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Sample records for officinale ligusticum chuanxiong

  1. [EST-SSR identification, markers development of Ligusticum chuanxiong based on Ligusticum chuanxiong transcriptome sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Can; Peng, Fang; Yang, Ze-Mao; Zhong, Wen-Juan; Mou, Fang-Sheng; Gong, Yi-Yun; Ji, Pei-Cheng; Pu, De-Qiang; Huang, Hai-Yan; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Chao

    2017-09-01

    Ligusticum chuanxiong is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine plant. The study on its molecular markers development and germplasm resources is very important. In this study, we obtained 24 422 unigenes by assembling transcriptome sequencing reads of L. chuanxiong root. EST-SSR was detected and 4 073 SSR loci were identified. EST-SSR distribution and characteristic analysis results showed that the mono-nucleotide repeats were the main repeat types, accounting for 41.0%. In addition, the sequences containing SSR were functionally annotated in Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway and were assigned to 49 GO categories, 242 KEGG pathways, among them 2 201 sequences were annotated against Nr database. By validating 235 EST-SSRs,74 primer pairs were ultimately proved to have high quality amplification. Subsequently, genetic diversity analysis, UPGMA cluster analysis, PCoA analysis and population structure analysis of 34 L. chuanxiong germplasm resources were carried out with 74 primer pairs. In both UPGMA tree and PCoA results, L. chuanxiong resources were clustered into two groups, which are believed to be partial related to their geographical distribution. In this study, EST-SSRs in L. chuanxiong was firstly identified, and newly developed molecular markers would contribute significantly to further genetic diversity study, the purity detection, gene mapping, and molecular breeding. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. [Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizer on Yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong Rhizome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin; Chen, Xing-fu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Jie; Peng, Shi-ming

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of different N, P, K and organic fertilizer (OF) on yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome, in order to provide the theoretical foundation for the establishment of standardization cultivation techniques. The field plot experiments used Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome which planted in Pengshan as material, and were studied by the four factors and five levels with quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal combination design. According to the data obtained, a function model which could predict the fertilization and yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome accurately was established. The model analysis showed that the yields of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly influenced by the N, P, K and OF applications. Among these factors, the order of increase rates by the fertilizers was K > OF > N > P; The effect of interaction between N and K, N and OF, K and OF on the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly different. High levels of N and P, N and organic fertilizer, K and organic fertilizer were conducive to improve the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. The results showed that the optimal fertilizer application rates of N was 148.20 - 172.28 kg/hm2, P was 511.92 - 599.40 kg/hm2, K was 249.70 - 282.37 kg/hm2, and OF was 940.00 - 1 104.00 kg/hm2. N, P, K and OF obviously affect the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. K and OF can significantly increase the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. Thus it is suggested that properly high mount of K and OF and appropriate increasing N are two favorable factors for cultivating Ligusticum chuanxiong.

  3. [Research progress of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of essential oil of Ligusticum chuanxiong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing-Chang; Xie, Xiao-Fang; Xiong, Liang; Sun, Chen; Peng, Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Essential oil is the low polar and volatile components distilled or extracted from Ligusticum chuanxiong, the dry root of perennial herb L. chuanxiong, which has proven to be one of the main biological active ingredients of L. chuanxiong. Studies suggested that essential oil of L. chuanxiong mainly contains phthalide, terpene alcohols and fatty acids compounds. Different regions or varied extraction technology had influences on the type and contents of compound in essential oil of L. chuanxiong and the total yield efficiency of essential oil, while the differences among the distribution of compounds leads to the variant pharmacological function of essential oil of L. chuanxiong. Researches confirmed that essential oil of L. chuanxiong has kinds of pharmacological activities such as sedation, analgesia, improve function of blood vessels, protected nerve cells and fever-reducing, all these benefits were verified by experiment studies in vivo and some of which were used as therapies in treating migraine, the underlining mechanisms include anti-inflammation, apoptosis pathway and studies found that essential oil of L. chuanxiong possessed very low acute and chronic toxicity at the same time, revealed its great value of development and utilization in clinical applications. Recent studies light some problems such as lack of quality standards and the research of relationship between efficacy and material. The key to apply the usage of essential oil of L. chuanxiong locate in its substantial basis research, the establishment of the quality standards and the joint research institute, more study should work on these fields. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Comparative analysis of Ligusticum chuanxiong and related umbelliferous medicinal plants by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tao; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Lu, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Hao

    2007-04-01

    A highly precise and accurate method, based on high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), was developed for the qualitative and quantitative comparison of the main constituents in the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC) and three related umbelliferous medicinal plants. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted, and the method was highly sensitive, reproducible and accurate. The unique properties of the present method were validated by analyzing 20 related herbal samples including 5 LC samples, 5 Cnidium officinale samples (CO), 5 Angelica sinensis samples (AS) and 5 Angelica acutiloba samples (AA). Twelve compounds including phenolic constituents, alkylphthalides and phthalide dimers were identified by online ESI-MS and by comparison with literature data and standard compounds, and six of them were quantified by HPLC-DAD simultaneously. The results demonstrated that identical compound types were identified as the main constituents of LC, CO, AS and AA herbs. The results also support the alternative application of these medicinal plants in Chinese and Japanese folk medicines. In the present study, it was found that the variation in the abundance of senkyunolide A was significant in these related herbs; it is therefore feasible to choose senkyunolide A as a characteristic compound for quality evaluation and chemical authentication of these herbs.

  5. Purification and Partial Structural Characterization of a Complement Fixating Polysaccharide from Rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong

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    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong is an effective medical plant, which has been extensively applied for centuries in migraine and cardiovascular diseases treatment in China. Polysaccharides from this plant have been shown to have interesting bioactivities, but previous studies have only been performed on the neutral polysaccharides. In this study, LCP-I-I, a pectic polysaccharide fraction, was obtained from the 100 °C water extracts of L. chuangxiong rhizomes and purified by diethylaminethyl (DEAE sepharose anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Monosaccharide analysis and linkage determination in addition to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometer and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrum, indicated that LCP-I-I is a typical pectic polysaccharide, with homo-galacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I regions and arabinogalactan type I and type II (AG-I/AG-II side chains. LCP-I-I exhibited potent complement fixation activity, ICH50 of 26.3 ± 2.2 µg/mL, and thus has potential as a natural immunomodulator.

  6. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Runqiang; He, Jun; Ma, Zhiqing; Zhang, Xing

    2016-10-12

    In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were ( Z )-ligustilide (44.58%) and senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola , with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w : w ). Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC) was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution) was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC) on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  7. Chemical Compositions of Ligusticum chuanxiong Oil and Lemongrass Oil and Their Joint Action against Aphis citricola Van Der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO and lemongrass oil (LO against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z-ligustilide (44.58% and senkyunolide A (26.92%, and that of LO were geranial (42.16% and neral (32.58%, respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4:1, w:w. Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. chuanxiong oil·Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO·LO EC was developed, and its stability was confirmed with tests of cold and thermal storage. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO·LO EC (1000 fold dilution was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC on A. citricola seven days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.

  8. Determination of the levels of two types of neurotransmitter and the anti-migraine effects of different dose-ratios of Ligusticum chuanxiong and Gastrodia elata

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    Qiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC–Gastrodia elata (GE compatibility is widely used in the clinic for the treatment of migraine. It has been shown that the changes of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system are closely related to the pathogenesis of migraine; whether LC–GE compatibility might affect the neurotransmitters in migraine rats has not yet been studied. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector methods for quantification of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and excitatory amino acids (EAAs in rat brain were developed. The 5-HT was measured directly, while EAAs were determined by using dansyl chloride as precolumn derivative reagent. The validation of the methods, including selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recoveries, and stability were carried out and demonstrated to meet the requirements of quantitative analysis. Compared with the model group, the expression of 5-HT in migraine rat brain was enhanced from 30 minutes to 120 minutes and glutamate (L-Glu was suppressed from 30 minutes to 60 minutes in an LC–GE (4:3 group compared with the model group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively. These findings showed that the analytical methods were simple, sensitive, selective, and low cost, and LC–GE 4:3 compatibility could have better efficacy for treating migraine through upregulating 5-HT levels and downregulating L-Glu levels.

  9. A modified multiscale peak alignment method combined with trilinear decomposition to study the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes by HS-SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Yan, Pan; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Tian-Biao; Hong, Liang

    2018-03-15

    Head Space/Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to determine the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Facing co-eluting peaks in k samples, a trilinear structure was reconstructed to obtain the second-order advantage. The retention time (RT) shift with multi-channel detection signals for different samples has been vital in maintaining the trilinear structure, thus a modified multiscale peak alignment (mMSPA) method was proposed in this paper. The peak position and peak width of representative ion profile were firstly detected by mMSPA using Continuous Wavelet Transform with Haar wavelet as the mother wavelet (Haar CWT). Then, the raw shift was confirmed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) cross correlation calculation. To obtain the optimal shift, Haar CWT was again used to detect the subtle deviations and be amalgamated in calculation. Here, to ensure there is no peaks shape alternation, the alignment was performed in local domains of data matrices, and all data points in the peak zone were moved via linear interpolation in non-peak parts. Finally, chemical components of interest in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes were analyzed by HS-SPME-GCMS and mMSPA-alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) resolution. As a result, the concentration variation between herbs and their pharmaceutical products can provide a scientific basic for the quality standard establishment of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis and identification of two similar traditional Chinese medicines by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy: Ligusticum chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis and their different extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Wang, Jingjuan; Zhang, Guijun; Rong, Lixin; Wu, Haozhong; Sun, Suqin; Guo, Yizhen; Yang, Yanfang; Lu, Lina; Qu, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Rhizoma Chuanxiong (CX) and Radix Angelica sinensis (DG) are very important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and usually used in clinic. They both are from the Umbelliferae family, and have almost similar chemical constituents with each other. It is complicated, time-consuming and laborious to discriminate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, to find a fast, applicable and effective identification method for two herbs is urged in quality research of TCM. In this paper, by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)), we analyzed and discriminated CX, DG and their different extracts (aqueous extract, alcoholic extract and petroleum ether extract). In FT-IR, all the CX and DG samples' spectra seemed similar, but they had their own unique macroscopic fingerprints to identify. Through comparing with the spectra of sucrose and the similarity calculation, we found the content of sucrose in DG raw materials was higher than in CX raw materials. The significant differences in alcoholic extract appeared that in CX alcoholic extract, the peaks at 1743 cm-1 was obviously stronger than the peak at same position in DG alcoholic extract. Besides in petroleum ether extract, we concluded CX contained much more ligustilide than DG by the similarity calculation. With the function of SD-IR, some tiny differences were amplified and overlapped peaks were also unfolded in FT-IR. In the range of 1100-1175 cm-1, there were six peaks in the SD-IR spectra of DG and the intensity, shape and location of those six peaks were similar to that of sucrose, while only two peaks could be observed in that of CX and those two peaks were totally different from sucrose in shape and relative intensity. This result was consistent with that of the

  11. Genetic diversity of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. based on inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... data. The dendrograms generated from both data sets showed a close alliance among Sichuan Province ..... higher level of geographic structuring (Figure 1B) comp- .... management strategy would be a program of samples.

  12. Fingerprinting analysis of Rhizoma chuanxiong of commercial types using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography method.

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    Qin, Hai-Lin; Deng, An-Jun; Du, Guan-Hua; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2009-06-01

    The (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) fingerprints of fractionated non-polar extracts (control substance for a plant drug (CSPD) A) from Rhizoma chuanxiong, the rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., of seven specimens from different sources were measured on Fourier Transform (FT)-NMR spectrometer and assigned by comparing them with the (1)H NMR spectra of the isolated pure compounds. The (1)H NMR fingerprints showed exclusively characteristic resonance signals of the major special constituents of the plant. Although the differences in the relative intensity of the (1)H NMR signals due to a discrepancy in the ratio of the major constituents among these samples could be confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, the general features of the (1)H NMR fingerprint established for an authentic sample of the rhizomes of L. chuanxiong exhibited exclusive data from those special compounds and can be used for authenticating L. Chuanxiong species.

  13. Fingerprinting Analysis of Rhizoma Chuanxiong of Commercial Types using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Lin Qin; An-Jun Deng; Guan-Hua Du; Peng Wang; Jin-Lan Zhang; Zhi-Hong Li

    2009-01-01

    The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) fingerprints of fractionated non-polar extracts (control substance for a plant drug (CSPD) A) from Rhizoma chuanxiong, the rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., of seven specimens from different sources were measured on Fourier Transform (FT)-NMR spectrometer and assigned by comparing them with the 1H NMR spectra of the isolated pure compounds. The 1H NMR fingerprints showed exclusively characteristic resonance signals of the major special constituents of the plant. Although the differences in the relative intensity of the 1H NMR signals due to a discrepancy in the ratio of the major constituents among these samples could be confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, the general features of the 1H NMR fingerprint established for an authentic sample of the rhizomes of L. chuanxiong exhibited exclusive data from those special compounds and can be used for authenticating L. Chuanxiong species.

  14. Ultrasonic extraction, antioxidant and anticancer activities of novel polysaccharides from Chuanxiong rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Jia, Xuejing; Fang, Xiaobin; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Chen, Meiwan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology was employed to prepare Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort polysaccharide. Single factor test and orthogonal experimental design were used to optimize the extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions consisted of ultrasonic temperature of 80°C, ultrasonic time of 40 min and water to raw material ratio of 30 mL/g. Three novel polysaccharides fractions, LCX0, LCX1 and LCX2, were isolated and purified from the crude polysaccharides using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of three LCX polysaccharides fractions were analyzed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and HPLC analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidant and in vitro anticancer activities of the polysaccharides were investigated. Compared with LCX0, LCX2 and LCX1 showed relative higher antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity to the growth of HepG2, SMMC7721, A549 and HCT-116 cells. It is suggested that the novel polysaccharides from rhizome of L. chuanxiong could be promising bioactive macromolecules for biomedical use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Chuanxiong preparations for preventing stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunzhe; Zeng, Xiaoxi; Wu, Taixiang

    2010-01-20

    Stroke is a major healthcare problem and is one of the leading causes of death and serious long-term disability. Prevention of stroke is considered an important strategy. Chuanxiong is traditionally used in China in the treatment and prevention of stroke. In recent years, Chinese researchers have developed new patented Chuanxiong preparations. To assess the effects and safety of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke in high-risk adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2008), EMBASE (1980 to March 2008), AMED (1985 to March 2008), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1975 to March 2008), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1994 to March 2008), and the VIP Database (1989 to March 2008). Trials registers were searched for ongoing studies. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effects of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke were included. Three reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and two reviewers independently extracted data. Authors of identified RCTs were telephoned to confirm the randomisation procedure. Outcomes assessed included: stroke, composite cardiovascular outcomes, changes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular haemodynamic indices and adverse events. Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous variables and mean differences for continuous outcomes. Three RCTs (5042 participants) were included. One higher quality study (4415 participants) compared Nao-an capsule with aspirin for primary prevention in high-risk stroke populations. Nao-an capsule appeared to reduce the incidence of stroke compared with aspirin (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). One study of low methodological quality indicated that a self-prepared Xifenwan tablet reduced the incidence of stroke in people with transient ischaemia attack (TIA) (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78). The

  16. Preparation of molecularly imprinted adsorptive resin for trapping of ligustrazine from the traditional Chinese herb Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifeng; Guo Tingting; Guo Mufan

    2008-01-01

    A highly selective molecularly imprinted adsorptive resin for ligustrazine was prepared by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) gel. In the experiments, two pieces of MUF gel were synthesized firstly; one was added ligustrazine hydrochloride as the template molecule in it to prepare the imprinted adsorptive resin, and the other was not. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that both resins were the porous with a network structure whether or not it was added template molecule. The imprinted adsorptive resin had an absorbability of 85.22% measured by a 200 mg L -1 solution of ligustrazine hydrochloride at room temperature. The resin of MUF without template, on the other hand, displayed an adsorption capacity of almost zero. It illuminated the imprinted adsorptive resin formed ligustrazine recognition sites when the template molecule had been eluted. In the present paper, ligustrazine was effectively separated and enriched from herbs by using a solid-phase adsorptive column filled with the imprinted adsorptive resin. Its eluate, obtained from three kinds of solvents, was analyzed by GC-MS, and the results indicated that the imprinted adsorptive resin showed a high selectivity for ligustrazine. This is believed to be beneficial for extracting natural and highly purified ligustrazine

  17. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Da Chuanxiong Formula: A Famous Herb Pair Composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma for Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jinming; Hong, Yanlong; Feng, Yi; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF), a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR), Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gas...

  18. Development of Alginate Microspheres Containing Chuanxiong for Oral Administration to Adult Zebrafish

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    Li-Jen Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM by patients is the common way to treat health problems. Zebrafish emerges as an excellent animal model for the pharmacology investigation. However, the oral delivery system of TCM in zebrafish has not been established so far. This issue was addressed by development of alginate microparticles for oral delivery of chuanxiong, a TCM that displays antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects on hepatocytes. The delivery microparticles were prepared from gelification of alginate containing various levels of chuanxiong. The chuanxiong-encapsulated alginate microparticles were characterized for their solubility, structure, encapsulation efficiency, the cargo release profile, and digestion in gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Encapsulation of chuanxiong resulted in more compact structure and the smaller size of microparticles. The release rate of chuanxiong increased for alginate microparticles carrying more chuanxiong in simulated intestinal fluid. This remarkable feature ensures the controlled release of encapsulated cargos in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. Moreover, chuanxiong-loaded alginate microparticles were moved to the end of gastrointestinal tract after oral administration for 6 hr and excreted from the body after 16 hr. Therefore, our developed method for oral administration of TCM in zebrafish is useful for easy and rapid evaluation of the drug effect on disease.

  19. [Compatibility law of Baizhi formulae and molecular mechanism of core herbal pair "Baizhi-Chuanxiong"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jin; Tang, Shi-Huan; Guo, Fei-Fei; Li, De-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2018-04-01

    By using the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS) in this study, the prescription rules of Baizhi formulae were analyzed and the core herbal pair "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" was obtained. Through the systemic analysis of prescription rules of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" and combined with the pharmacology thinking of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" in treating headache, the paper was aimed to find out the combination rules containing Baizhi andits molecular mechanisms for treating headaches, and provide the theory basis for further research and reference of Baizhi and its formula. Totally 3 887 prescriptions were included in this study, involving 2 534 Chinese herbs. With a support degree of 20% in analysis, 16 most commonly used drug combinations were screened, which were mainly used to treat 15 types of diseases. Baizhi was often used to treat headache, and the core combination "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" was also often used to treat, consistent with ancient record. A chemical database was established; then the headache and migraine disease targets were retrieved and added in the database to build up the "compounds-targets-pathways "core network of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" by the internet-based computation platform for IP of TCM (TCM-IP). TCM-IP was then applied to study the molecular mechanism of "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" treatment of headache. The results suggested that37 chemical compounds in the core combination "Baizhi-Chuanxiong" were closely related with headache treatment by adjusting serotonin levels or applying to inflammation-related targets and energy metabolism pathways such as purine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, fatty acid degradation, carbon metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Da Chuanxiong Formula: A Famous Herb Pair Composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma for Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF, a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR, Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR called as Tianma in China, is a greatly classic representative. This formula has been used for headaches via dispelling wind pathogen and dissipating blood stasis for many years in TCM. In recent years, the efficiency and representativeness of DCXF have garnered many researchers’ attention. To reveal the compatibility mechanism and develop innovative Chinese herb, herein ethnopharmacological relevance, chemical characters, and pharmacological actions of DCXF are detailed. It is expected to give a comprehensive interpretation of DCXF, namely, Chuanxiong Tianma herb pair (CTHP, to inherit the essence of herb pair and innovate drug delivery system of this prescription.

  1. Effects of Ligusticum porteri (Osha) Root Extract on Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Khanh; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ligusticum porteri roots have been traditionally used in folk medicine, but the scientific basis is unclear. Objective: To investigate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of L. porteri root extract on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and H2O2-induced oxidative damaged HL-60 cells. Materials and Methods: HL-60 cells were incubated with different concentrations of root extract, and cells were harvested for viability assays on day 3 and 7. Cytokine l...

  2. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  3. Mechanisms and Clinical Application of Tetramethylpyrazine (an Interesting Natural Compound Isolated from Ligusticum Wallichii): Current Status and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingke; Liu, Yue; Chen, Keji

    Tetramethylpyrazine, a natural compound from Ligusticum wallichii ( Chuan Xiong ), has been extensively used in China for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for about 40 years. Because of its effectiveness in multisystems, especially in cardiovascular, its pharmacological action, clinical application, and the structural modification have attracted broad attention. In this paper its mechanisms of action, the clinical status, and synthetic derivatives will be reviewed briefly.

  4. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  5. Zingiber officinale Roscoe Aqueous Extract Modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Z. officinale rhizomes were extracted with water by continuous shaking for 5 ... Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ZOA may ameliorate plasma leakage in dengue .... AS1000 autosampler, UV2000 UV detector and.

  6. Endothelium-Independent Vasorelaxant Effect of Ligusticum jeholense Root and Rhizoma on Rat Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumjung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ligusticum jeholense has been used as the traditional medicine ‘Go-Bon’ (Chinese name, Gao-ben in China and Korea. Considering the increased use of medicinal herbs to treat hypertension, in this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the vasorelaxation effect caused by L. jeholense. We tested the methanol (MeOH extract of L. jeholense root and rhizoma for vasorelaxant effects; while using an isolated organ-chamber technique, L. jeholense extract (LJE induced relaxation in the rat aortic rings by stimulating vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. LJE showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects on endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings pre-contracted with both phenylephrine (PE and potassium chloride (KCl in Krebs-Henseleit (KH buffer. The vasorelaxant effect of LJE was partly attenuated by pre-treatment with glibenclamide or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP as K+ channel blockers. Moreover, LJE showed concentration-dependent inhibition of vasoconstriction by Ca2+ supplementation in the aortic rings that were pre-contracted with PE or KCl in Ca2+-free KH buffer. In addition, a combination of LJE and nifedipine, pre-incubated further, decreased PE-induced contractions. The results suggested that LJE-induced vasorelaxation were related to blocking K+ channels and inhibiting entry of extracellular Ca2+ via receptor-operative Ca2+ channels (ROCCs or voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs.

  7. Gastroprotective effect of diligustilide isolated from roots of Ligusticum porteri coulter & rose (Apiaceae) on ethanol-induced lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Moyado, Josué A; Martínez-González, Alejandro; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Mata, Rachel; Navarrete, Andrés

    2015-11-04

    The rhizome of Ligusticum porteri Coulter& Rose (LP) has been traditionally used by the ethnic group Raramuri in the North of México for treatment of diabetes, tuberculosis, stomachaches, diarrhea and ritual healing ceremonies. It is use as antiulcer remedy has been extended to all Mexico. To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of LP organic extracts and the major natural product diligustilide (DLG),using as experimental model the inhibition of the ethanol-induced lesions in rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by intragastric instillation of absolute ethanol (1 mL). We tested the gastroprotective activity of the organic extracts of LP and the pure compound DLG. The ulcer index (UI) was determined to measure the activity. In order to elucidate the action mechanism of DLG the animals were treated with L-NAME, N-ethylmalemide, Forskolin, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, Indomethacin, Glibenclameide, Diazoxide, NaHS and DL-Propargylglycine. The pylorus-ligated rat model was used to measure gastric secretion. The oral administration of organic extracts of Ligusticum porteri showed gastroprotective effect at 30 mg/Kg on ethanol induced gastric lesions; hexane and dichloromethane extracts were the most active. DLG was the major compound in the hexane extract. This compound at 10 mg/kg prevented significantly the gastric injuries induced by ethanol. The alkylation of endogenous non-protein-SH groups with N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotective effect of DLG and blocking the formation of endogenous prostaglandins by the pretreatment with indomethacin attenuated the gastroprotective effect of DLG. The gastroprotective activity demonstrated in this study tends to support the ethnomedical use of Ligusticum porteri roots. DLG, isolated as major compound of this medicinal plant has a clear gastroprotective effect on the ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The results suggest that the antiulcer activity of DLG depends on the participation of the endogenous non-protein -SH groups

  8. Effect of Dendrobium officinale Extraction on Gastric Carcinogenesis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yan; Lan, Xi-Ming; Xu, Guo-Liang; Sun, You-Zhi; Li, Fei; Liu, Hong-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale (Tie Pi Shi Hu in Chinese) has been widely used to treat different diseases in China. Anticancer effect is one of the important effects of Dendrobium officinale. However, the molecular mechanism of its anticancer effect remains unclear. In the present study, gastric carcinogenesis in rats was used to evaluate the effect of Dendrobium officinale on cancer, and its pharmacological mechanism was explored. Dendrobium officinale extracts (4.8 and 2.4 g/kg) were orally adminis...

  9. Effects of Ligusticum porteri (Osha) Root Extract on Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Ligusticum porteri roots have been traditionally used in folk medicine, but the scientific basis is unclear. To investigate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of L. porteri root extract on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damaged HL-60 cells. HL-60 cells were incubated with different concentrations of root extract, and cells were harvested for viability assays on day 3 and 7. Cytokine levels (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and interleukin-10 [IL-10]) and antioxidant indexes (malondialdehyde [MDA], reduced glutathione [GSH], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and catalase [CAT]) in H 2 O 2 -induced-stressed HL-60 were measured after 2 days. The viability of HL-60 challenged with H 2 O 2 declined by 42% compared to unstressed cells. After 7 days of incubation with 200 or 400 μg/mL L. porteri , the viability of HL-60 cells was two-fold higher than the control. Stressed HL-60 cells treated with 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL L. porteri reduced the lipid peroxidation by 12%-13%. We noted an increase in GSH levels, SOD and CAT activities in stressed HL-60 supplemented with 400 μg/mL root extract. Treatment with 400 μg/mL L. porteri significantly ( P effect against the oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH)Treatment with L. porteri root extract may be effective in preventing oxidative damage through increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD] and catalase [CAT]) in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

  10. Further sesquiterpenoids and phenolics from Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, W; Barszcz, B

    2000-06-01

    Five germacrane- and guaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones, including two previously described taraxinic acid derivatives, were isolated from the roots of Taraxacum officinale, together with benzyl glucoside, dihydroconiferin, syringin and dihydrosyringin. The other three lactones were identified as 11beta, 13-dihydrolactucin, ixerin D and ainslioside. Moreover, the stereochemistry at C-11 in dihydrotaraxinic acid was assigned.

  11. ( Allium sativum Linn), ginger ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial effect in vitro of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Linn.) juice were assayed against Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. All the test organisms were susceptible to undiluted ...

  12. Chemopreventive efficacy of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosco) is widely used in foods as a spice all around the world. It has been reported to have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We investigated the effect of ginger in ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 and 2 served as ...

  13. Effect of Dendrobium officinale Extraction on Gastric Carcinogenesis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale (Tie Pi Shi Hu in Chinese has been widely used to treat different diseases in China. Anticancer effect is one of the important effects of Dendrobium officinale. However, the molecular mechanism of its anticancer effect remains unclear. In the present study, gastric carcinogenesis in rats was used to evaluate the effect of Dendrobium officinale on cancer, and its pharmacological mechanism was explored. Dendrobium officinale extracts (4.8 and 2.4 g/kg were orally administered to the rats of the gastric carcinogenesis model. Compared with the cancer model group, the high dose of Dendrobium officinale extracts significantly inhibited the rate of carcinogenesis. Further analysis revealed that Dendrobium officinale extracts could regulate the DNA damage, oxidative stress, and cytokines related with carcinogenesis and induce cell apoptosis in order to prevent gastric cancer.

  14. Analysis of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and its active components by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yizhen; Lv, Beiran; Wang, Jingjuan; Liu, Yang; Sun, Suqin; Xiao, Yao; Lu, Lina; Xiang, Li; Yang, Yanfang; Qu, Lei; Meng, Qinghong

    2016-01-15

    As complicated mixture systems, active components of Chuanxiong Rhizoma are very difficult to identify and discriminate. In this paper, the macroscopic IR fingerprint method including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR), was applied to study and identify Chuanxiong raw materials and its different segmented production of HPD-100 macroporous resin. Chuanxiong Rhizoma is rich in sucrose. In the FT-IR spectra, water eluate is more similar to sucrose than the powder and the decoction. Their second derivative spectra amplified the differences and revealed the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands and combined with the correlation coefficient, concluding that 50% ethanol eluate had more ligustilide than other eluates. Finally, it can be found from 2DCOS-IR spectra that proteins were extracted by ethanol from Chuanxiong decoction by HPD-100 macroporous resin. It was demonstrated that the above three-step infrared spectroscopy could be applicable for quick, non-destructive and effective analysis and identification of very complicated and similar mixture systems of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and comparative quantification of bio-active phthalides in essential oils from si-wu-tang, fo-shou-san, radix angelica and rhizoma chuanxiong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Min; Yu, Sheng; Hua, Yongqing; Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yin; Ding, Anwei

    2010-01-15

    Phthalides are important bio-active constituents in Si-Wu-Tang and Fo-Shou-San, two commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) combined prescriptions mainly derived from Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. In this paper, the contents of eight phthalides, including Z-ligustilide, E-ligustilide, Z-butylenephthalide, E-butylene-phthalide, 3-butylphthalide, neocnidilide and senkyunolide A were determined or estimated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed GC-MS was a simple, rapid, and high sensitive method for analyzing phthalides in Si-Wu-Tang, Fo-Shou-San, Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong, and the extractable contents of each phthalides including Z-ligustilide, E-ligustilide, Z-butylenephthalide, etc. varied after Radix Angelica, Rhizoma Chuanxiong were combined into a formulation, such as Si-Wu-Tang and Fo-Shou-San. Furthermore, inhibition activity of essential oils from Si-Wu-Tang, Fo-Shou-San, Radix Angelica and Rhizoma Chuanxiong on uterine contraction was tested in an in vitro assay, and the results showed that the activity of the essential oil is higher as the content of the phthalides increase, which demonstrated that phthalides are possibly main active components inhibiting mice uterine contraction in vitro. All of the results suggested that comparative analysis of chemical components and pharmacological activities of each herb and formula is possibly helpful to elucidate the active components in traditional Chinese medicine, and to reveal the compatibility mechanism of TCM formulae.

  16. [Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-Mei; Tao, Ling; Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Zang, Zhen-Zhong; Jin, Chen; Chen, Li-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption, and investigate the mechanism of permeation on the microstructure and molecular structure of stratum corneum. Through the determination of stratum corneum/medium partition coefficient of ferulicacid in Chuanxiong influenced by Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil, the effects of volatile oil of frankincense and Myrrh on the the microscopic and molecular structure of stratum corneum were explored by observation of skin stratum corneum structure under scanning electron microscopy, and investigation of frankincense and myrrh essential oil effects on the molecular structure of keratin and lipids in stratum corneum under Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the oil could enhance the distribution of ferulic acid in the stratum corneum and medium, and to a certain extent damaged the imbricate structure of stratum corneum which was originally regularly, neatly, and closely arranged; some epidermal scales turned upward, with local peeling phenomenon. In addition, frankincense and myrrh essential oil caused the relative displacement of CH2 stretching vibration peak of stratum corneum lipids and amide stretching vibration peak of stratum corneum keratin, indicating that frankincense and myrrh essential oil may change the conformation of lipid and keratin in the stratum corneum, increase the bilayer liquidity of the stratum corneum lipid, and change the orderly and compact structure to increase the skin permeability and reduce the effect of barrier function. It can be concluded that Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil can promote the permeation effect by increasing the distribution of drugs in the stratum corneum and changing the structure of the stratum corneum. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Effects of Zingiber Officinale on Reproductive Functions in the Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of Zingiber Officinale on male reproductive functions and study the mechanisms underlying these effects, aqueous extract of Zingiber Officinale were administered orally to two groups of male rats at 500mg/kg b.w. and 1000mg/kg b.w. A third group served as control and received the treatment ...

  18. [Assay of Tetramethylpyrazine in Szechwan Lovage Rhizome and Cnidium Rhizome by HPLC-DAD-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yuan-lin; Jin, Yu-qing; Yao, Yi-xin; Lin, Mao-yi; Wei, Bo-ping; Jiang, Wei-dong; Lu, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    To quantity the amount of tetramethylpyrazine in Szechwan Lovage Rhizome (Chuanxiong, the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., CX) and Cnidium Rhizome(Japanese Chuanxiong, the rhizome of Cnidium officinale Makino, JCX) for quality assessment. An HPLC-DAD-MS technique was employed to detect tetramethylpyrazine in 27 CX and 10 JCX samples. Tetramethylpyrazine was separated on a Waters Symmetry C,, column (250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase was methanol-acetonitrile-water(27: 1: 72) at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min. The column temperature was 35 °C. DAD detection wavelength was 280 nm, while electrospray ionization detector was set at positive mode to collect MS spectrum. In the total of 37 herb samples, 11 samples were found to contain tetramethylpyrazine with the mean amount of 2. 19 µg/g(n = 11). 6 of 27 CX samples and 5 of 10 JCX sample were found the existence of tetramethylpyrazine with the amount of 0. 60 - 11. 75 µg and 0. 61 - 3. 05 µg/g,respectively. The correlation was not found between tetramethylpyrazine and the cultivation area, morphological character, processing or storage method for CX and JCX samples. It was possible that tetramethylpyrazine resulted from the microbes in soil. The developed method is accurate to quantify tetramethylpyrazine in CX and JCX herbs. Both the two herbs indeed contain tetramethylpyrazine, but it is not suitable to be a chemical marker to assess the quality of CX and JCX owing to low content.

  19. Simultaneous determination of six active components by a single standard to determine multicomponents combined with fingerprint analysis for the quality control of Rhizoma Chuanxiong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yufei; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2015-04-01

    To control the quality of Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detection was developed for the quantitative analysis of six active ingredients using a single standard to determine multi-components and chemical fingerprint analysis for the first time. The separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column by gradient elution with methanol and aqueous phase (containing 0.5% glacial acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The UV wavelength was set at 274 nm. This assay was fully validated with respect to precision, repeatability, and accuracy. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9994) within test ranges. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were lower than 0.01 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation for repeatability and the intermediate precision of six analytes were less than 1.6 and 2.5%, respectively, the overall recovery was 96.1-103.1%. In addition, fingerprint chromatography using hierarchical clustering analysis and similarity analysis was performed to differentiate and classify the samples. The method described here could provide a more comprehensive and reasonable scientific assessment of the quality of Rhizoma Chuanxiong. Therefore, the strategy is feasible, credible, and is easily and effectively adapted for evaluating the quality control of Rhizoma Chuanxiong. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. [Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong and penetration mechanism of skin blood flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Jing; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yu, Ya-Ting; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hong-Ning

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal absorption in vitro of Chuanxiong, and to investigate the possible penetration mechanism of their essential oil from the perspective of skin blood perfusion changes. Transdermal tests were performed in vitro with excised mice skin by improved Franz diffusion cells. The cumulative penetration amounts of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong were determined by HPLC to investigate the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil on transdermal permeation properties of Chuanxiong. Simultaneously, the skin blood flows were determined by laser flow doppler. The results showed that the cumulative penetration amount of ferulic acid in Chuanxiong was (8.13±0.76) μg•cm⁻² in 24 h, and was (48.91±4.87), (57.80±2.86), (63.34±4.56), (54.17±4.40), (62.52±7.79) μg•cm⁻² respectively in Azone group, Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group. The enhancement ratios of each essential oil groups were 7.68, 8.26, 7.26, 8.28, which were slightly greater than 6.55 in Azone group. In addition, as compared with the conditions before treatment, there were significant differences and obvious increasing trend in blood flow of rats in Frankincense essential oil group, Myrrh essential oil group, frankincense and myrrh singly extracted essential oil mixture group, and frankincense and myrrh mixed extraction essential oil group when were dosed at 10, 20, 30, 10 min respectively, indicating that the skin blood flows were increased under the effects of Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil to a certain extent. Thus, Frankincense and Myrrh essential oil had certain effect on promoting permeability of Chuanxiong both before and after drug combination, and may promote the elimination of drugs from epidermis to dermal capillaries through increase of

  1. Development and Validation of Improved Method for Fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate an improved method by capillary zone electrophoresis with photodiode array detection for the fingerprint analysis of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Rhizoma Chuanxiong). Methods: The optimum high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) conditions were 30 mM borax containing 5 ...

  2. Preparation and characterization of Dendrobium officinale powders through superfine grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingran; Fan, Haoran; Chen, Feng; Xiao, Tiancun; Zhang, Lianfu

    2018-03-01

    Dendrobium officinale has been used in China for several thousand years as a health food and has become one of the most expensive tea materials worldwide as a result of extremely scarce resources in the wild and an increasing demand. Hence, it is very important to improve the depth and width of its application. In the present study, the physico-chemical, surface chemistry and thermal properties of micron range particles and coarse particles prepared by superfine grinding and shear pulverization were investigated. As the particle size decreased, the specific surface area of D. officinale powders increased significantly. Microscopy observations confirmed that superfine grinding effectively changed the original structure of D. officinale. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra depicted the characteristic bands shifted in terms of absorbance and/or wave number as the powder particle size decreased. The crystallinity and intensity of the crystal peaks of D. officinale powders increased as the particle size decreased. Moisture sorption isotherms suggested that superfine powders were more unstable as a result of the increase in surface area, as well as the exposure of polar groups. The results of the present study suggest that superfine grinding may provide new methods of processing for D. officinale with respect to further enhancement of its application value. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. [Ecological basis of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale growth on cliff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Juan; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Wu, Ling-Shang; Cheng, Xue-Liang

    2016-08-01

    In order to make Dendrobium officinale return to the nature, the temperature and humidity in whole days of the built rock model with different slopes and aspects in the natural distribution of wild D. officinale in Tianmu Mountain were recorded by MH-WS01 automatic recorder. The results showed that the slope has a significant impact on the extreme temperature on the surface of the rocks. In summer, the extreme temperature on the surface of horizontal or soft rock can reach to 69.4 ℃, while the temperatures were lower than 50 ℃ on the vertical rock. In winter, the temperatures on the surface of vertical rock were higher and the low temperature duration was shorter than those on the horizontal or soft rock. Also, the humidity of the rocks was significantly influenced by the slope. The monthly average humidity on the surface of vertical rock was above 80%RH. Furthermore, the aspect had a significant impact on the temperature and humidity on the surface of the rocks, but had no significant effect on the daily mean temperature and extreme temperature on the surface of vertical rock. Therefore, the slope affects the survival of D. officinale by affecting the extreme temperature of rocks and affects the growth of D. officinale by affecting the humidity. The choice of slope is the key to the success of cliff epiphytic cultivation for D. officinale. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Proliferative and antioxidant activity of Symphytum officinale root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Paduch, Roman; Strzemski, Maciej; Zielińska, Sylwia; Rydzik-Strzemska, Ewelina; Sawicki, Jan; Kocjan, Ryszard; Polkowski, Janusz; Matkowski, Adam; Latalski, Michał; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    The root of Symphytum officinale L. is commonly used in folk medicine to promote the wound healing, reduce the inflammation and in the treatment of broken bones. The objective of our investigation was to analyse the extract from S. officinale in term of its antioxidant activity and the effect on cell viability and proliferation of human skin fibroblast (HSF). Moreover, the quantification of main phenolics and allantoin was conducted using HPLC-DAD method. Five compounds were found: rosmarinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic and p-coumaric acid. DPPH, FRAP and TPC assay showed the high antioxidant activity of the extract. MTT test proved the stimulatory effect on cell metabolism and viability of HSF cells. Moreover, no changes in cytoskeleton structure and cells shape were observed. The obtained results indicate that non-toxic extract from S. officinale root has strong antioxidant potential and a beneficial effect on human skin fibroblasts.

  5. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Abdul Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes were studied to evaluate their antidiabetic effects on protein glycation and on the diffusion of glucose in vitro in the present study. Zingiber officinale rhizome aqueous extract were examined at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. The antidiabetic effects were found to be dose-dependent. Antidiabetic potential of Zingiber officinale was mainly through inhibition of the glucose diffusion and to a limited extent by reducing the glycation. However, further studies are needed to determine in vitro effects of therapeutic potential by restraining postprandial glucose absorptions and plasma protein glycations in diabetic subjects.Extratos aquosos de rizomas Zingiber officinale foram estudados para avaliar os seus efeitos antidiabéticos em glicação de proteínas e sobre a difusão de glicose in vitro, no presente estudo. Extratos aquosos de Zingiber officinale foram examinados nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40 g extrato de planta/L. Os efeitos antidiabéticos observados eram dependentes da dose. O potencial antidiabético de Zingiber officinale se verificou, principalmente, através da inibição da difusão de glicose e, em menor extensão, através da redução da glicação. Estudos adicionais são necessários para elucidar se efeitos in vitro representam potencial terapêutico, restringindo a absorção de glicose pós-prandial e a glicação de proteínas plasmáticas em indivíduos diabéticos.

  6. Screening anti-tumor compounds from Ligusticum wallichii using cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Yuanyuan; An, Hongli; Feng, Liuxin; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-14

    Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed. Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-HEK293 cells were used as cell membrane stationary phase. Specificity and reproducibility of the cell membrane chromatography was evaluated using 1-tert-butyl-3-{2-[4-(diethylamino)butylamino]-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl}urea, Nimodipine and dexamethasone acetate. Then, anti-tumor components acting on Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 were screened and identified from extracts of Ligusticum wallichii. Components from the extract were retained on the cell membrane chromatographic column. The retained fraction was directly eluted into high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry system for separation and identification. Finally, Levistolide A was identified as an active component from Ligusticum wallichii extracts. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide-formazan colorimetric assay revealed that Levistolide A inhibits proliferation of overexpressing the mutated receptor cells with dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 was also decrease under Levistolide A treatment. Flex dock simulation verified that Levistolide A could bind with the tyrosine kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. Therefore, Levistolide A screened by the cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry can arrest cell growth. In conclusion, the two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method can screen and identify potential anti-tumor ingredients which specifically act on the tyrosine kinase domain of the mutated fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  8. Zingiber officinale : evaulation of its Nootropic effect in mice | Joshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayurveda emphasizes use of herbs, nutraceuticals or life-style changes for controlling age related neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of an ayurvedic rasayana (rejuvenator) drug Zingiber officinale Roscoe as a memory enhancer. Elevated plus maze and passive ...

  9. Effects of Zingiber Officinale on Reproductive Functions in the Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    was also a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum testosterone level. Malonhydialdehyde levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Our results indicated that extract of Zingiber Officinale possesses pro-fertility properties ... thought to be volatile oils and pungent phenol ... weighed for the essential reproductive organs,.

  10. In vitro propagation of Ethiopian ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is the second most widely cultivated spice in Ethiopia, next to chilies. Recently, there has been huge demand for clean planting material of improved ginger cultivars, though it is difficult to meet the demand of planting materials using the conventional propagation techniques due to ...

  11. Comparative studies of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) and black pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of two spices namely ginger (Zingiber officinale) and black pepper (Piper guinenses) were prepared in 0.4, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6% concentrations. Soymilk and kunuzaki, were treated, respectively with the different concentrations and stored at ambient temperature for 5 days. The microbial load and identification were ...

  12. Effects of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa and Alpinia galanga essential oils on the morphological characteristic of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella. ... Therefore, plant natural product is an alternative for controlling C. cramerella, by using three Zingiberaceae species Zingiberofficinale, Curcuma longa and ...

  13. The Effect of Zingiber Officinale Rosc in The Diets of Performance in Culled Layer Ducks

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    Tjokorda Gede Belawa Yadnya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was design using a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four treatments. Treatment were diets without Zingiber officinale rosc (A, diets contain 2,91% Zingiber officinale Rosc  (B, diets contain 5,66%. Zingiber officinale Rosc (C, and diets contain 8,26% Zingiber officinale Rosc (D. Each treatment with five replicates, and each replicate consist four culled layer ducks. Variable observed were feed conversation ratio, carcass physical composition, and meat quality. It was concluded that present  Zingiber officinale Rosc in the diets could be improved of performance in culled layer ducks.   Keywords : Zingiber officinale Rosc, Culled layer ducks, and  meat qualit

  14. Bioinformatics analysis on molecular mechanism of rheum officinale in treatment of jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Si; Tu, Jun; Nie, Peng; Yan, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the molecular mechanism of Rheum officinale in the treatment of Jaundice by building molecular networks and comparing canonical pathways. Methods: Target proteins of Rheum officinale and related genes of Jaundice were searched from Pubchem and Gene databases online respectively. Molecular networks and canonical pathways comparison analyses were performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results: The molecular networks of Rheum officinale and Jaundice were complex and multifunctional. The 40 target proteins of Rheum officinale and 33 Homo sapiens genes of Jaundice were found in databases. There were 19 common pathways both related networks. Rheum officinale could regulate endothelial differentiation, Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in these pathways. Conclusions: Rheum officinale treat Jaundice by regulating many effective nodes of Apoptotic pathway and cellular immunity related pathways.

  15. Hyperaccumulator straw improves the cadmium phytoextraction efficiency of emergent plant Nasturtium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Lin, Lijin; Wang, Jin; Xia, Hui; Liang, Dong; Wang, Xun; Liao, Ming'an; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Tang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    With the development of economy, the heavy metal contamination has become an increasingly serious problem, especially the cadmium (Cd) contamination. The emergent plant Nasturtium officinale R. Br. is a Cd-accumulator with low phytoremediation ability. To improve Cd phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale, the straw from Cd-hyperaccumulator plants Youngia erythrocarpa, Galinsoga parviflora, Siegesbeckia orientalis, and Bidens pilosa was applied to Cd-contaminated soil and N. officinale was then planted; the study assessed the effect of hyperaccumulator straw on the growth and Cd accumulation of N. officinale. The results showed that application of hyperaccumulator species straws increased the biomass and photosynthetic pigment content and reduced the root/shoot ratio of N. officinale. All straw treatments significantly increased Cd content in roots, but significantly decreased Cd content in shoots of N. officinale. Applying hyperaccumulator straw significantly increased the total Cd accumulation in the roots, shoots, and whole plants of N. officinale. Therefore, application of straw from four hyperaccumulator species promoted the growth of N. officinale and improved the phytoextraction efficiency of N. officinale in Cd-contaminated paddy field soil; the straw of Y. erythrocarpa provided the most improvement.

  16. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao-Bin; Huang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ti-Ti; Gong, Wan-Ying; Wang, Xuan-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2016-02-01

    A neutral heteropolysaccharide (DOP-1-1) consisted by mannose and glucose (5.9:1) with an average molecular weight at about 1.78×10(5) Da was purified from Dendrobium officinale. Based on Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, it suggested that partial structure of DOP-1-1 is an O-acetylated glucomannan with β-d configuration in pyranose sugar forms. The immunomodulatory activity of DOP-1-1 was evaluated by secretion level of cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Our results suggested that DOP-1-1 could stimulate cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β) in cells. These findings demonstrated that the purified polysaccharide from D. officinale presented significant immune-modulating activities. Furthermore, by Western-blot we can found that the signaling pathways of DOP-1-1 induced immune activities involving ERK1/2 and NF-кB. As to antioxidant activity, DOP-1-1 hadn't showed remarkable scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in contrast with other studies of polysaccharides from D. officinale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

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    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  18. [Determination of ferulic acid in chuanxiong and in animal serum and cerebrospinal fluid by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, K; Ding, M Y; Li, H X; Liu, D L

    2000-11-01

    An easy, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of ferulic acid(FA) in Chuanxiong extracts, animal (mouse) serum and cerebrospinal fluid by RP-HPLC has been developed. The FA was separated on an ODS column, Nova-Pak C18(3.9 mm i.d. x 150 mm) and detected at the wavelength of 320 nm. The mobile phase was methanol-water-acetic acid (35:65:0.5, V/V), with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection limit of FA was 1.7 micrograms/L(S/N = 3) and the calibration curve was linear within the range of 0.85 mg/L-4.00 mg/L(r = 0.99904, n = 6). The mean recovery from animal serum and cerebrospinal was 95%-102%.

  19. Investigation of the cytotoxicity, antioxidative and immune-modulatory effects of Ligusticum porteri (Osha) root extract on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2016-11-01

    Ligusticum porteri is a traditional Native American herb. The roots of L. porteri are traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases, however, its cytotoxicity, antioxidative and immune-modulatory effects need to be investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the root extract at different doses on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). The lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the root extracts (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL) and harvested every 6 h for 2 d (Peffect of the herb against oxidative damage was determined by inducing oxidative stress with the administration of 50 μmol/L of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Treatments with L. porteri at 200 and 400 μg/mL increased the viability of PBLs. The deleterious effect of H 2 O 2 was ameliorated by 400 μg/mL L. porteri treatment. Addition of 400 μg/mL L. porteri reduced lipid peroxidation in stressed PBLs by 94% (P0.05). The findings suggest that L. porteri might be a potential immune-modulating agent involving protective effects against oxidative damage.

  20. Zingiber officinale and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence from Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Tariq, Muhammad; Chen, Shuqing

    2015-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is being used as diet-based therapy because of its wide therapeutic potential in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and against diabetic complications by directly interacting with different molecular and cellular pathways that provoke the pathogenesis of T2DM. This article explores the overall beneficial effects of Z. officinale on T2DM and its associated complications. Along with elucidating the beneficial facts of Z. officinale, this article may also aid in understanding the molecular basis of its effects in T2DM. The mechanistic rationale for antidiabetic effects of Z. officinale includes the inhibition of several transcriptional pathways, lipid peroxidation, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, and HMG-CoA reductase and the activation of antioxidant enzyme capacity and low-density lipoprotein receptors. Consequently, by targeting these pathways, Z. officinale shows its antidiabetic therapeutic effects by increasing insulin sensitivity/synthesis, protecting β-cells of pancreatic islets, reducing fat accumulation, decreasing oxidative stress, and increasing glucose uptake by the tissues. In addition to these effects, Z. officinale also exhibits protective effects against several diabetes-linked complications, notably nephropathy and diabetic cataract, by acting as an antioxidant and antiglycating agent. In conclusion, this work suggests that consumption of Z. officinale can help to treat T2DM and diabetic complications; nevertheless, patient counseling also is required as a guiding force for the success of diet-based therapy in T2DM.

  1. Protective Effect of Zingiber officinale Against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites Tumour by Regulating Inflammatory Mediator and Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubila, Sundararaj; Ranganathan, Thottiam Vasudevan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate Zingiber officinale paste against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA)-induced tumours in Swiss albino mice. Experimental animals received Z. officinale paste (low dose 100 mg/kg bw and high dose 500 mg/kg bw) orally for eight alternative days. Treatment with Z. officinale paste showed significant increase in haemoglobin level and decrease in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) level. Z. officinale paste reduced the inflammatory mediators and cytokine levels, such as inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), tumour necrosis factor level (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Treatment with Z. officinale paste also significantly increased the antioxidant enzyme level, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione transferase (GST), and decreased the lipid peroxidation. Treatment also increased the vitamin C and E levels in treated animals compared with the DLA-bearing host. Histopathological studies also confirmed the protective influence of Z. officinale paste against DLA. The present study suggested that Z. officinale paste could be used as natural spice and a potent antitumour agent.

