente de origem orgânica, sendo que a pluviosidade causa a geração de grandes volumes de chorume. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar duas diferentes alternativas para o abatimento da carga poluidora do chorume gerado, no aterro sanitário de resíduos sólidos urbanos, localizado em um município do meio oeste de Santa Catarina. Através da caracterização e tratamento por processos biológicos seguido de físico-químicos usando um coagulante a base de tanino e um floculante catiônico de alto peso molecular, a fim de se obterem efluentes com características que permitam o seu descarte de acordo com a legislação. Potencializando a eficiência do processo de tratamento, de forma que, a empresa operadora possa adotar em escala real o processo estudado em laboratório.

  14. Wind energy in offshore grids

    Schroeder, S.T.

    2013-01-15

    This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid affects the economics of an offshore wind park. It is shown that the spot market income is lower if an offshore wind farm is placed in an interconnector and subject to nodal pricing instead of having a national affiliation. Moreover, congestion in the interconnector can prevent the wind farm from correcting its wind forecast errors in a specific onshore balancing group. An analytical approach with a transmission system operator and a wind farm as stakeholders illustrates resulting incentives for strategic behaviour. Depending on the regulatory regime, they may be inclined to announce more or less generation than expected at the closure of the day-ahead spot market. This can lead to a suboptimal utilisation of the infrastructure and associated socio-economic losses. These and possibly undesired reallocative effects between the parties can be avoided if the regulatory regime is adjusted to reflect special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment framework has also been addressed with a policy study about possible combinations of support schemes and international cooperation mechanisms between countries to achieve their

  15. Offshore Wind Energy Market Overview (Presentation)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation describes the current international market conditions regarding offshore wind, including the breakdown of installation costs, how to reduce costs, and the physical siting considerations considered when planning offshore wind construction. The presentation offers several examples of international existing and planned offshore wind farm sites and compares existing international offshore resources with U.S. resources. The presentation covers future offshore wind trends and cites some challenges that the United States must overcome before it will be able to fully develop offshore wind sites.

  16. Offshore investments: Denmark shows the way

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the use of wind power in Denmark and discusses the tremendous growth in the manufacture of wind turbines since 1981 with Denmark holding some 60% of the worlds' wind turbine market. The move to offshore wind farms is explained in terms of the shortage of land and the quality of the offshore wind, and details of the Tuno Knob pilot offshore wind farm are given. Offshore wind power in Europe, the challenges to offshore operations, the costs involved, environmental effects of the use of offshore wind, and the growing amount of wind power capacity are discussed

  17. ATIVIDADE OVICIDA DO PRODUTO À BASE DE D-LIMONENO VISANDO AO MANEJO DA BROCA-PEQUENA-DO-TOMATEIRO Neoleucinodes elegantalis, EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Alixelhe Pacheco Damascena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência de produto à base de d-limoneno visando ao manejo de Neoleucinodes elegantalis na cultura do tomateiro. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado composto por 10 repetições para cada tratamento/bioensaio.  Os parâmetros avaliados, foram submetidos a análise de variância, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. O efeito ovicida foi obtido nas concentrações de 50, 100 e 200 % do produto, e também ação de choque e ação fisiológica nas concentrações de 100 e 200%. Verificou-se então que a concentração recomendada do produto d-limoneno pelo fabricante é efetiva na atividade ovicida, na ação de choque e na ação fisiológica, auxiliando no manejo de N. elegantalis. Contudo, ao utilizar-se 122,84% da concentração recomendada pelo fabricante, o produto fornece concentração letal de 90% estatisticamente (CL90, sendo este um dado eficaz e desejado no controle de uma praga.

  18. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...... of wind turbines are selected to replace the original wind turbines to reconstruct the wind farm, which is demonstrated to be better than the refurbishment approach which replaces the old wind turbines with the same type. The simulations performed in this research reveal that the reconstructed wind farm......, which consists of multiple types of wind turbine, has a smaller LCoE (10.43%) than the refurbishment approach, which shows the superiority of the proposed method. This research contributes an optimization tool to the wind industry, which consequently drives down the cost of energy produced by offshore...

  19. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  20. Getting the most from offshoring

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2014-01-01

    Tapping into global resources is supposed to improve performance and contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage. However, a high offshoring quota may also lead to erosion of the firm’s home base capabilities and have wider negative implications for both the home base site position and the firm...... as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize this scenario and propose how its adverse impacts can be addressed. From previous studies we know that the roles and mandates of home based sites of offshoring companies are changing from broad scoped manufacturing towards innovation and network...... orchestration. On the basis of the findings from the survey, series of workshops and case studies of Danish companies presented in this paper, we seek to determine the longer term effects of offshoring for home based sites. We conceptualize the findings in a framework and close with discussing the need...

  1. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....

  2. Levels of Outsourcing and Offshoring

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of offshoring and outsourcing over time and highlight strategic considerations underpinning this process in companies. On the basis of four case studies of Danish and German industrial companies, this paper develops a holistic framework...... conceptualizing various levels of outsourcing and offshoring as well as factors driving the transition between these levels. The framework adds to better understanding of the process and challenges the linear nature of it and suggests that ‘backsourcing’ and repatriation of activities should receive more...

  3. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  4. The Capabilities of the Offshore Middlemen

    Mahnke, Volker; Wareham, Jonathan

    preliminary theoretical justification for the emergence of offshore intermediaries; describe how and why they develop intermediation capabilities; and offer initial evidence substantiating their function and processes in intermediating transnational offshoring relationships in software development...

  5. Tratamento medicamentoso da osteoartrose do joelho

    Rezende,Márcia Uchôa de; Gobbi,Riccardo Gomes

    2009-01-01

    O tratamento clínico da osteoartrite/artrose (OA) está sempre indicado e baseia-se no autocuidado feito pelo paciente e orientado pelo médico. O uso de medicamentos é complementar às medidas de emagrecimento, ganho de força, de propriocepção, de flexibilidade e de amplitude de movimento. Entre os medicamentos disponíveis para o tratamento da OA há os que são essencialmente analgésicos e que não interferem no curso da doença; bem como os anti-inflamatórios, controversos por seus efeitos colate...

  6. Efeito da eutonia no tratamento da fibromialgia

    Maeda,Cecília; Martinez,José Eduardo; Neder,Matilde

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a eutonia como método terapêutico auxiliar no tratamento da fibromialgia (FM). MÉTODOS: estudou-se um grupo de 20 mulheres, segundo os critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR), com duração mínima de seis meses, sem alterações no tratamento medicamentoso ou prescrição de exercícios nesse período. As pacientes foram avaliadas através do questionário de dados sociodemográficos; Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) para dor e questionário genérico de avaliação da qualidade d...

  7. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  8. Resultados do tratamento da pancreatite aguda grave

    Franz Robert Apodaca-Torrez

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do Protocolo de Atendimento de pacientes com diagnóstico de pancreatite aguda grave. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, consecutivamente, a partir de janeiro de 2002, idade, sexo, etiologia, tempo de internação, tipo de tratamento e mortalidade de 37 pacientes portadores de pancreatite aguda grave. RESULTADOS: A idade dos pacientes variou de 20 a 88 anos (média de 50 anos; 27% foram do sexo feminino e 73% do masculino. O tempo médio global de internação foi 47 dias. Treze pacientes foram tratados cirurgicamente; a média de operações realizadas foi duas por paciente. Ocorreram seis óbitos dentre os pacientes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico (46% e dois óbitos no grupo submetido somente ao tratamento clínico (8,3%. A mortalidade global foi 21% CONCLUSÃO: Após a modificação na forma de abordagem dos pacientes com pancreatite aguda grave, houve diminuição da mortalidade e uma tendência para a conduta expectante.

  9. Global Production: The Case of Offshore Programming

    Nørbjerg, Jacob; Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1997-01-01

    of software is no exception.In this paper, we present a newly started research project on offshore program-ming, that is the practice of sending software development “offshore,” to India or other low wage areas. The project focuses on the organisation of offshore program-ming and, particularly, on the role...

  10. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL

    Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and

  11. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    Software companies are increasingly offshoring development to countries with high expertise at lower cost. Offshoring involves particular risk areas that if ignored increase the likelihood of failure. However, the offshoring client’s maturity level may influence the management of these risk areas...

  12. Management of advanced prostate cancer Tratamento do câncer de próstata avançado

    Rafael A. Kaliks

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Geriatricians and general practitioners often follow patients with metastatic prostate cancer. The epidemiology and basic treatment principles of metastatic prostate cancer are discussed aiming to update the topic for the non-oncologist. Hormone manipulation remains the basis of treatment, usually up to a second line of therapy. Selected cases are treated successfully with intermittent androgen ablation. When new hormone-independent clones arise, chemotherapy should be added to therapy that confers improved survival as well as better quality of life when based on taxanes. In specific situations, additional measures such as bisphosphonates and radiation therapy should be included in the treatment. As a rule, the public health system makes available the necessary medication to ensure treatment for the vast majority of patients in Brazil.Pacientes com câncer de prostata metastático estão freqüentemente sob os cuidados de geriatras e clínicos gerais. Discutimos a epidemiologia e os princípios básicos do tratamento do câncer de próstata metastático, visando atualizar o não-oncologista no assunto. A base do tratamento continua sendo a manipulação hormonal, inclusive como tratamento de segunda linha. Casos selecionados podem ser tratados com ablação androgênica intermitente de maneira eficaz. Quando se desenvolvem clones de células hormônio-independentes, quimioterápicos são incorporados na terapia. A quimioterapia confere não só benefício em sobrevida, mas também na qualidade de vida, quando baseado em taxanos. Medidas adicionais como o uso de bisfosfonados e radioterapia devem ser incorporadas no tratamento em situações especiais. De modo geral, o sistema público de saúde do Brasil disponibiliza todas as medicações necessárias ao adequado tratamento dos pacientes no país.

  13. The offshore benthic fish community

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  14. Scour around an offshore windturbine

    Louwersheimer, W.F.; Verhagen, H.J.; Olthof, J.

    2007-01-01

    During the construction of the first Dutch offshore wind farm prototype measurements were performed. These measurements were aimed to monitor the behaviour of the granular filter layer of the scour protection around the mono-piles upon which the wind turbines are founded. These measurements were

  15. The Organizational Design of Offshoring

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2014-01-01

    The general research question guiding this thesis is: What are the organizational consequences of offshoring? Increasingly firms are becoming caught up by the “harsh realities of offshoring” (Aron and Singh, 2005: 135). Many firms have begun to realize that managing an increasingly globally dispe...

  16. Getting the Most from Offshoring

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Tapping into global resources is supposed to improve performance and contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage. However, a high offshoring quota may also lead to erosion of the firm’s home base capabilities and have wider negative implications for both the home base site position and the firm...... and network orchestration....

  17. Modelling offshore sand wave evolution

    Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport

  18. Offshore concrete structures; Estructuras Offshore (mar adentro) de Hormigon

    Lamas Pardo, M.; Carral Couce, L. M.

    2011-07-01

    In the offshore industry there are two possible materials for the construction of the hull of a structure; the steel and concrete, with the first one widely used until now, as in the rest of the shipbuilding industry of merchant ships, warships, etc. Materials such as aluminum, GRP or timber areused in small units with lengths lower than 100 m, and in less adverse conditions than in the offshore industry. Nevertheless, some ships/barges have been built of concrete in the past, but have been rather isolated cases which have not changed the practice in the industry. In the First and Second World War were built by the scarcity of materials, while the series of barges by Alfred A. Yee was a rare exception. Other units were also made in concrete, but almost anecdotal. Still, the behaviour of these concrete structures, especially in terms of maintenance, has been excellent. Therefore, the fact that the concrete has not had an adequate reception so far in shipbuilding, does not mean that in will not be the material best suited for the offshore industry in the future. The extra displacement and associated fuel costs in concrete ships have been found prohibitive in the past. But the loss of mobility of a concrete hull in relation to a steel hull can be perfectly offset by the advantages offered by the concrete, as the shipping and offshore industry have very different priorities. One of the main differences in these priorities is in terms of maintenance and resistance to fatigue, precisely where the concrete performs better. ships can easily be dry docked for maintenance and repair, while in the offshore platforms these works have to be done in situ so maintenance and fatigue are crucial to them. Besides these, the concrete has other advantages according to findings of several studies. And although they are interested in the conclusions that the makes as they came from people in the concrete industry, the fact that in recent years concrete offshore unit shave been built

  19. Offshore: Economic Deterrent or Necessity

    Igor B. Turuev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The downside of investment's addition rate in Russia, lack of capital investments result from "poor investment attractiveness". As a result, the companies' financial imbalance together with high investments risks lead to capital outflow from the country by virtue of offshores. Along with negative aspects connected with "financial oases" many advantages are given to the business community: lessening of tax payments, monetary privacy and confidentiality of operations. Taking in consideration the above and also the existence of specific international agreements concerning the avoidance of double taxation and offshore zones, the banner of the latter appears to be quite difficult and would divest the global economy of an important segment of global economic growth. The author performed a SWOT analysis of the role and the importance of offshores in international economy. Tolerant coexistence of local and global economic interests seems to be achievable by implementing a distinct circumspect and complex plan of measures aimed at the raise of the investment attractiveness of a country, for which the creation of "Skolkovo" and new Institutes for market development would not be sufficient. Transparent and oriented on business stability and safety provision of monitor and regulatory system, data interflow, improvement of prudential control on financial markets operations - are parts of measures that have to be accomplished in order to solve and exclude the problems associated with offshores. But the author also appeals to not forgetting that besides the offshores exists a number of such issues directly related to the outflow of capital as lowering of inflationary pace, enlargement of direct investment flow-in, support of social peace, which have to be handled for the purposes of improvement of domestic investment climate of countries with developing economy.

  20. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  1. Co-sourcing in software development offshoring

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring, which introduce complex risks that can lead to project failure. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how co......-sourcing shapes the perception and alleviation of common offshoring risks is limited. We present a case study of how a certified CMMI-level 5 Danish software supplier approaches these risks in offshore co-sourcing. The paper explains how common offshoring risks are perceived and alleviated when adopting the co...

  2. CFD for wind and tidal offshore turbines

    Montlaur, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    The book encompasses novel CFD techniques to compute offshore wind and tidal applications. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are regarded as the main design tool to explore the new engineering challenges presented by offshore wind and tidal turbines for energy generation. The difficulty and costs of undertaking experimental tests in offshore environments have increased the interest in the field of CFD which is used to design appropriate turbines and blades, understand fluid flow physical phenomena associated with offshore environments, predict power production or characterise offshore environments, amongst other topics.

  3. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  4. Tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana pelo niridazol

    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi empregue o niridazol um derivado do nitrotiazol, em doze pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em todos êles, o diagnóstico clínico da doença foi confirmado pela biópsia das lesões e em oito dêles também pela positividade da intradetermorreação de Montenegro. Oito pacientes tinham lesões mucosas metastáticas em atividade e lesões cutâneas iniciais cicatrizadas há tempo mais ou menos longo. Dois apresentavam concomitância de lesões cutâneas e mucosas em atividade, e dois tinham lesões cutâneas exclusivas. A duração da doença variou de 2 meses a 32 anos. A posologia diária do niridazol foi uniformememente de 25 mg/kg de pêso corpóreo. O medicamento foi administrado por via oral, em duas tomadas diárias, sempre com o doente internado em hospital. Quando a tolerância o permitia, o paciente recebia cinco séries de tratamento de 10 dias de duração cada, intercaladas por períodos áe suspensão da droga de 10 dias entre uma série e outra. Isso foi possível em 10 dos 12 pacientes. O tratamento foi bem tolerado em 5 doentes e de tolerância regular em 4. Mal tolerado em um paciente pela ocorrência de alucinações e excitação mental e interrompido pela péssima tolerância em dois doentes devido ao aparecimento de convulsões generalizadas com perda da consciência. O tratamento acompanhou-se de grande incidência, de efeitos colaterais. A ocorrência de para-efeitos mais intensos não foi devida às más condições hepáticas. Provas de função hepática. hemogramas, estudos bioquímicos do sangue e exames de urina, realizados antes, durante e após o tratamento, não revelaram alterações significativas. Biópsias hepáticas por punção com agulha em dez doentes, prévias e posteriores ao tratamento, não detectaram lesões hepáticas que pudessem ser atribuídas à medicação. O seguimento dos doentes prolongou-se pelo prazo de dois a 36 meses apos o tratamento. Alterações eletrocardiogr

  5. Obesidade infantil: uma proposta de tratamento comportamental

    Cruz, Maria Tereza Monteiro da

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar um programa de economia de fichas para modificar o comportamento de crianças obesas. Participaram do estudo dois jovens do sexo masculino com idades de 10 e 11 anos uma adolescente com 15 anos, todos apresentavam peso excessivo para a idade e freqüentavam uma ONG voltada para o tratamento da obesidade infantil e suas mães. A pesquisadora emprestou uma filmadora para os participantes e solicitou que P1 filmasse o almoço e o jantar cinc...

  6. Tuno Knob Offshore Wind Farm

    Madsen, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 Midtkraft Power Company built Denmark's second offshore wind farm as a demonstration project. The project purpose is first of all to investigate the environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. The two primary objects are to study the impact on bird life and to test different methods for predicting the visual effect. The wind farm consists of 10 pitch-regulated Vestas V39 500 kW wind turbines placed on box caisson foundations in a shallow water area 6 km east of Jutland. The project has been implemented successfully under a very narrow time schedule, and during the first 6 months in operation, the production has been approx. 30% higher than expected. (author)

  7. Offshore Wind Energy in Denmark

    Möller, Bernd; Hong, Lixuan; Hvelplund, Frede

    for Denmark and invites to reconsider the technological and institutional choices made. Based on a continuous resource-economic model operating in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment, which describes resources, costs and area constraints in a spatially explicit way, the relation between......Offshore wind energy has developed in terms of turbine and project size, and currently undergoes a significant up-scaling to turbines and parks at greater distance to shore and deeper waters. Expectations to the positive effect of economies of scale on power production costs, however, have...... availability of locations, driven by accelerating requirements of environmental concern, park size and public acceptance, is one important driver. Mounting risk of mega-projects and the infinite demand for renewable energy is another likely cause. The present paper addresses the scale of offshore wind parks...

  8. Radiographic inspection on offshore platforms

    Soares, Sergio Damasceno; Sperandio, Augusto Gasparoni

    1994-01-01

    One of the great challenges for non-destructive inspection is on offshore platforms, where safety is a critical issue. Inspection by gammagraphy is practically forbidden on the platform deck due to problems to personnel safety and radiological protection. Ir-192 sources are used and the risk of an accident with loss of radioisotope must be considered. It is unfeasible to use gammagraphy, because in case of an accident the rapid evacuation from the platform would be impossible. This problem does not occur when X-ray equipment is used as the radiation source. The limited practicality and portability of the X-ray equipment have prevented its use as a replacement for the gammagraphy. This paper presents the preliminary tests to see the viable use of radiographic tests with constant potential on offshore platforms. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs, 3 photos

  9. CONTINUIDADES E DESCONTINUIDADES DO TRATAMENTO MORAL EM MODELOS DE TRATAMENTO PARA TOXICÕMANOS

    Taís Bleicher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao analisar aspectos do evoluir do tratamento médico voltado à loucura na França, com ênfase na inovação pineliana do século XIX, o tratamento moral, e os modelos que surgiram em oposição ou em continuidade com este (as Colônias Agrícolas, que se opunham ao ambiente dos hospitais eas comunidades terapêuticas, com fins de ressocialização, objetiva-se perceber em quê estes modelos, anteriormente aplicado aos loucos, estão presentes nos atuais tratamentos para toxicômanos, tanto em Fazendas de Recuperação, como em grupos de ajudaque seguem a Filosofia dos Doze Passos e que não adotam o sistema de internação. A partir da teoria psicanalítica(com ênfase nos conceitos de narcisismo, narcisismo secundário, ideal de eu e pulsãoquestionaremos estas formas de tratamento (especialmente no que diz respeito ao recurso à religião, a infantilização dos pacientes, o julgamento perpétuo, o lugar dado aos relacionamentos, em nomede uma possibilidade de existência criativa e autônoma por parte do toxicômano.

  10. Adesão ao tratamento da ambliopia

    Arakaki,Mara Regina; Schellini,Silvana Artioli; Heimbeck,Felipe Jorge; Furuya,Margareth Tiemi; Padovani,Carlos Roberto

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da adesão no resultado do tratamento da ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foi feito estudo retrospectivo avaliando a resposta ao tratamento da ambliopia em 151 crianças portadoras de ambliopia, tratadas com esquema de oclusão diária, com o número de dias variando de acordo com a idade da criança. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos que diferiam entre si pela adesão ou não ao tratamento. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o tratamento teve melhores resultados nas crianças de ...

  11. Sinking offshore platform. Nedsenkbar fralandsplatform

    Einstabland, T.B.; Olsen, O.

    1988-12-19

    The invention deals with a sinking offshore platform of the gravitational type designed for being installed on the sea bed on great depths. The platform consists of at least three inclining pillars placed on a foundation unit. The pillars are at the upper end connected to a tower structure by means of a rigid construction. The tower supports the platform deck. The rigid construction comprises a centre-positioned cylinder connected to the foundation. 11 figs.

  12. Panorama 2016 - Offshore wind power

    Vinot, Simon

    2015-11-01

    While onshore wind power is a rapidly growing global industry, the offshore wind power market remains in its consolidation and globalization phase. This most mature of renewable marine energies continues to develop and can no longer be considered a niche industry. This fact sheet evaluates the market over the last several years, looking at its potential and its current rank in terms of electricity production costs. (author)

  13. Panorama 2013 - Offshore wind power

    Vinot, Simon

    2012-10-01

    While onshore wind power is already a well-developed global industry, offshore wind power is still in the consolidation and globalization phase. The most mature of marine renewable energies is beginning to venture off the European coast and even to other continents, driven by public policies and the ever increasing number of players joining this promising market, which should evolve into deeper waters thanks to floating structures. (author)

  14. Climate and Offshore Energy Resources.

    1980-12-30

    SECuRITY CL.ASSIPIcaTIoN OF, TIns PA@elm VaeVa CLMATE ANID OFFSHORE ENERGY RESOUACES A distinguished group of government officials, scientists, engineers...about the mech- anisms of climatic systems, and gaining a better understanding of the impact of climatic change on human resources.* He continued by...atmospheric constit- uents, but he particularly emphasized " changes " in C02. He suggested that the atmospheric conditions may be better now than they were half

  15. Offshore oil: Correctness of perspective

    Burns, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Except for the Gulf of Mexico, the offshore oil industry has been virtually banned from the US Exclusive Economic Zone for ten years. The oil potential in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is also off limits. The Gulf of Mexico is the only place with prospects for future success and a number of companies both large and small are determined to move forward. The depressed price of oil does not encourage development but recently gas prices in the US have increased, making offshore gas development more feasible. Perhaps most significant is development and application of new technology and more intense management to make sure it works. The offshore oil companies and support industries have made significant technological advances, expending over and above the dollars paid in taxes, lease fees, and royalties. The ocean industries harbor a great reservoir of high technology knowledge. They have demonstrated the ability to successfully meet a vast array of challenges in exploring for, drilling, and producing oil and gas in extreme conditions. These facts beg the question as to the rational basis of each and every regulation and the ban on drilling

  16. World offshore energy loss statistics

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  17. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Holand, P

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  18. Motivacao para o tratamento. Dados psicometricos da escala SOCRATES 8D e estrategias psicoterapeuticas para motivar para o tratamento

    Janeiro, Luís; Faísca, Luís

    2008-01-01

    A motivação para o tratamento é considerada um factor fundamental para o processo de mudança e tratamento do toxicodependente. Prochaska, Diclemente, e Norcross (1992) consideram que a motivação que o sujeito possui no início do tratamento determina directamente os resultados alcançados no mesmo. Diclemente, Bellino, e Neavins (1999) acrescentam, ainda, que a estreita relação entre os resultados obtidos no tratamento e a motivação aquando do seu início pode ser medida pela formação precoce de...

  19. Alternativas para o tratamento de efluentes da indústria galvânica Alternatives for the galvanic wastewater treatment

    Artur Pereira Neto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos de precipitação química, cristalização e extração líquido-líquido foram aplicados visando propor alternativas para o tratamento de efluentes líquidos gerados pela indústria de galvanoplastia. Efluentes de diversas empresas do setor, localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, foram coletados e caracterizados. O efluente estudado, proveniente de empresa de galvanização de zinco a quente, continha cerca de 90 g/L de ferro total, 35 g/L de zinco e menores quantidades de Al, Ni e Cu, em meio ácido clorídrico (pH = 0,6. A separação seletiva entre ferro e zinco não se mostrou eficiente por precipitação, sendo a técnica adequada somente no tratamento do efluente, ao contrário da cristalização e extração líquido-líquido utilizando-se TBP como agente extratante. A integração destas técnicas ainda requer estudos mais detalhados visando à otimização de custos e das condições operacionais.Separation methods such as chemical precipitation, crystallization and liquid-liquid extraction have been investigated aiming to treat effluents generated by the galvanic industry. Effluent samples generated by several companies located in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil were collected and chemically characterized. For this work, a typical zinc hot-dip galvanizing effluent containing about 90 g/L of total iron, 35 g/L of zinc and minor amounts of Al, Ni, Cu, in HCl medium (pH = 0.6 was treated. A selective separation between metals zinc and iron was not achieved by chemical precipitation, which was found adequate to threat water only. On contrary, zinc and iron was separated very efficiently by crystallization and liquid-liquid extraction using TBP as extractant agent. The integration of these methods to recover zinc and iron from effluent still requires more detailed studies.

  20. Offshoring and Changes in Firms’ Domestic Employment

    Timmermans, Bram; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    difference on a set of employment characteristics, i.e. employment growth, growth in high skilled employees, and growth in employees with a background in science and engineering, by using a partial propensity score matching approach. The findings of the analyses show that there are clear differences between......In this paper, we investigate, by merging the Danish linked employer-employee database with a Danish offshoring survey, the difference in employment between offshoring and non-offshoring firms that are active in manufacturing industries and business services in Denmark. We measure the mean...... Danish offshoring and non-offshoring firms in how the employee composition changes over time. The change in employment composition differ considerably between manufacturing industries and business services and on whether firms offshore administrative and technical business functions or other types...

  1. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    this possible, Korea has announced the National offshore power roadmap and is now in pursuit. However, large scale offshore wind farms can incur many problems, such as power quality problems, when connecting to a power system.[1][2] Thus, KEPCO is on the process of a research study to evaluate the effects...... that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms.......Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...

  2. Danish offshore wind - Key environmental issues

    2006-11-01

    Danish experience from the past 15 years shows that offshore wind farms, if placed right, can be engineered and operated without significant damage to the marine environment and vulnerable species. The comprehensive environmental monitoring programmes of Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm confirm that, under the rieght conditions, even big wind farms pose low risk to birds, mammals and fish, even though there will be changes in the living conditions of some species by an increase in habitat heterogeneity. The monitoring also shows that appropriate siting of offshore wind farms is an essential precondition for ensuring limited impact on nature and the environment, and that careful spatial planning is necessary to avoid damaging cumulative impacts. Due consideration to limiting the impacts on nature together with positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms in local communities and challenging energy policy objectives at national and international levels mean that prospects look bright for future offshore expansion. (au)

  3. Dutch offshore suppliers in confident mood

    Beudel, M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of linked articles discusses the current state of the Netherland's offshore industry. Reduced taxes, and availability of exploration licenses has meant that explorers and producers are drawn to the small size, but frequent yield explorations on Holland's continental shelf. The excellent operation record of Rotterdam's Verolme Botlek yard; for repair and maintenance of offshore platforms and associated plant, is explored as the facility plans to diversify into newbuilding. The construction of an offshore basin designed for the hydrodynamic testing of offshore plant intended for deepwater use is described. The Netherlands maritime research institute (Marin) aims to stay at the forefront of offshore research and development with this new facility. Other articles cover pipe tensioning, new large linear winches and innovations in offshore drilling and production. (UK)

  4. Offshore wind options for 2013; Offshore wind kansen voor 2013

    Van der Meij-Kranendonk, J.

    2012-11-15

    In the USA researchers and companies are busy to the make knowledge and experiences gained elsewhere in the world suitable for the American market and to increase new knowledge in their own country. A brief overview is given of the activities in the US with regard to offshore wind energy [Dutch] Amerikaanse onderzoekers en bedrijven zijn druk bezig om de kennis en ervaring die opgedaan is elders in de wereld geschikt te maken voor de Amerikaanse markt en om nieuwe kennis op te doen in eigen land.

  5. Development of Offshore Wind Power Industry

    Liu Xiao

    2011-01-01

    The offshore wind power development target as initially proposed in "The 12=Five-Year" on energy recourses development and renewable energy recourses currently under development is to reach 5m KW by 2015 and 30m KW by 2020. With the unfolding of offshore wind turbine planning from different areas, the curtain of offshore wind power development for our country's "The 12=Five-Year" has been opened.

  6. Adesão ao tratamento da ambliopia

    Arakaki Mara Regina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da adesão no resultado do tratamento da ambliopia. MÉTODOS: Foi feito estudo retrospectivo avaliando a resposta ao tratamento da ambliopia em 151 crianças portadoras de ambliopia, tratadas com esquema de oclusão diária, com o número de dias variando de acordo com a idade da criança. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos que diferiam entre si pela adesão ou não ao tratamento. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o tratamento teve melhores resultados nas crianças de 4 a 7 anos e que aderiram ao tratamento; as crianças que aderiram ao tratamento necessitaram de tempo menor de permanência em tratamento. Mesmo crianças com idade superior a 7 anos tiveram resultados positivos com a oclusão. CONCLUSÃO:O tratamento oclusivo é um meio terapêutico eficiente desde que haja a cooperação do paciente.

  7. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...

  8. Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Alaska

    Doubrawa Moreira, Paula [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This report quantifies Alaska's offshore wind resource capacity while focusing on its unique nature. It is a supplement to the existing U.S. Offshore Wind Resource Assessment, which evaluated the offshore wind resource for all other U.S. states. Together, these reports provide the foundation for the nation's offshore wind value proposition. Both studies were developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The analysis presented herein represents the first quantitative evidence of the offshore wind energy potential of Alaska. The technical offshore wind resource area in Alaska is larger than the technical offshore resource area of all other coastal U.S. states combined. Despite the abundant wind resource available, significant challenges inhibit large-scale offshore wind deployment in Alaska, such as the remoteness of the resource, its distance from load centers, and the wealth of land available for onshore wind development. Throughout this report, the energy landscape of Alaska is reviewed and a resource assessment analysis is performed in terms of gross and technical offshore capacity and energy potential.

  9. DESIGN OF OFFSHORE CONCRETE GRAVITY PLATFORMS

    gas industry. Manufacturing and construction methods are discussed. Current ... Keywords: concrete gravity platform, offshore, foundation design, manufacturing, ... forms are used to support production drilling ... Manufacture and Construction.

  10. Safety in offshore engineering an academic course covering safety in offshore wind

    Cerda Salzmann, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Offshore projects are known for their challenging conditions, generally leading to high risks. Therefore no offshore project can go without a continuous and extensive assessment on safety issues. The Delft University of Technology is currently developing a course "Safety in Offshore Engineering"

  11. Tidal influence on offshore wind fields and resource predictions[Efficient Development of Offshore Windfarms

    Khan, D. [Entec UK Ltd., Doherty Innovation Centre, Penicuik (United Kingdom); Infield, D. [Loughborough Univ., Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Tecnology, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-01

    The rise and fall of the sea surface due to tides effectively moves an offshore wind turbine hub through the wind shear profile. This effect is quantified using measured data from 3 offshore UK sites. Statistical evidence of the influence of tide on mean wind speed and turbulence is presented. The implications of this effect for predicting offshore wind resource are outlined. (au)

  12. Offshore system for integration of the wind energy; Sistema offshore para integracao de energia eolica

    Decker, Jan de [3E, Brussels (Belgium); Tambke, Jens [Universidade de Oldemburg (Germany). ForWind; Voelker, J. [Dena - Agencia Alema de Energia (Germany); Michalowska-Knap, Katarzyna [Instituto de Energia Renovavel (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The Offshore Grid project aims to analyze the conditions required for the development of an offshore transmission network to integrate renewable energy (wind) to the national electrical systems, securely and efficiently. Regulatory aspects, technical, economic and political are considered, that will help the various players in the industry to have a common view on the offshore power grids in Europe.

  13. HEMOFILIAS: FISIOPATOLOGIA, DIAGNÓSTICO E TRATAMENTO

    Roberta Truzzi COLOMBO, Gerson ZANUSSO JÚNIOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A hemofilia é um grave distúrbio hereditário da coagulação sanguínea, causada pela deficiência da atividade coagulante do fator VIII (hemofilia A ou IX (hemofilia B. A doença é decorrente de alterações nos genes codificantes destes fatores localizados no braço longo do cromossomo sexual X. Assim sua ocorrência no sexo masculino é quase que exclusiva, devido o homem apresentar somente um cromossomo X. A gravidade da doença pode variar em severa, moderadamente severa e leve, após dosagem dos fatores VIII e IX da coagulação. Uma das complicações mais temíveis dos pacientes com esta doença refere-se ao desenvolvimento de inibidores, que são anticorpos direcionados contra os fatores infundidos. O diagnóstico da doença é realizado através de exames laboratoriais, principalmente pelo coagulograma completo e dosagem de fatores específicos, baseando-se nas manifestações clínicas apresentadas pelo paciente. A hemofilia não tem cura e a base do seu tratamento é a infusão do concentrado do fator deficiente. No entanto, pacientes podem desenvolver inibidores específicos para os fatores infundidos e, nestes casos as alternativas de tratamento são o uso da biotecnologia para novos medicamentos e o uso da terapia gênica

  14. Tratamento da depressão

    Fábio Gomes de Matos e Souza

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento antidepressivo deve ser realizado considerando os aspectos biológicos, psicológicos e sociais do paciente. Na média, não há diferenças significativas em termos de eficácia entre os diferentes antidepressivos mas o perfil em termos de efeitos colaterais, preço, risco de suicídio, tolerabilidade varia bastante o que implica em diferenças na efetividade das drogas para cada paciente. A conduta, portanto, deve ser individualizada. A prescrição profilática de antidepressivos irá depender da intensidade e freqüência dos episódios depressivos. O risco de suicídio dever ser sempre avaliado e se necessário o ECT deverá ser indicado. Não há antidepressivo ideal, entretanto, atualmente existe uma disponibilidade grande de drogas atuando através de diferentes mecanismos de ação o que permite que, mesmo em depressões consideradas resistentes, o tratamento possa obter êxito.The antidepressant treatment should be accomplished considering the patient’s biological, psychological and social aspects. In average, there are no significant differences in terms of efficacy among the different antidepressants but the profile in terms of collateral effects, price, suicide risk, tolerability shows great variation which implies in differences in the effectiveness of drugs for each patient. The therapy, therefore, should be individualized. The prophylactic prescription of antidepressants will depend on the intensity and frequency of the depressive episodes. The suicide risk should always be evaluated and if necessary ECT should be prescribed. There is no ideal antidepressant, however, there is a large variety of drugs acting through different mechanisms of action which allows the possibility of therapeutic success in resistant depressions.

