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Sample records for odd-a cu isotopes

  1. Interplay between Single-Particle and Collective Effects in the Odd-A Cu Isotopes beyond N=40

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, I; Balabanski, D L; Blasi, N; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Cederkäll, J; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Diriken, J; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Fedorov, D; Fedosseev, V; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Gladnishki, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Ivanov, I; Iwanicki, J; Jolie, J; Konstantinopoulos, T; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Köster, U; Lagoyannis, A; Lo Bianco, G; Maierbeck, P; Marsh, B A; Napiorkowski, P; Patronis, N; Pauwels, D; Rainovski, G; Reiter, P; Riisager, K; Seliverstov, M; Sletten, G; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wrzosek, K

    2008-01-01

    Collective properties of the low-lying levels in the odd-A 67–73Cu were investigated by Coulomb excitation with radioactive beams. The beams were produced at ISOLDE and postaccelerated by REX-ISOLDE up to 2.99  MeV/u. In 67,69Cu, low-lying 1/2-, 5/2-, and 7/2- states were populated. In 71,73Cu, besides the known transitions deexciting the single-particle-like 5/2- and core-coupled 7/2- levels, γ rays of 454 and 135 keV, respectively, were observed for the first time. Based on a reanalysis of β-decay work and comparison with the systematics, a spin 1/2- is suggested for these excited states. Three B(E2) values were determined in each of the four isotopes. The results indicate a significant change in the structure of the odd-A Cu isotopes beyond N=40 where single-particle-like and collective levels are suggested to coexist at very low excitation energies.

  2. Nuclear orientation experiments concerning odd-A gold isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligthart, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes nuclear spectroscopy aspects of nuclear orientation in the odd-A gold isotopes 191 Au, 193 Au, 195 Au and 197 Au. These isotopes lie in a transitional region between the spherical nuclei in the lead region and the strongly deformed rare earth isotopes. Following a general introduction to nuclear orientation, the experimental arrangement is described. A new technique is presented that applies in-beam recoil implantation inside the refrigerator itself and this was applied to the case of 191 Au. The three other gold isotopes were oriented using a conventional dilution refrigerator. The nuclear orientation experiments concerning 11/2 - isomers of the isotopes are described. The long-lived isomeric states were oriented using the large hyperfine field of gold in iron. Higher lying levels were studied by nuclear orientation of the Hg parent states. (Auth./C.F.)

  3. Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich odd-$A$ Cd isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Marginean, N M

    We propose to study excited states in the odd-${A}$ isotopes $^{123,125,127}$Cd by ${\\gamma}$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to determine the B(E2) values connecting excited states with the ground state as well as the long-lived (11/2$^{-}$) isomer. The proposed study profits from the unique capability of ISOLDE to produce beams containing Cd in the ground state or in the isomeric state. Our recent results on the neutron-rich even-A Cd nuclei appear to show that these nuclei may possess some collectivity beyond that calculated by modern shell-model predictions. Beyond-mean-field calculations also predict these nuclei to be weakly deformed. These facets are surprising considering their proximity to the doubly magic $^{132}$Sn. Coulomb-excitation studies of odd-${A}$ Cd isotopes may give a unique insight into the deformation-driving roles played by different orbits in this region. Such studies of the onset of collectivity become especially important in light of recent...

  4. The I{delta}KI = 1, E1 Transitions in Odd-A isotopes of Tb and Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S G [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Marelius, A [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Wahlborn, S [Div. of Theoretical Physics, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); [Research Inst. for Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1967-04-15

    Life-time measurements have been performed for the 5/2{sup -} [532] intrinsic state in the Tb isotopes with A = 155, 157, 159, and 161. The rates of the {delta}K = 1 E1 transitions in these isotopes, as well as in {sup 153}Eu and {sup 155}Eu, are discussed. With the Nilsson model as a starting point, the effects of pairing correlations and Coriolis coupling are calculated. It is found that these effects are not sufficient to account for the essential features of the experimental results. It is suggested that dipole contributions arising through octupole excitations are of importance.

  5. Isotopic Evidence of Unaccounted for Fe and Cu Erythropoietic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Telouk, P.; Lamboux, A.; Jaouen, K.; Balter, V.