  2. Discrimination of Dendrobium officinale and Its Common Adulterants by Combination of Normal Light and Fluorescence Microscopy

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    Chu Chu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, named Tie-pi-shi-hu, is one of the most endangered and precious species in China. Because of its various pharmacodynamic effects, D. officinale is widely recognized as a high-quality health food in China and other countries in south and south-east Asia. With the rising interest of D. officinale, its products have a high price due to a limited supply. This high price has led to the proliferation of adulterants in the market. To ensure the safe use of D. officinale, a fast and convenient method combining normal and fluorescence microscopy was applied in the present study to distinguish D. officinale from three commonly used adulterants including Zi-pi-shi-hu (D. devonianum, Shui-cao-shi-hu (D. aphyllum, Guang-jie-shi-hu (D. gratiosissimum. The result demonstrated that D. officinale could be identified by the characteristic “two hat-shaped” vascular bundle sheath observed under the fluorescence microscopy and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. The other three adulterants could be discriminated by the vascular bundle differences and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. This work indicated that combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy is a fast and efficient technique to scientifically distinguish D. officinale from the commonly confused species.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei; Zhou, Hong; Qian, Jun; Xu, Haibin; Shao, Qingsong; Li, Yonghua; Yao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The complete chloroplast sequence of Dendrobium officinale, an endangered and economically important traditional Chinese medicine, was reported and characterized. The genome size is 152,018 bp, with 37.5% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,284 bp are separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 84,944 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 14,506 bp). The complete cp DNA contains 83 protein-coding genes, 39 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Fourteen genes contained one or two introns.

  4. Evaluation of Sun Protection Factor of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the sun protection factor (SPF) of aqueous and methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy method. Aqueous and Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale having concentration of 200µg/ml and 400µg/ml was prepared respectively and the SPF values were evaluated by UV spectroscopy. In this study, it was found that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml) have SPF value about 1.44±0....

  5. Protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides on H2O2-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dou, Mengmeng; Zhang, Zhihao; Zhang, Duoduo; Huang, Chengzhi

    2017-10-01

    The preliminary studies have shown that Dendrobium officinale possessed therapeutic effects on hypertension and atherosclerosis. Studies also reported that Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides showed antioxidant capabilities. However, little is known about its effects on myocardial cells under oxidative stress. The present study was designed to study the protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. MTT assay was carried out to determine the cell viability of H9c2 cells when pretreated with Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides. Fluorescent microscopy measurements were performed for evaluating the apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides on the activities of antioxidative indicators (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels were analyzed. Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, as determined by the MTT assay. Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides decreased malondialdehyde levels, increased superoxide dismutase activities, and inhibited the generation of intracellular ROS. Moreover, pretreatment with Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides also inhibited apoptosis and increased the MMP levels in H9c2 cells. These results suggested the protective effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in H9c2 cells. The results also indicated the anti-oxidative capability of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Present status and sustainable development of Dendrobium officinale industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunqin; Si, Jinping

    2010-08-01

    To understand the present status and characteristics of Dendrobium officinale industry and to provide a rationale for the sustainable industrial development. Based on references and an on-site investigation of main Dendrobium officinale-producing enterprises and market, to analyze main existing problems and to propose suggestions for sustainable development. More than 10 provinces and regions are involved in the production around the center of Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces. These two provinces are different from each other in development pattern. Yunnan adopts a mode of companies minus farmer households but Zhejiang mainly employs a mode that a leading company establishes a production base with production, processing and marketing combined together. Zhejiang mode is characterized by high tech, high investment, high risk and high return. Existence of non-genuine species, stagnancy in development and application of varieties and techniques for quality control and a narrow channel for marketing are the key problems limiting sustainable development of the industry. The key to sustainable development of the industry is to establish a technological alliance to speed up development of common techniques and application of integrated innovations, to strengthen self-discipline and monitoring of production, and to expand sales market.

  7. Granularity and Laxative Effect of Ultrafine Powder of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, DanDan; Qu, Chao; Zhang, ZhenBiao; Xie, JianHui; Xu, LieQiang; Yang, HongMei; Li, CaiLan; Lin, GuoSheng; Wang, HongFeng; Su, ZiRen

    2017-02-01

    Constipation is a common disorder that is a significant source of morbidity among people around the world ranging from 2% to 28%. Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional herbal medicine and health food used for tonicity of the stomach and promotion of body fluid production in China. This study aimed to prepare the ultrafine powder of Dendrobium officinale (UDO) and investigate its laxative effect and potential mechanism in mice with diphenoxylate-induced constipation. Results indicated that the mean diameter (d 50 ) of UDO obtained by ball milling was 6.56 μm. UDO (62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg, p.o.) could significantly enhance the gastrointestinal transit ratio and promote fecal output. Moreover, UDO treatment resulted in significant increases in the serum levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), gastrin (Gas), motilin (MTL), and substance P (SP), and obviously decreased serum contents of somatostatin (SS). Taken together, UDO, which can be easily obtained through milling to a satisfactory particle size, exhibited obvious laxative effect in diphenoxylate-induced constipated mice, and the mechanism might be associated with elevated levels of AChE, Gas, MTL, SP, and reduced production of SS. UDO has the potential for further development into an alternative effective diet therapy for constipation.

  8. [Effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Cheng-Yong; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    To reveals the effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to living tress in wild or stumps in bionic-facility was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. There were extremely significant differences of polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to different tree species, but the differences had no relationship with the form and nutrition of barks. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale mainly affected by the light intensity of environment, so reasonable illumination favored the accumulation of polysaccharides. Various polysaccharides content of D. officinal from different attached trees is due to the difference of light regulation, but not the form and nutrition of barks.

  9. Enzymatic fingerprints of polysaccharides of Dendrobium officinale and their application in identification of Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xue-Qiang; Pan, Li-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jun-Hui; Wei, Peng; Bansal, Vibha

    2012-07-01

    Enzymatic fingerprinting of polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale was studied and applied to authenticate Dendrobium species. Results showed that Dendrobium officinale species from Anhui province, Fujian province, Yunnan province, Guangdong province and Guangxi province of China, could be identified by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE). However, the fingerprints of Dendrobium officinale from Jiangxi province, Hu'nan province and Wenzhou, Yandangshan and Fuyang in Zhejiang province were very similar. As far as the fingerprints of different Dendrobium species were concerned, the differences between Dendrobium officinale, Dendrobium huoshanense, Dendrobium moniliforme, Dendrobium devonianum, Dendrobium aphyllum, Dendrobium wilsonii and Dendrobium crystallinum were obvious. Moreover, the genetic relationships between different samples were analyzed by using principal component analysis and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis. Results suggested that polysaccharide fingerprint analysis by PACE has the potential to become a valuable new method for the identification and control of quality of herbal medicines in future.

  10. [Analysis of Volatile Oils from Different Processed Products of Zingiber officinale Rhizome by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-bing; Wang, Zhi-hui; He, Fang; Meng, Han; Peng, Jian-hua; Shi, Ji-lian

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the volatile components in different processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome, and to make clear the effect of different heating degree on them. The volatile components were extracted from four kinds of processed products by applying steam distillation, and then were analyzed by GC-MS. There were totally 43 components of volatile oil identified from four kinds of processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome. Fresh product, dried product, and charcoal product of Zingiber officinale rhizome each had 27 components of volatile oil, while sand fried product contained 24 components. Fresh Zingiber officinale rhizome contained 22. 59% of zingiberene, 20. 87% of a-citral and 11. 01% of β-phellandrene, respectively. After processing in different heating degree, the volatile components changed greatly in both of their quantity and quality, For instance, dried Zingiber officinale rhizome contained 40. 48% of α-citral and 8-phellandrene content was slightly lower at 10. 38%. 32.73% of 3,7,11-trimethyl-l, 6, 10-dodecatriene,16. 38% of murolan-3, 9 (11)-diene-10-peroxy and 3. 36% of cubebene newly emerged in the sand fried Zingiber officinale rhizome, and eudesm-4 (14) and β-bisabolol, etc. However, β-phellandrene content was only 1. 95%. The zingiberene and β-sesquiphellandrene were the highest in charcoal product, besides, new components such as α-cedrene, decanal and γ-elemene appeared. Volatile components in different processed products of Zingiber officinale rhizome were different in both of their kinds and contents. This method is suitable for the analysis of volatile components in Zingiber officinale rhizome, and this study can provide the experimental evidence for quality evaluation and clinical application for ginger processed products.

  11. Effect of Poloxamer on Zingiber Officinale Extracted Green Synthesis and Antibacterial Studies of Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K; Manikandan, A; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    The Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) plant is one of the well-known medicinal plants. Poloxamer finds excellent clinical and therapeutic uses for curing of various ailments. The poloxamer 188 polymer and the plant extract of Z. officinale have been used to prepare the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a green synthesis route. The Z. officinale plant extract has been used as a reducing agent, while the poloxamer 188 has been used as a stabilizing agent. The formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure AgNPs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. The effect of addition of poloxamer on the controlling the shape, size and morphologies of the AgNPs has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The elemental composition of AgNPs was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The anti-bacterial activity of AgNPs has been investigated using three human pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The poloxamer 188 protected AgNPs inhibit the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure Z. officinale extract and the Z. officinale extract AgNPs.

  12. Zingiber officinale Roscoe ameliorates anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Hema, Unnikrishnan; Aswathi, Sreedharan

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested in the cardiotoxicity induced by anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin (DXN). The cardioprotective effects of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against DXN-induced acute cardiac damage in rat. The results of the study demonstrated that Z. officinale significantly and dose dependently protected the cardiotoxicity induced by DXN. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in the DXN alone treated group of animals were significantly (pofficinale (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) plus DXN treated groups. The cardiac malondialdehyde was elevated in the DXN alone treated group and declined significantly in the Z. officinale (400 mg/kg) plus DXN treated group. The results concluded that aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale ameliorated DXN-induced cardiotoxicity. The protection can be ascribed to the free radical scavenging activity of Z. officinale. This protective effect may suggest the adjuvant role of Z. officinale against OS induced by cancer chemotherapeutants, which warrant further research. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  13. [Variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts content of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiao-xian; Guo, Ying-ying; Si, Jin-ping; Wu, Ling-shang; Wang, Lin-hua

    2014-12-01

    To reveal the variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extract contents of Dendrobium officinale, the polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts contents of three D. officinale strains were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method, respectively. The results showed that the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts and their total content were significantly different among D. officinale samples collected in different periods, and the variations were closely related to the phenology of D. officinale. Additionally, the quality variation of polysaccharides was closely related to the flowering of D. officinale, while the alcohol-soluble extracts was closely associated to the formation and germination of buds. According to the dynamic variation of these two compounds, it is more reasonable to harvest D. officinale at biennials pre-bloom than at specific harvesting month considering polysaccharides content. It is better to harvest before the germination of buds considering alcohol-soluble extracts. While with regards to both polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extract, it is better to harvest this plant at the period from the sprouting to pre-bloom next year.

  14. The Genome of Dendrobium officinale Illuminates the Biology of the Important Traditional Chinese Orchid Herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Hui; Tian, Yang; Lian, Jinmin; Yang, Ruijuan; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Yang, Shengchao; Li, Qiye; Qi, Shuai; Kui, Ling; Okpekum, Moses; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Jiajin; Ding, Zhaoli; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Sheng, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional Chinese orchid herb that has both ornamental value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here, we report the first de novo assembled 1.35 Gb genome sequences for D. officinale by combining the second-generation Illumina Hiseq 2000 and third-generation PacBio sequencing technologies. We found that orchids have a complete inflorescence gene set and have some specific inflorescence genes. We observed gene expansion in gene families related to fungus symbiosis and drought resistance. We analyzed biosynthesis pathways of medicinal components of D. officinale and found extensive duplication of SPS and SuSy genes, which are related to polysaccharide generation, and that the pathway of D. officinale alkaloid synthesis could be extended to generate 16-epivellosimine. The D. officinale genome assembly demonstrates a new approach to deciphering large complex genomes and, as an important orchid species and a traditional Chinese medicine, the D. officinale genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of orchid plants, as well as the study of medicinal components and potential genetic breeding of the dendrobe. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo: A Review on Its Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hanxiao; Zhao, Tianwen; Sheng, Yunjie; Zheng, Ting; Fu, Lingzhu

    2017-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis, the stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, as a tonic herb in Chinese materia medica and health food in folk, has been utilized for the treatment of yin-deficiency diseases for decades. Methods. Information for analysis of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo was obtained from libraries and Internet scientific databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Wiley InterScience, Ingenta, Embase, CNKI, and PubChem. Results. Over the past decades, about 190 compounds have been isolated from Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. Its wide modern pharmacological actions in hepatoprotective effect, anticancer effect, hypoglycemic effect, antifatigue effect, gastric ulcer protective effect, and so on were reported. This may mainly attribute to the major and bioactive components: polysaccharides. However, other small molecule components require further study. Conclusions. Due to the lack of systematic data of Dendrobium officinale, it is important to explore its ingredient-function relationships with modern pharmacology. Recently, studies on the chemical constituents of Dendrobium officinale concentrated in crude polysaccharides and its structure-activity relationships remain scant. Further research is required to determine the Dendrobium officinale toxicological action and pharmacological mechanisms of other pure ingredients and crude extracts. In addition, investigation is needed for better quality control and novel drug or product development. PMID:28386292

  16. Correlation between Platelet Gelsolin and Platelet Activation Level in Acute Myocardial Infarction Rats and Intervention Effect of Effective Components of Chuanxiong Rhizome and Red Peony Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological role of platelet gelsolin in platelet activation of acute myocardial infarction is not defined. In order to provide a potential new antiplatelet target for Chinese medicine and to elucidate the contribution of Xiongshao capsule, the effective components of Chuanxiong rhizome and red peony root, in this study, we randomly allocated Sprague Dawley rats to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation or sham surgery and different drug prophylaxis as control. We found that gelsolin is highly expressed in platelet rich plasma and lowly expressed in platelet poor plasma, accompanied by the high platelet activation level in model rats; plasma actin filaments and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of platelet calcium ion increased and plasma vitamin D binding protein decreased in model rats. Xiongshao capsule could inhibit the gelsolin expression in platelet rich plasma and ischemic heart tissue simultaneously and reduce the level of plasma F-actin and MFI of platelet calcium ion. Our study concludes that platelet gelsolin is an important contributor to platelet activation, and platelet gelsolin inhibition may form a novel target for antiplatelet therapy. Xiongshao capsule may be a promising Chinese medicine drug for antiplatelet and aspirin-like cardioprotection effect.

  17. Zingiber officinale: A Potential Plant against Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahain, Abdullah; Jahan, Rownak

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease particularly affecting elderly people which leads to massive bone destruction with consequent inflammation, pain, and debility. Allopathic medicine can provide only symptomatic relief. However, Zingiber officinale is a plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, which has traditionally been used for treatment of RA in alternative medicines of many countries. Many of the phytochemical constituents of the rhizomes of this plant have therapeutic benefits including amelioration of RA. This review attempts to list those phytochemical constituents with their reported mechanisms of action. It is concluded that these phytochemicals can form the basis of discovery of new drugs, which not only can provide symptomatic relief but also may provide total relief from RA by stopping RA-induced bone destruction. As the development of RA is a complex process, further research should be continued towards elucidating the molecular details leading to RA and drugs that can stop or reverse these processes by phytoconstituents of ginger. PMID:24982806

  18. Qualitative improvement of rabbit burgers using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mancini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale powder on physical-chemical traits, microbiological growth and sensory properties of rabbit burger. Raw burgers (only meat and meat added with 1 and 2% w/w ginger powder were stored at 4°C for 1, 4 and 7 d and then cooked. Ginger modified the colour of both raw and cooked burgers, leading to more yellow hue and reducing lightness. Aspect of burgers were affected by ginger powder addition, leading to a noticeable difference between the samples. During storage time, the highest modifications were recorded for control samples, followed by burgers with added ginger. Sensory evaluation highlighted that ginger enhanced the juiciness of the burgers; moreover, burgers with ginger powder presented a significant delay in microbial growth. Ginger powder might be considered as a potential ingredient in rabbit meat products to increase their quality and extend their shelf-life.

  19. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction...... approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most...... constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500...

  20. [Separation and identification of specific components and quality standard of stem of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Lu, Ye; Xue, Ya-Fu; Xu, Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2016-07-01

    The violanthin, a specific component, was separated and identified from the stems of Dendrobium officinale by chromatographic technique and spectroscopic method for the first time. The microscopic characteristics of D. officinale powder were examined under a microscopy and described. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was used for qualitative analysis of the violanthin from D. officinale stems with a mixture of ethyl acetate, butanone, formic acid and water (4∶3∶1∶1) as the developing solvent on high performance silica gel precoated plate (SGF254) and using aluminium trichloride as a chromagenic agent. The results showed significant characteristics of violanthin from D. officinale stems on TLC, with certain specificity, and could be used to distinguish it from other easily confusing processed medicinal stems of D. devonianum, D. gratiosissimum and D. aphyllum. The content of naringenin, an active ingredient in D. officinale stems was determined by HPLC analysis on a Bischoff Chromatography HIPAK NC-04 ODS AB column (4.4 mm×250 mm, 5 mm) with acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The wavelength was set at 226 nm and column temperature was 25 ℃. The HPLC method showed good linearity within the range of 3.90-250.00 g•mL⁻¹ (r = 0.999 9) for naringenin. The average recovery of naringenin was 99.20% with 0.17% of RSD. The mass fraction of 20 batches of D. officinale stems was between 0.190 and 0.498 mg•g⁻¹. The established qualitative and quantitative method was simple and rapid with good repeatability and accuracy, providing experimental basis for improving the quality standard of D. officinale, with a very important significance to ensure its quality and clinical effect. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Chemical Differentiation of Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium devonianum by Using HPLC Fingerprints, HPLC-ESI-MS, and HPTLC Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Dai, Jia-Rong; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Lu, Ye; Wu, Lei-Lei; Gong, Amy G. W.; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2017-01-01

    The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis) have a high medicinal value as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Because of the limited supply, D. officinale is a high priced TCM, and therefore adulterants are commonly found in the herbal market. The dried stems of a closely related Dendrobium species, Dendrobium devonianum Paxt., are commonly used as the substitute; however, there is no effective method to distinguish the two Dendrobium species. Here, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was successfully developed and applied to differentiate D. officinale and D. devonianum by comparing the chromatograms according to the characteristic peaks. A HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was further applied for structural elucidation of 15 flavonoids, 5 phenolic acids, and 1 lignan in D. officinale. Among these flavonoids, 4 flavonoid C-glycosides were firstly reported in D. officinale, and violanthin and isoviolanthin were identified to be specific for D. officinale compared with D. devonianum. Then, two representative components were used as chemical markers. A rapid and reliable high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was applied in distinguishing D. officinale from D. devonianum. The results of this work have demonstrated that these developed analytical methods can be used to discriminate D. officinale and D. devonianum effectively and conveniently. PMID:28769988

  2. Danshen-Chuanxiong-Honghua Ameliorates Cerebral Impairment and Improves Spatial Cognitive Deficits after Transient Focal Ischemia and Identification of Active Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhua Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we only apply a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Danshen-Chuanxiong-Honghua (DCH for cardioprotection via anti-inflammation in rats of acute myocardial infarction by occluding coronary artery. Presently, we select not only DCH but also its main absorbed compound ferulic acid (FA for cerebra protection via similar action of mechanism above in animals of the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO. We investigated whether oral administration of DCH and FA could ameliorate MCAO-induced brain lesions in animals. By using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, we analyzed four compounds, including tanshinol, salvianolic acid B, hydroxysafflor yellow A and especially FA as the putative active components of DCH extract in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and injured hippocampus of rats with MCAO. In our study, it was assumed that FA played a similar neuroprotective role to DCH. We found that oral pretreatment with DCH (10 or 20 g/kg and FA (100 mg/kg improved neurological function and alleviated the infarct volume as well as brain edema in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by improved ischemia-induced apoptosis and decreased the inflammatory response. Additionally, chronic treatment with DCH reversed MCAO-induced spatial cognitive deficits in a manner associated with enhanced neurogenesis and increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in lesions of the hippocampus. These findings suggest that DCH has the ability to recover cognitive impairment and offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury via inhibiting microenvironmental inflammation and triggering of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. FA could be one of the potential active compounds.

  3. Antibacterial Studies and Effect of Poloxamer on Gold Nanoparticles by Zingiber Officinale Extracted Green Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, K; Reena, K; Manikandan, A; Antony, S Arul

    2015-07-01

    Poloxamer finds excellent clinical and therapeutic uses for curing of various ailments. The Zin- giber officinale (Z. officinale) is one of the well-known medicinal plants. The poloxamer188 and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale have been used to synthesize the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by a green approach. The Z. officinale extract has been used as a reducing agent while the polox- amerl88 has been used as a stabilizing agent. The effect of addition of poloxamer on the controlling the shape and size of the AuNPs has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The formation of AuNPs has also been confirmed by UV-Visible spectral, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The anti-bacterial activity of the green synthesized AuNPs has been investigated on the three human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The poloxamer188 protected AuNPs inhibit the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure Z. officinale extract and the standard tetracycline (TA).

  4. Analysis of protein profile and pollen morphology of guaiacum officinale linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, S.

    2017-01-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis is triggered by the pollen of trees, grasses and weeds. Guaiacum officinale L. tree is widely cultivated along with the road side. This species was selected to check its allergenic role.Pollen morphology of Guaiacum officinale was examined by Light microsco4pe (LM) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pollen grains of Guaiacum officinale were prolate shape, having tricolpate aperture, and rugulate tectum. Pollen protein concentration of G. officinale was determined by Bradford's assay and qualitative protein analysis of pollen was done by SDS-PAGE(Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis).Total protein content in the pollen extract was 24.28mg/g of pollen. The SDS-PAGE pollen grains protein analysis showed 07 different protein bands. The molecular weight of separated proteins ranged from 25 to 65kDa. Biochemical analysis of G. officinale pollen grains revealed the presence of low molecular weight proteins therefore it is strongly suggested that this species must be considered as a potent allergy causing species. This research would help for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the bronchial allergy suffering patients. (author)

  5. [Study on suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale in Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-bao; Zhou, Ke-jun; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Rui-rui; Li, Xian; Li, Xiao-hua

    2015-09-01

    In order to determine the suitable harvest time of Dendrobium officinale from different regions in Yunnan province, the drying rate, mannose and glucose peak area ratio, extract, contents of polysaccharide and mannose of D. officinale samples collected from six producing areas in Ynnnan province were determined. The results indicate that drying rate and the contents of polysaccharide and mannose arrived the peak from January to April, extract reached a higher content from September to December, and mannose and glucose peak area ratio from October to February of the coming met the requirment of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Hence, the suitable harvesting time of D. officinale in Yunnan province is from December to February of the coming year,according to the experimental results and the request of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

  6. Extraction and Analysis of Gigantol from Dendrobium officinale with Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyan Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the extraction of gigantol from Dendrobium officinale, the influence of methanol concentration, ultrasonic temperature, and liquid ratio on extraction efficiency was analysed by the response surface analysis method. The results show that the extraction rate reached a maximum when the methanol concentration was 92.98%, the solid-liquid ratio was 27.2 mL/g, and the extraction temperature was 41.41 °C. The content of gigantol of Dendrobium officinale in leaves was significantly higher than that in stems, reaching 4.7942 μg/g. The content of gigantol in Dendrobium huoshanensis Fengdou was significantly higher than that of other species of Fengdou. This experiment has practical significance for improving the utilization rate of Dendrobium officinale, and provides a reference for the study of the pharmacological and biological activity of gigantol.

  7. ESTs Analysis Reveals Putative Genes Involved in Symbiotic Seed Germination in Dendrobium officinale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D . officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D . officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e-5). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D . officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D . officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D . officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids. PMID:23967335

  8. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  9. Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goli Chamani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae, Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae, Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01. The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  10. Neutron activation investigation of the accumulation of some elements in Taraxacum officinale, resulting from environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulev, I.; Dzhingova, R.

    1985-01-01

    Taraxinum officinale (dandelion) have been proposed as a biological monitor of antropogenic toxic metals. The INAA has been used to determine the content of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Sb, Se, Zn, and atomic absorption spectroscopy - of Cu and Pb in leaf samples collected round a smelter, in a living quarter of a big city and high up in Rila mountains. A logarithmic dependence of the concentration of the elements on the distance from the emitter was found. The results have shown that the leaves of Taraxacum Officinale reflect the level of environmental pollution thus beeing a very suitable bioindicator for local pollution

  11. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  12. Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Activities of Flavonoids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant growth inhibitory effect on RKO cells with IC50 of 39.08 μmol/L and 17.68 μmol/L, respectively ..... YJ.. Essential oil from rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong induces apoptosis in hypertrophic scar ... Liu H, Mou Y, Zhao J, Wang J, Zhou L, Wang M, Wang. D, Han J, Yu Z, Yang F. Flavonoids from Halostachys.

  13. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) induces apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohre; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis ( T.vaginalis ) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger ) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro. In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis . Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis . Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry. The IC 50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 µg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%. Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis . It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole.

  14. MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of Aboveground and Root Components of Zingiber mioga and Officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Soo; Lee, Sunmin; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-09-03

    Zingiber species are members of the Zingiberaceae family, and are widely used for medicinal and food purposes. In this study aboveground and root parts of Zingiber mioga and Zingiber officinale were subjected to metabolite profiling by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to characterize them by species and parts and also to measure bioactivities. Both primary and secondary metabolites showed clear discrimination in the PCA score plot and PLS-DA by species and parts. Tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, 8-gingerol, and 8-paradol were discriminating metabolites between Z. mioga and Z. officinale that were present in different quantities. Eleven flavonoids, six amino acids, six organic acids, four fatty acids, and gingerenone A were higher in the aboveground parts than the root parts. Antioxidant activities were measured and were highest in the root part of Z. officinale. The relatively high contents of tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, and galanganol C in the root part of Z. officinale showed highly positive correlation with bioactivities based on correlation assay. On the basis of these results, we can suggest different usages of structurally different parts of Zingiber species as food plants.

  15. Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka R; Owu, Daniel U; Nwokocha, Magdalene I; Ufearo, Chibueze S; Iwuala, Moses O E

    2012-10-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (PZingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.

  16. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A; Zanaty, Mohamed I

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture.

  17. Redox properties of ginger extracts: Perspectives of use of Zingiber officinale Rosc. as antidiabetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račková, Lucia; Cupáková, Máriá; Tažký, Anton; Mičová, Júlia; Kolek, Emil; Košt'álová, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic β cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E β cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on β cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in β cells.

  18. Species-specific AFLP markers for identification of Zingiber officinale, Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Majumder, P B; Sen Mandi, S

    2011-02-08

    The Zingiber genus, which includes the herbs known as gingers, commonly used in cooking, is well known for its medicinal properties, as described in the Indian pharmacopoeia. Different members of this genus, although somewhat similar in morphology, differ widely in their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The most important species of this genus, with maximal therapeutic properties, is Zingiber officinale (garden ginger), which is often adulterated with other less-potent Zingiber sp. There is an existing demand in the herbal drug industry for an authentication system for the Zingiber sp in order to facilitate their commercial use as genuine phytoceuticals. To this end, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to produce DNA fingerprints for three Zingiber species. Sixteen collections (six of Z. officinale, five of Z. montanum, and five of Z. zerumbet) were used in the study. Seven selective primer pairs were found to be useful for all the accessions. A total of 837 fragments were produced by these primer pairs. Species-specific markers were identified for all three Zingiber species (91 for Z. officinale, 82 for Z. montanum, and 55 for Z. zerumbet). The dendogram analysis generated from AFLP patterns showed that Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet are phylogenetically closer to each other than to Z. officinale. The AFLP fingerprints of the Zingiber species could be used to authenticate Zingiber sp-derived drugs and to resolve adulteration-related problems faced by the commercial users of these herbs.

  19. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  20. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, T A; Hema, U; Aswathy, M S

    2007-11-01

    A large number of xenobiotics are reported to be potentially hepatotoxic. Free radicals generated from the xenobiotic metabolism can induce lesions of the liver and react with the basic cellular constituents - proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (3g/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in rat. Aqueous extract of Z. officinale significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and ALP activities were significantly (pHepatic lipid peroxidation was enhanced significantly (pofficinale (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) prior to acetaminophen significantly declines the activities of serum transaminases and ALP. Further the hepatic antioxidant status was enhanced in the Z. officinale plus acetaminophen treated group than the control group. The results of the present study concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against acetaminophen-induced acute toxicity is mediated either by preventing the decline of hepatic antioxidant status or due to its direct radical scavenging capacity.

  1. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  2. MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of Aboveground and Root Components of Zingiber mioga and Officinale

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    Ji Soo Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber species are members of the Zingiberaceae family, and are widely used for medicinal and food purposes. In this study aboveground and root parts of Zingiber mioga and Zingiber officinale were subjected to metabolite profiling by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS in order to characterize them by species and parts and also to measure bioactivities. Both primary and secondary metabolites showed clear discrimination in the PCA score plot and PLS-DA by species and parts. Tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, 8-gingerol, and 8-paradol were discriminating metabolites between Z. mioga and Z. officinale that were present in different quantities. Eleven flavonoids, six amino acids, six organic acids, four fatty acids, and gingerenone A were higher in the aboveground parts than the root parts. Antioxidant activities were measured and were highest in the root part of Z. officinale. The relatively high contents of tetrahydrocurcumin, diarylheptanoid, and galanganol C in the root part of Z. officinale showed highly positive correlation with bioactivities based on correlation assay. On the basis of these results, we can suggest different usages of structurally different parts of Zingiber species as food plants.

  3. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber Officinale on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic ...

  4. Metabolic Analysis of Medicinal Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense during Different Growth Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Jin

    Full Text Available Metabolomics technology has enabled an important method for the identification and quality control of Traditional Chinese Medical materials. In this study, we isolated metabolites from cultivated Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense stems of different growth years in the methanol/water phase and identified them using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. First, a metabolomics technology platform for Dendrobium was constructed. The metabolites in the Dendrobium methanol/water phase were mainly sugars and glycosides, amino acids, organic acids, alcohols. D. officinale and D. huoshanense and their growth years were distinguished by cluster analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Eleven metabolites that contributed significantly to this differentiation were subjected to t-tests (P<0.05 to identify biomarkers that discriminate between D. officinale and D. huoshanense, including sucrose, glucose, galactose, succinate, fructose, hexadecanoate, oleanitrile, myo-inositol, and glycerol. Metabolic profiling of the chemical compositions of Dendrobium species revealed that the polysaccharide content of D. huoshanense was higher than that of D. officinale, indicating that the D. huoshanense was of higher quality. Based on the accumulation of Dendrobium metabolites, the optimal harvest time for Dendrobium was in the third year. This initial metabolic profiling platform for Dendrobium provides an important foundation for the further study of secondary metabolites (pharmaceutical active ingredients and metabolic pathways.

  5. Symbiotics and Aloe vera and Symphytum officinale extracts in broiler feed

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    Paula Rodrigues Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the effects of dietary Aloe vera and Symphytum officinale extracts added separately or in combination with symbiotics on the performance, nutrient utilization, serum biochemical parameters, biometrics, and intestinal histomorfometry of broilers. The experiment had a randomized block design with five treatments and six replicates of ten broilers each. Treatments were as follows: negative control and positive control (diet without and with antibiotic, respectively; 0.2% Aloe vera (AV; 0.2% Symphytum officinale (S; 0.2% functional supplement, composed of symbiotics fermented in Aloe vera and comfrey plant extracts (S+PE. At seven days of age, FI of birds fed the Aloe vera extracts diets were lower than that observed for birds consuming the diet with Symphytum officinale extract and S+PE. Broiler performance remained unaffected by treatments at others ages evaluated. At 10 to 14 days of age the lowest ADCDM ADCCP was shown in group feed NC. The highest ADCCP was observed in PC control group and in diets supplemented with Aloe vera and S+PE. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phosphorus were affected by addition of extracts at seven, 21, and 35 days of age. The longest duodenal villi were observed in broilers fed S+PE diets at seven days of age. Aloe vera and Symphytum officinale extracts and symbiotics can be used in broiler diets as an alternative to growth-promoting antibiotics.

  6. Isolation of symlandine from the roots of common comfrey (Symphytum officinale) using countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N C; Oberlies, N H; Brine, D R; Handy, R W; Wani, M C; Wall, M E

    2001-02-01

    Three pyrrolizidine alkaloids, symlandine, symphytine, and echimidine (1-3), were isolated from the roots of Symphytum officinale using a one-step countercurrent chromatography procedure. The structures of 1-3 were confirmed by several spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR methods. This is the first description of the separation of symlandine (1) from its stereoisomer, symphytine (2).

  7. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of taraxicuum officinale flowers oil by gas chromatography mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Ullah, R.

    2013-01-01

    Taraxicum officinale, is a highly valuable medicinal plant. The roots is an important herbal drug, having long been used on the continent as a remedy for liver complaints. Keeping in view the importance and wide applications in the pharmaceutical industries, the present study was therefore aimed to analyze the chemical constituents of the flowers of T. officinale. The T. officinale flowers oil constituents of methyl ester derivatives of fatty acids were analyzed applying gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. The results obtained showed the presence of both containing the saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids in T. officinale flower oils. A total of 19 different components were identified and quantified. The concentration level of Methyl ester of Lenolenic acid was found very effective in concentration 3.33%, among the identified analytes of interest. In addition, the level of other chemical constituents of methyl ester of palmitic acid 3.11%, myristic acid 1.87, linolenic acids 1.67%, stearic acid 0.97 were found. The concentration level of the rest of identified fatty acids analytes were below 1%. Thus the results obtained from the current initiative is very promising due to the presence of high percentage of valuable analytes concentrations recorded in the fatty acid of T. officinale flower oil. Thus due to the presence of highly important analytes which have increased their importance for consumption in the pharmaceuticals as well as its applications in the new formulations for different skin, cosmetics and health purposes and for use by local practioners. The study will also provide a scientific database line. (author)

  8. Taraxacum officinale and Urtica dioica extracts inhibit dengue virus serotype 2 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ocelotl, María R; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora H; Moreno, Diego A; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Domínguez, Fabiola; Santos-López, Gerardo

    2018-03-16

    Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Calea integrifolia and Caesalpinia pulcherrima are widely used all over the world for treatment of different illnesses. In Mexico, these plants are traditionally used to alleviate or counteract rheumatism and inflammatory muscle diseases. In the present study we evaluated the activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of these four plants, on the replication of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2). Extraction process was carried out in a Soxtherm® system at 60, 85 and 120 °C; a chemical fractionation in silica gel chromatography was performed and compounds present in the active fractions were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn. The cytotoxic concentration and the inhibitory effect of extracts or fractions on the DENV2 replication were analyzed in the BHK-21 cell line (plaque forming assay). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated for the extracts and fractions. The methanolic extracts at 60 °C of T. officinale and U. dioica showed the higher inhibitory effects on DENV2 replication. After the chemical fractionation, the higher activity fraction was found for U. dioica and T. officinale, presenting IC 50 values of 165.7 ± 3.85 and 126.1 ± 2.80 μg/ml, respectively; SI values were 5.59 and 6.01 for each fraction. The compounds present in T. officinale, were luteolin and caffeoylquinic acids derivatives and quercertin diclycosides. The compounds in the active fraction of U. dioica, were, chlorogenic acid, quercertin derivatives and flavonol glycosides (quercetin and kaempferol). Two fractions from U. dioica and T. officinale methanolic extracts with anti-dengue activity were found. The compounds present in both fractions were identified, several recognized molecules have demonstrated activity against other viral species. Subsequent biological analysis of the molecules, alone or in combination, contained in the extracts will be carried out to develop therapeutics

  9. ESTs analysis reveals putative genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5)). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

  10. ESTs analysis reveals putative genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs, which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5. Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS. The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS, were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes putatively involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  12. Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale Wigg. S.L. Is A Convenient Object For Genetic Monitoring Of Environmental Pollution

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    Nina V Reutova

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg. s.l. for testing of mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants. This widespread species is convenient for genetic monitoring. It is sensitive to various types of pollutants (heavy metals, products of combustion and processing of oil. T. officinale appeared to be a convenient, simple in using and inexpensive object for genetic monitoring of environmental pollution. anaphase-telophase method is recomended for this purpose.

  13. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale leaf extract are involved in the protective effect against hepatoxicity induced by acetaminophen in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Leticia Priscilla; Gubert, Priscila; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-06-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity has been related to several cases of hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic transplant. As APAP hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress, natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy to diminish the hepatic dysfunction induced by APAP. Taraxacum officinale Weber (Family Asteraceae), commonly known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of T. officinale leaf extract against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. T. officinale was able to decrease thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels induced by 200 mg/kg APAP (p.o.), as well as prevent the decrease in sulfhydryl levels caused by APAP treatment. Furthermore, histopathological alterations, as well as the increased levels of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases caused by APAP, were prevented by T. officinale (0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL). In addition, T. officinale extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide radicals. Our results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of T. officinale against the toxicity induced by APAP. The possible mechanisms involved include its scavenger activities against ROS and reactive nitrogen species, which are attributed to the content of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  14. Nectar secretion in the flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale L. and nectar chemistry

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    Małgorzata Stpiczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectar secretion and nectar chemistry in the flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale L. were examined in the four stages of anthesis: large buds, before pollen exposure: II - freshy opened flowers with the beginning of anther dehiscence: III- completely opened flowers in the maximum of pollen exposure: lV- flowers at the final stage of anthesis, without pollen in the anthers. Individual flower stays fresh 2,5-3 days, on average. Disc-shaped nectaries of S.officinale are located at the base of the four-lobbed ovary. Nectar is released through the modified stomata. Start of nectar secretion was noted at the bud stage. Nectar volume, mass of nectar and sugars differed in the examined stages of anthesis and the biggest values were noted at the final stages. Dominant sugar in nectar was sucrose with smaller amounts of fructose and glucose. The presence of amino acids was also recorded.

  15. Taraxacum officinale dandelion extract efficiently inhibited the breast cancer stem cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Ngu Van Trinh; Nghi Doan-Phuong Dang; Diem Hong Tran; Phuc Van Pham

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play an important role in breast cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. Therefore, targeting BCSCs is an essential strategy to suppress cancer growth. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dandelion Taraxacum officinale extracts on BCSC proliferation in vitro in 2D and 3D cell culture platforms. Materials and Methods: The BCSCs were maintained under standard conditions, verified for expression of CD44 and CD24 surface...

  16. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  17. Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae.

  18. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of ginger root (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Bui Thanh; Thu, Dang Kim; Thu, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hai, Nguyen Thanh

    2017-05-04

    Background Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of neurological disorder. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic contents, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) inhibitory activities of different fraction of Z. officinale root grown in Vietnam. Methods The roots of Z. officinale are extracted with ethanol 96 % and fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (BuOH) solvents. These fractions evaluated the antioxidant activity by 1,1-Diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and AChE inhibitory activity by Ellman's colorimetric method. Results Our data showed that the total phenolic content of EtOAc fraction was highest equivalents to 35.2±1.4 mg quercetin/g of fraction. Our data also demonstrated that EtOAc fraction had the strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 was 8.89±1.37 µg/mL and AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 22.85±2.37 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner, followed by BuOH fraction and the n-hexane fraction is the weakest. Detailed kinetic analysis indicated that EtOAc fraction was mixed inhibition type with Ki (representing the affinity of the enzyme and inhibitor) was 30.61±1.43 µg/mL. Conclusions Our results suggest that the EtOAc fraction of Z. officinale may be a promising source of AChE inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Putih Kecil (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum terhadap Candida Albicans

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    Huanny Satriyani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of many antifungal drugs make it necessary to find an herbal alternative with reduced side effects. Many herbals are knwon to have an antifungal effect, including ginger with its volatile oil composition. However, the specific antifungal effect and optimal concentration of the volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. amarum against C. albicans is not yet known. This research was done to verify the antifungal effect of Zingiber officinale var. amarum volatile oil on C. albicans, to determine its optimal concentration, and to determine the relation between the volatile oil was provided by water and steam distillation of BALITTRO, Bogor. The colonies were double counted in two steps. First, the volatile oil at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78% were applied for treatment, wheras in the second step concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50% were used. In the disk diffusion method, the volatile oil concentrations of 100%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125% were applied in triplicate in Petri dishes containing C. albicans by using 6 mm blank disks. Result: Mann-Whitney test showed the significant decrease of the colonies between 6.25% and 3.125% of the volatile oil concentration (α = 0.021, and also between the volatile oil concentration 6.25% and the control group (α = 0.014. The Spearman test showed a positive and strong correlation between the volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum and its inhibition zone (r = 0.91. Conclusion: The volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans with an optimal concentration of 6.25%, and increasing volatile oil concentration is followed by increasing inhibition zone.

  20. Cdna cloning and expression analyses of the isoflavone reductase-like gene of dendrobium officinale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, X.; Xu, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The full length of the isoflavone reductase-like gene (IRL) cDNA of Dendrobium officinale was cloned by using reverse transcription (RT) PCR combined with cDNA library, the IRL function was identified by Bioinformatics and prokaryotic expression analyses, and the IRL expression levels in the organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the full length of the cDNA of D. officinale IRL, DoIRL, was 1238 bp (accession no. KJ661023). Its open reading frame (ORF) was 930 bp which encoded 309 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa, the 5 untranslated region (UTR) was 61 bp and the 3 UTR containing a poly (A) tail was 247 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of DoIRL, DoIRL, was forecast to contain a NAD(P)H-binding motif (GGTGYIG) in the N-terminal region, two conserved N-glycosylation sites, a conserved nitrogen metabolite repression regulator (NmrA) domain and a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER) domain, to hold the nearest phylogenetic relationship with the PCBER of Striga asiatica, and to share both 73% identity with the isoflavone reductases-like (IRLs) of Cucumis sativus and Striga asiatica. In Escherichia coli 'BL21' cells, the DoIRL cDNA expression produced a protein band holding the predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa. DoIRL expressed in all organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages at comparatively low levels, and the expression level in the leaves of the two-year-old plants was the highest. (author)

  1. Sesquiterpene glucosides from anti-leukotriene B4 release fraction of Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Y; Takanaka, K; Tsukada, H; Miwa, Y; Taga, T; Tanaka, S; Ikeshiro, Y

    2001-01-01

    Chemical examination of the MeOH extract of the root of Taraxacum officinale, which exhibited inhibitory activity on the formation of leukotriene B4 from activated human neutrophils, has resulted in the isolation of 14-O-beta-D-glucosyl-11,13-dihydro-taraxinic acid (1) and 14-O-beta-D-glucosyl-taraxinic acid (2). The absolute stereostructure of 1 has been established by X-ray chrystallographic examination.

  2. Effect of Alcoholic Salvia officinale Extract on Analgesia Induced by Hyoscine in Adult Male Wistar Rats

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    A Gomar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hyoscine (scopolamine as an anticholinergic and antinociceptive drug, has some side effects. Recently, it has been received much attention to the interactions between synthetic drugs and herbal extracts and their pharmacological responses which made the possibility of using the minimum dose and low side effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Salvia officinale extract, hyoscine and their combinationin management of pain in rats. Methods: In this experimental study animals were divided randomly into eight groups (n=6. Hyoscine (0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg administrated by intraperitoneal injection and extract (100 and 200 mg/kg was administered by gavages one hour before administration of hyoscine. Thirty minutes after treatment, rats were subjected to tail-flick test and data were recorded. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05. Results: Administration of hyoscine at doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg created significant analgesic effects compared to control group in the Tail-flick test (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. The combination of S.officinale extract (100 and 200 mg/kg and hyoscine (1 mg/kg significantly increased the pain threshold than the groups receiving only extract or hyoscine. Conclusion: Our data showed that hydroethanolic extract of Salvia officinale has an important antinociceptive effect which can lead to decreased pain in rats. Sincehyoscine as an analgesic drug has some side effects, combination of Salvia officinale extractand hyoscine can decrease the needed dose of hyoscine and itsside effects.

  3. Anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (Ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Selima Sultana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor contributing to atterosclerosis in diabetes mellitus. Zingiber officinale (ginger widely consumed as spice is known for its hypoglycemic and hypochlosteremic actions. The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic action of ginger juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wister rats, 130-150 g wt, fed on standard diet and water ad libitum were divided into 4 groups (n=6 in each group: group I non-diabetic control, group II non-diabetic treated; group III diabetic control and group IV diabetic treated. Diabetes was induced by Inj. alloxan 150 mg Kg–1 b.w., i.p. (group III & IV on Day 2. Rats having blood glucose level of >7 mmol/l on day 5 (72 hrs after alloxan Inj. were considered diabetic and selected for experimentation. Both non-diabetic and diabetic treated groups (Gr II & IV received Zingiber officinale (ginger juice (4 ml Kg–1 b.w., p.o. for 10 days (day 2-day 11 through Ryles tube. On Day 12, animals were sacrificed under light ether anaesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum separated for estimation of lipids. Zingiber officinale (ginger juice significantly (p<0.01 decreased alloxan induced hyperglycemia (group IV, but had no effect on blood glucose level in normal rats (group II; significantly (p<0.001 reduced alloxan induced hyperlipidemia, but produced no significant lipid lowering effects in normal rats (group II. The results suggest a significant anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The findings may be clinically significant and exploited. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 55-58

  4. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1994-02-01

    Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs.

  5. Effect of Tragacanth as Binding Agents to Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roxb.) Lozenges

    OpenAIRE

    Taurina, Wintari; Syukri, Yandi; Triastuti, Asih

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roxb.) is a traditional plants usually used to relieve pain, rheumatism, and neutralize poison. The aim of this study was to get the optimum concentration of tragacanth as a binding agent in ginger lozenges formulation. The components from ginger were extracted using percolation with ethanol 70% and then evaporated using rotary evaporator. Lozenges were made in three formulas ; formula 1 (5%), 2 (7,5%), 3 (10%) of tragacanth using wet granulation method. Granules a...

  6. Metabolic Analysis of Medicinal Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense during Different Growth Years

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Qing; Jiao, Chunyan; Sun, Shiwei; Song, Cheng; Cai, Yongping; Lin, Yi; Fan, Honghong; Zhu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics technology has enabled an important method for the identification and quality control of Traditional Chinese Medical materials. In this study, we isolated metabolites from cultivated Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense stems of different growth years in the methanol/water phase and identified them using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). First, a metabolomics technology platform for Dendrobium was constructed. The metabolites in the Dendrobium...

  7. Biology, seed characteristics and growth establishment of comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KOVÁŘOVÁ, Jaroslava

    2016-01-01

    The thesis titled "Biology, seed characteristics and growth establishment of common comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.)" dealt with the evaluation methods of reproduction comfrey and evaluation of the impact of environmental conditions to the grow of comfrey. Further it dealt with germination tests and their statistical evaluation while respecting the specific work with seeds. They were evaluated seed characteristics, which are reflected in the growth of these plants arising both in soil and in...

  8. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Rohini; Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-12-01

      Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale), commonly known as ginger, has been widely used traditionally for a variety of medicinal purposes, one of which is for the treatment of pain. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence from all human participant clinical trials that have assessed the efficacy of ginger for the treatment of any type of pain.   Following a protocol, multiple databases were sought using comprehensive search strategies for Z. officinale and pain together with a trial filter for randomized or controlled clinical trials. Trials testing the efficacy of Z. officinale, used as a sole oral treatment against a comparison condition in human adults suffering from any pain condition, were included.   Seven published articles, reporting a total of eight trials (481 participants), were included in the review. Six trials (two for osteoarthritis, one for dysmenorrhea, and three for experimentally induced acute muscle pain) found that the use of Z. officinale reduced subjective pain reports. The methodological quality of the included articles was variable. When assessed using the Jadad scale, which allows a score of between 0 and 5 to be given, included articles obtained Jadad ratings ranging from 2 to 5.   Due to a paucity of well-conducted trials, evidence of the efficacy of Z. officinale to treat pain remains insufficient. However, the available data provide tentative support for the anti-inflammatory role of Z. officinale constituents, which may reduce the subjective experience of pain in some conditions such as osteoarthritis. Further rigorous trials therefore seem to be warranted. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Effect of Lithospermum officinale, Silver Sulfadiazine and Alpha Ointments in Healing of Burn Wound Injuries in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham Amiri, Zahra; Tanideh, Nader; Seddighi, Anahita; Mokhtari, Maral; Amini, Masood; Shakouri Partovi, Alborz; Manafi, Amir; Hashemi, Seyedeh Sara; Mehrabani, Davood

    2017-09-01

    Burn is the most devastating condition in emergency medicine leading to chronic disabilities. This study aimed to compare the effect of Lithospermum officinale , silver sulfadiazine and alpha ointments on healing of burn wounds in rat. Ninety-five rats were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 just underwent burn injury, and groups 2-5 received alpha ointment, silver sulfadiazine (SSD), gel base and L. officinale extract, respectively. A hot plate was used for induction of a standard 3 rd degree burn wound. Burn wounds were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated on days 7 th , 14 th and 21 st after burn induction. A decrease in the number of inflammatory cells was noted when L. officinale and SSD were applied while the most inflammatory response was seen after administration of alpha ointment. The number of macrophages alone decreased after burn injury, while the frequency was the most when L. officinale and alpha ointment were applied. Re-epithelialization, angiogenesis and formation of granulation tissue were the best in relation to L. officinale and alpha ointment while, the worst results belonged to burn injury group and SSD regarding granulation tissue formation. Considering histological assessment, the best results were observed for scoring of inflammation, re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, formation of granulation tissue and number of macrophage when L. officinale and alpha ointment were used after burn injury. It can be concluded that topical application of L. officinale as a non-toxic, inexpensive and easy to produce herbal can lead to a rapid epithelialization and wound healing and these findings can be added to the literature on burn wound healing.

  10. Zingiber officinale: Its antibacterial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Biofilm formation, low membrane permeability and efflux activity developed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, play an important role in the mechanism of infection and antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we evaluate the antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale against multi-drug resistant strain of P. aeruginosa. The study explores antibacterial efficacy and time-kill study concomitantly the effect of herbal extract on bacterial cell physiology with the use of flow cytometry and inhibition of biofilm formation. Z. officinale was found to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa, significantly. A major decline in the Colony Forming Units was observed with 3 log 10  at 12 h of treatment. Also it is found to affect the membrane integrity of the pathogen, as 70.06 ± 2.009% cells were found to stain with Propidium iodide. In case of efflux activity 86.9 ± 2.08% cells were found in Ethidium bromide positive region. Biofilm formation inhibition ability was found in the range of 68.13 ± 4.11% to 84.86 ± 2.02%. Z.officinale is effective for killing Multi-Drug Resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolate by affecting the cellular physiology and inhibiting the biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic Analysis of Medicinal Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense during Different Growth Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qing; Jiao, Chunyan; Sun, Shiwei; Song, Cheng; Cai, Yongping; Lin, Yi; Fan, Honghong; Zhu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics technology has enabled an important method for the identification and quality control of Traditional Chinese Medical materials. In this study, we isolated metabolites from cultivated Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense stems of different growth years in the methanol/water phase and identified them using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). First, a metabolomics technology platform for Dendrobium was constructed. The metabolites in the Dendrobium methanol/water phase were mainly sugars and glycosides, amino acids, organic acids, alcohols. D. officinale and D. huoshanense and their growth years were distinguished by cluster analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Eleven metabolites that contributed significantly to this differentiation were subjected to t-tests (PDendrobium species revealed that the polysaccharide content of D. huoshanense was higher than that of D. officinale, indicating that the D. huoshanense was of higher quality. Based on the accumulation of Dendrobium metabolites, the optimal harvest time for Dendrobium was in the third year. This initial metabolic profiling platform for Dendrobium provides an important foundation for the further study of secondary metabolites (pharmaceutical active ingredients) and metabolic pathways.

  12. [Correlation analysis of major agronomic characters and the polysaccharide contents in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xi-Long; Qiu, Dao-Shou; Cai, Shi-Ke; Luo, Huan-Ming; Deng, Rui-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jin

    2013-10-01

    In order to provide theoretical and technological basis for the germplasm innovation and variety breeding in Dendrobium officinale, a study of the correlation between polysaccharide content and agronomic characters was conducted. Based on the polysaccharide content determination and the agronomic characters investigation of 30 copies (110 individual plants) of Dendrobium officinale germplasm resources, the correlation between polysaccharide content and agronomic characters was analyzed via path and correlation analysis. Correlation analysis results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between average spacing and polysaccharide content, the correlation coefficient was -0.695. And the blade thickness was positively correlated with the polysaccharide content, but the correlation was not significant. The path analysis results showed that the stem length was the maximum influence factor to the polysaccharide, and it was positive effect, the direct path coefficient was 1.568. According to thess results, the polysaccharide content can be easily and intuitively estimated by the agronomic characters investigating data in the germpalsm resources screening and variety breeding. Therefore, it is a visual and practical technology guidance in quality variety breeding of Dendrobium officinale.