  15. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  16. Diagnóstico e tratamento da criptococose do sistema nervoso central: considerações sobre 16 casos

    A. Spina-França

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available Revisão de 16 casos de criptococose do SNC acompanhados no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo entre 1951 e 1966. O diagnóstico baseou-se na demonstração de C. neoformansno LCR e/ou nos dados de necropsia. A revisão foi feita para salientar a importância do diagnóstico precoce da doença visando o tratamento por anfotericina-B. Dos 4 pacientes tratados com tal medicamento, dois faleceram. Nestes casos o tratamento fora iniciado tardiamente, quando a doença se achava nos estadios finais de evolução. Nos dois casos em que a medicação foi iniciada em tempo hábil, a evolução foi favorável, encontrando-se os pacientes em boas condições clínicas e com remissão das alterações do LCR. Estes dois últimos casos são descritos com maior detalhe. Baseados na casuística apresentada os autores chamam a atenção para os quadros clínicos observados mais comumente, em especial para a dissociação entre o quadro de hipertensão intracraniana, em geral exuberante, e o de meningencefalite. Chamam os autores a atenção também para o fato de poderem as alterações do LCR levar à confusão com outros tipos de meningencefalite, especialmente a tuberculosa. Para o esclarecimento diagnóstico salientam a importância do exame direto do sedimento do LCR preparado com tinta da China. O reconhecimento da levedura ao exame direto na série analisada ocorreu em 9 casos.

  17. 31 CFR 543.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 543.406 Section 543.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 543.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 543.201 on transactions or dealings...

  18. 31 CFR 597.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 597.406 Section 597.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 597.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions contained in § 597.201 apply to...

  19. 31 CFR 544.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 544.406 Section 544.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 544.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 544.201 on...

  20. 31 CFR 593.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 593.406 Section 593.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 593.201 on...

  1. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions or...

  2. 31 CFR 541.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 541.406 Section 541.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 541.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 541.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  3. 31 CFR 548.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 548.406 Section 548.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 548.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 548.201 on transactions or dealings involving...

  4. 31 CFR 537.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 537.406 Section 537.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 537.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 537.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  5. 31 CFR 587.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 587.406 Section 587.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... MONTENEGRO) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 587.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions...

  6. 31 CFR 546.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 546.406 Section 546.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 546.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 546.201 on transactions or dealings involving...

  7. 31 CFR 542.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 542.406 Section 542.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 542.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 542.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  8. 31 CFR 588.406 - Offshore transactions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 588.406 Section 588.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Interpretations § 588.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 588.201 on transactions involving blocked...

  9. Offshore Vendors’ Software Development Team Configurations

    Chakraborty, Suranjan; Sarker, Saonee; Rai, Sudhanshu

    2012-01-01

    This research uses configuration theory and data collected from a major IT vendor organization to examine primary configurations of distributed teams in a global off-shoring context. The study indicates that off-shoring vendor organizations typically deploy three different types of configurations...

  10. A novel floating offshore wind turbine concept

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present a novel concept of a floating offshore wind turbine. The new concept is intended for vertical-axis wind turbine technology. The main purpose is to increase simplicity and to reduce total costs of an installed offshore wind farm. The concept is intended for deep water...... and large size turbines....

  11. Optimized power generation in offshore wind parks

    Oliveira Filho, J. de; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity generation on offshore wind parks has an increasing economic importance - the European Commission foresees that 12% of the wind energy will be produced on offshore installations by 2020, and this share is likely to increase further in the following years. However, the continuously

  12. Whether or Not to Prepare for Offshoring

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    A consequence of offshoring is increased coordination costs. To counter this, firms can strive to identify a cost reducing organizational configuration either ex ante or ex post to the offshoring implementation. In this paper, we investigate the performance implications of these contrasting strat...

  13. Reliability evaluation for offshore wind farms

    Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....

  14. A fair wind for the offshore

    Houot, G.

    2009-01-01

    The wind power future will take into account the sea. But to increase, the offshore channel must manage its organization and create a real cross-border cooperation. The author presents an economic analysis of the market with a special attention to the french sector. A map of the offshore sites in Europe is provided. (A.L.B.)

  15. Project alliancing in the offshore industry

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Braks, B.F.M.

    In this paper the shift towards new types of project organisation within the Offshore Industry is explained and discussed. Special focus is given to the organisational concept of Project Alliancing. The principles, structure and culture of a Project Alliance as applied within the Offshore Industry

  16. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  17. Offshore wind resources at Danish measurement sites

    Barthelmie, R J; Courtney, M S; Lange, B; Nielsen, M; Sempreviva, A M [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Svenson, J; Olsen, F [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark); Christensen, T [Elsamprojekt, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to characterise wind and turbulence characteristics at prospective offshore wind energy sites, meteorological observations from a number of purpose-built offshore monitoring sites have been analyzed and compared with long wind speed time series. New analyses have been conducted on the data sets focussing on meteorology, turbulence, extreme winds and wind and wave interactions. Relationships between wind speed, turbulence and fetch are highly complex. Minimum turbulence intensity offshore is associated with wind speeds of about 12 m/s. At lower wind speeds, stability effects are important while at higher winds speeds wind and wave interactions appear to dominate. On average, turbulence intensity offshore at 48 m height is approximately 0.08 if no coastal effects are present. However, the effect of the coastal discontinuity persists in wind speed and turbulence characteristics for considerable distances offshore. The majority of the adjustment of appears to occur within 20 km of the coast. (au)

  18. Design off-shore wind climate

    Larsen, G C; Joergensen, H E [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Specific recommendations of off-shore turbulence intensities, applicable for design purposes, are lacking in the present IEC-code. The present off-shore wind climate analysis presents the distribution of the turbulence standard deviation around the mean turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the mean wind speed. Measured distributions, based on a huge amount of measuring data from two shallow water off-shore sites, are parameterized by fitting to a three parameter Weibull distribution. Combining a simple heuristic load model with the parameterized probability density functions of the turbulence standard deviations, an empirical off-shore design turbulence intensity is evaluated that in average yields the same fatigue damage as the distributed turbulence intensity. The proposed off-shore design turbulence intensity is, within the IEC code framework, applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue load determination. (au)

  19. 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Musial, Walter; Beiter, Philipp; Schwabe, Paul; Tian, Tian; Stehly, Tyler; Spitsen, Paul; Robertson, Amy; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-08-08

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide offshore wind policymakers, regulators, developers, researchers, engineers, financiers, and supply chain participants, with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide. In particular, this report is intended to provide detailed information on the domestic offshore wind industry to provide context to help navigate technical and market barriers and opportunities. The scope of the report covers the status of the 111 operating offshore wind projects in the global fleet through December 31, 2016, and provides the status and analysis on a broader pipeline of 593 projects at some stage of development. In addition, this report provides a wider assessment of domestic developments and events through the second quarter of 2017 to provide a more up-to-date discussion of this dynamically evolving industry.

  20. Adesão ao tratamento por cuidadores de crianças e adolescentes soropositivos para o HIV

    Caroline Mota Branco Salles

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar o padrão de adesão ao tratamento por cuidadores de crianças e adolescentes HIV positivos e identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas diante de estressores da soropositividade. Participaram 30 cuidadores e utilizou-se entrevista semiestruturada, Escala Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas e prontuário clínico, este como fonte de dados secundários. Os cuidadores foram classificados em Grupo Adesão e Grupo Não-Adesão com base em seus relatos sobre condutas de uso dos medicamentos antirretrovirais e outros critérios. Vinte e cinco cuidadores foram incluídos no Grupo Adesão. Não se observaram diferenças significativas quanto ao enfrentamento entre os grupos, excetuando a busca de práticas religiosas/pensamento fantasioso. Os resultados dão subsídios para intervenções visando reduzir impactos psicossociais da soropositividade a cuidadores, crianças e adolescentes.

  1. Utilização de bórax por difusão no tratamento de preservação de lâminas de sumaúma (Ceiba pentantra (L. Gaertn.

    Willerding André Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar três diferentes intervalos de tempo para difusão do bórax, visando a preservação de lâminas de sumaúma. O tratamento foi a aplicação por aspersão de 30 ml de solução, a 4% de concentração de bórax. Na pesquisa, optou-se pela retenção de 0,500% de equivalente de ácido bórico (EAB, com base na massa das lâminas secas. Avaliou-se a retenção nos tempos de difusão de 15, 150 e 270 minutos. Por meio da análise química quantitativa, foram verificados os níveis de retenção por espectrofotometria, obtendo-se 0,462, 0,457 e 0,440% de EAB, respectivamente, para os tratamentos de 15, 150 e 270 minutos, que não diferiram estatisticamente entre si pelo teste Tukey (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam uma boa difusão do bórax aos 15 minutos, o que demonstrou ser uma alternativa como tratamento preservante de madeira.

  2. Offshore Aquaculture Development in Ecuador

    Julio López Alvarado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador has a long tradition in aquaculture, mainly related to the cultivation of shrimp and tilapia in earthen ponds. Land-based production methods have a large environmental, economic and social impact due to the extensive use of land and its effects on the ecosystems. In order to increase the production of fish without further land use and with a lower environmental impact, a good alternative is the culture of fish in floating cages, adopting technologies used successfully in many other countries. This article analyses the current situation of offshore aquaculture (the production of fish and other aquatic organisms in the open sea in Ecuador, and the prospects for the future of this sector in the country.

  3. Image processing in offshore engineering

    Rodriguez, M.V.R.; A. Oliveira, M. de; Almeida, M.E.T. de; Lorenzoni, C.; Ferrante, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The technological progress which has taken place during the last decade introduced a totally new outlook regarding the professional computational environment in general, and regarding the engineering profession in particular. During many years engineering computing was performed based on large computer centers, getting bigger and bigger all the time, going from mainframes to super computers, essentially producing numerical results on paper media. Lately, however, it has been realized that a much more productive computational environment can be implemented using an open architecture of client/server type, based on smaller lower cost equipment including workstations and PC's, and considering engineering information in a broader sense. This papers reports briefly the experience of the Production Department of Petrobras in transforming its centralized, mainframe based, computational environment into a open distributed client/server computational environment, focusing on the problem of handling technical graphics information regarding its more than 70 fixed offshore platforms

  4. A acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar no tratamento da paralisia cerebral Pyrrolidone acetamide as an auxiliary drug in the treatment of cerebral palsy

    Francisca Salete Pinheiro Chagas Ribeiro

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte crianças, com diagnóstico de paralisia cerebral (PC e sob tratamento clássico, fisioterápico e pedagógico, receberam piracetam (acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar. O objetivo foi melhorar os problemas de espasticidade, apredizagem, neurolabilidade, visando a um rendimento melhor do tratamento global da PC. O grupo medicado foi comparado com um grupo controle de 20 crianças que só eram objeto do tratamento habitual. A comparação mostrou resultados favoráveis no grupo medicado. A droga foi administrada na dose de 80 mg/kg/dia durante 10 semanas. Os critérios de avaliação dos resultados foram psicológicos, clínico, fisioterápico e pedagógico. A droga foi administrada em nova forma de apresentação: solução, para uso oral, a 6%.Twenty children, with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP and under classical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical, treatment, received piracetam (pyrrolidine acetamide as an auxiliary drug. The goal was to better spasticity, learning and nervous instability problems aiming at better results of over-all treatment of CP. The group that received the drug has been compared to a control group of 20 children treated by the customary treatment only. The comparison showed favourable results for the medicated group. The drug was administered in the dose of 80 mg/kg/day during 10 weeks. The criteria for evaluation have been psychological, clinical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical. The drug has been given in a new form of presentation: 6% solution for oral use.

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  6. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions | Science ...

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone. Bloater is abundant in the offshore zone but appears restricted to depths shallower than 150 m (Selgeby and Hoff 1996; Stockwell et al. 2010), although it occuppied greater depths several decades ago (Dryer 1966; Peck 1977). Shortjaw is relatively rare in the offshore zone (Hoff and Todd 2004; Gorman and Hoff 2009; Gorman and Todd 2007). Lake whitefish is also known to frequent bathymetric depths >100 m (Yule et al. 2008b). In this chapter, we develop a conceptual model of the offshore food web based on data collected during 2001-2005 and on inferences from species interactions known for the nearshore fish community. We then develop a framework for examination of energy and nutrient movements within the pelagic and benthic habitats of the offshore zone and across the offshore and nearshore zones. To document research results.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of floating offshore wind farms

    Castro-Santos, Laura; Diaz-Casas, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a sensitivity analysis of a floating offshore wind farm. • Influence on the life-cycle costs involved in a floating offshore wind farm. • Influence on IRR, NPV, pay-back period, LCOE and cost of power. • Important variables: distance, wind resource, electric tariff, etc. • It helps to investors to take decisions in the future. - Abstract: The future of offshore wind energy will be in deep waters. In this context, the main objective of the present paper is to develop a sensitivity analysis of a floating offshore wind farm. It will show how much the output variables can vary when the input variables are changing. For this purpose two different scenarios will be taken into account: the life-cycle costs involved in a floating offshore wind farm (cost of conception and definition, cost of design and development, cost of manufacturing, cost of installation, cost of exploitation and cost of dismantling) and the most important economic indexes in terms of economic feasibility of a floating offshore wind farm (internal rate of return, net present value, discounted pay-back period, levelized cost of energy and cost of power). Results indicate that the most important variables in economic terms are the number of wind turbines and the distance from farm to shore in the costs’ scenario, and the wind scale parameter and the electric tariff for the economic indexes. This study will help investors to take into account these variables in the development of floating offshore wind farms in the future

  8. Understanding public responses to offshore wind power

    Haggett, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about understanding the role and importance of public responses to offshore wind power. It builds on a framework for understanding social acceptance and opposition to onshore turbines, and reviews the emerging research on offshore wind. While less is known about how people will respond to offshore than onshore wind, there is now an emerging body of research. From this literature, several common factors which influence responses have emerged and are discussed here: the (continued) role of visual impact; place attachment to the local area; lack of tangible benefits; relationships with developers and outsiders; and the role of the planning and decision-making systems. The paper argues that, as with onshore developments, the public should be included in decision-making about offshore wind farms, and that they have a key role which should not be underestimated. The paper concludes with some thoughts about the means to involve people and how effected communities might be effectively acknowledged, identified and engaged. - Research Highlights: →Comprehensive review of public responses to offshore wind literature. →Applies key lessons and analytic insights from onshore wind to offshore wind. →Emphasizes the role and importance of the public in the planning and implementation of offshore wind energy.

  9. NREL Offshore Balance-of-System Model

    Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has investigated the potential for 20% of nationwide electricity demand to be generated from wind by 2030 and, more recently, 35% by 2050. Achieving this level of wind power generation may require the development and deployment of offshore wind technologies. DOE (2008) has indicated that reaching these 2030 and 2050 scenarios could result in approximately 10% and 20%, respectively, of wind energy generation to come from offshore resources. By the end of 2013, 6.5 gigawatts of offshore wind were installed globally. The first U.S. project, the Block Island Wind Farm off the coast of Rhode Island, has recently begun operations. One of the major reasons that offshore wind development in the United States is lagging behind global trends is the high capital expenditures required. An understanding of the costs and associated drivers of building a commercial-scale offshore wind plant in the United States will inform future research and help U.S. investors feel more confident in offshore wind development. In an effort to explain these costs, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Offshore Balance-of-System model.

  10. Offshoring in the Semiconductor Industry: Historical Perspectives

    Brown, Clair; Linden, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor design is a frequently-cited example of the new wave of offshoring and foreign-outsourcing of service sector jobs. It is certainly a concern to U.S. design engineers themselves. In addition to the current wave of white-collar outsourcing, the industry also has a rich experience with offshoring of manufacturing activity. Semiconductor companies were among the first to invest in offshore facilities to manufacture goods for imports back to the U.S. A brief review of these earlie...

  11. The environmental impact from an offshore plant

    Larsson, A.-K.

    1994-01-01

    Wind measurements in different countries have shown the existence of a large energy potential in offshore winds. Taking into consideration the limited suitable area on land for wind power plants it is essential to know the environmental influence from and on an offshore plant. The first offshore wind power plant was built in Sweden in 1990 in order to examine the influence on birds, fish and fishing, shipping, public opinion, maintenance and the effects on foundation from waves and ice. So far, the programme shows that the birds try to avoid the plant by flying further away from it out over the sea. (Author)

  12. Operation and maintenance of offshore wind farms

    Petersen, Kristian R.; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne

    The offshore wind industry is booming and larger, more efficient wind-turbines have constantly been introduced into the market. However, research within the field of the operation and maintenance (O&M) of offshore wind farms is limited as the field is still immature. In this paper, two current ma...... maintenance models - RCM and TPM - are discussed in this context. Furthermore, through a case study, the paper looks into Modularization and SSLP, as these concepts can be utilized to optimize maintenance. This is a new approach for the offshore wind industry....

  13. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    Maslak Olga; Grishko Natalya; Hlazunova Olha; Vorobiova Kateryna

    2017-01-01

    In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researc...

  14. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  15. Offshore investments-cui prodis? Schrodinger's cat in offshore financing: Both alive and dead

    Stepuk Anna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends of FDI in offshore tax havens were compared to efforts and efficiency of regulatory authorities to prevent money laundering. Based on available data it was stated that current position in offshore FDI stays alive and officially dead at the same time, keeping the balance of interests for the main stakeholders: corporations, authorities and financial institutes support further offshore investments. Analysis based on volumes of trade and financial transactions between offshore centers, developed and developing countries. As a result withdrawal of financial resources from the developing countries degrades social capital funding and supports corruption growth.

  16. Capability Development in an Offshoring Context

    Jaura, Manya

    Capability development can be defined as deliberate firm-level investment involving a search and learning process aimed at modifying or enhancing existing capabilities. Increasingly, firms are relocating advanced services to offshore locations resulting in the challenge of capability development ...

  17. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  18. CRSMP Potential Offshore Borrow Sites 2012

    California Natural Resource Agency — Offshore borrow sites as identified originally in the California Shoreline Database compiled by Noble Consultants (Jon Moore). Later updates to the dataset by the...

  19. Viewing engineering offshoring in a network perspective

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Zhang, Yufeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    of how to effectively manage engineering offshoring activities in a context of global engineering networks. The main research question, therefore, is: “Can offshoring of engineering tasks be explained and managed using the concept of Global Engineering Networks (GEN)?” Effective approaches to handling...... of large multinational corporations in Denmark were carried out. Data gathering was mainly documentary studies and interviews. The main data analysis approaches were coding (Strauss and Corbin) and pattern-matching (Yin). The dataset was analysed using the GEN framework suggested by Zhang et al. and Zhang...... by extending the GEN framework to address complications within engineering offshoring. This strengthens both academic fields, and will be able to help engineering managers to develop appropriate engineering network configurations for offshore engineering operations....

  20. Environmental risk in the offshore industry

    Woods, I.T.; Shirley, D.; Bottelberghs, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of oil pollution of the sea by the offshore industry is topical as a result of recent incidents both in the U.K. and overseas. While these incidents have primarily involved crude carriers, it has led to pressure to quantify the risk to the environment from the offshore industry in general. In this paper a method for the assessment of the frequency and size of oil spills from offshore installations is presented. It relies on previously reported spills to determine spill size/frequency information for a range of offshore activities, such as transport by pipeline, drilling and processing. Modification factors are used so local conditions, such as the number of wells drilled, throughput and well depth, can be considered in the assessment of the oil spill risk from a particular installation

  1. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  2. Switching overvoltages in offshore wind power grids

    Arana Aristi, Ivan

    and cables are presented. In Chapter 4 results from time domain measurements and simulations of switching operations in offshore wind power grids are described. Specifically, switching operations on a single wind turbine, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid measured in several real...... offshore wind farms are shown together with simulation results. Switching operations in offshore wind power grids can be simulated with different electromagnetic transient programs. Different programs were used in the project and compared results are included in Chapter 4. Also in Chapter 4 different......Switching transients in wind turbines, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid in offshore wind farms, during normal or abnormal operation, are the most important phenomena when conducting insulation coordination studies. However, the recommended models and methods from...

  3. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

    Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

    2011-06-01

    After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

  4. Offshore wind development research (technical brief).

    2014-04-01

    The study addresses all aspects of Offshore Wind (OSW) development. This includes identifying : vessel types, vessel installation methods, needs and operating characteristics through all phases : of OSW installation, construction, operations and main...

  5. The onshore influence of offshore fresh groundwater

    Knight, Andrew C.; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater contained within the submarine extensions of coastal aquifers is increasingly proposed as a freshwater source for coastal communities. However, the extent to which offshore freshwater supports onshore pumping is currently unknown on a global scale. This study provides the first attempt to examine the likely prevalence of situations where offshore freshwater influences onshore salinities, considering various sites from around the world. The groundwater conditions in twenty-seven confined and semi-confined coastal aquifers with plausible connections to inferred or observed offshore freshwater are explored. The investigation uses available onshore salinities and groundwater levels, and offshore salinity knowledge, in combination with analytical modelling, to develop simplified conceptual models of the study sites. Seven different conceptual models are proposed based on the freshwater-saltwater extent and insights gained from analytical modelling. We consider both present-day and pre-development conditions in assessing potential modern contributions to offshore fresh groundwater. Conceptual models also include interpretations of whether offshore freshwater is a significant factor influencing onshore salinities and well pumping sustainability. The results indicate that onshore water levels have declined between pre-development and present-day conditions in fourteen of the fifteen regions for which pre-development data are available. Estimates of the associated steady-state freshwater extents show the potential for considerable offshore fresh groundwater losses accompanying these declines. Both present-day and pre-development heads are insufficient to account for the observed offshore freshwater in all cases where adequate data exist. This suggests that paleo-freshwater and/or aquifer heterogeneities contribute significantly to offshore freshwater extent. Present-day heads indicate that active seawater intrusion (SWI) will eventually impact onshore pumping

  6. Paleocene stratigraphic plays in Uruguay offshore

    Morales, E; Soto, M; Ferro, S; Tomasini, J; De Santa Ana, H; Conti, B.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguayan continental margin offshore evolution is represented by three large mega sequences: pre rift, rift and post rift, which are correlated with other South Atlantic basins. The tectonic and stratigraphic knowledge about the Uruguayan offshore evolution enable a hydrocarbon potential approximation . The mapping of the seismic depositional sequences are covered by deep basins. The methodology used identify the migration of Uruguayan side depo centers such as the stratigraphic plays group in particular a prospective Paleocene sequence

  7. ISM Approach to Model Offshore Outsourcing Risks

    Kumar, Sunand; Sharma, Rajiv Kumar; Chauhan, Prashant

    2014-01-01

    [EN] In an effort to achieve a competitive advantage via cost reductions and improved market responsiveness, organizations are increasingly employing offshore outsourcing as a major component of their supply chain strategies. But as evident from literature number of risks such as Political risk, Risk due to cultural differences, Compliance and regulatory risk, Opportunistic risk and Organization structural risk, which adversely affect the performance of offshore outsourcing in a supply chain ...

  8. 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Hamilton, Bruce [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2014-08-25

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market.This 3rd annual report focuses on new developments that have occurred in 2014. The report provides stakeholders with a reliable and consistent data source addressing entry barriers and U.S. competitiveness in the offshore wind market. Available for download are both the full report and the report's underlying data.

  9. Offshore wind turbines reliability, availability and maintenance

    Tavner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The first book to specifically focus on offshore wind turbine technology and which addresses practically wind turbine reliability and availability. The book draws on the author's experience of power generation reliability and availability and the condition monitoring of that plant to describe the problems facing the developers of offshore wind farms and the solutions available to them to raise availability, reduce cost of energy and improve through life cost.

  10. Offshore wind industry capabilities in the UK

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a questionnaire survey distributed to companies and organisations interested in opportunities in offshore wind energy industries that may results in the improved competitiveness of the industry. The potential areas of advantage for the UK offshore industry are examined including resource and design conditions, turbine design and manufacture, electrical systems, operation and maintenance, project management and finance. Networking and communications are considered.

  11. Effects of offshore wind farms on birds

    Petersen, Ib Krag; Fox, Anthony David; Desholm, Mark

    På konferencen "Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience" blev der gjort rede for danske erfaringer med effekten af havvindmølleparker på havfugle.......På konferencen "Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience" blev der gjort rede for danske erfaringer med effekten af havvindmølleparker på havfugle....

  12. Offshore Outsourcing Induced by Domestic Providers

    Yutian Chen; Pradeep Dubey; Debapriya Sen

    2005-01-01

    We show that offshore outsourcing can occur even when there are no economies of scale or cost advantages for the foreign firms. What drives the phenomenon is that domestic firms, by accepting orders for intermediate goods, incur the disadvantage of becoming Stackelberg followers in the ensuing competition to sell the final good. Thus they have incentive to quote high provider prices to ward off future competitors, compelling them to outsource offshore.

  13. Co-sourcing in software development offshoring

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring, which introduce complex risks that can lead to project failure. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how co-sour......-taking by high attention to of the closely interrelated structure and technology components in terms of CMMI and the actors’ cohesion and integration in terms of Scrum....

  14. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...... fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented....

  15. Treatment and characterization of clays (Brasgel and Green Bentonite) for use in zinc removal tests of synthetic effluents; Tratamento e caracterizacao de argilas (Brasgel e Bentonita verde) visando o uso em testes de remocao de zinco de efluentes sinteticos

    Patricio, A.C.L.; Silva, M.M. da; Lima, W.S.; Laborde, H.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F., E-mail: cadigena@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to synthesize two organophilic clays starting from the green Bentonite clay and Brasgel in their natural forms and to evaluate the potential in the process of zinc removal of wastewater through a finite bath system. After the treatment process, the clays in the natural and organophilic form were characterized by the techniques of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), in addition, organophilic clays obtained were submitted to the swelling of Foster, aiming to analyze their behavior in certain organic solvents. The analysis of the efficiency of organophilic clays in the Zn{sup +2} removal process was performed in solutions based on a factorial design 2{sup 2} + 3 replicates in the central point, having as analysis variables the pH of the solution (3.0 to 5.0) and the initial concentration of zinc ranging from 10 to 50 ppm.

  16. Flotation of agent for breach of emulsion oil/water aiming treatment of water produced for the industry petroleum; Agente de flotacao (Tanfloc) para quebra de emulsao oleo/agua visando tratamento de aguas produzidas pela industria do petroleo

    Miranda, A.C. de; Andrade, J.M. de; Melo, M.A.A.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work was studied the action of an agent of flotation TanFloc broken emulsion in oil / water when its concentration varies and salinity. This material is used by Petroleum brazilian for removal of turbidity in the water from the petroleum industry. For the test set up a bench in the laboratory of the Environmental Technology UFRN for simulation of tests made on the field. To do so, was studied the concentration of TanFloc and it was found that the best concentration for removal of turbidity was 11ppm such material. It was found that the level of salinity affects particularly the results of turbidity therefore this was also one of the parameters studied. (author)

  17. Valorização de landoltia punctata proveniente de tratamento de esgoto doméstico através de hidrólise enzimática visando a produção de etanol

    Costa, Flávia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Alimentos, Florianópolis, 2014. A necessidade de se explorar novas fontes de energia renovável e limpa vem exigindo o desenvolvimento de biocombustíveis, por serem considerados uma alternativa promissora aos combustíveis tradicionais. Nesse contexto, as lemnas vêm ganhando interesse em pesquisas, por não competirem com culturas alimentícias e terras produtivas par...

  18. The offshorization of economy: the present realities

    Maslak Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the essence and main types of offshore zones have been studied. It has been analyzed the main reasons for cooperation with the tax havens, established that the main reason of the Ukrainian economy offshorization is not only the desire of economic entities to optimize taxes, but also the desire to protect their assets from the negative impact of the crisis phenomena in the national economy during 2010-2016. The foreign experience of the anti-offshore regulation has been researched. It has been defined that the general anti-offshore regulation vector should be based on the principles of financial transparency, active cooperation with the international community, an optimal combination of instruments that restrict the capital outflows and the effective instruments that stimulate the business development in the country. It has been also established that the mechanism of deoffshorization should be aimed not only at elimination of the territories with the preferential taxation, but also at receiving benefits from their use on the basis of the existing financial infrastructure of the leading world offshore centers. The experience of China in attracting additional foreign investments, gaining wider access to financial resources through the cooperation with an offshore financial centre has been researched.

  19. Offshore petroleum engineering task force report

    Ruelokke, M.

    1999-05-01

    The Offshore Petroleum Engineering Task Force was established in July 1998 in response to concerns about Newfoundland and Labrador's share of offshore petroleum engineering activity, with the aim of determining the current capability of the local sector, the demand for such companies and individuals until the year 2010, their capability to grow over that time-frame, and requirements in order to achieve that growth. The report summarizes the analysis undertaken by the Task Force as well as the conclusions it reached and associated recommendations. Section two provides an overview of the offshore engineering activity, including its origins, structure, and key success factors, and its also provides a profile of the industry, internationally, in Canada and in Newfoundland. Section three presents an analysis of the future demand for offshore engineering in Newfoundland until 2010, based on three development scenarios. Section four based on a Consulting Engineers of Newfoundland and Labrador (CENL) survey, establishes the present offshore engineering capacity and capabilities within the province. Section five examines current education and training programs and their ability to respond to future demands. Section six summarizes the conclusions of the analysis and presents recommendations designed to facilitate and promote the development of the local offshore engineering industry. 6 figs

  20. Offshore wind energy. An overview on the activities in Germany; Offshore-Windenergie. Ein Ueberblick ueber die Aktivitaeten in Deutschland

    Worm, Anja [media consulta Deutschland GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The brochure under consideration provides an overview of the activities of offshore wind energy in Germany. The first offshore wind farms are built and generate more electricity than expected. The offshore wind farms serve as a field of learning for new technologies. The power of offshore wind farms opened new prospects for the economy. The northern Federal States of Germany as well as the traditional locations for mechanical engineering and steel production benefit from offshore wind energy.

  1. PROSPECÇÃO DE MERCADO VISANDO P&D PARA MEDICAMENTOS VETERINÁRIOS PARA BOVINOCULTURA NO BRASIL

    Helio De Sena Gouvea Omote

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de medicamentos veterinários no Brasil possui desafios relacionados à inovação em produtos. A Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste atua em uma linha de pesquisa relacionada a alternativas de controle de parasitas na bovinocultura. E a formação de redes de inovação é uma estratégia importante para catalisar a obtenção dos resultados de P&D neste setor. Assim, este trabalho objetivou prospectar o mercado de medicamentos veterinários, com foco na bovinocultura no Brasil, visando oportunidades de parceria para inovação. A análise das informações coletadas neste estudo prospectivo indica que o mercado de medicamentos veterinários no Brasil é concentrado e os clientes dispersos. As características mais relevantes desta indústria são relativas à intensidade em capital e em P&D, alto grau de interdependência entre os segmentos e estrutura de produção complexa e com forte cunho tecnológico. Foram identificadas seis grandes empresas de atuação global, sendo duas de capital nacional, e outras pequenas empresas com foco regional, que ocupam nichos de mercado. Quanto a produtos, focando em antiparasitários, são muitos disponíveis no mercado, entretanto com poucos princípios ativos. Desta forma, vislumbram-se oportunidades de parceria frente às pesquisas desenvolvidas na Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, principalmente às relacionadas com alternativas para controle parasitário na pecuária.

  2. Tecnologias e sistemas de tratamento para os dejetos da suinocultura

    Leandro D. dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A suinocultura caracteriza-se como uma atividade de alto impacto ambiental, devido a grande quantidade de dejetos com alta carga de poluentes, lançados no meio ambiente. No entanto, existem diversas tecnologias, e sistemas de tratamento, com a capacidade de reduzir o poder poluente dos dejetos da suinocultura. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as principais tecnologias e sistemas de tratamentos para os dejetos da suinocultura, presentes em publicações brasileiras. Os resultados obtidos nestas publicações apresentaram-se de certa forma satisfatórios em relação à redução da carga de poluentes dos efluentes da suinocultura. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre o comportamento da redução dos poluentes em função de parâmetros dimensionais e temporais das tecnologias ou dos sistemas de tratamento. Tal desconhecimento dificulta o dimensionamento de sistemas de tratamento, desconsiderando a relação existente entre investimento e redução do poder poluente dos dejetos. Dentro deste contexto, a modelagem e otimização de sistemas pode ser uma ferramenta muito útil para o dimensionamento de tecnologias e sistemas de tratamento de dejetos de suínos.

  3. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    Dempsey, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations. Supply vessels are also

  4. Too much or too little of R&D offshoring : The impact of captive offshoring and contract offshoring on innovation performance

    Steinberg, Philip; Procher, Vivien D.; Urbig, Diemo

    2017-01-01

    Innovating firms may acquire foreign knowledge and improve their innovation performance by offshoring their R&D activities to their own foreign affiliates (captive offshoring) as well as by contracting out their R&D to external foreign parties (contract offshoring). This study examines the impact of

  5. Aspectos psicossociais na era dos novos tratamentos da AIDS

    Eduardo Augusto Remor

    Full Text Available O presente artigo descreve o impacto no bem-estar (ansiedade e depressão e qualidade de vida das pessoas HIV+ quando o tratamento anti-retroviral não apresenta os resultados esperados. Foram avaliadas, através de questionários, as percepções e expectativas com o tratamento anti-retroviral, o nível de ansiedade e depressão, o nível de apoio social e a qualidade de vida percebida em 80 pacientes HIV+ em atendimento em um hospital universitário. Os resultados indicaram que as percepções e expectativas negativas com o tratamento podem modular o estado emocional e impactar negativamente a qualidade de vida das pessoas HIV+; e que um nível de apoio social adequado é capaz de atenuar este impacto negativo.