    2011-12-01

    Despite its potential importance for understanding perturbations in the Fe-Cu homeostatic pathways, the natural isotopic variability of these metals in the human body remains unexplored. We measured the Fe, Cu, and Zn isotope compositions of total blood, serum, and red blood cells of ~50 young blood donors by multiple-collector ICP-MS after separation and purification by anion exchange chromatography. Zn is on average 0.2 permil heavier in erythrocytes (δ 66Zn=0.44±0.33 permil) with respect to serum but shows much less overall isotopic variability than Fe and Cu, which indicates that isotope fractionation depends more on redox conditions than on ligand coordination. On average, Fe in erythrocytes (δ 56Fe=-2.59±0.47 permil) is isotopically light by 1-2 permil with respect to serum, whereas Cu in erythrocytes (δ 65Cu=0.56±0.50 permil) is 0.8 percent heavier. Fe and Cu isotope compositions clearly separate erythrocytes of men and women. Fe and Cu from B-type men erythrocytes are visibly more fractionated than all the other blood types. Isotope compositions provide an original method for evaluating metal mass balance and homeostasis. Natural isotope variability shows that the current models of Fe and Cu erythropoiesis, which assume that erythropoiesis is restricted to bone marrow, violate mass balance requirements. It unveils unsuspected major pathways for Fe, with erythropoietic production of isotopically heavy ferritin and hemosiderin, and for Cu, with isotopically light Cu being largely channeled into blood and lymphatic circulation rather than into superoxide dismutase-laden erythrocytes. Iron isotopes provide an intrinsic measuring rod of the erythropoietic yield, while Cu isotopes seem to gauge the relative activity of erythropoiesis and lymphatics.

  6. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.

    2011-12-01

    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.

  7. New Production Routes for Medical Isotopes 64Cu and 67Cu Using Accelerator Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Tadahiro; Nagai, Yasuki; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Segawa, Mariko; Harada, Hideo; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke

    2013-03-01

    We have measured the activation cross sections producing 64Cu and 67Cu, promising medical radioisotopes for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy, by bombarding a natural zinc sample with 14 MeV neutrons. We estimated the production yields of 64Cu and 67Cu by fast neutrons from \\text{natC(d,n) with 40 MeV 5 mA deuterons. We used the present result together with the evaluated cross section of Zn isotopes. The calculated 64Cu yield is 1.8 TBq (175 g 64Zn) for 12 h of irradiation; the yields of 67Cu by 67Zn(n,p)67Cu and 68Zn(n,x)67Cu were 249 GBq (184 g 67Zn) and 287 GBq (186 g 68Zn) at the end of 2 days of irradiation, respectively. From the results, we proposed a new route to produce 67Cu with very little radionuclide impurity via the 68Zn(n,x)67Cu reaction, and showed the 64Zn(n,p)64Cu reaction to be a promising route to produce 64Cu. Both 67Cu and 64Cu are noted to be produced using fast neutrons.

  8. Diffusion of transmutation isotope in YBaCuO ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkovich, R.Sh.

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion of a transmutation isotope generated in YBaCuO ceramics irradiated by high-energy charged particles is mathematically analyzed. The model is based on the assumption that copper isotope atoms created in subsurface layers of ceramic grains segregate at the grain boundaries in the course of subsequent annealing and then rapidly diffuse via intergranular regions in depth of the material and penetrate into the bulk of grains [ru

  9. Fingerprinting two metal contaminants in streams with Cu isotopes near the Dexing Mine, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shiming [Chinese Geological Survey, Nanjing Center, Nanjing (China); Mathur, Ryan, E-mail: mathurr@juniata.edu [Department of Geology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA (United States); Ruiz, Joaquin [Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Chen, Dandan [Chinese Geological Survey, Nanjing Center, Nanjing (China); Allin, Nicholas [Department of Geology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA (United States); Guo, Kunyi; Kang, Wenkai [Chinese Geological Survey, Nanjing Center, Nanjing (China)

    2016-02-15

    Transition metal isotope signatures are becoming useful for fingerprinting sources in surface waters. This study explored the use of Cu isotope values to trace dissolved metal contaminants in stream water throughout a watershed affected by mining by-products of the Dexing Mine, the largest porphyry Cu operation in Asia. Cu isotope values of stream water were compared to potential mineral sources of Cu in the mining operation, and to proximity to the known Cu sources. The first mineral source, chalcopyrite, CuFeS{sub 2} has a ‘tight’ cluster of Cu isotope values (− 0.15‰ to + 1.65‰; + 0.37 ± 0.6‰, 1σ, n = 10), and the second mineral source, pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), has a much larger range of Cu isotope values (− 4‰ to + 11.9‰; 2.7 ± 4.3‰, 1σ, n = 16). Dissolved Cu isotope values of stream water indicated metal derived from either chalcopyrite or pyrite. Above known Cu mineralization, stream waters are approximately + 1.5‰ greater than the average chalcopyrite and are interpreted as derived from weathering of chalcopyrite. In contrast, dissolved Cu isotope values in stream water emanating from tailings piles had Cu isotope values similar to or greater than pyrite (>+6‰, a common mineral in the tailings). These values are interpreted as sourced from the tailings, even in solutions that possess significantly lower concentrations of Cu (< 0.05 ppm). Elevated Cu isotope values were also found in two soil and two tailings samples (δ{sup 65}Cu ranging between + 2 to + 5‰). These data point to the mineral pyrite in tailings as the mineral source for the elevated Cu isotope values. Therefore, Cu isotope values of waters emanating from a clearly contaminated drainage possess different Cu isotope values, permitting the discrimination of Cu derived from chalcopyrite and pyrite in solution. Data demonstrate the utility of Cu isotopic values in waters, minerals, and soils to fingerprint metallic contamination for environmental problems. - Highlights:

  10. Mo isotope fractionation during hydrothermal evolution of porphyry Cu systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Behnam; Shamanian, GholamHossein; Mathur, Ryan; Mirnejad, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    We present Mo isotope compositions of molybdenite types from three successive stages of ore deposition in several porphyry copper deposits of the Kerman region, Iran. The data provide new insights into controlling processes on Mo isotope fractionation during the hydrothermal evolution of porphyry systems. The Mo isotope compositions of 27 molybdenite samples show wide variations in δ97Mo ranging from -0.37 to +0.92 ‰. The data reveal that molybdenites in the early and transitional stages of mineralization (preferentially 2H polytypes; δ97Mo mean = 0.35 ‰) have higher δ97Mo values than late stage (mainly 3R polytypes; δ97Mo mean = 0.02 ‰) molybdenites. This trend suggests that fractionation of Mo isotopes occurred in high-temperature stages of mineralization and that hydrothermal systems generally evolve towards precipitation of molybdenite with lower δ97Mo values. Taking into account the genetic models proposed for porphyry Cu deposits along with the temperature-dependent fractionation of Mo isotope ratios, it is proposed that large variations of Mo isotopes in the early and the transitional stages of ore deposition could be controlled by the separation of the immiscible ore-forming fluid phases with different density, pH, and ƒO2 properties (i.e., brine and vapor). The fractionation of Mo isotopes during fluid boiling and Rayleigh distillation processes likely dominates the Mo isotope budget of the remaining ore-forming fluids for the late stage of mineralization. The lower δ97Mo values in the late stage of mineralization can be explained by depletion of the late ore-forming hydrothermal solutions in 97Mo, as these fluids have moved to considerable distance from the source. Finally, the relationship observed between MoS2 polytypes (2H and 3R) and their Mo isotopic compositions can be explained by the molecular vibration theory, in which heavier isotopes are preferentially partitioned into denser primary 2H MoS2 crystals.

  11. Cu Isotopic Composition in Surface Environments and in Biological Systems: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuhong; Chen, Jiubin; Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-18

    Copper (Cu) is a transition metal and an essential micronutrient for organisms, but also one of the most widespread toxic inorganic contaminants at very high content. The research on Cu isotopes has grown rapidly in the last decade. Hitherto, a large number of studies have been published on the theoretical fractionation mechanisms, experimental data and natural variations of Cu isotopes in variable environments and ecosystems. These studies reported a large variation of δ 65 Cu (-16.49 to +20.04‰) in terrestrial samples and showed that Cu isotopes could be fractionated by various biogeochemical processes to different extent. Several papers have previously reviewed the coupling of Cu and Zn isotope systematics, and we give here a tentative review of the recent publications only on Cu isotopesin variable surface repositories, animals and human beings, with a goal to attract much attention to research on Cu (and other metals) behaviors in the environment and biological systems.

  12. Cu Isotopic Composition in Surface Environments and in Biological Systems: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuhong Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is a transition metal and an essential micronutrient for organisms, but also one of the most widespread toxic inorganic contaminants at very high content. The research on Cu isotopes has grown rapidly in the last decade. Hitherto, a large number of studies have been published on the theoretical fractionation mechanisms, experimental data and natural variations of Cu isotopes in variable environments and ecosystems. These studies reported a large variation of δ65Cu (−16.49 to +20.04‰ in terrestrial samples and showed that Cu isotopes could be fractionated by various biogeochemical processes to different extent. Several papers have previously reviewed the coupling of Cu and Zn isotope systematics, and we give here a tentative review of the recent publications only on Cu isotopesin variable surface repositories, animals and human beings, with a goal to attract much attention to research on Cu (and other metals behaviors in the environment and biological systems.

  13. Re-partitioning of Cu and Zn isotopes by modified protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnarsdottir K Vala

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cu and Zn have naturally occurring non radioactive isotopes, and their isotopic systematics in a biological context are poorly understood. In this study we used double focussing mass spectroscopy to determine the ratios for these isotopes for the first time in mouse brain. The Cu and Zn isotope ratios for four strains of wild-type mice showed no significant difference (δ65Cu -0.12 to -0.78 permil; δ66Zn -0.23 to -0.48 permil. We also looked at how altering the expression of a single copper binding protein, the prion protein (PrP, alters the isotope ratios. Both knockout and overexpression of PrP had no significant effect on the ratio of Cu isotopes. Mice brains expressing mutant PrP lacking the known metal binding domain have δ65Cu isotope values of on average 0.57 permil higher than wild-type mouse brains. This implies that loss of the copper binding domain of PrP increases the level of 65Cu in the brain. δ66Zn isotope values of the transgenic mouse brains are enriched for 66Zn to the wild-type mouse brains. Here we show for the first time that the expression of a single protein can alter the partitioning of metal isotopes in mouse brains. The results imply that the expression of the prion protein can alter cellular Cu isotope content.