  13. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity of Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Zingiber officinal e ( Z. officinal e) ethanol extract on the viability, embryogenesis and infectivity Toxocara canis ( T. canis ) eggs. It was carried out both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro experiment, unembryonated T. canis eggs were incubated with 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL Z. officinal e extract at 25 °C for 6, 12, and 24 h to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their viability and for two weeks to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on their embryogenesis. In vivo experiment was performed to assess the effect of Z. officinal e on infectivity of T. canis eggs. Treated embryonated eggs by Z. officinale extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL for 24 h were inoculated into mice and their livers were examined for the presence of T. canis larvae on the 7th day after infection and for histopathological evaluation at 14th day post-infection. Z. officinal e showed a significant ovicidal activity on T. canis eggs. The best effect was observed with 100 mg/mL concentration after 24 h with an efficacy of 98.2%. However, the treated eggs by 25, 50 mg/mL of Z. officinale extract after 24 h showed ovicidal activity by 59.22 and 82.5% respectively. Moreover, this extract effectively inhibited T. canis eggs embryogenesis by 99.64% and caused their degeneration at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 2 weeks of treatment. However, the lower concentrations, 25 and 50 mg/mL inhibited embryogenesis by 51.19 and 78.57% respectively. The effect of Z. officinal e on the infectivity T. canis eggs was proven by the reduction of larvae recovery in the livers by 35.9, 62.8 and 89.5% in mice groups inoculated by Z. officinale treated eggs at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively. Histopathologically, the liver tissues of mice infected with Z. officinale treated eggs at the concentration of 100 mg/mL appeared healthy with slight degenerative changes of hepatocytes, opposite to that recorded in the infected mice

  14. Proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms of Mycena dendrobii promoting transplantation survival and growth of tissue culture seedlings of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X B; Ma, X Y; Lei, H H; Song, H M; Ying, Q C; Xu, M J; Liu, S B; Wang, H Z

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Its seedlings generally show low survival and growth when transferred from in vitro tissue culture to a greenhouse or field environment. In this study, the effect of Mycena dendrobii on the survival and growth of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings and the mechanisms involved was explored. Mycena dendrobii were applied underneath the roots of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings. The seedling survival and growth were analysed. The root proteins induced by M. dendrobii were identified using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Mycena dendrobii treatment significantly enhanced survival and growth of D. officinale seedlings. Forty-one proteins induced by M. dendrobii were identified. Among them, 10 were involved in defence and stress response, two were involved in the formation of root or mycorrhizae, and three were related to the biosynthesis of bioactive constituents. These results suggest that enhancing stress tolerance and promoting new root formation induced by M. dendrobii may improve the survival and growth of D. officinale tissue culture seedlings. This study provides a foundation for future use of M. dendrobii in the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobiums. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Bevin A; Conroy, Richard S; Spelman, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber (Asteraceae) has been extensively employed as a diuretic in traditional folk medicine and in modern phytotherapy in Europe, Asia, and the Americas without prior clinical trial substantiation. In this pilot study, a high-quality fresh leaf hydroethanolic extract of the medicinal plant T. officinale (dandelion) was ingested by volunteers to investigate whether an increased urinary frequency and volume would result. Volume of urinary output and fluid intake were recorded by subjects. Baseline values for urinary frequency and excretion ratio (urination volume:fluid intake) were established 2 days prior to dandelion dosing (8 mL TID) and monitored throughout a 1-day dosing period and 24 hours postdosing. For the entire population (n = 17) there was a significant (p officinale ethanolic extract shows promise as a diuretic in humans. Further studies are needed to establish the value of this herb for induction of diuresis in human subjects.

  16. Characterization of Nanoencapsulated Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale Extract Using Combination of Malto Dextrin and Gum Arabic as Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliana, Y.; Harmami, S. B.; Restu, W. K.

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated nanoencapsulation of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract. The encapsulated extract was used as a complex matrix of multi-layered interfacial membranes between malto dextrin and gum Arabic. Characterization of nanoencapsulation using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and BET surface area (SA) showed the morphology, functional group and cumulative adsorption in the surface area of pores. The TEM image of the nanoencapsulated powders of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract showed a nearly spherical shape with the particle size of 664 nm from its average radius.

  17. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhos...

  18. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of WRKY family genes in Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Song, Zheng; Wei, Li; Li, Lubin

    2018-03-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators, and the members regulate multiple biological processes. However, there is limited information on WRKYs in Dendrobium officinale. In this study, 52 WRKY family genes of D. officinale were surveyed for the first time. Conserved domain, phylogenetic, exon-intron construction, and expression analyses were performed for the DoWRKY genes. Two major types of intron splicing (PR and VQR introns) were found, and the intron insertion position was observed to be relatively conserved in the conserved DoWRKY domains. The expression profiles of nine DoWRKYs were analyzed in cold- and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated D. officinale seedlings; the DoWRKYs showed significant expression changes at different levels, which suggested their vital roles in stress tolerance. Moreover, the expression trends of most of the DoWRKYs after the simultaneous cold stress and MeJA treatment were the opposite of those of DoWRKYs after the individual cold stress and MeJA treatments, suggesting that the two stresses might have antagonistic effects and affect the adaptive capacity of the plants to stresses. Twelve DoWRKY genes were differentially expressed between symbiotic and asymbiotic germinated seeds; all were upregulated in the symbiotic germinated seeds except DoWRKY16. These differences in expression of DoWRKYs might be involved in promoting in vitro symbiotic germination of seeds with Tulasnella-like fungi. Our findings will be useful for further studies on the WRKY family genes in orchids.

  19. Protective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nasturtium officinale on Rat Blood Cells Exposed to Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felor Zargari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic is one of the most toxic metalloids. Anemia and leukopenia are common results of poisoning with arsenic, which may happen due to a direct hemolytic or cytotoxic effect on blood cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nasturtium officinale on blood cells and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to sodium (metaarsenite. Methods: 32 Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group I (normal healthy rats, Group II (treated with 5.5mg/kg of body weight of NaAsO2, Group III (treated with 500mg/kg of body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of N. officinale, and Group IV (treated with group II and III supplementations. Blood samples were collected and red blood cell, white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet, total protein and albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity were measured. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results: WBC, RBC and Hct were decreased in the rats exposed to NaAsO2 (p<0.05. A significant increase was seen in RBC and Hct after treatment with the plant extract (p<0.05. There was no significant decrease in serum albumin and total protein in the groups exposed to NaAsO2 compared to the group I, but NaAsO2 decreased the total antioxidant capacity, significantly. Conclusion: The Nasturtium officinale extract have protective effect on arsenic-induced damage of blood cells.

  20. Development of SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers as a complementary tool for identification of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) from crude drugs and multicomponent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Preeti; Warude, Dnyaneshwar; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2008-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (common or culinary ginger) is an official drug in Ayurvedic, Indian herbal, Chinese, Japanese, African and British Pharmacopoeias. The objective of the present study was to develop DNA-based markers that can be applied for the identification and differentiation of the commercially important plant Z. officinale Roscoe from the closely related species Zingiber zerumbet (pinecone, bitter or 'shampoo' ginger) and Zingiber cassumunar [cassumunar or plai (Thai) ginger]. The rhizomes of the other two Zingiber species used in the present study are morphologically similar to that of Z. officinale Roscoe and can be used as its adulterants or contaminants. Various methods, including macroscopy, microscopy and chemoprofiling, have been reported for the quality control of crude ginger and its products. These methods are reported to have limitations in distinguishing Z. officinale from closely related species. Hence, newer complementary methods for correct identification of ginger are useful. In the present study, RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) analysis was used to identify putative species-specific amplicons for Z. officinale. These were further cloned and sequenced to develop SCAR (sequence-characterized amplified region) markers. The developed SCAR markers were tested in several non-Zingiber species commonly used in ginger-containing formulations. One of the markers, P3, was found to be specific for Z. officinale and was successfully applied for detection of Z. officinale from Trikatu, a multicomponent formulation.

  1. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  2. Two new monoterpenoid glycosides from the fresh rhizome of Tongling White Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Tan, Su-Bei; Wang, Ya; Chang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Two new monoterpenoid glycosides, trans-1,8-cineole-3,6-dihydroxy-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), and 5,9-dihydroxy borneol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with four known monoterpenoid glycosides (3-6), were isolated from the water-soluble constituents of the fresh rhizome of Tongling White Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Their structures were decisively elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In vitro tests for antimicrobial activity showed that compounds 1 and 3 possess significant activity against two Gram-positive organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  3. Effect of Gamma-Irradiation on the Volatile Flavor Compounds from Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, K.M.; Seo, H.Y.; Gyawali, Rajendra; Shim, S.L.; Yang, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on volatile components of Korean dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) was studied and compared with non-irradiated sample. Volatile compounds from non- and irradiated samples were extracted using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). A total of 83 and 71 compounds were identified and quantified from non-and irradiated dried ginger at dose of 10 kGy. Identified components were hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and miscellaneous compounds

  4. Efecto antifúngico de hidrodestilados de Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif&Par

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gregorio Joya-Dávila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis, ocasionada por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. & Par, es la principal enfermedad del cacao en Latinoamérica, y las medidas para su manejo sostenible son aún escasas. Con base en reportes previos, el objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar el proceso de extracción por destilación de Zingiber officinale, evaluando in vitro su efecto antifúngico sobre conidias de M. roreri. Se elaboraron ocho hidrodestilados con material fresco (300 y 600 g/L y seco al sol (45 y 90 g/L, con dos solventes (agua-alcohol, relación 10:1 y 10:0, y en tubos de ensayo con conidias del hongo, mediante la técnica de cultivo en medio líquido (agua-extracto de cacao, se adicionó cada hidrodestilado de Z. officinale en relación 1:1 v/v, determinando su efecto sobre la formación y germinación de conidias del hongo en cinco momentos de observación (0, 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas. Los resultados muestran que todos los hidrodestilados de Z. officinale presentan metabolitos con efectos de inhibición sobre las variables evaluadas, siendo el tratamiento J5 (Z. officinale seco, 45 g/L, relación 10:1 agua: alcohol el mejor, pues alcanza el 88% y el 100% de control sobre la formación y germinación de conidias, respectivamente, con respecto al testigo absoluto a las 72 horas, siendo posible optimizar la extracción mediante destilación utilizando 45 g/L de material seco y el uso de solvente agua-alcohol en una relación 10:1.

  5. Further investigations on the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale Weber growing on mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleci, Laura; Bini, Claudio; Spiandorello, Massimo; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal accumulation produces significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. In this work we examined the effect of heavy metals (HM) on the morphology of T. officinale growing on mine soils, with the following objectives: - to determine the fate of HM within the soil-plant system; - to highlight possible damage at anatomical and cytological level; - to assess the resilience capacity of Taraxacum officinale after three years of pot cultivation. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from four sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). Plants were cultivated in pots at the botanical garden of the University of Florence (HBF), and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (e.g. reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy observations show a clear difference in the cell organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness proportional to HM concentration. The poor structural organisations, and the reduced foliar thickness of the contaminated plants, are related to soil contamination. Differences in roots micromorphology concern the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, all the samples examined present mycorrhiza. Ultrastructure observations of the parenchyma cells show mitochondrial structure alteration, with lacking or reduced cristae of the internal membrane at increasing

  6. Study mutagesis of dendrobium officinale protocorm from embryo irradiated by 137Cs γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Zhonggen; Xu Cheng; Xi Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Study on the growth and differentiation of D. officinale protocorm treated by different doses of 137 Cs γ-ray was carried out. The results indicated that the treatment of irradiation restrained the growth and differentiation of protocorm, especially to roots.The LD50 is 67.23 Gy, because the proto corm is a integrate embryo ids and higher tolerance was found. Ploidy analysis showed that most of aberrant seedlings go with DNA change, and they were not euploid. When the plants treated by irradiation, some of aberrant seedlings appeared stem forfication, and leaves appeared chlorophyll-deficient or green-white,probably due to some genes' expression or closing. (authors)

  7. Tenderness, pH and Water Activity (Aw of Spices Dried Meat on Various Concentrate of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe and Different Soaking Time

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    Akhadiyah Afrila

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the concentrate of Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and different soaking time of to tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw, microbial count and sensory evaluation of spices dried meat. The result showed that higher the ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe concentrate and longer the soaking time, it would give more tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw to spices dried meat with 15% ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract and 20 minutes length of soaking time. Key Words : Dendeng, ginger, soaking time, tenderness, pH and Aw

  8. Potential Alleviation of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale on Lead-Induced Testicular Toxicity: an Ultrastructural Study.

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    Mustafa, Hesham Noaman

    2015-01-01

    Natural, products were studied to combat reproductive alterations of lead. The current work aimed to disclose the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris and Zingiber officinale to alleviate lead acetate induced toxicity. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups. Group 1 was considered control, group 2 received 200 mg/l PbAc water, group 3 received 50 mg/kg/rat of C. vulgaris extract and 200 mg/l PbAc water, and group 4 received 100 mg/kg/rat of Z. officinale and 200 mg/l PbAc water for 90 days. Testis samples were subjected to ultrastructural examination. It was observed that PbAc caused degenerative alterations in the spermatogenic series in many tubules, with a loss of germ cells and vacuoles inside the cytoplasm and between the germ cells. Mitochondria exhibited ballooning, with lost cristae and widening of the interstitial tissue, while nuclear envelopes of primary spermatocytes were broken up, and axonemes of the mid-pieces of the sperms were distorted. With the treatment with C. vulgaris or Z. officinale, there were noticeable improvements in these modifications. It was concluded that both C. vulgaris and Z. officinale represent convincing medicinal components that may be used to ameliorate testicular toxicity in those exposed to lead in daily life with superior potentials revealed by C. vulgaris due to its chelating action.

  9. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

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    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  10. Screening Test of Greenhouse Seeding Exercise Matrix for Tissue Culture Seeding of Dendrobium Officinale Kimura et Migo

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    Zhou Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo has a high demand on planting matrix, while its tissue culture seeding has much more demands on planting matrix. To find out a seeding exercise matrix to enhance the survival rate of tissue culture seeding of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo more efficiently, this article carries out a screening test of greenhouse seeding exercise matrix material for tissue culture seeding of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. The test adopts full random test design, mainly for screening test of five matrix materials, namely pine bark, camphor tree bark, fern root, peanut shell and longan bark. Compare the impact of prepared seeding exercise matrix on the survival rate and growth trend (including plant height, growth rate and bud growth rate. The test result shows that: The seeding exercise matrix prepared by fern root is the most efficient, and the survival rate, plant height, growth rate and bud growth rate have achieved 100%, 4.5cm, 43.67% and 54.33% respectively. The main reason may be that the seeding exercise matrix C prepared by fern root is fairly loose and has a great water permeability, which is conducive to the growth of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo.

  11. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

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    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  12. Generation of autotetraploid plant of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and its quality evaluation

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    Kun-Hua, Wei; Jian-Hua, Miao; He-Ping, Huang; Shan-Lin, Gao

    2011-01-01

    Background: Zingiber officinale Rosc. is not only an important medical plant in China, but also one of the most commonly used plant spices around the world. Early researches in Z. officinale Rosc. were focused on rapid propagation, germplasm preservation, and somatic embryogenesis, only a few reports focused on the generation of tetraploid ginger plants with colchicines treatment in vitro. Materials and Methods: The adventitious buds were submerged into different concentrations of colchicine water solution for different time to induce polyploid plants, and the induced buds were identified by root-tip chromosome determination and stomatal apparatus observation. Eighteen selected tetraploid lines were transferred to the field, and the leaf characteristics, rhizome yield, contents of volatile oil and gingerol were respectively evaluated to provide evidence of high-yield and good qualities of tetraploid ginger. Results: The induction rate reached as high as 33.3% of treated buds. More than 48 lines of autotetraploid plants were obtained. All tetraploid plants showed typical polyploidy characteristics. All of the 18 selected tetraploid lines possessed higher rhizome yield and overall productivity of volatile oil and gingerol than those of the control. Conclusion: Five elite lines have been selected for further selection and breeding new varieties for commercial production in agricultural production. PMID:21969790

  13. Effect of metal salts on antibacterial activity of zingiber officinale roscoe extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, T.; Yaqeen, Z.; Imran, H.; Rehman, Z.; Fatima, N.

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe (ginger) and its combination with different salts like CuSO/sub 4/, ZnSO/sub 4/ and MnCl/sub 2/ was investigated. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were tested by agar diffusion method. The results showed that ethanol extract of Zingiber Officinale gave the maximum zone of inhibition at 50 mg/ml concentrations against Escherichia coli among Gram negative bacteria and against Staphylococcus aureus in Gram positive bacteria. However antibacterial activity of the ginger and metal salts combination was greater than activity of ethanol extract. These investigations indicate that though ethanol extract has antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, ginger and metal salts complex has more inhibitory effect on microorganisms. Antibacterial activity was also compared with standard drug ampicillin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ginger extract and metal salts complexes against all test organisms ranged from 0.3125 to 2.5 mg/ml. (author)

  14. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

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    Arash Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20. Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  15. Structure Characterization and Immunomodulating Effects of Polysaccharides Isolated from Dendrobium officinale.

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    Wei, Wei; Feng, Lei; Bao, Wan-Rong; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Nie, Shao-Ping; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-02-03

    A crude polysaccharide fraction (cDOP) has been determined to be the characteristic marker of Dendrobium officinale, an expensive tea material in Asia, but its chemistry and bioactivity have not been studied. In work reported here, cDOP was destarched (DOP, 90% yield) and separated into two subfraction polysaccharides, DOPa and DOPb, which were characterized by monosaccharide composition and methylation analyses and spectral analyses (FT-IR and (1)H and (13)C NMR). Both are composed of mannose and glucose at similar ratios and have a similar structure with a backbone of 1,4-linked β-D-mannopyranosyl and β-D-glucopyranosyl residues. Significant differences were observed only in their molecular weights. Bioassay using mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 indicated that DOP and its two subfractions enhance cell proliferation, TNF-α secretion, and phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. They also induced the proliferation of lymphocytes alone and with mitogens. DOPa and DOPb are thus proven to be major, active polysaccharide markers of D. officinale.

  16. [Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time.

  17. Effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide on adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

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    Yinjuan ZHAO

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOP on the adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. DOP was extracted fresh Dendrobium officinale. Rat BMSCs were prepared, and then were treated with 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μg/mL DOP, respectively. The cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The adipogenic differentiation was quantitatively analyzed by oil red O staining assay. The mRNA expressions of adipogenic differentiation related gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG, lipoprotein lipase (LPL and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 were detected by RT-PCR. Results showed that, DOP with 0-800 μg/mL concentration had no significant toxicity to BMSCs. 200-800 μg/mL DOP could obviously inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Compared with control group, the expression levels of PPARG, LPL and FABP4 mRNA 200, 400 and 800 μg/mL DOP groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. DOP can inhibit the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which may be related with its down-regulation of PPARG, LPL and FABP4 expressions in BMSCs.

  18. Metabolic Profiling of Dendrobium officinale in Response to Precursors and Methyl Jasmonate

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    Chunyan Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are the main active ingredients in the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale. Based on the published genomic and transcriptomic data, a proposed terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA biosynthesis pathway may be present in D. officinale. In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs with a high-yielding production of alkaloids were obtained by the optimization of tryptophan, secologanin and methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment. The results showed that the total alkaloid content was 2.05 times greater than that of the control group when the PLBs were fed with 9 µM tryptophan, 6 µM secologanin and 100 µM MeJA after 36 days. HPLC analysis showed that strictosidine synthase (STR activity also increased in the treated plants. A total of 78 metabolites were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS methods; 29 differential metabolites were identified according to the multivariate statistical analysis. Among them, carapanaubine, a kind of TIA, exhibited dramatically increased levels. In addition, a possible underlying process of the metabolic flux from related metabolism to the TIA biosynthetic pathway was enhanced. These results provide a comprehensive view of the metabolic changes related to alkaloid biosynthesis, especially TIA biosynthesis, in response to tryptophan, secologanin and MeJA treatment.

  19. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Constituents Isolated from the Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus DO14 from Dendrobium officinale

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    Ling-Shang Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two novel cytotoxic and antifungal constituents, (4S,6S-6-[(1S,2R-1, 2-dihydroxybutyl]-4-hydroxy-4-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1, (6S,2E-6-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-oxodec-2-enoic acid (2, together with three known compounds, LL-P880γ (3, LL-P880α (4, and Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (5 were isolated from the metabolites of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1–5 were evaluated by cytotoxicity and antifungal effects. Our present results indicated that compounds 1–4 showed notable anti-fungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC ≤ 50 μg/mL for all the tested pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, compounds 1–4 possessed notable cytotoxcities against human cancer cell lines of HL-60 cells with the IC50 values of below 100 μM. Besides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong cytotoxities on the LOVO cell line with the IC50 values were lower than 100 μM. In conclusion, our study suggested that endophytic fungi of D. officinale are great potential resources to discover novel agents for preventing or treating pathogens and tumors.

  20. Discrimination of the rare medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale based on naringenin, bibenzyl, and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomei; Wang, Fangfei; Wang, Yunqiang; Li, Xuelan; Wang, Airong; Wang, Chunlan; Guo, Shunxing

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a method for discriminating Dendrobium officinale from four of its close relatives Dendrobium chrysanthum, Dendrobium crystallinum, Dendrobium aphyllum and Dendrobium devonianum based on chemical composition analysis. We analyzed 62 samples of 24 Dendrobium species. High performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed that the four low molecular weight compounds 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone (naringenin), 3,4-dihydroxy-4',5-dime-thoxybibenzyl (DDB-2), 3',4-dihydroxy-3,5'-dimethoxybibenzyl (gigantol), and 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3',5-trimethoxybibenzy (moscatilin), were common in the genus. The phenol-sulfuric acid method was used to quantify polysaccharides, and the monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides was determined by gas chromatography. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to differentiate among the five closely related species based on the chemical composition analysis. This proved to be a simple and accurate approach for discriminating among these species. The results also showed that the polysaccharide content, the amounts of the four low molecular weight compounds, and the mannose to glucose ratio, were important factors for species discriminant. Therefore, we propose that a chemical analysis based on quantification of naringenin, bibenzyl, and polysaccharides is effective for identifying D. officinale.

  1. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu-Lian; Tang, Zhuan-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhong, Yong-Hong; Yao, Su-Zhi; Wang, Li-Sheng; Lin, Cui-Wu; Luo, Xuan

    2016-08-01

    In this report, a water-soluble polysaccharide was obtained from the dried stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo by hot-water (70-75°C) extraction and 85% ethanol precipitation, and successively purification by DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. The D. officinale polysaccharide (DOP) has a molecular weight of 8500Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis reveals that DOP is composed of mannose, glucose, and arabinose with a trace of galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 6.2:2.3:2.1:0.1. Periodate oxidation-smith degradation and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis suggest the predominance of mannose and glucose, and it contains a 2-O-acetylglucomannan and (1→4)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl and (1→4)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. Atomic force microscope shows that DOP mainly exists as rod-shaped chains, supporting high degrees of polymerization. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in vitro assay indicate that DOP has good scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, higher scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical, and metal chelating activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Constituents Isolated from the Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus DO14 from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-Shang; Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Bo; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Si, Jin-Ping; Peng, Wei; Han, Ting

    2015-12-22

    Two novel cytotoxic and antifungal constituents, (4S,6S)-6-[(1S,2R)-1, 2-dihydroxybutyl]-4-hydroxy-4-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1), (6S,2E)-6-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-oxodec-2-enoic acid (2), together with three known compounds, LL-P880γ (3), LL-P880α (4), and Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (5) were isolated from the metabolites of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1-5 were evaluated by cytotoxicity and antifungal effects. Our present results indicated that compounds 1-4 showed notable anti-fungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 50 μg/mL) for all the tested pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, compounds 1-4 possessed notable cytotoxcities against human cancer cell lines of HL-60 cells with the IC50 values of below 100 μM. Besides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong cytotoxities on the LOVO cell line with the IC50 values were lower than 100 μM. In conclusion, our study suggested that endophytic fungi of D. officinale are great potential resources to discover novel agents for preventing or treating pathogens and tumors.

  3. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S M; Wahbee, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Comfrey extracts (1% w/v) were prepared using distilled water, ethanol, and methanol. They were exposed to wavelengths of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C for 10 min. The principal peak on the UV-spectroscopy scanning, the flavonoids, reducing power, and the allantoin levels were determined before and after irradiation. UV irradiation reduces the magnitude of the principle peak at 355 nm wavelength of the aqueous infusion and methanol extracts. It improves the levels of flavonoids and reducing power of the aqueous extracts and increases the levels of allanotoin in aqueous and methanol extracts. UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient of comfrey extracted with methanol, whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power, and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols.

  4. Combinatorial cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapati, Kesava Rao V.; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Kadiyala, Dakshayani B.; Zainulabedin, Saiyed M.; Gandhi, Nimisha; Sathaye, Sadhana S.; Indap, Manohar A.; Boukli, Nawal; Rodriguez, Jose W.; Nair, Madhavan P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many plant-derived products exhibit potent chemopreventive activity against animal tumor models as well as rodent and human cancer cell lines. They have low side effects and toxicity and presumably modulate the factors that are critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. The present study investigates the effects of some medicinal plant extracts from generally recognized as safe plants that may be useful in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Methods Clonogenic assays using logarithmically-growing cells were performed to test the effect. The cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were studied using sulforhodamine B assay, tetrazolium dye assay, colony morphology and microscopic analysis. Results Out of the 13 lyophilized plant-derived extracts evaluated for growth-inhibitory effects on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line, two extracts derived from C. longa and Z. officinale showed significant inhibitory effects on colony-forming ability. The individual and augmentative effects of these two extracts were tested for their narrow range effective lower concentration on PC-3M in clonogenic assays. At relatively lower concentrations, C. longa showed significant inhibition of colony formation in clonogenic assays; whereas at same concentrations Z. officinale showed only moderate inhibitory effects. However, when both the agents were tested together at the same concentrations, the combined effects were much more significant than their individual ones. On normal prostate epithelial cells both C. longa and Z. officinale had similar effects but at a lower magnitude. These observations were confirmed by several cytotoxicity assays involving the morphological appearance of the colonies, microscopic observations, per cent inhibition in comparison to control by sulforhodamine B and tetrazolium dye assay. Conclusions From these observations, it was concluded that the combined effects of C. longa and Z. officinale

  5. Hybrid Sequencing of Full-Length cDNA Transcripts of Stems and Leaves in Dendrobium officinale

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    Liu He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale is an extremely valuable orchid used in traditional Chinese medicine, so sought after that it has a higher market value than gold. Although the expression profiles of some genes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis have previously been investigated, little research has been carried out on their alternatively spliced isoforms in D. officinale. In addition, information regarding the translocation of sugars from leaves to stems in D. officinale also remains limited. We analyzed the polysaccharide content of D. officinale leaves and stems, and completed in-depth transcriptome sequencing of these two diverse tissue types using second-generation sequencing (SGS and single-molecule real-time (SMRT sequencing technology. The results of this study yielded a digital inventory of gene and mRNA isoform expressions. A comparative analysis of both transcriptomes uncovered a total of 1414 differentially expressed genes, including 844 that were up-regulated and 570 that were down-regulated in stems. Of these genes, one sugars will eventually be exported transporter (SWEET and one sucrose transporter (SUT are expressed to a greater extent in D. officinale stems than in leaves. Two glycosyltransferase (GT and four cellulose synthase (Ces genes undergo a distinct degree of alternative splicing. In the stems, the content of polysaccharides is twice as much as that in the leaves. The differentially expressed GT and transcription factor (TF genes will be the focus of further study. The genes DoSWEET4 and DoSUT1 are significantly expressed in the stem, and are likely to be involved in sugar loading in the phloem.

  6. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.

  7. Jenjibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae): etnofarmacognosia, cultivo, composición química y farmacología

    OpenAIRE

    Rosella, María Adelaida; Bongiorno de Pfirter, Graciela; Mandrile, Eloy L.

    1996-01-01

    Se actualizan los conocimientos sobre botánica, etnofarmacognosia, cultivo, y en particular los avances en el aislamiento de nuevos compuestos y sus aplicaciones en la moderna farmacología de Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae).

  8. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125?mg/kg, 250?mg/kg, and 500?mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500?mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officin...

  9. Cytochemical Localization of Polysaccharides in Dendrobium officinale and the Involvement of DoCSLA6 in the Synthesis of Mannan Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chunmei; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; Liu, Xuncheng; Zeng, Songjun; Yu, Zhenming; Zhang, Xinghua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Deng, Rufang; Tan, Jianwen; Luo, Jianping; Duan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its abundant polysaccharides found in stems. We determined the composition of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch content in D. officinale stems. The extracted water-soluble polysaccharide content was as high as 35% (w/w). Analysis of the composition of monosaccharides showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides were dominated by mannose, to a lesser extent glucose, and a small amount of galactose, in a ...

  10. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome on the development of metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, Srinivas; Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2009-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome, including obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance that predisposes type 2 diabetes is a major disease problem around the world and a plethora of herbal medicines are claimed to be effective in controlling these disorders. The rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is commonly used as a spice in various foods and beverages. Apart from its other traditional medical uses, Z. officinale has been used to control diabetes and dyslipidaemia. In the present study, the protective effects of an ethanolic extract of Z. officinale on the development of metabolic syndrome were investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The marked rise in body weights, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids in serum of the rats that followed 6 weeks of high-fat diet treatment were significantly reduced by Z. officinale treatment. However, no significant change in serum HDL cholesterol was observed either with high-fat diet or Z. officinale compared to both control groups. The present results provide scientific evidence to substantiate the traditional use of Z. officinale in preventing metabolic disorders.

  11. Microscopical descriptions and chemical analysis by HPTLC of Taraxacum officinale in comparison to Hypochaeris radicata: a solution for mis-identification

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    Natalie Cortés

    Full Text Available Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg, Asteraceae, is frequently misidentified or substituted with Hypochaeris radicata L., Asteraceae (false dandelion. To increase our knowledge of T. officinale and differentiate it from H. radicata, we investigated the two species using a combination of taxonomy, microscopy, and chromatographic studies via fingerprint profiles. Micromorphological characteristics were studied using scanning electron microscopy, while optic light microscopy was used for histochemical observations. Fingerprint profiles were constructed using HPTLC. T. officinale was found to have a morphologically distinct type of pluricellular trichomes that can be used to differentiate the two species, as these structures were not identified in H. radicata samples. Furthermore, two types of laticiferous vessels may also be distinctive characteristics of T. officinale at species level. In addition, the HPTLC data derived from methanolic extracts of H. radicata and T. officinale roots showed clearly different chemical profiles. Thus this study establishes the authenticity of T. officinale, and the observed parameters could help minimize drug substitutions in herbal medicines.

  12. De Novo transcriptome assembly of Zingiber officinale cv. Suruchi of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahendra; Das, Aradhana; Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar; Kar, Basudeba; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2016-09-01

    Zingiber officinale Rosc., known as ginger, is an Asian crop, popularly used in every household kitchen and commercially used in bakery, beverage, food and pharmaceutical industries. The present study deals with de novo transcriptome assembly of an elite ginger cultivar Suruchi by next generation sequencing methodology. From the analysis 10.9 GB raw data was obtained which can be available in NCBI accession number SAMN03761185. We identified 41,969 transcripts using Trinity RNA-Seq from ginger rhizome of Suruchi variety from Odisha. The transcript length varied from 300 bp to 8404 bp with a total length of 3,96,40,526 bp and N50 of 1251 bp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data of an elite ginger cultivar Suruchi released for Odisha state of India which will help molecular biologists to develop genetic markers for identification of cultivars.

  13. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale (Roscoe ethanolic extract

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    Nikolić Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ethanolic extract from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale were evaluated. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC have been determined. The values were in the range from 0.0024 to > 20 mg/ml. The most sensitive bacteria were Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Anti-biofilm activity was tested by crystal violet assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used as the test organisms. Ethanolic extract showed the best result on Proteus mirabilis biofilm where biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC50 was 19 mg/ml.

  14. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  15. Nine New Gingerols from the Rhizoma of Zingiber officinale and Their Cytotoxic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zezhi; Wang, Yanzhi; Gao, MeiLing; Cui, Wanhua; Zeng, Mengnan; Cheng, Yongxian; Li, Juan

    2018-02-02

    Nine new gingerols, including three 6-oxo-shogaol derivatives [( Z )-6-oxo-[6]-shogaol ( 1 ), ( Z )-6-oxo-[8]-shogaol ( 2 ), ( Z )-6-oxo-[10]-shogaol ( 3 )], one 6-oxoparadol derivative [6-oxo-[6]-paradol ( 4 )], one isoshogaol derivative [( E )-[4]-isoshogaol ( 5 )], and four paradoldiene derivatives [(4 E ,6 Z )-[4]-paradoldiene ( 8 ), (4 E ,6 E )-[6]-paradoldiene ( 9 ), (4 E ,6 E )-[8]-paradoldiene ( 10 ), (4 E ,6 Z )-[8]-paradoldiene ( 11 )], together with eight known analogues, were isolated from the rhizoma of Zingiber officinale . Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. It was noted that the isolation of 6-oxo-shogaol derivatives represents the first report of gingerols containing one 1,4-enedione motif. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and HRESIMS data. All the new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cells (MCF-7, HepG-2, KYSE-150).

  16. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naritsara Saenghong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.

  17. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  18. Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ke, Weixin; Bao, Rui; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, metabolic syndromes (MetSs), including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, have become a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. Accumulating data have suggested that traditional herbs might be able to provide a wide range of remedies in prevention and treatment of MetSs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been documented to ameliorate hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These beneficial effects are mediated by transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor κB. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity and related complications in MetS and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. This review provides guidance for further applications of ginger for personalized nutrition and medicine. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Complete Heart Block in a Patient Taking Trachyspermum ammi and Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesamoddin Hosseinjani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal products are one of the most popular medications in the world. Nevertheless, herbal medications are not always safe and several cases of side effects have been reported. A 34 years old man was referred to Tehran heart center (THC for implantation of permanent pacemaker (PPM. Recently, he had experienced several episodes of presyncope and according to the diagnosis of Complete Heart Block (CHB with accelerated junctional rhythm, a temporary pacemaker (TPM was implanted for him in another medical center. He had rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and fatty liver in his past medical history. In his drug history, the patient took only herbal medications for the treatment of his ailments among them daily use of Trachyspermum ammi and Zingiber officinale (ginger products were the main causes of this adverse effect.

  20. Genetic diversity analysis of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe by RAPD collected from subcontinent of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Kamran; Ahmad, Altaf; Chaudhary, Anis; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Sayeed; Amir, Mohd; Mallick, N

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was undertaken for the assessment of 12 accessions of Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from subcontinent of India by RAPD markers. DNA was isolated using CTAB method. Thirteen out of twenty primers screened were informative and produced 275 amplification products, among which 261 products (94.90%) were found to be polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism of all 12 accessions ranged from 88.23% to 100%. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different levels of genetic polymorphism. The data of 275 RAPD bands were used to generate Jaccard's similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram by means of UPGMA. Results showed that ginger undergoes genetic variation due to a wide range of ecological conditions. This investigation was an understanding of genetic variation within the accessions. It will also provide an important input into determining resourceful management strategies and help to breeders for ginger improvement program.

  1. Aqueous Extract Composition of Spent Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum) from Essential Oil Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, G. J.; Mentari, G. P.; Khasanah, L. U.; Utami, R.

    2018-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale var Amarum) is widely used as raw material for essential oil production in Indonesia and contain high functional compounds. After producing essential oil, distillation leave less valuable spent ginger. This research was conducted to determine the bioactive compounds remained in aqueous extract of the spent ginger. The extracts were produced at various combination of temperature (55, 75, 95°C) and duration (15, 30, 45 minutes). The extract composition was observed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry analysis. The temperature and time of maceration extraction affected the content of compounds in spent ginger aqueous extracts. The extracts contained four largest components of α-curcumene, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene and β-bisabolene. The aqueous extracts from spent ginger contained the compounds which may contribute to distinctive flavor of ginger and also bioactive function.

  2. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Farzaneh; Khajehei, Marjan; Alavinia, Mohammad; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of herbal plants have been reported to treat various gynecological problems of women. This study was set out to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in high school girls. Ninety-two young women who experienced HMB and met the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. Participants were evaluated for six consecutive menstrual cycles. During 3 assessment cycles, their HMB was confirmed by Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart. They were then randomly allocated to two study groups to receive either ginger or placebo capsules. The participants filled in the same chart during three intervention cycles. The level of menstrual blood loss dramatically declined during the three intervention cycles in ginger-receiving group. The decrease of blood loss in ginger-receiving group was significantly more remarkable than that of participants receiving placebo (pginger may be considered as an effective therapeutic option for HMB. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Flavonoids Extraction from Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion: Optimisation Using Response Surface Methodology and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface method was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Taraxacum officinale. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield with ultrasonic-assisted extraction could reach 2.62% using 39.6% (v/v ethanol and 59.5 : 1 (mL/g liquid-solid ratio for 43.8 min. The crude extract was then purified by HPD-100 macroporous adsorption resin, and the flavonoids content in the purified extract increased to 54.7%. The antioxidant activity of the purified flavonoids was evaluated in vitro by scavenging capacity of ABTS or DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, and FTC test. The knowledge obtained from this study should be useful to further develop and apply this plant resource.

  4. Analysis, separation, and bioassay of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, C E; Crews, C; Hanley, A B

    1996-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been linked to liver and lung cancers and a range of other deleterious effects. As with many natural toxicants, major problems arise in determining the effects of the different members of the class and the importance of various forms of ingestion. In this study we have investigated the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum officinale), determined the levels in different parts of the plant and in herbal remedies, separated the alkaloids into two main groups--the principal parent alkaloids and the corresponding N-oxides--and, finally, carried out a simple bioassay based upon the mutagenic capability of the separated compounds in a human cell line. We conclude that the part of the plant ingested is important in terms of alkaloid challenge and that the effect of two of the major groups of alkaloids individually is different from that of alkaloids in the whole plant extract.

  5. Improved method for isolation of lycopsamine from roots of comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Damjan; Kalamar, Bostjan; Kreft, Samo

    2012-07-01

    An improved method for the isolation and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) roots was developed, introducing very fast, selective and ion residue-free reduction of N-oxides followed by ion-exchange chromatography giving a non-aqueous solution of alkaloids, from which solvents can be easily removed. With this procedure the use of large volumes of organic solvents, very slow reduction of N-oxides and input of additional impurities was avoided. Lycopsamine, which proved to be the major alkaloid, was additionally purified by preparative layer chromatography (PLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identity of the alkaloid was confirmed by (I)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.

  6. Food Value of Two Varieties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Commonly Consumed in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Olubunmi B.; Akomolafe, Seun F.; Akinyemi, Funmilayo T.

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a well-known and widely used herb, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health-promoting properties. The proximate, mineral, antinutrient, amino acid, and phytochemical components of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated. Amino acid composition was determined using standard analytical techniques. The results obtained in percentages in the two varieties of ginger (white and yellow types) were crude fibre (21.90, 8.30), fat (17.11, 9.89), carbohydrate (39.70, 58.21), crude protein (12.05, 11.65), ash (4.95, 7.45) and moisture (3.95, 4.63) contents respectively. Elemental analysis revealed that potassium (0.98 ppm and 1.38 ppm) is the most abundant, while copper (0.01 ppm) is the least. Phytochemical screening indicated that they are both rich in saponins, anthraquinones, phlobatannin and glycosides. Also, the antinutrient constituents of white ginger were lower than yellow ginger, although the levels of the antinutrient constituents in the two varieties are saved for consumption. The essential amino acids in the two varieties were almost the same, with Leu being the most abundant in both. The two ginger varieties were adequate only in Leu, Phe + Try, and valine based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Overall, the findings indicate that the two varieties of ginger are good sources of nutrients, mineral elements, amino acid, and phytochemicals which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements. PMID:24967255

  7. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkyu

    2016-07-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study aims to re-examine the therapeutic potential of co-administration of natural products and cancer chemotherapeutics. Candidate material for this project, α-zingiberene, was extracted from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and α-zingiberene makes up 35.02 ± 0.30% of its total essential oil. α-Zingiberene showed low IC50 values, 60.6 ± 3.6, 46.2 ± 0.6, 172.0 ± 6.6, 80.3 ± 6.6 (μg/mL) in HeLa, SiHa, MCF-7 and HL-60 cells each. These values are a little bit higher than IC50 values of general essential oil in those cells. The treatment of α-zingiberene produced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in SiHa cells, and the percentage of sub-diploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner in SiHa cells, hallmark features of apoptosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c activation and an in vitro caspase-3 activity assay demonstrated that the activation of caspases accompanies the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene, which mediates cell death. These results suggest that the apoptotic effect of α-zingiberene on SiHa cells may converge caspase-3 activation through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm. It is considered that anti-proliferative effect of α-zingiberene is a result of apoptotic effects, and α-zingiberene is worth furthermore study to develop it as cancer chemotherapeutics.

  8. PHYTOPHARMACEUTICAL POTENTIAL AND MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF RHIZOMES OF CURCUMA LONGA AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (ZINGIBERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric and ginger are spices derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale respectively. The rhizomes of C. longa and Z. officinale were extracted in hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Phytochemical screening was carried out on each of the extracts. Proximate analysis to determine the extractive values, moisture content, total ash, crude fibre, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash were carried out on the rhizomes of fresh and dried turmeric and ginger. The rhizomes of C. longa revealed alcohol extractive value 22.79%, water extractive value 26.44%, moisture content 11.56 ± 0.04%, total ash 13.24±0.03%, crude fiber 6.40±0.20%, acid insoluble ash 1.02±0.02% and water soluble ash 4.32±0.07%. Extractive values for ginger were recorded as alcohol 2.7% and water 2.1%, fresh and dried ginger rhizomes afforded, moisture content 72.63 ±0.09%, 10.03±0.09%, total ash 2.50 ±0.06%, 7.30±0.10%, acid insoluble ash 0.57±0.03%, 2.03±0.09%, and water soluble ash 1.23±0.03%, 3.87±0.09% respectively. Observations on the microscopic studies of the fresh rhizomes of turmeric and ginger revealed possession of oil duct and spiral xylem vessels. Similarly phytomorphology of the powdered rhizomes of ginger and turmeric revealed the presence of tracheid and compartment of vessels. Presence of similar anatomical features in both the fresh and ground samples confirmed the authenticity or adulterous of the powdered samples.

  9. Identification and Characterization of a Chloroplast-Targeted Obg GTPase in Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Deng, Feng; Deng, Mengsheng; Han, Jincheng; Chen, Jianbin; Wang, Li; Yan, Shen; Tong, Kai; Liu, Fan; Tian, Mengliang

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial homologous chloroplast-targeted Obg GTPases (ObgCs) belong to the plant-typical Obg group, which is involved in diverse physiological processes during chloroplast development. However, the evolutionarily conserved function of ObgC in plants remains elusive and requires further investigation. In this study, we identified DoObgC from an epiphytic plant Dendrobium officinale and demonstrated the characteristics of DoObgC. Sequence analysis indicated that DoObgC is highly conserved with other plant ObgCs, which contain the chloroplast transit peptide (cTP), Obg fold, G domain, and OCT regions. The C terminus of DoObgC lacking the chloroplast-targeting cTP region, DoObgC Δ1-160 , showed strong similarity to ObgE and other bacterial Obgs. Overexpression of DoObgC Δ1-160 in Escherichia coli caused slow cell growth and an increased number of elongated cells. This phenotype was consistent with the phenotype of cells overexpressing ObgE. Furthermore, the expression of recombinant DoObgC Δ1-160 enhanced the cell persistence of E. coli to streptomycin. Results of transient expression assays revealed that DoObgC was localized to chloroplasts. Moreover, we demonstrated that DoObgC could rescue the embryotic lethal phenotype of the Arabidopsis obgc-t mutant, suggesting that DoObgC is a functional homolog to Arabidopsis AtObgC in D. officinale. Gene expression profiles showed that DoObgC was expressed in leaf-specific and light-dependent patterns and that DoObgC responded to wounding treatments. Our previous and present studies reveal that ObgC has an evolutionarily conserved role in ribosome biogenesis to adapt chloroplast development to the environment.

  10. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  11. [Optimization of enzymatic extraction of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale by box-Behnken design and response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-mei; Li, Jing-ling; Feng, Peng; Zhang, Xiang-dong; Zhong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    To optimize the processing of enzymatic extraction of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale. With phenol-sulfuric acid method and the DNS determination polysaccharide, Box-Behnken response surface methodology was used to optimize different enzyme dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time by using Design-Expert 8.05 software for data analysis and processing. According to Box-Behnken response, the best extraction conditions for the polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale were as follows: the amount of enzyme complex was 3.5 mg/mL, hydrolysis temperature was 53 degrees C, and reaction time was 70 min. In accordance with the above process, the polysaccharide yield was 16.11%. Box-Behnken response surface methodology is used to optimize the enzymatic extraction process for the polysaccharide in this study, which is effective, stable and feasible.

  12. Potential effect of the medicinal plants Calotropis procera, Ficus elastica and Zingiber officinale against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif el-Din, Sayed H; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Mohamed, Mona A; Hamed, Manal M; Sterner, Olov; Botros, Sanaa S

    2014-02-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) have been traditionally used to treat many diseases. The antischistosomal activity of these plant extracts was evaluated against Schistosoma mansoni. Male mice exposed to 80 ± 10 cercariae per mouse were divided into two batches. The first was divided into five groups: (I) infected untreated, while groups from (II-V) were treated orally (500 mg/kg for three consecutive days) by aqueous stem latex and flowers of C. procera, latex of F. elastica and ether extract of Z. officinale, respectively. The second batch was divided into four comparable groups (except Z. officinale-treated group) similarly treated as the first batch in addition to the antacid ranitidine (30 mg/kg) 1 h before extract administration. Safety, worm recovery, tissues egg load and oogram pattern were assessed. Calotropis procera latex and flower extracts are toxic (50-70% mortality) even in a small dose (250 mg/kg) before washing off their toxic rubber. Zingiber officinale extract insignificantly decrease (7.26%) S. mansoni worms. When toxic rubber was washed off and ranitidine was used, C. procera (stem latex and flowers) and F. elastica extracts revealed significant S. mansoni worm reductions by 45.31, 53.7 and 16.71%, respectively. Moreover, C. procera extracts produced significant reductions in tissue egg load (∼34-38.5%) and positively affected oogram pattern. The present study may be useful to supplement information with regard to C. procera and F. elastica antischistosomal activity and provide a basis for further experimental trials.

  13. Acute administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizomes) extract on timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2014-03-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) or ginger, which is used in traditional medicine has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints (myoclonic, generalized clonus and forelimb tonic extension phase) was recorded. The results showed that the ginger extract has anticonvulsant effects in all the experimental treatment groups of seizure tested as it significantly increased the seizure threshold. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100mg/kg (p<0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (p<0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (p<0.01) seizure 2 and 24h before induction of PTZ compared with control group. Based on the results the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory system, antioxidant mechanisms, oxidative stress and calcium channel inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Zingiber officinale (GENGIBRE COMO FONTE ENZIMÁTICA NA REDUÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS CARBONÍLICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Alves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various vegetables as biological catalysts were evaluated in enantioselective reduction of carbonyl compounds. The stereoselectivity of the process was in agreement with Prelog's rule for twelve of the vegetables, whereas okra and green peppers formed anti-Prelog products. Zingiber officinale exhibited the best results with 30% conversion and 89% ee. The parameters of the reaction such as time, solvent and other substrates investigated, as well as the specie, showed good chemo- and enantioselectivity.

  15. Alteration of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold by chronic administration of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Abdolkarim; Mirazi, Naser

    2015-05-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), or ginger, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), daily for 1 week before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints, e.g., myoclonic, generalized clonic, and tonic extension phase, was recorded. Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25-100 mg/kg (55.33 ± 1.91 versus 24.47 ± 1.33 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (74.64 ± 3.52 versus 47.72 ± 2.31 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (102.6 ± 5.39 versus 71.82 ± 7.82 mg/kg, p < 0.01) seizure induced by PTZ compared with the control group. Based on the results, the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory systems, antioxidant mechanisms, and oxidative stress inhibition.

  16. Ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Fasciola hepatica eggs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Khademolhoseini, Ali Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Fasciolosis is of considerable economic and public health importance worldwide. Little information is available on the ovicidal effects of anthelminthic drugs. The use of ovicidal anthelmintics can be effective in disease control. In this study, the effectiveness of the methanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the eggs of Fasciola hepatica is investigated. Fasciola hepatica eggs were obtained from the gall bladders of naturally infected sheep and kept at 4 °C until use. The eggs were exposed to varying concentrations of ginger extract (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/mL) for 24, 48 and 72 h. To investigate the effect of the ginger extracts on the miracidial formation, the treated eggs were incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. The results indicated that F. hepatica eggs are susceptible to the methanolic extract of Z. officinale. The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 1 mg/mL with 24, 48 and 72 h treatment time was 46.08, 51.53 and 69.09 % respectively (compared with 22.70 % for control group). The ovicidal effect of ginger extract at a concentration of 5 mg/mL after 24 h was 98.84 %. One hundred percent ovicidal efficacy was obtained through application of ginger extract at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/mL with a 48 and 24 h treatment time respectively. The in vitro ovicidal effect of the methanolic extract of Z. officinale was satisfactory in this study, however, in vivo efficacy of this extract, remains for further investigation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the ovicidal effect of Z. officinale against F. hepatica eggs.

  17. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of the methanolic extract of Taraxacum officinale in LPS-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Daun; Kim, Seok Joong; Kim, Hong Seok

    2017-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Since even low-level endotoxemia constitutes a powerful and independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, it is important to find therapies directed against the vascular effects of endotoxin to prevent atherosclerosis. Taraxacum officinale (TO) is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties, but its anti-inflammatory e...

  18. Levisticum officinale hairy root cultures: influence of light and light type on growth and essential oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, A. Sofia; Sousa, Maria João; Pedro, Luís G.; Figueiredo, A. Cristina; Barroso, J.G.; Deans, S.G.; Scheffer, J.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (Apiaceae), including those isolated from the roots, are used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries [1]. This perennial and herbaceous plant, commonly known as lovage, is widely known by its aromatic, ornamental and medicinal properties. The effect of light and light type on growth and essential oil production of lovage hairy root cultures was studied by comparison of cultures maintained under “blue-basic” (400-550nm) and “...