  6. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  7. ISM Approach to Model Offshore Outsourcing Risks

    Sunand Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to achieve a competitive advantage via cost reductions and improved market responsiveness, organizations are increasingly employing offshore outsourcing as a major component of their supply chain strategies. But as evident from literature number of risks such as Political risk, Risk due to cultural differences, Compliance and regulatory risk, Opportunistic risk and Organization structural risk, which adversely affect the performance of offshore outsourcing in a supply chain network. This also leads to dissatisfaction among different stake holders. The main objective of this paper is to identify and understand the mutual interaction among various risks which affect the performance of offshore outsourcing.  To this effect, authors have identified various risks through extant review of literature.  From this information, an integrated model using interpretive structural modelling (ISM for risks affecting offshore outsourcing is developed and the structural relationships between these risks are modeled.  Further, MICMAC analysis is done to analyze the driving power and dependency of risks which shall be helpful to managers to identify and classify important criterions and to reveal the direct and indirect effects of each criterion on offshore outsourcing. Results show that political risk and risk due to cultural differences are act as strong drivers.

  8. Operational management of offshore energy assets

    Kolios, A. J.; Martinez Luengo, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy assets and especially those deployed offshore are subject to a variety of harsh operational and environmental conditions which lead to deterioration of their performance and structural capacity over time. The aim of reduction of CAPEX in new installations shifts focus to operational management to monitor and assess performance of critical assets ensuring their fitness for service throughout their service life and also to provide appropriate and effective information towards requalification or other end of life scenarios, optimizing the OPEX. Over the last decades, the offshore oil & gas industry has developed and applied various approaches in operational management of assets through Structural Health and Condition Monitoring (SHM/CM) systems which can be, at a certain level, transferable to offshore renewable installations. This paper aims to highlight the key differences between offshore oil & gas and renewable energy assets from a structural integrity and reliability perspective, provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches that are available and applicable, and distinguish the benefits of such systems in the efficient operation of offshore energy assets.

  9. Tratamento do hipertireoidismo da Doença de Graves

    Andrade, Vânia A.; Gross, Jorge L.; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2001-01-01

    A Doença de Graves constitui a forma mais comum de hipertireoidismo e três abordagens terapêuticas são atualmente utilizadas: drogas antitireoidianas (DAT), cirurgia e iodo radioativo (131I). As DAT continuam como tratamento de primeira escolha em pacientes com doença leve, bócios pequenos, crianças e adolescentes, e em situações especiais como na gravidez. Por outro lado, o 131I tem sido cada vez mais utilizado, porque é considerado um tratamento seguro, definitivo e de fácil aplicação. O ri...

  10. Tratamento da anemia ferropriva com ferro por via oral

    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    Full Text Available A anemia ferropriva permanece como uma das deficiências nutricionais mais frequentes e importantes no mundo. O tratamento com ferro deve ser iniciado preferencialmente por via oral e a investigação apropriada de sua causa é obrigatória. Os autores discutem os compostos com ferro atualmente disponíveis, o perfil de eficácia, segurança e tolerabilidade desses medicamentos, e o plano terapêutico mais adequado possível para o sucesso no tratamento dessa doença tão comum e importante.

  11. Medical status of the offshore population

    Coleshaw, S.R.K.; Harris, R.A.

    1998-06-01

    The offshore workforce are generally considered to be a healthy occupational group due to regular medical screening, a degree of health surveillance, self-selection, and an increasing number of health promotion programmes being run both onshore and offshore. That said, factors such as the increasing age of the workforce, the often poor lifestyle and the sometimes difficult psychosocial environment remain areas of concern when considering the physical and mental well-being of the workforce. The medical status of offshore workers was investigated by surveying the information collected during the medical screening process, over a cross-section of the population assessed by an independent health service provider. Demographic information, medical history and the results of medical examination were entered into a relational database, to allow analysis and interrogation of the data. (UK)

  12. RBI Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    methods for oil & gas installations, a framework for optimal inspection and maintenance planning of offshore wind turbines is presented. Special aspects for offshore wind turbines considered are the fatigue loading characteristics where usually the wind loading are dominating the wave loading, wake......Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coming years. Offshore wind turbines with an electricity production of 5-10 MW are planned. Typically, the wind turbine...... support structure is a steel structure consisting of a tower and a monopile, tripod or jacket type foundation. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod type of wind turbine support structures. Based on risk-based inspection planning...

  13. Offshore wind energy potential in China

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    and economic costs. However, the influence of tropical cyclone risks on these regions and detailed assessments at regional or local scale are worth of further discussions. Nevertheless, the models and results provide a foundation for a more comprehensive regional planning framework that would address......This paper investigates available offshore wind energy resources in China’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) with the aid of a Geographical Information System (GIS), which allows the influence of technical, spatial and economic constraints on offshore wind resources being reflected in a continuous...... space. Geospatial supply curves and spatial distribution of levelised production cost (LPC) are developed, which provide information on the available potential of offshore wind energy at or below a given cost, and its corresponding geographical locations. The GIS-based models also reflect the impacts...

  14. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  15. Scour around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig

    Over the last decades several offshore wind farms have been installed and commissioned in the European waters. Typically the foundations of the wind turbines are protected against scour at the base by installing scour protection with rock dump. The Egmond aan Zee offshore wind farm located about 10...... the performance (stability) of the scour protection and to quantify the edge scour development at the circumference of the scour protection. The survey campaign showed considerable edge scour of up to 2.7 m, which was expected from design considerations. However, no clear information exists on the mechanisms...... causing the edge scour development around scour protections at offshore wind turbine foundations. The purpose of the present thesis is to investigate and explain the development of the edge scour in such applications, and describe the flow mechanism causing the scour. Furthermore, the dissertation also...

  16. Offshore Wind Power at Rough Sea

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne

    2013-01-01

    This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. Howeve......, the study has also revealed the need for new maintenance models including a shift from breakdown and preventive maintenances and towards more predictive maintenance to reduce the cost of energy for offshore wind energy installations in the future.......This study compare the current operations and maintenance issues of one offshore wind park at very rough sea conditions and two onshore wind parks. Through a detailed data analysis and case studies this study identifies how improvements have been made in maintenance of large wind turbines. However...

  17. Project alliancing in the offshore industry

    Halman, J.I.M.; Braks, B.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the shift towards new types of project organisation within the offshore industry is explained and discussed. Special focus is given to the organisational concept of project alliancing. The principles, structure and culture of a project alliance as applied within the offshore industry are described. In the paper the organisational concept of project alliancing is discussed on its potential to reduce project costs and enhance profits, both for the operator (oil and gas company) as well as for participating contractors. A risk and reward mechanism developed to share project risks and rewards between allied parties is explained for an alliance case. Based upon an in-depth study carried out within a contractor company in the offshore industry the organisational and financial implications of project alliancing are presented. (author)

  18. Offshore wind energy : balancing risk and reward

    Nerland, C.

    2010-01-01

    Offshore wind energy developments are expected to increase as the demand for renewable energy sources grows. This poster presentation described a method of balancing risk and reward in offshore wind energy projects. The method was based on risk assessment strategies used by the oil and gas industry. The dedicated framework considered schedules; budgets; performance; and operating and maintenance costs. A value chain assessment method was used to optimize the balance between risk and reward by evaluating uncertainties and risk related to each project element and its relationship to other elements within an integrated dynamic model designed to determine the net present value of a project. The decision-making criteria included the RISKEX risk expenditure strategy designed to consider the balance between risk exposure, capital expenditures, and operational expenditures in relation to the statistical cost of unplanned repairs, and lost production capacity. A case study of a large offshore wind farm was used to demonstrate the method. tabs., figs.

  19. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

    Bringing together leading experts from various disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive study of the governance of offshore oil and gas activities in the circumpolar Arctic. As a consequence of energy globalisation, and of a sharp increase in world energy demand, the Arctic Ocean is also now...... being targeted for its offshore oil and gas resources, at the same time as an increasing demand for democratic legitimisation and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples is emerging in the civil spheres of society. The volume analyses how, in the daunting context of climate change......, the interactions between the various levels of governance structure the policy process and impact on the efficiency of environmental management and the effectiveness of public participation, including the participation of indigenous peoples. Any governance system for Arctic offshore oil and gas activities...

  20. The Offshore New European Wind Atlas

    Karagali, I.; Hahmann, A. N.; Badger, M.; Hasager, C.; Mann, J.

    2017-12-01

    The New European Wind Atlas (NEWA) is a joint effort of research agencies from eight European countries, co-funded under the ERANET Plus Program. The project is structured around two areas of work: development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and measurement campaigns to validate these methodologies, leading to the creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form. This atlas will contain an offshore component extending 100 km from the European coasts. To achieve this, mesoscale models along with various observational datasets are utilised. Scanning lidars located at the coastline were used to compare the coastal wind gradient reproduced by the meso-scale model. Currently, an experimental campaign is occurring in the Baltic Sea, with a lidar located in a commercial ship sailing from Germany to Lithuania, thus covering the entire span of the south Baltic basin. In addition, satellite wind retrievals from scatterometers and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments were used to generate mean wind field maps and validate offshore modelled wind fields and identify the optimal model set-up parameters.The aim of this study is to compare the initial outputs from the offshore wind atlas produced by the Weather & Research Forecasting (WRF) model, still in pre-operational phase, and the METOP-A/B Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) wind fields, reprocessed to stress equivalent winds at 10m. Different experiments were set-up to evaluate the model sensitivity for the various domains covered by the NEWA offshore atlas. ASCAT winds were utilised to assess the performance of the WRF offshore atlases. In addition, ASCAT winds were used to create an offshore atlas covering the years 2007 to 2016, capturing the signature of various spatial wind features, such as channelling and lee effects from complex coastal topographical elements.

  1. Economic optimization of offshore wind farms

    Pauling, T.

    1996-09-01

    The study on the title subject continues the development of a cost model for offshore wind farms started at the Institute for Wind Energy (IW) in 1995, and applies it on different kinds of cost analyses. The model will be considered within the European research project 'Structural and Economic Optimization of Bottom-Mounted Offshore Wind Energy Converters' (Opti-OWECS, JOR3-CT95-0087) co-ordinated by the IW, where also the cost analyses and optimization will be extended. The conclusions of the investigations have already been presented at the European Union Wind Energy Conference '96 at Goeteborg, Sweden. In Chapter 1, a short overview of former offshore studies and projects is given, especially those dealing with cost analysis. Typical cost breakdowns of offshore and onshore wind farms are compared. Chapter 2 contains a brief description of the cost model in its present state. The recent improvements and extensions are documented in Chapter 3, and a validation by means of a recalculation of two former offshore studies is carried out in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, four different offshore sites are compared with respect to the same farm size and an optimized farm design: Jade in the German part of the North Sea near Wilhelmshafen; Swansea Bay in the Bristol Channel at the British Atlantic Coast; Rostock at the German Baltic Coast, and IJmuiden in the Dutch part of the North Sea. In Chapter 6, a sensitivity study is carried out for a variety of site, design and economical parameters. The results of this project are summarized in Chapter 7, and an outlook is given in Chapter 8. The appendix contains among others a description of the SCOptiM2 code, where the model is implemented, as well as data obtained from the parameter studies and design optimizations. 30 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appendices, 40 refs

  2. Offshore oil and gas and offshore wind power - different in terms of safety.?; Offshore Oel and Gas und Offshore Wind - mit Sicherheit ''anders''.?

    Weise, F.; Tatulinski, M. [DNV GL - Oil and Gas Germany, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Safety standards in the oil and gas industry have risen to a high level over the past decades, driven in part by momentous accidents. Furthermore, an expanded framework has recently been defined through the new EU Offshore Safety Directive, which in Germany is still in the process of its transposition into national law. The installation of offshore wind farms in the North and Baltic Sea has within the shortest of time brought forth an entirely new branch of industry, most of whose players have no significant experience with offshore operations. One of the greatest challenges is the working environment, which is being approached in different ways by those involved. The supervisory authorities responsible are only just beginning to develop the competence required for their tasks, with the effect that regulations pertaining to onshore operations are often simply adopted as they are. This is in some cases impacting on the oil and gas industry, as is discussed in the present lecture. [German] Die Oel und Gas Industrie hat in den vergangen Jahrzehnten einen hohen Sicherheitsstandard entwickelt, teilweise getrieben durch signifikante Unfallereignisse. Aktuell wurde zudem mit der neuen EU-Offshore Richtlinie ein erweiterter Rahmen definiert, der sich in Deutschland noch in der gesetzgeberischen Umsetzung befindet. Durch die Installation von Offshore-Windparks in der Nord- und Ostsee ist innerhalb kuerzester Zeit zusaetzlich ein neuer Industriebereich entstanden, dessen Marktteilnehmer mehrheitlich nicht ueber signifikante Offshore-Erfahrung verfuegen. Insbesondere das Arbeitsumfeld stellt dabei eine Herausforderung dar, die von den Beteiligten unterschiedlich geloest wird. Ferner beginnen auch die verantwortlichen Aufsichtsbehoerden erst mit dem Aufbau entsprechender Kompetenzen, so dass vielfach auch Regelungen aus dem Onshore-Bereich uebertragen werden. Dies fuehrt teilweise zu Auswirkungen auf die Oel- und Gasindustrie, die im Rahmen dieses Vortrages diskutiert werden.

  3. Healthy offshore workforce? A qualitative study on offshore wind employees' occupational strain, health, and coping.

    Mette, Janika; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Harth, Volker; Preisser, Alexandra M; Mache, Stefanie

    2018-01-23

    Offshore work has been described as demanding and stressful. Despite this, evidence regarding the occupational strain, health, and coping behaviors of workers in the growing offshore wind industry in Germany is still limited. The purpose of our study was to explore offshore wind employees' perceptions of occupational strain and health, and to investigate their strategies for dealing with the demands of offshore work. We conducted 21 semi-structured telephone interviews with employees in the German offshore wind industry. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed in a deductive-inductive approach following Mayring's qualitative content analysis. Workers generally reported good mental and physical health. However, they also stated perceptions of stress at work, fatigue, difficulties detaching from work, and sleeping problems, all to varying extents. In addition, physical health impairment in relation to offshore work, e.g. musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complaints, was documented. Employees described different strategies for coping with their job demands. The strategies comprised of both problem and emotion-focused approaches, and were classified as either work-related, health-related, or related to seeking social support. Our study is the first to investigate the occupational strain, health, and coping of workers in the expanding German offshore wind industry. The results offer new insights that can be utilized for future research in this field. In terms of practical implications, the findings suggest that measures should be carried out aimed at reducing occupational strain and health impairment among offshore wind workers. In addition, interventions should be initiated that foster offshore wind workers' health and empower them to further expand on effective coping strategies at their workplace.

  4. Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    Damgaard, Mads

    ages structurally over its service life. Well-covered in the field of earthquake engineering, the dynamic response of civil engineering structures is highly dependent on the impedance of the soil–foundation system. For offshore wind turbine applications, however, the hysteretical and geometrical......, there is a general consensus that offshore wind-generated electricity is still too expensive to be competitive with conventional energy sources. As a consequence, the overall weight of the turbine and foundation is kept to a minimum resulting in a flexible and dynamically active structural system—even at low...

  5. Development application guidelines : Newfoundland offshore area

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    The Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board has created a set of guidelines which describe the information needed by the Board to process a development application by a proponent of an offshore hydrocarbon development project. The guidelines also describe the review process that will be followed in considering a proponent`s application. Proponents must also refer to the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation Act and the Canada-Newfoundland Atlantic Accord Implementation (Newfoundland) Act. These guidelines also describe the requirements for the Canada-Newfoundland benefits plan, the environmental impact statement, the socio-economic impact statement, the safety plan, and the environmental protection plan.

  6. Offshore Financial Centers in Global Capital Flow

    Lutsyshyn Zoriana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to investigation of the place and role of offshore financial centers in financial globalization system, and of the reasons for using offshores in assets securitization mechanism. Numerous offshore and other preferential zones enabling to avoid the effective national and governmental tax regime are important attributes of global financial system and redistributive links of world financial flows. At present, around 70 countries and territories offer their offshore services for foreign capital, bank transactions, profitability from activities in financial markets proper. The global offshore business concentrates large amounts often having no relation to the country of origin, the so-called cosmopolitan capital (wandering. Although in the early 80's of the XXth century offshore companies were considered to control approximately 500 billion dollars, it was already in the early 90's that this amount doubled and was estimated as 1 trillion dollars. Today, from ⅓ to half of the world capital turnover goes through offshore business channels, and therefore, almost half of non-resident bank deposits are concentrated in world offshore centers. These are the world financial centers comprising international capital markets that provide for the accumulation and redistribution of world capital. From the process of reproduction (circulation of capital, the world financial centers plunge out the most homogeneous and mobile element — money, and freely manipulating with them, concentrate huge economic power in their hands. The role of world financial centers was also enhanced by the latest achievements in computer science, allowing execution of instant transactions and movement of huge amounts to any point of the world within the shortest possible time. The world financial centers consist not only of powerful banks and financial institutions operating on the international scene, but also have currency, stock and other exchanges as their

  7. Scour Forecasting for Offshore Wind Parks

    Hartvig, Peres Akrawi

    In an effort to minimize the costs of offshore wind parks, the present research deals with optimizing a certain aspect of the support structure, namely the approach to scour. Scour is the phenomenon of seabed changes in the vicinity of the support structure that arises when the support structure......, scour forecasts facilitate the comparison between a scour design based on either deployment of scour-protection or enhanced structural design. The broad goal is to develop a method that produces accurate scour forecasts for offshore wind parks. The present research investigates more specifically which...

  8. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  9. Floating Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt

    The concept of harnessing the power of the wind dates all the way back to the first ships traversing the seas. Later, windmills enabled the use of wind power for industrial purposes. Since then, technology has allowed the production of clean renewable energy through the use of wind turbines....... These turbines have traditionally been placed on land, but several factors have urged a move to offshore locations. Now the boundaries are being pushed into deeper and deeper waters, where the idea of floating offshore wind turbines has emerged. In less than a decade, these have gone from scattered small...

  10. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  11. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    The paper examines how small-to-medium size enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale. Seeking to relate SMEs’ value chain position to their operations configuration attributes, we draw on the operations networks literature and use mixed methods of enquiry, including case...... studies and survey techniques. The study highlights characteristics and practices of SMEs that are prompt to offshoring. Furthermore, it identifies a set of key challenges that SMEs need to overcome in order to succeed in offshoring. By incorporating the perspectives of SMEs, the paper provides a more...

  12. Tratamento da endometriose Treatment of endometriosis

    Paula Andrea de Albuquerque Salles Navarro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da grande heterogeneidade das manifestações clínicas relacionadas à endometriose, observa-se a sua elevada prevalência em mulheres inférteis e portadoras de dor pélvica crônica. O impacto sócio-econômico desta afecção enigmática é elevado e os dados relacionados à eficácia das diferentes abordagens terapêuticas descritas são bastante conflitantes. Assim, os objetivos do presente artigo são apresentar as evidências científicas disponíveis acerca das diferentes modalidades terapêuticas aplicáveis e estabelecer recomendações para o tratamento da infertilidade e da dor pélvica crônica relacionadas à endometriose. Em pacientes com endometriose mínima ou leve a supressão da função ovariana não é efetiva para melhorar a fertilidade, mas a ablação das lesões associadas à adesiólise parece ser mais efetiva do que a realização exclusiva da laparoscopia diagnóstica. Não há evidências suficientes para determinar se a excisão cirúrgica em casos de doença moderada ou severa melhoraria as taxas de gestação. A fertilização in vitro parece ser uma abordagem adequada, especialmente nos casos de coexistência de fatores de infertilidade e/ou falha de outras abordagens terapêuticas. Deve-se avaliar a possibilidade de usar agonistas do GnRH por 3 a 6 meses, previamente à realização de fertilização in vitro. Em relação ao alívio da dor, verifica-se que a supressão da função ovariana por 3 a 6 meses em pacientes com doença confirmada laparoscopicamente reduz a dor associada à endometriose. Todas as medicações estudadas parecem apresentar eficácia similar, embora os efeitos adversos e de os custos sejam diferentes. A ablação das lesões endometrióticas reduz a dor associada à endometriose, sendo menos efetiva nos casos de doença mínima. A exérese de endometriomas com diâmetro > 4 cm parece melhorar a taxa de fecundidade natural e após procedimentos de reprodução assistida, além de

  13. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  14. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  15. Offshore Wind Turbines Situated in Areas with Strong Currents

    Jensen, Morten S.; Juul Larsen, Brian; Frigaard, Peter

    Prediction of local scour caused by offshore wind turbine foundations using empirical formulae or numerical models.......Prediction of local scour caused by offshore wind turbine foundations using empirical formulae or numerical models....

  16. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    Milton Moura Lima

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de impedir o aparecimento de larvas de Aëdes aegypti e de outros insetos, em pneus pintados, na face externa, com Sumition e com Malation.In four districts of the city of Rio dc Janeiro focal treatment essays with granulated Abate at 1 ppm and perifocal treatment essays with wettable powder of Sumithion at 2,5% were performed. These were made either alone or in combination as well as associated to insecticides applied at ultra low volume. The premise indices obtained one month after the treatments indicates that the focal treatment alone is effective, no other addicional methods being necessary. The perifocal treatment is not effective and did not prevent the development of Aedes aegypti larvae and other insects in tires which had their external surface painted with Sumithion and Malathion.

  17. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  18. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  19. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in this...

  20. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in this...

  1. Boundary Spanning in Offshored Information Systems Development Projects

    Krishnan, Poornima

    2010-01-01

    Recent growth in offshore outsourcing of information systems (IS) services is accompanied by managing the offshore projects successfully. Much of the project failures can be attributed to geographic and organizational boundaries which create differences in culture, language, work patterns, and decision making processes among the offshore project…

  2. Water-hydraulic power transmission for offshore wind farms

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.; Kempenaar, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art of offshore wind turbine power transmission technology is expensive, heavy and maintenance intensive. The Delft Offshore Turbine project considers a radically new concept for power transmission in an offshore wind farm: using seawater as power transmission medium. For

  3. Wave Run-Up on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    Frigaard, Peter; De Vos, Leen

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, several offshore wind-farms are built and offshore wind energy promises to be a suitable alternative to provide green energy. However, there still are some engineering challenges in placing the wind turbine foundations offshore. For example, unexpected damage to boat landing...

  4. Development opportunities for the UK offshore wind industry

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the UK's ability to compete for the construction of offshore wind farms. The European offshore wind farm market is examined, and the UK offshore construction equipment and wind farm construction methods are analysed, and recommendations for a purpose build or modified construction vessel are presented. The appendix gives UK construction companies addresses and contact names

  5. The effects of meshed offshore grids on offshore wind investment – a real options analysis

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Kitzing, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind farms in future meshed offshore grids could be subject to different regulatory regimes. Feed-in tariffs would absorb market risk from wind farm operators, whereas price premium mechanisms leave operators exposed to market price signals. In this case, it plays a decisive role which...... price applies to a node in an offshore grid. The offshore node will either be integrated into any of the neighbouring markets, with access to the respective maximum price, or be subject to separate nodal pricing. We investigate the different regulatory regimes for connections to one to four countries...... based on a stochastic model capturing uncertainties in prices and line failures. The stochastic analysis shows that in case the wind park is granted access to the respective maximum price, there is a significant option value connected to the operational flexibility of accessing several markets: The wind...

  6. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  7. The effects of meshed offshore grids on offshore wind investment – a real options analysis

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Kitzing, Lena

    2012-01-01

    based on a stochastic model capturing uncertainties in prices and line failures. The stochastic analysis shows that in case the wind park is granted access to the respective maximum price, there is a significant option value connected to the operational flexibility of accessing several markets: The wind......Offshore wind farms in future meshed offshore grids could be subject to different regulatory regimes. Feed-in tariffs would absorb market risk from wind farm operators, whereas price premium mechanisms leave operators exposed to market price signals. In this case, it plays a decisive role which...... price applies to a node in an offshore grid. The offshore node will either be integrated into any of the neighbouring markets, with access to the respective maximum price, or be subject to separate nodal pricing. We investigate the different regulatory regimes for connections to one to four countries...

  8. Advanced Laboratory Setup for Testing Offshore Foundations

    Nielsen, Søren Dam; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a test setup for testing small-scale offshore foundations under realistic conditions of high pore-water pressure and high impact loads. The actuator, used for loading has enough capacity to apply sufficient force and displacement to achieve both drained and undrained failure ...

  9. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  10. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  11. Reliability analysis of an offshore structure

    Sorensen, J. D.; Faber, M. H.; Thoft-Christensen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A jacket type offshore structure from the North Sea is considered. The time variant reliability is estimated for failure defined as brittle fracture and crack through the tubular member walls. The stochastic modelling is described. The hot spot stress spectral moments as function of the stochasti...

  12. Offshore production flares: a PETROBRAS review

    Pagot, Paulo R.; Burmann, Clovis P.; Araujo, Paulo Bento de; Motomura, Tsukasa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to briefly present the offshore flare system technological evolution and the main design criteria for flare and its supporting structure. In order to perform the aimed task, this work was divided into two parts: the first part presents the technological evolution of the offshore production flares and the second one discusses the flare system designing criteria. The evolution of the technology associated to the offshore production flares is organized by the authors just dividing the history in four chronological phases. Each phase is defined by the predominant use of the, by the time, most up-to-date technological alternative and it will be described with the help of sketches, drawings, photographs, data and information about the platforms where such technologies were applied. The second part of the present work discusses the dimensional criteria, interesting aspects and flaws of the offshore flare systems in two different fields, which are: definition of the flare system capacity; and flow and thermal design of the flare system. (author)

  13. Employee assistance programme in the offshore environment

    Cooper, J.R.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an Employee Assistance Programme that has a lot to offer in the offshore environment, and represents excellent value for money. To be successful though it must be thoroughly explained to the workforce as a beneficial resource for their own use, and be supported by a committed Management group

  14. Fishing activity near offshore pipelines, 2017

    Machiels, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    On the North Sea bottom lie numerous pipelines to link oil- or gas offshore drilling units, - platforms and processing stations on land. Although pipeline tubes are coated and covered with protective layers, the pipelines risk being damaged through man-made hazards like anchor dropping and fishing

  15. Going offshore or better staying in?

    Kreutzer, Fabian; Mitze, Timo

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the short- to mid-run effects of spatial relocation strategies on firm innovativeness and productivity growth. Using conditional difference-in-difference estimation with multiple treatments, we find for a sample of German firms in 1999–2013 that offshoring has a statistically significa...

  16. Go offshore -Combining food and energy production

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Stuiver, Marian; Guanche, Raul

    European oceans will be subject to massive development of marine infrastructure in the near future. The development includes energy facilities, e.g. offshore wind farms, exploitation of wave energy, and also development and implementation of marine aquaculture This change of infrastructure makes ...

  17. Energy Analysis of Offshore Systems | Wind | NREL

    markets enables the compilation of a database of installed and proposed project costs. These are used to offshore wind projects Discounted cash-flow analysis (with the University of Delaware) to identify the level costs based on wind turbine size, annual energy production, and operation costs. The model

  18. Solar power satellite offshore rectenna study

    1980-01-01

    It was found that an offshore rectenna is feasible and cost competitive with land rectennas but that the type of rectenna which is suitable for offshore use is quite different from that specified in the present reference system. The result is a nonground plane design which minimizes the weight and greatly reduces the number of costly support towers. This preferred design is an antenna array consisting of individually encapsulated dipoles with reflectors supported on feed wires. Such a 5 GW rectenna could be built at a 50 m water depth site to withstand hurricane and icing conditions for a one time cost of 5.7 billion dollars. Subsequent units would be about 1/3 less expensive. The east coast site chosen for this study represents an extreme case of severe environmental conditions. More benign and more shallow water sites would result in lower costs. Secondary uses such as mariculture appear practical with only minor impact on the rectenna design. The potential advantages of an offshore rectenna, such as no land requirements, removal of microwave radiation from populated areas and minimal impact on the local geopolitics argue strongly that further investigation of the offshore rectenna should be vigorously pursued.

  19. Extensive Margins of Offshoring and Exporting

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    This paper derives new comparative statics within a two-country version of the recent offshoring model by Antràs, Fort, and Tintelnot (2014) with nonprohibitive costs of exporting final goods. One key finding is that an asymmetric trade liberalisation might very well imply that the fractions of o...

  20. Floating offshore wind turbines for shallow waters

    Bulder, B.H.; Henderson, A.; Huijsmans, R.H.M.; Peeringa, J.M.; Pierik, J.T.G.; Snijders, E.J.B.; Hees, M.Th. van; Wijnants, G.H.; Wolf, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom mounted Offshore wind turbines seem to have a promising future but they are restricted to shallow waters of Northern Europe. Many projects are planned or are in the phase of construction on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. All projects that are planned have a water depth up to approximately

  1. Fluctuations of offshore wind generation: Statistical modelling

    Pinson, Pierre; Christensen, Lasse E.A.; Madsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms has a significant impact on the control and management strategies of their power output. If focusing on the minute scale, one observes successive periods with smaller and larger power fluctuations. It seems that different regimes yi...

  2. Advokaat ja offshore'id / Leon Glikman

    Glikman, Leon, 1957-

    2003-01-01

    Advokaatide tegevusest nn offshore-äriühingute ostmisel ja kliendi rahaliste kohustuste täitmisel. Kommentaar Silva Männiku, Inno Tähismaa ja Heidit Kaio art. "Mahukate maksuskeemide uurimine jõuab lõpusirgele", Äripäev 6. aug. 2003, lk. 2

  3. Vertical Dynamic Stiffness of Offshore Foundations

    Latini, Chiara; Cisternino, Michele; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, pile and suction caisson foundations are widely used to support offshore structures which are subjected to vertical dynamic loads. The dynamic soil-structure interaction of floating foundations (foundations embedded in a soil layer whose height is greater than the foundation length) is ...

  4. Decommissioning and abandonment of offshore installations

    Side, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    To the onlooker surprising little thought was given at the project planning stage to the fate of offshore facilities once their production lifetimes had come to an end. Throughout the 1970s at least, international law required the complete removal of all structures and installations one disused or abandoned. Fishermen's organisations were led to believe that such installations would be entirely removed yet many of the designs of these show that removal was not much in the minds of the engineers or project management during the design stages. Changes in the text of the United Nations' Convention on the Law of the Sea and (by their widespread legal adoption) in customary international law may now permit partial removal of installations subject to important safeguards for navigation, the environment and other users of the sea. Of the North Sea states at least one has adopted policies that will minimise the cost associated with offshore decommissioning and abandonment and both the UK and Norway are adopting legislation which will provide for a case by case approach to the decommissioning and abandonment of offshore facilities and allow partial removal options. There has thus been a recent and significant change in approach to the abandonment of offshore oil and gas installations. This chapter reviews the development of abandonment laws and policies, outlines the available removal options, and provides a consideration of the environmental and fishery implications of these for the North Sea. (Author)

  5. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Unosson, Oscar [Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  6. Gaining Flexibility and Innovation through Offshore Outsourcing

    Michela Pellicelli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, offshore outsourcing has become extremely important for companies that compete worldwide. In many industries, only companies that manage to be competitive globally can aspire to attain sustainable competitive advantages. Therefore, offshore outsourcing has become essential for many companies and recently has become more and more a vital part of the long-term strategies of the leading firms. The rapidly shifting conditions in the marketplace is forcing management to constantly review and defend its core competencies. Management is now confronted with a higher level of complexity and disruptions brought about in particular by the new waves of globalization and the irresistible march of technological changes. For these reasons, offshore outsourcing is transforming the functions of the traditional firms into a network of competencies. The tendency to offshore most of the productive and economic activities and processes can lead companies to transform themselves into virtual organizations, where all the functions could be outsourced through the formation of flexible networks and agile organizational structures.

  7. Estudos visando a Síntese Total dos Produtos Naturais Adociacetileno B e Antidesmona e Aminação de Ariltrifluoroboratos catalisada por Cobre

    Nascimento, André Augusto Pimentel Liesen

    2012-01-01

    A primeira abordagem deste trabalho descreve os estudos realizados visando à síntese enantiosseletiva do (+)-adociacetileno B, um composto acetilênico isolado de uma esponja marinha, com pronunciadas atividades antimicrobiana e anti-HIV. A partir da análise retrossintética a molécula-alvo foi dividida em três fragmentos principais, sendo dois destes sintetizados e conectados para levar a um intermediário bastante avançado na síntese em um rendimento global de 40%. A segunda ...

  8. Estudo do comportamento de materiais não convencionais utilizados como revestimento de paredes, visando à redução da carga térmica.

    Sousa, Vívian Aparecida Lima

    2012-01-01

    A presente dissertação estudou o compartamento térmico, físico e mecânico das argamassas de revestimentos compostas por gesso puro, gesso/EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) e gesso/vermiculita aplicadas nas superficies das paredes de edificação visando à redução da carga térmica relativamente às paredes convencionais constituídas de tijolos de cerâmica e argamassas de cimento-areia, tomadas como referência. O objetivo foi obter um material capaz de reduzir a carga térmica e, por conseguin...

  9. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    Dempsey, J. [Cormorant Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations

  10. Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind; Effiziente Foerderung der Stromerzeugung aus Offshore-Wind

    Panzer, Christian; Auer, Hans; Lettner, Georg [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Energy Economics Group (EEG)

    2014-03-15

    Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind stands in dynamic relationship with various influence factors, the most important of which are promotion instruments, topographic givens, regulation of grid connection, and supraregional market integration concepts. Using three case studies from different countries to highlight national differences in the promotion of offshore wind power plants the present analysis points out ways of improving the efficiency of promotion instruments.

  11. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    Ponsonby, Will; Mika, Frano; Irons, Greg

    2009-08-01

    The hunt for oil and gas has taken workers into new more distant locations including those offshore. The remoteness of the offshore platforms and vessels coupled with the potential risk of being cut off by bad weather presents particular challenges for medical emergency response (MER). Firstly to define the challenges for MER in terms of locations, population and epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in the offshore environment. Secondly to give examples of legal requirements and industry standards to manage MER. Thirdly to look at existing and emerging practice to manage these challenges. A review of published literature was supplemented with a summary of current practice in the industry. Medical professionals (medics) working offshore on installations and vessels are primarily responsible for the medical care of the workers. The medics have clinics with suitable medical equipment for managing emergencies as well as providing limited primary care. Some countries have legislation that stipulate minimum requirements. Where there is no national legislation, industry and company guidance is used to define the MER standards. Supervision of the offshore medics is often provided by doctors on shore via radio and phone links. These methods of communication are now being augmented with more sophisticated telemedicine solutions such as the Internet and live video links. These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce.