  14. Copper isotopic zonation in the Northparkes porphyry Cu-Au deposit, SE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Jackson, Simon E.; Pearson, Norman J.; Graham, Stuart

    2010-07-01

    Significant, systematic Cu isotopic variations have been found in the Northparkes porphyry Cu-Au deposit, NSW, Australia, which is an orthomagmatic porphyry Cu deposit. Copper isotope ratios have been measured in sulfide minerals (chalcopyrite and bornite) by both solution and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The results from both methods show a variation in δ 65Cu of hypogene sulfide minerals of greater than 1‰ (relative to NIST976). Significantly, the results from four drill holes through two separate ore bodies show strikingly similar patterns of Cu isotope variation. The patterns are characterized by a sharp down-hole decrease from up to 0.8‰ (0.29 ± 0.56‰, 1 σ, n = 20) in the low-grade peripheral alteration zones (phyllic-propylitic alteration zone) to a low of ˜-0.4‰ (-0.25 ± 0.36‰, 1 σ, n = 30) at the margins of the most mineralized zones (Cu grade >1 wt%). In the high-grade cores of the systems, the compositions are more consistent at around 0.2‰ (0.19 ± 0.14‰, 1 σ, n = 40). The Cu isotopic zonation may be explained by isotope fractionation of Cu between vapor, solution and sulfides at high temperature, during boiling and sulfide precipitation processes. Sulfur isotopes also show an isotopically light shell at the margins of the high-grade ore zones, but these are displaced from the low δ 65Cu shells, such that there is no correlation between the Cu and S isotope signatures. Fe isotope data do not show any discernable variation along the drill core. This work demonstrates that Cu isotopes show a large response to high-temperature porphyry mineralizing processes, and that they may act as a vector to buried mineralization.

  15. Cu isotopic signature in blood serum of liver transplant patients: a follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwens, Sara; Costas-Rodríguez, Marta; van Vlierberghe, Hans; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-07-01

    End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is life-threatening and liver transplantation (LTx) is the definitive treatment with good outcomes. Given the essential role of hepatocytes in Cu homeostasis, the potential of the serum Cu isotopic composition for monitoring a patient’s condition post-LTx was evaluated. For this purpose, high-precision Cu isotopic analysis of blood serum of ESLD patients pre- and post-LTx was accomplished via multi-collector ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The Cu isotopic composition of the ESLD patients was fractionated in favour of the lighter isotope (by about -0.50‰). Post-LTx, a generalized normalization of the Cu isotopic composition was observed for the patients with normal liver function, while it remained light when this condition was not reached. A strong decrease in the δ65Cu value a longer term post-LTx seems to indicate the recurrence of liver failure or cancer. The observed trend in favour of the heavier Cu isotopic composition post-LTx seems to be related with the restored biosynthetic capacity of the liver, the restored hepatic metabolism and/or the restored biliary secretion pathways. Thus, Cu isotopic analysis could be a valuable tool for the follow-up of liver transplant patients and for establishing the potential recurrence of liver failure.

  16. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekiacova, Z; Cornu, S; Pichat, S

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ(65)Cu values vary from -0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ(66)Zn from -0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from -0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ(65)Cu and from -0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ(66)Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekiacova, Z.; Cornu, S. [INRA, UR 1119 Géochimie des Sols et des Eaux, F-13100 Aix en Provence (France); Pichat, S. [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon (LGL-TPE), Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5276, 69007 Lyon (France)

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ{sup 65}Cu values vary from − 0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ{sup 66}Zn from − 0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from − 0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ{sup 65}Cu and from − 0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ{sup 66}Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. - Highlights: • Pedogenetic processes produce some Cu and Zn isotope fractionation. • Pollution with distinct isotopic signatures can be traced using Cu and Zn isotopes. • Tracing

  18. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekiacova, Z.; Cornu, S.; Pichat, S.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ 65 Cu values vary from − 0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ 66 Zn from − 0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from − 0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ 65 Cu and from − 0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ 66 Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. - Highlights: • Pedogenetic processes produce some Cu and Zn isotope fractionation. • Pollution with distinct isotopic signatures can be traced using Cu and Zn isotopes. • Tracing of the metal

  19. Cu and Zn Isotopes as New Tracers of Early Solar Nebula and Asteroidal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUCK, J.; BEN OTHMAN, D.; ALBAREDE, F.