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Dendrobium officinale and its Application to the Identification of Genes Associated with Polysaccharide Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxia; He, Chunmei; Wu, Kunlin; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Zeng, Songjun; Zhang, Xinhua; Yu, Zhenming; Xia, Haoqiang; Duan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is one of the most important Chinese medicinal herbs. Polysaccharides are one of the main active ingredients of D. officinale. To identify the genes that maybe related to polysaccharides synthesis, two cDNA libraries were prepared from juvenile and adult D. officinale, and were named Dendrobium-1 and Dendrobium-2, respectively. Illumina sequencing for Dendrobium-1 generated 102 million high quality reads that were assembled into 93,881 unigenes with an average sequence length of 790 base pairs. The sequencing for Dendrobium-2 generated 86 million reads that were assembled into 114,098 unigenes with an average sequence length of 695 base pairs. Two transcriptome databases were integrated and assembled into a total of 145,791 unigenes. Among them, 17,281 unigenes were assigned to 126 KEGG pathways while 135 unigenes were involved in fructose and mannose metabolism. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the majority of genes were associated with metabolic and cellular processes. Furthermore, 430 glycosyltransferase and 89 cellulose synthase genes were identified. Comparative analysis of both transcriptome databases revealed a total of 32,794 differential expression genes (DEGs), including 22,051 up-regulated and 10,743 down-regulated genes in Dendrobium-2 compared to Dendrobium-1. Furthermore, a total of 1142 and 7918 unigenes showed unique expression in Dendrobium-1 and Dendrobium-2, respectively. These DEGs were mainly correlated with metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In addition, 170 DEGs belonged to glycosyltransferase genes, 37 DEGs were related to cellulose synthase genes and 627 DEGs encoded transcription factors. This study substantially expands the transcriptome information for D. officinale and provides valuable clues for identifying candidate genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis and elucidating the mechanism of polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:26904032

  20. Induction of Apoptosis by Alcoholic Extract of Combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale on Iranian Isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Zohreh FAKHRIEH-KASHAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Metronidazole is a chosen drug for the treatment. This study evaluated the anti trichomonal activity of alcoholic extracts of combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale.Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the Parasitology Laboratory, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2015, on 23 women with suspected trichomoniasis referring to Kashan clinical centers. Medium TYI-S-33 was used for culture of three T. vaginalis isolates. Different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml of V. thapsus and G. officinale ethanol extract added to Trichomonas trophozoites in 48-well plates and metronidazole considered as positive control and the negative control was TYI-S33 containing Trichomonas trophozoites without any drug. In all of mentioned groups, trophozoites number counted 12, 24, 48 h after culture. Results were analyzed using ANOVA statistical test, to evaluate the toxicity of extract, measured by MTT assay. Induced apoptosis of T. vaginalis after treatment with different concentrations of extract was determined by Flow Cytometry. Results: IC50 of alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale and metronidazole after 24h was 73.80 µg/ml and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. The toxicity percentage of 25-800 μg/ml concentrations of this combination were between 0.2-1.98. In different concentrations of extract (25,50,100,200 and 400 µg/ml apoptosis percent after 48h was 18.97 to 77.19 and necrosis percent was calculated 1.35, 3.18, 3.10, 1.16 and 4.09, respectively.Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. Due to no toxicity on macrophages, it can be examined in vivo studies.

  1. Biologie, výskyt a regulace kostivalu lékařského(Symphytum officinale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KOVÁŘOVÁ, Jaroslava

    2014-01-01

    The bacherol thesis with the title "Biology, incidence and regulation of common comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.)" deals with processing and presentation of accessible information about the weed common comfrey. First part of the bacherol thesis paid attention to information related to weed species general characteristics, occurrence and potential of their regulation. Prevailing part of the bacherol thesis occupied with the common comfrey characteristic and regulation possibilities. Informatio...

  2. Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C-Y; Nammi, Srinivas; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats suppresses Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven hepatic inflammation and to subsequently explore the molecular mechanisms in vitro. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) along with a HFD for 6 weeks. Hepatic cytokine mRNA levels, cytokine protein levels and NF-κB activation were measured by real-time PCR, Western blot and an NF-κB nuclear translocation assay, respectively. In vitro, cell culture studies were carried out in human hepatocyte (HuH-7) cells by treatment with Zingiber officinale (100 μg/mL) for 24 hr prior to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 8 ng/mL)-induced inflammation. We showed that Zingiber officinale treatment decreased cytokine gene TNFα and IL-6 expression in HFD-fed rats, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. In vitro, Zingiber officinale treatment decreased NF-κB-target inflammatory gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), while it suppressed NF-κB activity, IκBα degradation and IκB kinase (IKK) activity. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale suppressed markers of hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed rats, as demonstrated by decreased hepatic cytokine gene expression and decreased NF-κB activation. The study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber officinale occurs at least in part through the NF-κB signalling pathway. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  3. Mining and characterization of EST-SSR markers for Zingiber officinale Roscoe with transferability to other species of Zingiberaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Praveen; Singh, Ashish; Sheikh, Gulfam; Mahajan, Vidushi; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Gupta, Suphla; Bedi, Yashbir S; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2017-10-01

    Zingiber officinale is a model spice herb, well known for its medicinal value. It is primarily a vegetatively propagated commercial crop. However, considerable diversity in its morphology, fiber content and chemoprofiles has been reported. The present study explores the utility of EST-derived markers in studying genetic diversity in different accessions of Z. officinale and their cross transferability within the Zingiberaceae family. A total of 38,115 ESTs sequences were assembled to generate 7850 contigs and 10,762 singletons. SSRs were searched in the unigenes and 515 SSR-containing ESTs were identified with a frequency of 1 SSR per 25.21 kb of the genome. These ESTs were also annotated using BLAST2GO. Primers were designed for 349 EST-SSRs and 25 primer pairs were randomly picked for EST SSR study. Out of these, 16 primer pairs could be optimized for amplification in different accessions of Z. officinale as well as other species belonging to Zingiberaceae. GES454, GES466, GES480 and GES486 markers were found to exhibit 100% cross-transferability among different members of Zingiberaceae.

  4. Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis ZJSH1 associated with Dendrobium officinale through phytohormone production and nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Suijuan; Zhang, Xinghai; Cao, Zhaoyun; Zhao, Kaipeng; Wang, Sai; Chen, Mingxue; Hu, Xiufang

    2014-01-01

    Growth-promoting Sphingomonas paucimobilis ZJSH1, associated with Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was characterized. At 90 days post-inoculation, strain ZJSH1 significantly promoted the growth of D. officinale seedlings, with increases of stems by 8.6% and fresh weight by 7.5%. Interestingly, the polysaccharide content extracted from the inoculated seedlings was 0.6% higher than that of the control. Similar growth promotion was observed with the transplants inoculated with strain ZJSH1. The mechanism of growth promotion was attributed to a combination of phytohormones and nitrogen fixation. Strain ZJSH1 was found using the Kjeldahl method to have a nitrogen fixation activity of 1.15 mg l−1, which was confirmed by sequencing of the nifH gene. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, strain ZJSH1 was found to produce various phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Zeatin and abscisic acid (ABA). The growth curve showed that strain ZJSH1 grew well in the seedlings, especially in the roots. Accordingly, much higher contents of SA, ABA, IAA and c-ZR were detected in the inoculated seedlings, which may play roles as both phytohormones and ‘Systemic Acquired Resistance’ drivers. Nitrogen fixation and secretion of plant growth regulators (SA, IAA, Zeatin and ABA) endow S. paucimobilis ZJSH1 with growth-promoting properties, which provides a potential for application in the commercial growth of D. officinale. PMID:25142808

  5. Characterization of the alkaline/neutral invertase gene in Dendrobium officinale and its relationship with polysaccharide accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F; Cao, X F; Si, J P; Chen, Z Y; Duan, C L

    2016-05-06

    Dendrobium officinale is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines, and polysaccharide is its main active ingredient. Many studies have investigated the synthesis and accumulation mechanisms of polysaccharide, but until recently, little was known about the molecular mechanism of how polysaccharide is synthesized because no related genes have been cloned. In this study, we cloned an alkaline/neutral invertase gene from D. officinale (DoNI) by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. DoNI was 2231 bp long and contained an open reading frame that predicted a 62.8-kDa polypeptide with 554-amino acid residues. An alkaline/neutral invertase conserved domain was predicted from this deduced amino acid sequence, and DoNI had a similar deduced amino acid sequence to Setaria italica and Oryza brachyantha. We also found that DoNI expression in different tissues was closely related to DoNI activity, and more importantly, polysaccharide level. Our results indicate that DoNI is associated with polysaccharide accumulation in D. officinale.

  6. Effect temperature of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondari, Dewi; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2017-11-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been carried out at a pressure of 16 MPa, with temperatures between 20-40 °C, during extraction time of 6 hours and the flow rate of CO2 fluid 5.5 ml/min. The result of supercritical method was compared with the extraction maceration using a mixture of water and ethanol (70% v/v) for 24 hours. The main content in ginger that has a main role as an antioxidant is a gingerol compound that can help neutralize the damaging effects caused by free radicals in the body, as anti-coagulant, and inhibit the occurrence of blood clots. This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on chemical components contained in rough extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and its antioxidant activity, total phenol and total flavonoid content. To determine the chemical components contained in the crude extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracted by supercritical fluid and maceration extraction, GC-MS analysis was performed. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated based on a 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical damping method. The results of the analysis show that the result of ginger extract by using the supercritical CO2 extraction method has high antioxidant activity than by using maceration method. The highest total phenol content and total flavonoids were obtained on ginger extraction using supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, indicating that phenol and flavonoid compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. Chromatographic analysis showed that the chemical profile of ginger extract containing oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpene gingerol and esters. In supercritical fluid extraction, the compounds that can be identified at a temperature of 20-40 °C contain 27 compounds, and 11 compounds from the result of maceration extract. The main component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracted using supercritical fluid

  7. Ameliorating reactive oxygen species-induced in vitro lipid peroxidation in brain, liver, mitochondria and DNA damage by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, T A

    2010-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for a number of cellular activities. However, excess cellular iron can be toxic by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O(2) (-)) and hydroxyl radical (HO(·)) that damage proteins, lipids and DNA. Mutagenic and genotoxic end products of lipid peroxidation can induce the decline of mitochondrial respiration and are associated with various human ailments including aging, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer etc. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) is a widely used spice around the world. The protective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against ROS-induced in vitro lipid peroxidation and DNA damage was evaluated in this study. The lipid peroxidation was induced by hydroxyl radical generated from Fenton's reaction in rat liver and brain homogenates and mitochondrial fraction (isolated from rat liver). The DNA protection was evaluated using H(2)O(2)-induced changes in pBR-322 plasmid and Fenton reaction-induced DNA fragmentation in rat liver. The results indicated that Z. officinale significantly (Pofficinale in the liver homogenate was 94 %. However, the extract could partially alleviate the DNA damage. The protective mechanism can be correlated to the radical scavenging property of Z. officinale. The results of the study suggest the possible nutraceutical role of Z. officinale against the oxidative stress induced human ailments.

  8. Anti-fatty liver effects of oils from Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa on ethanol-induced fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwozo, Sarah Onyenibe; Osunmadewa, Damilola Adeola; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the protective effects of oils from Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (turmeric) on acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in male Wistar rats. Ferric reducing antioxidant power activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the oils were evaluated ex vivo. Rats were pretreated for 28 d with standard drug (Livolin Forte) and oils from Z. officinale and C. longa before they were exposed to 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg) to induce acute fatty liver. Histological changes were observed and the degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Serum triglyceride (TG) level, total cholesterol (TC) level and the effects of both oils on reduced gluthatione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated. Oils from Z. officinale and C. longa at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, serum TG, serum TC and hepatic MDA, while they significantly restored the level of GSH as well as GST and SOD activities. Histological examination of rats tissues was related to the obtained results. From the results it may be concluded that oils from Z. officinale and C. longa (200 mg/kg) exhibited hepatoprotective activity in acute ethanol-induced fatty liver and Z. officinale oil was identified to have better effects than C. longa oil.

  9. Synergistic potential of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa to ameliorate diabetic-dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Naveed; Hashmi, Abu-Saeed; Wasim, Muhammad; Akhtar, Tauqeer; Saeed, Shagufta; Ahmad, Toheed

    2018-03-01

    To find the cure of world's one of the leading morbid and mortal disorders; diabetes mellitus and its most prevalent complication, 'diabetic-dyslipidemia', is one of the leading health challenges of 21st century. The use of phytomedicine is a glimmer of hope in this scenario. Studies of current decade have shown that methanolic extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa have highly effective therapeutic potentials against the aforesaid disorders, however, which of the extracts has more potential is still unclear. Furthermore, synergistic effect of the extracts has never been studied. Forty-eight Albino adult rats of either sex were randomly divided into eight groups. A-D groups were containing healthy rats while E-H groups were of induced diabetic-dyslipidemic rats. For forty-two days, rats of each group were given either distilled water or Zingiber officinale methanolic extract (ZOME) or Curcuma longa methanolic extract (CLME) or ZOME+CLME therapies at dose rate of 300mg/100 mL dist. H 2 O/kg body wt/day. FPG and lipid profiles were estimated before and after the trial, and were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA along with Post-hoc Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Although, ZOME and CLME significantly (P<0.05) lowered fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and controlled lipid profiles in diabetic-dyslipidemic rats; yet, synergistic therapy of both extracts (ZOME+CLME) most significantly (P<0.05) controlled all parameters of diabetic-dyslipidemia (78.00±1.06mg/dL FPG, 62.00±0.58mg/dL TG, 66.50±0.76mg/dL cholesterol, 32.00±0.36mg/dL HDL, 22.43±0.64 mg/dL LDL, and 12.40±0.12mg/dL VLDL). Our findings may be useful to formulate new medicines having multiple potentials to control diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and diabetic-dyslipidemia.

  10. Levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale) cultivated in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagesho, Yohannes; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a common condiment for various foods and beverages and widely used worldwide as a spice. Its extracts are used extensively in the food, beverage, and confectionary industries in the production of products such as marmalade, pickles, chutney, ginger beer, ginger wine, liquors, biscuits, and other bakery products. In Ethiopia, it is among the important spices used in every kitchen to flavor stew, tea, bread and local alcoholic drinks. It is also chiefly used medicinally for indigestion, stomachache, malaria, fevers, common cold, and motion sickness. The literature survey revealed that there is no study conducted on the determination of metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. Hence it is worthwhile to determine the levels of essential and non-essential metals in ginger cultivated in Ethiopia. The levels of essential (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metals in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivated in four different regions of Ethiopia and the soil where it was grown were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. 0.5 g of oven dried ginger and soil samples were digested using 3 mL of HNO3 and 1 mL of HClO4 at 210°C for 3 h and a mixture of 6 mL aqua-regia and 1.5 mL H2O2 at 270°C for 3 h, respectively. The mean metal concentration (μg/g dry weight basis) ranged in the ginger and soil samples, respectively, were: Ca (2000-2540, 1770-3580), Mg (2700-4090, 1460-2440), Fe (41.8-89.0, 21700-46900), Zn (38.5-55.2, 255-412), Cu (1.1-4.8, 3.80-33.9), Co (2.0-7.6, 48.5-159), Cr (6.0-10.8, 110-163), Mn (184-401, 1760-6470), Ni (5.6-8.4, 14.1-79.3) and Cd (0.38-0.97, 0.24-1.1). The toxic metal Pb was not detected in both the ginger and soil samples. There was good correlation between some metals in ginger and soil samples while poor correlation between other metals (Fe, Ni, Cu). This study revealed that Ethiopian gingers are good source of essential metals and free from toxic

  11. Efektifitas Pemberian Ramuan Jahe (Zingibers officinale dan Teh Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa terhadap Perubahan Intensitas Nyeri Haid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaili Ramli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As many as 72% of women reported experiencing Dysmenorrhea, 38% require treatment, 15% of them had to leave school or work during menstruation. In nonpharmacologic giving herbs may help reduce menstrual pain. Plants that can reduce pain is Zingibers Rosc Officinale, rhizome sections to function as an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory. Rosella can also reduce pain and inflammation at the time of dysmenorrhea. This study aims to determine the differences in the level of pain on a group of teens who received the herb ginger and groups of teenagers given Rosella tea. The study design is a quasi-experiment with pretest-posttest design nonrandomized, do start. The sample is a student of midwifery experience dysmenorrhea amounted to 177 people, 57 groups, and 60 people ginger herb Rosella tea group and the control group of 60 people. The study began in May 2015. Research and herb ginger tea separately Rosella very effective in reducing menstrual pain intensity at 24.48 and 72 hours, but there is no difference in the pain scale before and after getting the herb ginger and Rosella tea. Conclusions and Recommendations: There is no difference between the herb ginger pain scale and Rosella tea before and after treatment. It is recommended that health workers can provide health education to adolescents by using herbs to reduce menstrual pain.  Keywords:   Dysmenorrhea, ginger herb, tea Rosella  Sebanyak 72% wanita dilaporkan mengalami dismenorhea, 38% memerlukan pengobatan, 15 % diantaranya harus meninggalkan sekolah atau pekerjaan selama menstruasi. Secara nonfarmakologis pemberian rempah-rempah dapat membantu mengurangi nyeri haid. Tanaman yang dapat mengurangi nyeri adalah Zingibers Officinale Rosc, bagian rimpangnya berfungsi sebagai analgesik, antipiretik dan anti inflamasi. Rosella juga dapat mengurangi nyeri dan inflamasi pada saat dismenore. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan tingkat nyeri pada kelompok remaja yang

  12. Experiments on accumulation of phosphorus in the plants Myosotis palustris, Glyceria maxima and Nasturtium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prokopchuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of availability of quality water is highly relevant today, so the technologies of prediction and prevention of water pollution and purification are very important. Biological methods of cleaning, in paticular cleaning water by the so-called method of biosorption, have been increasingly used in the last decade. This method means the removal of dangerous substances and improvement of water condition by using aquatic organisms, in particular plants. Therefore, in view of the rich experience of research conducted in the biosorption sphere, we decided to predict the effectiveness of this method by using the cumulative ability of higher water plants to absorb phosphorus compounds. For this purpose, we selected water and plant samples (Glyceria maxima (C. Hartm. Holmb., Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Myosotis palustris (L. L. from the river Seret (Ternopil, Ukraine. The plants were placed into sterilized glass jars filled with 3 liters of water from the river Seret (control samples and still tap water with addition of sodium phosphate with phosphorus concentration of 3.5 mg/dm³ (research sample, which were cultured in laboratory conditions for four months. We determined the content of phosphates, permanganate and dichromate oxidation in the water and the total content of phosphorus in the plants. We traced the dynamic of organic substances and the content of phosphates in the water, the accumulation of phosphorus in plants and the rate of accumulation of phosphorus in the plants and in the water. We calculated correlation coefficients to detect the dependence between phosphorus indicators in the aquatic plants and the concentration of phosphate ions in the water. We found that M. palustris had the greatest capacity to accumulate phosphorus and the highest rate of phosphorus accumulation from water, which allows us to consider it the most effective aquatic plant for absorption of elements and decreasing water pollution. We also established

  13. Biological activities of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important bacterial pathogens, their phytochemical and FT-IR spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Uzma Azeem; Ali, Shaukat; Shahnawaz, Amna Mir; Shafique, Irsa; Zafar, Atiya; Khan, Muhammad Abdul Rauf; Ghous, Tahseen; Saleem, Azhar; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2017-05-01

    The spread of bacterial infectious diseases is a major public threat. Herbs and spices have offered an excellent, important and useful source of antimicrobial agents against many pathological infections. In the current study, the antimicrobial potency of fresh, naturally and commercial dried Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts had been investigated against seven local clinical bacterial isolates such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Serratia marcesnces by the agar disc diffusion method. All tested pathogens except P. aeruginosa and E. coli were most susceptible to ethanolic and methanolic extracts of A. sativum. Similarly, chloroform and diethyl ether extracts of Z. officinale showed a greater zone of inhibition of tested pathogens except for P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We found that all extracts of A. sativum and Z. officinale have a strong antibacterial effect compared to recommended standard antibiotics through activity index. All results were evaluated statistically and a significant difference was recorded at Psativum and Z. officinale proposed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phenols, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Retention factor of diverse phytochemicals provides a valuable clue regarding their polarity and the selection of solvents for separation of phytochemicals. Significant inhibition of S. aureus was also observed through TLC-Bioautography. FT-IR Spectrometry was also performed to characterize both natural and commercial extracts of A. sativum and Z. officinale to evaluate bioactive compounds. These findings provide new insights to use A. sativum and Z. officinale as potential plant sources for controlling pathogenic bacteria and potentially considered as cost-effective in the management of diseases and to the threat of drug resistance phenomenon.

  14. Antioxidant properties of Taraxacum officinale fruit extract are involved in the protective effect against cellular death induced by sodium nitroprusside in brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Dirleise; Arantes, Letícia Priscilla; Rauber, Ricardo; de Mattos, Sérgio Edgar Campos; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira da; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2012-07-01

    Taraxacum officinale Weber (Asteraceae), known as dandelion, is used for medicinal purposes due to its choleretic, diuretic, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. We sought to investigate the protective activity of T. officinale fruit extract against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced decreased cellular viability and increased lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats in vitro. To explain the mechanism of the extract's antioxidant activity, its putative scavenger activities against NO, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2) were determined. Slices of cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were treated with 50 μM SNP and T. officinale fruit ethanolic extract (1-20 µg/mL) to determine cellular viability by MTT reduction assay. Lipid peroxidation was measure in cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices incubates with SNP (5 µM) and T. officinale fruit extract (1-20 µg/mL). We also determined the scavenger activities of T. officinale fruit extract against NO·, DPPH·, OH·, and H(2)O(2), as well as its iron chelating capacity. The extract (1, 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL) protected against SNP-induced decreases in cellular viability and increases in lipid peroxidation in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of rats. The extract had scavenger activity against DPPH· and NO· at low concentrations and was able to protect against H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+)-induced deoxyribose oxidation. T. officinale fruit extract has antioxidant activity and protects brain slices against SNP-induced cellular death. Possible mechanisms of action include its scavenger activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which are attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds in the extract.

  15. Óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon nardus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e Zingiber officinale: composição, atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus and Zingiber officinale: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo caracterizar quimicamente e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e gengibre (Zingiber officinale. A obtenção do óleo essencial foi realizada utilizando a técnica de hidrodestilação por meio do aparelho de Clevenger modificado e a identificação e quantificação dos constituintes pelas análises em CG/EM e CG-DIC. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada por meio da técnica difusão cavidade em ágar, utilizando os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Salmonella Cholerasuis ATCC 6539 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada utilizando sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoléico e o método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH. Nas análises cromatográficas, os constituintes majoritários encontrados no óleo essencial de C. nardus foram citronelal (47,12%, geraniol (18,56% e citronelol (11,07%, no óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foram identificados (E- cinamaldeído (77,72%, acetato de (E-cinamila (5,99% e o monoterpenóide 1,8-cineol (4,66% e, para Z. officinale os majoritários foram geranial (25,06%, neral (16,47%, 1,8-cineol (10,98%, geraniol (8,51%, acetato de geranila (4,19% e o canfeno (4,30%. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana tanto para bactérias Gram-negativas como para bactérias Gram-positivas, sendo que o óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foi o mais eficiente. A atividade antioxidante foi evidenciada pelo teste β-caroteno/ácido linoléico, respectivamente, para C. nardus, seguido de Z. officinale e C. zeylanicum, e pelo teste do DPPH foi observada apenas para C. nardus.The aims of this study were to chemically characterize and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and ginger

  16. Producing armyworm (spodoptera sp.) Bioinsecticide based on cysteine protease of red ginger (zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, N. T.; Nur, D. F.; Utami, T. S.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Armyworm (Spodoptera sp.) is highly polyphagous defoliator on various horticulture and grain plants. Various chemical insecticides have been created to control it. There is a need to create an eco-friendly and specific insecticide which only affect armyworm’s nervous system. This research investigates cysteine-protease’s enzyme activity of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) which is called zingibain. Its catalytic site matches with residue site in armyworm’s body so it can be used as bioinsecticide raw material which meets the criterias above. Fresh red ginger rhizomes were washed and extracted. The juice was then deposited in low temperature and centrifuged to get rid of its starch content. It was filtrated to remove large contaminants and poured into Potassium Phospate buffer. The liquid was then centrifuged again for 30 minutes before collecting the supernatant. Fresh leaves were then dipped into crude ginger protease extract and fed to fourth instar-armyworms. Leaves dipped into non-diluted extract were barely eaten by armyworm while the 50% and 25% dilution was half eaten and most eaten. The crude red ginger extract was not strong enough to kill them although the research showed its enzymatic activity reaches up to 169 PU. It still needs improvement to be produced as commercial bioinsecticide.

  17. In vitro effectiveness of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale extracts on Echinococcus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Esam; Al-Shaebi, Esam M; Al-Quarishy, Saleh; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an important economic and human public health problem with a wide geographical distribution. Surgical excision remains the primary treatment and the only hope for complete cure of hydatosis. The most important complications arising from surgical excision, however, is recurrence, which is due to dissemination of protoscolices during the surgery. Pre-surgical inactivation of the contents of the hydatid cyst by injection of scolicidal agent into the cyst has been used as adjunct to surgery in order to overcome the risk of recurrence. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) and ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) were tested as scolicidal agent for Echinococcus protoscoleces. Protoscoleces were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Three concentrations (10, 30 and 50 mg/ml) of each extract were investigated and viability of the protoscoleces was tested by 0.1% eosin staining. Ginger extract showed the strongest scolicidal effect (100%) after 20 min at a concentration of 30 mg/ml and 10 min at 50 mg/ml . The maximum scolicidal effect of turmeric was 93.2% after 30 min at a concentration of 50 mg/ml. It is concluded that turmeric and ginger extracts have high scolicidal activity and could be used as effective scolicidal agents against Echinococcus protoscoleces.

  18. Changes of serum adipocytokines and body weight following Zingiber officinale supplementation in obese women: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Mehralizadeh, Sajjad; Mahluji, Sepideh

    2016-09-01

    The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) consumption on some metabolic and clinical features of obesity. Eighty eligible obese women (aged 18-45 years) were randomly assigned to either ginger or placebo groups (receiving 2 g/day of ginger powder or corn starch as two 1 g tablets) for 12 weeks. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition were assessed every 4 weeks, and serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin and glucose were determined before and after intervention. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were also calculated. Ginger consumption significantly decreased BMI, serum insulin and HOMA-IR index, along with increasing QUICKIs as compared to the placebo. Moreover, significant reductions in serum leptin, resistin and glucose were observed in both groups, especially in ginger group with nonsignificant differences between groups. The body composition and serum levels of adiponectin were not significantly changed in study groups. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a minor beneficial effect of 2 g ginger powder supplementation for 12 weeks on weight loss and some metabolic features of obesity. However, given the lack of data in this area, ongoing clinical trials are needed to further explore ginger's effectiveness.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of ginger (Zingiber Officinale Var. Amarum) : Global yield and composition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi; Salahuddin, Aditama, Deska Prayoga Fauzi

    2017-11-01

    An experiment to observe the effect of temperature and time process in ginger rhizome-Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) using CO2 as the solvent has been conducted. The ginger rhizome (Zingiber Officinale Var. Amarum) was washed, drained, sliced, sun-dried, and then stored in a sealed bag prior to usage. The temperature and time process variables are each 35, 40, 45°C and 2, 4, 6 hours respectively with the pressure variable are 3500, 4000, and 4500 psi. It is found that the highest yield (2.9%) was achieved using temperature of 40°C and pressure of 4500 psiwith the process time of 4 hours. However, using the curve-fitting method, it is suggested to use 42°C as the temperature and 5 hours, 7 minutes, and 30 seconds (5.125 Hours) as the time process to obtain the highest yield. The temperature changes will affect both solvent and vapor pressure of diluted compounds of the ginger which will influence the global yield and the composition of the extract. The three major components of the extract are curcumene, zingiberene, and β - sesquipellandrene,

  20. Ayurvedic preparation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe: effects on cardiac and on smooth muscle parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Poli, Ferruccio; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Graziadio, Alessandra; Venturini, Alice; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Micucci, Matteo

    2017-08-28

    The rhizome of the Zingiber officinale Roscoe, a biennial herb growing in South Asia, is commonly known as ginger. Ginger is used in clinical disorders, such as constipation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting and its use is also recommended by the traditional medicine for cardiopathy, high blood pressure, palpitations and as a vasodilator to improve the circulation. The decoction of ginger rhizome is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine. In this papery by high-performance liquid chromatography, we have seen that its main phytomarkers were 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol and we report the effects of the decoction of ginger rhizome on cardiovascular parameters and on vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. In our experimental models, the decoction of ginger shows weak negative inotropic and chronotropic intrinsic activities but a significant intrinsic activity on smooth muscle with a potency on ileum is greater than on aorta: EC 50  = 0.66 mg/mL versus EC 50  = 1.45 mg/mL.

  1. Neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing effects of the combined extract of Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2017-03-03

    Currently, food supplements to improve age-related dementia are required. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of the combined extract of Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale (CP1) on the improvement of age-related dementia in rats with AF64A-induced memory deficits. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were orally given CP1 at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg.kg -1 BW for a period of 14 days after bilateral intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A. Spatial memory was assessed in all rats every 7 days throughout the 14 day-experimental period. At the end of the study, neuronal density, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, oxidative stress status and the activation of MAPK cascades in the hippocampus were determined. Enhanced memory, increased neuronal density, decreased AChE activity and decreased oxidative stress status together with activated pERK1/2 were observed in the hippocampus of CP1-treated rats. These results suggested that CP1 might improve memory via enhanced cholinergic function and decreased neurodegeneration and oxidative stress. CP1 is a potential novel food supplement for dementia. However, further investigations on the subchronic toxicity of CP1 and drug interactions are required.

  2. Longevity and Stress Resistant Property of 6-Gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoe in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; An, Chang Wan; Kim, Yeong Jee; Noh, Yun Jeong; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ju-Eun; Shrestha, Abinash Chandra; Ham, Ha-Neul; Leem, Jae-Yoon; Jo, Hyung-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Sung; Moon, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Kyung Ok; Kim, Dae Keun

    2018-03-14

    In order to discover lifespan-extending compounds made from natural resources, activity-guided fractionation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) ethanol extract was performed using the Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) model system. The compound 6-gingerol was isolated from the most active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, and showed potent longevity-promoting activity. It also elevated the survival rate of worms against stressful environment including thermal, osmotic, and oxidative conditions. Additionally, 6-gingerol elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities of C. elegans , and showed a dose-depend reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Further studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of 6-gingerol-mediated worms could result from the promotion of stress resistance proteins such as heat shock protein (HSP-16.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-3). The lipofuscin levels in 6-gingerol treated intestinal worms were decreased in comparison to the control group. No significant 6-gingerol-related changes, including growth, food intake, reproduction, and movement were noted. These results suggest that 6-gingerol exerted longevity-promoting activities independently of these factors and could extend the human lifespan.

  3. Endophytic Nocardiopsis sp. from Zingiber officinale with both antiphytopathogenic mechanisms and antibiofilm activity against clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, Rohini; Soumya, K R; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2017-06-01

    Novel and potential antimicrobial compounds are essential to tackle the frequently emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens and also to develop environment friendly agricultural practices. In the current study, endophytic actinomycetes from rhizome of Zingiber officinale were explored in terms of its diversity and bioactive properties. Fourteen different organisms were isolated, identified and screened for activity against Pythium myriotylum and human clinical pathogens. Among these, Nocardiopsis sp. ZoA1 was found to have highest inhibition with excellent antibacterial effects compared to standard antibiotics. Remarkable antibiofilm property was also shown by the extract of ZoA1. Its antifungal activity against Pythium and other common phytopathogens was also found to be promising as confirmed by scanning electron microscopic analysis. By PCR-based sequence analysis of phz E gene, the organism was confirmed for the genetic basis of phenazine biosynthesis. Further GC-MS analysis of Nocardiopsis sp. revealed the presence of various compounds including Phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) and trans cinnamic acid which can have significant role in the observed result. The current study is the first report on endophytic Nocardiopsis sp. from ginger with promising applications. In vivo treatment of Nocardiopsis sp. on ginger rhizome has revealed its inhibition towards the colonization of P. myriotylum which makes the study to have promises to manage the severe diseases in ginger like rhizome rot.

  4. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

    2014-08-01

    Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eleonora Zambrano; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Siqueira, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon-Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity's coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.

  6. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  7. Structural Elements and Cough Suppressing Activity of Polysaccharides from Zingiber officinale Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, K; Nosalova, G; Sivova, V; Ray, B

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is used for the management of fever, bronchial asthma and cough for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in human, the active principle of the formulation remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated a water extracted polysaccharides (WEP) containing fraction from its rhizome. Utilizing a traditional aqueous extraction protocol and using chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods a fraction containing a branched glucan and polygalaturonan in a ratio of 59:1 was characterized. This glucan, which has a molecular mass of 36 kDa, is made up of terminal-, (1,4)- and (1,4,6)-linked α-Glcp residues. Oral administration of WEP in doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts in guinea pigs. It does not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity significantly. Thus, traditional aqueous extraction method provides molecular entities, which induces antitussive activity without addiction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Y Amarnath; Chalamaiah, M; Ramesh, B; Balaji, G; Indira, P

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.

  9. Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta; Tongun, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioral deficits including memory. Recently, accumulating lines of evidence showed that dietary enrichment with nutritional antioxidants could reduce brain damage and improve cognitive function. In this study, possible protective effect of Zingiber officinale, a medicinal plant reputed for neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-related brain damage, on brain damage and memory deficit induced by focal cerebral ischemia was elucidated. Male adult Wistar rats were administrated an alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome orally 14 days before and 21 days after the permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Cognitive function assessment was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO using the Morris water maze test. The brain infarct volume and density of neurons in hippocampus were also determined. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus was also quantified at the end of experiment. The results showed that cognitive function and neurons density in hippocampus of rats receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved while the brain infarct volume was decreased. The cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect occurred partly via the antioxidant activity of the extract. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome to protect against focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:21197427

  10. Influence Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) Supplementation Against GAMMA Rays Induced Immunosuppression In Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.; Kassab, F.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression in male albino rats was investigated in the present study. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group (receiving no treatment), ginger group where the rats received ginger orally at a dose of 15 g/rat/day for 120 consecutive days, gamma radiation group which subjected to a single 6 Gy whole body gamma radiation and gamma radiation plus ginger group where each rat after taking daily 15 g of ginger for 120 consecutive days was subjected to 6 Gy whole body irradiation. Complete blood pictures and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) were estimated and spleen tissue was also examined histologically. The data obtained revealed that exposure to 6 Gy of gamma radiation caused significant decrease in the body weight, spleen weight, IgG, IgM, erythroide and leucoid elements and produced histological damage in spleen tissue. On the other hand, ginger as a protective agent, caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by irradiation especially immunoglobulins leading to the conclusion that ginger supplementation for 120 days caused modulation of the humoral immune response in irradiated rats. In conclusion, these findings indicated that ginger has the regulatory effect against gamma rays-induced immunosuppression.

  11. Assessment of metals content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves grown on mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levei, Levente; Andrei, Mariana Lucia; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2017-12-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is one of the plant species that has the ability to spontaneously grow on mine tailings, due to its high tolerance for harsh environmental conditions (low nutrients level, high metal contents). The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in tailings and dandelion leaves grown on nonferrous mine tailings from Romania, while the metal accumulation was assessed by transfer factors (TFs) calculated as the ratio between the metal concentration in plant leaves and in tailings underneath. The results showed that the metal concentrations in tailings ranged between 0.4-8.0 mg/kg Cd, 20-1300 mg/kg Cu, 27-570 mg/kg Pb and 48-800 mg/kg Zn, while the metal concentrations in dandelion ranged between 0.2-4.8 mg/kg Cd, 6.2-17 mg/kg Cu, 0.5-75 mg/kg Pb and 27-260 mg/kg Zn. The TFs were below 0.8 for Cd and Zn and below 0.4 for Cu and Pb and decreased in the following order Cd≥Zn>Cu≥Pb, suggesting the Cd and Zn accumulation capability of dandelion.

  12. Ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale on diazinon -induced testicular toxicity: A biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yaghubi Beklar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6- methyl pyrimidinyl-4-g-1- phosphorothioate is one of  the organophosphate insecticides for different agricultural and gardening uses, which can be highly toxic. Zingiber officinale(ginger, a spice and herbal medicine, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study has investigated the effects of ginger against DZN-induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Thirty two adult male mice were randomly divided into four groups. The control group; ginger group (200 mg/kg; DZN group (10 mg/kg and ginger + DZN group. Ginger and DZN were received for 30 consecutive days by gavage and DZN treat one hour after receiving ginger. Sperm parameters, testosterone levels, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical assays of testis were evaluated. Results: The results revealed that treatment with DZN caused significant damage of sperm parameters (sperm motility, count, viability rate and abnormalities, increased oxidative stress (increased MDA and decreased GSH level, significant histopathological changes and decreased Johnsen’s Score, testosterone level and increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Ginger preserved sperm parameters and mitigated the toxic effects of DZN. Also, pretreatment with ginger significantly reduced caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Conclusion: Our results concluded that ginger probably with its antioxidant activity and scavenging free radicals protect against DZN-induced testicular toxicity.

  13. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Cahyono, B.; Satriadi, H.; Munfarida, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is a rich spices country, both as a cooking spice and medicine. One of the most abundant commodities is red ginger, where it still less in application. On the other hand, the level of pollution is higher, so antioxidants are needed to protect the body cells from the bad effects of free radicals. The body can not naturally produce antioxidants as needed, so we need to consume foods with high antioxidant content. The purpose of this study is to know the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in red ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks. Research design with complete randomized design (RAL) with factorial pattern 3 x 3, as the first factor is red ginger extract and water ratio (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3) and second factor is the type of sugar used (cane sugar, palm sugar and mixed sugar). The results of this study indicate that red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 give higher antioxidant. The highest antioxidant obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 and using mixed sugar. That antioxidants value is 88.56%, it is not significant decreased compared to the antioxidant of pure ginger extract that is 91.46%. For higher phenol total content obtained on syrup that uses palm sugar. The highest phenol total content obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 1 and using palm sugar. That total phenol content value is 6299 ppm.

  14. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, A; Jeyachandran, R; Cindrella, L; Thangadurai, D; Veerapur, V P; Muralidhara Rao, D

    2010-06-01

    The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The diagnostic markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin contents were significantly elevated, whereas significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, liver weight and liver protein were observed in CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. Further, significant reduction in the liver weight and liver protein in drug-treated hepatotoxic mice and also reduced oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione content and decreasing lipid peroxidation level has been noticed. The histopathological evaluation of the liver also revealed that ETO and SL reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl 4 . The results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones have a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by the administration of CCl 4 in mice. Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method.

  15. Micropropagation of ginger (zingiber officinale var. rubrum) using buds from microshoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuraida, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum (ZOR) is cultivated for its medicinal value despite the constraints of longer life cycle. The study has established an efficient and reproducible protocol to micropropagate ZOR using buds generated on the surface of the ginger. Surface sterilized young buds of 0.5-1 cm and 2-4 cm cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with BAP showed the highest survival rate (55-65%) and produced the highest average number of microshoots per explant (3.2±0.06) respectively. MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of auxin and cytokinin were used to evaluate shoot multiplication and root induction. BAP concentrations between 3.0-5.0 mg/L was very effective in promoting microshoots and resulted in 100% of microshoot propagation. Microshoots cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L NAA produced the highest number of shoots while 0-0.5 mg/L BAP enhanced shoot length and 3mg/L NAA in combination with BAP produced highest number of roots. Microshoots maintained on MS medium supplemented with 4.5% sucrose produced the highest number of plantlets (23±2.5) and roots per explants (15.4±2.4) meanwhile reducing the length of lateral roots (2.6±0.2). (author)

  16. Inhibitory effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide on human gastric cancer cell xenografts in nude mice

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    Liying ZHANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOPA on human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901 xenografts in nude mice. The nude mice with SGC-7901 xenografts were randomly divided into model, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu, low-dose DOPA, middle-dose DOPA and high-dose DOPA group. The later four groups were intragastrically administrated with 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg–1·day–1 DOPA, 400 mg·kg–1·day–1 5-Fu and normal saline, respectively. After treatment for 20 days, the tumor inhibition rate of in high-dose DOPA group was basically equivalent to 5-Fu group. Compared with 5-Fu, DOPA had no obvious toxic side effect on spleen or thymus indexes, routine blood indexes or liver and kidney functions of nude mice. Compared with model group, the serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2 levels in middle- and high-dose DOPA group were significantly increased (P < 0.05, Bax protein expression was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.05. DOPA can inhibit the growth of SGC-7901 cell xenografts in nude mice. The mechanism may be related to its increase of serum TNF-α and IL-2 levels, up-regulation of Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression.

  17. Zingiber officinale Mitigates Brain Damage and Improves Memory Impairment in Focal Cerebral Ischemic Rat

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    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia is known to produce brain damage and related behavioral deficits including memory. Recently, accumulating lines of evidence showed that dietary enrichment with nutritional antioxidants could reduce brain damage and improve cognitive function. In this study, possible protective effect of Zingiber officinale, a medicinal plant reputed for neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-related brain damage, on brain damage and memory deficit induced by focal cerebral ischemia was elucidated. Male adult Wistar rats were administrated an alcoholic extract of ginger rhizome orally 14 days before and 21 days after the permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (MCAO. Cognitive function assessment was performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after MCAO using the Morris water maze test. The brain infarct volume and density of neurons in hippocampus were also determined. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus was also quantified at the end of experiment. The results showed that cognitive function and neurons density in hippocampus of rats receiving ginger rhizome extract were improved while the brain infarct volume was decreased. The cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect occurred partly via the antioxidant activity of the extract. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of ginger rhizome to protect against focal cerebral ischemia.

  18. In vitro propagation of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) through direct organogenesis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seran, Thayamini H

    2013-12-15

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a perennial herb. It belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and commercially cultivated in most tropical regions of the world. The underground rhizomes are the planting materials in a conventional propagation of ginger however it has a low multiplication rate. It is known that there are possible methods are available for rapid vegetative propagation of ginger through direct organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis under in vitro conditions but it is necessary to find the best protocol for in vitro multiplication of ginger. Limited studies on the tissue culture technology of ginger are available in Sri Lanka. However, significant efforts have been made in the procedure for in vitro micropropagation in the other ginger growing countries. The available literature with respect to in vitro plant regeneration has been perused and this review mainly focused on the in vitro propagation via direct organogenesis from rhizome buds or shoot tips of ginger often used as explants. This review article may be an appropriate and effective guidance for establishing in vitro cultures and subsequent production of in vitro plantlets in clonal propagation of ginger.

  19. [Effect of Dendrobium officinale granule on long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gui-Yuan; Xia, Chao-Qun; Chen, Su-Hong; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Pang; Li, Bo; Gao, Jian-Li

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of Dendrobium officinale granule (DOG) on symptoms, blood pressure and serum biochemical indexes of long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats. The alcohol-induced hypertension rat model was established by feeding alcohol drink to normal rats (the alcohol volume fraction increases from 5% to 22%). Since the 4th week, DOG was administered for 32 weeks, once everyday. During the experiment, body weight, kinematic parameters (locomotor activities, grip strength, duration of vertigo) and blood pressures (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure) were detected regularly. On the 28th and 32nd weeks, blood samples were collected to determine serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), cholesterol (CH) and triglycerides (TG). (1) Sign: The DOG-administered group showed reduction in the duration of vertigo and increase in appetite, body weight, locomotor activities and grip strength. (2) Blood pressure: The DOG-administered group showed significant decrease in blood pressure since the 8th week. (3) Biochemical indexes: The DOG-administered group showed notable decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP, Cr, UA, TG level, but without significant change in TC level. The long-term administration of DOG can relieve alcohol-induced hypertension, while alleviating general signs, liver and kidney injuries and abnormal blood fat biochemical indexes.

  20. Isolation and initial structural characterization of a 27 kDa protein from Zingiber officinale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Saima; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Falke, Sven; Arslan, Ali; Fazel, Ramin; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian; Choudhary, M. Iqbal

    2018-03-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger) is a widely used traditional medicinal plant (for different ailments such as arthritis, constipation, and hypertension). This article describes the isolation and characterization of a so far unknown protein from ginger rhizomes applying ion exchange, affinity, size-exclusion chromatography, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and mass spectrometry techniques. One-dimensional Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE was performed under non-reducing conditions, showing one band corresponding to approx. 27 kDa. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis of the protein solution revealed monodispersity and a monomeric state of the purified protein. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy strongly indicated a β-sheet-rich protein, and disordered regions. MALDI-TOF-MS, and LC-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 27.29 kDa protein, having 32.13% and 25.34% sequence coverage with Zingipain-1 and 2, respectively. The monomeric state and molecular weight were verified by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. An elongated ab-initio model was calculated based on the scattering intensity distribution.

  1. Pressurized liquid extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol: an efficient and sustainable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiajin; Guo, Zheng; Glasius, Marianne; Kristensen, Kasper; Xiao, Langtao; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-08-26

    To develop an efficient green extraction approach for recovery of bioactive compounds from natural plants, we examined the potential of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) with bioethanol/water as solvents. The advantages of PLE over other extraction approaches, in addition to reduced time/solvent cost, the extract of PLE showed a distinct constituent profile from that of Soxhlet extraction, with significantly improved recovery of diarylheptanoids, etc. Among the pure solvents tested for PLE, bioethanol yield the highest efficiency for recovering most constituents of gingerol-related compounds; while for a broad concentration spectrum of ethanol aqueous solutions, 70% ethanol gave the best performance in terms of yield of total extract, complete constituent profile and recovery of most gingerol-related components. PLE with 70% bioethanol operated at 1500 psi and 100 °C for 20 min (static extraction time: 5 min) is recommended as optimized extraction conditions, achieving 106.8%, 109.3% and 108.0% yield of [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol relative to the yield of corresponding constituent obtained by 8h Soxhlet extraction (absolute ethanol as extraction solvent). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Essential Oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Helal, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was irradiated at doses of 0,5, 10 and 15 kGy. The irradiated as well as non-irradiated oil were tested for their antibacterial activity against one strain of food poisoning bacteria (Bacillus cereus), one strain of the indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli), two strains of human pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), one strain of food spoilage bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and one strain of plant pathogenic bacteria(Pseudomonas citri). In addition, the studied oils were tested for their antifungal activities against five strains of plant pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporium, Trichoderma viride and Alternaria alternata) to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial activity of the tested oil. The obtained results showed that all tested oils exhibited an inhibition effect for the growth of the microorganisms under investigation. While, Trichoderma viride appeared to be the most resistant fungus with non-irradiated and irradiated ginger essential oil treatments. The ginger essential oil irradiated at dose of 10 kGy appeared to be the best one for inhibition the growth of most tested bacteria and fungi under investigation. Also, changes in chemical constituents of ginger essential oil as affected by gamma radiation were investigated by Gas Chromatography

  3. Pengujian Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Jahe (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus Aureus dan Escherichia Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufriyana Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Testing the antibacterial activity of the Essential Oil of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Purpose of this study is to determine the bacterial growht and activity test active compounds in ginger essential oils that can be used as an antibacterial to inhibit the growth of bacteria. This research uses a method soxhletation with solvent n- hexane to obtain the essential oil of ginger, making the media NA, rejuvenation bacteria, the manufacture of bacterial inoculum and suspension test. Antibacterial activity test using paper disc diffusion method in the form and method of dilution and analysis using GC-MS instrument. Antibacterial activity test result using paper disc method with a concentration of 25%,  50%, 75% and 100% in S. aureus (12, 34; 19, 42; 17, 34; 21, 7 mm and E. coli (10, 56; 13, 76; 16, 5; 23, 6 mm, while the result of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC using ginger essential oil dilution method in S. aureus not found and E. coli at a concentration of 100%. The results of the analysis of essential oil components by GC-MS showed the active compounds in the form of compounds containing hydroxyl groups such as nerol, β- eusdesmol, borneol and compounds containing phenolic groups like zingerone.

  4. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2008-10-01

    The essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane) of Zingiber officinale were extracted respectively by hydrodistillation and Soxhlet methods and subjected to GC-MS analysis. Geranial (25.9%) was the major component in essential oil; eugenol (49.8%) in ethanol oleoresin, while in the other three oleoresins, zingerone was the major component (33.6%, 33.3% and 30.5% for, methanol, CCl(4) and isooctane oleoresins, respectively). The antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, anisidine, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. They were found to be better antioxidants than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antimicrobial properties were also studied using various food-borne pathogenic fungal and bacterial species. The essential oil and CCl(4) oleoresin showed 100% zone inhibition against Fusarium moniliforme. For other tested fungi and bacteriae, the essential oil and all oleoresins showed good to moderate inhibitory effects. Though, both essential oil and oleoresins were found to be effective, essential oil was found to be better than the oleoresins.

  5. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on glycemic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad

    2015-06-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the functional foods which contains biological compounds including gingerol, shogaol, paradol and zingerone. Ginger has been proposed to have anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hypolipidemic and analgesic properties. Here, we report the effect of ginger supplementation on glycemic indices in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20-60 -year-old patients with type 2 diabetes who did not receive insulin. Participants in the intervention and control groups were received 3 g of powdered ginger or placebo (lactose) (in capsules) daily for 3 months. Glycemic indices, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum paraoxonase, dietary intake and physical activity were measured at the beginning and end of the study, and after 12 h fasting. Comparison of the indices after 3 months showed that the differences between the ginger and placebo groups were statistically significant as follows: serum glucose (-19.41 ± 18.83 vs. 1.63 ± 4.28 mg/dL, p ginger improved glycemic indices, TAC and PON-1 activity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Dendrobium officinale under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhehao; Yuan, Ye; Fu, Di; Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-05-04

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental stresses by binding specifically to the auxin response element in the promoters of target genes. Using our latest public Dendrobium transcriptomes, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 14 DnARF genes were performed. Three selected DnARFs , including DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 , were confirmed to be nuclear proteins according to their transient expression in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Furthermore, the transcription activation abilities of DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 were tested in a yeast system. Our data showed that DnARF6 is a transcriptional activator in Dendrobium officinale . To uncover the basic information of DnARF gene responses to abiotic stresses, we analyzed their expression patterns under various hormones and abiotic treatments. Based on our data, several hormones and significant stress responsive DnARF genes have been identified. Since auxin and ARF genes have been identified in many plant species, our data is imperative to reveal the function of ARF mediated auxin signaling in the adaptation to the challenging Dendrobium environment.

  7. Characterization of plant polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale by multiple chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiying; Zhang, Keke; Jiang, Qing; Dai, Diya; Li, Hongli; Bi, Wentao; Chen, David Da Yong

    2018-04-27

    Plant polysaccharides have numerous medicinal functions. Due to the differences in their origins, regions of production, and cultivation conditions, the quality and the functions of polysaccharides can vary significantly. They are macromolecules with large molecular weight (MW) and complex structure, and pose great challenge for the analytical technology used. Taking Dendrobium officinale (DO) from various origins and locations as model samples. In this investigation, mechanochemical extraction method was used to successfully extract polysaccharides from DO using water as solvent, the process is simple, fast (40 s) and with high yield. The MWs of the intact saccharides from calibration curve and light scattering measurement were determined and compared after separation with size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The large polysaccharide was acid hydrolyzed to oligosaccharides and the products were efficiently separated and identified using liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS 2 ). Obvious differences were observed among LC-MS 2 chromatograms of digested products, and the chemical structures for the products were proposed based on accurate mass values. More importantly, isomeric digested carbohydrate compounds were explored and characterized. All the chromatographic and mass spectrometric results in this study provided a multi-dimensional characterization, fingerprint analysis, and molecular structure level assessment of plant polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo wound healing effects of Symphytum officinale L. leaves extract in different topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, L U; Reis, P G; Barbosa, L C O; Saúde-Guimarães, D A; Grabe-Guimarães, A; Mosqueira, V C F; Carneiro, C M; Silva-Barcellos, N M

    2012-04-01

    The present work evaluates wound healing activity of leaves extracts of Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey) incorporated in three pharmaceutical formulations. Wound healing activity of comfrey was determined by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of open wound in rat model, using allantoin as positive control. Three topical formulations, carbomer gel, glycero-alcoholic solution and O/W emulsion (soft lotion) were compared. The histological analysis of the healing process shows significant differences in treatment, particularly on its intensity and rate. The results indicate that emulsion containing both extracts, commercial and prepared, induced the largest and furthest repair of damaged tissue. This could be evidenced from day 3 to 28 by increase in collagen deposition from 40% to 240% and reduction on cellular inflammatory infiltrate from 3% to 46%. However, 8% prepared extract in emulsion presented the best efficacy. This work clearly demonstrates that comfrey leaves have a wound healing activity. The O/W emulsion showed to be the vehicle most effective to induce healing activity, particularly with extracts obtained from comfrey leaves collected in Minas Gerais state in Brazil. It shows the best efficacy to control the inflammatory process and to induce collagen deposition at 8% concentration.