  12. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Gareth Bradbury

    Full Text Available We present a Geographic Information System (GIS tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool, to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  13. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  14. Canadian offshore standards become world model

    Reid, W.

    2000-01-01

    Newfoundland's emerging offshore industry is becoming known not only for its frontier petroleum exploration and development expertise, but it is also gaining international recognition for making good use of its experience to provide advice to future developers on how to deal with multiple levels of governments and community groups, infrastructure development, adverse effects on the local environment, society and the economy. The companies active offshore-Newfoundland have acquired world-class expertise from working their offshore oil fields on the Grand Banks. There is a steady demand for that expertise for application in other regions, mostly from oil-industry personnel. Requests for sharing that experience have come from the United States, Norway and Australia, but also from within Canada, particularly from British Columbia. In British Columbia, coastal exploration has been going on since the early 1900s, with increasing concern for the impact of petroleum activity on the coastal environment, culminating with the imposition of a moratorium in 1959. Now, the British Columbia government is interested in learning about the procedures it should follow to reach a decision on whether to lift the moratorium in effect (on and off) since 1959. The interest in possible resumption of exploration and development activity is motivated by recent studies by the Geological Survey of Canada, which suggest a hydrocarbon potential five times greater than the Hibernia oil field off Newfoundland. An indication of this interest in opening up the west coast to offshore exploration is the recent seminar at Memorial University in St. John's. Speakers at the seminar presented an overview of the lessons learned from the east coast, the social and economic impacts of offshore oil and gas development and how such development might co-exist with British Columbia's marine ecosystem and fishery resources

  15. TRATAMENTO ANAERÓBIO DA ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA DE FRIGORÍFICO COM USO DE BIODIGESTORES: UTILIZAÇÃO DE REMEDIADORES BIOLÓGICOS PARA PRODUÇÃO DE BIOGÁS /ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF WATER WITH REFRIGERATOR USE OF WASTEWATER DIGESTERS: USE OF BIOLOGICAL REMEDIATION FOR P

    L.V.C. Da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O abate de bovinos gera grandes quantidades de resíduos, devido a sua elevada concentração de matéria orgânica (presença de gorduras e proteínas, devendo receber tratamento antes de seu descarte, mesmo sendo considerados prejudiciais ao meio ambiente estes resíduos podem apresentar um bom potencial de reaproveitamento para produção de biogás. Visando a produção de biogás e o tratamento adequado para tais resíduos este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a inclusão de biorremediadores no processo de biodigestão anaeróbia da água residuária de frigorífico em biodigestores bateladas. Foi analisado a produção e qualidade do biogás, pH, teores de sólidos totais (ST e sólidos voláteis (SV, e tempo de retenção hidráulica. Foram considerados quatro tratamentos: T1 – controle+ água residuária, T2- controle + água residuária remediador 1, T3 – controle + água residuária + remediador 2 e T4 controle + água residuária + remediador  1 e 2. Os resultados mostram que não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para a produção de biogás, porém o tratamento 3 foi o primeiro a apresentar queima evidenciando a presença de metano. 

  16. Considerações sobre o tratamento das mastites

    Helio Langoni

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A mastite é considerada o maior problema dos animais destinados à produção de leite. Altera a sua composição e aumenta a contagem de células somáticas (CCS. Os micro-organismos envolvidos na doença podem ser origem infecciosa, como Staphylococcus aureus, ou ambiental, tal como Escherichia coli. A cultura bacteriana é uma ferramenta de diagnóstico e auxilia na detecção do patógeno causador da mastite. No entanto, fatores como fagocitose podem desencadear um resultado negativo. Quando estabelecido um programa de controle de mastite, o diagnóstico precoce e o início do tratamento adequado dos casos clínicos são fundamentais para se atingir os objetivos e seu sucesso, está relacionado com o patógeno envolvido. A indicação do tratamento de longa duração, ou terapia estendida, tem melhorado a resposta ao tratamento em casos de mastite por S. aureus, no entanto, com 30-50% de cura. Do ponto de vista do manejo dos animais, devido a alta contagiosidade deste patógeno, sua persistência no rebanho e custo em função ao tratamento, muitas vezes, o descarte do animal tem sido priorizado a fim de controlar os casos de mastite em propriedades. As medidas de controle são muito importantes para contribuir com a redução de casos de mastite por este patógeno. A indicação do tratamento intramamário associada com sistêmico tem poder efetivo em casos de mastite por E. coli, cujos casos agudos apresentam-se com sepse e toxemia. São abordados ainda aspectos de tratamentos alternativos das mastites, utilizados principalmente no processo orgânico de produção leiteira.

  17. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  18. Uso da fluoxetina no tratamento da tricotilomania felina

    Sousa,Marlos Gonçalves; Ferreira,Lilian Stefanoni; Gerardi,Daniel Guimarães; Costa,Mirela Tinucci

    2004-01-01

    A tricotilomania ou alopecia psicogênica felina é uma dermatopatia de origem psicogênica, decorrente da lambedura compulsiva do pelame, realizada pelo gato em situações de estresse. Tal distúrbio decorre de alterações neuro-hormonais e pode associar-se à introdução de novos animais e/ou crianças no ambiente. Além de mudanças de manejo e atitude para com o animal, sugere-se o emprego de ansiolíticos no tratamento da doença. A fluoxetina foi utilizada no tratamento de cinco gatos domésticos com...

  19. Tratamento de dejetos suínos com biorreator UASB

    Pablo Costa da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a importância do biodigestor UASB no tratamento de dejetos suínos. A suinocultura possui papel importante quanto ao desenvolvimento econômico do Brasil. No entanto, o aumento de produção vem causando problemas ambientais graves, por conta do grande volume de resíduos sólidos gerados pela atividade. O desenvolvimento de métodos de tratamento de dejetos que agreguem valor à produção e respeitem as leis ambientais é um dos grandes desafios do setor. A biodigestão anaeróbia é um dos métodos mais eficazes para o tratamento de dejetos de suinoculturas. Este método de digestão, denominado UASB, tem como característica principal a produção de biogás e de biofertilizante, produto rico em nutrientes, e livre de patógenos. O método oferece vantagens como a promoção do bem estar animal, o aumento da fertilidade do solo, a diminuição da poluição e da emissão de gases geradores do efeito estufa e a melhoria da qualidade de vida, nos centros produtores de suínos, além de minimizar problemas relacionados ao déficit de energia elétrica. Portanto, a utilização de biodigestores UASB para o tratamento de dejetos de suínos é uma opção interessante, que deve ser avaliada com seriedade.

  20. Barreiras ao tratamento da hipertensão arterial

    Maria Vilani Cavalcante Guedes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se descrever as barreiras encontradas pelas pessoas portadoras de hipertensão arterial para a não adesão ao tratamento e controle dos níveis de sua pressão arterial. Estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em seis unidades básicas de saúde em Fortaleza-Ceará, Brasil, com 246 pessoas inscritas no Programa de Controle de Hipertensão Arterial há, no mínimo, um ano. Coletaram-se dados com entrevista estruturada e no prontuário eletrônico. Identificaram-se 69 pesquisados com níveis pressóricos normalizados. As principais barreiras apontadas foram: baixas condições financeiras, tratamento contínuo com muitos remédios e prática de atividade física. Concluiu-se que as barreiras ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo compreendem a pessoa adoecida, seu ambiente de vida e acesso aos cuidados de saúde.

  1. Tendinopatia patelar: resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico

    Marcos Henrique Frauendorf Cenni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados tardios do tratamento cirúrgico na tendinopatia patelar (TP com o uso do escore Visa (Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group e o método de Verheyden. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que avaliou os resultados pós-operatórios de 12 pacientes, ou 14 joelhos, entre julho de 2002 e fevereiro de 2011. Foram incluídos os pacientes com tendinopatia patelar refratários ao tratamento conservador e que não apresentavam outras lesões cirúrgicas concomitantes. Pacientes que não foram devidamente acompanhados no período pós-operatório foram excluídos. Resultados: Pelo método de Verheyden, nove pacientes foram considerados muito bons, dois bons e um ruim. Em relação ao Visa, a média foi de 92,4 pontos, com apenas dois pacientes abaixo de 70 pontos (66 e 55 pontos. Conclusão: O tratamento cirúrgico da tendinopatia patelar, quando corretamente indicado, tem bons resultados em longo prazo.

  2. A ayahuasca e o tratamento da dependência

    Marcelo S. Mercante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A ayahuasca é uma bebida psicoativa utilizada por diversos grupos indígenas por toda a Amazônia, assim como por xamãs mestiços (chamados "vegetalistas" e por religiões e grupos independentes no Brasil. Desde a década de 1990 esta bebida vem sendo empregada no tratamento da dependência. Existem atualmente alguns centros espalhados pela América do Sul que realizam este tipo de tratamento. Realizei trabalho de campo em quatro deles, um no Peru e três no Brasil. Neste artigo faço uma pequena descrição etnográfica destes centros e teço algumas considerações sobre o papel da experiência durante o efeito do chá no processo de recuperação da dependência e também da possibilidade deste tipo de tratamento não ser uma mera terapia de substituição.

  3. PROCESSOS DE GESTÃO DA INFORMAÇÃO: TRATAMENTO, RECUPERAÇÃO E USO DA INFORMAÇÃO NO MERCADO DE CAPITAIS

    Elaine Cristina Lopes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No mercado de capitais as informações são utilizadas como subsídios para a tomada de decisão de investidores, entre as principais destacam-se as de cunho econômico, político, contábil e as referente aos resultados financeiros das empresas que possuem ações negociadas em Bolsa de Valores. Nessa perspectiva, é fundamental que os agentes envolvidos – principalmente as sociedades corretoras –, estabeleçam processos de gestão que contenham um conjunto de critérios para a organização e o tratamento das informações coletadas em jornais, agências de notícias e nas próprias empresas que negociam ações. Assim, é fundamental estabelecer rigor no que tange aos mecanismos de recuperação dessas informações, o que requer mais do que tecnologia, porquanto são necessárias ações que irão propiciar que os conteúdos informacionais sejam disponibilizados com consistência, clareza e fidedignidade, de forma que os usuários possam recuperá-los em tempo hábil. Além disso, esses processos devem proporcionar o uso eficiente das informações recuperadas pelos usuários, de modo que possam utilizá-las visando subsidiar as decisões de compra ou venda de ações. Considerando que os sistemas de informação são responsáveis pela disseminação de informações no âmbito do mercado de capitais, é preciso apresentar quesitos que contemplem o conjunto organização, tratamento, recuperação e uso de informações. Dessa forma, buscou-se evidenciar neste trabalho tais quesitos, utilizando-se como premissa os elementos propostos por Guimarães (2003 sob a perspectiva do ambiente informacional de uma sociedade corretora de valores, refletindo através do modelo utilizado, o quanto essas empresas realizam seus trabalhos considerando as dimensões da análise documentária, do tratamento informacional e dos instrumentos para recuperação e uso da informação.

  4. Integrated installation for offshore wind turbines

    Way, J.; Bowerman, H.

    2003-07-01

    A project to investigate the feasibility of integrating the offshore installation of foundation, turbine and tower for offshore wind turbines into one operation is described. Three separate objectives are listed. They are: (1) Telescopic tower study - reversible process incorporating lift and lock mechanisms; (2) Transportation study - technical and economic feasibility of transporting and installing a wind turbine unit via a standard barge with minimal conversion and (3) Self-burial system study - to demonstrate the feasibility of self burial of a slab foundation via controlled jetting beneath the slab. The background to the study and the proposed concepts are discussed. The work carried out to date and the costs are reported together with the findings. Recommendations for future work are listed. The work was carried out by Corus UK Ltd and is managed by Future Energy Solutions for the DTI.

  5. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity...... production, due to low gas turbine outlet temperature, space and weight restrictions and the need for make-up water. A more promising option for use offshore is organic Rankine cycles (ORC). Moreover, several oil and gas platforms are equipped with waste heat recovery units to recover a part of the thermal...... energy in the gas turbine off-gas using heat exchangers, and the recovered thermal energy acts as heat source for some of the heat loads on the platform. The amount of the recovered thermal energy depends on the heat loads and thus the full potential of waste heat recovery units may not be utilized...

  6. Waste heat recovery technologies for offshore platforms

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Benato, Alberto; Scolari, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at finding the most suitable waste heat recovery technology for existing and future offshore facilities. The technologies considered in this work are the steam Rankine cycle, the air bottoming cycle and the organic Rankine cycle. A multi-objective optimization approach is employed...... to attain optimal designs for each bottoming unit by selecting specific functions tailored to the oil and gas sector, i.e. yearly CO2 emissions, weight and economic revenue. The test case is the gas turbine-based power system serving an offshore platform in the North Sea. Results indicate that the organic...... and of the primary heat exchanger, organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators appear thus to be the preferred solution to abate CO2 emissions and pollutants on oil and gas facilities. As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for the design of high-efficiency, cost-competitive and low-weight power...

  7. Collection of offshore human error probability data

    Basra, Gurpreet; Kirwan, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Accidents such as Piper Alpha have increased concern about the effects of human errors in complex systems. Such accidents can in theory be predicted and prevented by risk assessment, and in particular human reliability assessment (HRA), but HRA ideally requires qualitative and quantitative human error data. A research initiative at the University of Birmingham led to the development of CORE-DATA, a Computerised Human Error Data Base. This system currently contains a reasonably large number of human error data points, collected from a variety of mainly nuclear-power related sources. This article outlines a recent offshore data collection study, concerned with collecting lifeboat evacuation data. Data collection methods are outlined and a selection of human error probabilities generated as a result of the study are provided. These data give insights into the type of errors and human failure rates that could be utilised to support offshore risk analyses

  8. Optimal Structural Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    The main failure modes of modern large wind turbines are fatigue failure of wings, hub, shaft and main tower, local buckling of main tower, and failure of the foundation. This paper considers reliability-based optimal design of wind turbines. Compared to onshore wind turbines and building...... structures, humans spent little time in the vicinity of offshore wind turbines and the probability of human injury during storm conditions is small. Further environmental pollution will also in general be small in case of failure. One could therefore argue that the reliability level of offshore wind turbines...... can be lower than for onshore wind turbines and other civil engineering structures and can be assessed by reliability-based cost-optimization. Specifically this paper considers the main tower and foundation. Both fatigue and ultimate strength failure modes are included. Different formulations...

  9. Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas installations

    Day, M.D.; Marks, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    A task facing the offshore oil and gas industry is the removal of about 7000 platforms. In this chapter, the legal framework for offshore platform decommissioning is first discussed. The various phases of abandonment are then described. The first and most critical of these is the planning phase which should be initiated years in advance when depletion plans for a field are recommended. Seven discrete activities are identified in the abandonment process itself and briefly discussed. These are: the permanent plugging and abandonment of non-productive well bores; pre-abandonment surveys and data gathering to gain knowledge about the platform and its condition; decommissioning; structure removal; disposal, recycle or reuse of platform components on or off shore; site clearance. (13 figures; 13 references) (UK)

  10. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  11. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...... networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally...

  12. Damage Detection in an Offshore Structure

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model....... By use of the estimates of the modal parameters and their corresponding variances a probability based damage indicator is formulated. This approach indicates, that since the construction of the platform, minor structural changes have taken place....

  13. Damage Detection in an Offshore Structure

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Palle

    1995-01-01

    The structural integrity of a multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model....... By use of the estimates of the modal parameters and their corresponding variances a probability based damage indicator is formulated. This approach indicates, that since the construction of the platform, minor structural changes have taken place....

  14. BUSINESS OFFSHORING IMPLICATIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET

    SERGHEI MARGULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of economic policy, three new aspects are important in the current context of globalization which brings forward new strategies regarding the outsourcing and offshoring of activities and functions of the value chain. These aspects refer to the instant appearance of an offshore transferable function , to the unpredictability of winning and losing functions and to the lowering of competition from the levels of sector, company or professional qualification category to an individual level. Of the three features, the most problematic for policy makers is the unpredictability of the impact of globalization. For example, in Europe we can not reasonably believe that workers in the most competitive sectors will be in a position of winners, nor that these winners will be the most prepared or trained in analytical functions. Many European workers currently work at prices fixed by the local market and not covered by productivity. But when the competition on functions will expand through globalization outside the country or area, their choices will be either a job loss or a reduction in salary. The question that will be raised ever insistently will be the following: what jobs are more exposed to this new competition? On the one hand, offshoring is on balance positive for Western economies, because it makes domestic companies more competitive. At the same time the material outsourcing is, for most developed economies, much more important than the outsourcing of services and the implications for labor market must be objectively differentiated in the two sectors. On the other hand, if we take into account the amplification of the effects that offshoring already has on the structure and distribution of labor, the socio-economic European policy of labor orientation to the coordinates of a "knowledge based" economy and to the jobs of the "information society" could be wrong.

  15. Scour Protection of Off-Shore Windmills

    Frigaard, Peter; Pedersen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    In the Eighties and Nineties wind turbines with a total rated power of app 1000 Mega watt were erected in Denmark. Today more that 13% of the electrical consumption in in Denmark is covered by electricity from wind turbines. Through, due to lack of good positions for the windmills and due...... to growing opposition against the the wind turbines, the Danish government initiated in 1999 the construction of several large off-shore wind farms....

  16. Offshore Companies and the Fiscal Paradise

    CORINA ALEXANDRA VITELAR

    2006-01-01

    The present article introduces the reader in the problem of tax heaven and offshore companies. We tried to present, both positive and negative aspects of this problem. On one hand, this type of companies can help a multinational corporation in its economical and financial global projections, but, on the other hand, these companies can be use as extremely efficient instruments of tax evasion and money laundry

  17. Off-shore nuclear power plant

    Nakanishi, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid losses of energy and seawater pollution an off-shore nuclear power plant is coupled with a power plant which utilizes the temperature difference between seawater and hot reactor cooling water. According to the invention the power plant has a working media loop which is separated from the nuclear power plant. The apparative equipment and the operational characteristics of the power plant are the subject of the patent. (UWI) [de

  18. Environmental considerations of offshore wind energy

    Ryckman, A. [Natural Resource Solutions Inc., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The environmental considerations of offshore wind energy projects in the Great Lakes region were discussed from the viewpoint of an environmental consulting firm. Existing projects and proposals were discussed in relation to site-specific conditions and the environmental studies required at the proposed sites. North American facilities that are now undergoing baseline studies in the Great Lakes include the Cape Wind and Nai Kun wind farms. Impact to fisheries in the lakes is expected to occur largely during the construction phases of the developments. However, additional noise, sedimentation, and lakebed losses have the potential to impact local fish populations. Some turbine foundations create a a reef effect that increases local fish populations. Baseline fisheries data as well as substrate and habitat assessments of the lakebed are required. Impacts on birds include collision and displacement impacts. Migratory birds and staging or wintering waterfowl may be displaced from feeding areas. Radar- and plane-based surveys should be used to identify large rafts of birds in offshore habitats, while boat surveys can be used to confirm species and identify diurnal migrants. The migratory paths of bats over the Great Lakes are not well-understood. It is expected that offshore wind developments will have little impact on terrestrial vegetation. Impacts will be localized at shoreline connection points and construction areas. Shoreline habitats, wetlands, dunes and beach habitats may also be impacted. Post-construction surveys should include avian and bat mortality, waterfowl usage, and fish habitat and substrates. Further studies were recommended, as there are limited guidelines for determining the effects of offshore wind energy developments. tabs., figs.

  19. Utilizing offshore potentials for wind power generation; Nutzung der Offshore-Potentiale fuer die Windenergie

    Hannemann, H. [Neptun Industrie GmbH, Rostock (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The contribution discusses the importance of the offshore market and recommends measures to develop it. A turnkey offer is required for exports, which means that all organisations cooperating in the pilot project must prove their competence. The status of a pilot project in the Baltic Sea and the further plans for the park (20 systems, 40 MW, more than 10 km off the coast, water depth about 20 m) are reviewed. [German] Zur Erschliessung des Offshore - Marktes fuer Windenergieanlagen ist es erforderlich, die Technologie ''vor der eigenen Haustuer'' demonstrieren zu koennen. Nach einer Betrachtung der europaeischen Offshore - Windenergie - Potentiale und der davon moeglicherweise nutzbaren Anteile wird die Bedeutung des Offshore - Marktes deutlich. Besonders fuer die Hersteller ist der Offshore - Markt fuer den langfristigen Export von besonderer Bedeutung. Um den Export zu realisieren, ist ein Turnkey - Angebot erforderlich, so dass im Pilotprojekt alle an der gesamten Realisation beteiligten Organisationen ihre Kompetenz beweisen muessen und koennen. Der Stand eines Pilotprojektes in der Ostsee und die weitere Planung fuer den Park (20 Anlagen, 40 MW, >10 km Kuestenentfernung, ca. 20 m Wassertiefe) wird dargestellt. (orig.)

  20. Subsea prizes : companies pushing the envelope offshore

    Macedo, R.

    2009-06-15

    In order to make projects economic, companies are going farther offshore and deeper to find oil and gas or to use existing offshore platforms and longer horizontals. Companies such as StatoilHydro are reworking strategies on how to approach future oil finds. This article discussed examples of ultra deep and long horizontal oil finds such as Statoil's complicated but highly successful Gulltopp project. Although drilling ultra-deep wells or long horizontal wells is risky, they can also be very lucrative. The article also discussed McMoRan Exploration Company of New Orleans' high-risk deeper targets in the Gulf of Mexico and its exploration strategy. The longest well in the world, drilled by Maersk Oil Qatar AS was also described. The article noted that the Danish company reported that the entire horizontal section of the well was placed within a reservoir target which was only 20 feet thick. Schlumberger helped Maersk Oil Qatar break several records with extended reach drilling (ERD) offshore well. This well set 10 records, including the longest well ever drilled; longest along-hole departure; longest 8 and a half inch section; highest ERD ratio; highest directional drilling difficulty index; deepest directional control; deepest downlink, MWD transmission and LWD geosteering; deepest battery-less operation; longest reservoir contact; and longest open hole. Last, the article discussed an unsuccessful well drilled by Murphy Oil Corporation known as the Manhattan well. 8 figs.

  1. Simplified Technique for Predicting Offshore Pipeline Expansion

    Seo, J. H.; Kim, D. K.; Choi, H. S.; Yu, S. Y.; Park, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we propose a method for estimating the amount of expansion that occurs in subsea pipelines, which could be applied in the design of robust structures that transport oil and gas from offshore wells. We begin with a literature review and general discussion of existing estimation methods and terminologies with respect to subsea pipelines. Due to the effects of high pressure and high temperature, the production of fluid from offshore wells is typically caused by physical deformation of subsea structures, e.g., expansion and contraction during the transportation process. In severe cases, vertical and lateral buckling occurs, which causes a significant negative impact on structural safety, and which is related to on-bottom stability, free-span, structural collapse, and many other factors. In addition, these factors may affect the production rate with respect to flow assurance, wax, and hydration, to name a few. In this study, we developed a simple and efficient method for generating a reliable pipe expansion design in the early stage, which can lead to savings in both cost and computation time. As such, in this paper, we propose an applicable diagram, which we call the standard dimensionless ratio (SDR) versus virtual anchor length (L A ) diagram, that utilizes an efficient procedure for estimating subsea pipeline expansion based on applied reliable scenarios. With this user guideline, offshore pipeline structural designers can reliably determine the amount of subsea pipeline expansion and the obtained results will also be useful for the installation, design, and maintenance of the subsea pipeline.

  2. Offshore regulators focus on incentives for safety

    Reid, W.

    2000-11-27

    Strict safety regulations in effect at offshore drilling sites are discussed. The guiding principle in all existing regulation is that while economic or industrial considerations are important, the value and the concern for human life is paramount. Should some tragic event occur at an offshore drilling site that is shown to have been caused by negligence of an operator, there is no question at all that the regulatory authority, in this case the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB), would take the negligent operator to court. Nevertheless, Canadian authorities remain confident that encouragement of maintaining a safe working environment is likely to be more successful in ensuring workplace safety than threats of punishment. Indeed, Canadian regulators have, in recent times, shown a tendency to move towards performance-based systems, as opposed to the more usual prescriptive or rule-bound regulatory regime. This new approach involves setting targets and giving companies the responsibility to implement measures to reach the targets rather than relying on government instructions. Still, performance-based regulation in Canada is relatively new and some regulations remain prescriptive. Examples are the requirement for two immersion suits and two lifeboat seats for every worker on a drilling unit.

  3. Offshore wind energy, who will risk investment?

    Dupin, Ludovic; Moragues, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    As Europe plans to install 40 GW of offshore wind energy production by 2020 and only 5 GW are already installed, investment is a crucial issue for a still immature industry and in a context where risk management is critical, notably during construction (harsh working conditions, costs of construction, of maintenance and costs related to delays). Other aspects are also related to financial risks like, for example, the cost of offshore wind farm connection to the grid (this has been an underestimated issue in Germany). Then operation and exploitation have to face climate events although, according to relatively recent exploitation data, availability is quite good. The durability of political support is not so sure in a context of political and regulatory instability and of economic crisis. In France, after the first bidding, the wind energy industrial sector is emerging and many small and medium companies enter this activity in the trail of Areva and Alstom, with thousands of job creations and export perspectives. Some offshore wind turbines are briefly presented (by Alstom, Areva, RE Power, Siemens and Vestas)

  4. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    Hurley, William L. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nordstrom, Charles J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Morrison, Brent J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-12-18

    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  5. Component for articulated offshore loading towers

    Backhaus, H.

    1980-09-01

    The construction of offshore natural gas liquefaction plants must be regarded as technically feasible and the marketing prospects for LNG - a source of clean burning energy - appear excellent. Nevertheless, the optimum loading procedure for LNG tankers in the - sometimes adverse - offshore environment is still a matter under discussion by the experts - with a tendency to adopt and adapt well-proven components from the offshore crude oil sector. Here, articulated towers are in use for tankerloading and the crude oil is pumped at ambient temperature through the cardan joint of the tower itself. In the case of the cryogenic liquid LNG, this method would entail intolerable risks. Leaks and subsequent LNG spills within the tower joint will cause low temperature-embrittlement and most likely damage the cardan connection at the tower's base plate on the sea bed. The described submarine joint for ultra-cold liquids, which has the same cardanic properties as the cardan joint of the tower is completely separated from the latter. Thus a cryogenic leakage in this submarine joint will under no circumstance reach and affect the tower cardan.

  6. Cost/benefit of programmes offshore

    Skoeld, V.

    1993-01-01

    The article deals with an offshore environmental research project in Norway. The three-year project study focused on the emissions to air and discharges to sea related to offshore oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf, and evaluated the technology and associated costs for potential reductions. The progress being made by the petroleum industry show 75% reduction in oil discharged to sea since 1984 from 3900 to the present level of 1000 tonns, 50% improvement in average gas power generation efficiency since 1975, gas flaring maintained at constant level for the last 20 years, and CO 2 emissions from offshore field installations kept at the same level during the last three years. As part of its national commitment to reducing emissions, Norway has set the following future environmental guidelines: Stabilize CO 2 emissions at the 1989 level by the year 2000 (35m t/y), stabilize NO x emissions at the 1987 level and further reduce these by 30% from 1986 to 1998 (Sofia Convention 1989), reduce the annual VOC (Voilatile Organic Compounds) emissions south of the 62 parallel by 30% by 1999 based on the 1989 levels, and reduce the use of halon by 90% from 1986 to 1995. 3 figs

  7. O tratamento da doenca renal cronica pode afetar a audicao?

    Priscila Suman Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Doença renal crônica (DRC é definida pela presença de lesão renal levando à perda lenta e progressiva da função renal. Objetivo: Comparar testes auditivos entre pacientes com DRC submetidos a diferentes método de tratamento. Material e método: Estudo clínico transversal. Os grupos foram divididos de acordo com o método de tratamento: hemodiálise (n = 35, diálise peritoneal (n =15, conservador (n = 51 e 27 pacientes saudáveis (controle. Pacientes com idade superior a 60 anos, perda auditiva congênita, síndromes genéticas, infecções de orelha média e transplante renal foram excluídos da pesquisa. A avaliação audiológica incluiu audiometria tonal, emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes e Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico (PEATE; e as variáveis avaliadas foram: sexo, idade, diagnóstico de hipertensão arterial e diabetes, estádio da DRC, tempo de diagnóstico do diabetes e da hipertensão arterial, duração da DRC e do tratamento. Resultados: A idade, presença de hipertensão arterial e tempo de DRC foram estatisticamente significantes e controlados. O grupo conservador apresentou piores limiares auditivos na audiometria tonal e o intervalo III-V do PEATE significativamente maior que o da hemodiálise. Conclusão: O tratamento conservador mostrou piores resultados na avaliação auditiva, independente de diabetes e de hipertensão, reforçando que os pacientes submetidos a tratamento para DRC devem realizar avaliação auditiva completa para melhor compreensão da doença e de seus efeitos sobre o sistema auditivo.

  8. Fatores associados a baixa adesao ao tratamento medicamentoso em idosos

    Noemia Urruth Leao Tavares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar fatores associados à baixa adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso em idosos. MÉTODOS : Estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra representativa de 1.593 indivíduos com 60 anos ou mais, residentes na região urbana de Bagé, RS, em 2008. A amostragem foi realizada em múltiplos estágios. Os dados foram coletados em entrevistas individuais nos domicílios. Analisou-se a associação entre a baixa adesão referida ao tratamento medicamentoso mensurado pelo Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ e fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos, comportamentais e de saúde, assistência e prescrição. Foi utilizado modelo de regressão de Poisson para estimar as razões de prevalência bruta e ajustada, os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% e p-valor (teste de Wald. RESULTADOS : Cerca de 78,0% dos indivíduos referiram ter usado algum medicamento nos sete dias precedentes à entrevista. Desses, cerca de 1 / 3 foram considerados com baixa adesão ao tratamento. Os fatores significativamente associados à baixa adesão foram: idade (65 a 74 anos, não ter plano de saúde, ter que comprar (totalmente ou em parte os seus medicamentos, ter três ou mais morbidades, possuir incapacidade instrumental para a vida diária e usar três ou mais medicamentos. CONCLUSÕES : A utilização elevada de medicamentos, decorrente da alta prevalência de doenças crônico-degenerativas em idosos, e o acesso ao tratamento devem ser considerados pelos profissionais de saúde para adoção de estratégias que visem diminuir a baixa adesão ao tratamento, aumentando a resolutividade terapêutica e a qualidade de vida desses pacientes.

  9. Conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany

    Meyer, Ronny; Furois, Timothee; Nolte, Nico; Lanoe, Frederic; Lehmann-Matthaei, Bjoern; Ifflaender, Andree; Courcambeck, Alexandre; Giese, Norbert; Kavafyan, Philippe; Bjaert, Niels; Wagner, Andreas; Guillet, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on offshore wind power in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the planning and authorisation procedures implemented in both countries and on the installation, connection to the grid and maintenance of offshore wind turbines. environmental impacts and usage conflicts linked with offshore wind farms exploitation were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Update: Offshore Wind In Germany (Ronny Meyer); 2 - Offshore wind development in France (Timothee Furois); 3 - The Licensing Procedure for Offshore Wind Farms in the German EEZ (Nico Nolte); 4 - Spatial Planning and Permitting in France: What leverage for more efficiency? (Frederic Lanoe); 5 - Results of 10 years environmental research on FINO-platforms (Bjoern Lehmann-Matthaei); 6 - Offshore Grid Connection - Status Quo and Overview (Andree Ifflaender); 7 - Grid connection of Offshore Wind in France: Situation, perspectives and recommendations (Alexandre Courcambeck); 8 - Controlling risks and warranting safety: Best practices for the installation, exploitation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines (Norbert Giese); 9 - Offshore wind Bremerhaven experience: An essential asset for the development of a complete Wind Offshore industry in France (Philippe Kavafyan); 10 - Standardizing and Cost Reduction -Lessons Learned from London Array (Niels Bjaert); 11 - Offshore Wind energy in Germany: System Benefits and Cost Reduction Potentials. Presentation of study results from prognos/fichtner and Fraunhofer-IWeS (Andreas Wagner); 12 - Offshore Wind energy financing - opportunities and risks (Jerome Guillet)

  10. Visual disamenities from off-shore wind farms in Denmark

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex; Tranberg, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of the off-shore wind power plays a significant role in the energy policies of many EU countries. However, off-shore wind farms create visual disamenities. These disamenities can be reduced by locating wind farms at larger distances from the coast – and accepting higher costs per k......Wh produced. Base on the choices among alternative wind farm outlays, the preferences for reducing visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms were elicited using the Choice Experiment Method. The results show a clear picture; the respondents in three independent samples are willing to pay for mowing future...... off-shore wind farms away from the shore to reduce the wind farms visibility. However, the results also denote that the preferences vary with regards to the experiences with visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms. The respondents Horns Revs sample, where the off-shore wind farm is located...

  11. Coordinated control of wind power plants in offshore HVDC grids

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2017-01-01

    power between different countries, and different synchronous areas. It is very likely that they will then be combined with offshore wind power plant (OWPP) connections in the North Sea, transforming it in a multi terminal DC (MTDC) grid and, therefore, in a fully meshed offshore DC grid in near future......During the recent years, there has been a significant penetration of offshore wind power into the power system and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The North Sea in Europe has higher potential for offshore wind power; therefore, the North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid initiative....... However, increased penetration of offshore wind power into the power system poses several challenges to its security. This thesis deals with two main research challenges, (1) Develop, and analyze the coordinated control strategies for AC voltage and reactive power control in the cluster of OWPPs connected...

  12. 10 CFR 150.7 - Persons in offshore waters not exempt.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons in offshore waters not exempt. 150.7 Section 150.7... AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued Commission Regulatory Authority in Offshore Waters § 150.7 Persons in offshore waters not exempt. Persons in offshore waters are not exempt...

  13. Offshoring trends in the manufacturing process within the automotive industry

    Simplay, S.; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2014-01-01

    consisting of original equipment manufacturers and engineering service providers. The findings indicated some offshoring trends in the automotive industry. Offshoring in this industry is moving from a manufacturing focus to incorporate large parts of the process, including high-level product development...... engineering activities. This development has created several challenges. These challenges arose as organisations are not considering how offshoring activities could be integrated with an increasingly global supply chain for the manufacturing of the final product. The paper contributes to manufacturing theory...