    2001-12-01

    Cu and Zn isotopic variations are now identified in extra-terrestrial samples, as has been the case for terrestrial samples (1). The main parameters which may cause these variations are : redox state, temperature, biological activity (Earth), and volatility (extra-terrestrial samples). We report data for meteorites from various groups and classes, including carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary and diffentiated chondrites (iron meteorites, SNC and HED). All analyses have been duplicated (from powder aliquot to final measurement). Values are expressed as relative deviations from NIST and JMC standards for 65Cu/63Cu and 66Zn64Zn, respectively (deltas in permil). Carefull chemistry and MC-ICP-MS measurements allow an overall precision of +/-0.04 permil. I- Carbonaceous Chondrites A very important feature is that each group seems to exhibit a specific isotopic signature : Cu gets isotopically lighter from CI to CM to CO to CV, spanning an overall range of 1.5 permil. Zn shows a reverse order, getting heavier from CI to CM to CO. Zn in CV chondrites (whole rock) seems more variable. This order is the same as that observed for trace elements. Cu and Zn isotopic compositions are generally correlated to trace element content from one group to another, particularly those of similar volatility (e.g. Mn for Cu; Ge for Zn). Cu and Zn isotopic signatures exhibit remarkable relationships with Oxygen isotopes. Each group is well identified. Cu is linearly correlated with Oxygen, whereas Zn-O data display strong curvature : the difference in shape can be related to the nearly constant Cu content in all groups, and by the decreasing Zn content from CI to CO. Since Oxygen variations (from CV to CI) are thought to reflect progressive interaction of liquid water with initial solid (asteroid), Cu isotopic variations may also reflect this progressive alteration process. It may be so for Zn too, although its more volatile character might play a role. II-Allende Progressive leaching

  20. Fe and Cu stable isotopes in archeological human bones and their relationship to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent; Herrscher, Estelle; Lamboux, Aline; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2012-07-01

    Accurate sex assignment of ancient human remains usually relies on the availability of coxal bones or well-preserved DNA. Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stable isotope compositions ((56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu, respectively) were recently measured in modern human blood, and an unexpected result was the discovery of a (56)Fe-depletion and a (65)Cu-enrichment in men's blood compared to women's blood. Bones, being pervasively irrigated by blood, are expected to retain the (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu signature of blood, which in turn is useful for determining the sex of ancient bones. Here, we report the (56)Fe/(54)Fe, (65)Cu/(63)Cu, and (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios from a suite of well-preserved phalanxes (n = 43) belonging to individuals buried in the 17th and 18th centuries at the necropolis of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble, France, and for which the sex was independently estimated from pelvic bone morphology. The metals were purified from the bone matrix by liquid chromatography on ion exchange resin and the isotope compositions were measured by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, as expected from literature data on blood, male bone iron is depleted in (56)Fe and enriched in (65)Cu relative to female. No sex difference is found in the (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios of bone. The concentration and isotopic data show no evidence of soil contamination. Four samples of five (77%) can be assigned their correct sex, a result comparable to sex assignment using Fe and Cu isotopes in blood (81%). Isotopic analysis of metals may therefore represent a valid method of sex assignment applicable to incomplete human remains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tracing low-temperature aqueous metal migration in mineralized watersheds with Cu isotope fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, R.; Munk, L.A.; Townley, B.; Gou, K.Y.; Gómez Miguélez, N.; Titley, S.; Chen, G.G.; Song, S.; Reich, M.; Tornos, F.; Ruiz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu isotope fractionation of ores and waters identifies copper sulfide weathering. • Redox reactions cause isotopic shift measured in areas of sulfide weathering. • Consistent isotope signature in different deposit, climate, or concentration. - Abstract: Copper isotope signatures in waters emanating from mineralized watersheds provide evidence for the source aqueous copper in solution. Low-temperature aqueous oxidation of Cu sulfide minerals produces significant copper isotopic fractionation between solutions and residues. Abiotic experimental data of fractionation (defined as Δ liquid–solid ‰ = δ 65 Cu liquid − δ 65 Cu solid ) are on the order of 1–3‰ and are unique for copper rich-sulfide minerals. Data presented here from ores and waters within defined boundaries of porphyry copper, massive sulfide, skarn, and epithermal ore deposits mimic abiotic experiments. Thus, the oxidation of sulfide minerals appears to cause the signatures in the waters although significant biological, temperature, and pH variations exist in the fluids. Regardless of the deposit type, water type, concentration of Cu in solution, or location, the data provide a means to trace sources of metals in solutions. This relationship allows for tracking sources and degree of metal migration in low temperature aqueous systems and has direct application to exploration geology and environmental geochemistry