  9. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  10. Efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zingiber officinale Roscoe (jengibre) en modelo de hepatotoxicidad en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Banely Trinidad; Cortés Suárez, Saúl; Izquierdo-Sánchez, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: el rizoma de Zingiber officinale Roscoe (jengibre) familia Zingiberaceae, presenta actividad antioxidante como atrapador de radicales libres y de protección en lipoperoxidación en modelos in vivo e in vitro, debido a sus principales compuestos bioactivos. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico obtenido de Zingiber officinalis en el modelo de hepatotoxicidad por sobredosis de acetaminofén en ratas. Métodos: se preparó un extracto hidroalcohólico del rizoma fresc...

  11. Biomedical potentialities of Taraxacum officinale-based nanoparticles biosynthesized using methanolic leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Tahir; Bilal, Muhammad; Li, Chuanlong; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2018-02-14

    In the present study, the potential of methanolic leaf extract of Taraxacum officinale plant as a function of bio-inspired green synthesis for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been explored. The bio-reduction of aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution was confirmed by visually detecting the color change from pale yellow to blackish-brown. Maximum absorbance was observed at 420 nm due to the presence of characteristic surface Plasmon resonance of nano silver by UV-visible spectroscopy. The role of various functional groups in the bio-reduction of silver and chemical transformation was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) predicts the shape (rocky, flack type, ellipsoidal, etc.), size (68 nm) and elemental composition (Ag as a major constituent) of the biosynthesized AgNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis further corroborated the morphology of the AgNPs. Color mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the nano-sized topography. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed the charge, stability, and size of the AgNPs. The generated AgNPs presented potential antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Haemophilus influenzae. The biosynthesized AgNPs also showed antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, results clearly indicate that biosynthesized AgNPs could be used as effective nano drug for treating infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacterial strains in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Zingiber officinale attenuates retinal microvascular changes in diabetic rats via anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongare, Shirish; Mathur, Rajani; Saxena, Rohit; Mathur, Sandeep; Agarwal, Renu; Nag, Tapas C.; Srivastava, Sushma; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetic rats were treated orally with the vehicle or the ginger extract (75 mg/kg/day) over a period of 24 weeks along with regular monitoring of bodyweight and blood glucose and weekly fundus photography. At the end of the 24-week treatment, the retinas were isolated for histopathological examination under a light microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and determination of the retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Results Oral administration of the ginger extract resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and vascular basement membrane thickness. Improvement in the architecture of the retinal vasculature was associated with significantly reduced expression of NF-κB and reduced activity of TNF-α and VEGF in the retinal tissue in the ginger extract–treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusions The current study showed that ginger extract containing 5% of 6-gingerol attenuates the retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Although precise molecular targets remain to be determined, 6-gingerol seems to be a potential candidate for further investigation. PMID:27293376

  13. Three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hoggas, Naouel; Hafid, Kahina

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes for the first time an elegant non-chromatographic method, the three phase partitioning for the purification and recovery of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme, from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Factors affecting partitioning efficiency such as (NH4)2SO4 saturation, crude extract to t-butanol ratio and pH on zingibain partitioning were investigated. Optimal purification parameters were 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation with 1.0:1.0 ratio of crude extract:t-butanol at pH 7.0, which gave 14.91 purification fold with 215% recovery of zingibain. The enzyme was found to be exclusively partitioned in the aqueous phase. The enzyme showed a prominent single band on SDS-PAGE. It is a monomeric protein of 33.8 kDa and its isoelectric point is 4.38. The enzyme exhibited maximal proteolytic activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 7.0. It was found to be stable at 40-65 °C during 2 h. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against numerous metal ions and its activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+). It was completely inhibited by heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and partially by Cd(+). Zingibain milk-clotting activity (MCA) was found to be highly stable when stored under freezing (-20 °C) for 30 days compared at 4 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Attenuation of Sulfite-Induced Testicular Injury in Rats by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami Fathabad, Akbar; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Hoseini, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Zahra

    2017-08-18

    Sulfite salts, including sodium metabisulfte, are widely used as preservatives in foods and pharmaceutical agents. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mediator of testicular injury. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of exposure to sodium metabisulfite by gavage without or with Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract on the rat testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ginger-treated (500 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite- (SMB-) treated (260 mg/kg/day), and SMB + ginger- (SZ-) treated groups. After 28 days, the rats were anesthetized by ether and, after laparotomy, blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Then left testes and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for histological examination and sperm analysis, and right testes were removed for assessing lipid peroxidation (indexed by malondialdehyde [MDA]) and antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that spermatogenesis, epididymal morphometry, and sperm parameters were affected by SMB. There was a significant increase in MDA level and a significant reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) in the SMB-treated rats compared to the control. Ginger treatment of SMB-exposed rats significantly increased testosterone level and the number of different spermatogenic cells. The level of MDA reversed to the control levels and the activities of GPx and GR were significantly increased when SMB was coadministered with ginger extract. It is concluded that coadministration of ginger, through its antioxidant and androgenic properties, exerts a protective effect against SMB-induced testicular oxidative stress.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation and temperature on ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) sprout and weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirikulvadhana, Suda; Prompubesara, Chavangsakdhi.

    1979-09-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale L.) preservation was conducted by irradiated ginger at 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 Krad and then stored at 20(+-1) deg C and room temperature (32+-3 deg C) with 75% relative humidity. The results of the experiment are as follows: after 1 month storage at 32 deg C both irradiated and non-irradiated ginger weight losses were 15-18% and water contents decreased from 88.67 to 81.82%. Only non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1 cm. in length by average at this time. Weight loss after three month storage of irradiated 0, 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger increased to 36.37, 32.67, 34.95 and 35.95% respectively, and the water contents decreased to 69.33, 72.00, 73.33 and 70.66% respectively. No sprout also, was found in 4-10 Krad ginger. The weight loss of non-irradiated ginger stored at 20 deg C for 6 months was lower than those irradiated ginger, i.e. only 21.07 for 0 Krad but 26.55, 28.07 and 34.30% for 4, 6 and 10 Krad ginger respectively. In addition, water contents were found to be highest in non-irradiated ginger (76.00%) but lowest in irradiated ginger, at 10 Krad (66,66%). However, non-irradiated ginger sprouted 1.5 cm but no sprout was found in irradiated ginger. In conclusion, radiation only 4 Krad inhibited ginger sprout and did not decrease ginger weight (P<.01). Furthermore, cool temperature at 20 deg C delayed ginger sprout up to 4 months and decreased ginger weight loss

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zingiber Officinale in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Low-grade inflammation, a common feature in type 2 diabetes (DM2, causes some chronic complications in these patients. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α and the acute phase protein hs-CRP in DM2 patients as a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Methods: A total of 64 DM2 patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups and received 2 tablets/day of each for 2 months. The concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in blood samples were analyzed before and after the intervention. Results: Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α (P = 0.006, IL-6 (P = 0.02 and hs-CRP (P = 0.012 in ginger group in comparison to baseline. Moreover, the analysis of covariance showed that the group received ginger supplementation significantly lowered TNF- α (15.3 ± 4.6 vs. 19.6 ± 5.2; P = 0.005 and hs-CRP (2.42 ± 1.7 vs. 2.56 ± 2.18; P = .016 concentrations in comparison to control group. While there were no significant changes in IL-6 (7.9 ± 2.1 vs. 7.8 ± 2.9; P > .05. Conclusion: In conclusion, ginger supplementation in oral administration reduced inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may be a good remedy to diminish the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

  17. Survey of the Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Effects of Zingiber officinale (in Vitro Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Marzieh; Zahedi Bialvaei, Abed; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kabiri, Fahimeh; Saliani, Negar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Eslami, Hosein; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Candidiasis is one of the most prevalent and important opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity caused by Candida yeast species like Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei. In addition, several bacteria can cause oral infections. The inhibition of microbial biofilm is the best way to prevent oral infections. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against Candida species and some bacterial pathogens and the extract's effects on biofilm formation. Ginger ethanolic extract as a potential mouthwash was used to evaluate its effect against fungi and bacteria using the microdilution method, and biofilm was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method and dead/alive staining. MTT assay was used to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity effects of the extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ginger extract for evaluated strains were 40, 40, 20, 20, 20, 20, 10, and 5 mg/mL for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter baumannii, C. albicans, and C. krusei, respectively. Ginger extract successfully inhibited biofilm formation by A. baumannii, B. cereus, C. krusei, and C. albicans. MTT assay revealed no significant reduction in cell viability after 24 hours. The minimum inhibitory biofilm concentrations (MIBCs) of ginger extract for fungi strains (C. krusei and C. albicans) were greater than those of fluconazole and nystatin (P = 0.000). The findings of the present study indicate that ginger extract has good antifungal and antibiofilm formation by fungi against C. albicans and C. Krusei. Concentrations between 0.625 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL had the highest antibiofilm and antifungal effects. Perhaps, the use of herbal extracts such as ginger represents a new era for antimicrobial therapy after developing antibiotic resistance in microbes.

  18. In vitro Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Leaf and Root Extracts of Taraxacum Officinale

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    Belén García-Carrasco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL. The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.

  19. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale. L. and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-Term Carcinogenesis Model Study

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    Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L. (Boraginaceae is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the ‘resistant hepatocyte model’ (RHM. In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs rise in about 1–2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po, and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann–Whitney and χ2 were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05, the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001 and mitotic figures (P = 0.007, as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA positive cells (P = 0.0001 and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05. On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001 and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001 was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model.

  20. Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David J; Critchley, Christa; Pun, Sharon; Chaliha, Mridusmita; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress. In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold.

  1. Survival of Salmonella during Drying of Fresh Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) and Storage of Ground Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Dana R; Sun, Lingxiang; Larkin, Emily L; Chirtel, Stuart J; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-11-01

    The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3- to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to 6 h with an additional 2- to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger.

  2. Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. l.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Xavier, José Guilherme; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2010-06-01

    Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the 'resistant hepatocyte model' (RHM). In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) rise in about 1-2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip) and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po), and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann-Whitney and χ(2)) were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05), the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001) and mitotic figures (P = 0.007), as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) positive cells (P = 0.0001) and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001) and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001) was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model.

  3. Effects of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber officinale on Arginase I Activity and Expression in the Retina of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamuchi-Deli, Nasrin; Aberomand, Mohammad; Babaahmadi-Rezaei, Hossein; Mohammadzadeh, Ghorban

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that an increased arginase activity is involved in vascular dysfunction in experimental animals. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, commonly known as ginger, has been widely used in the traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. This study aimed at investigating the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Z. officinale on arginase I activity and expression in the retina of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In this experimental study, 16 male Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g were assessed. Diabetes was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). The rats were randomly allocated into four experimental groups. Untreated healthy and diabetic controls received 1.5 mL/kg distilled water. Treated diabetic rats received 200, and 400 mg/kg of the Z. officinale extract dissolved in distilled water (1.5 mL/kg). Body weight, blood glucose and insulin concentration were measured by standard methods. The arginase I activity and expression were determined by spectrophotometric and western blot analysis, respectively. Our results showed that blood glucose concentration was significantly decreased in diabetic rats treated with the extract compared to untreated diabetic controls (P officinale hydroalcoholic extract may potentially be a promising therapeutic option for treating diabetes-induced vascular disorders, possibly through reducing arginase I activity and expression in the retina.

  4. Sesquiterpene Lactone Composition and Cellular Nrf2 Induction of Taraxacum officinale Leaves and Roots and Taraxinic Acid β-d-Glucopyranosyl Ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Obermair, Betina; Dorn, Tabea; Siems, Karsten; Rimbach, Gerald; Birringer, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, is a plant of the Asteraceae family, which is used as a food and medical herb. Various secondary plant metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, and steroids have been described to be present in T. officinale. Dandelion may exhibit various health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. We analyzed the leaves and roots of the common dandelion (T. officinale) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine its sesquiterpene lactone composition. The main compound of the leaf extract taraxinic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (1), a sesquiterpene lactone, was isolated and the structure elucidation was conducted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The leaf extract and its main compound 1 activated the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in human hepatocytes more significantly than the root extract. Furthermore, the leaf extract induced the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase 1. Overall, present data suggest that compound 1 may be one of the active principles of T. officinale.

  5. Dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet to heat-stressed broiler chickens and its effect on heat shock protein 70 expression, blood parameters and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheimi, S R; Zulkifli, I; Somchit, M N; Zunita, Z; Loh, T C; Soleimani, A F; Tang, S C

    2013-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet and to heat-stressed broiler chickens on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, plasma corticosterone concentration (CORT), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (HLR) and body temperature. Beginning from day 28, chicks were divided into five dietary groups: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet +1%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ1%), (iii) basal diet +2%Z. zerumbet powder (ZZ2%), (iv) basal diet +1%Z. officinale powder (ZO1%) and (v) basal diet +2%Z. officinale powder (ZO2%). From day 35-42, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38±1°C and 80% RH for 2 h/day. Irrespective of diet, heat challenge elevated HSP70 expression, CORT and HLR on day 42. On day 42, following heat challenge, the ZZ1% birds showed lower body temperatures than those of control, ZO1% and ZO2%. Neither CORT nor HLR was significantly affected by diet. The ZO2% and ZZ2% diets enhanced HSP70 expression when compared to the control groups. We concluded that dietary supplementation of Z. officinale and Z. zerumbet powder may induce HSP70 reaction in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Idowu Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg diabetic rats significantly reduced (P<0.05 the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P<0.05 in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P<0.05 the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.

  7. Chemical composition, traditional and professional use in medicine, application in environmental protection, position in food and cosmetics industries, and biotechnological studies of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek-Szczykutowicz, Marta; Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Halina

    2018-05-28

    The herb of Nasturtium officinale is a raw material that has long been used in the traditional medicine of Iran, Azerbaijan, Morocco and Mauritius. Nowadays, this raw material is the object of numerous professional pharmacological studies that have demonstrated its antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. These therapeutic effects are caused by glucosinolates present in the plant, isothiocyanates, polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins), terpenes (including carotenoids), vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, E, C) and bioelements. The article presents the current state of phytochemical research on the generative and vegetative organs of aboveground parts. A special spotlight is put on the main N. officinale secondary metabolites - glucosinolates. Attention is drawn to the important position of N. officinale in the production of healthy foods and in the production of cosmetics. A large part of the article is devoted to the importance of this species in phytoremediation processes used in the protection of soil environments and water reservoirs. The biotechnological research on this species has also been reviewed. Those studies are of particular importance not only due to the attractiveness of this species in phytotherapy and cosmetology, but also due to the deteriorating natural state of this species and the threat of extinction. The aim of this review is to promote N. officinale as a very valuable species, not yet fully discovered by global medicine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected Wistar mice

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    P. I. Kobo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out to determine the in vivo antitrypanosomal effect of methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (ginger in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five mice were randomly allocated into five groups of five animals each. Group I and II were given Tween 80 (1 ml/kg and diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg/kg to serve as untreated and treated controls, respectively. Groups III-V received the extract at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All treatments were given for 6 consecutive days and through the oral route. The mean body weight, mean survival period and daily level of parasitaemia were evaluated. Results: Acute toxicity showed the extract to be relatively safe. There was an insignificant increase in body weight and survival rate of mice treated with the extract. The level of parasitaemia in the extract treated groups was decreased. Conclusion: This study shows the in vivo potential of methanolic extract of Z. officinale in the treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  9. Densitometric HPTLC analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez

    2013-08-01

    To develop and validate a simple, accurate HPTLC method for the analysis of 8-gingerol and to determine the quantity of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. The analysis was performed on 10×20 cm aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F254 (E-Merck, Germany) with n-hexane: ethyl acetate 60: 40 (v/v) as mobile phase. Camag TLC Scanner III was used for the UV densitometric scanning at 569. This system was found to give a compact spot of 8-gingerol at retention factor (Rf) value of (0.39±0.04) and linearity was found in the ranges 50-500 ng/spot (r (2)=0.9987). Limit of detection (12.76 ng/spot), limit of quantification (26.32 ng/spot), accuracy (less than 2 %) and recovery (ranging from 98.22-99.20) were found satisfactory. The HPTLC method developed for quantification of 8-gingerol was found to be simple, accurate, reproducible, sensitive and is applicable to the analysis of 8-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams.

  10. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO. PMID:24396831

  11. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (pZingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis

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    Daleya Abdulaziz Bardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p. for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween, respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL. This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.

  13. In vivo evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes for its protective effect against liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz Bardi, Daleya; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2-5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38-60 μ g/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.

  14. Perbedaan Pengaruh Pemberian Insulin dan Ekstrak Zingiber officinale Terhadap Berat Badan Lahir Anak Rattus Norvegicus Model Diabetes Melitus Pragestasional

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    Ratih Mega Septiasari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes during pregnancy can be divided into pregestational diabetes and gestational diabetes. The risk of fetal Diabetes Mellitus pregestational (DMpG patients can be either macrosomia or low birth weight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the administration effect of insulin and Zingiber officinale extract on birth weight of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model. This research is an experimental research using post test only control group design. Samples contained 30 pregnant Rattus norvegicus and divided into 5 groups, where K0 (negative control group and K1 (positive control group given aquadest 1cc, K2 given insulin 1IU, K3 given ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW, K4 given insulin 1IU and ginger extract 500mg/ kg BW. Treatment was administered during the first 16 days of pregnancy. On the 17th day, the rats were terminated and then the birth weight was measured with the scale. Data analysis using One-way ANOVA test followed by Tamhane test. The results showed that there was a difference of birth weight in the insulin treatment group and ginger extract treatment group (p-value = 0,037 < α =0,05. The conclusion of this study was Zingiber officinale can be used as a single therapy or combination with insulin of Rattus norvegicus pregestational diabetes mellitus model.

  15. [Comparison on polysaccharide content and PMP-HPLC fingerprints of polysaccharide in stems and leaves of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gui-Fen; Pang, Min-Xia; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan; Yan, Mei-Qiu

    2014-03-01

    In order to provide scientific basics for exploitation and sufficient application of Dendrobium officinale leaves resources, the phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to determine the polysaccharide content. The monosaccharides were derivated by PMP and the derivatives were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and the contents of mannose and glucose were determined simultaneously. Similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine (2004A) was employed to generate the mean chromatogram and similarity analysis of the samples was carried out. The results demonstrated that polysaccharide content, monosaccharide compositions and composition ratio had an obvious difference between stems and leaves. The polysaccharide content of stems was higher than that of leaves. Monosaccharide composition in leaf was significantly different from that in stem. The polysaccharide from stems was composed of mannose and glucose, however the polysaccharide of leaves was acid heteropolysaccharide and was mainly composed of five monosaccharides, including mannose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The similarity value of the 14 batches was above 0.9, indicating that similarity of fingerprints among different samples was high. The study can provide evidence for expanding the medicinal parts of D. officinale.

  16. Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum and Combination Induced Apoptosis and p53 Expression in Myeloma and WiDr Cell Lines

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    HENY EKOWATI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum, and the combination showed cytotoxic activity, induced apoptosis, and p53 expression of HeLa, T47D, and MCF-7 cell lines. This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of Zingiber officinale (ZO, Piper retrofractum (PR, and the combination as well as their effect to p53 expression on Myeloma and WiDr cells. The powder of ZO, PR, and ZO + PR combination (1:1 were macerated with 96% ethanol for 3 x 24 hours. MTT cytotoxic assay was performed on Myeloma and WiDr cell lines. Apoptotic cells were stained with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. Imunohistochemical expression of p53 was examined on Myeloma and WiDr cell lines. Doxorubicin was used as positive control in all assays. Results showed that ZO, PR, and ZO + PR combination had cytotoxic activity on Myeloma cells with IC50 of 28, 36, and 55 mg/ml respectively and WiDr cell lines with IC50 of 74, 158, and 64 mg/ml respectively, induced apoptotic activity, and increased p53 expression on Myeloma and WiDr cells. These results suggest that ZO, PR, and their combination induced Myeloma and WiDr cells in apoptosis through p53 expression.

  17. Crude Flavonoid Extract of Medicinal Herb Zingibar officinale Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ayman I; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid

    2017-07-05

    There is an urgent need to improve the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common causes of global cancer-related deaths. Zingibar officinale is a medicinal herb used throughout history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It has antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and free radical scavenging properties. Previously, we proved that the crude flavonoid extract of Z. officinale (CFEZO) inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. However, the effect of the CFEZO on an HCC cell line has not yet been evaluated. In this study, we explored the anticancer activity of CFEZO against an HCC cell line, HepG2. CFEZO significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Typical apoptotic morphological and biochemical changes, including cell shrinkage and detachment, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, DNA degradation, and comet tail formation, were observed after treatments with CFEZO. The apoptogenic activity of CFEZO involved induction of ROS, depletion of GSH, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase 3/9, and an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. CFEZO treatments induced upregulation of p53 and p21 expression and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 expression, which were accompanied by G2/M phase arrest. These findings suggest that CFEZO provides a useful foundation for studying and developing novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of HCC.

  18. A transcriptome-wide, organ-specific regulatory map of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yijun; Yu, Dongliang; Xue, Jie; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is an important traditional Chinese herb. Here, we did a transcriptome-wide, organ-specific study on this valuable plant by combining RNA, small RNA (sRNA) and degradome sequencing. RNA sequencing of four organs (flower, root, leaf and stem) of Dendrobium officinale enabled us to obtain 536,558 assembled transcripts, from which 2,645, 256, 42 and 54 were identified to be highly expressed in the four organs respectively. Based on sRNA sequencing, 2,038, 2, 21 and 24 sRNAs were identified to be specifically accumulated in the four organs respectively. A total of 1,047 mature microRNA (miRNA) candidates were detected. Based on secondary structure predictions and sequencing, tens of potential miRNA precursors were identified from the assembled transcripts. Interestingly, phase-distributed sRNAs with degradome-based processing evidences were discovered on the long-stem structures of two precursors. Target identification was performed for the 1,047 miRNA candidates, resulting in the discovery of 1,257 miRNA--target pairs. Finally, some biological meaningful subnetworks involving hormone signaling, development, secondary metabolism and Argonaute 1-related regulation were established. All of the sequencing data sets are available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/). Summarily, our study provides a valuable resource for the in-depth molecular and functional studies on this important Chinese orchid herb. PMID:26732614

  19. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.

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    Sudam Nandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%, protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%, crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%, carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41 and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g. respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

  20. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

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    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5% when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 µmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong were observed at 790 µmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 µmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 µmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds.

  1. Synthesis of Phenolics and Flavonoids in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids synthesis/accumulation and photosynthesis rate was investigated for two Malaysian ginger (Zingiber officinale) varieties grown under four levels of glasshouse light intensity, namely 310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to identify and quantify the polyphenolic components. The results of HPLC analysis indicated that synthesis and partitioning of quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and naringenin were high in plants grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The average value of flavonoids synthesis in leaves for both varieties increased (Halia Bentong 26.1%; Halia Bara 19.5%) when light intensity decreased. Photosynthetic rate and plant biomass increased in both varieties with increasing light intensity. More specifically, a high photosynthesis rate (12.25 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (79.47 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 790 μmol m−2s−1. Furthermore, plants with the lowest rate of photosynthesis had highest flavonoids content. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits and salicylic acid induces the electron transport rate in photosynthesis photosystems. In the current study, quercetin was an abundant flavonoid in both ginger varieties. Moreover, higher concentration of quercetin (1.12 mg/g dry weight) was found in Halia Bara leaves grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1 with a low photosynthesis rate. Furthermore, a high content of salicylic acid (0.673 mg/g dry weight) was detected in Halia Bara leaves exposed under 790 μmol m−2s−1 with a high photosynthesis rate. No salicylic acid was detected in gingers grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. Ginger is a semi-shade loving plant that does not require high light intensity for photosynthesis. Different photosynthesis rates at different light intensities may be related to the absence or presence of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds. PMID:21151455

  2. Immunolocalization and Changes of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins During Symbiotic Germination of Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Cho, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Ai-Rong; Yeung, Edward C; Zeng, Xu; Guo, Shun-Xing; Lee, Yung-I

    2018-01-01

    Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are abundant cell wall components involved in mycorrhizal symbiosis, but little is known about their function in orchid mycorrhizal association. To gain further insight into the role of HRGPs in orchid symbiosis, the location and function of HRGPs were investigated during symbiotic germination of Dendrobium officinale . The presence of JIM11 epitope in developing protocorms was determined using immunodot blots and immunohistochemical staining procedures. Real-time PCR was also employed to verify the expression patterns of genes coding for extensin-like genes selected from the transcriptomic database. The importance of HRGPs in symbiotic germination was further investigated using 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP), an inhibitor of HRGP biosynthesis. In symbiotic cultures, immunodot blots of JIM11 signals were moderate in mature seeds, and the signals became stronger in swollen embryos. After germination, signal intensities decreased in developing protocorms. In contrast, in asymbiotic cultures, JIM11 signals were much lower as compared with those stages in symbiotic cultures. Immunofluorescence staining enabled the visualization of JIM11 epitope in mature embryo and protocorm cells. Positive signals were initially localized in the larger cells near the basal (suspensor) end of uninfected embryos, marking the future colonization site of fungal hyphae. After 1 week of inoculation, the basal end of embryos had been colonized, and a strong signal was detected mostly at the mid- and basal regions of the enlarging protocorm. As protocorm development progressed, the signal was concentrated in the colonized cells at the basal end. In colonized cells, signals were present in the walls and intracellularly associated with hyphae and the pelotons. The precise localization of JIM11 epitope is further examined by immunogold labeling. In the colonized cells, gold particles were found mainly in the cell wall and the interfacial matrix near the

  3. Protective Effect of Zingiber Officinale against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis Is Mediated through Downregulating the TGF-β1/Smad3 and NF-ĸB/IĸB Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Iman H; El-Desouky, M A; Hozayen, Walaa G; Abd el Aziz, Ghada M

    2016-01-01

    No ideal hepatoprotective agents are available in modern medicine to effectively prevent liver disorders. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the potential of Zingiber officinale in the regression of liver fibrosis and its underlining mechanism of action. To induce liver fibrosis, male Wistar rats received CCl4 (2 ml/kg/2 times/week; i.p.), with and without 300 or 600 mg/kg Z. officinale extract daily through oral gavage. To assess the protective effect of Z. officinale, liver function parameters, histopathology, inflammatory markers and gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB)/IĸB pathways were analyzed. Results demonstrate that Z. officinale extract markedly prevented liver injury as evident by the decreased liver marker enzymes. Concurrent administration of Z. officinale significantly protected against the CCl4-induced inflammation as showed by the decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as well as the downregulation of the NF-ĸB)/IĸB and TGF-β1/Smad3 pathways in CCl4-administered rats. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that the protective effect of Z. officinale against rat liver fibrosis could be explained through its ability to modulate the TGF-β1/Smad3 and NF-ĸB)/IĸB signaling pathways. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitory potential of Malus domestica, Musa × paradisiaca, Daucus carota, and Symphytum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-02-01

    The involvement of sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHE) has been described in the pathophysiology of diseases including ischemic heart and brain diseases, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, epilepsy, dementia, and neuropathic pain. Synthetic NHE inhibitors have not achieved much clinical success; therefore, plant-derived phytoconstituents may be explored as NHE inhibitors. In the present study, the NHE inhibitory potential of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal fractions of Malus domestica, Musa × paradisiaca, Daucus carota, and Symphytum officinale was evaluated. The different concentrations of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts of the selected plants were evaluated for their NHE inhibitory activity in the platelets using the optical swelling assay. Among the hydroalcoholic extracts, the highest NHE inhibitory activity was shown by M. domestica (IC50=2.350 ± 0.132 μg/mL) followed by Musa × paradisiaca (IC50=7.967 ± 0.451 μg/mL), D. carota (IC50=37.667 ± 2.517 μg/mL), and S. officinale (IC50=249.330 ± 1.155 μg/mL). Among the alkaloidal fractions, the highest NHE inhibitory activity was shown by the alkaloidal fraction of Musa × paradisiacal (IC50=0.010 ± 0.001 μg/mL) followed by D. carota (IC50=0.024 ± 0.002 μg/mL), M. domestica (IC50=0.031 ± 0.005 μg/mL), and S. officinale (IC50=4.233 ± 0.379 μg/mL). The IC50 of alkaloidal fractions was comparable to the IC50 of synthetic NHE inhibitor, EIPA [5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride] (IC50=0.033 ± 0.004 μg/mL). It may be concluded that the alkaloidal fractions of these plants possess potent NHE inhibitory activity and may be exploited for their therapeutic potential in NHE activation-related pathological complications.

  5. Anti-Fatigue Effects of the Unique Polysaccharide Marker of Dendrobium officinale on BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Zhi-Peng; Zhu, Tong; Fung, Hau-Yee; Wong, Tin-Long; Wen, Xin; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Han, Quan-Bin

    2017-01-18

    Dendrobium officinale extract shows potent anti-fatigue effects; however, the active substance responsible for these effects remains undetermined. A glucomannan with a huge molecular size of 730 kDa, called DOP, was identified as the unique authentication marker of this expensive herb. DOP exhibited immunomodulating effects on macrophages and lymphocytes in our previous study. Clinical reports also showed that people with fatigue syndrome have a disturbed immune system. Because DOP is the unique and dominant component of D. officinale , we hypothesize that DOP may also have anti-fatigue activity. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of DOP on BALB/c mice, with Rhodiola rosea extract as a positive control. DOP and Rhodiola rosea extract were orally administered at doses of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for four weeks, and the anti-fatigue activity of DOP on BALB/c mice was evaluated using the weight-loaded swimming test. The contents of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CK), triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic acid (LD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum, glycogen of liver and gastrocnemius muscle were also determined. Their effects on variability of T cells and B cells were determined by using tetrazolium compound (MTS) method. The weight-loaded swimming exercise caused fatigue syndrome, mainly including the decreases of serum SOD/GSH-Px and gastrocnemius glycogen, as well as the increases of LDH, BUN, MDA, CK, TG, and LD in serum. All of these indicators of fatigue were inhibited to a certain extent by both DOP and Rhodiola rosea extract; however, the effects of DOP were much stronger than those of Rhodiola rosea extract. Compared to the positive control, mice dosed with DOP showed increases in endurance, body weight, and food intake. Furthermore, DOP-feeding mice significantly increased the cell variability of T lymphocytes and B

  6. Anti-Fatigue Effects of the Unique Polysaccharide Marker of Dendrobium officinale on BALB/c Mice

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    Wei Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale extract shows potent anti-fatigue effects; however, the active substance responsible for these effects remains undetermined. A glucomannan with a huge molecular size of 730 kDa, called DOP, was identified as the unique authentication marker of this expensive herb. DOP exhibited immunomodulating effects on macrophages and lymphocytes in our previous study. Clinical reports also showed that people with fatigue syndrome have a disturbed immune system. Because DOP is the unique and dominant component of D. officinale, we hypothesize that DOP may also have anti-fatigue activity. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of DOP on BALB/c mice, with Rhodiola rosea extract as a positive control. DOP and Rhodiola rosea extract were orally administered at doses of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for four weeks, and the anti-fatigue activity of DOP on BALB/c mice was evaluated using the weight-loaded swimming test. The contents of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine phosphokinase (CK, triglyceride (TG, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, lactic acid (LD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in serum, glycogen of liver and gastrocnemius muscle were also determined. Their effects on variability of T cells and B cells were determined by using tetrazolium compound (MTS method. The weight-loaded swimming exercise caused fatigue syndrome, mainly including the decreases of serum SOD/GSH-Px and gastrocnemius glycogen, as well as the increases of LDH, BUN, MDA, CK, TG, and LD in serum. All of these indicators of fatigue were inhibited to a certain extent by both DOP and Rhodiola rosea extract; however, the effects of DOP were much stronger than those of Rhodiola rosea extract. Compared to the positive control, mice dosed with DOP showed increases in endurance, body weight, and food intake. Furthermore, DOP-feeding mice significantly increased the cell variability of T lymphocytes

  7. Data in support of three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hafid, Kahina; Hoggas, Naouel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article titled “Three Phase Partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes” (Gagaoua et al., 2015) [1]. Zingibain (EC 3.4.22.67), is a coagulant cysteine protease and a meat tenderizer agent that have been reported to produce satisfactory final products in dairy and meat technology, respectively. Zingibains were exclusively purified using chromatographic techniques with very low yield purification. This paper includes data of the effect of temperature, usual salts and organic solvents on the efficiency of the three phase partitioning (TPP) system. Also it includes data of the kinetic activity characterization of the purified zingibain using TPP purification approach. PMID:26909379

  8. A comparative UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach for distinguishing Zingiber officinale Roscoe of two geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Enos; Alolga, Raphael N; Wang, Shi-Lei; Linus, Loveth O; Yin, Xiaojin; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2018-02-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a popular spice used in the food, beverage and confectionary industries. In this study, we report an untargeted UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach for comprehensively discriminating between ginger from two geographical locations, Ghana in West Africa and China. Forty batches of fresh ginger from both countries were discriminated using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis. Sixteen differential metabolites were identified between the gingers from the two geographical locations, six of which were identified as the marker compounds responsible for the discrimination. Our study highlights the essence and predictive power of metabolomics in detecting minute differences in same varieties of plants/plant samples based on the levels and composition of their metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EXPERIENCE OF TREATMENT OF PATIENT WITH JUVENILE SERONEGATIVE POLYARTHRITIS WITH MEDICATION CONTAINING GLUCOSAMINE AND EXTRACTS OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Gudkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report on a severe course of juvenile seronegative polyarthritis is presented in this article. Successful treatment with «zinaxin» containing glucosamine and extracts of zingiber officinale, made with lipocap technology as an alternative to nonsteroidal anti9inflammatory drugs was performed is patient with developed adverse event to the medicaments (increase of plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase five times a much compared to norm, combined with quadrotherapy of duodenal ulcer. Patient had a good status, pain syndrome and morning joint stiffness were absent during treatment with «zinaxin with glucosamine» daily and dsintoxication course (2 months in conditions of withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment. activity of disease had 0–1 grade according to examination data.Key words: children, juvenile arthritis, pain syndrome.

  10. Microencapsulation of oleoresin from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) in chitosan and alginate for fresh milk preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanti, Elsa; Astuty, Rizka Margi; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-02-01

    The usage of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) oleoresin extract as the preservative for fresh milk has not been studied yet. The aim of this research was to compare the inhibition effect of oleoresin extract-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, and various ginger-based preservatives added into fresh milk, on the growth of bacteria. The total count plate growth of bacteria after addition of the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles was the lowest. In addition, the organoleptic test showed that this formulation had no significant effect on the color, taste, and flavor of fresh milk. The experimental results indicated that the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles may effectively be used as a preservative for fresh milk.

  11. Attenuation of gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats by dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ogunsuyi, Opeyemi B; Akinyemi, Ayodele J

    2012-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes on antioxidant status and renal damage induced by gentamycin in rats. Renal damage was induced in albino rats pretreated with dietary inclusion of ginger and turmeric (2% and 4%) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for three days. Assays for renal damage biomarkers (plasma creatinine, plasma urea, blood urea nitrogen and plasma uric acid), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as renal antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out. The study revealed significant (p turmeric rhizome (2% and 4%) prior to gentamycin administration significantly (p turmeric rhizomes may protect against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  12. Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Vasorelaxing Effects of the Constituents of the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Shung Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the chemical investigation of the bioactive fractions of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale has resulted in the identification of twenty-nine compounds including one new compound, O-methyldehydrogingerol (1. Some of the isolates were subjected into the evaluation of their antiplatelet aggregation and vasorelaxing bioactivities. Among the tested compounds, [6]-gingerol (13 and [6]-shogaol (17 exhibited potent anti-platelet aggregation bioactivity. In addition, [10]-gingerol (15 inhibited the Ca2+-dependent contractions in high K+ medium. According to the results in the present research, the bioactivity of ginger could be related to the anti-platelet aggregation and vasorelaxing mechanism.

  13. Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura; Buffa, Gabriella; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Response of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) to heavy metals from mine sites: micromorphology of leaves and roots. Maleci L.1 , Bini C.2, Buffa G. 2, Fontana S2., Wahsha M.3 1 - Dept of Biology, University of Florence, Italy. 2 - Dept of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics. Ca'Foscari University, Venice - Italy. 3 - Marine Science Centre - University of Jordan, Aqaba section, Jordan. Heavy metal accumulation is known to produce significant physiological and biochemical responses in vascular plants. Yet, metabolic and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal concentration can be viewed as potentially adaptive changes of the plants during stress. From this point of view, plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, and can be utilized in soil restoration. Among wild plants, the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Web) has received attention as bioindicator plant, and has been also suggested in remediation projects. Wild specimens of Taraxacum officinale Web, with their soil clod, were gathered from three sites with different contamination levels by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) in the abandoned Imperina Valley mine (Northeast Italy). A control plant was also gathered from a not contaminated site nearby. Plants were cultivated in pots for one year at HBF, and appeared macroscopically not affected by toxic signals (reduced growth, leaf necrosis) possibly induced by soil HM concentration. Leaves and roots taken at the same growing season were observed by LM and TEM. Light microscopy observations carried out on the leaf lamina show a clear difference in the cellular organization of not-contaminated and contaminated samples. The unpolluted samples present a well organized palisade tissue and spongy photosynthetic parenchyma. Samples from contaminated sites, instead, present a palisade parenchyma less organized, and a reduction of leaf thickness

  14. Study on Dendrobium officinale O-Acetyl-glucomannan (Dendronan). 7. Improving Effects on Colonic Health of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-ya; Nie, Shao-ping; Huang, Xiao-jun; Hu, Jie-lun; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-yong; Phillips, Glyn O

    2016-03-30

    This research was aimed to study the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (Dendronan) on colonic health. Mice were fed Dendronan at doses of 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg body weight for 0, 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. Results showed that Dendronan, which has a special structure formed by mannose and glucose, rich in O-acetyl groups, exhibited improving effects on colonic and fecal parameters of Balb/c mice. After Dendronan feeding, the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), colon length and index, and fecal moisture were increased, whereas colonic pH was decreased and defecation time was shortened. All of these changes were significantly different between polysaccharide-treated groups and the control group (p < 0.05). These findings suggested that an adequate intake of Dendronan is beneficial to the process of fermentation and regulation of colonic microenvironment, thus playing a role in the maintenance of colonic health.

  15. New phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives from the stems of Dendrobium officinale with their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Yun; Deng, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Chong-Yu; Cui, Yi-Da; Bi, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Guo-Gang

    2018-01-01

    Two new phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives (1-2) with six known congeners (3-8) were isolated from the extraction of stems of Dendrobium officinale. Compounds 1 and 2 were based on carbon skeleton in which phenanthrene and 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene moiety were linked with a phenylpropane unit through a dioxane bridge, respectively. Their structures were determined by comprehensive NMR spectroscopic data, the absolute configuration of new compounds were determined by comparing their experimental and calculated ECD for the first time. All the compounds were investigated contains two cancer cell lines (HI-60, THP-1). All the isolates showed cytotoxicity, especially compound 4 showed markedly cytotoxic activities against HI-60 and THP-1 cell lines with IC 50 values of 11.96 and 8.92 μM.

  16. Anti-giardial therapeutic potential of dichloromethane extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyab, Ahmad K; Yones, Doaa A; Ibraheim, Zedan Z; Hassan, Tasneem M

    2016-07-01

    Giardiosis is one of the common parasitic diarrhoea in humans, especially in children, worldwide. Many drugs are used for its treatment, but there is evidence of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy and unpleasant side effects. Natural products are good candidates for discovering more effective anti-giardial compounds. This study evaluated the activity of extracts of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (curcumin) against Giardia lamblia in vitro and in vivo. Giardia cyst suspension was prepared from children faecal specimens. For the in vitro experiment, 1, 10 and 50 mg⁄mL dichloromethane extracts of ginger and curcumin separately were incubated with Giardia cysts for 5, 10, 30 and 60 min. The viability was distinguished by 0.1 % eosin and a haemocytometer. For the in vivo experiments, Balb/c mice were infected with Giardia cyst suspension containing 10,000 cysts/mL. Infected mice were administered 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ginger and curcumin extracts separately for 7 days post-infection. The effectiveness of the extracts was evaluated by faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts and histopathological examination of the small intestine. In vitro ginger extract had a higher significant effect on cyst viability than curcumin, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo ginger (more effective) and curcumin extracts significantly treated infected mice, and this was evidenced by the faecal cyst and intestinal trophozoite counts reduction, in addition to evident improvement of intestinal mucosal damages induced by Giardia infection. Z. officinale and C. longa extracts may represent effective and natural therapeutic alternatives with low side effects and without drug resistance in the treatment of giardiosis.

  17. Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo attenuates diabetic cardiomyopathy through inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Zhang, Duoduo; Dou, Mengmeng; Li, Zhubo; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2016-12-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (Dendrobium catenatum Lindley), a prized traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used in China and Southeast Asian countries for centuries. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects and the possible mechanisms of the Dendrobium officinale extracts (DOE) on diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice. The diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at the dose of 50mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days. After 8 weeks treatment of DOE, mice were sacrificed, blood sample and heart tissues were collected. Our results showed that Streptozotocin-induced diabetic model was effectively achieved and serum CK and LDH levels were significantly increased in mice with diabetic cardiomyopathy. Pretreatment with DOE decreased the heart-to-body weight ratio (HW/BW) and showed an evident hypoglycemic effect. DOE pretreatment significantly decreased CK, LDH, TC and TG levels, limited the production of MDA and increased the activities of T-SOD. The histological analysis of Oil red O staining and Sirius red staining showed an obvious amelioration of cardiac injury, inhibition of cardiac lipid accumulation and deposition of collagen when pretreatment with DOE. In addition, Western blot detection and analysis showed that DOE down-regulated the expression of TGF-β, collegan-1, fibronectin, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β. In conclusion, our study suggested that DOE possesses the cardioprotective potential against diabetic cardiomyopathy, which may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress, cardiac lipid accumulation, pro-inflammatory cytokines and cardiac fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary Studies on Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Aloe Vera Leaf, Citrus Hystrix Leaf, Zingiber Officinale and Sabah Snake Grass Against Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uda M.N.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants have several potential antimicrobial activities either as antifungal or antibacterial to fight against the disease and pathogen that attack the plants. The extractions of the Aloe vera leaf, Citrus hystrix leaf, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sabah snake grass were selected in this study to fight against Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium, rodshaped and catalase-positive that lives on decayed organic material. It is known as Gram-positive bacteria because of its thick peptidoglycan and would appear purple when subjected to Gram test. This species is commonly found in the upper layers of the soil, in meat or vegetables, in pastry, cooked meat, in bread or poultry products. The extracts of Sabah Snake Grass found to be most effective than A.vera leaf, Z. officinale, and C. hystrix against the B. subtilis.

  19. Chemical Composition and antiproliferative activity of essential oil from the leaves of a medicinal herb, Levisticum officinale, against UMSCC1 head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a challenging disease with a high mortality rate. Natural products represent a valuable source for the development of novel anticancer drugs. We investigated the cytotoxic potential of essential oil from the leaves of a medicinal plant, Levisticum officinale (lovage) on head and neck squamous carcinoma cells (HNSCC). Cytotoxicity of lovage essential oil was investigated on the HNSCC cell line, UMSCC1. Additionally, we performed pharmacogenomics analyses. Lovage essential oil extract had an IC₅₀ value of 292.6 μg/ml. Genes involved in apoptosis, cancer, cellular growth and cell cycle regulation were the most prominently affected in microarray analyses. The three pathways to be most significantly regulated were extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) signaling, integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling, virus entry via endocytic pathways and p53 signaling. Levisticum officinale essential oil inhibits human HNSCC cell growth.

  20. Typification of Leontodon taraxacum L. (=Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg.) and the generic name Taraxacum: A review and a new typification proposal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Štěpánek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2011), s. 216-20 ISSN 0040-0262 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/1555; GA MŠk LC06073; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09072 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : typification * nomenclature * Taraxacum officinale Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.703, year: 2011

  1. Isolation and Identification of Compounds from Bioactive Extracts of Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. (Dandelion) as a Potential Source of Antibacterial Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Katy Díaz; Luis Espinoza; Alejandro Madrid; Leonardo Pizarro; Rolando Chamy

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the most effective treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections in women is antibiotics. However, the limitation for this treatment is the duration and dosage of antibiotics and the resistance that bacteria develop after a long period of administration. With the aim of identifying mainly novel natural agents with antibacterial activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological and phytochemical properties of extracts from the leaves Taraxacum officinale. T...

  2. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin action of Zingiber Officinale as auxiliary chemical and medicament combined to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Cardoso, Flávia Goulart da Rosa; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Cláudio Antônio Talge

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in vitro to compare the effectiveness of Zingiber Officinale as an auxiliary chemical substance followed by placement of different intra-canal medication in removing endotoxins and cultivable micro-organisms from infected root canals. Seventy-two root canals were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli for 28 days. After, the teeth were instrumented using Zingiber Officinale and divided into six groups according to the intra-canal medication: chlorhexidine gel; calcium hydroxide + chlorhexidine gel; glycolic ginger extract; calcium hydroxide + glycolic ginger extract; calcium hydroxide + saline solution and saline solution (control). Sample collections were performed after root canal contamination (Baseline; S1), after instrumentation (S2), 7 days after instrumentation (S3), after 14 days with intra-canal medication (S4) and 7 days after removal of intra-canal medication (S5). The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. It was observed that in S2 and S3 there was significant reduction of the micro-organisms and the quantity of endotoxins after instrumentation. In samples S4 and S5 there was complete elimination of micro-organisms and significant reduction of endotoxins. It was concluded that Zingiber Officinale as an auxiliary chemical substance was effective on the micro-organisms tested, yet was unable to eliminate the endotoxins. Similarly, the intra-canal medication were effective on micro-organisms, yet did not completely eliminate the endotoxins.

  3. A polysaccharide of Dendrobium officinale ameliorates H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes via PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Yi; Guo, Ying; Si, Jin-Ping; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Gui-Bo; Liu, Jing-Jing

    2017-11-01

    Dendrobium officinale is one valuable traditional Chinese medicine, which has skyscraping medicinal value. Polysaccharide is the main active ingredient in D. officinale; its antioxidant activity is a hot research topic nowadays. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathological progress of a variety of cardiovascular disease, as one of key factors of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This research adopts a model of H 2 O 2 induction-H9c2 cardiomyocytes apoptosis, aiming to study the effect of Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide (DOP-GY) for cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by oxidative stress and its possible mechanism. Our results showed that pretreatment of DOP-GY (low dose: 6.25μg/mL, medium dose: 12.5μg/mL, high dose: 25μg/mL) followed by a 2h incubation with 200μM H 2 O 2 elevated the survival rate, cutted the LDH leakage, reduced lipid peroxidation damage, improved the activity of the endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, the pretreatment of DOP-GY significantly inhibited the production of ROS, declined of the mitochondrial membrane potential, down-regulated pro-apoptosis protein and up-regulated anti-apoptosis protein. The protective effect was correlated with the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signal pathway. Collectively, these observations suggest that DOY-GY has the potential to exert cardioprotective effects against H 2 O 2 -induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression by Zingiber officinale in the liver of high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, Srinivas; Kim, Moon S; Gavande, Navnath S; Li, George Q; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2010-05-01

    Zingiber officinale has been used to control lipid disorders and reported to possess remarkable cholesterol-lowering activity in experimental hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the effect of a characterized and standardized extract of Zingiber officinale on the hepatic lipid levels as well as on the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model. Rats were treated with an ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) extract along with a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. The extract of Zingiber officinale significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride and tended to decrease hepatic cholesterol levels when administered over 6 weeks to the rats fed a high-fat diet. We found that in parallel, the extract up-regulated both LDL receptor mRNA and protein level and down-regulated HMG-CoA reductase protein expression in the liver of these rats. The metabolic control of body lipid homeostasis is in part due to enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis and reduced expression of LDL receptor sites following long-term consumption of high-fat diets. The present results show restoration of transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes in low-density lipoprotein and HMG CoA reductase by Zingiber officinale administration with a high-fat diet and provide a rational explanation for the effect of ginger in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  5. Anti-emetic mechanisms of Zingiber officinale against cisplatin induced emesis in the pigeon; behavioral and neurochemical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ihsan; Subhan, Fazal; Ayaz, Muhammad; Shah, Rehmat; Ali, Gowhar; Haq, Ikram Ul; Ullah, Sami

    2015-02-26

    Zingiber officinale (ZO, family Zingiberaceae) has been reported for its antiemetic activity against cancer chemotherapy induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. Current study was designed to investigate ZO for potential usefulness against cisplatin induced vomiting in pigeon and its effects on central and peripheral neurotransmitters involved in the act of vomiting. Zingiber officinale acetone fraction (ZO-ActFr) was investigated for attenuation of emesis induced by cisplatin in healthy pigeons. Neurotransmitters DA, 5HT and their metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 5HIAA were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector in area postrema, brain stem and intestine. Antiemetic effect of ZO-ActFr was correlated with central and intestinal neurotransmitters levels in pigeon. Cisplatin (7 mg/kg i.v.) induced emesis without lethality upto the observation period. ZO-ActFr (25, 50 & 100 mg/kg) attenuated cisplatin induced emesis ~ 44.18%, 58.13% (P < 0.05) and 27.9%, respectively; the reference drug, metoclopramide (MCP; 30 mg/kg), produced ~ 48.83% reduction (P < 0.05). ZO-ActFr reduced (P < 0.05 - 0.001) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) concentration in the area postrema, brain stem and intestine at 3(rd) hour of cisplatin administration, while at the 18(th) hour ZO treatments attenuated the dopamine upsurge (P < 0.001) caused by cisplatin in the area postrema and 5HT concentration (P < 0.01 - 0.001) in the brain stem and intestine. ZO treatments alone did not altered the basal neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain areas and intestine. The behavioral study verify the antiemetic profile of ZO against cisplatin induced emesis in the pigeon, where central and peripheral neural evidences advocate the involvement of serotonergic mechanism at initial time point (3(rd) hr), while the later time point (18(th) hr) is associated with serotonergic and dopaminergic component in the mediation

  6. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Taraxacum officinale on growth and invasion of breast and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstedt, Sophia C; Hooten, Carla J; Callewaert, Manika C; Jenkins, Aaron R; Romero, Anntherese E; Pullin, Michael J; Kornienko, Alexander; Lowrey, Timothy K; Slambrouck, Severine Van; Steelant, Wim F A

    2008-05-01

    Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products plays a significant role in the discovery and development of potential medicinal agents. Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, have a history of use in Chinese, Arabian and Native American traditional medicine, to treat a variety of diseases including cancer. To date, however, very few studies have been reported on the anti-carcinogenic activity of Taraxacum officinale (TO). In the present study, three aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves, flowers and roots, and investigated on tumor progression related processes such as proliferation and invasion. Our results show that the crude extract of dandelion leaf (DLE) decreased the growth of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells in an ERK-dependent manner, whereas the aqueous extracts of dandelion flower (DFE) and root (DRE) had no effect on the growth of either cell line. Furthermore, DRE was found to block invasion of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells while DLE blocked the invasion of LNCaP prostate cancer cells, into collagen type I. Inhibition of invasion was further evidenced by decreased phosphorylation levels of FAK and src as well as reduced activities of matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study provides new scientific data on TO and suggests that TO extracts or individual components present in the extracts may be of value as novel anti-cancer agents.