  14. Passivação da superfície do Germânio visando ao uso da nanoeletrônica

    Jumir Vieira de Carvalho Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Investigamos a passivação superficial do Germânio visando ao uso em Nanoeletrônica, que requer: (i) preparação de uma superfície plana e isenta de contaminantes e (ii) crescimento ou deposição de um dielétrico termodinamicamente estável em contato com o substrato nos ambientes e temperaturas usuais na fabricação de dispositivos. Na primeira etapa do estudo, testamos diferentes hidrácidos halogênicos associados com água deionizada (DI) e soluções oxidantes para remover o óxido de germânio nati...

  15. Legal aspects of financing Canadian offshore oil and gas developments

    Green, J.M.; Hudec, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of the significant legal considerations involved in structuring, negotiating, and documenting commercial financing of a Canadian offshore oil and gas production facility. Emphasis is placed on the Hibernia Project in the Newfoundland offshore as an example, and more specifically the $450 million bank financing completed in November 1991. The legal framework governing offshore production financing in this case was complex, due to the project's location in international waters on the continental shelf. Complex intergovernmental arrangements have been implemented between Canada and Newfoundland to govern the offshore area and regulate the project. An agreement called the Atlantic Accord allowed the Canada Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board (CNOPB) to grant production licenses and to regulate offshore exploration and development, with matters relating to legislation, taxation, and royalties shared between the governments. Certain other acts were enacted or extended for application to the offshore area. The CNOPB administers a registry system for transfers and security interests in offshore licenses. Security interests including property are ensured by the Hibernia Act, which makes Newfoundland's existing security interest regime applicable to the offshore. The project owners are operating Hibernia as a joint venture, and the structure of project financing and inter-creditor arrangements is examined. The competing security interest of project lenders and non-defaulting participants is discussed, along with assignment of priorities on the security in case of default

  16. Energy Usage of Residents on Offshore Islands in Taiwan

    Szu-Cheng Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted through interviews on offshore islands in Taiwan to investigate the energy usage of local residents. A comparison of household appliance usage in mainland Taiwan with that on the offshore islands revealed that, overall, the most commonly used household appliances are steam cookers/rice cookers, water dispensers, and washing machines. For other household appliances, Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles have lower use penetration rates compared with those in mainland Taiwan and on Level 1 offshore isles, particularly for the use of computers. By contrast, the use penetration rate for chest freezers on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles is high, and each household has one or more freezers on average. This appliance is not a commonly observed household product in mainland Taiwan or on Level 1 offshore isles. Furthermore, because of the government policy, every household on parts of Level 2 offshore isles and on all Level 3 offshore isles has a fixed monthly charge of electricity. The transportation of liquefied petroleum gas is also inconvenient, and the gas price is slightly higher, leading to the tendency of residents to consume excessive amounts of electrical energy, which does not correspond with the aim of the government to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions; thus, the relevant authorities’ review and improvement on energy consumption on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles are required.

  17. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical...... system is optimized in accordance with initial investment by considering three aspects: the number and siting of offshore substations (OS), the cable connection layout of both collection system (CS) and transmission system (TS) as well as the selection of electrical components in terms of voltage level...... that save 3.01% total cost compared with the industrial layout, and can be a useful tool for OWFES design and evaluation....

  18. A New Coordinated Voltage Control Scheme for Offshore AC Grid of HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Rather, Zakir Hussain

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a coordinated voltage control scheme (CVCS) which enhances the voltage ride through (VRT) capability of an offshore AC grid comprised of a cluster of offshore wind power plants (WPP) connected through AC cables to the offshore voltage source converter based high voltage DC (VSC......-HVDC) converter station. Due to limited short circuit power contribution from power electronic interfaced variable speed wind generators and with the onshore main grid decoupled by the HVDC link, the offshore AC grid becomes more vulnerable to dynamic voltage events. Therefore, a short circuit fault...... in the offshore AC Grid is likely to have significant implications on the voltage of the offshore AC grid, hence on the power flow to the onshore mainland grid. The proposed CVCS integrates individual local reactive power control of wind turbines and of the HVDC converter with the secondary voltage controller...

  19. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em alcoolistas em tratamento

    Mayla Cardoso Fernandes Toffolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de fatores de risco cardiovascular, com ênfase na hipertensão e na adiposidade corporal, em alcoolistas abstinentes ou não abstinentes em tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 65 pacientes alcoolistas em tratamento no CAP-Sad. O grau de dependência do álcool foi avaliado pelo SADD (Short Alcohol Dependence Data e o uso de outras drogas, pelo ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Foram avaliados o perfil bioquímico e o antropométrico dos usuários. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 42 homens e 23 mulheres. A maioria dos participantes (67,74% apresentou dependência alcoólica grave, com uso de álcool associado principalmente a cigarro (66,15%. A média da circunferência da cintura (CC foi significativamente maior entre os abstinentes, em comparação aos não abstinentes (AB: 88,15 ± 15,95 x NA: 81,04 ± 9,86; p = 0,03. Pacientes abstinentes há mais tempo tiveram maior sobrepeso/obesidade e adiposidade abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes e abstinentes recentes, com razão de chances de 5,25. Os abstinentes apresentaram razão de chances de 3,38 para %GC acima da média, independente do tempo de abstinência. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes alcoolistas abstinentes apresentam mais sobrepeso/ obesidade, adiposidade corporal (%GC e abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes. É importante o acompanhamento multiprofissional no tratamento de alcoolistas com abordagem para fatores de risco cardiovasculares, principalmente evitando o ganho de peso.

  20. Realidade virtual aplicada ao tratamento da ansiedade social

    Pinheiro, Tânia Cristina Martins

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho de projecto de mestrado em Engenharia Informática (Engenharia de Software), apresentado à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 A ansiedade social é uma patologia debilitante que prejudica e diminui a qualidade de vida. O tratamento existe e ´e composto por várias terapias realizadas em simultâneo, sendo uma delas a terapia de exposição¸. Com a evolução tecnológica, surgiu a possibilidade de aplicar a Realidade Virtual `a terapia de exposição¸ (Terapia de ...

  1. Tratamento das cefaléias Treatment of headaches

    José Luiz Dias Gherpelli

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: realizar revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema tratamento da cefaléia na infância e adolescência. Fontes dos dados: revisão bibliográfica através do banco de dados Medline, utilizando os termos: cefaléia, enxaqueca ou migrânea, infância ou adolescência e tratamento, no período de 1966 a 2001, excluindo artigos de revisão e registros de casos. Foram selecionados artigos científicos que relataram estudos sobre a eficácia da terapêutica farmacológica e não farmacológica no tratamento das cefaléias primárias. Síntese dos dados: foram encontrados 104 artigos científicos, sendo selecionados aqueles que relataram estudos do tipo caso-controle, ou droga versus placebo, cegos ou abertos, e que estudassem crianças ou adolescentes. Conclusões: é digna de nota a pobreza de estudos controlados sobre o tema na faixa etária pediátrica, apesar da importância que as cefaléias primárias apresentam na prática clínica. Apenas algumas drogas foram estudadas de forma cientificamente adequada e, mesmo assim, o número de estudos é pequeno. Tanto o tratamento da crise álgica aguda quanto a profilaxia da cefaléia foram abordados.Objective: to perform a bibliographic review about headache treatment in childhood and adolescence. Sources: articles were searched through Medline database using the terms: migraine, or headache, childhood, or adolescence, and treatment, during the period between 1966 and 2001. Review articles and case reports were excluded. Only articles dealing with pharmacological, and non-pharmacological treatment of primary headaches were selected. Summary of the findings: a total of 104 articles were found; only those reporting results of the case-control studies, or drug vs. placebo, either blind, or open, and that included children, or adolescents were selected. Conclusions: only a few controlled studies about the headache treatment were found in the pediatric age group, although primary headaches are

  2. Offshore heat dissipation for nuclear energy centers

    Bauman, H.F.

    1978-09-01

    The technical, environmental, and economic aspects of utilizing the ocean or other large water bodies for the dissipation of reject heat from Nuclear Energy Centers (NECs) were investigated. An NEC in concept is an aggregate of nuclear power plants of 10 GW(e) capacity or greater on a common site. The use of once-through cooling for large power installations offers advantages including higher thermal efficiencies, especially under summer peak-load conditions, compared to closed-cycle cooling systems. A disadvantage of once-through cooling is the potential for greater adverse impacts on the aquatic environment. A concept is presented for minimizing the impacts of such systems by placing water intake and discharge locations relatively distant from shore in deeper water than has heretofore been the practice. This technique would avoid impacts on relatively biologically productive and ecologically sensitive shallow inshore areas. The NEC itself would be set back from the shoreline so that recreational use of the shore area would not be impaired. The characteristics of a heat-dissipation system of the size required for a NEC were predicted from the known characteristics of a smaller system by applying hydraulic scaling laws. The results showed that adequate heat dissipation can be obtained from NEC-sized systems located in water of appropriate depth. Offshore intake and discharge structures would be connected to the NEC pump house on shore via tunnels or buried pipelines. Tunnels have the advantage that shoreline and beach areas would not be disturbed. The cost of an offshore heat-dissipation system depends on the characteristics of the site, particularly the distance to suitably deep water and the type of soil or rock in which water conduits would be constructed. For a favorable site, the cost of an offshore system is estimated to be less than the cost of a closed-cycle system

  3. Offshore wind potential evaluation and remote sensing imagery; Evaluation du potentiel eolien offshore et imagerie satellitale

    Fichaux, N.

    2003-12-15

    Offshore wind energy may help to contribute to the respect of the Kyoto objectives by Europe. It is a key issue to struggle against global change. To sit the future offshore wind parks, it is necessary to accurately evaluate the spatial repartition of the wind potential. We demonstrate that the offshore wind potential shall be represented by maps of wind statistics. As remote sensing is a tool for measuring space physical phenomena, we evaluate its potentialities for mapping wind statistics. Space-borne scatterometers enables the obtention of wind statistics, but far from our areas of interest and at low spatial resolution. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) enables the computation of high resolution wind maps over our areas of interest, but are unsuitable to compute wind statistics. We define the mathematical framework of a statistical method. That method enables to take advantage of both scatterometer and SAR to compute maps of wind statistics at high spatial resolution over the areas of interest. It enables remote sensing to be used operationally to map the offshore wind potential. (author)

  4. National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States

    Gilman, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maurer, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feinberg, Luke [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duerr, Alana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Phillipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Golladay, Jennifer [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Stromberg, Jessica [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Johnson, Isis [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Boren, Doug [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Moore, Annette [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Wind Energy Technologies Office, and U.S. Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, have jointly produced this updated national strategy to facilitate the responsible development of offshore wind energy in the United States.

  5. Designing Offshore Super Grid for the Combined Operation of Offshore Wind Farms and Hydro Storage

    Grimaldi, Armando; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Peiyuan

    2009-01-01

    The European commission decided in 2008 to reduce the dependency of imported primary energy sources and to promote the use of renewable energy. In particular, many offshore wind farms are planned in the North Sea between 2020 and 2030. Furthermore, the recent blackouts in Europe have shown that i...

  6. Offshore: nations needing our help to exploit oil and gas. [British offshore supply industry

    Laird, R

    1978-02-23

    The opportunities around the world for Great Britian to sell companies its expertise on petroleum and natural gas drilling are surveyed. Hydrocarbon reserves; development plans, especially offshore drilling plans; needed equipment and technology; and investment requirements are a few of the factors discussed for Venezuela, Brazil, Mexico, India, Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore. (MCW)

  7. BIO-OFFSHORE: Grootschalige teelt van zeewieren in combinatie met offshore windparken in de Noordzee

    Reith, E.H.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Hemmes, K.; Curvers, A.P.W.M.; Kamermans, P.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lettings, G.

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the technological feasibility of seaweed cultivation in the North Sea in combination with offshore wind parks and harvesting and conversion of seaweed biomass to renewable energy carriers and chemicals. The study also identifies stakeholders and participants for technology

  8. Tratamento anaeróbio de chorume em conjunto com esgoto sanitário

    Felipe de Melo Sales Santos, André

    2009-01-01

    O tratamento de chorume conjuntamente com esgoto sanitário, em reatores tipo UASB, é uma alternativa que possui vantagens e desvantagens como qualquer tecnologia. Os tratamentos anaeróbios são bastante dificultados quando utilizados no tratamento de chorume bruto devido às altas concentrações de substâncias orgânicas, inorgânicas e tóxicas os microrganismos anaeróbios. A diluição do chorume em esgotos sanitário favorece o tratamento anaeróbio pela redução das concentrações de n...

  9. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-07-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  10. An Experimental Study of an Offshore Platform

    Brincker, Rune; Asmussen, John Christian; Andersen, Palle

    of the multi-pile offshore platform is investigated by using a vibration based damage detection scheme. Changes in structural integrity are assumed to be reflected in the modal parameters estimated from only output data using an Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. Before the calibration of the ARMA...... model the quality of the measured data have been investigated. The estimated modal parameters and their corresponding variances are used as input to a probability based damage indicator. This indicator indicates, that since the construction of the platform, minor structural changes have taken place....

  11. Flexi-structure will cut offshore costs

    Laird, R.

    1978-03-23

    A new support-tower design called Triflex, from Sea Energy Associates, could be used as a single-point mooring for tanker loading for small oilfields as well as for many other offshore production purposes. Triflex is a rigid tower designed to yield and move in sympathy with imposed wave and current forces when they exceed a predetermined limit. The tower can carry up to 4000 tons in water depths up to 300 m, and is lighter, is less expensive, and probably has greater safety advantages for rough conditions than existing North Sea structures. Extensive model testing has been carried out at Lanchester Polytechnic. Four different methods of construction are described.

  12. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-01-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  13. Offshore platform integration and floatover technology

    Liu, Gengshen

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses offshore platform integration technology, focusing on the floatover methodology and its applications. It also addresses topics related to safety and cost-effectiveness, as well as ensuring the success of a project through careful planning and established detailed operation procedure/working manuals, which are rarely found in the published literature. Unlike other publications in this area, the book not only includes details of technology development, but also presents real project cases in the discussion to make it more comprehensible. Each topic is illustrated with carefully created sketches to show the complex operation procedures. .

  14. Dispatching capacity in manufacturing facility offshoring

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how a dispatching capacity of motivation, relational dynamics and structures seen from the sending context influence the entire knowledge transfer process in manufacturing facility offshoring. An inductive and qualitative approach is taken and five main themes are derived...... from the four empirical cases. In the discussion, the five themes i.e. extra tasks, previous experiences, involvement of all groups of employees, teaching skills and organizational support in the dispatching context are linked with a theoretical model leading to the identification of seven testable...

  15. Lower cash flow hampers offshore activities

    Hughes, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the past 18 months have seen many changes in the North Sea petroleum industry. There have been some major corporate deals, resulting in departure of certain players and the introduction of new companies. The Northwest European continental shelf has been notably active in terms of farm-ins/outs, asset sales and swaps, primarily offshore the United Kingdom and Netherlands. As a result of last year's activity, it appears that majors are gradually disposing of some of their interests in mature areas like the North Sea, in favor of frontier regions like the CIS and Far East

  16. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...... satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement. Based on a sensitivity analysis optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability-based optimization problem sequentially using quasi......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered....

  17. Probabilistic Design of Offshore Structural Systems

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Probabilistic design of structural systems is considered in this paper. The reliability is estimated using first-order reliability methods (FORM). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements...... satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement. Based on a sensitivity analysis optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability-based optimization problem sequentially using quasi......-analytical derivatives. Finally an example of probabilistic design of an offshore structure is considered....

  18. Failing to Estimate the Costs of Offshoring

    Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates cost estimation errors in the context of offshoring. It is argued that an imprecise estimation of the costs related to implementing a firm activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred...... as operations are likely to be disrupted by managerial distraction and resource misallocation. It is also argued that this relationship is mitigated by the extent to which firms use modularity to coordinate the activity but worsened by the extent to which ongoing communication is used. The results, based...

  19. New technology of subsea and offshore compressor

    Almasi, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Subsea compressor is a hot topic. Subsea compressor offers tremendous potentials, but also some obstacles. Active magnetic bearings installed inside the process gas allow the elimination of lubrication and seal systems. High-speed permanent- magnet motor directly drives centrifugal compressor to meet optimum speed, eliminating gear box. This design offers inherent machinery health monitoring features and very compact and reliable train. New technology of hermitically sealed direct drive centrifugal compressor for offshore and subsea applications are discussed and case studies for horizontal and vertical compressor train arrangements are presented. (orig.)

  20. Offshore Aquaculture: I Know It When I See It

    Halley E. Froehlich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Offshore aquaculture is increasingly viewed as a mechanism to meet growing protein demand for seafood, while minimizing adverse consequences on the environment and other uses in the oceans. However, despite growing interest in offshore aquaculture, there appears to be no consensus as to what measures commonly define an offshore site or how effects of offshore aquaculture—relative to more nearshore practices—are assessed. This lack of agreement on what constitutes offshore aquaculture has the potential to convolute communication, create uncertainty in regulatory processes, and impede understanding of the ecological implications of offshore farming. To begin addressing these issues, we reviewed and analyzed biologically-focused primary and gray literature (Ntotal = 70 that categorize and quantify characteristics of offshore aquaculture from around the world. We found that many “offshore” descriptions are relatively close to shore (<3 nm and significantly shallower (minimum depth ≤30 m than may be assumed. We also uncovered an overall lack of consistent reporting of even the most common location-focused metrics (distance from shore, depth, current, a dearth of impact related studies (n = 17, and narrow scope of the studies themselves (i.e., 82% nutrient pollution. Of the finite subset of articles that investigated negative ecological impacts of offshore aquaculture, we found the probability of any measurable impact from an offshore farm appears to significantly decrease with distance from the farm (probability of measurable response at 90 m ± SE = 0.01 ± 0.03. Such general, but informative points of reference could be more robustly quantified with better systematic and standardized reporting of physical farm characteristics and a broader scope of ecological investigation into the effects of marine aquaculture. With offshore aquaculture still in its infancy, consistent metrics are needed for a comparable framework to guide sustainable

  1. Efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose Effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment

    Letícia Nazareth Fernandes da Paz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as estratégias que influenciam a efetividade do tratamento da tuberculose em Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS. MÉTODOS: Levantamento epidemiológico, descritivo, retrospectivo, envolvendo os prontuários médicos de 588 pacientes com tuberculose cadastrados no programa de controle da tuberculose, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2008, em duas UBS - Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM e UBS da Pedreira (UBSP - localizadas na cidade de Belém (PA. Os critérios de exclusão foram ter idade 59 anos e ter alta por transferência ou mudança de diagnóstico. Os dados coletados foram idade, sexo, tipo de tratamento (autoadministrado ou supervisionado, coinfecção por HIV e desfecho do tratamento. Os profissionais de saúde envolvidos no programa da tuberculose das duas UBS foram entrevistados quanto às estratégias utilizadas no controle da doença e à rotina de atendimento. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas quanto a idade, sexo e coinfecção com HIV nas duas UBS. A utilização de tratamento supervisionado foi significativamente maior no CSEM que na UBSP, assim como a taxa de cura, enquanto a taxa de abandono foi maior na UBSP que no CSEM. CONCLUSÕES: Para pacientes cadastrados em programas de controle da tuberculose em UBS no Brasil, o tratamento supervisionado provavelmente é uma estratégia de extrema importância para se alcançar uma menor taxa de abandono.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the treatment strategies that influence the effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment at primary care clinics (PCCs in Brazil. METHODS: This was a descriptive, retrospective epidemiological survey based on the medical records of 588 tuberculosis patients enrolled in the tuberculosis control programs at two PCCs located in the city of Belém, Brazil: Centro de Saúde Escola do Marco (CSEM and Unidade Básica de Saúde da Pedreira (UBSP. The survey was limited to patients enrolled between January of 2004 and December of 2008

  2. Tratamento adjuvante nos GISTs Adjuvant treatment in GISTs

    Laercio Gomes Lourenço

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O tumor estromal gastrointestinal (GIST é o sarcoma mais comum do aparelho digestivo. Essa neoplasia ocorre devido à mutação do gene KIT com consequente ativação constitutiva da proteína KIT. O tratamento primário é cirúrgico e consiste na sua ressecção completa. Entretanto, alguns grupos de pacientes apresentam risco elevado de recorrência mesmo após operação com ressecção completa (R0, indicando diferenças no comportamento biológico. Estudos clínicos comprovaram a atividade clínica do mesilato de imatinibe, fazendo dele a primeira linha de tratamento padrão nos GISTs metastáticos ou irressecáveis, mudando muito o desfecho clínico dessa doença em relação aos benefícios anteriormente obtidos com a quimioterapia antineoplásica. MÉTODO: Foi realizada revisão da literatura com consulta nos periódicos das bases Medline/Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs cruzando os descritores: tumor estromal gastrointestinal, Gist, tratamento, adjuvância. Além desta revisão foi adicionada a experiência pessoal dos autores. CONCLUSÃO: Melhor refinamento dos critérios de prognóstico tem permitido selecionar de forma mais adequada pacientes para o tratamento adjuvante com imatinibe. Os resultados de maior evidência até o momento respaldam o tratamento adjuvante por um ano, o que produz benefício significativo na sobrevida livre de recidiva, mas não na sobrevida global desses pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST is the most common sarcoma of the digestive tract. This cancer occurs due to mutation of the KIT gene resulting in constitutive activation of KIT protein. The primary treatment is surgical and consists of complete resection. However, some groups of patients at high risk of recurrence even after surgery with complete resection (R0, indicate differences in biological behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated the clinical activity of imatinib mesylate, making it the standard first

  3. Analisa Greenwater Akibat Gerakan Offshore Security Vessel

    Maulidya Octaviani Bustamin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisa  Tugas  Akhir  ini,  terdiri  atas  beberapa  tahapan.  Yang pertama yaitu perancangan struktur Offshore Security Vessel (OSV dengan bantuan software MAXSURF guna mendapatkan Lines Plan. Offset data yang diperoleh digunakan dalam pemodelan menggunakan MOSES,  kemudian  dilakukan  analisa  gerak  OSV  dalam  gelombang  regular  dan dinyatakan dalam grafik RAO. Analisa gerak relatif vertikal  haluan dihitung dari RAO gerakan, dan kemudian melakukan evaluasi perilaku di gelombang acak dengan analisis spektra gelombang. Dari analisa spektra didapatkan parameter greenwater sehingga dapat dihitung peluang, intensitas dan tekanan greenwater. Dari hasil analisa diperoleh RAO gerak vertikal Offshore Security Vessel (OSV pada  gelombang  reguler yang dipengaruhi  oleh  kecepatan,  kondisi  muatan  dan arah gelombang. Peluang terjadinya greenwater terbesar terjadi pada sudut datang gelombang following sea (0o dimana harga terbesar terjadi pada ω = 0.2 rad/sec dengan periode 29 detik mencapai 0.477. Intensitas greenwater terbesar terjadi pada saat sudut datang gelombang following sea (0o adalah sebanyak 59.265 per jam dan 0.378 per detik. Tekanan greenwater terbesar terjadi pada saat sudut datang gelombang head sea (180o sebesar 1678x10-6 MPa. Dengan nilai tersebut, deck mampu menahan beban akibat tekanan greenwater.

  4. Design and Analysis of Offshore Macroalgae Biorefineries.

    Golberg, Alexander; Liberzon, Alexander; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar

    2018-03-15

    Displacing fossil fuels and their derivatives with renewables, and increasing sustainable food production are among the major challenges facing the world in the coming decades. A possible, sustainable direction for addressing this challenge is the production of biomass and the conversion of this biomass to the required products through a complex system coined biorefinery. Terrestrial biomass and microalgae are possible sources; however, concerns over net energy balance, potable water use, environmental hazards, and uncertainty in the processing technologies raise questions regarding their actual potential to meet the anticipated food, feed, and energy challenges in a sustainable way. Alternative sustainable sources for biorefineries are macroalgae grown and processed offshore. However, implementation of the offshore biorefineries requires detailed analysis of their technological, economic, and environmental performance. In this chapter, the basic principles of marine biorefineries design are shown. The methods to integrate thermodynamic efficiency, investment, and environmental aspects are discussed. The performance improvement by development of new cultivation methods that fit macroalgae physiology and development of new fermentation methods that address macroalgae unique chemical composition is shown.

  5. Offshore wind power: does France remain ashore?

    Bongrain, T.

    2015-01-01

    France benefits from favorable geographical conditions for offshore wind power but the development of a dedicated industrial sector is slow. 6 projects of wind power farms where turbines are rooted in the seabed are expected to operate progressively from 2018, they represent a cumulated power capacity of 2920 MW. A call for projects has been launched by French authorities for floating offshore wind farms off Brittany and in the mediterranean sea but it will not be sufficient to help to fulfill the declared goal of 40% of the electricity produced in France should be of renewable origin. The main weakness is the cost and countries like Germany benefit from the shallow waters of the North sea to install wind farms at lower costs. The solution could be the development in France of an industrial sector dedicated to floating wind turbines that are easier to install in deep water and can be settled farther off the coast to meet the demand of environmentalists for seascape preservation. More sites could become available for floating wind turbines than for seabed-rooted ones and as the consequence the market for floating systems may become more important. (A.C.)

  6. Optimization of monopiles for offshore wind turbines.

    Kallehave, Dan; Byrne, Byron W; LeBlanc Thilsted, Christian; Mikkelsen, Kristian Kousgaard

    2015-02-28

    The offshore wind industry currently relies on subsidy schemes to be competitive with fossil-fuel-based energy sources. For the wind industry to survive, it is vital that costs are significantly reduced for future projects. This can be partly achieved by introducing new technologies and partly through optimization of existing technologies and design methods. One of the areas where costs can be reduced is in the support structure, where better designs, cheaper fabrication and quicker installation might all be possible. The prevailing support structure design is the monopile structure, where the simple design is well suited to mass-fabrication, and the installation approach, based on conventional impact driving, is relatively low-risk and robust for most soil conditions. The range of application of the monopile for future wind farms can be extended by using more accurate engineering design methods, specifically tailored to offshore wind industry design. This paper describes how state-of-the-art optimization approaches are applied to the design of current wind farms and monopile support structures and identifies the main drivers where more accurate engineering methods could impact on a next generation of highly optimized monopiles. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Revamp urged for Norway's offshore regime

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Norwegian government has come under renewed pressure from offshore operators to fine tune its licensing procedures and tax regime. The need for change was emphasized at the Advanced Petroleum Conference in Stavanger attended by senior personnel from companies active in the Norwegian and British sectors of the North Sea. Companies have had some success in the tax front, winning changes in proposals from Norway's Ministry of Finance for offshore tax reform. The changes were required to offset a general reduction in the corporate tax to 28% from 50.8%. Norsk Shell has told the government that in view of uncertainty about taxes it will not take part in the normal industry-government discussions about what acreage should be included in the 14th licensing round to be announced next year. This action does not bar Shell from participating in the licensing round when it gets under way. Shell has the if the tax package is not changed sharply in its passage through Storting it is unlikely to bid for new licenses

  8. Produção de tomate italiano (saladete sob diferentes densidades de plantio e sistemas de poda visando ao consumo in natura Production of Italian tomato (saladete in different plant densities and pruning systems aiming at in natura consumption

    Adriana Q Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito de três espaçamentos entre plantas e três sistemas de poda sobre a produção de frutos de tomateiro do tipo italiano (saladete, visando ao consumo in natura. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com os híbridos Heinz 9780 e Kátia alocados às parcelas e, um fatorial de três espaçamentos entre plantas (20; 35 e 50 cm e três números de cachos por planta (2; 4 e 8, às subparcelas. As plantas foram conduzidas sem tutoramento. Houve incremento da produção total e comercial com a redução do espaçamento entre plantas e com o aumento do número de cachos por planta, com interação significativa entre essas duas variáveis, que apresentaram produção total e comercial de 202,6 t ha-1 e 165,9 t ha-1 respectivamente no espaçamento entre plantas de 20 cm e em plantas conduzidas com oito cachos. Apenas o híbrido Kátia apresentou redução significativa do número de frutos por planta quando o espaçamento entre plantas foi reduzido de 50 cm para 35 cm. Houve efeito depressivo da redução do espaçamento entre plantas no peso médio de frutos, a partir de 35 cm para o híbrido Heinz 9780 e, 20 cm, para o híbrido Kátia. Já a poda das plantas após o segundo cacho elevou o peso médio dos frutos em 54% no híbrido Heinz 9780 e 48,6% no híbrido Kátia, quando comparado ao tratamento com oito cachos por planta. Os resultados indicam a possibilidade de aumentar o peso médio de frutos de tomateiro com o emprego do espaçamento entre plantas de 50 cm para o híbrido Heinz 9780 e, 35 ou 50 cm, para o híbrido Kátia, e da poda apical após dois ou quatro cachos. Os híbridos mostraram-se adequados para a produção de tomate destinado ao consumo in natura, por apresentarem frutos com tamanho exigido por esse mercado.This experiment was carried out to study the effect of three spacings between plants and three pruning systems in

  9. Tratamento inseticida e qualidade de sementes de milho durante o armazenamento Insecticide treatment and seed quality of corn during storage

    Oscar José Smiderle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa objetivou verificar os efeitos dos inseticidas deltametrina, clorpirifos, fosfina e da terra diatomácea no controle de insetos em sementes de milho, armazenadas durante 12 meses, visando oferecer alternativas de produtos inseticidas, utilizando delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As sementes do híbrido AG 303, tratadas com deltametrina e clorpirifos, aplicados na forma isolada ou em combinação, fosfina e terra diatomácea, foram acondicionadas em sacos de papel multifoliado e armazenadas por doze meses (maio/1997 a abril/1998 em condições normais de ambiente. Em intervalos bimestrais, sete épocas no total, as sementes foram submetidas às seguintes determinações: exame de sementes infestadas, massa de 100 sementes, teste de germinação, teste de frio, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, emergência de plântulas em campo e velocidade de emergência de plântulas. A análise dos dados e interpretação dos resultados permitiram concluir que: os inseticidas deltametrina e clorpirifos (isolados ou associados, a terra diatomácea e a fosfina promovem, de maneira similar, o controle de insetos-praga que ocorrem no armazenamento e não causam toxicidade às sementes; a qualidade fisiológica das sementes é efetivamente preservada pelos tratamentos com inseticidas químicos e terra diatomácea.To study the effects of insecticides (deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, phosphin, and diatomaceous earth on the insect control of stored corn seeds during 12 months, this research was performed to find an alternative product, using a randomized design. Seeds of the hybrid AG 303 were treated with either isolated or combined deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos, phosphin and diatomaceous earth, and they were further arranged into multifoliated paper bags and stored for twelve months (May/1997 through April/1998 under normal environmental conditions. Seeds were submitted to an infested seed exam, mass of 100 seeds, germination

  10. On bar growth and decay during interannual net offshore migration

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Ranasinghe, R.; Roelvink, J.A.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple bar systems often show a cyclic net offshore directed migration with return periods on the order of years. Generally, a bar is generated near the shoreline, grows in height and width, while migrating offshore before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf zone. Based on a

  11. Far offshore wind conditions in scope of wind energy

    Holtslag, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Far offshore atmospheric conditions are favourable for wind energy purposes since mean wind speeds are relatively high (i.e., high power production) while turbulence levels are relatively low (i.e., less fatigue loads) compared to onshore conditions. Offshore wind energy, however, is still expensive

  12. Offshore Wind Farm Clusters - Towards new integrated Design Tool

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Peña, Alfredo

    In EERA DTOC testing of existing wind farm wake models against four validation data test sets from large offshore wind farms is carried out. This includes Horns Rev-1 in the North Sea, Lillgrund in the Baltic Sea, Roedsand-2 in the Baltic Sea and from 10 large offshore wind farms in Northern Euro...

  13. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  14. Employment Effects of Service Offshoring: Evidence from Matched Firms

    Rosario Crinò

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of service offshoring on the level and skill composition of domestic employment, using a rich data set of Italian firms and propensity score matching techniques. The results show that service offshoring has no effect on the level of employment but changes its composition in favor of high skilled workers.

  15. How Offshoring Elicits Reconfiguration of the Service Production System

    Brandl, Kristin; Mol, Michael J.; Petersen, Bent

    Service production systems can be seen as a structure consisting of task execution, resources executing tasks and the service output received by the client. Offshoring acts as an exogenous shock to such a service production system. Drawing on practice theory and applying a multiple case methodology...... of the impact of offshoring and to practice theory....

  16. A review of the European offshore wind innovation system

    Wieczorek, A.J.; Negro, S.O.; Harmsen, R.; Heimeriks, G.J.; Luo, L.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind has the potential of becoming an important pillar of the future European energy system. It can contribute to policy objectives on climate change, energy security, green growth and social progress. However, the large potential of offshore wind does not automatically lead to a large

  17. OFFSHORIZATION AS MAIN PROBLEM OF HOLDING GROUPS TAXATION

    Y. Petlenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At this article, we have analyzed and systematized the conditions of holdings' activity to reduce the taxation level in countries and on the territory of special, so-called offshore, jurisdiction. In addition, we have made a suggestionhow to regulatean offshore capital flows inorder to prevent from tax frauds.

  18. Unravelling historical cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe

    Voormolen, J. A.; Junginger, H. M.; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights in the cost developments of offshore wind energy in Europe. This is done by analysing 46 operational offshore wind farms commissioned after 2000. An increase of the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) is found that is linked to the distance to shore and depth of more

  19. Baltic 2 offshore wind farm. Challenges and solutions during design and erection of a 288 MW offshore wind power plant; Baltic 2 Offshore Windpark. Herausforderungen und Loesungen waehrend der Design- und Errichtungsphase eines 288 MW Offshore-Windkraftwerks

    Stamatelopoulos, Georg-Nikolaus; Kansy, Stefan [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Hannibal, John Michael [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Wind Power and Renewables Div.; Frettloehr, Bjoern [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Hamburg (Germany). Wind und Maritime Technik

    2015-05-01

    Offshore wind offers a great potential for reliable power supply with markedly less future costs. However, offshore also means special requirements related to transport and installation at sea. Even if these requirements alone are very stringent, they are not the only ones that apply. Meeting these challenges requires project organisation comparable to other major projects.

  20. Analysis of North Sea Offshore Wind Power Variability

    Buatois, A.; Gibescu, M.; Rawn, B.G.; Van der Meijden, M.A.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates, for a 2030 scenario, the impact on onshore power systems in terms of the variability of the power generated by 81 GW of offshore wind farms installed in the North Sea. Meso-scale reanalysis data are used as input for computing the hourly power production for offshore wind

  1. Wave run-up on offshore wind turbine foundations

    Baden, Elisabeth; Skourup, Jesper; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Wave run-up on appurtenances like boat landings, ladders, platforms and J-tubes of Offshore Wind Turbine foundations have in some cases caused severe and costly damage to these installations. A well-known example of large run-up was registered at the foundations of Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, ...