  2. Small changes in Cu redox state and speciation generate large isotope fractionation during adsorption and incorporation of Cu by a phototrophic biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutaud, Margot; Méheut, Merlin; Glatzel, Pieter; Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Viers, Jérôme; Rols, Jean-Luc; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of phototrophic biofilms in metal cycling in freshwater systems, metal isotope fractionation linked to metal adsorption and uptake by biofilm remains very poorly constrained. Here, copper isotope fractionation by a mature phototrophic biofilm during Cu surface adsorption and incorporation was studied in batch reactor (BR) and open drip flow reactor (DFR) systems at ambient conditions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (both Near Edge Structure, XANES, and Extended Fine Structure, EXAFS) at Cu K-edge of the biofilm after its interaction with Cu in BR experiments allowed characterizing the molecular structure of assimilated Cu and quantifying the degree of CuII to CuI reduction linked to Cu assimilation. For both BR and DFR experiments, Cu adsorption caused enrichment in heavy isotope at the surface of the biofilm relative to the aqueous solution, with an apparent enrichment factor for the adsorption process, ε65Cuads, of +1.1 ± 0.3‰. In contrast, the isotope enrichment factor during copper incorporation into the biofilm (ε65Cuinc) was highly variable, ranging from -0.6 to +0.8‰. This variability of the ε65Cuinc value was likely controlled by Cu cellular uptake via different transport pathways resulting in contrasting fractionation. Specifically, the CuII storage induced enrichment in heavy isotope, whereas the toxicity response of the biofilm to Cu exposure resulted in reduction of CuII to CuI, thus yielding the biofilm enrichment in light isotope. EXAFS analyses suggested that a major part of the Cu assimilated by the biofilm is bound to 5.1 ± 0.3 oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with a small proportion of Cu linked to sulfur atoms (NS biofilm exhibited a similar trend over time of exposure. Our study demonstrates the complexity of biological processes associated with live phototrophic biofilms, which produce large and contrasting isotope fractionations following rather small Cu redox and speciation changes during uptake, storage or release of

  3. Mathematical modeling and multicriterion optimization for photonuclear production of the 67cu isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikij, N.P.; Rudychev, Y.V.; Fedorchenko, D.V.; Khazhmuradov, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a method for 67 Cu isotope production using electron bremsstrahlung by the 68 Zn(gamma, p) 67 Cu reaction. The facility for 67 Cu isotope production contains an electron accelerator, electron-gamma converter and zinc target. To optimize this facility we developed three-dimensional model of the converter and the target. Using this model, we performed the mathematical modeling of zinc target irradiation and thermal-hydraulic processes inside the target for various parameters of the electron beam and converter configurations. For mathematical modeling of radiation processes we used the MCNPX software. Thermal-hydraulic simulation utilized the commercial SolidWorks software with Flow Simulation module. Mathematical modeling revealed that efficient 67 Cu isotope production needs smaller beam diameter and higher electron energy. Under these conditions target heat power also increases, thus additional cooling is necessary. If the beam diameter and the electron energy are fixed the most effective method to satisfy the operating parameters and retain an efficient isotope yield is to optimize photonuclear spectra of the target by variation of converter thickness. We developed an algorithm for multicriterion optimization and performed the optimization of the facility with account to coupled radiation and heat transfer processes.

  4. Influence of sulfur-bearing polyatomic species on high precision measurements of Cu isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, M.J.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.; Borrok, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    An increased interest in high precision Cu isotope ratio measurements using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) has developed recently for various natural geologic systems and environmental applications, these typically contain high concentrations of sulfur, particularly in the form of sulfate (SO42-) and sulfide (S). For example, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) can range from 100??g/L to greater than 50mg/L with sulfur species concentrations reaching greater than 1000mg/L. Routine separation of Cu, Fe and Zn from AMD, Cu-sulfide minerals and other geological matrices usually incorporates single anion exchange resin column chromatography for metal separation. During chromatographic separation, variable breakthrough of SO42- during anion exchange resin column chromatography into the Cu fractions was observed as a function of the initial sulfur to Cu ratio, column properties, and the sample matrix. SO42- present in the Cu fraction can form a polyatomic 32S-14N-16O-1H species causing a direct mass interference with 63Cu and producing artificially light ??65Cu values. Here we report the extent of the mass interference caused by SO42- breakthrough when measuring ??65Cu on natural samples and NIST SRM 976 Cu isotope spiked with SO42- after both single anion column chromatography and double anion column chromatography. A set of five 100??g/L Cu SRM 976 samples spiked with 500mg/L SO42- resulted in an average ??65Cu of -3.50?????5.42??? following single anion column separation with variable SO42- breakthrough but an average concentration of 770??g/L. Following double anion column separation, the average SO42-concentration of 13??g/L resulted in better precision and accuracy for the measured ??65Cu value of 0.01?????0.02??? relative to the expected 0??? for SRM 976. We conclude that attention to SO42- breakthrough on sulfur-rich samples is necessary for accurate and precise measurements of ??65Cu and may require

  5. Nuclear structure far from stability: the neutron-rich 69-79Cu isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchoo, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Far from stability, the nuclear structure that is predicted by the shell model is evolving. Old magic numbers disappear, while new ones appear. Our understanding of the underlying nuclear force that drives these changes is still incomplete. After a short overview across the nuclear chart, we discuss the strength functions of the shell-model orbitals in the neutron-rich copper isotopes towards the 78 Ni doubly-magic nucleus. These were measured in a 72 Zn(d, 3 He) 71 Cu proton pick-up reaction in inverse kinematics with a radioactive beam at the Ganil laboratory in France. We also present the latest results from a 80 Zn(p,2p) 79 Cu knockout experiment at Riken in Japan, leading to selective population of hole states in 79 Cu. Our findings show that the Z=28 shell gap in the neutron-rich copper isotopes is surprisingly steady against the addition of neutrons beyond N=40. (author)