  8. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Hong, Seung-Heon; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-01-16

    Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for women's disease (e.g. breast and uterus cancer) and disorders of the liver and gallbladder. Several earlier studies have indicated that TO exhibits anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of TO on the cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2. Our results show that TO decreased the cell viability by 26%, and significantly increased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1alpha production compared with media control (about 1.6-fold for TNF-alpha, and 2.4-fold for IL-1alpha, P < 0.05). Also, TO strongly induced apoptosis of Hep G2 cells as determined by flow cytometry. Increased amounts of TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha contributed to TO-induced apoptosis. Anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha antibodies almost abolished it. These results suggest that TO induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

  9. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  10. Bioreduction potentials of dried root of Zingiber officinale for a simple green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Antibacterial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith Vijaya, J; Jayaprakash, N; Kombaiah, K; Kaviyarasu, K; John Kennedy, L; Jothi Ramalingam, R; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; V M, Mansoor-Ali; Maaza, M

    2017-12-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using an extract of dried Zingiber officinale (ginger) root as a reducing and capping agent in the presence of microwave irradiation was herein reported for the first time. The formation of symmetrical spheres is confirmed from the UV-Visible spectrum of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy confirms the formation of the Ag NPs. X-ray diffraction analysis was utilized to calculate the crystallite size of Ag NPs and the value was found to be 10nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the morphology and size of the synthesized samples. The sphere like morphology is confirmed from the images. The purity and crystallinity of Ag NPs is confirmed by energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis and selected area electron diffraction respectively. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and shows the redox peaks in the potential range of -1.1 to +1.1V. Agar diffusion method is used to examine the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. For this purpose, two gram positive and two gram negative bacteria were studied. This single step approach was found to be simple, short time, cost-effective, reproducible, and eco-friendly. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. EFFERVESCENT TABLETS FORMULATION OF GINGER RHIZOME (Zingiber officinale Rosc. WITH VARIATION OF CITRIC ACID AND TARTARIC ACID LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. has efficacy as an anti-emetic. Ginger rhizome is usually consumed as instant beverages, so that need to be made into a dosage form that more effective, efficient and attractive. This research aims to formulate ginger into effervescent tablets by using variation of the levels of citric acid and tartaric acid. Dried extract of ginger was made with percolation method using ethanol 70% and evaporated using spray dryer. Extract was made for 5 formulas with variation of acid source using smelting method. Granules were tested its physical properties include flow time, tap index, angle of repose, water absorption, compactibility, mass density, water content, and total phenolic level. Granules were compressed become tablets and tested for physical properties include weight uniformity, friability, hardness, dissolve time, flavor response test and total phenolic level. Data were analyzed with Anova One Way using 95% confidence level. The result shown that formula III was the best formula because it meets the physical requirements of granules and tablets. While the formula V (100% tartaric acid was a formula that provides the greatest stability phenolic levels.

  12. KAJIAN PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Rose DALAM RANSUM TERHADAP LEMAK ABDOMINAL DAN KADAR KOLESTEROLDARAH ITIK BALI AFKIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. B. Yadnya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pemanfaatan tepung jahe (Zingiber officinale Rose dalam ransumterhadap lemak abdominal dan kolesterol darah itik bali afkir. Menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok (RAK,dengan empat perlakuan, yaitu ransum tanpa tepung jahe (A, ransum mengandung 2,91% tepung jahe (B,ransum mengandung 5,66% tepung jahe (C, dan ransum mengandung 8,26% tepung jahe (D. Setiap perlakuanterdiri atas lima kelompok, dan setiap kelompok berisi empat ekor itik bali afkir. Variabel yang diamati meliputikonsumsi ransum dan serat kasar, kadar kolesterol darah, dan lemak abdominal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa pemberian pemberian 2,91% dan 5,66% tepung jahe dalam ransum tidak berpengaruh terhadap konsumsiransum (P>0,05, namun dengan pemberian 8,26% dapat menurunkan konsumsi ransum secara nyata (P<0,05,jika dibandingkan dengan perlakuan yang lainnya dan disertai dengan penurunan konsumsi serat kasar (P<0,05.Pemberian 2,91%, 5,66%, dan 8,26% tepung jahe dalam ransum dapat menurunkan lemak abdominal dankolesterol darah secara nyata (P<0,05 dibandingkan dengan pemberian perlakuan kontrol. Dari hasil penelitiandapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian tepung jahe dalam ransum dapat menurunkan jumlah lemak abdominal dankolesterol darah itik bali afkir.

  13. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The main pungent principles and essential oils of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography. The stationary phase used was (5.0 g silica gel 70-230 mesh) and the mobile phase [petroleum ether (60-80degC) : diethyl ether (3:7 v/v)]. The first 15 ml contained the very volatile and least polar compounds present in the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizome. These compounds are the essential oils (R{sub f} = 0.90) and 25.63% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 25 ml contained the shogaol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.42) and 47.74% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. The next 5 ml aliquot was without any compounds. The following 35 ml contained the gingerol fraction (R{sub f} = 0.20) and 27.13% (w/w) of the total oleoresin charge to the column. This simple liquid chromatography method can be used to investigate the essential oils and pungent principles of the extracted oleoresin from the solar dried ginger rhizomes. (Author)

  15. A molecular dynamics study of components of the ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract inside human acetylcholinesterase: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuya, Teobaldo; Baptista, Leonardo; Celmar Costa França, Tanos

    2017-11-23

    Components of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts have been described as potential new drug candidates against Alzheimer disease (AD), able to interact with several molecular targets related to the AD treatment. However, there are very few theoretical studies in the literature on the possible mechanisms of action by which these compounds can work as potential anti-AD drugs. For this reason, we performed here docking, molecular dynamic simulations and mmpbsa calculations on four components of ginger extracts former reported as active inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (HssAChE), and compared our results to the known HssAChE inhibitor and commercial drug in use against AD, donepezil (DNP). Our findings points to two among the compounds studied: (E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-on and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3- ethoxyphenyl) heptane-3,5-diyl diacetate, as promising new HssAChE inhibitors that could be as effective as DNP. We also mapped the binding of the studied compounds in the different binding pockets inside HssAChE and established the preferred interactions to be favored in the design of new and more efficient inhibitors.

  16. Endophytic Paraconiothyrium sp. from Zingiber officinale Rosc. Displays Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity by Production of Danthron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Sachidanandan, P; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-03-01

    The bioactivity spectrum of fungal endophytes isolated from Zingiber officinale was analyzed against clinical pathogens and against the phytopathogen Pythium myriotylum, which causes Pythium rot in ginger. One of the isolates GFM13 showed broad bioactivity against various pathogens tested including P. myriotylum. The spore suspension as well as the culture filtrate of the endophytic fungal isolate was found to effectively protect ginger rhizomes from Pythium rot. By molecular identification, the fungal endophyte was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. The bioactive compound produced by the isolate was separated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and was identified by GC-MS as danthron, an anthraquinone derivative. PCR amplification showed the presence of non-reducing polyketide synthase gene (NR-PKS) in the endophyte GFM13, which is reported to be responsible for the synthesis of anthraquinones in fungi. This is the first report of danthron being produced as the biologically active component of Paraconiothyrium sp. Danthron is reported to have wide pharmaceutical and agronomic applications which include its use as a fungicide in agriculture. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of danthron and the endophytic origin of Paraconiothyrium sp. offer immense applications of the study.

  17. Metabolite analysis of endophytic fungi from cultivars of Zingiber officinale Rosc. identifies myriad of bioactive compounds including tyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2017-06-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with rhizomes of four cultivars of Zingiber officinale were identified by molecular and morphological methods and evaluated for their activity against soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum and clinical pathogens. The volatile bioactive metabolites produced by these isolates were identified by GC-MS analysis of the fungal crude extracts. Understanding of the metabolites produced by endophytes is also important in the context of raw consumption of ginger as medicine and spice. A total of fifteen isolates were identified from the four varieties studied. The various genera identified were Acremonium sp., Gliocladiopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Colletotrichum sp., Aspergillus sp., Phlebia sp., Earliella sp., and Pseudolagarobasidium sp. The endophytic community was unique to each variety, which could be due to the varying host genotype. Fungi from phylum Basidiomycota were identified for the first time from ginger. Seven isolates showed activity against Pythium, while only two showed antibacterial activity. The bioactive metabolites identified in the fungal crude extracts include tyrosol, benzene acetic acid, ergone, dehydromevalonic lactone, N-aminopyrrolidine, and many bioactive fatty acids and their derivatives which included linoleic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, palmitic acid methyl ester, and methyl linoleate. The presence of these varying bioactive endophytic fungi may be one of the reasons for the differences in the performance of the different ginger varieties.

  18. Identification, quantification, spatiotemporal distribution and genetic variation of major latex secondary metabolites in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Reichelt, Michael; Heiling, Sven; Paetz, Christian; Chandran, Jima N; Bartram, Stefan; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The secondary metabolites in the roots, leaves and flowers of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) have been studied in detail. However, little is known about the specific constituents of the plant's highly specialized laticifer cells. Using a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, we identified and quantified the major secondary metabolites in the latex of different organs across different growth stages in three genotypes, and tested the activity of the metabolites against the generalist root herbivore Diabrotica balteata. We found that common dandelion latex is dominated by three classes of secondary metabolites: phenolic inositol esters (PIEs), triterpene acetates (TritAc) and the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G). Purification and absolute quantification revealed concentrations in the upper mgg(-1) range for all compound classes with up to 6% PIEs, 5% TritAc and 7% TA-G per gram latex fresh weight. Contrary to typical secondary metabolite patterns, concentrations of all three classes increased with plant age. The highest concentrations were measured in the main root. PIE profiles differed both quantitatively and qualitatively between plant genotypes, whereas TritAc and TA-G differed only quantitatively. Metabolite concentrations were positively correlated within and between the different compound classes, indicating tight biosynthetic co-regulation. Latex metabolite extracts strongly repelled D. balteata larvae, suggesting that the latex constituents are biologically active. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Gang, David Roger

    2013-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), members of the Zingiberaceae, are widely used in traditional Asian cuisines and herbal medicine. Gingerols and diarylheptanoids, important compounds from these plants, appear to be produced by enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase class. Previous efforts to detect activity of such enzymes in tissues from these plants were only marginally successful in turmeric and completely unsuccessful in ginger because of very rapid hydrolysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates (p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA) in these assays, presumably due to the presence of thioesterases in these tissues. In order to determine whether such thioesterase activities were specific and could be reduced so that the polyketide synthase activities could be better characterized, three inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase were tested in assays with leaf and rhizome crude protein extracts from these plants: orlistat, a reduced form of lipstatin, and peptide 1 and peptide 2 from hydrolysates of soybean β-conglycinin. Results of these analyses indicated that specific thioesterases do exist in these plants and that they could indeed be inhibited, with highest inhibition occurring with a mixture of these three compounds, leading for example to a reduction of caffeoyl-CoA hydrolysis in leaves and rhizomes of ginger by 40-fold and 27-fold, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; Wisniewski, Michael; Kennedy, John F; Jiang, Yusong; Tang, Jianmin; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-20

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, with the best control at 5g/L. Chitosan and oligochitosan applied at 5g/L also reduced weight loss, measured as a decrease in fresh weight, but did not affect soluble solids content or titratable acidity of rhizomes. The two compounds applied at 5g/L induced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity and the transcript levels of their coding genes, as well as the total phenolic compounds in rhizome tissues. Therefore, the ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to reduce rot in stored rhizomes may be associated with their ability to induce defense responses in ginger. These results have practical implications for the application of chitosan and oligochitosan to harvested ginger rhizomes to reduce postharvest losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandna Chand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic and Zingiber officinale (ginger has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus only. In addition, agar well diffusion method showed higher zone in inhibition when compared with the zone of inhibition produced by the spice of same concentration against the test microorganism by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic sensitivity of the four different bacteria was tested with commercially available antibiotics namely Ciprofloxacin; Oxytetracycline; Vancomycin; Streptomycin; Gentamicin; Tetracycline; Novobiocin; Amikacin and Penicillin G. Penicillin G produced the highest zone of inhibition of 40.00±0.00against Staphylococcus aureus and the lowest zone of inhibition of 0.00±0.00against Escherichia coli.

  2. Experimental studies on drying of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa l. and Tinospora cordifolia in solar-biomass hybrid drier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, J.; Vijay, V.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Center for Rural Development and Technology

    2005-11-01

    An integral type natural convection solar drier has been fabricated and coupled with a biomass stove. Experiments have been conducted to test the performance of the drier by drying of Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa l. (turmeric) and Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) during the summer climate in Delhi. It was found that, during the load test for ginger, 18 kg of fresh product with an initial moisture content of 319.74(db)% was dried to a final moisture content of 11.8(db)% within 33 h. Similarly, moisture content of turmeric and guduchi were reduced from 358.96 to 8.8 and 257.45 to 9.67(db)% during 36 and 48 h of drying, respectively. The drying of these products has also been studied under 'solar-only' and open sun in the same climatic conditions and the results indicate that for all the products, drying is faster, and is within 33-48 h in hybrid drier, against 72-120 h in 'solar-only' operation of the same drier and 192-288 h in open sun. Efficiency of the drier during its two mode (solar and biomass separately) of operation has been estimated and quality evaluation of under-studied products showed that developed drier is suitable for the drying of these products. The developed drier is a simple system, which can be manufactured locally and can be used for drying of other agricultural products. (author)

  3. [Effects of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale on host growth and components metabolism of tissue culture seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jing-Jing; Si, Jin-Ping; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting; Zhao, Li; Wu, Ling-Shang

    2016-05-01

    The paper aims to study the effects of endophytic fungi from D. officinale cultivated on living trees on growth and components metabolism of tissue culture seedlings. Morphological characteristics and agronomic characters of tissue culture seedlings infected and uninfected by endophytic fungus were observed and measured. Polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts contents were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dipmethod, respectively. Monosacchride composition of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts components were analyzed by pre-column derivatives HPLC and HPLC method, respectively. It showed that effects of turning to purple of stem nodes could be changed by endophytic fungus. Besides, the endophytic fungus could affect the contents and constitutions of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The strains tested, expect DO34, could promote growth and polysaccharides content of tissue culture seedlings. The strains tested, expect DO12, could promote the accumulation of mannose. Furthermore, DO18, DO19 and DO120 could increase alcohol-soluble extracts. On the basis, four superior strains were selected for mechanism research between endophytic fungus and their hosts and microbiology engineering. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Diversity of endophytic bacteria of Dendrobium officinale based on culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were compared and evaluated in the study of the endophytic diversity of Dendrobium officinale. Culture-independent methods consisted of polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and metagenome methods. According to the results, differences were found between the three methods. Three phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, were detected using the culture-dependent method, and two phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were detected by the DGGE method. Using the metagenome method, four major phyla were determined, including Proteobacteria (76.54%, Actinobacteria (18.56%, Firmicutes (2.27%, and Bacteroidetes (1.56%. A distinct trend was obtained at the genus level in terms of the method and the corresponding number of genera determined. There were 449 genera and 16 genera obtained from the metagenome and DGGE methods, respectively, and only 7 genera were obtained through the culture-dependent method. By comparison, all the genera from the culture-dependent and DGGE methods were contained in the members determined using the metagenome method. Overall, culture-dependent methods are limited to ‘finding’ endophytic bacteria in plants. DGGE is an alternative to investigating primary diversity patterns; however, the metagenome method is still the best choice for determining the endophytic profile in plants. It is essential to use multiphasic approaches to study cultured and uncultured microbes.

  5. Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleutério; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests.

  6. Absence of mutagenic effects of a particular Symphytum officinale L. liquid extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Birgit; Ziegler, Andreas; Ottersbach, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root is traditionally used for the topical treatment of contusions, strains and sprains. Besides allantoin and rosmarinic acid, which are discussed as pharmacologically active principles, the drug contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) known for their hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The topical herbal medicinal products Kytta-Salbe f and Kytta-Plasma f contain a PA-free liquid extract from comfrey root as active substance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of genotoxic effects of this special extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Briefly, comfrey root liquid extract was investigated for its ability to induce gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 102, TA 1535 and TA 1537 with and without metabolic activation using the mammalian microsomal fraction S9 mix. Reference mutagens were used to check the validity of the experiments. Comfrey root fluid extract showed no biologically relevant increases in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation. In conclusion, the comfrey root fluid extract contained in Kytta-Salbe f and Kytta-Plasma f was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cytotoxic Activities, SAR and Anti-Invasion Effects of Butylphthalide Derivatives on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of butylphthalide derivatives (BPDs 1–8 were isolated from the extract of the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae. The cytotoxic activities of BPDs 1–8 were evaluated using a panel of human cancer cell lines. In addition, the SAR analysis and potential anti-invasion activities were investigated. The sp2 carbons at C-7 and C-7a appeared to be essential for the cytotoxic activities of BPDs. BPDs 5 and 6 remarkably inhibited the migration and invasion of cancer cells. The anti-invasion activity of dimer 6 was demonstrated to be significantly higher than monomer 5.

  8. Zingiber officinale and 6-gingerol alleviate liver and kidney dysfunctions and oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride in male rats: A protective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepmala; Srivastav, Sunil Kumar; Belemkar, Sateesh; Dixit, Vaibhav A

    2017-07-01

    Mercury toxicity is an emerging problem in the world as its concentration is rising continuously due to increased industrial, medicinal and domestic uses. Exposure to mercury represents a serious challenge to humans and other living biomes. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of natural products as Zingiber officinale extract and its active compound (6-gingerol) against mercuric chloride-induced hepatorenal toxicity and oxidative stress in male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150±10g, n=6 per group) were administered HgCl 2 (12μmol/kg, ip; once only) the treatment of Zingiber officinale Rosc. extract (ZO: 125mg/kg, po) and 6-gingerol (GG: 50mg/kg, po) for three days after 24h of HgCl 2 administration. Acute HgCl 2 administration altered various biochemical parameters, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and cholesterol, urea, creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen contents with a concomitant decline in protein and albumin concentration in serum. In addition, a significant rise in lipid peroxidation level with concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione content and the antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase after acute HgCl 2 exposure. Results of the present investigation clearly showed that both treatments as Zingiber officinale extract and 6-gingerol provide protection against acute mercuric chloride-intoxication by preventing oxidative degradation of a biological membrane from metal mediated free radical attacks. Biochemical data were well supported by histopathological findings. In conclusion, natural products may be an ideal choice against oxidative damage induced by mercury poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. ANTIBIOFILM EFFECTS of Citrus limonum and Zingiber officinale Oils on BIOFILM FORMATION of Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella terrigena SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcioglu, Nermin Hande; Sahal, Gulcan; Bilkay, Isil Seyis

    2016-01-01

    Microbial cells growing in biofilms, play a huge role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains belonging to 3 different Klebsiella species ( K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena ), cooccurences' effect on biofilm formation amount and anti-biofilm effects of Citrus limon and Zingiber officinale essential oils on biofilm formations of highest biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena strains were determined. Anti-biofilm effects of Citrus limon and Zingiber officinale essential oils on biofilm formations of highest biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica , K. oxytoca and K. terrigena strains were investigated. 57% of K. ornithinolytica strains and 50% of K. oxytoca strains were found as Strong Biofilm Forming (SBF), there wasn't any SBF strain in K. terrigena species. In addition to this, clinical materials of urine and sperm were found as the most frequent clinical materials for strong biofilm forming K. ornithinolytica and K. oxytoca isolations respectively (63%; 100%) Secondly, all K. ornithinolytica strains isolated from surgical intensive care unit and all K. oxytoca strains isolated from service units of urology were found as SBF. Apart from these, although the amount of biofilm, formed by co-occurence of K. ornithinolytica - K. oxytoca and K. oxytoca - K. terrigena were more than the amount ofbiofilm formed by themselves separately, biofilm formation amount of co-occurrence of K. ornitholytica - K. terrigena strains was lower than biofilm formation amount of K. ornithinolytica but higher than biofilm formation amount of K. terrigena . The antibiofilm effects of Citrus limonum and Zingiber officinale essential oils could be used against biofilm Klebsiella aquired infections.

  10. SNP in Chalcone Synthase gene is associated with variation of 6-gingerol content in contrasting landraces of Zingiber officinale.Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; Mandi, Swati Sen

    2015-07-25

    Zingiber officinale, medicinally the most important species within Zingiber genus, contains 6-gingerol as the active principle. This compound obtained from rhizomes of Z.officinale, has immense medicinal importance and is used in various herbal drug formulations. Our record of variation in content of this active principle, viz. 6-gingerol, in land races of this drug plant collected from different locations correlated with our Gene expression studies exhibiting high Chalcone Synthase gene (Chalcone Synthase is the rate limiting enzyme of 6-gingerol biosynthesis pathway) expression in high 6-gingerol containing landraces than in the low 6-gingerol containing landraces. Sequencing of Chalcone Synthase cDNA and subsequent multiple sequence alignment revealed seven SNPs between these contrasting genotypes. Converting this nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence, alteration of two amino acids becomes evident; one amino acid change (asparagine to serine at position 336) is associated with base change (A→G) and another change (serine to leucine at position 142) is associated with the base change (C→T). Since asparagine at position 336 is one of the critical amino acids of the catalytic triad of Chalcone Synthase enzyme, responsible for substrate binding, our study suggests that landraces with a specific amino acid change viz. Asparagine (found in high 6-gingerol containing landraces) to serine causes low 6-gingerol content. This is probably due to a weak enzyme substrate association caused by the absence of asparagine in the catalytic triad. Detailed study of this finding could also help to understand molecular mechanism associated with variation in 6-gingerol content in Z.officinale genotypes and thereby strategies for developing elite genotypes containing high 6-gingerol content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306

  12. Effect of Different Light Intensities on Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m−2s−1 were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale. TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m−2s−1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m−2s−1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01 with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m−2s−1. The ferric reducing (FRAP activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m−2s−1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.

  13. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  14. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

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    Yiming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale (ginger has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update.

  15. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H.; Duke, Colin C.; Roufogalis, Basil D.

    2012-01-01

    Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update. PMID:23243452

  16. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hung-Cheng; Chern, Ching-Yuh; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, You-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Liao, Yu-Ren; Teng, Che-Ming; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b) exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads. PMID:24599082

  17. Synthesis of Analogues of Gingerol and Shogaol, the Active Pungent Principles from the Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and Evaluation of Their Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effects

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    Hung-Cheng Shih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at discovering novel biologically active compounds based on the skeletons of gingerol and shogaol, the pungent principles from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Therefore, eight groups of analogues were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory activities of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, collagen, platelet activating factor, and thrombin. Among the tested compounds, [6]-paradol (5b exhibited the most significant anti-platelet aggregation activity. It was the most potent candidate, which could be used in further investigation to explore new drug leads.

  18. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzeh Gholampour; Fatemeh Behzadi Ghiasabadi; Seyed Mohammad Owji; Jaafar Vatanparast

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G...

  19. Estudo dos efeitos comportamentais, neuroquÃmicos e tÃxicos do Ãleo essencial de Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    OpenAIRE

    CÃcero Francisco Bezerra Felipe

    2004-01-01

    O Gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Ã uma planta bastante apreciada em todo o mundo, nÃo apenas como um condimento, mas tambÃm por suas importantes propriedades medicinais. Os efeitos comportamentais e neuroquÃmicos do Ãleo essencial do gengibre - OEG foram estudados em camundongos tratados diariamente com o Ãleo essencial de gengibre (OEG 25, 50 e 100 mg/Kg, i.p. e v.o.). No sÃtimo dia de tratamento foram realizados os testes do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE), campo aberto (CA), rota ro...

  20. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE LARVICIDA DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DO Zingiber officinale Roscoe (GENGIBRE) FRENTE AO MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRESON LEANDRO SANTANA SILVA

    2012-01-01

    Na procura pelo controle químico alternativo contra o mosquito Aedes aegypti, diversas pesquisas são desenvolvidas e estimuladas no intuito de descobrirem novas substâncias inseticidas de origem vegetal. Neste trabalho a partir da extração e do estudo analítico do óleo essencial dos rizomas do Zingiber officinale Roscoe, foi analisado o efeito larvicida do óleo contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1792). Extraiu-se quantitativamente o óleo essencial por hidro...

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts from Aloe Vera, Citrus Hystrix, Sabah Snake Grass and Zingiber Officinale against Pyricularia Oryzae that causes Rice Blast Disease in Paddy Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Harzana Shaari, N.; Shamiera. Said, N.; Hulwani Ibrahim, Nur; Akhir, Maisara A. M.; Khairul Rabani Hashim, Mohd; Salimi, M. N.; Nuradibah, M. A.; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2018-03-01

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus known as Pyricularia oryzae, has become an important and serious disease of rice worldwide. Around 50% of production may be lost in a field moderately affected by infection and each year the fungus destroys rice, which is enough to feed an estimated 60 million people. Therefore, use of herbal plants offer an alternative for the management of plant diseases. Herbal plant like Aloe vera, Citrus hystrix, Sabah snake grass and Zingiber officinale extracts can be used for controlling disease of rice blast. In this study, these four herbal plants were used for evaluating antimicrobial activity against rice plant fungus Pyricularia oryzae, which causes rice blast disease.

  2. AKTIVITAS ANTI INFLAMASI OLEORESIN JAHE (Zingiber officinale PADA GINJAL TIKUS YANG MENGALAMI PERLAKUAN STRES [Anti Inflammation Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Oleoresin on Kidney of Rats Under Stress Condition

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    I Ketut Mudite AdnyanE1

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to observe the role of antioxidant content of ginger oleoresin (Zingiber officinale on inflammation in the kidney of rats under stress condition, as an anti inflammation. A total of sixty male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into twelve groups; (1 control group, without treatment of both stress and oleoresin, (2 stress group, was treated by stress only, without oleoresin treatment, while (3 and (4 are groups that were treated by stress and then fed by standard feed for three and seven days, without oleoresin. Group (5 to group (12 were treated by stress and then followed by treatment of oleoresin for three and seven days. The doses of oleoresin were 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kgBW/day. Stress condition was done by 5 days fasting and swimming for 5 minutes/day, while drinking water was provided ad libitum. The highest number of inflammatory cells in the kidney of rats was observed in the stress group. The treatment of oleoresin after fasting stress showed decreasing of the number of inflammatory cells in the tissues. The decreasing rate was higher in the higher dose of oleoresin. The treatment groups that showed the number of inflammatory cells not significantly different from that of control group are treated groups receiving oleoresin 60 mg/kgBW/day for seven days, and 80 mg/kgBW/day for three and seven days, respectively. These results showed that ginger oleoresin has anti inflammatory effect in the kidney of rats kept under stress condition.

  3. Transcriptome analysis reveals the genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of volatile oil, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yusong; Liao, Qinhong; Zou, Yong; Liu, Yiqing; Lan, Jianbin

    2017-10-23

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a popular flavoring that widely used in Asian, and the volatile oil in ginger rhizomes adds a special fragrance and taste to foods. The bioactive compounds in ginger, such as gingerols, diarylheptanoids, and flavonoids, are of significant value to human health because of their anticancer, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, as a non-model plant, knowledge about the genome sequences of ginger is extremely limited, and this limits molecular studies on this plant. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to investigate the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of major bioactive compounds in matured ginger rhizome (MG), young ginger rhizome (YG), and fibrous roots of ginger (FR). A total of 361,876 unigenes were generated by de novo assembly. The expression of genes involved in the pathways responsible for the biosynthesis of major bioactive compounds differed between tissues (MG, YG, and FR). Two pathways that give rise to volatile oil, gingerols, and diarylheptanoids, the "terpenoid backbone biosynthesis" and "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis" pathways, were significantly enriched (adjusted P value < 0.05) for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.005) both between the FR and YG libraries, and the FR and MG libraries. Most of the unigenes mapped in these two pathways, including curcumin synthase, phenylpropanoylacetyl-CoA synthase, trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, were expressed to a significantly higher level (log 2 (fold-change) ≥ 1) in FR than in YG or MG. This study provides the first insight into the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in ginger at a molecular level and provides valuable genome resources for future molecular studies on ginger. Moreover, our results establish that bioactive compounds in ginger may predominantly synthesized in the root and then transported to

  4. Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial

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    Rahnama Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zingiber officinale R. rhizome (ginger is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea. Method This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500 mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n = 46, ginger n = 56. The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P = 0.015 and protocol two (P = 0.029. There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P = 0.017 but not for protocol two (P = 0.210. Conclusion Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5 days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain. Trial registration IRCT201105266206N3

  5. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Marzec, Zbigniew; Kasperek, Elwira; Wyszogrodzka-Koma, Lucyna; Szwerc, Wojciech; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2017-02-20

    The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan). GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%); the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg); a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass) and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass) content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb) remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6)-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6)-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, ( E , E )-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar -curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  6. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of the methanolic extract of Taraxacum officinale in LPS-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Daun; Kim, Seok Joong; Kim, Hong Seok

    2017-11-29

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Since even low-level endotoxemia constitutes a powerful and independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, it is important to find therapies directed against the vascular effects of endotoxin to prevent atherosclerosis. Taraxacum officinale (TO) is used for medicinal purposes because of its choleretic, diuretic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties, but its anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells has not been established. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of TO filtered methanol extracts in LPS-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by monocyte adhesion and western blot assays. HUVECs were pretreated with 100 μg/ml TO for 1 h and then incubated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 24 h. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the targets (pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules) were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot assays. We also preformed HPLC analysis to identify the components of the TO methanol extract. The TO filtered methanol extracts dramatically inhibited LPS-induced endothelial cell-monocyte interactions by reducing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. TO suppressed the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, whereas it did not affect MAPK activation. Our findings demonstrated that methanol extracts of TO could attenuate LPS-induced endothelial cell activation by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. These results indicate the potential clinical benefits and applications of TO for the prevention of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  7. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and resistance training on some blood oxidative stress markers in obese men

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    Sirvan Atashak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive adiposity increases oxidative stress, and thus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of obesity-associated comorbidities, in particular atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and arterial hypertension. Improved body composition, through exercise training and diet, may therefore significantly contribute to a reduction in oxidative stress. Further, some foods high in antioxidants (e.g., ginger provide additional defense against oxidation. This study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe supplementation and progressive resistance training (PRT on some nonenzymatic blood [total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA] oxidative stress markers in obese men. Thirty-two obese males (body mass index ≥30, aged 18–30 years were randomized to one of the following four groups: a placebo (PL; n = 8; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL; n = 8; resistance training plus ginger supplementation (RTGI; n = 8; and ginger supplementation only (GI; n = 8. Participants in the RTGI and GI groups consumed 1 g ginger/day for 10 weeks. At the same time, PRT was undertaken by the RTPL and RTGI groups three times/week. Resting blood samples were collected at baseline and at 10 weeks, and analyzed for plasma nonenzymatic TAC and MDA concentration. After the 10-week intervention, we observed significant training × ginger supplementation × resistance training interaction for TAC (p = 0.043 and significant interactions for training × resistance training and training × ginger supplementation for MDA levels (p < 0.05. The results of this study show that 10 weeks of either ginger supplementation or PRT protects against oxidative stress and therefore both of these interventions can be beneficial for obese individuals; however, when combined, the effects cancel each other out.

  8. OPTIMASI SABUN CAIR EKSTRAK ETANOL RIMPANG Zingiber officinale Rosc. var.rubrum DENGAN VARIASI MINYAK JARAK DAN KALIUM HIDROKSIDA

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    Nanda Paramita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of skin diseases are bacterial infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Based on previous studies of red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc var.rubrum have antibacterial activity. The aimed of this research was to find the optimum concentration of castor oil and potassium hydroxide (KOH with good physicochemical properties with Simplex Lattice Design method, and determine the effectiveness of liquid soap against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis with disc diffusion test. Extraction of red ginger with shoxletation and 96% ethanol. The optimization liquid soap design was using Simplex Lattice Design. The basic liquid soap composition was used to predict the optimum formula contain castor oil and KOH for comparasion (0: 100, (25:75, (50:50, (75:25, (100: 0. The research showed optimum consentration value of red ginger ethanol extract is 5%. The optimum formulas contained of 40,035 g of castor oil and 10,875 g KOH. The optimum liquid soap’s colour was brown, charateristic smell of ginger, stiff, with a pH value of 9,4, viscosity of 1233 cP, 1,14% free fatty acids and alkali-free 0%. The independent T test result by using the R-2.14.1 program was p values > 0.05 against S. epidermidis and p 0,05 terhadap S. epidermidis dan p<0,05 terhadap S.aureus. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa metode Simplex Lattice Design dapat menghasilkan formula sabun cair yang optimum dan memiliki efektivitas sebagai antibakteri. Kata kunci: Minyak Jarak, KOH, Simplex Lattice Design, Rimpang Jahe Merah

  9. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Renal Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroaganachi, Mercy; Eleazu, Chinedum; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-20

    Although unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) are used as single plants to manage diabetes mellitus in Nigeria, the possibility of combining them in a typical diabetic diet and the glycemic response elicited as a result of such combination has not been investigated. To determine the effect of unripe plantain and ginger on serum total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 3 received unripe plantain pellets and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger pellets. There were significant increases (P=0.045) of both serum urea and creatinine, but significant decreases (P=0.045) of both serum total protein and albumin levels, in Group 2 rats compared with Group 1. There were significant decreases (P=0.033) of both serum urea and creatinine levels of Group 3 and 4 rats compared with Group 2. In addition, there were significant increases of both serum total protein and albumin levels (P=0.033) in Group 3 rats compared with Group 2, but the comparison of serum total protein and albumin levels between Group 4 and Group 2 did not reach the significant level (P=0.056 and P=0.065 for serum total protein and albumin levels, respectively. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the ratio used in the management of renal dysfunction in diabetics was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  10. Application of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods towards the Quality Assessment of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rhizomes from Ecological Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Koch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of ginger in the food industry and pharmacotherapy is strictly related to its content of various components. The study elucidates the chemical composition of Zingiber officinale rhizomes cultivated on ecological plantations on Shikoku Island (Japan. GC-MS analysis of terpene content, LC-MS determination of phenolic content, and the determination of 12 elements using AAS spectrometry were performed to give more detailed insight into the samples. Ninety-five percent of terpene composition was elucidated, with zingiberene as the most abundant sesquiterpene (37.9%; the quantification of gingerols and shogaols was performed, showing the highest contribution of 6-gingerol (268.3 mg/kg; a significant K (43,963 mg/kg of dry mass and Mn (758.4 mg/kg of dry mass content was determined in the elemental analysis of the rhizomes and low concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Ni and Pb remaining below the safe level values recommended by European Commission Directives. The main phenolic compound was (6-gingerol, which is characteristic of fresh rhizomes and is responsible for their taste and aroma. Surprisingly, high amounts of (6-shogaol were determined, even though this phenolic compound usually occurs in old or processed material and not in fresh rhizomes. Sesquiterpenes were the major fraction of volatiles. The highest concentrations were determined for α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, (E,E-α-farnesene, geranial, and ar-curcumene. The volatiles composition of ginger cultivated on Shikoku Island is specific and strongly differs from plants cultivated in China, Nigeria, or Australia. The elemental composition of ginger rhizomes grown in ecological plantations is more beneficial for human health compared to products grown in normal cultivars, as the products contain high amounts of potassium and manganese and are characterized by low sodium content and lower levels of toxic heavy metals.

  11. The influence of ginger (Zingiber officinale on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

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    Jalil Hosseini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the effectiveness of ginger as an antioxidant agent has been exploited, little human research has been conducted on its activity on male reproductive functions. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF in infertile men. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation was performed on 100 infertility treatment candidates who were admitted to Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, Tehran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments: ginger and placebo. Patients were given a 3-month oral treatment (members received capsules containing 250 mg of ginger powder twice a day in ginger and a placebo in other group. Before and after treatment, standardized semen samples were obtained to determine sperm concentration, motility, and SDF according to World Health Organization. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding SDF at baseline (53.48. 95%CI: 37.95-69.02 in cases and (56.75, 95%CI: 40.01-73.5 in controls. The average positive percentage of SDF in patients receiving ginger (17.77, 95%CI: 6.16-29.39 was lower compared with placebo (40.54, 95%CI: 23.94-57.13 after three month of treatment (p=0.02. In multivariate analysis, SDF was significantly lower in patients receiving ginger compared with placebo (mean difference: 3.21, 95%CI: 0.78-5.63, p=0.009. There were no significant differences between two groups regarding to semen parameters. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that ginger in a controlled study of efficacy was effective in decreasing SDF in infertile men.

  12. Role of dietary ginger Zingiber officinale in improving growth performances and immune functions of Labeo rohita fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as a feeding supplement on the growth, skin mucus immune parameters, and cytokine-related gene expression of Labeo rohita, and its susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Diets containing six different concentrations of dried ginger (0% [basal diet], 0.2% [G2], 0.4% [G4], 0.6% [G6], 0.8% [G8], and 1.0% [G10] were fed to fish (average weight: 12.3 g) for 60 days. Growth parameters were examined at 30 and 60 days post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and gene expression were examined 60 days post-feeding. Results showed that growth parameters such as final weight gain (93.47 ± 1.73 g) and specific growth rate (3.41 ± 0.14) were significantly higher in G8 than in the control. Among the skin mucosal immune parameters examined, lysozyme (46.5 ± 3.8 U mg(-1)), immunoglobulin level (8.9 ± 0.4 unit-mg mL(-1)), protein level (44.3 ± 2.2 mg mL(-1)) were significantly higher in G8. However, alkaline phosphatase activity (171.6 ± 10.2 IU L(-1)) was high (P ginger supplemented diet exhibited significantly higher relative post-challenge survival (65.52%) against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplements of ginger (at 0.8%) can promote growth performance, skin mucus immune parameters, and strengthen immunity of L. rohita. Therefore, ginger represents a promising food additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of gingerol analogues in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, R.,).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna Sonale, R; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2014-11-01

    Organically grown ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) SC CO2 extract obtained at 280 bar and 40 °C and its column chromatographic fractions are characterised for its composition. The components in the extract and fractions are identified by HPLC and LC based MS and are used as standard for the estimation of gingerol analogues in the extract. HPLC and mass analysis of the extracts confirmed the various forms of gingerol constituents [4]-, [6]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-, [8]-, [10]-shogaols in ginger extracts. SC CO2 extract of organic ginger was found to show 6-gingerol around 25.97 % of total extract. The estimation of [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaols, [4]gingerol, [10]-gingerol and 6-gingediol content of the SC CO2 purified ginger extract was found to be 75.92 ± 1.14, 1.25 ± 0.04, 4.54 ± 0.04, 13.15 ± 0.30 and 0.37 ± 0.00 % respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the assay have shown 652 ± 0.37 mg TE/g and 3.68 ± 0.18 mg TE/100 g respectively, are significantly higher results with SC CO2 organic ginger extract. Paradol analogues are not detected in this study. Small quantities of [4]-, [10]gingediol and [6]-gingediacetate are also found in ginger extract.

  14. Daya Simpan Susu Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus radiatus L. dengan Persentase Penambahan Sari Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum

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    Meilla Dwi Andrestian

    2015-06-01

    Mung bean milk is one of the diversification of processed mung beans. The process of making mung bean milk using Ultra High Temperature (UHT is abundantly sold in the market. As another alternative to have a high shelf life, it needs the addition of natural preservatives such as red ginger. In general, this research aim was to determine the effect of addition of the percentage of red ginger extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum on storability of green beans milk (Phaseolus radiatus L.. This research consisted of two phases, preliminary research and main research. The former stage was conducted to determine the best acceptability of nine treatment variations of red ginger extract addition. After preliminary research was made and it obtained the best results preferred by panelist, it was then followed by main research to determine the storability of green beans milk. From preliminary research, theres were three treatment preferred by panelists, namely P3 (0.75%, P5 (1.25% and P6 (1.5%. After that, those  treatments were tested for their storability in main research. From main research it showed that Q0 (control treatment can last for 0 day, Q1 treatment with the addition of red ginger extract 0,75% and Q2 (1.25% having storability for 1 day and Q3 (1.5% having the best treatment that had the longest storability (for 2 days. The more addition of red ginger extract, the longer storability of green beans milk. The best favored and longest storability of green beans milk was one added with red ginger extract of 1.5%. Keywords: Green Bean Milk, Storability, Red ginger

  15. iTRAQ and RNA-Seq Analyses Provide New Insights into Regulation Mechanism of Symbiotic Germination of Dendrobium officinale Seeds (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Si Si; Kohler, Annegret; Yan, Bo; Luo, Hong Mei; Chen, Xiao Mei; Guo, Shun Xing

    2017-06-02

    Mycorrhizal fungi colonize orchid seeds and induce germination. This so-called symbiotic germination is a critical developmental process in the lifecycle of all orchid species. However, the molecular changes that occur during orchid seed symbiotic germination remain largely unknown. To better understand the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination, we performed a comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the Chinese traditional medicinal orchid Dendrobium officinale to explore the change in protein expression at the different developmental stages during asymbiotic and symbiotic germination and identify the key proteins that regulate the symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Among 2256 identified plant proteins, 308 were differentially expressed across three developmental stages during asymbiotic and symbiotic germination, and 229 were differentially expressed during symbiotic germination compared to asymbiotic development. Of these, 32 proteins were coup-regulated at both the proteomic and transcriptomic levels during symbiotic germination compared to asymbiotic germination. Our results suggest that symbiotic germination of D. officinale seeds shares a common signaling pathway with asymbiotic germination during the early germination stage. However, compared to asymbiotic germination, fungal colonization of orchid seeds appears to induce higher and earlier expression of some key proteins involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and thus improves the efficiency of utilization of stored substances present in the embryo. This study provides new insight into the molecular basis of orchid seed germination.

  16. Propriétés physico-chimiques de l'amidon de gingembre (Zingiber officinale roscoe de Côte d'Ivoire

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    Coulibaly, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical Properties of Starch from Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale roscoe of Ivory Coast. The ginger or rhizome of Zingiber officinale roscoe is one of spice valued for its characteristic aroma and pungency. It grows in tropical region, specially in south and east part of Asia. That spice in commercialised in dry form. In Ivory Coast, the ginger is often consumed in the form of drink commonly called "Gnamakoudji". In order to increase the value of ginger, studies about the physico-chemical and functional properties of ginger starch have been investigated. Its amylose, ash, lipid and protein content are respectively 28.3%, 0.14%, 0.12% and 0.18%. The granule size is between 6.43 and 38.56 μm. Native ginger starch shows a very low sensitiveness to snail's digestive sap, on the other hand, gelatinized starch is very sensitive. Acid hydrolysis gave two phases: a fast one during the first fortnight and a slow one beyond. The swelling and solubility study has revolted a weak swelling power and a low solubility in water. The thermogram showed a high gelatinization temperature in order of 83.2 °C and a gelatinization enthalpy of 14.65 J/g. Retrogradation study reveals that starch retrogrades at the end of two days and at J0, syneresis is 44% and clarity is 11.5%.

  17. Uji Fitokimia, Toksisitas dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Fraksi n-heksan dan Etil Asetat terhadap Ekstrak Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale var. amarum

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    Alpina Nora Kaban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Has conducted research on the phytochemical test, toxicity test and test the antioxidant activity of the fraction of n-hexane and ethyl acetate to extract red ginger (Zingiber officinale amarum var.. The dried leaves weighing 382 grams, was macerated using methanol, filtered and concentrated by rotary evaporator. Then the total extract of red ginger in fractionation with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Based on the test results of secondary metabolites phytochemical extracts of total red ginger (Zingiber officinale var amarum. Are alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and phenolic. N-hexane fraction contains alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids and phenolic. Ethyl acetate fractions contain alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and phenolic. Toxicity test showed the mortality rate of shrimp larvae Artemia salina Leach using Probit Analysis SAS (Statistical Analysis System to determine the value of 50% Lethal Concentration (LC50, showed that the fraction of n-hexane toxicity with LC50 values of 63.8130 ppm; extracts of total was 71.0121 ppm and ethyl acetate was 3821.89 ppm. Test the antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical reduction in the spectrophotometer and IC50 values obtained on a total extract was 32.19 ppm; n-hexane was fraction 35.63 ppm; and ethyl acetate fraction was 25.69 ppm.

  18. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Succinyl-proteome profiling of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb, revealed involvement of succinylation in the glycolysis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; Jiao, Kaili; Guo, Hong; Jiang, Mengyi; Hao, Juan; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2017-08-10

    Lysine succinylation is a ubiquitous and important protein post-translational modification in various eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, its functions in Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb with high polysaccharide contents, are largely unknown. In our study, LC-MS/MS was used to identify the peptides that were enriched by immune-purification with a high-efficiency succinyl-lysine antibody. In total, 314 lysine succinylation sites in 207 proteins were identified. A gene ontology analysis showed that these proteins are associated with a wide range of cellular functions, from metabolic processes to stimuli responses. Moreover, two types of conserved succinylation motifs, '***K suc ******K**' and '****EK suc ***', were identified. Our data showed that lysine succinylation occurred on five key enzymes in the glycolysis pathway. The numbers of average succinylation sites on these five enzymes in plants were lower than those in bacteria and mammals. Interestingly, two active site amino acids residues, K103 and K225, could be succinylated in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, indicating a potential function of lysine succinylation in the regulation of glycolytic enzyme activities. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction network for the succinylated proteins showed that several functional terms, such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome, are consisted. Our results provide the first comprehensive view of the succinylome of D. officinale and may accelerate future biological investigations of succinylation in the synthesis of polysaccharides, which are major active ingredients.

  20. Whole-Transcriptome Selection and Evaluation of Internal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Protocorm Development of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo.

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    Hongqiang An

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale Kimu et Migo has increased many researchers' interest for its high medical and horticultural values and the molecular mechanism of its protocorm development remains unclear. In this study, 19 genes from 26 most stably expressed genes in whole transcriptome of protocorms and 5 housekeeping genes were used as candidate reference genes and screened with 4 application softwares (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder. The results showed that a few reference genes could effectively normalize expression level of specific genes in protocorm development and the optimal top 2 reference genes were ASS and APH1L. Meanwhile, validation of GNOM, AP2 and temperature induced gene (TIL for normalization demonstrates the usefulness of the validated candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these genes varied under protocorms and temperature stress according to the stablest and unstablest reference genes, which proved the importance of the choice of appropriate reference genes. The first systematic evaluation of stably expressed genes will be very useful in the future analysis of specific genes expression in D. officinale.

  1. The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey-derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ammon W; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Knoppel, Edward L; Hall, Jeffery O

    2016-05-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), a commonly used herb, contains dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that, as a group of bioactive metabolites, are potentially hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. Consequently, regulatory agencies and international health organizations have recommended comfrey be used for external use only. However, in many locations comfrey continues to be ingested as a tisane or as a leafy vegetable. The objective of this work was to compare the toxicity of a crude, reduced comfrey alkaloid extract to purified lycopsamine and intermedine that are major constituents of S. officinale. Male, California White chicks were orally exposed to daily doses of 0.04, 0.13, 0.26, 0.52 and 1.04 mmol lycopsamine, intermedine or reduced comfrey extract per kg bodyweight (BW) for 10 days. After another 7 days chicks were euthanized. Based on clinical signs of poisoning, serum biochemistry, and histopathological analysis the reduced comfrey extract was more toxic than lycopsamine and intermedine. This work suggests a greater than additive effect of the individual alkaloids and/or a more potent toxicity of the acetylated derivatives in the reduced comfrey extract. It also suggests that safety recommendations based on purified compounds may underestimate the potential toxicity of comfrey. Published 2015. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. The hidden mechanism beyond ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) potent in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Shahira M; Ezzat, Marwa I; Okba, Mona M; Menze, Esther T; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2018-03-25

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known anti-inflammatory drug in the Egyptian, Indian and Chinese folk medicines, yet its mechanism of action is unclear. To explore its mechanism of action and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated using protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in rats at doses 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg b.wt. All the tested extracts showed significant (p< 0.1) in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for AE that was more significant than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125μg/ml). Purification of AE led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G1, G2 and G8 exhibited potent activity in all the studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw edema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200mg/kg) showed significant reduction in production of PGE2, TNF-α, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity by 60%, 57%, 60%, 41%, 32% and 67%, respectively. AE at 100 and 200mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NO x level and in increasing the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and edema after administration of AE (200mg/kg) prior to

  3. Differential control of growth, apoptotic activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cells by extracts derived from medicinal herbs, Rhazya stricta and Zingiber officinale and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania Abd El Hamid; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2014-11-07

    To investigate the effects of extracts from Rhazya stricta (R. stricta) and Zingiber officinale (Z. officinale) on human colorectal cancer cells. Human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) were subjected to increasing doses of crude alkaloid extracts from R. stricta (CAERS) and crude flavonoid extracts from Z. officinale (CFEZO). Cells were then harvested after 24, 48 or 72 h and cell viability was examined by trypan blue exclusion dye test; clonogenicity and soft agar colony-forming assays were also carried out. Nuclear stain (Hoechst 33342), acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and comet assays were performed to assess pro-apoptotic potentiality of the extracts. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), using gene-specific primers and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. Treatment with a combination of CAERS and CFEZO synergistically suppressed the proliferation, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells. Calculated IC50, after 24, 48 and 72 h, were 70, 90 and 130 μg/mL for CAERS, 65, 85 and 120 μg/mL for CFEZO and 20, 25 and 45 μg/mL for both agents, respectively. CAERS- and CFEZO-treated cells exhibited morphologic and biochemical features of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was associated with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases 3 and 9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase. CAERS and CFEZO treatments downregulated expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, survivin and XIAP, and upregulated expression levels of proapoptotic proteins such as Bad and Noxa. CAERS and CFEZO treatments elevated expression levels of the oncosuppressor proteins, p53, p21 and p27, and reduced levels of the oncoproteins, cyclin D1, cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and

  4. Study on transfer rule of chemical constituents of tianshu capsule in productive process by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Y.P.; Xie, D.W.; Li, Y.J.; Xiao, W.; Huang, W.Z.; Ding, G.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a sensitive and accurate method for the fingerprint study and transfer rule of chemical constituents from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and Gastrodia elata Blume to Tianshu capsule in productive process, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QTOF-MS) method was established for analysis. The reference fingerprints of aqueous extract intermediate of medicinal material, alcohol extract intermediate of medicinal material and Tianshu capsule was established. The methodology was studied and the similarity was more than 0.99. The chromatographic methods demonstrated a good precision, repeatability, stability, with relative standard deviations of less than 3 percent for relative retention time and relative peak area. According to these fingerprints, some chemical constituents in the fingerprints were identified or tentatively identified based on their retention time, exact molecular weight and literature. Among of them 26 constituents were from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and nine components were from Gastrodia elata Blume. 25 out of 26 compounds had entered a transfer process and 17 compounds were transferred from intermediates to the final preparation, the Tianshu capsule. Thus, it is reasonable enough to use this transfer process to demonstrate the production technology. To sum up, this method is sensitive, accurate and useful,and it could provide us an approach to evaluate the production technology of Tianshu capsule. (author)

  5. Efektifitas Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum sebagai Additif Pakan dan Antimikrobia terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Anaerob dan Coliform Secara In Vivo pada Ayam Pedaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Manullang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jahe merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum dikenal sebagai bakteriasida. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakterial bubuk jahe terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan coliform (Escherichia coli dan Salmonella sp. secara in vivo pada Broiler. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua puluh empat DOC dengan berat badan 40,7 g. Pemberian bubuk jahe diberikan pada Broiler selama 5 hari dengan konsentrasi ekstrak jahe merah yaitu, 0,5, 1, dan 1,5% per kg pakan. Peubah yang diamati adalah berat badan, asupan pakan dan koloni bakteri. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat pengaruh ekstrak jahe merah pada total koloni bakteri yang cenderung menurun dengan semakin tinggi konsentrasi ekstrak jahe merah, semakin tinggi efek hambatan pertumbuhan bakteri. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak jahe merah memiliki sejumlah aktivitas antibakteri untuk pertumbuhan bakteri anaerob dan coliform (E. coli dan Salmonella sp..