  2. 76 FR 24504 - National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee

    2011-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. USCG-2011-0183] National Offshore Safety Advisory... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Offshore Safety Advisory Committee (NOSAC) will meet on May 19... completed its business. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Wyndham Riverfront Hotel, Bacchus room, 701...

  3. Leveraging Offshore IT Outsourcing by SMEs through Online Marketplaces

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); O.R. Koppius (Otto)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractFollowing their larger counterparts, an increasing number of small firms outsource their IT tasks to lower cost offshore destinations. For small firms, however, offshore outsourcing is a difficult undertaking as it involves high transaction costs. Online marketplaces for IT services,

  4. 2014-2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Smith, Aaron

    2015-11-18

    This presentation provides an overview of progress toward offshore wind cost reduction in Europe and implications for the U.S. market. The presentation covers an overview of offshore wind developments, economic and performance trends, empirical evidence of LCOE reduction, and challenges and opportunities in the U.S. market.

  5. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  6. Upwind design basis (WP4 : Offshore foundations and support structures)

    Fischer, T.; De Vries, W.E.; Schmidt, B.

    2010-01-01

    The presented design basis gives a summarized overview of relevant design properties for a later offshore wind turbine design procedures within work package 4. The described offshore site is located in the Dutch North Sea and has a water depth of 21m. Therefore it will be chosen as shallow site

  7. Offshoring and Job Stability : Evidence from Italian Manufacturing

    Lo Turco, A.; Maggioni, D.; Picchio, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relationship between offshoring and job stability in Italy in the period 1995–2001 by using an administrative dataset on manufacturing workers. We find that the international fragmentation of production negatively affects job stability. Service offshoring and material

  8. Seminar on Offshore Activities and Shipping. V. 7

    Mykletun, J.; Naerland, L.

    1991-01-01

    The publication presents proceedings from a conference addressing environmental challenges in connection with offshore activities and shipping. Fields being discussed are environmental protection management, and new or improved technologies being developed for controlling the air and water pollution level from tanker ships and offshore activities. 15 separate abstracts are prepared. 31 refs., 85 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Offshore wind investments – Realism about cost developments is necessary

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Wierling, August

    2016-01-01

    Data available from the recent boom in European offshore wind investments contradict widely held expectations about a decline in costs per kW. Our review shows that scenario projections for investment costs are systematically flawed by over-optimistic assumptions. Contrasting offshore wind technology with onshore wind and nuclear power, we argue that offshore wind could be a candidate for negative learning since a trend towards more complex OWP (offshore wind parks) exists and uncertainty remains high. We estimate technical uncertainty and input cost uncertainty to calculate whether investments in offshore wind technology are profitable today. Applying a real option model to two reference plants using empirically derived parameter values, we allow for sunk cost and the possibility to abandon the investment. We find that for a large parameter range, investments are not profitable, even with substantial support such as feed-in tariffs under the German Energy Act. Therefore, policy incentives for building larger and more complex offshore wind parks bear a high risk to fail in their aim of bringing down investment costs. Policies that instead incentivize the optimization of offshore wind technology – in particular by increasing the load factor and material efficiency and bringing down decommissioning costs – are more sustainable. - Highlights: • We review offshore wind power investments. • Contrary to expectations costs increase. • It is unlikely to see a turn in the near future as complexity is growing. • We deploy an empirically based real option model. • Investments are not profitable across a large parameter range.

  10. Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process

    Rosangela C. Paulino

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF, na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5,5%, Trichuris sp (4,5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%, H. nana (1% e Taenia sp (0,4%, Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal.This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5.5%, Trichuris sp (4.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%, H. nana (1% and Taenia sp (0.4%, protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives

  11. ESTIMATION OF AGING EFFECTS OF PILES IN MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE LOCATIONS

    JERIN M. GEORGE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing demand for extending life and subsequently higher loading requirements of offshore jacket platforms are among the key problems faced by the offshore industry. The Aging effect has been proved to increase the axial capacity of piles, but proper methods to estimate and quantify these effects have not been developed. Borehole data from ten different Malaysian offshore locations have been analysed and they were employed to estimate the setup factor for different locations using AAU method. The setup factors found were used in the Skov and Denver equation to calculate capacity ratios of the offshore piles. The study showed that there will be an average improvement in the axial capacity of offshore piles by 42.2% and 34.9% for clayey and mixed soils respectively after a time equal to the normal design life (25 years of a jacket platform.

  12. Unique ecological impacts associated with offshore floating nuclear power plants

    Adams, S.M.; McLean, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The ecological impacts that could occur as a result of site construction and operation of an offshore floating nuclear power plant are identified by comparing the principal ecological features associated with offshore siting with those associated with the siting of onshore estuarine plants. In general, the ecological impacts of offshore nuclear plants should be relatively smaller than those of estuarine plants. Possible factors that could increase the relative impacts of offshore plants are high frequency of contact with schools of fish, siting near inlets to estuaries or other ecologically important areas, and the persistence of halogen residuals. Identifying the potential ecological impacts associated with the siting of offshore plants permits the development of various monitoring programs and measures to minimize these impacts

  13. Physical Modelling of Silt in Relation to Offshore Wind Turbines

    Holmsgaard, Rikke

    precisely so that the competitiveness of offshore wind turbines can be improved. Carrying out in situ tests offshore is very expensive. Therefore, all experiment regarding this project is conducted onshore. A field in Dronninglund was found useful for this purpose since the subsoil at the field mainly......Offshore wind energy is a sustainable form of energy that can help reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and increase the share of renewable energy. In order to ensure that offshore wind energy can continue to be a competitive source of energy compared to other types of renewable energy...... consists of silty soil and the water table is situated just below the surface so the field is comparable to offshore conditions. In connection with the project, CPT and SCPT (Seismic Cone Penetration Test) were conducted in the field, just like large soil samples were collected with the purpose of carrying...

  14. A methodology for the prediction of offshore wind energy resources

    Watson, S J; Watson, G M [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom)] Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Zuylen, E.J. van [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)] Cleijne, J.W. [Kema Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    There are increasing constraints on the development of wind power on land. Recently, there has been a move to develop wind power offshore, though the amount of measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites is sparse. We present a novel methodology for the prediction of offshore wind power resources which is being applied to European Union waters. The first stage is to calculate the geostrophic wind from long-term pressure fields over the sea area of interest. Secondly, the geostrophic wind is transformed to the sea level using WA{sup s}P, taking account of near shore topography. Finally, these values are corrected for land/sea climatology (stability) effects using an analytical Coastal discontinuity Model (CDM). These values are further refined using high resolution offshore data at selected sites. The final values are validated against existing offshore datasets. Preliminary results are presented of the geostrophic wind speed validation in European Union waters. (au)

  15. Offshore Outlook: the European Side Perspectives offshore : le point de vue européen

    Delacour J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The offshore hydrocarbon potential of Europe was fully revealed during the 1970s by various major discoveries which, after the first oil shock in 1973 and in the light of the high energy consumption in this zone, were a major asset in the new equilibria that would be found between producing and consuming countries. The offshore potential of Europe is concentrated in two zones: the North Sea and the Mediterranean. The North Sea, with the particularly harsh operating conditions, has quickly given rise to what can today be qualified as a new engineering state-of-the-art. At the same time, developments in the Mediterranean have brought a demonstration of entirely original and profitable petroleum achievements. For the future and despite current economic uncertainties, the outlook for European offshore development remain particularly attractive, obviously with regard to oil, but also, and more and more so, from the standpoint of natural gas. Le potentiel offshore en hydrocarbures de l'Europe a été pleinement mis en évidence au cours des années 70 par un certain nombre de grandes découvertes qui constituaient, après le premier choc pétrolier de 1973, compte tenu des fortes consommations d'énergie dans cette zone, un atout majeur dans les nouveaux équilibres qui s'instauraient entre pays producteurs et pays consommateurs. Le potentiel offshore de l'Europe se concentre sur deux zones : la mer du Nord et la Méditerranée. La mer du Nord, avec des conditions d'exploitation particulièrement sévères, a donné rapidement naissance à ce que l'on peut, aujourd'hui, qualifier de nouvel art de l'ingénieur, tandis que les développements en Méditerranée apportaient la démonstration de réalisations pétrolières tout à fait originales et profitables. Pour le futur, et malgré les incertitudes économiques actuelles, les perspectives de développement de l'offshore européen restent particulièrement attractives, au niveau du pétrole

  16. Exposição ao vivo no tratamento de agorafobia: relato de caso

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    Full Text Available Relato de caso, em que a Exposição ao Vivo foi utilizada no tratamento de paciente com diagnóstico de agorafobia. O tratamento foi realizado em doze sessões, apresentando êxito no uso dessa técnica comportamental.

  17. Tratamento nutricional dos transtornos alimentares Nutritional treatment of eating disorders

    Andréa Romero Latterza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com transtornos alimentares possuem inadequações profundas no consumo, padrão e comportamento alimentar, além de diversas crenças equivocadas sobre alimentação, o que geralmente acarreta piora do estado nutricional. O tratamento nutricional visa a reverter tais alterações e promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis e melhor relação para com o alimento. Os objetivos e características do tratamento diferem para a anorexia nervosa e a bulimia nervosa, contudo, usualmente, a abordagem é dividida em duas fases: a educacional, cujas principais metas são a regularização do hábito alimentar e o aumento do conhecimento nutricional, e a experimental, que visa a propiciar maior reabilitação nutricional e mudanças mais profundas no comportamento alimentar. As evidências existentes sugerem que o tratamento nutricional promove a melhora de tais parâmetros, porém, alguns comportamentos alimentares, como a sensação de incompetência ao lidar com os alimentos, permanecem. Desta forma, mais estudos são necessários para que se possa de fato avaliar a eficácia da abordagem nutricional.Patients with eating disorders have disturbed food intake, food pattern, food behavior, and mistaken beliefs about food and nutrition, which can worsen nutritional status. The nutritional treatment aims to revert such alterations and to promote better food habits and relationship with food. The objectives and characteristics of the treatment are different for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but usually the approach has two phases: the educational phase, whose major goals are regularization of food habits and increase of nutrition knowledge; and the experimental phase, whose targets are better nutritional rehabilitation and more complex improvements of nutritional behavior. Evidence suggests that nutritional treatment can ameliorate such parameters, but some inadequate food behaviors remain, such as feeling of incompetence while dealing with

  18. Câncer do colo de útero: efeitos do tratamento

    Letícia Fernandez Frigo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O Câncer incide sobre a população de forma avassaladora, em função da transição demográfica, bem como do aumento da exposição da população a agentes cancerígenos no meio ambiente. O câncer de colo de útero é a segunda neoplasia mais comum entre as mulheres. As modalidades terapêuticas, no decorrer de suas aplicações, levam a diversas disfunções uroginecológicas consequentes dos procedimentos cirúrgicos e demais terapias. Objetivo: investigar a ocorrência de disfunções uroginecológicas, após o tratamento do câncer de colo de útero. Método: a pesquisa desenvolvida foi do tipo, descritiva com abordagem quantitativa, sendo do tipo não probabilística acidental. Participaram da pesquisa nove mulheres no período climatérico, que realizaram tratamento do câncer do colo de útero cirúrgico ou conservador há, no máximo, cinco anos. Foi aplicado a ficha de avaliação e o inventário de satisfação sexual. Resultado: verificou-se, através dos dados, que a radioterapia foi o tratamento mais utilizado entre as participantes. Pode-se verificar que o Câncer de colo de útero acarreta algumas disfunções uroginecológica em mulheres portadoras desta patologia. Considerações finais: neste estudo, pode-se analisar os efeitos que o Câncer de colo de útero acarretou nas participantes desta pesquisa, ocasionando algumas disfunções como dispareunia, estenose, vaginismo, diminuição da lubrificação, incontinência urinária, incontinência fecal e linfedema.

  19. Cisto dentígero: modalidades de tratamento

    Rubens Caliento

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O cisto dentígero é o segundo cisto odontogênico mais frequente nos maxilares. É uma lesão benigna, derivada do epitélio odontogênico da coroa de um dente não erupcionado, porém de etiopatogenia incerta. São geralmente radiotransparentes e, mais comumente, uniloculares. Estas lesões são observadas em exames de rotina ou quando não ocorre o irrompimento de um dente permanente. Os terceiros molares inferiores e os caninos superiores são os dentes mais acometidos, sendo também alta a ocorrência desta lesão em dentes supranumerários e associados a odontomas. O cisto dentígero ocorre principalmente nas três primeiras décadas de vida, tendo um crescimento lento e assintomático; pode atingir dimensões consideráveis, causando deformidade facial, impactação e deslocamento de dentes e/ou estruturas adjacentes. OBJETIVO: Definição das técnicas de marsupialização e enucleação, bem como consideração de critérios objetivos importantes para o plano de tratamento, como tamanho do cisto, idade, proximidade com estruturas anatômicas e importância clínica do dente envolvido. Apesar das peculiaridades clínicas de cada caso e do método de tratamento escolhido, o prognóstico destas lesões é favorável, quando se emprega apropriada terapêutica. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O presente estudo apresentará um relato de caso tratado através da manobra de descompressão seguida de enucleação, bem como uma discussão acerca das modalidades de tratamento. RESULTADO: O paciente encontra-se em pós-operatório de dois anos sem sinais de recidiva da lesão e ausência de parestesias em face. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica empregada preservou a função neurossensorial e mostrou-se eficiente para a cura da lesão.

  20. Energia solar no tratamento de corante têxtil

    Viviane Farias Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As indústrias utilizam a água em todo o seu processo, desperdiçando enormes volumes de água gerando efluentes com altos índices de produtos químicos, precisando de tratamento para ser reutilizado ou lançado no meio ambiente. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Engenharia Ambiental e de Qualidade na Universidade Federal de Pernambuco objetivando-se a degradação de corante utilizados nas indústrias têxtis através do uso da energia solar como alternativa de tratamento de efluente. Nesta pesquisa os testes fotocatalíticos foram realizados com o catalisador em pó (TiO2 - P25, contendo o corante têxtil Remazol Amarelo Ouro RNL (RGY ou sem catalisador nos testes de fotólise. Foram testados dois tipos de radiação, a artificial e a energia solar (natural. Para avaliar a descoloração e a degradação das amostras, a Espectroscopia UV-visível foi a principal técnica analítica empregada como também realizadas análises de Carbono Orgânico Total (COT e Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO. Nas 6 (seis analises realizadas obteve-se um elevado índice de remoção da cor do corante, superior a 97%, com alta eficiência do processo com uma significativa redução da COT e da DQO. Os métodos utilizados foram eficientes na descoloração do RGY, como também na sua degradação, tornando-se uma técnica inovadora com o uso da energia solar para o tratamento de efluentes têxteis.Palavras-chave: efluente industrial, alternativa sustentável, degradação do remazol amarelo ouro, descoloração de efluente

  1. Tratamento cirúrgico do megaesôfago recidivado

    José Luiz Braga de Aquino

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico em uma série de pacientes submetidos ao tratamento prévio para megaesôfago que evoluíram com recidiva de sintomas. MÉTODO: Analisou-se os resultados das diversas técnicas operatórias realizadas em 47 pacientes pelo Serviços de Cirurgia Geral e Torácica do HMCP-PUC-Campinas. A morbidade pós-cirúrgica, mortalidade, o alívio ou nova recidiva de sintomas e o tempo de seguimento foram os principais indicadores. Dividiu-se a série em três grupos, de acordo com o grau da afecção: Incipiente (nove casos, Não-avançado (18 casos e avançado (20 casos. As técnicas operatórias utilizadas foram: à cardiomiectomia com fundoplicatura anterior, esofagocardioplastia à Tahl, esofagocardioplastia à Serra-Dória, Esofagectomia Subtotal e Mucosectomia com conservação da túnica muscular esofágica. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se índices de resolutividade satisfatórios com a técnica de cardiomiectomia com fundoplicatura para o megaesôfago Incipiente, com baixa morbidade. Nos megaesôfago não-avançado, as cardiopatias, em especial a esofagocardioplastia à Serra-Dória mostram se mais adequadas. A terapêutica do megaesôfago avançado apresentou as maiores taxas de morbidade e demonstrou superioridade das técnicas mais agressivas em relação às técnicas conservadoras, em especial a mucosectomia com preservação da túnica muscular, sendo esta a técnica com menor morbidade dentro do grupo avançado. CONCLUSÃO: A difícil padronização do tratamento cirúrgico do megaesôfago recidivado deve-se às inúmeras técnicas disponíveis, às habilidades pessoais dos cirurgiões e atenta para a criação de protocolos terapêuticos.

  2. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  3. Tratamento da endometrite puerperal com antibioticoterapia parenteral exclusiva Treatment of puerperal endometritis using a regimen with exclusive parenteral antibiotics

    Geraldo Duarte

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a efetividade e segurança da antibioticoterapia parenteral hospitalar exclusiva para tratamento da endometrite puerperal, em população de baixo nível socioeconômico. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico prospectivo, que avaliou 21 puérperas com diagnóstico de endometrite puerperal, cujas gestações foram resolvidas em hospital universitário por cesárea (52,4% ou parto normal (47,6. A amostra caracterizou-se por baixo nível socioeconômico e de escolaridade. Foram submetidas ao regime de antibioticoterapia parenteral exclusiva, apenas durante o período de internação (grupo ATP-EX. Os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos de série histórica do mesmo serviço (20 casos submetidas a antibioticoterapia parenteral hospitalar, complementada por terapia via oral ambulatorial (grupo ATP+VO. As pacientes foram avaliadas clinicamente em retornos periódicos visando identificar casos de recidivas e complicações infecciosas. RESULTADOS: uma paciente do grupo ATP+VO necessitou de reinternação no 6º dia após a alta por recrudescência da endometrite. Não foi observada nenhuma complicação entre as pacientes do grupo ATP-EX. CONCLUSÃO: para o tratamento de endometrite puerperal, não foi observado benefício adicional com a adição da antibioticoterapia oral complementar após a alta. Os resultados com o uso da antibioticoterapia parenteral exclusiva durante a internação indicam que esse esquema pode ser utilizado com segurança em população de baixo nível socioeconômico.PURPOSE: to analyze the effectiveness and safety of exclusive hospital parenteral antibiotic therapy to treat puerperal endometritis in a population of low socioeconomic level. METHODS: a prospective clinical trial evaluated 21 puerperae with a diagnosis of postpartum endometritis, whose deliveries occurred at a university hospital by cesarean section (52.4% or normal delivery (47.6%. The sample was characterized by low socioeconomic and

  4. Offshore Hydrocarbons Extraction In Colombia: Legal Overview And Challenges Regarding The New Offshore Free Trade Zones

    Carolina Acosta Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Offshore extraction of hydrocarbons has increasingly become important in the context of the oil business. Thus, the Republic of Colombia has wanted to encourage the development of such operations in the country, despite the fact that it does not have at present time a harmonious legal framework to regulate the activity and/or to proper coordinate the governmental agencies involved in the approval of such operations. This article presents an overview of the problems associated with offshore activities in the world and analyzes – from a critical perspective - the role of local authorities in authorizing said operations as well as the new regime of customs-free zones created in the country.

  5. Alliance contract for offshore EPC projects; Acordos de alianca em projetos EPC para instalacoes offshore

    Barbosa, Sergio Gil Sias; Barbosa, Fernando Sampaio [Odebrecht S.A. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper has the objective of divulgation of the Alliance Agreements concepts in Brazil and to promote its practice amongst organizations with complimentary competencies for the execution of EPC offshore projects. These alliances were first adopted in the 80's as part of the outsourcing process in the industry in general and were adapted to suit EPC offshore projects on the North Sea in the 90's, to render feasible some projects that presented high level of prices and risks. The contractual modality of Alliance Agreements is characterized by an integrated project team composed by the best professionals of the client and the contractor. This team is responsible for the engineering, planning, estimation and risk analysis, matching both client's and contractor's viewpoints and needs, focusing on constructability, suitability for the purpose and cost effectiveness, aiming at having a project realized cost closer to the feasibility studies and creating a 'Win Win' type relationship for all partners involved. (author)

  6. Qualidade de sementes de tomate influenciada pelos tratamentos térmico e osmótico Tomato seeds quality affected by dry heat and osmotic treatments

    Flávio de Souza Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento térmico via calor seco, visando o controle de patógenos associado às sementes, pode causar danos à qualidade fisiológica das mesmas, que podem ser recuperados, por meio do condicionamento osmótico. Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento térmico via calor seco na qualidade sanitária e fisiológica das sementes de tomate, assim como a influência do condicionamento osmótico na qualidade fisiológica das sementes submetidas à termoterapia. As sementes das cultivares Quadrado Mix, Topmec e Calmec VFN foram expostas ao tratamento térmico a 70; 72,5 e 75ºC, em estufa com circulação forçada, por períodos de zero, 48; 96 e 120 horas. O período zero, sem a aplicação de calor, foi considerado como testemunha. Posteriormente, estas sementes foram avaliadas quanto à sanidade, condicionadas em solução aerada de polietilenoglicol a 0,0 e -1,0 MPa e submetidas à avaliação do teor de água, da germinação e do vigor. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que o tratamento térmico via calor seco não foi eficiente em eliminar os patógenos associados às sementes de tomate, dependendo da cultivar avaliada. Períodos prolongados de exposição ao calor seco causaram danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tomate, que não foram recuperados com o subseqüente condicionamento osmótico.The dry heat treatment aiming to control microorganisms in the seeds can cause damage to the physiological quality of seeds. Osmotic conditioning can be useful tool for recovering the physiological quality of the heat treated seeds. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dry heat treatments on the tomato seeds sanitary and physiologic quality, as well as to analyze the effect of the osmotic conditioning on seeds submitted to dry heat treatment. The seeds of cultivars Quadrado Mix, Topmec and Calmec VFN were heated at 70; 72.5 and 75ºC by periods of zero, 48; 96 and 120 hours. After the heat treatment, the seeds were evaluated for

  7. Tratamento da pré-eclâmpsia baseado em evidências Pre-eclampsia treatment according to scientific evidence

    Carlos Noronha Neto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As síndromes hipertensivas na gestação merecem especial destaque no cenário da saúde pública mundial. Atualmente, respondem como terceira causa de mortalidade materna no mundo e primeira no Brasil. Do ponto de vista prático, a pré-eclâmpsia continua sendo uma síndrome que leva a graves repercussões maternas e fetais, conhecendo-se ainda pouco sobre sua etiologia. Atualmente, tem-se discutido a melhor terapêutica para os quadros de pré-eclâmpsia em diversos momentos do ciclo gravídico-puerperal, visando sempre à redução de altos índices de morbimortalidade materna e fetal. O parto, considerando-se a fisiopatologia do evento, representa a melhor forma de tratamento. O uso de sulfato de magnésio é recomendado em todos os casos de pré-eclâmpsia grave e eclâmpsia para prevenção e tratamento das crises convulsivas. Da mesma forma, o tratamento dos picos hipertensivos é recomendado. Hidralazina, nifedipina e labetalol têm sido as drogas mais utilizadas com essa finalidade, mas seu uso dependente da familiaridade do médico assistente. A corticoterapia antenatal está indicada sempre que existe risco iminente de prematuridade entre a 24º e 34º semana. Em contrapartida, não há evidências suficientes para recomendar repouso e administração de expansores plasmáticos de rotina, assim como há necessidade urgente de ensaios clínicos randomizados para determinar se o tratamento anti-hipertensivo de manutenção nas gestantes apresenta benefícios ou riscos para mães e fetos, em todas as formas clínicas da doença, em particular nos casos de pré-eclâmpsia pura.Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy deserve special attention in the setting of global public health. Currently, they represent the third cause of maternal mortality in the world and first in Brazil. From a practical standpoint, pre-eclampsia remains a syndrome that leads to serious repercussions on maternal and fetal mortality and its etiology is not well known

  8. Cost reduction potentials of offshore wind power in Germany; Kostensenkungspotenziale der Offshore-Windenergie in Deutschland

    Hobohm, Jens; Krampe, Leonard; Peter, Frank [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Energiewirtschaft

    2014-01-15

    Offshore wind power is a major hope for the German energy turnaround. However, it will only be possible to tap its cost reduction potentials if industry, the political leadership and the administrative authorities join forces to create the necessary preconditions. An important requirement for this capital-intensive technology are stable legal and political framework conditions. A recent study on the future shows what needs to be done.

  9. Wind power offshore - industrial possibilities for Norway; Vindkraft offshore - industrielle muligheter for Norge

    Bysveen, S; Hoelseater, O H; Lier-Hansen, S; Hatlen, S; Soensteby, G. (Energiraadet, Oslo (Norway))

    2008-05-15

    The Europeans alteration of energy policy gives Norway a unique possibility to develop new business activity in the contractor industry as well as become a large exporter of renewable energy to Europe. Sea based wind power marks it self as the area with largest potential and is an area where Norway has a large advantage. This possibility is outlined in this report with offshore wind power as the foundation of business development and energy export to the continent

  10. Dieta cetogênica no tratamento de epilepsias farmacorresistentes

    Nonino-Borges,Carla Barbosa; Bustamante,Vera Cristina Terra; Rabito,Estela Iraci; Inuzuka,Luciana Midoro; Sakamoto,Américo Ceike; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2004-01-01

    A epilepsia é uma condição clínica crônica correspondente a um grupo de doenças que tem em comum crises epilépticas; ela atinge de 0,5% a 1,0% da população dos países desenvolvidos, podendo esta prevalência ser maior nos países em desenvolvimento. Aproximadamente um terço dos pacientes evolui com crises epilépticas intratáveis com medicamentos; em alguns casos, é possível o tratamento cirúrgico. Nos pacientes em que cirurgia não é possível, a dieta cetogênica passa a ser uma opção terapêutica...

  11. Adesão ao tratamento no transtorno bipolar

    Santin,Aida; Ceresér,Keila; Rosa,Adriane

    2005-01-01

    O transtorno bipolar (TB) é uma doença crônica, recorrente, presente em 1,5% da população, estando associada a altas taxas de mortalidade e prejuízos socioeconômicos. O lítio, a carbamazepina e o ácido valpróico são os estabilizadores de humor mais usados. Em tratamentos prolongados, como é o caso do TB, a má-adesão dos pacientes é uma das maiores dificuldades. Verifica-se que fatores ligados ao paciente, aos medicamentos e aos médicos possam ser responsáveis pela baixa adesão. A psicoeducaçã...

  12. Greenland unveils terms for offshore licenses

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Greenland has spelled out terms for its first round of offshore licensing. The action off western Greenland could lead to the first oil and gas exploration there since an unsuccessful campaign in the 1970s. The Mineral Resources Administration (MRA) for Greenland pegged exploration license terms on 133 blocks, all south of the 66th parallel, at 10 years with options for 2 year extensions to a maximum of 6 more years. The license can cover as many as six blocks. In the first 3 year period companies will have only a seismic obligation of 1,588 km per six blocks. For the second 3 year period there will be a one well obligation and one well in each subsequent 2 year periods

  13. Meeting the Global Challenge through Production Offshoring

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    to the current debates about how these firms could assert themselves in a world of far-reaching transformation. As the title of the study suggests, this contribution is made through focusing the discussion upon production offshoring, which is currently commanding attention of so many practitioners, academics...... and policy makers. Building on ground that is already well trodden within the academic literature, the study searches for novel multidisciplinary explanations about how the production function can be organised by lead firms on a global scale and, more importantly, what the strategic implications...... of this process are. While the study concentrates on the production function, the implications of the discussion stretch much wider; the study also reveals implications for other functions and the company as a whole, as well as it points towards broader societal implications. The study employs a qualitative...

  14. Capability maturity models for offshore organisational management.

    Strutt, J E; Sharp, J V; Terry, E; Miles, R

    2006-12-01

    The goal setting regime imposed by the UK safety regulator has important implications for an organisation's ability to manage health and safety related risks. Existing approaches to safety assurance based on risk analysis and formal safety assessments are increasingly considered unlikely to create the step change improvement in safety to which the offshore industry aspires and alternative approaches are being considered. One approach, which addresses the important issue of organisational behaviour and which can be applied at a very early stage of design, is the capability maturity model (CMM). The paper describes the development of a design safety capability maturity model, outlining the key processes considered necessary to safety achievement, definition of maturity levels and scoring methods. The paper discusses how CMM is related to regulatory mechanisms and risk based decision making together with the potential of CMM to environmental risk management.

  15. Design tool for offshore wind farm clusters

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Giebel, Gregor; Waldl, Igor

    2015-01-01

    . The software includes wind farm wake models, energy yield models, inter-array and long cable and grid component models, grid code compliance and ancillary services models. The common score for evaluation in order to compare different layouts is levelized cost of energy (LCoE). The integrated DTOC software...... Research Alliance (EERA) and a number of industrial partners. The approach has been to develop a robust, efficient, easy to use and flexible tool, which integrates software relevant for planning offshore wind farms and wind farm clusters and supports the user with a clear optimization work flow...... is developed within the project using open interface standards and is now available as the commercial software product Wind&Economy....

  16. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori

  17. Harmonics in large offshore wind farms

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    and nature of various harmonic components. A comprehensive comparison of harmonic voltages and currents based on probability distribution estimation and appropriate statistics calculation (mean, variance, probability density function, etc.) is applied. Such approach gives a better overview and comparison...... and analysis, and ϐinally ending up on modelling and models application. Different aspects of validation in time domain, frequency domain, and by application of statistical methods are mentioned in relation to respective problems. Measurements constitute a core part in industry-oriented research. Due...... that it is of great importance to know the nature of generated harmonics in large offshore wind farms in order to apply the most suitable data processing technique. Time-frequency analysis based on multiresolution wavelet transform is used in order to perform time-frequency domain analysis helpful to distinguish...

  18. System Reliability for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    E). In consequence, a rational treatment of uncertainties is done in order to assess the reliability of critical details in OWTs. Limit state equations are formulated for fatigue critical details which are not influenced by wake effects generated in offshore wind farms. Furthermore, typical bi-linear S-N curves...... are considered for reliability verification according to international design standards of OWTs. System effects become important for each substructure with many potential fatigue hot spots. Therefore, in this paper a framework for system effects is presented. This information can be e.g. no detection of cracks...... in inspections or measurements from condition monitoring systems. Finally, an example is established to illustrate the practical application of this framework for jacket type wind turbine substructure considering system effects....

  19. Tratamento químico superficial e metalização de ABS, PVC e blendas de PVC/ABS

    Ana Paula Kurek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando à substituição do ABS em peças cromadas, amostras de PVC e blendas de PVC/ABS, na razão mássica de 20/80, 40/60 e 60/40, foram submetidas ao pré-tratamento em solução sulfocrômica sob diferentes condições de concentração, tempo e temperatura e sendo em seguida cromadas. As modificações na superfície das peças após o condicionamento foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, microscopia de força atômica e rugosidade. A qualidade da deposição metálica foi avaliada por inspeção visual e teste de adesão. Os resultados mostraram que, aumentando a concentração de PVC nas peças necessitou-se de condições operacionais mais agressivas, tais como maiores temperaturas de banho, tempo de imersão e concentração de solução sulfocrômica para que ocorresse a adesão da camada metálica. De todas as condições testadas com a solução condicionante sulfocrômica no tratamento das peças de PVC e blendas PVC/ABS de 20/80 e 40/60, a concentração de 350 g/L de ácido crômico e 400 g/L de ácido sulfúrico, temperatura de 70°C e tempo de imersão de 15 minutos, ocasionou deposição do metal em toda a superfície das peças, as quais foram aprovadas nos testes de adesão e corrosão.

  20. Tratamento das ulcerações traumáticas bucais causadas por aparelhos ortodônticos Treatment of the mouth traumatic ulcers caused by orthodontic appliances

    Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As lesões de aspecto ulcerado na mucosa bucal são um achado comum na clínica odontológica e geralmente são ocasionados por trauma mecânico devido a próteses mal adaptadas, aparelhos ortodônticos e dentes com coroas ou restaurações fraturadas. Contudo, os indivíduos nos quais a lesão persiste por mais de três semanas deverão ser submetidos à biopsia ou outros exames para excluir algumas lesões de caráter neoplásico ou outras condições, tais como as infecções crônicas e as doenças de caráter imunológico. Durante o tratamento ortodôntico, a dor e o desconforto da mucosa bucal podem acontecer como resultado do traumatismo mecânico dos aparelhos, ocasionado pela fricção aumentada entre o tecido da mucosa e a superfície dos braquetes. Atualmente, o ortodontista possui poucos recursos para prevenir ou aliviar esta irritação na mucosa. O objetivo deste artigo é orientar o ortodontista para o manejo mais adequado destas lesões visando o seu diagnóstico correto, o alívio dos sintomas que estas costumam provocar e o tratamento mais adequado para cada tipo de caso.Mouth ulcers are one of the most commom complaints in the dental clinic. They are, in general, caused for mechanic traumatism induced by non-fitted dentures, orthodontic appliances and fracturated crowns and fillings. Nevertheless, those lesions that have persisted for more than three weeks should be submitted to biopsy or other exams to exclude neoplasic, infectious or immunologic lesions. During the orthodontic treatment, pain and soreness of the oral mucosa can occur as the result of mechanic traumatism caused by increased friction between soft tissues and brackets. Nowadays, the professional owns few resources to prevention or relieve this irritation on the oral mucosa. The aim of this article is to guide the orthodontist to realize the correct diagnoses of the mouth ulcers, the relieve the symptoms and the exact treatment for each type of case.