  6. Stable isotope tracing of Ni and Cu pollution in North-East Norway: Potentials and drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šillerová, Hana; Chrastný, Vladislav; Vítková, Martina; Francová, Anna; Jehlička, Jan; Gutsch, Marissa R; Kocourková, Jana; Aspholm, Paul E; Nilsson, Lars O; Berglen, Tore F; Jensen, Henning K B; Komárek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The use of Ni and Cu isotopes for tracing contamination sources in the environment remains a challenging task due to the limited information about the influence of various biogeochemical processes influencing stable isotope fractionation. This work focuses on a relatively simple system in north-east Norway with two possible endmembers (smelter-bedrock) and various environmental samples (snow, soil, lichens, PM 10 ). In general, the whole area is enriched in heavy Ni and Cu isotopes highlighting the impact of the smelting activity. However, the environmental samples exhibit a large range of δ 60 Ni (-0.01 ± 0.03‰ to 1.71 ± 0.02‰) and δ 65 Cu (-0.06 ± 0.06‰ to -3.94 ± 0.3‰) values which exceeds the range of δ 60 Ni and δ 65 Cu values determined in the smelter, i.e. in feeding material and slag (δ 60 Ni from 0.56 ± 0.06‰ to 1.00 ± 0.06‰ and δ 65 Cu from -1.67 ± 0.04‰ to -1.68 ± 0.15‰). The shift toward heavier Ni and Cu δ values was the most significant in organic rich topsoil samples in the case of Ni (δ 60 Ni up to 1.71 ± 0.02‰) and in lichens and snow in the case of Cu (δ 65 Cu up to -0.06 ± 0.06‰ and -0.24 ± 0.04‰, respectively). These data suggest an important biological and biochemical fractionation (microorganisms and/or metal uptake by higher plants, organo-complexation etc.) of Ni and Cu isotopes, which should be quantified separately for each process and taken into account when using the stable isotopes for tracing contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  8. Oxygen isotope effect in YBa2Cu3O7 prepared by burning YBa2Cu3 in 16O and 18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, Pascal J.; Schwarz, R. B.; Pierce, C. B.; Bernardez, L.; Conners, A.; Meisenheimer, R.

    1989-04-01

    We prepared YBa2Cu3 powder by ball milling a 2:1 molar mixture of the intermetallics BaCu and CuY. We synthesized YBa2Cu3(16O)7-x and YBa2Cu3(18O)7-x by oxidizing the YBa2Cu3 powder in 16O and 18O. The 16O/18O ratios were determined by laser-ionization and sputtering-ionization mass spectroscopy. The YBa2Cu3(160)7-x sample had 99.8 at. %16O, and the YBa2Cu3(18O)7-x sample had 96.5 at. %18O. Susceptibility measurements of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc=91.7 K for 16O; half-point transition at 84 K show an isotope effect of 0.4+/-0.1 K.

  9. Fractionation of Cu and Mo isotopes caused by vapor-liquid partitioning, evidence from the Dahutang W-Cu-Mo ore field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junming; Mathur, Ryan; Sun, Weidong; Song, Weile; Chen, Huayong; Mutti, Laurence; Xiang, Xinkui; Luo, Xiaohong

    2016-05-01

    The study presents δ65Cu and δ97Mo isotope values from cogenetic chalcopyrite and molybdenite found in veins and breccias of the Dahutang W-Cu-Mo ore field in China. The samples span a 3-4 km range. Both isotopes show a significant degree of fractionation. Cu isotope values in the chalcopyrite range from -0.31‰ to +1.48‰, and Mo isotope values in the molybdenite range from -0.03‰ to +1.06‰. For the cogenetic sulfide veined samples, a negative slope relationship exists between δ65Cu and δ97Mo values, which suggest a similar fluid history. Rayleigh distillation models the vein samples' change in isotope values. The breccia samples do not fall on the trend, thus indicating a different source mineralization event. Measured fluid inclusion and δD and δ18O data from cogenetic quartz indicate changes in temperature, and mixing of fluids do not appear to cause the isotopic shifts measure. Related equilibrium processes associated with the partitioning of metal between the vapor-fluid in the hydrothermal system could be the probable cause for the relationship seen between the two isotope systems.