  6. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

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    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  7. Root adaptation and ion selectivity affects the nutritional value of salt-stressed hydroponically grown baby-leaf Nasturtium officinale and Lactuca sativa

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    Juan A. Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of watercress (Nasturtium officinale L. to salinity has been scarcely addressed in literature despite its growing importance in the baby-leaf market and its wide cultivation in salt-affected agricultural regions. This work evaluates the effect of salinity (2.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1 on productive and quality features of watercress compared with another crop widely cultivated for the baby-leaf sector (lettuce, Lactuca sativa. In watercress, a linear relationship (R2=0.75 was observed between yield decrease and Cl– accumulation in leaves, whereas yield was not affected by salinity in lettuce. NaCl application increased Na+ accumulation at the expense of Ca2+ uptake in the leaf tissues of both crops, but also of K+ in watercress. Health-related features were improved by salinity (e.g. increased phenolics and reduced nitrates, especially in watercress, with limited sensorial quality evaluation effects.

  8. Avaliação da atividade larvicida do óleo essencial do Zingiber officinale Roscoe (gengibre frente ao mosquito Aedes aegypti

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    P.R.B. GOMES

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho analisa o efeito larvicida do óleo Zingiber officinale Roscoe contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Extraiu-se quantitativamente o óleo essencial por hidrodestilação e calculou-se a CL50 do óleo, a partir dos métodos de Reed-Muench e Pizzi, respectivamente. O óleo essencial obteve CL50 de 76,07 (±2,24 μg mL-1 e rendimento de 0,52% m/v. Os resultados indicam que o óleo essencial avaliado é composto por substâncias que propiciam efeito larvicida contra Aedes aegypti.

  9. GC-MS characterization of n-hexane soluble fraction from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) aerial parts and its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Petkova, Nadezhda; Tumbarski, Julian; Dincheva, Ivayla; Badjakov, Ilian; Denev, Panteley; Pavlov, Atanas

    2018-01-26

    A comparative investigation of n-hexane soluble compounds from aerial parts of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) collected during different vegetative stages was carried out. The GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane (unpolar) fraction showed the presence of 30 biologically active compounds. Phytol [14.7% of total ion current (TIC)], lupeol (14.5% of TIC), taraxasteryl acetate (11.4% of TIC), β-sitosterol (10.3% of TIC), α-amyrin (9.0% of TIC), β-amyrin (8.3% of TIC), and cycloartenol acetate (5.8% of TIC) were identified as the major components in n-hexane fraction. The unpolar fraction exhibited promising antioxidant activity - 46.7 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract (determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method). This fraction demonstrated insignificant antimicrobial activity and can be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Avaliação da atividade larvicida do óleo essencial do Zingiber officinale Roscoe (gengibre) frente ao mosquito Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    GOMES, P.R.B.; SILVA, A.L.S.; PINHEIRO, H.A.; CARVALHO, L.L.; LIMA, H.S.; SILVA, E.F.; SILVA, R.P.; LOUZEIRO, C.H.; OLIVEIRA, M.B.; FILHO, V.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Este trabalho analisa o efeito larvicida do óleo Zingiber officinale Roscoe contra larvas em terceiro estágio do mosquito Aedes aegypti. Extraiu-se quantitativamente o óleo essencial por hidrodestilação e calculou-se a CL50 do óleo, a partir dos métodos de Reed-Muench e Pizzi, respectivamente. O óleo essencial obteve CL50 de 76,07 (±2,24) μg mL-1 e rendimento de 0,52% m/v. Os resultados indicam que o óleo essencial avaliado é composto por substâncias que propiciam efeito larvicida cont...

  11. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-22

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus , Enterobacter cloacae , Klebsiella ornithinolytica , Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera . The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  12. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  13. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali; Shafiei, Katayoun; Afshar, Hamid; Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Memari, Mahnaz; Adibi, Peyman

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) that affects in different aspects of life and patients experienced depression and anxiety more than others. There are several herbal medicines with positive effects in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mixture of Boswellia carterii , Zingiber officinale , and Achillea Millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in IBS patients. This clinical trial study was done in sixty IBS patients (with mild-to-moderate symptoms) divided into two case and control groups. Patients were assessed at the beginning, 1 month, and 3 months after by IBS-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS-SSS is used for quality of life evaluation too. Sixty IBS patients (with mild to moderate symptoms) with a mean age of 38.75 ± 11.74 participated that 55.4% of cases and 72.8% of controls were men. The most prevalent type of IBS was the mixed type of IBS. The mean score of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bloating score, and depression and anxiety score were decreased in patients administered herbal medication, but changes in these variables in controls were not statistically significant. The changes in quality of life score between cases and controls were significant in men ( P = 0.01) although it was not significant in women. A mixture of B. Carterii , Z. officinale , and A. millefolium is effective in eliminating IBS symptoms and its related depression and anxiety and using herbal medicine in IBS treatment is suggested.

  14. Comparison of the Transcriptomes of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and Mango Ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in Response to the Bacterial Wilt Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  15. Indicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals in leaves of Taraxacum officinale in two zones of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Barba-García, Arisbel; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; de la Mora, Michel Grutter; García-Martínez, Rocío

    2018-02-01

    The present study was designed to detect the effect of heavy metals in two zones of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), the Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera (CCA), and the Altzomoni station in the Iztaccíhuatl-Popocatépetl National Park. Taraxacum officinale was selected as the indicator organism of responses to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals. Determinations of heavy metals were performed, and total mRNA was extracted to quantify the expression of microRNA398 (miR398), superoxide dismutase 2 (CSD2), and the amounts of free radicals using the bromide of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-ilo)-2,5-diphenyltetrazole (MTT) salts reduction assay. Results from the Altzomoni station showed high concentrations of five heavy metals, especially Aluminum, while three heavy metals were identified in the CCA-UNAM zone, most importantly, Vanadium, both in the dry season; miR398 expression presented subtle changes but was greater in the leaves from the stations with higher concentrations of heavy metals. Observations included a significant expression of CSD2, mainly in the dry season in both study zones, where levels were significant with respect to controls (p < 0.05). Reduced MTT was also higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the increase in heavy metals on the leaves of Taraxacum officinale induces increased expression of the CSD2 gene and reduced MTT; thus, they can be used as indicators for biomonitoring heavy metal concentrations.

  16. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Kazemian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs that affects in different aspects of life and patients experienced depression and anxiety more than others. There are several herbal medicines with positive effects in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea Millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in IBS patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was done in sixty IBS patients (with mild-to-moderate symptoms divided into two case and control groups. Patients were assessed at the beginning, 1 month, and 3 months after by IBS-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS-SSS is used for quality of life evaluation too. Results: Sixty IBS patients (with mild to moderate symptoms with a mean age of 38.75 ± 11.74 participated that 55.4% of cases and 72.8% of controls were men. The most prevalent type of IBS was the mixed type of IBS. The mean score of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bloating score, and depression and anxiety score were decreased in patients administered herbal medication, but changes in these variables in controls were not statistically significant. The changes in quality of life score between cases and controls were significant in men (P = 0.01 although it was not significant in women. Conclusion: A mixture of B. Carterii, Z. officinale, and A. millefolium is effective in eliminating IBS symptoms and its related depression and anxiety and using herbal medicine in IBS treatment is suggested.

  17. In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of Piper longum, Piper nigrum, and Zingiber officinale extracts against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay K; Saini, S P S; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Sharma, S K; Rath, S S

    2017-03-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions including the Indian subcontinent. The development of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides leads to an attempt to screen plant extracts and their combinations for their possible acaricidal activity to develop an eco-friendly tick control alternative. An alcoholic and various aqueous extracts of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale and their combinations were evaluated for acaricidal activity against the three-host ixodid tick, Hyalomma anatolicum by larval immersion test using 14-21 days old unfed larvae. The efficacy was assessed by measuring larval mortality (%) and the lethal concentrations for 50% (LC 50 ) and 95% (LC 95 ) with their 95% confidence limits (CL) values were estimated by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality. A concentration-dependent mortality response was recorded in all extracts prepared from seeds of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations. The highest acaricidal property was exhibited by the alcoholic extract of P. longum seeds with the minimum LC 50 and LC 95 (95% CL) values of 0.071% (0.07-0.072) and 0.135% (0.13-0.14), respectively, followed by alcoholic combinations. Interestingly, no acaricidal activity was recorded in extracts prepared from the rhizome of Z. officinale. The results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations can be used effectively for tick control in an integrated format.

  18. Comparison of the transcriptomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in response to the bacterial wilt infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Duraisamy; Karthika, Raveendran; Habeeba, Naduva Thadath; Suraby, Erinjery Jose; Rosana, Ottakandathil Babu; Shaji, Avaroth; Eapen, Santhosh Joseph; Deshpande, Uday; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important production constraints in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperature regions of the world. Lack of resistant genotype adds constraints to the crop management. However, mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.), which is resistant to R. solanacearum, is a potential donor, if the exact mechanism of resistance is understood. To identify genes involved in resistance to R. solanacearum, we have sequenced the transcriptome from wilt-sensitive ginger and wilt-resistant mango ginger using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 26387032 and 22268804 paired-end reads were obtained after quality filtering for C. amada and Z. officinale, respectively. A total of 36359 and 32312 assembled transcript sequences were obtained from both the species. The functions of the unigenes cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. Large scale expression profiling showed that many of the disease resistance related genes were expressed more in C. amada. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either ginger or mango ginger. The identification of many defense related genes differentially expressed provides many insights to the resistance mechanism to R. solanacearum and for studying potential pathways involved in responses to pathogen. Also, several candidate genes that may underline the difference in resistance to R. solanacearum between ginger and mango ginger were identified. Finally, we have developed a web resource, ginger transcriptome database, which provides public access to the data. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the use of Illumina short read sequencing for de novo transcriptome assembly and comparison in

  19. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the phosphomannomutase (PMM) gene from Dendrobium officinale and evidence for the involvement of an abiotic stress response during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunmei; Zeng, Songjun; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Yu, Zhenming; Tan, Jianwen; Duan, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Phosphomannomutase (PMM, EC 5.4.2.8) catalyzes the interconversion of mannose-6-phosphate to mannose-1-phosphate, the precursor for the synthesis of GDP-mannose. In this study, the complementary DNA (cDNA) of the Phosphomannomutase (PMM) gene was initially cloned from Dendrobium officinale by RACE method. Transient transform result showed that the DoPMM protein was localized in the cytoplasm. The DoPMM gene was highly expressed in the stems of D. officinale both in vegetative and reproductive developmental stages. The putative promoter was cloned by TAIL-PCR and used for searched cis-elements. Stress-related cis-elements like ABRE, TCA-element, and MBS were found in the promoter regions. The DoPMM gene was up-regulated after treatment with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, cold, polyethylene glycol, and NaCl. The total ascorbic acid (AsA) and polysaccharide content in all of the 35S::DoPMM Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines #1, #2, and #5 showed a 40, 39, and 31% increase in AsA and a 77, 22, and 39% increase in polysaccharides, respectively more than wild-type (WT) levels. All three 35S::DoPMM transgenic lines exhibited a higher germination percentage than WT plants when seeded on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 150 mM NaCl or 300 mM mannitol. These results provide genetic evidence for the involvement of PMM genes in the biosynthesis of AsA and polysaccharides and the mediation of PMM genes in abiotic stress tolerance during seed germination in A. thaliana.

  20. Identification and Concentration of Some Flavonoid Components in Malaysian Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Varieties by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

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    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting, and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%, and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1% as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay showed high activities (65.7% in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine.

  1. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. Materials and Methods: AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375–480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3–6 nm, 3–22 nm, and 3–18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Conclusion: Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. SUMMARY The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger

  2. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-07-01

    Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375-480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3-6 nm, 3-22 nm, and 3-18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper were evaluatedThe AgNPs formed were characterized using UV

  3. Taraxacum officinale and related species-An ethnopharmacological review and its potential as a commercial medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Poirrier, P; Chamy, R; Prüfer, D; Schulze-Gronover, C; Jorquera, L; Ruiz, G

    2015-07-01

    been studied (including Taraxacum officinale, Taraxacum coreanum, Taraxacum mongolicum and Taraxacum platycarpum). This is a indication of the little knowledge that we have about this genus so far. Biotechnology (involving genetics, agriculture, and biology) is the most powerful means by which to take advantage of all the medicinal potential of Taraxacum. Great strides have been made in identifying metabolic pathways for synthesizing terpenes, one of the most important compound families in clinical applications. In order to improve yield and performance of the plant in the field, greenhouse cultivation is another aspect taken into account, deriving an increase in recovery of bioactives from Taraxacum organs. Even while considering that only a few species have been studied, their different biochemical and cultivation profiles indicate huge potential for qualitative improvements in composition through genetic engineering, thus directly impacting pharmacological properties. Taraxacum is has been traditionally considered a natural remedy, well-inserted into popular knowledge, but with low commercial applicability. Only once the recovery of pure and highly reactive compounds can be pursued at (a qualitatively and quantitatively attractive) economical scale, human clinical trials would be of interest in order to prove their efficacy and safety, positioning Taraxacum as an important commercial source of natural drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-06-17

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided.

  5. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Powder Supplement on Pain in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: a Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nadjarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is limited evidence that ginger (Zingiber Officinale powder consumption is effective to relieve the pain and inflammation due to special phytichemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger powder supplementation in pain improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 outpatients with knee osteoarthritis of moderate pain. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: receiving ginger powder supplement and placebo. Ginger and placebo groups received two identical capsules per day for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg ginger powder or starch. Pain severity was measured by VAS (Visual Analog Scale at first and after 3 months. A responder was defined as a reduction in pain of > 1.5 cm on a visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Before intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in severity of pain. However, after ginger supplementation, pain score decreased in ginger group. After 12 weeks, Pain reduction was more significant in ginger group than placebo. Response to intervention was 88% and 14% in ginger and placebo groups, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between both groups in response to intervention (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ginger powder supplementation was effective in reducing pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis, therefore it is recommended as a safe supplement for these patients

  6. Effect of Zingiber officinale Supplementation on Obesity Management with Respect to the Uncoupling Protein 1 -3826A>G and ß3-adrenergic Receptor Trp64Arg Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Zemestani, Maryam; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on some obesity-associated parameters, with nutrigenetics approach. Accordingly, 80 eligible obese women (aged 18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either ginger (2-g ginger rhizomes powder as two 1-g tablets per day) or placebo supplements (corn starch with the same amount) for 12 weeks. Subjects were tested for changes in body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, body composition, appetite score, and dietary intake. Moreover, participants were genotyped for the -3826A>G and Trp64Arg polymorphisms of uncoupling protein 1 and ß3-adrenergic receptor genes, respectively. Over 12 weeks, ginger supplementation resulted in a slight but statistically significant decrease in all anthropometric measurements and total appetite score as compared with placebo group, which were more pronounced in subjects with the AA genotype for uncoupling protein 1 and Trp64Trp genotype for ß3-adrenergic receptor gene. However, there was no significant difference in changes of body composition and total energy and macronutrients intake between groups. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ginger consumption has potential in managing obesity, accompanying with an intervention-genotype interaction effect. However, further clinical trials need to explore ginger's efficacy as an anti-obesity agent in the form of powder, extract, or its active components. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Differential Control of Growth, Apoptotic Activity, and Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Extracts Derived from Medicinal Herbs Zingiber officinale

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    Ayman I. Elkady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative potentiality of an extract derived from the medicinal plant ginger (Zingiber officinale on growth of breast cancer cells. Ginger treatment suppressed the proliferation and colony formation in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Meanwhile, it did not significantly affect viability of nontumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with ginger resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, accompanied by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase. At the molecular level, the apoptotic cell death mediated by ginger could be attributed in part to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. Ginger treatment downregulated expression of prosurvival genes, such as NF-κB, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, and Survivin, and cell cycle-regulating proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK-4. On the other hand, it increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21. It also inhibited the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, c-Myc and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. These findings suggested that the ginger may be a promising candidate for the treatment of breast carcinomas.

  8. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-03-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  9. Gengibre (zingiber officinale roscoe brasileiro: aspectos gerais, óleo essencial e oleoresina. parte 2 - secagem, óleo essencial e oleoresina

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    Mauro Taveira Magalhães

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de amostras de gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe do tipo "Gigante", oriundas das diversas localidades produtoras do Brasil, procurou-se estabelecer as melhores condições de processamento e verificar a qualidade do óleo essencial e da oleoresina obtidos. A composição do óleo essencial de gengibre gigante varia de acordo com a técnica de extração e o estado do rizoma. Os óleos essenciais de rizomas frescos e secos foram comparados através de seus índices físico-químicos e composição por CG. São apresentadas as características do óleo essencial do rizoma seco obtido por arraste direto a vapor. Nas oleoresinas obtidas com diferentes solventes determinou-se o teor de óleo essencial. O gengibre comercial brasileiro fornece óleo essencial num rendimento de 2,2% e oleoresina em rendimentos que variam de 6,91-10,90% (etanol, 2,53-5,62% (acetona e 3,35-3,91% (dicloroetano, sendo alternativas interessantes de utilização.

  10. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale ameliorates carbendazim-induced endocrine disruption and toxicity in testes and epididymis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, M; Ajayi, B O; Adedara, I A; de Souza, D; Rocha, J B T; Farombi, E O

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of 6-gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from Zingiber officinale on carbendazim (CBZ)-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Adult male rats were treated with either CBZ (50 mg/kg) alone or in combination with 6-GRF (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis revealed that 6-GRF consists of ten bioactive chemical components with 6-gingerol being the most abundant (30.76%). Administration of 6-GRF significantly (p < .05) prevented CBZ-mediated increase in absolute and relative testes weights as well as restored the sperm quantity and quality in the treated rats to near control. In testes and epididymis, 6-GRF significantly abolished CBZ-mediated increase in oxidative damage as well as augmented antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level in the treated rats. Moreover, CBZ administration alone significantly decreased plasma levels of testosterone, thyrotropin, triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone was significantly elevated without affecting luteinising hormone and prolactin levels when compared with the control. Conversely, 6-GRF ameliorated the disruption in the hormonal levels and restored their levels to near normalcy in CBZ-treated rats. Collectively, 6-GRF inhibited the adverse effects of CBZ on the antioxidant defence systems, hormonal balance and histology of the testes and epididymis in rats. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. PENGGUNAAN KOMBINASI KUNYIT (Curcuma domestica DAN JAHE (Zingiber officinale BENTUK ENKAPSULASI DAN TANPA ENKAPSULASI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK USUS DAN MIKROFLORA USUS AYAM PEDAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Halim Natsir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the use of curcuma (curcuma domestica and ginger (Zingiber officinale combinations with encapsulated and not Encapsulated on intestinal histological and Intestinal Microflora in broiler. The materials used in this research were 180 day-old broiler chicks, flour and encapsulated turmeric and ginger mixture. The encapsulants used were maltodextrin (75 %: casein 25 % and adding BHT 0.075 % from extract of 10 % turmeric and ginger mixture. The methods used a Laboratory experiment of a Completely Randomized Design with 9 treatments (P0 = control feed, namely 2 forms of turmeric and ginger mixture. (flour and encapsulated with 4 levels (0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8%. The results showed that use of turmeric and ginger mixture in the form of non-encapsulation and encapsulation significantly improved (P<0.01 pH, viscocity of digesta and the number of villi, but showed a no significant difference on villi height, and the number of bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus, sp, E Coli and salmonella Sp.. It is concluded that the use of turmeric and ginger mixture of encapsulated form provides better results than the form of non- encapsulation with the optimum level of 0.8%. Therefore using encapsulated form in 0.8% of the combined turmeric and ginger in broiler diet is recommended.   (Key words: Broiler, Encapsulation, Ginger, Histological, Microflora, Turmeric

  12. Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Chen, Hao; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Zhenshuang

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles. Randomized controlled trials on research subjects were included. Data were extracted as a mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was performed. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 490 individuals. Ginger showed a significant beneficial effect in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The pooled weighted MD of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was -1.00, (95% CI: -1.56, -0.44; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that ginger obviously reduced FBG in T2DM patients (-21.24; 95% CI: -33.21, -9.26; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the significant effects of improvement of lipid profile were observed. Most analyses were not statistically heterogeneous. Based on the negligible side effects and obvious ameliorative effects on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile, ginger may be a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM and MetS.

  13. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P. A. S. R.; Avanço, G. B.; Nerilo, S. B.; Marcelino, R. I. A.; Janeiro, V.; Valadares, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells. PMID:28042599

  14. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R. Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. S. R. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L., turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L., and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R. essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs, and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

  15. Temporal variability of the quality of Taraxacum officinale seed progeny from the East-Ural radioactive trace: is there an interaction between low level radiation and weather conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V

    2017-03-01

    The multiple stressors, in different combinations, may impact differently upon seed quality, and low-level doses of radiation may enhance synergistic or antagonistic effects. During 1991-2014 we investigated the quality of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) seed progeny growing under low-level radiation exposure at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) area (result of the Kyshtym accident, Russia), and in plants from areas exposed to background radiation. The viability of the dandelion seed progeny was assessed according to chronic radiation exposure, accounting for the variability of weather conditions among years. Environmental factors (temperature, precipitation, and their ratio in different months) can modify the radiobiological effects. We found a wide range of possible responses to multiple stressors: inhibition, stimulation, and indifferent effects in different seasons. The intraspecific variability of the quality of dandelion seed progeny was greatly increased under conditions of low doses of chronic irradiation. Temperature was the most significant factor for seed progeny formation in the EURT zone, whereas the sums of precipitation and ratios of precipitation to temperature dominantly affected organisms from the background population.

  16. A Genome-Wide Identification of the WRKY Family Genes and a Survey of Potential WRKY Target Genes in Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunmei; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Tan, Jianwen; Zhang, Jianxia; Pan, Xiaoping; Li, Mingzhi; Luo, Jianping; Duan, Jun

    2017-08-23

    The WRKY family, one of the largest families of transcription factors, plays important roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including growth, development and stress responses in plants. In the present study, 63 DoWRKY genes were identified from the Dendrobium officinale genome. These were classified into groups I, II, III and a non-group, each with 14, 28, 10 and 11 members, respectively. ABA-responsive, sulfur-responsive and low temperature-responsive elements were identified in the 1-k upstream regulatory region of DoWRKY genes. Subsequently, the expression of the 63 DoWRKY genes under cold stress was assessed, and the expression profiles of a large number of these genes were regulated by low temperature in roots and stems. To further understand the regulatory mechanism of DoWRKY genes in biological processes, potential WRKY target genes were investigated. Among them, most stress-related genes contained multiple W-box elements in their promoters. In addition, the genes involved in polysaccharide synthesis and hydrolysis contained W-box elements in their 1-k upstream regulatory regions, suggesting that DoWRKY genes may play a role in polysaccharide metabolism. These results provide a basis for investigating the function of WRKY genes and help to understand the downstream regulation network in plants within the Orchidaceae.

  17. MANFAAT PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG KUNYIT (Curcuma domestica Val DAN TEPUNG JAHE (Zingiber officinale TERHADAP KUALITAS BAKSO ITIK AFKIR DENGAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN YANG BERBEDA

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    Indah Nur Lestarini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the advantage of tumeric flour (Curcuma domestica Val and ginger flour (Zingiber officinale addition on quality of culled duck meatball in different storage times. The materials were thigh duck, tumeric flour and ginger flour. The design used in experiment was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial pattern 4x3 as the first factor was concentration of turmeric flour (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5% and ginger flour (0; 1; 2; 3% and the second one was storage time (0; 8; 16 hours. The result of the research showed that storage time affected (P<0.05 pH, tenderness and waterholding capacity. Concentration of tumeric flour and ginger flour affected tenderness.There was no interaction between those two factors on pH, water-holding capacity, tenderness,and total proteolitic bacteria. Concentration of turmeric flour 0,5% and ginger flour 1% with storage time during 0 hours gave the best result, with a pH value 6.49, tenderness 0.31, water-holding capacity 22.27, and a total proteolytic bacteria , 3.57x104. In conclusion, the finest result founded at 0.5% of turmeric flour and 1% of ginger flouraddition in meatball before storage. (Keywords: Culled duck, Ginger flour, Meatball, Storage time, Tumeric flour

  18. A systematic review of the anti-obesity and weight lowering effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Javadivala, Zeinab; Mahluji, Sepideh; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty-seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. In vitro and in vivo antimutagenic effects of DIG, a herbal preparation of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, against mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, C; Boyer, L; De Meo, M; Laurant, C; Elias, R; Ollivier, E

    2015-07-01

    DIG, a liquid herbal preparation made from a mixture of diluted mother tinctures of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, was assessed for its antimutagenic properties against mitomycin C. The micronucleus assay on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was used to evaluate the in vitro anticlastogenic activity of DIG compared to those of separately diluted mother tinctures. The micronucleus assay was performed on mouse erythrocytes and the comet assay was performed on mouse liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles to assess the protective effects of DIG (0.2 and 2 % at libitum) against an intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C (1 mg Kg(-1)) in mice. DIG exerted a powerful anticlastogenic activity, under both pretreatment and simultaneous treatment conditions as assessed by the micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. Its protective activity was greater than that observed for each mother tincture. DIG reduced micronuclei levels in mouse erythrocytes and suppressed >80 % of DNA strand breaks in the liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles of mice exposed to mitomycin C.

  20. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

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    Firouzeh Gholampour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7: Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days, FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection. After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results: Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p

  1. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  2. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C O, Eleazu; P N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of the light-regulation and circadian-rhythm of the VDE gene promoter from Zingiber officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenchao; Wang, Shaohui; Li, Xin; Huang, Hongyu; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2012-08-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is prone to photoinhibition under intense sunlight. Excessive light can be dissipated by the xanthophyll cycle, where violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays a critical role in protecting the photosynthesis apparatus from the damage of excessive light. We isolated ~2.0 kb of ginger VDE (GVDE) gene promoter, which contained the circadian box, I-box, G-box and GT-1 motif. Histochemical staining of Arabidopsis indicated the GVDE promoter was active in almost all organs, especially green tissues. β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity driven by GVDE promoter was repressed rather than activated by high light. GUS activity was altered by hormones, growth regulators and abiotic stresses, which increased with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and decreased with abscisic acid, salicylic acid, zeatin, salt (sodium chloride) and polyethylene glycol. Interestingly, GUS activities with gibberellin or indole-3-acetic acid increased in the short-term (24 h) and decreased in the long-term (48 and 72 h). Analysis of 5' flank deletion found two crucial functional regions residing in -679 to -833 and -63 to -210. Northern blotting analysis found transcription to be regulated by the endogenous circadian clock. Finally, we found a region necessary for regulating the circadian rhythm and another for the basic promoter activity. Key message A novel promoter, named GVDE promoter, was first isolated and analyzed in this study. We have determined one region crucial for promoter activity and another responsible for keeping circadian rhythms.

  4. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-06-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  5. Effect of nature based antioxidant from Zingiber officinale Rosc. on the oxidation stability, engine performance and emission characteristics with neem oil methyl ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthickeyan, V.

    2018-05-01

    In past few years, the demand for energy increased drastically due to excess utilization of the natural reserves. Thus, it leads to extinction of non-renewable energy resources. Today, the world turning over renewable source of energy for power production (like wind energy, tidal energy, biodiesel, biomass and so on). In the present study, raw neem oil was taken and converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. Nature based antioxidant namely ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) was used as an antioxidant instead of synthetic antioxidants. An anti-oxidants were added in various proportions like G5 (0.5% additive), G10 (1% additive) and G15 (1.5% additive) with B20 (20% neem oil methyl ester with 80% diesel). B20G15 sample showed higher induction period than other samples. Thus, it was considered as an optimum blend with oxidation stability test using Rancimat instrument. Diesel showed higher Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) than biodiesel samples. On the other hand, B20G15 showed higher BTE than B20. Higher CO, HC and smoke emissions were observed for B20 with an antioxidant than other fuel samples. B20 with an antioxidant showed lower NOx emissions than diesel and B20. Thus, the nature based antioxidant was considered as the most promising alternative for NOx emission reduction.

  6. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, P A S R; Avanço, G B; Nerilo, S B; Marcelino, R I A; Janeiro, V; Valadares, M C; Machinski, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro , using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC 50 obtained was 36.6  μ g/mL for CEO and 129.9  μ g/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81  μ g/mL of CEO and 32.12  μ g/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

  7. Structure analysis of a novel heteroxylan from the stem of Dendrobium officinale and anti-angiogenesis activities of its sulfated derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Han; Liu, Yanqiu; Qu, Huanhuan; Ding, Kan

    2017-10-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (Tie-Pi-Shi-Hu), a precious folk medicine exhibiting multiple bioactivities, including antitumor, immune-enhancing and so on. Although evidences showed polysaccharide is one of the major bioactive substances from this herb, several of them were homogenous with fine structures elucidated. In this study, we showed a novel homogeneous heteroxylan obtained from alkali-extracted crude polysaccharide. It composed of arabinose, xylose, glucose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid (4-MGA) as well as trace amount of rhamnose and galactose in a ratio of 8.9:62.7:8.5:12.3:3.9:3.7. We further showed that it contained a backbone of 1,4-linked β-d-xylan, with branches of 1,4-linked α-d-glucose, 1,3-linked α-l-rhamnose, and terminal-linked α-l-arabinose, β-d-galactose, 4-MGA, and β-d-xylose directly or indirectly attached to C-2 position of glycosyl residues on backbone. The sulfated derivative with substitution degree about 0.9 was prepared according to the chlorosulfonic acid (CSA)-pyridine method. Bioactivity tests suggested that the sulfated polysaccharide could significantly disrupt tube formation and inhibit the migration of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) at a low concentration (0.29μM) in a dose-dependent way without significant cytotoxity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraction condition optimization and effects of drying methods on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hongmei; Zhou, Haizhu; Duan, Mengying; Li, Ran; Wu, Hongxin; Lou, Yujie

    2018-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (CRPs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three variables including liquid-solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature on the extraction yield of CRPs were taken into consideration. Moreover, the effects of drying methods including hot air drying (HD), vacuum drying (VD) and freeze drying (FD) on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of CRPs were evaluated. The optimal conditions to extract the polysaccharides were as follows: liquid-solid ratio (15mL/g), extraction time (74min), and extraction temperature (95°C), allowed a maximum polysaccharides yield of 22.87%. Different drying methods had significant effects on the physicochemical properties of CRPs such as the chemical composition (contents of total polysaccharides and uronic acid), relative viscosity, solubility and molecular weight. CRPs drying with FD method showed stronger reducing power and radical scavenging capacities against DPPH and ABTS radicals compared with CRPs drying with HD and VD methods. Therefore, freeze drying served as a good method for keeping the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from comfrey root. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the histology of (I) fresh, (II) solar dried and (III) solar dried/steam distilled ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome tissue prior to the extraction of its pungent principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-yen, I.; Duncan, E.J. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The histological analysis of the rhizome cells of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has revealed some information about the cell`s design. Comparisons have shown that the oleoresin (pungent principles - gingerols and shogaols) were not observable in cell sections of the fresh ginger rhizomes. However, the number of the oleoresin organelles increased in the order of solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes, the latter having a high oleoresin extraction yield with acetone of 8.0 g per 100 g ginger rhizome (dry wt.). (author)

  10. Actividad estimulante de la fracción de saponósidos triterpénicos de la Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms (aralia) y la fracción de gingeroles del Zingiber officinales Roscoe (jengibre)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Alejo, José Luis; Larionova, María; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Gilda; Miranda Flores, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Se extrajeron mediante fraccionamiento químico los saponósidos triterpénicos de la Polyscias fruticosa (L.) HARMS (Aralia) y los gingeroles del Zingiber officinale Roscoe (jenjibre). Las 2 fracciones crudas de la Polyscias; la fracción butánolica (FBP), la acuosa (FAP); y la fracción cruda de gingeroles se ensayaron farmacológicamente en un modelo experimental de fatiga, para conocer su posible actividad estimulante. Se realizó un estudio cromatográfico para saponósidos y gingeroles, y se det...

  11. Density-independent mortality and increasing plant diversity are associated with differentiation of Taraxacum officinale into r- and K-strategists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Lipowsky

    Full Text Available Differential selection between clones of apomictic species may result in ecological differentiation without mutation and recombination, thus offering a simple system to study adaptation and life-history evolution in plants.We caused density-independent mortality by weeding to colonizer populations of the largely apomictic Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae over a 5-year period in a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment. We compared the offspring of colonizer populations with resident populations deliberately sown into similar communities. Plants raised from cuttings and seeds of colonizer and resident populations were grown under uniform conditions. Offspring from colonizer populations had higher reproductive output, which was in general agreement with predictions of r-selection theory. Offspring from resident populations had higher root and leaf biomass, fewer flower heads and higher individual seed mass as predicted under K-selection. Plants grown from cuttings and seeds differed to some degree in the strength, but not in the direction, of their response to the r- vs. K-selection regime. More diverse communities appeared to exert stronger K-selection on resident populations in plants grown from cuttings, while we did not find significant effects of increasing species richness on plants grown from seeds.Differentiation into r- and K-strategists suggests that clones with characteristics of r-strategists were selected in regularly weeded plots through rapid colonization, while increasing plant diversity favoured the selection of clones with characteristics of K-strategists in resident populations. Our results show that different selection pressures may result in a rapid genetic differentiation within a largely apomictic species. Even under the assumption that colonizer and resident populations, respectively, happened to be r- vs. K-selected already at the start of the experiment, our results still indicate that the association of these

  12. Density-independent mortality and increasing plant diversity are associated with differentiation of Taraxacum officinale into r- and K-strategists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowsky, Annett; Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Differential selection between clones of apomictic species may result in ecological differentiation without mutation and recombination, thus offering a simple system to study adaptation and life-history evolution in plants. We caused density-independent mortality by weeding to colonizer populations of the largely apomictic Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae) over a 5-year period in a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). We compared the offspring of colonizer populations with resident populations deliberately sown into similar communities. Plants raised from cuttings and seeds of colonizer and resident populations were grown under uniform conditions. Offspring from colonizer populations had higher reproductive output, which was in general agreement with predictions of r-selection theory. Offspring from resident populations had higher root and leaf biomass, fewer flower heads and higher individual seed mass as predicted under K-selection. Plants grown from cuttings and seeds differed to some degree in the strength, but not in the direction, of their response to the r- vs. K-selection regime. More diverse communities appeared to exert stronger K-selection on resident populations in plants grown from cuttings, while we did not find significant effects of increasing species richness on plants grown from seeds. Differentiation into r- and K-strategists suggests that clones with characteristics of r-strategists were selected in regularly weeded plots through rapid colonization, while increasing plant diversity favoured the selection of clones with characteristics of K-strategists in resident populations. Our results show that different selection pressures may result in a rapid genetic differentiation within a largely apomictic species. Even under the assumption that colonizer and resident populations, respectively, happened to be r- vs. K-selected already at the start of the experiment, our results still indicate that the association of these strategies with

  13. Protective properties of 6-gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Ojo, Mercy; Afolabi, Tosin T; Arowoogun, Mary D; Nwawolor, Darlinton; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-05-25

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide widely used in agricultural applications and household environments. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger, 6-GRF) has been reported to possess potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we investigated the protective properties of 6-GRF on CPF-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats. Five groups of rats containing 14 rats/group received corn oil (control), CPF (5 mg/kg), 6-GRF (100 mg/kg), CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (50 mg/kg) and CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (100 mg/kg) through gavage once per day for 35 days respectively. The results showed that 6-GRF protected against CPF-induced increases in oxidative stress ((hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA)), inflammatory (myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF- α)), and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers. Also, 6-GRF improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as glutathione (GSH) level in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats exposed to CPF (p < 0.05). Overall, the protective effects of 6-GRF on CPF-induced toxicity in the brain and reproductive organs of rats may be due to its potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Supramolecular interaction of 6-shogaol, a therapeutic agent of Zingiber officinale with human serum albumin as elucidated by spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular docking methods.

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    Feroz, S R; Mohamad, S B; Lee, G S; Malek, S N A; Tayyab, S

    2015-06-01

    6-Shogaol, one of the main bioactive constituents of Zingiber officinale has been shown to possess various therapeutic properties. Interaction of a therapeutic compound with plasma proteins greatly affects its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The present investigation was undertaken to characterize the interaction between 6-shogaol and the main in vivo transporter, human serum albumin (HSA). Various binding characteristics of 6-shogaol-HSA interaction were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy. Thermal stability of 6-shogaol-HSA system was determined by circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques. Identification of the 6-shogaol binding site on HSA was made by competitive drug displacement and molecular docking experiments. Fluorescence quench titration results revealed the association constant, Ka of 6-shogaol-HSA interaction as 6.29 ± 0.33 × 10(4) M(-1) at 25 ºC. Values of the enthalpy change (-11.76 kJ mol(-1)) and the entropy change (52.52 J mol(-1) K(-1)), obtained for the binding reaction suggested involvement of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds in the complex formation. Higher thermal stability of HSA was noticed in the presence of 6-shogaol, as revealed by DSC and thermal denaturation profiles. Competitive ligand displacement experiments along with molecular docking results suggested the binding preference of 6-shogaol for Sudlow's site I of HSA. All these results suggest that 6-shogaol binds to Sudlow's site I of HSA through moderate binding affinity and involves hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Tissue Culture and Mycorrhiza Applications in Organic Farming on Concentrations of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacities in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Rhizomes and Leaves.

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    Min, Byungrok R; Marsh, Lurline E; Brathwaite, Keegan; Daramola, Adebola O

    2017-04-01

    Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics. Concentrations of the phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities, except for carotenoids and ICC, were significantly higher in organic ginger rhizomes and leaves than in non-organics regardless of the fractions and treatments (P < 0.05). Mycorrhiza application in organic farming significantly increased levels of TP, TF, gingerols, and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the combined application of tissue culture and mycorrhiza significantly increased concentrations of TF and gingerols and ORAC in the Free fraction of the rhizome (P < 0.05), suggesting their synergistic effects. Considerable amounts of phenolics were found in the Bound fractions of the rhizomes. Six-gingerol, ferulic acid, and lutein were predominant ones among gingerols, phenolic acids, and carotenoids, respectively, in ginger rhizomes. The results suggest that organic farming with mycorrhiza and tissue culture applications can increase concentrations of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in ginger rhizomes and leaves and therefore improve their health-protective potentials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. In silico investigation into the interactions between murine 5-HT3 receptor and the principle active compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohning, Anna E; Marx, Wolfgang; Isenring, Liz

    2016-11-01

    Gingerols and shogaols are the primary non-volatile actives within ginger (Zingiber officinale). These compounds have demonstrated in vitro to exert 5-HT 3 receptor antagonism which could benefit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The site and mechanism of action by which these compounds interact with the 5-HT 3 receptor is not fully understood although research indicates they may bind to a currently unidentified allosteric binding site. Using in silico techniques, such as molecular docking and GRID analysis, we have characterized the recently available murine 5-HT 3 receptor by identifying sites of strong interaction with particular functional groups at both the orthogonal (serotonin) site and a proposed allosteric binding site situated at the interface between the transmembrane region and the extracellular domain. These were assessed concurrently with the top-scoring poses of the docked ligands and included key active gingerols, shogaols and dehydroshogaols as well as competitive antagonists (e.g. setron class of pharmacologically active drugs), serotonin and its structural analogues, curcumin and capsaicin, non-competitive antagonists and decoys. Unexpectedly, we found that the ginger compounds and their structural analogs generally outscored other ligands at both sites. Our results correlated well with previous site-directed mutagenesis studies in identifying key binding site residues. We have identified new residues important for binding the ginger compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the ginger compounds and their structural analogues possess a high binding affinity to both sites. Notwithstanding the limitations of such theoretical analyses, these results suggest that the ginger compounds could act both competitively or non-competitively as has been shown for palonosetron and other modulators of CYS loop receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade Associated with Different Drying Methods and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-06-17

    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential.

  18. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  19. Action of Chlorhexidine, Zingiber officinale, and Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Endotoxin in the Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia C; Oliveira, Sarah Ac; Maekawa, Lilian E; Cardoso, Flávia Gr; Chung, Adriana; Silva, Stephanie Fp; Carvalho, Cláudio At

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) as auxiliary chemical substance and intracanal medications on Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and their endotoxins in the root canals. The study was conducted on 48 single-rooted human teeth divided into four groups (n = 12), according to intracanal medications used: (1) Calcium hydroxide + apyrogenic saline solution (Ca(OH)2 + SS), (2) 20% ginger glycolic extract (GEN), (3) calcium hydroxide + 20% ginger glycolic extract (Ca(OH)2 + GEN), (4) apyrogenic SS (control). Collections were made from the root canal content before preparation (baseline-S1), immediately after instrumentation (S2), 7 days after instrumentation (S3), after 14 days the action of intracanal medication (S4), and 7 days after removal of the intracanal medication (S5). The antimicrobial activity and endotoxin content were analyzed for all collections. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at a significance level of 5%. After instrumentation with CHX, there was complete elimination of E. coli and C. albicans, except for E. faecalis, which was significantly reduced and then completely eliminated after intracanal medication. There was significant reduction of endotoxin after instrumentation. Comparison of collection after instrumentation and intracanal medication revealed reduction of endotoxins in all groups; this reduction was greater in group Ca(OH)2 followed by the group GEN. It was concluded that the instrumentation using CHX and intracanal medication used were able to eliminate the microorganisms from the root canal; the endotoxins were reduced, yet not completely eliminated. This study is important and relevant for searching alternatives during endodontic therapy, since it aims to study the effect of Zingiber officinale on microorganisms and endotoxins present in root canals.

  20. Combination of Nigella sativa with Glycyrrhiza glabra and Zingiber officinale augments their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in h9c2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Azar; Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-12-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardio toxicity in which reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play an important role in the pathological process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of three medicinal plants, Nigella sativa (N), Glycyrrhiza glabra (G) and Zingiber officinale (Z), and their combination (NGZ), against DOX-induced apoptosis and death in H9c2 cells. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of each extract or NGZ for 4 hr which continued in the presence or absence of 5µM doxorubicin for 24 hr. Cell viability and the apoptotic rate were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) staining assays, respectively. The level of ROS and lipid peroxidation were measured by fluorimetric methods. Treatment with doxorubicin increased ROS generation, enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and induced apoptosis. Co-treatment of the cells with each herb extract increased viability of cells dose-dependently with a maximum protection effect of about 30%, and their potencies were N>G>Z. The combination of the threshold dose of each extract (NGZ) produced a similar effect, which was increased dose-dependently to a maximum protection of 70%. These effects were correlated with the effects of NGZ on ROS and MDA. All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.

  1. Protective Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Extract against Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Apoptosis Induced by Interleukin-1β in Cultured Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Bahrampour Juybari, Kobra; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Kamarul, Tunku; Bagheri, Aboulfazl; Tekiyehmaroof, Neda; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract on IL-1β-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis were investigated in C28I2 human chondrocytes. The effects of various concentrations of ginger extract on C28I2 human chondrocyte viability were evaluated in order to obtain noncytotoxic concentrations of the drug by methylthiotetrazole assay. The cells were pretreated with 5 and 25 μg/mL ginger extract for 24 h, followed by incubation with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 24 h. The effects of ginger extract on IL-1β-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation were examined. The mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1, glutathione peroxidase-3, and glutathione peroxidase-4 were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were analyzed by Western blotting. No cytotoxicity was observed at any concentration of ginger extract in C28I2 cells. Ginger extract pretreatment remarkably increased the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the IL-1β-induced elevation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and caspase-3 activity. Ginger extract could considerably reduce IL-1β-induced oxidative stress and consequent mitochondrial apoptosis as the major mechanisms of chondrocyte cell death. These beneficial effects of ginger extract may be due to its antioxidant properties. It may be considered as a natural herbal product to prevent OA-induced cartilage destruction in the clinical setting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Optimization of Physical Conditions for the Aqueous Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Applying a Box-Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Godínez, Juan; Jaimez-Ordaz, Judith; Castañeda-Ovando, Araceli; Añorve-Morga, Javier; Salazar-Pereda, Verónica; González-Olivares, Luis Guillermo; Contreras-López, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Since ancient times, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. This rhizome possesses several chemical constituents; most of them present antioxidant capacity due mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. Thus, the physical conditions for the optimal extraction of antioxidant components of ginger were investigated by applying a Box-Behnken experimental design. Extracts of ginger were prepared using water as solvent in a conventional solid-liquid extraction. The analyzed variables were time (5, 15 and 25 min), temperature (20, 55 and 90 °C) and sample concentration (2, 6 and 10 %). The antioxidant activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power assay while total phenolics were measured by Folin & Ciocalteu's method. The suggested experimental design allowed the acquisition of aqueous extracts of ginger with diverse antioxidant activity (100-555 mg Trolox/100 g, 147-1237 mg Fe 2+ /100 g and 50-332 mg gallic acid/100 g). Temperature was the determining factor in the extraction of components with antioxidant activity, regardless of time and sample quantity. The optimal physical conditions that allowed the highest antioxidant activity were: 90 °C, 15 min and 2 % of the sample. The correlation value between the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the content of total phenolics was R 2  = 0.83. The experimental design applied allowed the determination of the physical conditions under which ginger aqueous extracts liberate compounds with antioxidant activity. Most of them are of the phenolic type as it was demonstrated through the correlation established between different methods used to measure antioxidant capacity.

  3. Isolation and Identification of Compounds from Bioactive Extracts of Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. (Dandelion as a Potential Source of Antibacterial Agents

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    Katy Díaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most effective treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections in women is antibiotics. However, the limitation for this treatment is the duration and dosage of antibiotics and the resistance that bacteria develop after a long period of administration. With the aim of identifying mainly novel natural agents with antibacterial activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological and phytochemical properties of extracts from the leaves Taraxacum officinale. The structural identification of compounds present in hexane (Hex and ethyl acetate (AcOEt extracts was performed by mass spectrometry (GC-MS spectroscopic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR with the major compounds corresponding to different sesquiterpene lactones (α-santonin, glabellin, arborescin, and estafiatin, monoterpene (9,10-dimethyltricycle [4.2.1.1 (2,5]decane-9,10-diol, phytosterol (Stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol acetate, terpenes (lupeol acetate, pregn-5-en-20-one-3β-acetyloxy-17-hydroxy, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde, and coumarin (benzofuranone 5,6,7,7-a-tetraaldehyde-4,4,7a-trimethyl. The results obtained show that the Hex extract was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus showing a MIC of 200 μg/mL and moderately active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC values of 400 μg/mL and 800 μg/mL for the other Gram-negative strains tested with Proteus mirabilis as uropathogens in vitro. Therefore, the effective dandelion extracts could be used in the development of future products with industrial application.

  4. Isolation and Identification of Compounds from Bioactive Extracts of Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg. (Dandelion) as a Potential Source of Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Katy; Espinoza, Luis; Madrid, Alejandro; Pizarro, Leonardo; Chamy, Rolando

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the most effective treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections in women is antibiotics. However, the limitation for this treatment is the duration and dosage of antibiotics and the resistance that bacteria develop after a long period of administration. With the aim of identifying mainly novel natural agents with antibacterial activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate the biological and phytochemical properties of extracts from the leaves Taraxacum officinale. The structural identification of compounds present in hexane (Hex) and ethyl acetate (AcOEt) extracts was performed by mass spectrometry (GC-MS) spectroscopic techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with the major compounds corresponding to different sesquiterpene lactones ( α -santonin, glabellin, arborescin, and estafiatin), monoterpene (9,10-dimethyltricycle [4.2.1.1 (2,5)]decane-9,10-diol), phytosterol (Stigmasta-5,22-dien-3 β -ol acetate), terpenes (lupeol acetate, pregn-5-en-20-one-3 β -acetyloxy-17-hydroxy, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde), and coumarin (benzofuranone 5,6,7,7-a-tetraaldehyde-4,4,7a-trimethyl). The results obtained show that the Hex extract was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus showing a MIC of 200  μ g/mL and moderately active against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC values of 400  μ g/mL and 800  μ g/mL for the other Gram-negative strains tested with Proteus mirabilis as uropathogens in vitro . Therefore, the effective dandelion extracts could be used in the development of future products with industrial application.

  5. Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-Oxidative Mechanism

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    Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinger officinale has been used as a traditional source against gastric disturbances from time immemorial. The ulcer-preventive properties of aqueous extract of ginger rhizome (GRAE belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is reported in the present study. GRAE at 200 mg kg−1 b.w. protected up to 86% and 77% for the swim stress-/ethanol stress-induced ulcers with an ulcer index (UI of 50 ± 4.0/46 ± 4.0, respectively, similar to that of lansoprazole (80% at 30 mg kg−1 b.w. Increased H+, K+-ATPase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were observed in ulcer-induced rats, while GRAE fed rats showed normalized levels and GRAE also normalized depleted/amplified anti-oxidant enzymes in swim stress and ethanol stress-induced animals. Gastric mucin damage was recovered up to 77% and 74% in swim stress and ethanol stress, respectively after GRAE treatment. GRAE also inhibited the growth of H. pylori with MIC of 300 ± 38 μg and also possessed reducing power, free radical scavenging ability with an IC50 of 6.8 ± 0.4 μg mL−1 gallic acid equivalent (GAE. DNA protection up to 90% at 0.4 μg was also observed. Toxicity studies indicated no lethal effects in rats fed up to 5 g kg−1 b.w. Compositional analysis favored by determination of the efficacy of individual phenolic acids towards their potential ulcer-preventive ability revealed that between cinnamic (50% and gallic (46% phenolic acids, cinnamic acid appear to contribute to better H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori inhibitory activity, while gallic acid contributes significantly to anti-oxidant activity.

  6. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

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    SIHEGIKO KANAYA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had

  7. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

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    ROHANI CINTA BADIA GINTING

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.. Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant. A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant's organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7, F. solani (JMd14, and G. cingulata (JMr2 had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4 and C. geniculatus (JMbt9 had significantly

  8. FORMULASI TEH CAMELIA-MURBEI DENGAN BUBUK JAHE (Zingiber officinale DAN ASAM JAWA (Tamarindus indica, L. SEBAGAI MINUMAN KESEHATAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN RESPON IMUN TIKUS

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    Sri Darningsih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The Camelia-mulberry tea has a big potential to becomes a healthy beverage according to its bioactive components, and added by red ginger powder and tamarind. Those ingredients may increase immunity againts various diseases. The aims of this study was to develop formula of a healthy beverage contained of two varieties of leaves (camelia and mulberry, with Ginger (Zingiber officinale and Tamarind (Tamarindus indica, L.   This main research  used mice strain Spraque Dawley, 1.5-2 month old with  weight 75–105 gram. The instruments used in this study were tea maker, organoleptic test and ELISA test. The experimental design used factorial complete random design with 5 groups, where on each group consists of 5 mouse, with two selected variables of the best camelia-mulberry tea, i.e., multikaulis enzymatic oxidation + Gambung 7 enzimatic non-oxidation; bulk tea (Tea A with difference time observation ( 0, 2 and 4 weeks.  The given dosage was 1 ml/100 gram mice weight, with different concentration of camelia-mulberry tea i.e. 3, 6, 9, and 12 gram/ml. The statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that a significant different exist for the time observation of a mice serum IgG (p  Followed by Tukey test, which  shows that a significant differences exist on IgG average at the beginning and after  the 2nd weeks of treatment, and the 2nd weeks vs 4th weeks treatment. Key Words: Camelia-mulberry tea, healthy beverage, immune response

  9. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Increases Contents of Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activities in Malaysian Young Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Varieties

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    Asmah Rahmat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Family Zingiberaceae is well known in Asia. The plant is widely cultivated in village gardens in the tropics for its medicinal properties and as a marketable spice in Malaysia. Ginger varieties are rich in physiologically active phenolics and flavonoids with a range of pharmacological activities. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of increasing levels of flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, naringenin, fisetin and morin and phenolic acid (gallic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, tannic acid, cinnamic acid and salicylic acid, and antioxidant activities in different parts of Malaysian young ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara with CO2 enrichment in a controlled environment system. Both varieties showed an increase in phenolic compounds and flavonoids in response to CO2 enrichment from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1 CO2. These increases were greater in rhizomes compared to leaves. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC results showed that quercetin and gallic acid were the most abundant flavonoid and phenolic acid in Malaysian young ginger varieties. Under elevated CO2 conditions, kaempferol and fisetin were among the flavonoid compounds, and gallic acid and vanillic acid were among the phenolic compounds whose levels increased in both varieties. As CO2 concentration was increased from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1, free radical scavenging power (DPPH increased about 30% in Halia Bentong and 21.4% in Halia Bara; and the rhizomes exhibited more enhanced free radical scavenging power, with 44.9% in Halia Bentong and 46.2% in Halia Bara. Leaves of both varieties also displayed good levels of flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities. These results indicate that the yield and pharmaceutical quality of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced by controlled environment production and CO2 enrichment.