  1. Tratamento nutricional da bulimia nervosa Nutritional therapy for bulimia nervosa

    Marle dos Santos Alvarenga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A bulimia nervosa é um transtorno alimentar caracterizado por compulsões alimentares e métodos compen-satórios recorrentes. Os pacientes apresentam ingestão alimentar inadequada e comportamentos alimentares disfuncionais. O adequado tratamento do transtorno requer uma equipe multiprofissional e terapia nutricional especializada. Compreender as características desse transtorno, os padrões de consumo e o comportamento alimentar, bem como atentar para as atitudes alimentares dos pacientes, é fundamental para o planejamento e para a adequada condução da abordagem nutricional. A terapia nutricional para esse transtorno é diferenciada, exigindo do nutricionista maiores habilidades de aconselhamento nutricional. Educação nutricional e acon-selhamento nutricional, com ênfase na abordagem de atitudes alimentares e insatisfação corporal, são o foco da terapia nutricional. Para o atendimento eficaz desses pacientes e o sucesso no tratamento nutricional, é importante que o profissional se mantenha atualizado sobre nutrição e transtornos alimentares e procure especialização e experiência nessa área do conhecimento.Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating and compensatory behaviors. The patients present inappropriate food intake and dysfunctional eating behaviors. Proper treatment of this disorder requires a multidisciplinary team and specialized nutrition therapy. It is fundamental to understand the characteristics of this disorder, the intake patterns and the eating behavior, and be attentive to the eating attitudes of these patients to plan and conduct a nutritional approach properly. The nutrition therapy for this disorder is specific and demands greater skillfulness in nutrition counseling from the dietician. Nutrition therapy focuses on nutrition education and nutrition counseling, mainly addressing eating attitudes and dissatisfaction with body image. The professional must keep abreast on nutrition and

  2. Tratamento cirúrgico da retinopatia diabética

    Nelson Alexandre Sabrosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A retinopatia diabética é a causa mais frequente de cegueira na população ativa nos países desenvolvidos. A prevalência da retinopatia diabética aumenta com a duração da diabetes, e praticamente 100% dos pacientes com diabetes tipo I (DM I e mais do que 60% dos pacientes com o tipo II (DM II apresentarão algum sinal de retinopatia após 20 anos. Além de um controle sistêmico rigoroso dos níveis glicêmicos, lipídicos, colesterol e da pressão arterial, o exame oftalmológico de rotina, com a identificação precoce da retinopatia diabética, podem detectar anormalidades em estágios primários, o que possibilita o tratamento ainda na fase inicial do problema; o uso adequado da fotocoagulação e a utilização da terapia antiangiogênica pode reduzir o número de pacientes com hemorragia vítrea ou descolamento tracional da retina. Infelizmente, em vários pacientes, a retinopatia progride mesmo com as melhores condutas tomadas pelo paciente e pelo oftalmologista, embora vários olhos podem se beneficiar com o tratamento cirúrgico, a vitrectomia posterior via pars plana. Esta revisão apresenta as indicações atuais para cirurgia vitreorretiniana em pacientes portadores de retinopatia diabética proliferativa.

  3. Tratamento Videolaparoscópico de Endometriomas Ovarianos

    Lopez Adriana C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os resultados do tratamento videolaparoscópico de 32 pacientes com endometrioma ovariano. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo que incluiu trinta e duas pacientes encaminhadas ao setor de Endoscopia Ginecológica do Serviço de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual "Francisco Morato de Oliveira" - São Paulo, as quais tinham diagnóstico clínico e ultra-sonográfico de endometrioma ovariano e foram tratadas por videolaparoscopia. Onze pacientes com endometriomas com diâmetro menor que 3 cm foram submetidas à drenagem do endometrioma e exérese da cápsula na primeira laparoscopia. Vinte e uma pacientes com endometriomas com diâmetros maior que 3 cm foram submetidas à drenagem do endometrioma e lavagem do cisto na primeira laparoscopia. A seguir, utilizaram análogo do GnRH por quatro meses (1 ampola mensal e então foram submetidas à segunda laparoscopia para retirada da cápsula do endometrioma. O exame histopatológico do material obtido na cirurgia foi realizado em todos os casos. Avaliou-se o resultado imediato do procedimento e a freqüência de recidivas. Resultados: não se registraram intercorrências cirúrgicas ou complicações pós-operatórias. Ocorreram três recidivas em um período de seis a doze meses, todas no grupo de 21 pacientes com endometriomas com o diâmetro maior que 3 cm. Conclusão: o tratamento videolaparoscópico dos endometriomas ovarianos com retirada da cápsula apresenta bons resultados e baixo índice de recidiva.

  4. Offshore wind transport and installation vessel

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The initial objective of the project was to complete a feasibility study to determine the viability of an innovative transportation vessel to be deployed in the installation of offshore wind farms. This included the feasibility of providing a stable-working platform that can be used in harsh offshore environments. A study of current installation contractors and their installation equipment was used to provide a preliminary specification for the installation vessel. A typical barge was selected and a number of hydrodynamic analyses were carried out in order to establish it's on course and operational stability. The analysis proved the stability of the vessel during operation was critical and that in order to utilise the crane's full potential a stabilisation system must be employed. The main aim of the work to date was to establish whether it was feasible to use a stabilisation system on the installation vessel. The spud leg FEED study established that it was feasible to use spud legs to stabilise the vessel. In order to achieve the degree of stability required it is necessary to lift the vessel completely out of the water. This was not the original aim of the study but due to the external loads on the hull it was the only viable option. Lifting the vessel out of the water results in the legs and leg casings becoming very large. This has a number of consequences for the final design. Due to large loads on the legs spud cans must be used to avoid bottom penetration, the spud cans increase the draft of the vessel by 2m. The large loads require larger winches and more reeving to be used, this results in larger pumps and motors, all of which have to be housed. The stabilisation system has been proved to be feasible for a large installation vessel, the cost and physical size are however more excessive than first anticipated. (Author)

  5. Beyond offshoring: assess your company's global potential.

    Farrell, Diana

    2004-12-01

    In the past few years, companies have become aware that they can slash costs by offshoring: moving jobs to lower-wage locations. But this practice is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of how globalization can transform industries, according to research by the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). The institute's yearlong study suggests that by streamlining their production processes and supply chains globally, rather than just nationally or regionally, companies can lower their costs-as we've seen in the consumer-electronics and PC industries. Companies can save as much as 70% of their total costs through globalization--50% from offshoring, 5% from training and business-task redesign, and 15% from process improvements. But they don't have to stop there. The cost reductions make it possible to lower prices and expand into new markets, attracting whole new classes of customers. To date, however, few businesses have recognized the full scope of performance improvements that globalization makes possible, much less developed sound strategies for capturing those opportunities. In this article, Diana Farrell, director of MGI, offers a step-by-step approach to doing both things. Among her suggestions: Assess where your industry falls along the globalization spectrum, because not all sectors of the economy face the same challenges and opportunities at the same time. Also, pay attention to production, regulatory, and organizational barriers to globalization. If any of these can be changed, size up the cost-saving (and revenue-generating) opportunities that will emerge for your company as a result of those changes. Farrell also defines the five stages of globalization-market entry, product specialization, value chain disaggregation, value chain reengineering, and the creation of new markets-and notes the different levers for cutting costs and creating value that companies can use in each phase.

  6. Transient LES of an offshore wind turbine

    L. Vollmer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the cost of energy of offshore wind farms has a high uncertainty, which is partly due to the lacking accuracy of information on wind conditions and wake losses inside of the farm. Wake models that aim to reduce the uncertainty by modeling the wake interaction of turbines for various wind conditions need to be validated with measurement data before they can be considered as a reliable estimator. In this paper a methodology that enables a direct comparison of modeled with measured flow data is evaluated. To create the simulation data, a model chain including a mesoscale model, a large-eddy-simulation (LES model and a wind turbine model is used. Different setups are compared to assess the capability of the method to reproduce the wind conditions at the hub height of current offshore wind turbines. The 2-day-long simulation of the ambient wind conditions and the wake simulation generally show good agreements with data from a met mast and lidar measurements, respectively. Wind fluctuations due to boundary layer turbulence and synoptic-scale motions are resolved with a lower representation of mesoscale fluctuations. Advanced metrics to describe the wake shape and development are derived from simulations and measurements but a quantitative comparison proves to be difficult due to the scarcity and the low sampling rate of the available measurement data. Due to the implementation of changing synoptic wind conditions in the LES, the methodology could also be beneficial for case studies of wind farm performance or wind farm control.

  7. Developments in offshore technology. Entwicklungen in der Offshoretechnik

    1981-01-01

    This book contains the summarized lectures held on the 8th of October, 1981 within the first status Seminar 'Offshore technology' which was organized by the Federal Minstry for Research and Technology. Contents are divided into: 1. Offshore-natural gas liquefaction, conveying systems. Offshore-tanker charging with supercold liquiefied gases; development of LNG-offshore - convayance systems; 2.) Development of components and installations in offshore structures: mooving-measuring- and monitoring systems for the installation of the EPOS deck; underwater-piling with a hydraulic-pile hammer; cast steel nodes for offshore-structures (material, calculation, design); 3.) underwater tools: the underwater-working system SUPRA; test results and experience with the unmanned UW-instrument-carrier FUGE; development of a mobile diver assistance vehicle for inspection and maintenance duties; 4.) underwater-pipeline-technique: flexible offshore-pipeline/continuous production and assembly, pipeline assembly at sea according to the J-Method with flash-welding technique; construction and testing of UWAG I (underwater working device) for embedding cables and pipes in the ocean soil.

  8. Quantifying the hurricane catastrophe risk to offshore wind power.

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Apt, Jay

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that over 50 GW of offshore wind power will be required for the United States to generate 20% of its electricity from wind. Developers are actively planning offshore wind farms along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and several leases have been signed for offshore sites. These planned projects are in areas that are sometimes struck by hurricanes. We present a method to estimate the catastrophe risk to offshore wind power using simulated hurricanes. Using this method, we estimate the fraction of offshore wind power simultaneously offline and the cumulative damage in a region. In Texas, the most vulnerable region we studied, 10% of offshore wind power could be offline simultaneously because of hurricane damage with a 100-year return period and 6% could be destroyed in any 10-year period. We also estimate the risks to single wind farms in four representative locations; we find the risks are significant but lower than those estimated in previously published results. Much of the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines can be mitigated by designing turbines for higher maximum wind speeds, ensuring that turbine nacelles can turn quickly to track the wind direction even when grid power is lost, and building in areas with lower risk. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Indian offshore wind energy policy - lessons from Europe

    Mani, S.; Dhingra, T. [Univ. of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Indian Economy is growing at 8% for the past few years and is expected to continue this momentum into the foreseeable future. To sustain this growth, power sector needs to build additional generation capacity at an unprecedented pace. However, continued dependence on fossil fuels (especially Coal and Oil) to power the growth of electricity generation capacity, is hardly sustainable in the long run. The reasons are well known - Environmental concerns, depleting fossil fuel resources, excessive dependency on Oil imports - that it hardly merits repetition. Renewable Energy source forms a miniscule portion (25 GW, {approx} 12%) of India's overall Energy consumption today (202 GW). The share of wind energy (17 GW) is 67% of the total renewable energy basket. But the contribution from offshore wind farms is non-existent, as all the wind energy generated in India is only through onshore Wind farms. India needs a policy framework to encourage the development of offshore wind farms. Several European countries, most notably the UK, Germany and Denmark, have effective offshore wind energy policies that have helped them to accelerate the growth of their offshore wind energy sector. This paper does an exhaustive study to identify the building blocks of a successful offshore wind energy policy initiative adopted by selected European countries, which can be leveraged by India to articulate its own offshore wind energy policy. This paper also suggests a model to predict the log-odds of growth of offshore wind energy sector in India. (Author)

  10. Prospects of the French offshore wind power market

    Anon.

    2011-12-01

    This market study about the French offshore wind power industry presents: 1 - the bases of the offshore wind power market: wind turbine operation principle, foundations and scale change; 2 - business model of offshore wind power projects: logistical, technical and financial challenges, cost structure and profitability of projects (investment, power generation costs, incentive mechanisms), project development time; 3 - European and French regulatory framework: the energy/climate package, the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' commitments for the development of renewable energies; 4 - start up of the French offshore wind power market: the onshore wind power market looking for growth relaying, the lateness of the offshore market, outlines of the call for bids and of the first phase launching (schedule, selected sites and candidates), market development stakes and opportunities; 5 - offshore wind power overview in Europe - lessons for the French market prospects: status of the European market (installed power/country, projects in progress), European leaders of the market (analysis of the British, Danish and German markets successful takeoff), specificities of the French market (are all favourable conditions present?); 6 - takeoff of the French market - what opportunities on the overall value chain?: front-end of the industry (manufacturers and component suppliers: industry structure, competition, R and D, subcontractors in France), back-end of the industry (developers/operators: sector analysis, ambitions, alliances, competences), specific French know-how in offshore installation and connection of wind turbines (reconversion of harbour areas, re-positioning of shipbuilding industry). (J.S.)

  11. The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector

    Markard, Jochen; Petersen, Regula

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the wind power sector has begun to move offshore, i.e. to use space and good wind speeds on the open sea for large scale electricity generation. Offshore wind power, however, is not just technologically challenging but also a capital intensive and risky business that requires particular financial and organizational resources not all potential investors might have. We therefore address the question, what impact offshore wind power may have on ownership and organizational structures in the wind power sector. We compare on- and offshore wind park ownership in Denmark, the UK and Germany. The analysis shows that offshore wind power in all three countries is dominated by large firms, many of which are from the electricity sector. In Denmark and the UK, also investors from the gas and oil industry play an important role in the offshore wind business. This development represents a major shift for countries such as Germany and Denmark, in which the wind power sector has grown and matured on the basis of investments by individuals, farmers, cooperatives and independent project developers. The structural changes by which offshore wind power is accompanied have consequences for turbine manufacturers, project developers, investors, associations and policy makers in the field.

  12. Wave and offshore wind potential for the island of Tenerife

    Veigas, M.; Iglesias, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The island aims to reduce its carbon footprint by developing renewable energy. • The substantial wave and offshore wind resources around the island are examined. • One area is appropriate for installing a hybrid wave–offshore wind farm. - Abstract: The island of Tenerife, a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Atlantic Ocean, aims to be energy self-sufficient in order to reduce its carbon footprint. To accomplish this goal it should develop the renewable sources, in particular wave and offshore wind energy. The objectives of this work are twofold; (i) to characterize the wave and offshore wind power distribution around the island and (ii) to determine which offshore area is best suited for their exploitation, taking into account the resource and other conditioning factors such as the bathymetry, distance to the coastline and ports, and offshore zoning. To carry out this research, hindcast wave and wind data obtained with numerical models are used alongside observations from meteorological stations. One area, in the vicinity of Puerto de la Cruz, is identified as having great potential for installing a hybrid floating wave–wind farm. Both resources are characterized for the area selected: the wave resource in terms of wave directions, significant wave heights and energy periods; the offshore wind resource in terms of directions and speeds in addition to the seasonality for the both resources. It is found that most of the wave resource is provided by N and NNW waves with significant wave heights between 1.5 m and 3.0 m and energy periods between 10 s and 14 s. It follows that the Wave Energy Converters deployed in the area should have maximum efficiency in those ranges. As for the offshore wind resource, most of the energy corresponds to NNE and NE winds with speeds between 9 and 14 m s −1 , which should be taken into account when selecting the offshore wind turbines

  13. Prática educativa com jovens usuários de crack visando a prevenção do HIV/AIDS

    Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar a intervenção educativa com jovens usuários de crack visando à prevenção do HIV/AIDS através da metodologia de Círculo de Cultura. Métodos: Pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, realizada em 2012 com 10 jovens usuários de crack atendidos em uma comunidade terapêutica de Fortaleza-CE. A coleta de informações incluiu: observação participante com diário de campo; registro fotográfico e filmagem; e, como produção do grupo, teatro de fantoches. Resultados: O Círculo de Cultura permitiu aos jovens desvelar as suas principais vulnerabilidades ao HIV/AIDS, como o compartilhamento de canudos e cachimbos no uso da cocaína/crack e a perda da consciência como influenciadora na diversidade de parceiros e no não uso do preservativo nas relações sexuais. Conclusão: A intervenção educativa criou possibilidades para a inserção do(a enfermeiro(a no cenário da comunidade terapêutica, a fim de fortalecer articulações em rede para o trabalho de prevenção ao HIV/AIDS entre usuários de crack.

  14. Síntese e caracterização de MIP com fenilalanina visando sua aplicação na técnica de SPE

    Layla Talita de Oliveira Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polímeros Molecularmente Impressos (MIPs são polímeros sintéticos que apresentam alta seletividade a uma molécula de interesse. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a síntese e caracterização de MIPs para aplicação na extração em fase sólida (SPE, visando a determinação de fenilalanina. Os MIPs foram sintetizados a partir do MAA, fenilalanina, EGDMA, AIBN, em clorofórmio. Também foi sintetizado o polímero não-impresso (NIP, para controle da seletividade dos MIPs. A dessorção da fenilalanina foi realizada em extrator Soxhlet. Os MIPs e NIP foram caracterizados pelas técnicas de análise: FTIR, UV-Vis, MEV, DSC e TG. O MIP apresentou maior capacidade adsortiva à fenilalanina do que o NIP, com uma taxa média de adsorção de 55% comparada a 11% para o NIP. Por MEV o MIP apresentou superfície mais porosa, importante característica para aplicação em SPE. Os estudos realizados mostraram que o MIP sintetizado apresentou grande potencial para aplicação em técnica de SPE.

  15. How Offshore Outsourcing Affects Costs and Value Creation

    Brandl, Kristin; Mol, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although academic and public interest in service offshoring has increased in recent years, research remains focused mainly on antecedents and benefits of activities, overlooking process aspects. For that reason, we take a process perspective when conceptualizing around offshore outsourcing...... affects costs and value creation in the respective stages. The reconceptualization enables us to provide a clearer and more fine-grained picture of the effects of offshoring and outsourcing decisions, thus helping to further develop our understanding of the reasoning to relocate services geographical...

  16. Offshoring in the Semiconductor Industry: A Historical Perspective

    Brown, Clair; Linden, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Semiconductor design is a frequently-cited example of the new wave of offshoring and foreign-outsourcing of service sector jobs. It is certainly a concern to U.S. design engineers themselves. In addition to the current wave of white-collar outsourcing, the industry also has a rich experience with offshoring of manufacturing activity. Semiconductor companies were among the first to invest in offshore facilities to manufacture goods for imports back to the U.S. A brief review of these...

  17. Interconnector capacity allocation in offshore grids with variable wind generation

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    the interconnector capacity should be allocated for wind generation and for international power trading. The main difficulty arises from the stochastic nature of wind generation: in a case with radial connections to the national coast, the wind park owner has the possibility of aggregating the offshore wind park....... It is concluded that treating offshore generation as a single price zone within the interconnector reduces the wind operator’s ability to pool it with other generation. Furthermore, a single offshore price zone between two markets will always receive the lower spot market price of the neighbouring zones, although...

  18. Risk assessment for ship collisions against offshore structures

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2014-01-01

    to changes in ship traffic in the vicinity of the offshore structures and new developments within navigational equipment and pro¬cedures. The paper highlights some of the available analytical elements in collision frequency estimation and response calculations for different types of offshore installations......Offshore installations served by in-field vessels and/or situated in the vicinity of ship traf¬fic lanes are exposed to collision hazards such as risk of loss of life, economic loss, and environmental damage. Therefore, one of the many performance goals in the design phase of such structures...... and indicates how these tools can be applied to evaluate relevant risk control options....

  19. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bailey, Bruce [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Filippelli, Matthew [AWS Trupower LLC, Albany, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  20. Revised guidance on reporting of offshore hydrocarbon releases

    1996-11-01

    The application offshore of the Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR 1995) has resulted in a new statutory reporting form. The definitions in RIDDOR 95 covering offshore hydrocarbon releases have been slightly revised, making it necessary to revise the guidance on reporting of offshore hydrocarbon releases. RIDDOR 1995 does not affect the existing voluntary arrangements for completion of forms. The receipt of correctly completed forms is important to ensure good output data from the database, and the guidance contained in this document is therefore aimed at assisting completion of the voluntary form. (UK)

  1. INORE: The International Network on Offshore Renewable Energy

    Martini, Michele; De Andrén, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The International Network on Offshore Renewable Energy (INORE) is a non-profit organization run by volunteers. INORE was born to support early stage researchers in the offshore renewable energy field. Today, INORE has more than 1200 members from more than 70 different countries. The aim of this organization is to facilitate networking and information exchange between young researchers and professionals. This is achieved by arranging symposia, workshops, networking events and issuing scholarships. Three main knowledge areas are currently within INORE’s dedication: sea wave energy, tidal current energy and offshore wind energy.

  2. Support schemes and market design in international offshore grids

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    International offshore grids can combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with the possibility for international power trading in the future. This paper investigates the choice of support scheme and power market design in international offshore grids and derives resulting incentives...... support. For a stable investment framework in the near future, a tendering/feed-in tariff may be the best choice. It avoids exposing wind farms to balancing with multiple countries. In the long run, also other support scheme options may be of interest....

  3. Availability evaluation of offshore wind energy networks within the Dutch power system

    Tuinema, B.W.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    In the future, a large-scale expansion of offshore wind energy is expected in the Netherlands. For this large-scale expansion, a well-designed offshore network is needed. Different network configurations will lead to other availability of the offshore network and therefore also the offshore wind

  4. Offshoring and access to location-specific advantages - the impact of governance mode and function

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    how access to particular offshoring advantages may provide this link. The results of a quantitative survey of more than 1000 Scandinavian firms show that certain offshoring factors (governance mode and type of offshored function) indeed impact the access a company acquires to certain offshoring...... advantages, which may explain the unpredictability of previous performance outcomes....

  5. Governance Models of R&D Offshoring: : Innovatoin Performance and Absorptive Capacity

    Steinberg, Philip; Procher, Vivien D.

    2015-01-01

    The globalization of business functions has led to an increase in offshoring of R&D. Firms’ offshoring models of R&D include captive offshoring (foreign R&D spending to affiliates) and offshore outsourcing (foreign R&D spending to external partners). For 2,421 R&D-active German enterprises we

  6. Some aspects of arctic offshore floating structures

    Lubbad, Raed Khalil

    2011-01-15

    The present work highlights some aspects related to the analyses of Arctic offshore floating structures. This thesis consists of five papers, which can be divided into two main categories. One category deals with the dynamics of slender structures with an emphasis on the prediction and suppression of vortex induced vibrations (VIV), and the other category examines the process of interaction between sloping structures and sea ice with focus on developing a numerical model to simulate this process in real time. Slender structures, such as mooring lines and marine risers, are very important for the offshore petroleum industry, which is currently approaching deeper waters. Increasingly, attention has been focused on predicting the susceptibility of these structures to VIV. In this thesis, two asymptotic techniques namely, the local analysis and the WKB methods, were used to derive closed-form solutions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of slender line-like structures. Both the top-tensioned nearly-vertical configuration and the catenary configuration were considered. The accuracy of the solutions derived was established through comparison with other analytic solution techniques and with results of numerical finite element solutions. The effects of the bending stiffness and the effects of approximating the tension variation as a linear function were discussed. Experimental data on the multi-modal in-line and cross-flow response behaviour of a towed catenary model were analysed to examine the usefulness of the solutions for predicting the response frequencies and envelopes due to VIV. Helical strakes are often used as a mitigating measure to suppress the VIV of slender structures. This thesis presented an innovative method to fit ropes helically to a riser in the installation phase. Such a procedure will help to overcome the handling problem associated with the use of conventional sharp-edged strakes. Experimental investigations were then performed to verify

  7. Improved Methodology of Weather Window Prediction for Offshore Operations Based on Probabilities of Operation Failure

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The offshore wind industry is building and planning new wind farms further offshore due to increasing demand on sustainable energy production and already occupied prime resource locations closer to shore. Costs of operation and maintenance, transport and installation of offshore wind turbines...... already contribute significantly to the cost of produced electricity and will continue to increase, due to moving further offshore, if the current techniques of predicting offshore wind farm accessibility are to stay the same. The majority of offshore operations are carried out by specialized ships...... that must be hired for the duration of the operation. Therefore, offshore wind farm accessibility and costs of offshore activities are primarily driven by the expected number of operational hours offshore and waiting times for weather windows, suitable for offshore operations. Having more reliable weather...

  8. Tratamento cirúrgico postergado da pancreatite aguda biliar

    Rodrigo Altenfelder Silva

    Full Text Available A análise do tratamento cirúrgico de doentes portadores de pancreatite biliar mostra a existência de controvérsias em relação à oportunidade da intervenção, principalmente se deve ser precoce ou postergada. Do mesmo modo, a possibilidade do emprego de procedimentos endoscópicos no pré, intra ou pós-operatório e o advento da videolaparoscopia, trouxeram novos aspectos à discussão. Não existe consenso sobre a escolha da melhor conduta. Em função disso, analisamos retrospectivamente os resultados imediatos de 107 doentes portadores de forma leve de pancreatite, todos com menos de três sinais de gravidade, segundo o critério de estratificação proposto por Ranson, e que foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico postergado na mesma internação, no período de janeiro de 1988 a maio de 1999, tanto por via convencional como por via laparoscópica. Desses, 80 doentes (75% eram do sexo feminino, 90% da raça branca e a média de idade foi de 46 anos. Os doentes foram operados em média após 9,5 dias de internação e receberam alta hospitalar após 2,9 dias, o que resultou numa permanência hospitalar média de 12,6 dias. A colangiografia intra-operatória foi realizada em 102 casos (96% e a colangiografia endoscópica pré-operatória em 24 doentes (22,4%. Os resultados mostraram incidência de coledocolitíase em 25 casos (23%, taxa de morbidade de 12% e mortalidade nula. Dos 107 casos estudados, 64 (60% foram operados pela via de acesso convencional e 43 (40% pela via laparoscópica. A comparação dos resultados entre as vias de acesso empregadas mostrou diferença estatística significante em relação ao intervalo de tempo pós-operatório, que foi menor nos doentes submetidos à via de acesso laparoscópica. Concluímos, assim, que o tratamento cirúrgico postergado de doentes portadores de pancreatite biliar na forma leve apresenta baixas morbidade e mortalidade e pode ser feito tanto pela via convencional como pela via

  9. Processes of India's offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability

    Kurian, N.; Lengaigne, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Vialard, J.; Pous, S.; Peter, A-C.; Durand, F.; Naik, Shweta

    study, we use an eddy-permitting 0.25 degrees regional ocean model to investigate mechanisms of this offshore intraseasonal SST variability. Modelled climatological mixed layer and upper thermocline depth are in very good agreement with estimates from...

  10. Weight Optimisation of Steel Monopile Foundations for Offshore Windfarms

    Fog Gjersøe, Nils; Bouvin Pedersen, Erik; Kristensen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The potential for mass reduction of monopiles in offshore windfarms using current design practice is investigated. Optimisation by sensitivity analysis is carried out for the following important parameters: wall thickness distribution between tower and monopile, soil stiffness, damping ratio...

  11. Human and organization factors: engineering operating safety into offshore structures

    Bea, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    History indicates clearly that the safety of offshore structures is determined primarily by the humans and organizations responsible for these structures during their design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. If the safety of offshore structures is to be preserved and improved, then attention of engineers should focus on to how to improve the reliability of the offshore structure 'system,' including the people that come into contact with the structure during its life-cycle. This article reviews and discusss concepts and engineering approaches that can be used in such efforts. Two specific human factor issues are addressed: (1) real-time management of safety during operations, and (2) development of a Safety Management Assessment System to help improve the safety of offshore structures

  12. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Offshore Sand Sources 2009

    California Natural Resource Agency — Offshore sand sources exist at four known locations and potentially other yet to be explored regions within the nearshore coastal shelf. Significant reserves of fine...

  13. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Offshore Sand Sources 2009

    California Department of Resources — Offshore sand sources exist at four known locations and potentially other yet to be explored regions within the nearshore coastal shelf. Significant reserves of fine...

  14. FIVE REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES OF CONSTRUCTING AN OFFSHORE CORPORATE STRUCTURE

    Ana-Maria GEAMÃNU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The offshore company, the emblem of the tax haven jurisdictions, is owned by non-residents and it conducts activities outside the island of incorporation in order to benefit from tax advantages. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comparative analysis on the trends of constructing the offshore corporate structures at the level of five regions where tax havens have been identified: The Caribbean Sea and Central America; Europe; Asia; The Indian Ocean and The Pacific Ocean. Based on the tax and corporate legislations the analysis is focused on the main tax advantages offered by these entities, the incorporation and administration procedures as well as the costs involved. The results have shown that pure offshore corporate legislation is to be found at the level of only three geographic areas: The Caribbean Sea and Central America; The Indian Ocean and The Pacific Ocean and the offshore law is predominantly international, with only fine regional differences.

  15. Offshore Wind Farm Research at the NWO Institutes

    J.A.S. Witteveen (Jeroen)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractFundamental scientific research is essential to take the necessary next step in offshore wind farm innovation. The NWO scientific research institutes play a central role in the Dutch knowledge infrastructure for disseminating scientific discoveries into industrial innovations. Multiple

  16. HVDC grids for offshore and supergrid of the future

    Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Liang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Presents the advantages, challenges, and technologies of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Grids This book discusses HVDC grids based on multi-terminal voltage-source converters (VSC), which is suitable for the connection of offshore wind farms and a possible solution for a continent wide overlay grid. HVDC Grids: For Offshore and Supergrid of the Future begins by introducing and analyzing the motivations and energy policy drives for developing offshore grids and the European Supergrid. HVDC transmission technology and offshore equipment are described in the second part of the book. The third part of the book discusses how HVDC grids can be developed and integrated in the existing power system. The fourth part of the book focuses on HVDC grid integration, in studies, for different time domains of electric power systems. The book concludes by discussing developments of advanced control methods and control devices for enabling DC grids.

  17. New Models for Maintenance of Offshore Wind Farms

    Petersen, Kristian R.

    component that was causing a large amount of downtime were identified. Further analysis with the Reliability-Centred Maintenance concept helped determine the most appropriate maintenance strategy. In the final perspective, long-term strategic decisions were the focus. Asset Management and especially Asset...... Life-Cycle Management were studied using a case study. The case study analysis was used to generate strategies to help managers perform maintenance more proactively and to prepare the management of the offshore wind farm turbines for the future. Existing literature on Asset Life-Cycle Management has......Operations and maintenance (O&M) processes are important for keeping offshore wind turbines in operation. Costs related to such activities constitute approximately 30% of the lifetime cost of an offshore wind farm project. Currently, the offshore wind energy industry has shown a rapid increase...

  18. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Recommended Development Path

    Koenke, Edmund

    1999-01-01

    ...) contracted with the System Resources Corporation (SRC) for the evaluation of the existing environment and the identification of user and service provider needs in the Gulf of Mexico low-altitude Offshore Sector...

  19. San Diego Littoral Cell CRSMP Potential Offshore Borrow Areas 2009

    California Natural Resource Agency — Offshore sediment sources along the entire reach of the San Diego Coastal RSM Plan region were previously identified by SANDAG and used for Regional Beach Sand...

  20. Powering oil and gas offshore operations from mainland eletrical grid

    Maeland, Asmund; Chokhawala, Rahul S.

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes principal power from shore (PFS) technologies available today, highlights their key attributes, and discusses cost-benefit aspects of these emerging solutions in comparison to decades of gas turbines generation offshore.

  1. System evaluation of offshore platforms with gas liquefaction processes

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; de Oliveira Júnior, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore for liqu......Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore...... improvements are discussed based on an energy and exergy analysis. Compared to a standard platform where gas is directly injected into the reservoir, the total power consumption increases by up to 50%, and the exergy destruction within the processing plant doubles when a liquefaction system is installed....... It is therefore essential to conduct a careful analysis of the trade-off between the capital costs and operating revenues for such options....

  2. Welding in hostile environment for nuclear and offshore industry

    Delauze, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews recent developments of duplex stainless steel and clad pipe welding and under water welding for offshore structures and for reactor fuel storage pool and remote automatic dry welding [fr

  3. Socio-economic Impacts—Offshore Activities/Energy

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Drews, Martin; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2016-01-01

    sector and renewable electricity generation—mainly from offshore wind—is increasing. Energy and offshore activities in the North Sea are critically vulnerable to climate change along the full supply chain. The major vulnerabilities for offshore installations like rigs, offshore wind energy and pipelines......, it is highly uncertain how much the future potential of other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, terrestrial biomass, or emerging technologies like wave, tidal or marine biomass could be positively or negatively affected. Due to the different national energy supply mixes the vulnerability to climate......-related impacts will vary among North Sea countries. To ensure safe and reliable future operations comprehensive and systematic risk assessments are therefore needed which account for, for example, the high integration of power systems in the region....

  4. Modern earthquake engineering offshore and land-based structures

    Jia, Junbo

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses applications of earthquake engineering for both offshore and land-based structures. It is self-contained as a reference work and covers a wide range of topics, including topics related to engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, structural engineering, as well as special contents dedicated to design philosophy, determination of ground motions, shock waves, tsunamis, earthquake damage, seismic response of offshore and arctic structures, spatial varied ground motions, simplified and advanced seismic analysis methods, sudden subsidence of offshore platforms, tank liquid impacts during earthquakes, seismic resistance of non-structural elements, and various types of mitigation measures, etc. The target readership includes professionals in offshore and civil engineering, officials and regulators, as well as researchers and students in this field.

  5. A importância do planejamento, tratamento informacional e divulgação de acervos especiais: o caso do setor de coleções especiais da biblioteca central da UFES

    Jorge Santa Anna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisa o contexto situacional da seção de Coleções Especiais da Biblioteca Central da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, tendo como objetivo principal demonstrar a necessidade de planejamento, organização e divulgação do referido setor, visando sua melhor utilidade e aproveitamento pela comunidade usuária. Metodologicamente, foram realizadas visitas, investigações e entrevistas junto aos profissionais atuantes naquele espaço. Concluiu-se que, a formação e o tratamento informacional do acervo têm se constituído de forma efetiva, porém, a utilização das técnicas e metodologias administrativas, no que se refere à divulgação do espaço e a consequente utilização do acervo pela sociedade tem sido realizada de forma inglória, o que desperta a necessidade de intervenção para possíveis mudanças com vistas a divulgar as funcionalidades do espaço.

  6. Consenso sobre o tratamento da dependência de nicotina

    Marques Ana Cecilia P R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Têm sido atribuídas à dependência de nicotina 20% das mortes nos EUA. Estudos têm mostrado que 30% a 50% das pessoas que começam a fumar escalam para um uso problemático. Nos últimos 20 anos, a educação e a persuasão não foram suficientes para promover uma mudança política, cultural e social relacionada ao comportamento de fumar. As intervenções para interromper o uso de tabaco ainda não estão integradas às rotinas dos serviços de saúde no mundo. A falta de estratégias de integração, de tempo disponível para acoplar ações assistenciais mais específicas e mesmo a percepção dos profissionais de saúde de que os tratamentos para a dependência de nicotina são pouco efetivos são algumas das barreiras apontadas. Assim, elaborar um consenso sobre a dependência de nicotina teve como objetivos: ? levantar dados epidemiológicos relevantes relacionados ao uso do tabaco no mundo e no Brasil; ? revisar as ações gerais e centrais da nicotina; ? elaborar um protocolo de triagem mínimo para serviços de atenção primária à saúde; ? recomendar diretrizes básicas de avaliação, diagnóstico e tratamento para todos os níveis de atenção à saúde em relação à dependência de nicotina; ? fornecer sugestões para a abordagem de grupos especiais de pacientes: adolescentes, gestantes, idosos, pacientes em regime de internação, obesos e pacientes com comorbidades psiquiátricas, cardiovasculares e respiratórias.

  7. Nearshore Versus Offshore: Comparative Cost and Competitive Advantages

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hevia Koch, Pablo Alejandro; Wolter, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Currently there exist high expectations for the development of wind energy, particularly in Europe, out of which offshore wind turbine developments will be central as tools to achieve current energy targets. The choice between nearshore and (far)-offshore is particularly relevant, both because of...... of increased public resistance due to visual disamenities produced by nearshore projects, and because of the potential cost reduction benefits attained by building wind farms closer to the shore....

  8. A Simple Model of Offshore Outsourcing, Technology Upgrading and Welfare

    Jung , Jaewon; Mercenier , Jean

    2009-01-01

    We adapt Yeaple's (2005) heterogeneous agents framework to model firms in the North as making explicit offshore outsourcing decisions to cheap-labor economies. Globalization results from a lowering of the set-up costs incurred when engaging in offshore activities. We highlight how firms'technology transformations due to global- ization will induce skill upgrading in the North, increase aggregate productivity, av- erage wages and therefore total welfare at the cost of increased wage inequaliti...

  9. Offshore jurisdictions, controversial topic of the modern business world

    Roxana-Daniela PĂUN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present synthetically the off-shore jurisdiction issues in the context of the globalisation of our lives and automatically of the business world facing new issues and challenges regarding the business in the international area, starting from defining elements and approaching some of the practical challenges offered by the widespread use of such offshore jurisdictions known as “tax havens”.

  10. 2014–2015 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report

    Aaron Smith, Tyler Stehly, Walt Musial

    2015-09-30

    This report provides data and analysis to assess the status of the U.S. offshore wind industry through June 30, 2015. It builds on the foundation laid by the Navigant Consortium, which produced three market reports between 2012 and 2014. The report summarizes domestic and global market developments, technology trends, and economic data to help U.S. offshore wind industry stakeholders, including policymakers, regulators, developers, financiers, and supply chain participants, to identify barriers and opportunities.

  11. Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind

    Panzer, Christian; Auer, Hans; Lettner, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Efficient promotion of electricity production from offshore wind stands in dynamic relationship with various influence factors, the most important of which are promotion instruments, topographic givens, regulation of grid connection, and supraregional market integration concepts. Using three case studies from different countries to highlight national differences in the promotion of offshore wind power plants the present analysis points out ways of improving the efficiency of promotion instruments.

  12. Tratamento cirúrgico do câncer colorretal: resultados a longo prazo e análise da qualidade Surgical treatment of colorectal cancer: long term results and quality control

    Mauro de Souza Leite Pinho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de resultados cada vez melhores no tratamento do câncer colorretal apresenta-se hoje como um desafio devido à sua crescente prevalência em todo o mundo. Diversos estudos têm demonstrado que a qualidade do tratamento cirúrgico instituído representa um dos principais fatores prognósticos, podendo ser esta avaliada através de aspectos como mortalidade operatória, preservação esfincteriana, recorrência local e sobrevida. O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar os resultados obtidos a longo prazo no tratamento cirúrgico do câncer colorretal pelo Grupo de Coloproctologia do Departamento de Cirurgia do Hospital Municipal São José, em Joinville, e confrontá-los com a literatura a respeito, visando obter uma avaliação crítica da qualidade do tratamento instituído. Foi realizada uma análise prospectiva de uma série consecutiva de 97 pacientes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico do câncer colorretal, com perspectivas curativas e tempo de seguimento médio de 80,8 meses. Foi observada mortalidade operatória em seis pacientes (6,1%, recidiva local para câncer retal e colônico em seis (12,5% e quatro (9,7% pacientes, respectivamente, e a necessidade de realização de colostomia definitiva no câncer retal em 14 casos (27%. A sobrevida geral média foi de 48,9 meses. A sobrevida geral de cinco anos para o seguimento oncológico (n=63 foi de 52%, sendo 89% para pacientes estágio 1, 70% para pacientes estágio 2 e 20% para pacientes estágio 3. Concluímos que o tratamento instituído encontra-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis do ponto de vista da literatura, demonstrando, no entanto, a necessidade de aprimoramento em alguns aspectos específicos.Improvement of results in treatment of colorectal cancer remains a major challenge due to its increasing worldwide prevalence. Several studies have demonstrated the quality of surgical treatment as one of the most important prognostic factors, assessed by parameters such

  13. The EU Offshore Safety Directive and its potential effects. Opportunity or handicap?; Die EU Offshore Safety Directive und ihre moeglichen Auswirkungen. Chance oder Handicap?

    Schwiederowski, Claudia [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the EU Offshore Safety Directive, which took effect on 18 July 2013, is to define minimum requirements for the prevention of severe accidents in connection with offshore crude oil or natural gas activities of any kind and the containment of the follow-on effects of such accidents. This is without question a logical consequence of the offshore incidents seen around the globe over the past decades. An interesting question in this context is for whom the EU Offshore Safety Directive has become an opportunity and for whom a handicap. [German] Ziel der am 18. Juli 2013 in Kraft getretenen EU Offshore Safety Direktive ist die Festlegung von Mindestanforderungen fuer die Verhinderung schwerer Unfaelle bei Offshore-Erdoel- bzw. - Erdgasaktivitaeten und die Begrenzung etwaiger Unfallfolgen. Nach den weltweiten Offshore- Ereignissen der vergangenen Jahrzehnte ist dies ohne Zweifel eine logische Entwicklung. Nun stellt sich die Frage: Fuer wen entwickelt sich die EU Offshore Safety Directive zur Chance, fuer wen zum Handicap?.

  14. Western Newfoundland and Labrador offshore area strategic environmental assessment amendment

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board issued a call for bids in May 2007 that included a piece of land in offshore western Newfoundland. This report presented an amendment to the 2005 western Newfoundland and Labrador offshore strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in order to extend the coverage of the previous piece of land and included additional lands southwest of the original SEA prepared in 2005. This report presented the objectives and purpose of the SEA amendment and the history of oil and gas activities in western Newfoundland and Labrador offshore area. It discussed the biological environment in terms of plankton; benthic invertebrates; fish and fisheries; marine-associated birds; marine mammals and sea turtles; species at risk; and potentially sensitive areas. Environmental effects of exploration and production activities were discussed in terms of sound; routine exploratory/delineation drilling and production activities; accidental events; and cumulative effects. Last, the report presented the conclusions including potential issues, data gaps, and planning considerations. It was concluded that petroleum exploration activity generally can proceed in the amendment area with the application of standard mitigation measures currently applied to offshore exploratory activities elsewhere in the Newfoundland offshore. 90 refs., 8 tabs., 18 figs., 1 appendix.

  15. Western Newfoundland and Labrador offshore area strategic environmental assessment amendment

    2007-11-01

    The Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board issued a call for bids in May 2007 that included a piece of land in offshore western Newfoundland. This report presented an amendment to the 2005 western Newfoundland and Labrador offshore strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in order to extend the coverage of the previous piece of land and included additional lands southwest of the original SEA prepared in 2005. This report presented the objectives and purpose of the SEA amendment and the history of oil and gas activities in western Newfoundland and Labrador offshore area. It discussed the biological environment in terms of plankton; benthic invertebrates; fish and fisheries; marine-associated birds; marine mammals and sea turtles; species at risk; and potentially sensitive areas. Environmental effects of exploration and production activities were discussed in terms of sound; routine exploratory/delineation drilling and production activities; accidental events; and cumulative effects. Last, the report presented the conclusions including potential issues, data gaps, and planning considerations. It was concluded that petroleum exploration activity generally can proceed in the amendment area with the application of standard mitigation measures currently applied to offshore exploratory activities elsewhere in the Newfoundland offshore. 90 refs., 8 tabs., 18 figs., 1 appendix

  16. Conceptual Model of Offshore Wind Environmental Risk Evaluation System

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Hamilton, Erin L.

    2010-06-01

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of offshore wind energy generation projects. The development of ERES for offshore wind is closely allied to a concurrent process undertaken to examine environmental effects of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy generation, although specific risk-relevant attributes will differ between the MHK and offshore wind domains. During FY10, a conceptual design of ERES for offshore wind will be developed. The offshore wind ERES mockup described in this report will provide a preview of the functionality of a fully developed risk evaluation system that will use risk assessment techniques to determine priority stressors on aquatic organisms and environments from specific technology aspects, identify key uncertainties underlying high-risk issues, compile a wide-range of data types in an innovative and flexible data organizing scheme, and inform planning and decision processes with a transparent and technically robust decision-support tool. A fully functional version of ERES for offshore wind will be developed in a subsequent phase of the project.

  17. A GLANCE AT OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE FOUNDATION STRUCTURES

    Jianhua Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy poverty and climate change are crucial issues we face in our societies. Offshore wind energy has been a reliable solution to both of these problems - solving our growing energy problems while reducing CO2 emission. Innovative foundation design is one of the setbacks faced by this industry. Designing and constructing a cost effective offshore wind farm is greatly hampered by technical and infrastructural challenges, especially in foundation structures. This paper provides a detailed overview of issues related to this problem, with the aim of eliminating the frequent misunderstandings which can arise among engineers and investors working in the offshore wind energy sector. It begins by investigating the latest data and recommendations regarding the design and deployment of various kinds of offshore wind turbine (OWT foundations. It provides a framework which enables us to study the different OWT foundations, including prototypes and their limitations. Various structural failure modes are highlighted and corrosion measures are presented. Moreover, various removal methods of support structures are put forward. Finally, this paper presents the setbacks preventing the spread of offshore wind energy and the future works for offshore wind energy applications.

  18. Canadian East Coast offshore petroleum industry safe lifting practices respecting offshore pedestal cranes, offshore containers, loose gear, other lifting devices, and operational best practices : standard practices

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This document was developed by a working group with representatives from the petroleum industry, the Offshore Petroleum Boards and Certifying Authorities. It outlines industry best practices for operators responsible for the management, planning and execution of offshore lifting operations. Its purpose is to assist in the interpretation of applicable legislation and standards. Considered within the practice are safe design requirements, manufacture, certification, testing, maintenance and inspection requirements for pedestal cranes, offshore containers, loose gear and lifting devices. Operational best practices for lifting operations are also included along with a section that identifies additional requirements for personnel lifting operations, including personnel transfers by crane and man-riding operations. 82 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  19. Nearshore and offshore environmental effects monitoring at the Sable Offshore Energy project

    Hurley, G. V.

    2000-01-01

    A monitoring program to determine whether any temporary or permanent environmental perturbations may be attributable to the Sable offshore gas pipeline project as it approaches landfall at Goldboro through an outer bay is discussed, This nearshore region is an active fishing region for the residents of Goldboro, hence the concern about possible contamination. The monitoring project began with a baseline study, followed by monitoring the construction and the recovery period following construction, to ensure that any persistent changes to the nearshore aquatic environment were documented. The monitoring study included representatives of the fishing community to ensure that concerns are addressed early and on a continuing basis. At various phases of the project water properties,sediment modelling, the effects of construction on sea bottom conditions, benthic biota and cultivated mussels, water quality, phytoplankton, and resuspension of toxic cysts, terns and other seabirds were studied. Monitoring programs were also established for sea urchins and mussels, two important commercial species. Commercial-sized sea urchins showed a decrease of 60 per cent between 1998 and 1999 (i.e. the construction period). Recovery of sea urchin population in the immediate trench region will be the special focus of the post-construction monitoring phase. Mussel spat settlement and mussel tissue condition, lobster trapping, water properties, and bird behaviour showed no measurable changes during construction monitoring. In addition to these studies there is an ongoing offshore monitoring program in effect by Sable Offshore Energy Inc., put in place as a condition of approval of its Development Plan by the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board. This program monitors attributes such as water quality, suspended particulate matter in the benthic boundary layer, sediment quality, the benthic habitat and megafaunal community, shellfish body burden and taint, marine mammals and seabirds

  20. Fine Slicing of the Value Chain and Offshoring of Essential Activities

    Linares-Navarro, Esmeralda; Pedersen, Torben; Pla-Barber, José

    2014-01-01

    The offshoring of more advanced activities is increasing and a debate about the limits of offshoring has emerged. Companies are fine-slicing their value chains, and moving beyond the offshoring of peripheral and non-core activities to the offshoring of advanced and essential activities that are c......The offshoring of more advanced activities is increasing and a debate about the limits of offshoring has emerged. Companies are fine-slicing their value chains, and moving beyond the offshoring of peripheral and non-core activities to the offshoring of advanced and essential activities...... that companies are redefining their core activities and in this process, some essential activities previously viewed as core activities are being detached from the core, and they become more offshorable. The study uses a sample of 565 offshoring operations conducted by 263 multinational companies from 15...... European countries. A logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the activities offshored (non-core versus essential activities) and the offshoring mode implemented (captive offshoring versus offshore outsourcing). We find that essential activities are typically offshored using...

  1. Power Transmission from Large Offshore Wind Farms

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1999-01-01

    The major part of the coming wind farms in Denmark will be placed offshore. If the location is near a grid with a high short circuit level the power can be transmitted as AC.If the wind farm is far away from the grid and the grid perhaps has a low short circuit level, the best solution...... for transmitting the power can be by DC. At the moment it is possible to build self-commutating DC/AC-inverters up to about 150 kV. This paper will show a concept to a solution for a wind farm and a transmission system based on synchronous generators or a powerformer® with a rated voltage of 50 kV. The AC power...... will be rectified and boosted to a fixed DC voltage (e.g. 100 kV). The speed of the generator will be variable, depending of the wind but also controlled with the duty-cycle of the booster. In that way all wind turbines can be connected to the same DC bus and the cable to the inverter station connected to the AC...

  2. Iran atlas of offshore renewable energies

    Abbaspour, M.; Rahimi, R. [Sharif University of Technology, School of Mechanical engineering, Azadi Ave., Tehran (Iran)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the present study is to provide an Atlas of IRAN Offshore Renewable Energy Resources (hereafter called 'the Atlas') to map out wave and tidal resources at a national scale, extending over the area of the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman. Such an Atlas can provide necessary tools to identify the areas with greatest resource potential and within reach of present technology development. To estimate available tidal energy resources at the site, a two-dimensional tidally driven hydrodynamic numerical model of Persian Gulf was developed using the hydrodynamic model in the MIKE 21 Flow Model (MIKE 21HD), with validation using tidal elevation measurements and tidal stream diamonds from Admiralty charts. The results of the model were used to produce a time series of the tidal stream velocity over the simulation period. Moreover, to assess the potential of the wave energy in this site, a model was developed based on six-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (ISWM-Iranian Sea Wave Model) covering the period 1992-2003. To ensure the information provided to the Atlas is managed and maintained most effectively, all the derived marine resource parameters have been captured in a structured database, within a Geographical Information System (GIS), so enabling effective data management, presentation and interrogation. (author)

  3. Denmark - supplier of competitive offshore wind solutions. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind research, development and demonstration

    2010-12-15

    In May 2006, the Danish Government presented a report on promoting environmentally effective technology and established a number of innovative partnerships. The partnerships intend to strengthen public-private cooperation between the state, industry, universities and venture capital to accelerate innovation for a number of green technologies. The partnership for wind energy is called Megavind. Megavind's strategy for offshore wind describes the offshore challenges and suggests research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities to enable offshore wind power become to competitive with other energy technologies. The strategy lists key recommendations as well as key thematic priorities and for each of these a number of RD and D priorities. Under each thematic priority references are made to the European Strategic Energy Technology plan (SET-plan), which prioritises offshore wind RD and D in Europe. (LN)

  4. Desenvolvimento de compósitos poliméricos baseados em polipropileno reciclado visando o uso como placas absorvedoras de energia solar

    Leonardo Azevedo Massulo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crescente demanda por energias sustentáveis, gestão de resíduos e o uso de materiais recicláveis, o presente trabalho objetivou o desenvolvimento de compósitos poliméricos de matriz de polipropileno reciclado visando o uso como placas absorvedoras de energia solar. Nessa matriz polimérica adicionou-se como fase dispersa um resíduo do tabaco (pó de fumo empregando teores de 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% e 30%, em massa. Além disso, estudou-se a adição de negro de fumo junto ao pó de fumo, utilizando teores de 6% e 10% de cada fase dispersa. As formulações foram misturadas em homogeneizador de laboratório, moídas em moinhos de facas e processadas por moldagem por compressão a 180°C, obtendo-se placas com dimensões de 400x400mm e espessura de 4 mm, as quais, foram caracterizadas e avaliadas em testes de absorção de calor, tração, flexão, dureza e densidade. Os resultados indicaram potencial de aplicação no sistema de aquecimento solar de água devido aos resultados de absorção térmica. Também, a utilização do negro de fumo como fase dispersa mostrou-se uma grande contribuição para as características mecânicas do material. Outro importante resultado diz respeito a possibilidade de se estar usando um polímero reciclado e um resíduo industrial gerado em grande quantidade, tal como é o pó de fumo, na produção das placas caracterizando assim um ganho ambiental.

  5. PROCTOSSIGMOIDECTOMIA VIA PERINEAL NO TRATAMENTO DO PROLAPSO RETAL

    Bueno R. N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A técnica cirúrgica mais utilizada no tratamento do prolapso retal é a sacropromontofixação do reto por via abdominal, porém nos últimos anos a proctossigmoidectomia via perineal tem sido retomada como alternativa para pacientes idosos com comorbidades. Revisamos 14 casos operados pela proctossigmoidectomia via perineal (cirurgia de Altemeier, sendo 13 mulheres e 1 homem. Destes pacientes havia 50% de obstipados, 14,2% tinham diarréia crônica e 64,2% eram previamente incontinentes. Idade média de 72,2 anos, 64,2 % com anastomose manual e 35,8% mecânica, além de 42,9% com reparo anal posterior no mesmo tempo operatório. O tempo médio de internação foi de 3,8 dias, não houve complicações imediatas ou precoces e apenas ocorreu recidiva em 01 paciente, 7,1%. Pelos bons resultados, baixa morbi-mortalidade e recidiva aceitável e de acordo com a literatura nos encorajamos à utilização desta técnica para correção do prolapso retal .

  6. Tratamento clínico da epilepsia resistente

    Benito Pereira Damasceno

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 34 casos de epilepsia de difícil controle, encaminhados ao Grupo de Trabalho de Epilepsia (GTE do Instituto de Neurologia de Goiânia de 1984 a 1986. Todos eram submetidos a reavaliação neurológica. Vinte e três dos 34 pacientes tinham crises parciais complexas. A maioria foi tratada com carbamazepina, difenil-hidantoína e ácido valpróico, em forma monoterápica ou associada entre si. Obteve-se redução de mais de 80% da freqüência das crises em 22 pacientes (64,7%, além de leve melhora da qualidade de vida. Os autores concluem sobre as vantagens de uma equipe especializada, multidisciplinar, na abordagem da epilepsia rebelde e ressaltam a necessidade de: a. um correto diagnóstico das crises, seguido do uso da medicação apropriada, por tempo suficiente (mínimo de 0 meses e em dose adequada (até a dose máxima tolerável, abandonando-a só depois do controle de sua concentração sérica; b. um bom engajamento do paciente e de sua família no tratamento.

  7. IFREMER-ADEME colloquium 'Offshore renewable energies: offshore wind energy - sea currents and waves. Collection of abstracts

    2004-10-01

    This document contains programme and abstracts of contributions presented during a colloquium. These contributions first addresses the context, and regulatory and economic aspects of offshore wind and sea energy: specificities related to the Public Maritime Domain for the implantation of offshore wind turbines, economy of sea energies within a perspective of de-carbonation of the world energy sector, case of offshore wind turbines and assessment of economic impacts of the implantation of sea renewable energy production units, financing stakes for offshore wind energy projects. A second set of contribution addresses the state-of -the-art and feedbacks for offshore wind energy installations. The third set addresses the assessment of resource potential, measurements, models and production prediction for offshore wind energy: case of French coasts, use of radar for remote sensing, wind climatology modelling, data acquisition for wind farm and data processing. The fourth set of contributions addresses the state-of-the-art, feedback, and R and D for sea current energy, while the fifth one addressed the same aspects for sea wave energy. Technology, installations, maintenance and storage in the field of wind energy are then addressed, and the last set deals with environmental and social-economical impacts of sea renewable energies

  8. Proceedings of the ENDOW workshop 'Offshore wakes: Measurements and modelling[Efficient Development of Offshore Windfarms

    Barthelmie, R.J. (ed.)

    2002-03-01

    The papers presented in these Proceedings are the result of a workshop held at Risoe National Laboratory on March 7 and 8 2002 entitled 'Offshore Wakes: Measurements and Modelling'. The Workshop was arranged to showcase results of the European Community supported project 'Efficient Development of Offshore Windfarms (ENDOW)' and featured a series of eight presentations discussing modelling of wakes and boundary layers, existing and new measurements from offshore wind farms and how these will be linked in a new design tool and applied at planned offshore wind farms. In addition seven invited presentations covered a range of relevant topics from analytical approaches to fatigue and extreme loads in wind turbine clusters, current wake modelling in WAsP, optimising power production at Arklow Bank, Particle Image Velocimetry study of a wind turbine wake in a yaw, offshore wind measurements in Massachusetts, accuracy of SODAR measurements for wind energy and tidal influence of offshore wind speeds and turbulence. (au)

  9. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development

  10. Evaluation of potential antagonistism in yeasts, seeking biocontrol of spoilage by Penicillium expansumAvaliação do potencial antagônico de leveduras, visando biocontrole de deterioração por Penicillium expansum

    Kei-ichi Harada

    2011-12-01

    polpa, produz a patulina, micotoxina teratogênica e cancerígena. Entre as alternativas ao tradicional tratamento químico de doenças pós-colheita de frutos, enfoca-se o biocontrole por leveduras antagonistas, com ênfase em linhagens killer, em função da baixa possibilidade de resíduos tóxicos e com ampla inocuidade demonstrada nos processos fermentativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o potencial antagônico de leveduras no controle de P. expansum, mediante antifungigrama em meio sólido e líquido. Do total de 44 leveduras isoladas (16 de frutas, 10 de silagem de milho e 18 de formigueiro de laboratório, 20 apresentaram antagonismo perante esporos de P. expansum em ágar Meio Para Levedura, sendo Debaryomyces hansenii C1 responsável por maior atividade associada à competição por nutrientes (zona de inibição de 31 mm e D. hansenii C7 por antibiose/hiperparasitismo (15 mm. Entretanto, o ensaio realizado com o sobrenadante de cultivo reduziu o número de cepas ativas em cinco, sendo Pichia ohmeri 158 e Candida guilliermondii P3 as de maior atividade antagônica. No antifungigrama em meio líquido (caldo MPL o sobrenadante do cultivo de C. guilliermondii (25ºC/72 horas inibiu 58,15% da germinação dos esporos de P. expansum e P. ohmeri (25ºC/48 horas inibiu o desenvolvimento de hifas em 66,17%. A atividade do meio extracelular baseado em antibiose sugeriu mecanismo associado ao caráter killer, uma vez que ambas as leveduras foram positivas perante as linhagens padrão S. cerevisiae NCYC 1006 e P. kluyveri CAY-15. A diferença entre os sobrenadantes obtidos do cultivo destas leveduras isoladamente e em interação com o fungo teste, visando estímulo adicional na produção de substância antifúngica, não foi significativa (P > 0,05. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a aplicação de leveduras antagonistas constitui ferramenta promissora no controle biológico de P. expansum em pós-colheita de maçã.

  11. Utilização do farelo de soja centrifugado visando à produção do superprecoce Utilization of centrifugeted soybean meal for feeding of calves in feedlot

    Mikael Neumann

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar a utilização do farelo de soja centrifugado (FSC como substituto ao farelo de soja (FS na fração concentrada da dieta de bezerros de corte em confinamento, sendo testados os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - 100% de FS; T2 - 66% de FS + 34% de FSC; T3 - 34% de FS + 66% de FSC; e T4 - 100% de FSC. Foram utilizados 36 bezerros machos da raça Braford, com idade média de sete meses e peso vivo médio inicial de 202kg. O confinamento compreendeu 168 dias de avaliação, sendo dividido em quatro períodos de 42 dias cada. A relação volumoso:concentrado foi de 60:40 para o 1° e 2° períodos, de 50:50 para o 3° período e de 45:55 para o 4° período. Não houve interação (P>0,05 entre nível de substituição da fonte protéica e período de avaliação em confinamento para os parâmetros relativos aos consumos diários de matéria seca (CMS, proteína bruta (CPB e energia digestível (CED, respectivamente, expressos em kg animal-1 (CMSD e CPBD ou Mcal/animal (CEDD, por 100kg de peso vivo (CMSP, CPBP e CEDP e por unidade de tamanho metabólico (CMSM, CPBM e CEDM, ao ganho de peso médio diário (GMD e a eficiência da transformação da matéria seca consumida (CA e da proteína bruta consumida (EPB em ganho de peso. A utilização de farelo de soja centrifugado como fonte protéica em substituição parcial ou integral ao farelo de soja na fração concentrada da dieta alimentar de bezerros de corte, visando à produção do superprecoce, não comprometeu (P>0,05 o consumo de alimentos, o ganho de peso médio diário e a eficiência da transformação da matéria seca consumida e da proteína bruta consumida em ganho de peso.The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the use of soybean meal centrifugeted (SMC as substitution for soybean meal (SM in the concentrate fraction of the diet of confined steer calves, being tested the following treatments: T1 - 100% of SM; T2 - 66% of SM + 34

  12. Alliance contract for offshore EPC projects; Acordos de alianca em projetos EPC para instalacoes offshore

    Barbosa, Sergio Gil Sias; Barbosa, Fernando Sampaio [Odebrecht S.A. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper has the objective of divulgation of the Alliance Agreements concepts in Brazil and to promote its practice amongst organizations with complimentary competencies for the execution of EPC offshore projects. These alliances were first adopted in the 80's as part of the outsourcing process in the industry in general and were adapted to suit EPC offshore projects on the North Sea in the 90's, to render feasible some projects that presented high level of prices and risks. The contractual modality of Alliance Agreements is characterized by an integrated project team composed by the best professionals of the client and the contractor. This team is responsible for the engineering, planning, estimation and risk analysis, matching both client's and contractor's viewpoints and needs, focusing on constructability, suitability for the purpose and cost effectiveness, aiming at having a project realized cost closer to the feasibility studies and creating a 'Win Win' type relationship for all partners involved. (author)

  13. ESTUDO DA PAPILOMATOSE CUTÂNEA EM BOVINOS LEITEIROS: COMPARAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES TRATAMENTOS

    Luiz Augusto Batista Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliação dos tratamentos empregados no controle da papilomatose cutânea bovina em rebanhos leiteiros, utilizando-se 120 animais, de diferentes propriedades, próximas ao município de Goiânia, Goiás. Os animais foram divididos em seis grupos de 20 bovinos, e cinco grupos deles submetidos a diferentes tratamentos, com um grupo controle, portanto. Utilizaram-se como tratamentos a auto-hemoterapia, o clorobutanol, a diaminazina, o levamisole e a autovacina, e todos os grupos foram tratados com um intervalo de sete dias entre as aplicações, consecutivamente, durante quatro semanas. Procedeu-se à avaliação pela análise de variância, pelo teste Qui-quadrado e de Fisher.Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferença significativa quando usados em papilomas do tipo pedunculado; já oclorobutanol e a diaminazina foram os mais eficazes no tratamento de animais com papilomas do tipo plano. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bovino, papilomatose, papilomavírus, tratamento.

  14. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  15. Life cycle assessment of the offshore wind farm alpha ventus

    Wagner, Hermann-Josef; Baack, Christoph; Eickelkamp, Timo; Epe, Alexa; Lohmann, Jessica; Troy, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Due to better wind conditions at sea, offshore wind farms have the advantage of higher electricity production compared to onshore and inland wind farms. In contrast, a greater material input, leading to increased energy consumptions and emissions during the production phase, is required to build offshore wind farms. These contrary effects are investigated for the first German offshore wind farm alpha ventus in the North Sea. In a life cycle assessment its environmental influence is compared to that of Germany's electricity mix. In comparison to the mix, alpha ventus had better indicators in nearly every investigated impact category. One kilowatt-hour electricity, generated by the wind farm, was burdened with 0.137 kWh Primary Energy-Equivalent and 32 g CO 2 -Equivalent, which represented only a small proportion of the accordant values for the mix. Furthermore, the offshore foundations as well as the submarine cable were the main energy intensive components. The energetic and greenhouse gas payback period was less than one year. Therefore, offshore wind power, even in deep water, is compatible with the switch to sustainable electricity production relying on renewable energies. Additional research, taking backup power plants as well as increasingly required energy storage systems into account, will allow further calculation. -- Highlights: → Offshore wind energy represents an environmentally friendly way of power generation. → The offshore foundations and the submarine cable are energy intensive components. → Alpha ventus emits 30 g CO 2 per kWh electricity over the entire life cycle. → Less specific emissions occur in comparison to the existing German electricity grid. → The energetic and greenhouse gas payback periods are less than one year.

  16. Oil exploration and production offshore Sakhalin Island

    Reed, I.C. [Sakhalin Energy Investment Company, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-15

    The offshore oil and gas exploration that is currently taking place on Sakhalin Island was discussed, with particular reference to the status of Sakhalin Energy and the challenges facing oil and exportation from the ice covered waters of Russia's Sea of Okhotsk. Sakhalin Energy, an incorporated joint venture of a consortium of companies, completed a feasibility study for oil production off the east coast of Sakhalin Island in December 1992. Sakhalin Energy has two fields, namely the Piltun Astokhskoye and Lunskoye fields. The Piltun Astokhskoye field is currently under production via the Molikpaq platform and the Lunskoye field and northern part of Piltun Astokhskoye field are currently being developed under the Phase 2 project. Since 1999, Sakhalin Energy has been producing oil from a caisson structure drilling rig which was fitted with ice protection shielding around the waterline in order to comply with Russian requirements. Production is via an undersea pipeline to a Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) unit and then to a Floating Storage and Offloading unit (FSO). A brief outline of the structure was presented along with current ice management procedures and arrangements. In order to maximize the length of the production season, ice management is used to enable an early start and a late end to production. It was noted that great care is taken to ensure that the operations in ice are carried out with consideration of the environmentally sensitive area that is home to the endangered Western Gray Whale and Stellar Sea Eagle. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  17. China: an emerging offshore wind development hotspot. With a new assessment of China's offshore wind potential

    Reinvang, Rasmus; Enslow, Rachel; Beaumont, Hubert

    2010-08-15

    This study provides new and more detailed estimates of the offshore wind energy resources in China, with particular focus on Southern China. The study points out that the offshore wind industry is ramping up in China with at least 11.9GW in the development pipeline per April 2010. The study estimates the offshore wind potential of China (excluding Taiwan) to 11,580TWh/year. The study proves estimates and wind energy resource maps per province. Fujian, Zhejiang and Hainan stand out with the highest offshore wind speeds in China while Guangdong also shows significant potential, with annual wind speed averages of 6.5-10.2m/s and an energy density range of 12-36GWh/km2. Even though current offshore wind development is mainly taking place in Fujian and Jiangsu, this study shows that the potential is likely even greater in other provinces. The study was developed by the Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA) and Sun Yat-sen University, and commissioned by WWF as part of a project funded by the Norwegian Agency of development Coopeartion (Norad). Methodology and constraints: The wind resource analysis improves upon previous studies in estimating the wind energy generation potential for offshore wind power in China, with available meteorological data adjusted for influence of typhoons. The study models how much energy offshore wind can produce along China's coast up to 100km from the shore by calculating the energy output of theoretical wind farms by applying the power curve of a 3MW turbine at a 100m hub height. In addition the study further expands by giving special consideration to the deep-sea offshore potential at +50m water depths. The study focuses particularly on the coastline from Shandong down to Hainan. The final results provide good indication of the offshore wind resource in China when comparing one area to the other. The report can therefore be used as a preliminary tool to identifying most interesting provinces and locations for offshore wind

  18. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.

  19. Uso de ácido giberélico em sementes de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L. visando à produção de mudas em diferentes embalagens Giberellic acid use on sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds aiming seedling production in different packs

    GISELA FERREIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no laboratório de sementes e casa de vegetação da UNIOESTE -- Câmpus de Marechal Cândido Rondon -- PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (GA3 na germinação de sementes e na emergência de plântulas de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L., em diferentes recipientes, visando à produção de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela embebição das sementes em sete concentrações de ácido giberélico (0; 50; 100; 250; 500; 750 e 1000 mg.L-1, por 5 horas, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. No campo, os tratamentos foram constituídos das sete concentrações de GA3 e dois tipos de embalagens (bandejas de isopor e sacolas de polietileno, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. As avaliações do laboratório constaram de porcentagem total de sementes germinadas, dormentes e mortas; porcentagem total de plântulas normais e anormais, e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e do campo, pela porcentagem total de plântulas emergidas; índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas (IVE; altura de plântulas e número de folhas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Verificou-se que o GA3 promoveu o incremento na germinação de sementes de Annona squamosa e que as sacolas de polietileno foram mais adequadas do que as bandejas no desenvolvimento das plântulas na fase inicial.The objetive of this experiment, was to evaluate the effect of giberellic acid (GA3 concentrations, on sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds germination and seedlings emergence. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. The treatments were composed of seeds soaking in 7 GA3 concentrations (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1.000 mg.L-1 of GA3, for 5 hours, with 4 replicates of 25 seeds, and kept at

  20. Atmospheric Characterization of the US Offshore Sites and Impact on Turbine Performance (Poster)

    Arora, Dhiraj [Alstom Renewable US LLC; Ehrmann, Robert [Alstom Renewable US LLC; Zuo, Delong [Texas Tech University; Xiao, Jingting [Texas Tech University

    2016-10-25

    Reliable, long term offshore atmospheric data is critical to development of the US offshore wind industry. There exists significant lack of meteorological, oceanographic, and geological data at potential US offshore sites. Assessment of wind resources at heights in the range of 25-200m is needed to understand and characterize offshore wind turbine performance. Data from the US Department of Energy owned WindSentinel buoy from two US offshore sites and one European site is analyzed. Low Level Jet (LLJ) phenomena and its potential impact on the performance of an offshore wind turbine is investigated.