  10. Insights from the cold transcriptome and metabolome of Dendrobium officinale: global reprogramming of metabolic and gene regulation networks during cold acclimation

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    Zhi-Gang Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cold acclimation (CA is a genetically complex phenomenon involving gene regulation and expression. Little is known about the cascading pattern of gene regulatroy network and the link between genes and metabolites during CA. Dendrobium officinale (DOKM is an important medicinal and ornamental plant and hypersensitive to low temperature. Here, we used the large scale metabolomic and transcriptomic technologies to reveal the response to CA in DOKM seedlings based on the physiological profile analyses. Lowering temperature from 4 oC to -2 oC resulted in significant increase(P<0.01)in antioxidant activities and electrolyte leakage during 24 h. The fitness CA piont of 0 oC and control (20 oC during 20 h were firstly obtained according to physiological analyses. Subsequently, massive transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming occurred during CA. The gene to metabolite network demonstrated that the CA associated processes are highly energy demanding through activating hydrolysis of sugars, amino acids catabolism and citrate cycle. The expression levels of 2,767 genes were significantly affected by CA, including 153-fold upregulation of CBF transcription factor, 56-fold upregulation of MAPKKK16 protein kinase. Moreover, the gene interaction and regulation network analysis revealed that the CA as an active process, was regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Our findings highligted a comprehensive regulatory mechanism including cold signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and gene expression, which contributes a deeper understanding of the highly complex regulatory program during CA in DOKM. Some marker genes identified in DOKM seedlings will allow us to understand the role of each individual during CA by further functional analyses.

  11. Effect of the radiation processing in species of Zingiberaceae family: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Mariana Correa de

    2012-01-01

    The species of Zingiberaceae family are characterized for rhizome. Phenolic constituents like curcuminoids and gingerols have had reports of biological activities. Food irradiation is an effective means of preservation, however it is important to ensure that their functional properties are not compromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co in doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy on species of Zingiberaceae: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe). The qualitative determination of bioactive compounds profile was performed by thin layer chromatography. The quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method and assessing the potential of antioxidant activity by the free radical [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hydrazyl (DPPH.] scavenging and by Rancimat method. The curcumin and 6-gingerol quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Compared to control, there were significant losses of total phenolic compounds in turmeric samples irradiated with 15kGy and 20kGy. There were significant decreases in the ability to scavenge DPPH in irradiated ginger extracts and zedoaria extract irradiated with 20kGy. The Antioxidant Activity Index was significantly lower in 5kGy and 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and in irradiated zedoaria extracts. The curcumin quantification was significantly lower in 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and there was no significant difference in the 6-gingerol quantification between ginger extracts. It is concluded that gamma radiation processing technology in Zingiberaceae can be viable for industry. To maintain safety of antioxidant activity it should be applied doses up 10kGy. (author)

  12. Efecto in vitro de una solución de Zingiber officinale Rosc. (jengibre sobre la respuesta de linfocitos humanos de donantes sanos y enfermos con inmunodeficiencia celular In vitro effect of a solution of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Ginger on the response of human lymphocytes from healthy donors and patients with cellular immunodeficiency

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    Lázaro O. del Valle Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Zingiber officinale Rosc. (jengibre es una especie que se ha utilizado por el hombre con diversos fines. Se estudió el efecto in vitro de una solución acuosa del rizoma de esta planta sobre los linfocitos de 30 donantes voluntarios de sangre y de 30 enfermos con diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencia celular, mediante la prueba de transformación linfoblástica, con el empleo de timidina tritiada, la técnica de formación de roseta activa y el ultramicrométodo inmunocitoquímico (UMICIQ. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las condiciones experimentales sin jengibre y con jengibre, con diluciones de este desde 1:2 hasta 1:2048 en la prueba de transformación linfoblástica. En la roseta activa y en los marcadores de activación HLA-DR y CD25 no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los linfocitos sin jengibre y los cultivados con la dilución 1:128, tanto en los donantes sanos como los enfermos.The Zingiber officinale Rosc (ginger is a species used by man to different purposes. The in vitro effect of a aqueous solution from the rhizome of this plant on the lymphocytes of 30 volunteer blood donors and of 30 patients diagnosed with cellular immunodeficiency was studied by the lymphoblastic transformation test using tritiated thymidine, the technique of the rosette active formation and the immunocytochemical ultramicromethod (UMICIQ. There were not statistically significant differences among the experimental conditions with and without ginger with dilutions from 1:2 to 1:128 in the lymphoblastic transformation test. In the active rosette and in markers of the HLA-DR and CD25 activation there weren't statistically significant differences among lymphocytes without ginger and those cultured with a dilution 1:128 for healthy donors and for the patients.

  13. Isoviolanthin Extracted from Dendrobium officinale Reverses TGF-β1-Mediated Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Deactivating the TGF-β/Smad and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathways

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    Shangping Xing

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium officinale is a precious medicinal herb and health food, and its pharmacological actions have been studied and proved. However, the mechanisms by which its active flavonoid glycosides affect epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells, such as HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells, have not been previously investigated. Therefore, we investigated whether isoviolanthin extracted from the leaves of Dendrobium officinale inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF-β1-induced EMT in HCC cells. In this study, the physicochemical properties and structure of isoviolanthin were identified by HPLC, UV, ESIMS, and NMR and were compared with literature data. HCC cells were pretreated with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 to induce EMT and then treated with isoviolanthin. Herein, we found that isoviolanthin exhibited no cytotoxic effects on normal liver LO2 cells but notably reduced the migratory and invasive capacities of TGF-β1-treated HCC cells. Additionally, isoviolanthin treatment decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 levels, and remarkably altered the expression of EMT markers via regulating the TGF-β/Smad and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways; Western blot analysis confirmed that the effects of the inhibitors SB431542 and LY294002 were consistent with those of isoviolanthin. These findings demonstrate the potential of isoviolanthin as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of advanced-stage metastatic HCC.

  14. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  16. Optimization protocol for the extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and improving antioxidant and anticancer activity using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2015-07-30

    Analysis and extraction of plant matrices are important processes for the development, modernization, and quality control of herbal formulations. Response surface methodology is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques that are used to optimize the range of variables in various experimental processes to reduce the number of experimental runs, cost , and time, compared to other methods. Response surface methodology was applied for optimizing reflux extraction conditions for achieving high 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents, and high antioxidant activity in Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade . The two-factor central composite design was employed to determine the effects of two independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X1: 50-80 °C) and time (X2: 2-4 h), on the properties of the extracts. The 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol contents were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the rhizome extracts was determined by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Anticancer activity of optimized extracts against HeLa cancer cell lines was measured using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Increasing the extraction temperature and time induced significant response of the variables. The optimum extraction condition for all responses was at 76.9 °C for 3.4 h. Under the optimum condition, the corresponding predicted response values for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity were 2.89 mg/g DW, 1.85 mg/g DW, and 84.3%, respectively. 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol were extracted under optimized condition to check the viability of the models. The values were 2.92 and 1.88 mg/g DW, and 84.0% for 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and the antioxidant activity respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the models employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction condition. With optimizing of reflux extraction

  17. Polysaccharides of Dendrobium officinale Kimura & Migo protect gastric mucosal cell against oxidative damage-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ko, Chun-Hay; Siu, Wing-Sum; Li, Long-Fei; Han, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Liu; Bik-San Lau, Clara; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2017-08-17

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura & Migo (DO) is a valuable Traditional Chinese Medicine to nourish stomach, in which polysaccharides are identified as active ingredients. However, limited scientific evidences have been reported on the gastroprotective efficacy of DO. The aim of the current study was to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanism of polysaccharides from DO(DOP) on gastric mucosal injury. For in vitro study, HFE145 cells were pretreated with DOP before induction of cell apoptosis by H 2 O 2 . Cell apoptosis and related proteins expression were detected. In the in vivo study, absolute ethanol was administered orally to induce gastric mucosal injury in rat. The gastric mucosal injury area and histological examination were used to evaluate the effects of DOP treatment on the recovery of the gastric mucosal injury. H 2 O 2 treatment for 6h significantly induced cell apoptosis in HFE145 cells. However, the destructive effects of H 2 O 2 on HFE 145 cells could be reversed by the pretreatment with DOP. The increased ROS level induced by H 2 O 2 for 4h was reduced after DOP pretreatment. The number of apoptotic cells in both early and late apoptosis stages decreased significantly and the nuclei morphology changes were improved with DOP pretreatment. Furthermore, DOP inhibited caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage, downregulated Bax expression and upregulated Bcl2 expression in cell model. Further study revealed that pretreatment of DOP inhibited p -NF-κBp65/NF-κBp65 level, indicating DOP inhibited H 2 O 2 -mediated apoptosis via suppression of NF-κB activation. In addition, DOP treatment could ameliorate gastric mucosal injury and inhibit mucin loss induced by ethanol in animal model. DOP treatment also interfered with ethanol-induced apoptosis process by downregulating Bax/Bcl2 ratio in gastric mucosa. The present study was the first one to demonstrate the gastroprotective effect of DOP through inhibiting oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

  18. Effect of the radiation processing in species of Zingiberaceae family: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe); Efeitos do processamento por radiacao em especies da familia Zingiberaceae: acafrao (Curcuma longa L.), gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) e zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Mariana Correa de

    2012-07-01

    The species of Zingiberaceae family are characterized for rhizome. Phenolic constituents like curcuminoids and gingerols have had reports of biological activities. Food irradiation is an effective means of preservation, however it is important to ensure that their functional properties are not compromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co in doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy on species of Zingiberaceae: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and zedoaria (Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe). The qualitative determination of bioactive compounds profile was performed by thin layer chromatography. The quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method and assessing the potential of antioxidant activity by the free radical [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hydrazyl (DPPH.] scavenging and by Rancimat method. The curcumin and 6-gingerol quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Compared to control, there were significant losses of total phenolic compounds in turmeric samples irradiated with 15kGy and 20kGy. There were significant decreases in the ability to scavenge DPPH in irradiated ginger extracts and zedoaria extract irradiated with 20kGy. The Antioxidant Activity Index was significantly lower in 5kGy and 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and in irradiated zedoaria extracts. The curcumin quantification was significantly lower in 15kGy irradiated turmeric extracts and there was no significant difference in the 6-gingerol quantification between ginger extracts. It is concluded that gamma radiation processing technology in Zingiberaceae can be viable for industry. To maintain safety of antioxidant activity it should be applied doses up 10kGy. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyari, Saman; Mahyari, Behnam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-02-01

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease resulting from microbial infection and subsequent inflammation. The efficacy of herbal preparations in subjects with gingivitis has been reported in some previous studies. To investigate the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis (5% v/w) compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in subjects with gingivitis. Sixty patients participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the polyherbal mouthwash (n = 20), chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20) or placebo mouthwash (n = 20). Participants were instructed to use the mouthwash twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 30 s for a period of two weeks. Gingival and plaque indices were assessed using MGI, GBI and MQH scales at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of the trial. There were significant improvements in all assessed efficacy measures i.e. MGI, GBI and MQH scores from baseline to the end of trial in both polyherbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups; however, the scores remained statistically unchanged in the placebo group. MGI, BGI and MQH scores in the treatment groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group at both day 7 and day 14 of the trial. However, there was no significant difference between the polyherbal and chlorhexidine groups, neither at day 7 nor day 14 of the trial. Polyherbal mouthwash was safe and there was neither report of adverse reactions, nor any drop-out during the course of study. Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect and safety of highly standardized Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) extract supplementation on inflammation and chronic pain in NSAIDs poor responders. A pilot study in subjects with knee arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Allegrini, Pietro; Faliva, Milena Anna; Naso, Maurizio; Miccono, Alessandra; Peroni, Gabriella; Degli Agosti, Irene; Perna, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale and Echinacea angustifolia extract supplementation (25 mg of ginger and 5 mg of Echinacea) for 30 days on inflammation and chronic pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Consecutive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory-drugs (NSAIDs) poor responders with chronic inflammation and pain due to knee arthrosis were assessed (15 subjects, age: 67.2 ± 7.9, body mass index: 30.6 ± 7.1, men/women:2/13). The primary endpoint was to determine pain improvement from baseline to Day 30 by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring. The secondary endpoints were the assessment of Visual Analog Scale for Pain, health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36), anthropometric parameters, hydration. After supplementation, a significant improvement of 12.27 points was observed for Lysholm scale score (p < 0.05), SF-36 (p < 0.05), and a decrease in -0.52 cm in knee circumference (left) (p < 0.01). This pilot study provides feasibility and safety data for the use of highly standardised ginger and Echinacea extract supplementation in people with knee OA.

  1. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par Evans et ál.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ocasionada por Moniliophthora roreri origina grandes pérdidas en los países donde se ha estado dispersando; en México, de reciente ingreso ha afectado drásticamente la producción, ya que daña los frutos en sus diferentes estados y son escasas las medidas de control que se han podido implementar, por lo que se investigó el efecto in vitro de extractos de Origanum vulgare L., Tradescantia spathacea Swartz y Zingiber officinale Roscoe sobre M. roreri. Se aisló el hongo de frutos enfermos y se cultivó en laboratorio, las plantas fueron recolectadas y sometidas a cuatro formas de extracción: hidrolato por destilación, presurizado, fermentación aeróbica y anaeróbica. Dichos extractos se incorporaron al medio de cultivo al 50% (V/V, se sembró el hongo y se incubó durante 12 días, cuantificando el crecimiento diario y la formación de conidias; a los extractos que inhibieron totalmente al hongo se les determinó la concentración mínima.

  2. Larval performance of the mustard leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) on white mustard (Sinapis alba) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) leaves in dependence of plant exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, Kerstin; Mueller, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient or attenuated ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in shifts in plant metabolite concentrations of the Brassicaceae Sinapis alba and Nasturtium officinale. Leaf quality also varied between plant species and within species due to age. Larvae of the oligophagous leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae were raised on these different host leaves, in order to investigate the effects of variable plant chemistry on this herbivore. The performance of P. cochleariae was influenced by chemical differences between and within plant species but it responded with high plasticity to plants stressed by ultraviolet radiation. Body mass increase and developmental times of larvae were exclusively affected by plant species and leaf-age. However, developmental differences were fully compensated in the pupal stage. We suggest that the plasticity of herbivores may depend on the degree of specialisation, and insect performance may not necessarily be altered by stress-induced host plants. - The larval performance of an oligophagous leaf beetle is influenced by chemical differences between and within plant species but responds with high plasticity to plants stressed by ultraviolet radiation.

  3. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Jane T; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R; Ryan, Julie L

    2007-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics such as ondansetron and granistron, up to 70% of patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents experience postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting. Delayed postchemotherapy nausea (nausea that occurs >/= 24 hours after chemotherapy administration) and anticipatory nausea (nausea that develops before chemotherapy administration, in anticipation of it) are poorly controlled by currently available antiemetic agents. Scientific studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale) might have beneficial effects on nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, surgery, and pregnancy. In 2 small studies of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, addition of ginger to standard antiemetic medication further reduced the severity of postchemotherapy nausea. This article describes a phase II/III randomized, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ginger for nausea associated with chemotherapy for cancer. The study is currently being conducted by private practice oncology groups that are funded by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base.

  4. Analysis of herbal teas made from the leaves of comfrey (Symphytum officinale): reduction of N-oxides results in order of magnitude increases in the measurable concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlies, Nicholas H; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Brine, Dolores R; Collins, Bradley J; Handy, Robert W; Sparacino, Charles M; Wani, Mansukh C; Wall, Monroe E

    2004-10-01

    To determine the relative quantities of two hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, symphytine and echimidine, in teas prepared from comfrey leaves (Symphytum officinale), and to determine the potential contribution of the N-oxide forms of these alkaloids to levels of the parent alkaloids. Comfrey leaves were purchased from three commercial sources and used to prepare tea in a manner consistent with the methods used by consumers. An extraction scheme was devised for extraction of the alkaloids, and a gas chromatographic method was developed to quantify the two major alkaloids, symphytine and echimidine. Recognising that the N-oxide derivatives of these alkaloids have also been identified in comfrey preparations, chemical reduction was applied to determine the total quantities of the alkaloids as free bases and as N-oxide derivatives. The concentration of symphytine and echimidine varied considerably between teas prepared from leaves purchased from the different vendors of plant material. Moreover, a much higher concentration of symphytine was found in the tea when steps were included to reduce N-oxides prior to analysis. The treatment of pure symphytine with hot water did not generate the N-oxide derivative de novo. Since the pyrrolizidine alkaloids are known to be hepatotoxic, consumption of herbal teas made from comfrey leaves may be ill-advised. The concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in such teas may be underestimated substantially unless the concentration of N-oxides is taken into consideration.

  5. Effect of a blend of comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) and tannic acid creams in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multiclinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doug B; Jacobson, Bert H

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 concentrations of topical, comfrey-based botanical creams containing a blend of tannic acid and eucalyptus to a eucalyptus reference cream on pain, stiffness, and physical functioning in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Forty-three male and female subjects (45-83 years old) with diagnosed primary osteoarthritis of the knee who met the inclusion criteria were entered into the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 10% or 20% comfrey root extract (Symphytum officinale L.) or a placebo cream. Outcomes of pain, stiffness, and functioning were done on the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Participants applied the cream 3× a day for 6 weeks and were evaluated every 2 weeks during the treatment. Repeated-measures analyses of variance yielded significant differences in all of the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index categories (pain P comfrey-based creams were superior to the reference cream. The active groups each had 2 participants who had temporary and minor adverse reactions of skin rash and itching, which were rapidly resolved by modifying applications. Both active topical comfrey formulations were effective in relieving pain and stiffness and in improving physical functioning and were superior to placebo in those with primary osteoarthritis of the knee without serious adverse effects. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bio-fabrication of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of an ancient herbal medicine, dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), evaluation of their antioxidant, anticancer potential, and antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Rijuta G; Benelli, Giovanni; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Kim, Dong Su; Saratale, Ganesh D

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the use of nanoparticle-based antimicrobials has been increased due to many advantages over conventional agrochemicals. This study investigates the utilization of common medicinal plant dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (TOL-AgNPs). AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against two important phytopathogens, Xanthomonas axonopodis and Pseudomonas syringae. The morphology, size, and structure of TOL-AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed the presence of phytochemicals involved during synthesis of NPs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis shed light on the size of monodispersed spherical AgNPs ranging between 5 and 30 nm, with an average particle size of about 15 nm. The TOL-AgNPs (at 20 μg/mL concentration) showed significant antibacterial activity with significant growth inhibition of phytopathogens X. axonopodis (22.0 ± 0.84 mm) and P. syringae (19.5 ± 0.66 mm). The synthesized AgNPs had higher antibacterial activity in comparison with commercial AgNPs. Synergistic assays with standard antibiotics revealed that nanoformulations with tetracycline showed better broad-spectrum efficiency to control phytopathogens. They also possessed significant antioxidant potential in terms of ABTS (IC 50  = 45.6 μg/mL), DPPH (IC 50  = 56.1 μg/mL), and NO (IC 50  = 55.2 μg/mL) free radical scavenging activity. The TOL-AgNPs showed high cytotoxic effect against human liver cancer cells (HepG2). Overall, dandelion-mediated AgNPs synthesis can represent a novel approach to develop effective antimicrobial and anticancer drugs with a cheap and eco-friendly nature.

  7. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  8. Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) Supplements on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer-407 Induced -Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Kabiru, A; Abdulrasak, A; Mohammed, K A; Salisu, A I; Jimoh, A; Gidado, N M; Sada, N M

    2017-12-30

    This research was aimed at investigating the Effects of Fermented Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Fenu Greek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on Oxidative stress and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarkers in Poloxamer 407Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with poloxamer P407 (1.5 g/kg   b.w. i.p.) The Animals were grouped into six of five animals each group. Group 1 normal control, Group 2 served as the hyperlipidemic control, Group 3 administered 0.26 g/kg cholestyramine, Group 4 fed on Fenugreek 25% supplement. Group 5 fed on 25% fermented ginger supplement, while group 6 were fed on 25% ginger and fenu greek combined   respectively. All treatments were given for a period of four week. Serum antioxidant activities such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde were evaluated.  As regards to the catalase activity there was a significant decrease in the groups' fed on 25% fenugreek and 25% fermented ginger supplements respectively. However, co-fed with both supplements significantly increase the catalase activity as compared with the hyperlipidaemic control untreated. Comparism with the positive control cholestyramine, there was also a significant increase. Also in relation to the SOD activity there was a significant increase in the activity as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. Furthermore, the Gpx activity there was a significant increase in the as compared with the hyperlipidemic control. oxidative stress biomarker activities SOD) there was significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the Malondialdehyde levels in the groups fed with the supplement when compared with hyperlipidemic control. In conclusion supplements of Fenugreek and Ginger improved antioxidant status and reduced Malondialdehyde in Poloxamer-407 Induced-Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats.

  9. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L. e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe frente a salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Majolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar, quantificar os constituintes, e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais extraídos de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L. e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe cultivados nas condições de Manaus/AM frente a 14 salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado. A extração dos óleos essenciais foi realizada utilizando-se aparelho tipo Clevenger e a composição determinada por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (CG-MS. A atividade antibacteriana foi realizada com o emprego de técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de gengibre se mostrou expressivamente mais eficiente do que o óleo de açafrão, tanto em termos de ação bacteriostática (concentração inibitória mínima de 2500 a 5000 µg.mL-1 quanto bactericida (concentração bactericida mínima de 5000 a 10000 µg.mL-1 observando-se variação apenas em duas as amostras em termos de resistência a ação bactericida deste óleo. Assim, o óleo essencial de gengibre, representa uma alternativa para o controle de Salmonella enterica, entretanto, demais estudos abordando o sinergismo com alimentos são indicados.

  10. Characterization of N-acylhomoserine lactone-degrading bacteria associated with the Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizosphere: Co-existence of quorum quenching and quorum sensing in Acinetobacter and Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra Siri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing (QS co-ordinates bacterial behaviour at a population level. Consequently the behaviour of a natural multi-species community is likely to depend at least in part on co-existing QS and quorum quenching (QQ activities. Here we sought to discover novel N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-dependent QS and QQ strains by investigating a bacterial community associated with the rhizosphere of ginger (Zingiber officinale growing in the Malaysian rainforest. Results By using a basal growth medium containing N-(3-oxohexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, the ginger rhizosphere associated bacteria were enriched for strains with AHL-degrading capabilities. Three isolates belonging to the genera Acinetobacter (GG2, Burkholderia (GG4 and Klebsiella (Se14 were identified and selected for further study. Strains GG2 and Se14 exhibited the broadest spectrum of AHL-degrading activities via lactonolysis while GG4 reduced 3-oxo-AHLs to the corresponding 3-hydroxy compounds. In GG2 and GG4, QQ was found to co-exist with AHL-dependent QS and GG2 was shown to inactivate both self-generated and exogenously supplied AHLs. GG2, GG4 and Se14 were each able to attenuate virulence factor production in both human and plant pathogens. Conclusions Collectively our data show that ginger rhizosphere bacteria which make and degrade a wide range of AHLs are likely to play a collective role in determining the QS-dependent phenotype of a polymicrobial community.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, release and blood-brain barrier transport of Shunaoxin pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Wang, Zhan-Zhang; Liu, Dan; Qi, Xian-Rong

    2014-02-12

    Shunaoxin pills, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) product, have been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China since 2005. The main active components of Shunaoxin pills are ferulic acid and ligustilide from Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, Umbelliferae) and Danggui (Angelica sinensis radix, Umbelliferae). As Shunaoxin shows excellent activity in the central nervous system (CNS), the extent to which the major constituents of Shunaoxin reach the CNS should be investigated. Moreover, the in vivo-in vitro correlations (IVIVC) of the formulation should be studied to elucidate the mechanisms of action of TCM in the CNS. However, these data have not previously been available. Thus we intended to investigate what the extent when these constituents of Shunaoxin pills reach the CNS, and evaluate the IVIVC of release and pharmacokinetics. In this study, we evaluated the release of ferulic acid and ligustilide from Shunaoxin pills, and their transport across an in vitro model of the BBB. We also evaluated their pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in vivo. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify both compounds simultaneously. Based on the release in vitro and absorption of ferulic acid and ligustilide in vivo, IVIVC permitted prediction of the pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The release of ferulic acid and ligustilide reached a platform phase within 1h. Ferulic acid and ligustilide rapidly crossed the BBB in different patterns; the transport ratio increased over time. After intragastric (i.g.) administration of Shunaoxin pills, ferulic acid and ligustilide were rapidly absorbed and distributed into brain, which may result in a rapid onset of action. Ferulic acid and ligustilide were transported across a model BBB. After i.g. administration of Shunaoxin pills, ferulic acid and ligustilide were rapidly absorbed and distributed in brain; this may lead to rapid pharmacological onset. The IVIVC can be used to predict in vivo

  12. Anticoagulant activity of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines with anticoagulant therapeutic claims could serve as veritable sources of new oral anticoagulant drugs with possible wider safety margins than the currently available ones. Objectives: This work was aimed at evaluating a Ginger Rhizome Methanolic Extract in vivo in rats for its potential ...

  13. Elemental analysis of the Taiwanese health food Angelica keiskei by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien-Yi Chen

    2002-01-01

    The health food Angelica keiskei, planted and consumed as an oriental herb, was sampled from five farms in Taiwan. The determination of minor and trace elements identified in the roots, fresh leaves and stems of the plant, as well as in end-products such as tea bags and capsules, is essential for estimating the recommended daily intake for ensuring optimum health safety. Samples were homogenized prior to freeze-drying, and were irradiated with a neutron flux at about 2.0 x 10 12 n x cm -1 x s -1 . A total of 17 elements were analyzed using INAA. In the collected samples the elements exist in widely differing concentrations, ranging from 10 5 to 10 -2 μg/g for different farms. Aluminum was found more highly concentrated in roots than in any other part of the plant. Selenium ws the only element analyzed down to 10 -1 μg/g in the leaves. Meanwhile, arsenic was also found in the roots and stems at levels of nearly 10 -2 μg/g. The elemental concentrations and maximum daily intake (MDI) of this herb are compared with those of Angelica sinensis (Danggui in Mandarin), Ligusticum chuanxiony (Chuanxiong in Mandarin) and Panax ginseng (Ginseng in Mandarin) as well as with the recommended daily dietary intake values for Taiwanese consumers, developed by the WHO. (author)

  14. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hwey Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies.

  15. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2005-04-26

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized.

  16. Fingerprinting of traditional Chinese medicines on the C18-Diol mixed-mode column in online or offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Tong, Ling; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Li

    2016-06-05

    In the present study, a mixed-mode stationary phase, C18-Diol, was applied for fingerprint analysis of traditional Chinese medicines. Hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions were demonstrated to contribute the retention separately or jointly, which endowed the C18-Diol stationary phase with distinct selectivity compared to the bare C18 one. The separation of total alkaloids extracted from Fritillaria hupehensis was compared on the C18-Diol and conventional C18 column with the greater resolving power and better symmetry responses on the former one. Besides, a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatography on the single column (2D-LC-1C) was realized on C18-Diol with the offline mode for the alcohol extract of Fritillaria hupehensis and online mode for Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. The early co-eluted extracted components with great polarity on the first dimension were reinjected on the same column and well separated on the second dimension. The results exhibited that the two complementary RPLC and HILIC modes on C18-Diol stationary phase enhanced the separation capacity and revealed more abundant chemical information of the sample, which was a powerful tool in analyzing complex herbal medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Multiple Ingredients for a Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation (Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Hu Tsai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT is a popular Traditional Chinese Medicine formula consisting of seven herbal medicines (Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica sinensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Carthamus tinctorius, Amygdalus persica and Pheretima aspergillum, that has been used in China for centuries to overcome stroke-induced disability. To ensure the consistency of quality, a reliable analytical method is required, therefore, we developed a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of the major constituents in BYHWT. The herbal ingredients consisting of the cycloartane-type triterpene glycosides of astragaloside I, astragaloside II and astragaloside IV; isoflavones of formononetin, ononin calycosin, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside; ligustilide and paeoniflorin were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution of methanol/10 mM ammonium acetate buffer–formic acid (100:0.1, v/v. This study was performed by a mass spectrometer using electrospray ionization (ESI with positive ionization ions monitored in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM mode. The linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ were validated for this quantification method, and the sensitivity, reliability and reproducibility were all confirmed. The experiments provided a good method for analyzing BYHWT extracts. This study also quantitated the active components in various brands of commercially available products. The results indicated that the pharmaceutical industrial products of BYHWT exhibited considerable variation in their contents of the herbal compounds.

  18. [Determination of ferulic acid absorbed into human serum from oral decoction of rhizoma chuanxiong and pharmacokinetic study of ferulic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S; Huang, X; Zhang, L; Ren, P; Chang, Z

    2001-10-01

    To improve the HPLC method for determining ferulic acid(FA) in the human serum and to research FA clinical pharmacokinetics. Serum concentrations of FA were determined by HPLC using methanol-water-acetic acid (40:59.7:0.3, v/v) as the mobile phase and the column packed with ODS (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microns) as a fixed phase and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. FA was detected at 320 nm wave length. The internal standard was coumarin. The serum samples were treated by the water-boiling method. Peak of FA in serum was recognized by photodiode-array detection. FA and internal standard were separated completely under the condition described as above. FA was linear in the range of (40.16-8032 ng/ml) (r = 0.9975). The CV was less than 10%, the average recovery was 100.3%, and the limit concentration in serum was 25.1 ng/ml. PK was in accordance with open bicameral model. This method can be applied to clinical pharmacokinetic study of FA.

  19. [6]-Gingerol, from Zingiber officinale, potentiates GLP-1 mediated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion pathway in pancreatic β-cells and increases RAB8/RAB10-regulated membrane presentation of GLUT4 transporters in skeletal muscle to improve hyperglycemia in Leprdb/db type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Mehdi Bin; Mohsin, Md Nurul Absar Bin; Razu, Bodiul Alam; Hossain, Mohammad Tashnim; Mahzabeen, Sinayat; Unnoor, Naziat; Muna, Ishrat Aklima; Akhter, Farjana; Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Hannan, J M A

    2017-08-09

    [6]-Gingerol, a major component of Zingiber officinale, was previously reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Endocrine signaling is involved in insulin secretion and is perturbed in db/db Type-2 diabetic mice. [6]-Gingerol was reported to restore the disrupted endocrine signaling in rodents. In this current study on Lepr db/db diabetic mice, we investigated the involvement of endocrine pathway in the insulin secretagogue activity of [6]-Gingerol and the mechanism(s) through which [6]-Gingerol ameliorates hyperglycemia. Lepr db/db type 2 diabetic mice were orally administered a daily dose of [6]-Gingerol (200 mg/kg) for 28 days. We measured the plasma levels of different endocrine hormones in fasting and fed conditions. GLP-1 levels were modulated using pharmacological approaches, and cAMP/PKA pathway for insulin secretion was assessed by qRT-PCR and ELISA in isolated pancreatic islets. Total skeletal muscle and its membrane fractions were used to measure glycogen synthase 1 level and Glut4 expression and protein levels. 4-weeks treatment of [6]-Gingerol dramatically increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance. Plasma GLP-1 was found to be significantly elevated in the treated mice. Pharmacological intervention of GLP-1 levels regulated the effect of [6]-Gingerol on insulin secretion. Mechanistically, [6]-Gingerol treatment upregulated and activated cAMP, PKA, and CREB in the pancreatic islets, which are critical components of GLP-1-mediated insulin secretion pathway. [6]-Gingerol upregulated both Rab27a GTPase and its effector protein Slp4-a expression in isolated islets, which regulates the exocytosis of insulin-containing dense-core granules. [6]-Gingerol treatment improved skeletal glycogen storage by increased glycogen synthase 1 activity. Additionally, GLUT4 transporters were highly abundant in the membrane of the skeletal myocytes, which could be explained by the increased expression of Rab8 and Rab

  20. A validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of senkyunolide I in dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Qi; Wang, Jia-Feng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Shu-Han; He, Dan; Tong, Rong-Sheng; She, Shu-Ya

    2018-05-01

    Senkyunolide I is one of the major bioactive components in the herbal medicine Ligusticum chuanxiong. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fast, simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of senkyunolide I in dog plasma. The plasma samples were processed with acetonitrile and separated on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C 18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm). The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid aqueous and acetonitrile was delivered at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min -1 . The detection was achieved in the positive selected reaction monitoring mode with precursor-to-product transitions at m/z 225.1 → 161.1 for senkyunolide I and at m/z 349.1 → 305.1 for an internal standard. The assay was linear over the tested concentration range, from 0.5 ng mL -1 to 1000 ng mL -1 , with a correlation coefficient >0.9992. The mean extraction recovery from dog plasma was within the range of 85.78-93.25%, while the matrix effect of the analyte was within the range of 98.23-108.89%. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were dogs. The results demonstrated that (a) senkyunolide I showed short elimination half-life (dog, (b) its oral bioavailability was >40% and (c) senkyunolide I showed dose-independent pharmacokinetic profiles in dog plasma over the dose range of 1-50 mg kg -1 . Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Herbal dryer: drying of ginger (zingiber officinale) using tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Alexander; Ashari, M.; Ridha, M.

    2018-02-01

    Drying is widely used as a method to preserve food because of its convenience and affordability. Drying of ginger using tray dryer were carried out at various drying conditions, such as air-drying flow, air-drying temperature, and sample dimensions, to achieve the highest drying rate. Samples with various dimensions were placed in the tray dryer and dried using various air-drying flow and temperatures. The weights of samples were observed every 3 minutes interval. Drying was stopped after three times of constant weighing. Data of drying was collected to make the drying curves. Drying curves show that the highest drying rate is achieved using highest air flow and temperature.

  2. Comparative studies of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and black pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... identification were determined every day of storage until samples were adjudged spoiled. .... examining colonies macroscopically on their cultural properties ... test, coagulase test, indole test, starch fermentation test, gram.

  3. Shelf life of irradiated minimally processed (MP) watercress (Nasturtium officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.G.; Behrens, J.H.; Aragon-Alegro, L.C.; Vieira, V.S.; Costa-Sobrinho, P.S.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.; Franco, B.D.G. de M.; Destro, M.T.; Landgraf, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the shelf life of minimally processed (MP) watercress exposed to gamma radiation with doses of 1.0; 3.0; 4.0 kGy. Packaged irradiated and non-irradiated MP watercress was subject to sensory analysis. A panel consisting of 25-30 non-trained members, aged 20-55 years, was used. Sensory evaluation was carried out on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 9 and 12 after treatment with packages maintained at 7 °C. The members of the panel rated each sample for overall liking on a hybrid 10 hedonic scale (0 = extremely dislike; 10 = extremely like). Microbiological analyses were also conducted. Compared to the non-irradiated sample, 1 kGy irradiated watercress increased its shelf life by one day (16 days). Shelf lives of samples exposed to higher doses were reduced to 9 days (3 kGy) and 6 days (4 kGy) due to changes in appearance. The microbiological quality was good throughout the experiment

  4. IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF MICRORHIZOMES IN GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to highlight an effective protocol for in vitro production of ginger microrhizomes. Microrhizomes were induced at the base of the in vitro derived shoots upon transfer to MS medium containing various concentrations of (30, 60 and 90 g/L, BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine (3, 6 and 9 mg/L and grown under varying photoperiodism in addition to the MS medium supplemented with 9 mg/L BAP and 60-90 g/L sucrose under 16-h photoperiod within 10 weeks of cultivation were the best conditions for microrhizomes induction. Ginger microrhizomes formation in vitro was found to be controlled by many factors, including the concentrations of BAP and sucrose as well as photoperiodism during culturing period.

  5. Effects of Zingiber officinale extract on antioxidation and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... 200, 400, 800 or 1600 mg/kg body weight (B.W.) of ZOE (oral gavage) p.o. once daily for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents decreased along with an increase in the ZOE dose of up to 800.

  6. Effects of Zingiber officinale extract on antioxidation and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... The activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px increased significantly, while MDA content decreased ... attracted people's attention. It is generally .... To evaluate the radioprotective ability of ZOE, 20 mice were divided into two groups ...

  7. Leaf Area Estimation Models for Ginger ( Zingibere officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to develop leaf area estimation models for three cultivars (37/79, 38/79 and 180/73) and four accessions (29/86, 30/86, 47/86 and 52/86) of ginger. Significant variations were observed among the tested genotypes in leaf length (L), leaf width (W) and actual leaf area (ALA). Leaf area was highly ...

  8. Effect of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) on Sodium Arsenite- Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenite is a major environmental chemical and a known reproductive toxicant via the depression of spermatogenesis and androgenesis in males. The possibility of sodium arsenite reproductive toxicity been caused by autooxidation was investigated in this study taking advantage of the anti-oxidant properties of ginger and ...

  9. Improving pork burgers quality using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder (ginger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Simone; Paci, Gisella; Fratini, Filippo; Torracca, Beatrice; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Preziuso, Giovanna

    2017-07-01

    Pork burgers were evaluated for physical-chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation, antioxidant capacity, microbiological growth and sensory evaluation during storage time of seven days at 4°C as function of three formulations as only meat (control, B) and meat added with ginger powder at the percentage of 1 and 2% (BG1 and BG2). BG1 and BG2 were less redness than control ones with incremented yellow hue. These modifications in color parameters did not modify sensory characteristics of burgers. PUFA were incremented (both PUFAω3 and PUFAω6) by the addition of ginger. Furthermore, BG1 and BG2 burgers showed to be less sensitive to lipid oxidation and to possess an increase in antioxidant capacity. Microbial growth evaluation of total aerobic count and Pseudomonas spp. showed that ginger powder delayed in time the bacterial contamination. Results highlighted that the presence of ginger led to an enhanced shelf life and health characteristics of burgers (increasing peroxidisability, ratio hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic and ratio ω3/ω6; reducing atherogenicity and thrombogenicity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on histology, blood profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study using ninety-nine day old Marshal Broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger root meal on the histology, blood profile and internal organ characteristics of broilers. The birds were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments replicated three times in a completely Randomized Design.

  11. ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on intestinal, caeca microbial loads and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study using ninety-nine day old Marshal Broiler chicks was conducted to investigate the effect of ginger root meal on growth, carcass and microbial population of broiler birds. The birds were randomly assigned to three treatments replicated three times in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment consisted ...

  12. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-01-01

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  13. Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, N; Guo, L; Fu, P P; Heflich, R H; Chen, T

    2005-03-14

    Comfrey is a rat liver toxin and carcinogen that has been used as a vegetable and herbal remedy by humans. In order to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its carcinogenicity, we examined the mutagenicity of comfrey in the transgenic Big Blue rat model. Our results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant.

  14. [Experimental study on two-way application of traditional Chinese medicines capable of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis with neutral property in cold and hot blood stasis syndrome I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Er-Wei; Deng, Jia-Gang; Du, Zheng-Cai; Yan, Ke; Zheng, Zuo-Wen; Wang, Qin; Huang, Li-Zhen; Bao, Chuan-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Qiong; Lu, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Zhi-Ling

    2012-11-01

    To study the action characteristics of "two-way application and conditioned dominance" of traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property by observing the action characteristic of 10 traditional Chinese medicines capable of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis with neutral property in the microcirculation in rats with heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome. The rat model with heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome was established by injecting carrageenan and dry yeast, and the rat model with cold stagnation and blood stasis syndrome was built by the body freezing method. Ten traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property, including 5 with hot property and 5 with cold property, were selected for intervention to observe blood flow rate and flow state indicators in rat auricles and make a comparative analysis on action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property. ANOVA showed that among the 10 traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property, 6 such as Typhae Pollen, Sappan Lignum and Vaccariae Semen can obviously increase the blood flow rate (P traditional Chinese medicines with cold property can increase the blood flow rate (P medicines showed no notable effect; among the 5 traditional Chinese medicines with hot property, Carthamus tinctorius and Ligusticum chuanxiong can increase the blood flow rate (P traditional Chinese medicines with natural and cold properties showed similar effect on heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome and better effect in increasing blood flow rate than those with hot property; those with natural and hot properties showed similar effect and better effect in increasing blood flow rate than those with cold property. Under the condition of heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome, traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property have the similar action characteristics with those with cold property; wile under the condition of cold stagnation and blood stasis syndrome

  15. Chinese vegetative materia medica in a venereological treatise by Jean Astruc from 1740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    Historical medical sources can be still queried for forgotten cures and remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine has dealt with lues venerea (syphilis) since the Five Dynasties period (10th century). Chinese indigenous materia medica and remedies recorded, studied or imported by the Europeans can reveal known or quite unknown medicinal plants. The studied Jean Astruc's work is a published ethnopharmacological survey carried out in Beijing in the 1730s and it deserves a modern interpretation. This is the first proposal to identify historical Chinese medicinal plants listed in a scarcely known medical treatise De Morbis venereis… ('On venereal diseases…') by Jean Astruc from 1740. I searched for the current uses and position of the taxonomically identified herbal stock in both traditional Chinese and official medical knowledge, with special attention to syphilis. Chinese names of drugs and their botanical identities (originally expressed by means of pre-Linnaean polynomials, and now interpreted as accepted binomials) were independently cross-checked with younger till most recent taxonomical and ethnopharmacological sources. Plants and drugs identified this way were queried for their modern applications in traditional Chinese and official medicine with special attention to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other uses which are similar to the 18th-century understanding of venereology. For 24 items of medicinal stock, 34 medicinal plants have been identified or suspected: Acacia catechu, Achyranthes bidentata, Akebia quinata, Angelica dahurica, A. sinensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Aralia cordata, Aristolochia fangchi, Chaenomeles sinensis, Ch. speciosa, Clematis vitalba, Coix lacryma-jobi, Commiphora myrrha, Cydonia oblonga, Daemonorops draco, D. jenkinsiana, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Dryobalanops sumatrensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lonicera confusa, L. hypoglauca, L. japonica, Ligusticum striatum (=L. chuanxiong), Piper kadsura, Pterocarpus

  16. Comparison of the effect of aromatherapy with Jasminum officinale and Salvia officinale on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Maghbool, Shahla; Azima, Sara; Tabaei, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using non-pharmacological pain relief methods for reducing labor pain has always been one of the major concerns in obstetrics and gynecology. Objective: Comparing the effects of aromatherapy with jasmine and salvia on pain severity and labor outcome in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 156 nulliparous women in labor were randomly selected and divided into salvia, jasmine, and control groups (52 in each group). The study duration was 6 months (from October 2009 to March 2010). Each group underwent aromatherapy using an incense mask for 15 min (distilled water for the control group). Pain severity was measured before and 30 and 60 min after the incense aromatherapy. Also, duration of the first and second stages of labor, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type were measured and recorded in each group. Results: In comparison to the other groups, pain severity and duration of the first and second stages of labor were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group of salvia 30 min after the intervention (P = 0.001). However, no significant difference was found among the three groups regarding pain severity 60 min after the aromatherapy, first- and fifth-minute APGAR scores of the baby, and the frequency of labor type. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that aromatherapy with saliva had beneficial effects on pain relief, shortened the labor stages, and had no negative impact on the baby's APGAR score. PMID:25558267

  17. Fluidized bed drying characteristics and modeling of ginger ( zingiber officinale) slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Nezaket

    2015-08-01

    In this study fluidized bed drying characteristics of ginger have been investigated. The effects of the fluidizing air temperature, velocity, humidity and bed height on the drying performance of ginger slices have been found. The experimental moisture loss data of ginger slices has been fitted to the eight thin layer drying models. Two-term model drying model has shown a better fit to the experimental data with R2 of 0.998 as compared to others.

  18. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  19. Sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study on sprout inhibition by gamma irradiation in fresh ginger of a local variety was carried out. Fresh ginger was irradiated at the doses of 0, 25, 50 and 80 Grays (Gy) and stored at temperature 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity ranging from 76-96% for 4 months. The parameters observed were physiological weight loss, sprouting, external appearance, fungal infection, moisture content, water activity, crude fiber content and total sugar. The results show that irradiation at the doses studied effectively inhibited sprouting in ginger when compared to the nonirradiated samples. However, radiation was unable to extend the shelf-life as all samples started to deteriorate after 2 months storage

  20. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of young Zingiber officinale against human breast carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Asif

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginger is one of the most important spice crops and traditionally has been used as medicinal plant in Bangladesh. The present work is aimed to find out antioxidant and anticancer activities of two Bangladeshi ginger varieties (Fulbaria and Syedpuri at young age grown under ambient (400 μmol/mol and elevated (800 μmol/mol CO2 concentrations against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Methods The effects of ginger on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were determined using TBA (thiobarbituric acid and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assays. Reversed-phase HPLC was used to assay flavonoids composition among Fulbaria and Syedpuri ginger varieties grown under increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. Results Antioxidant activities in both varieties found increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 with increasing CO2 concentration from 400 to 800 μmol/mol. High antioxidant activities were observed in the rhizomes of Syedpuri grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The results showed that enriched ginger extract (rhizomes exhibited the highest anticancer activity on MCF-7 cancer cells with IC50 values of 34.8 and 25.7 μg/ml for Fulbaria and Syedpuri respectively. IC50 values for MDA-MB-231 exhibition were 32.53 and 30.20 μg/ml for rhizomes extract of Fulbaria and Syedpuri accordingly. Conclusions Fulbaria and Syedpuri possess antioxidant and anticancer properties especially when grown under elevated CO2 concentration. The use of ginger grown under elevated CO2 concentration may have potential in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  1. Central composite rotatable design for investigation of microwave-assisted extraction of ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzilah, R. Hanum; Sobhana, B. Arianto; Mahfud, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction technique was employed to extract essential oil from ginger. The optimal condition for microwave assisted extraction of ginger were determined by resposnse surface methodology. A central composite rotatable design was applied to evaluate the effects of three independent variables. The variables is were microwave power 400 - 800W as X1, feed solvent ratio of 0.33 -0.467 as X2 and feed size 1 cm, 0.25 cm and less than 0.2 cm as X3. The correlation analysis of mathematical modelling indicated that quadratic polynomial could be employed to optimize microwave assisted extraction of ginger. The optimal conditions to obtain highest yield of essential oil were : microwave power 597,163 W : feed solvent ratio and size of feed less than 0.2 cm.

  2. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Iram

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.

  3. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Winarti Andayani; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2014-01-01

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  5. Optimization of radiation treatment of ginger ( Zingiber officinale) rhizomes using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, Josephine

    1998-06-01

    The effects of pre-irradiation storage time (7-21 days), radiation dose (0-75 Gy) and post-irradiation storage time (2-20 weeks) on sprouting, wrinkling and weight loss of ginger was investigated using a central composite rotatable design. Predictive models developed for all three responses were highly significant. Weight loss and wrinkling decreased as pre-irradiation storage time increased. Dose and post-irradiation storage time had significant interactive effects on weight loss and sprouting. Processing conditions for achieving minimal sprouting resulted in maximum weight loss and wrinkling.

  6. PENGARUH EKSTRAK JAHE MERAH (Zingiber officinale DAN MADU TERHADAP KADAR KOLESTEROL TOTAL TIKUS MODEL DIABETES MELITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Muntafiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia caused by deficiency of insulin, and insulin resistance or both. This chronic disease prevalence is increasing nationally and globally. This study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract and honey various doses on levels of total cholesterol in the Wistar diabetic rat model induced by alloxan. This research is true experimental post-test only with control group design. Subject of the study 30 male Wistar rats weight 150-200 grams, divided into 6 groups: A healthy controls (K1, B DM control (K2, C Treatment with red ginger extract 1000 mg / kg and honey 1 ml / kg (K3, D Treatment with ginger extract red 1000 mg / kg and honey 2 ml / kg (K4, E Treatment with red ginger extract 500 mg / kg and honey 1 ml / kg (K5, F Treatment with red ginger extract 500 mg / kg and honey 2 ml / kg (K6. DM induction by alloxan 160 mg / kg intraperitoneally for 5 days, and the provision of treatment for 14 days. Total cholesterol levels were measured by CHOD-PAP method. Results: The mean total cholesterol levels of healthy control group vs the diabetic control 58.20 ± 8.76 vs. 87.80 ± 5.81 mg / dL. Based on one way ANOVA test, red ginger extract and honey various doses significantly lower total cholesterol level (p <0.05. The mean total cholesterol levels between the group K3 to K4 was not statistically different, as well as K5 with K6. However, mean total cholesterol levels at K3 and K4 differ significantly from the K5 and K6. Conclusion: Combination of red ginger extract and honey can lower total cholesterol levels in diabetic rat model induced by alloxan.

  7. The Physiological Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Wirngo, Fonyuy E.; Lambert, Max N.; Jeppesen, Per B.

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous rise in the economic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted a search for alternative and less expensive medicines. Dandelion offers a compelling profile of bioactive components with potential anti-diabetic properties. The Taraxacum genus from the Asteraceae family is found in the temperate zone of the Northern hemisphere. It is available in several areas around the world. In many countries, it is used as food and in some countries as therapeutics for the control and treat...

  8. The Physiological Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirngo, Fonyuy E; Lambert, Max N; Jeppesen, Per B

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous rise in the economic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted a search for alternative and less expensive medicines. Dandelion offers a compelling profile of bioactive components with potential anti-diabetic properties. The Taraxacum genus from the Asteraceae family is found in the temperate zone of the Northern hemisphere. It is available in several areas around the world. In many countries, it is used as food and in some countries as therapeutics for the control and treatment of T2D. The anti-diabetic properties of dandelion are attributed to bioactive chemical components; these include chicoric acid, taraxasterol (TS), chlorogenic acid, and sesquiterpene lactones. Studies have outlined the useful pharmacological profile of dandelion for the treatment of an array of diseases, although little attention has been paid to the effects of its bioactive components on T2D to date. This review recapitulates previous work on dandelion and its potential for the treatment and prevention of T2D, highlighting its anti-diabetic properties, the structures of its chemical components, and their potential mechanisms of action in T2D. Although initial research appears promising, data on the cellular impact of dandelion are limited, necessitating further work on clonal β-cell lines (INS-1E), α-cell lines, and human skeletal cell lines for better identification of the active components that could be of use in the control and treatment of T2D. In fact, extensive in-vitro, in-vivo, and clinical research is required to investigate further the pharmacological, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms underlying the effects of dandelion-derived compounds on T2D.

  9. Ocurrence and diversity of endophytic colonization of taraxacum officinale by botrytis species: a preliminary study