  10. Copper absorption from foods labelled intrinsically and extrinsically with Cu-65 stable isotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, L J; Dainty, J R; Beattie, J H; Majsak-Newman, G; Wharf, S G; Reid, M D; Fairweather-Tait, S J

    2005-03-01

    To determine copper absorption from copper containing foods labelled either intrinsically or extrinsically with a highly enriched Cu-65 stable isotope label. A longitudinal cross-over study. The study was conducted at the Institute of Food Research, Human Nutrition Unit, Norwich, UK. Subjects were recruited locally via advertisements placed around the Norwich Research Park. A total of 10 volunteers (nine female, one male) took part in the study, but not all volunteers completed each of the test meals. A highly enriched Cu-65 stable isotope label was administered to volunteers in the form of a reference dose or in breakfast test meals consisting of red wine, soya beans, mushrooms or sunflower seeds. Faecal monitoring and mass spectrometry techniques were used to estimate the relative quantities of copper absorbed from the different test meals. True copper absorption from the reference dose (54%) was similar to extrinsically labelled red wine (49%) and intrinsically labelled sunflower seeds (52%), but significantly higher than extrinsically labelled mushrooms (35%), intrinsically (29%) and extrinsically (15%) labelled soya beans and extrinsically labelled sunflower seed (32%) test meals. The use of Cu-65 extrinsic labels in copper absorption studies requires validation according to the food being examined; intrinsic and extrinsic labelling produced significantly different results for sunflower seeds.

  11. Isotope effect study of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2: Labeling in the anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kini, A.M.; Wang, H.H.; Schlueter, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since the initial discovery of organic superconductivity in 1979, a large number of organic superconductors have now been synthesized. However, the mechanism of electron-pairing in these novel superconductors has remained largely unresolved. Isotope effect studies constitute an important experimental tool for the investigation of whether or not the electron-pairing mechanism in organic superconductors is phonon-mediated, as in conventional superconductors. Recent isotope effect studies in the authors' laboratory, involving seven different isotopically labeled BEDT-TTF (or ET) derivatives, have demonstrated the following: (1) intramolecular phonon modes involving C double-bond C and Csingle bondS stretching vibrations in the ET donor molecule are not the dominant mediators of electron-pairing, and (2) in κ-(ET) 2 Cu(NCS) 2 , there exist two competing isotope effects--a normal mass effect, i.e., lowering of T c upon isotopic labeling, when the ET molecular mass is increased by concurrent 13 C and 34 S labeling, in addition to an inverse isotope effect upon deuterium labeling in ET. It is of great interest to investigate if there is an isotope effect when the charge-compensating anions, which are also located within the non-conducting layer in the superconducting cation-radical salts, are isotopically labeled. The existence of an isotope effect when the anions are labeled would be indicative of electron-pairing with the mediation of vibrational frequencies associated with the anions. In this paper, the authors present the results of the first isotope effect study in which isotopic labeling in the anion portion of κ-(ET) 2 Cu(NCS) 2 is carried out. The authors find no isotope effect when the carbon and nitrogen atoms of the thiocyanate groups in the anion are replaced with 13 C and 15 N isotopes

  12. Generalized seniority scheme for bands in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, M.; Arima, A.; Strottman, D.

    1980-01-01

    The microscopic generalized seniority scheme is applied for the description of bands in odd-A nuclei. A perturbation expansion in terms of the core-particle interaction is performed. The first-order correction for the band head and the first member of the band is discussed. The specific band structure of a given nucleus, as well as the systematic trend of bands, is described in an explicit N-dependent analytical formula. This formula involves a linear dependence on N which arises from the first-order perturbation expansion. This term is shown responsible for the large deviation of the 11/2 - ΔJ=2 band spacing in I isotopes from the spacing of the Te core. All observed band structures of an odd-A nucleus arise from one simple core-particle coupling. Hence decoupled-E2 bands and strongly coupled ΔJ=1 bands, particle or hole bands of low-spin or high-spin orbits, all follow one simple N-dependence. This uniformity of bands is manifested in E2 bands in 53 I isotopes and deltaJ=1 bands in 51 Sb that have the same 52 Te cores. For the calculations a particle-particle force with a large contribution from a g delta force is used with a coupling constant that is deduced from 210 Pb. 1 figure

  13. Neutron-rich isotopes around the r-process 'waiting-point' nuclei 2979Cu50 and 3080Zn50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, K.L.; Gabelmann, H.; Pfeiffer, B.; Woehr, A.

    1991-01-01

    Beta-decay half-lives (T 1/2 ) and delayed-neutron emission probabilities (P n ) of very neutron-rich Cu to As nuclei have been measured, among them the new isotopes 77 Cu 48 , 79 Cu 50 , 81 Zn 51 and 84 Ga 53 . With the T 1/2 and P n -values of now four N≅50 'waiting-point' nuclei known, our hypothesis that the r-process has attained a local β-flow equilibrium around A≅80 is further strengthened. (orig.)

  14. Generation of covariance files for the isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb in ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.M.; Larson, D.C.; Fu, C.Y.

    1991-02-01

    The considerations that governed the development of the uncertainty files for the isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb in ENDF/B-VI are summarized. Four different approaches were used in providing the covariance information. Some examples are given which show the standard deviations as a function of incident energy and the corresponding correlation matrices. 11 refs., 5 tabs

  15. High resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of neutron-rich $^{76,77,78}$Cu isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083035

    In this work, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spins and changes in the mean-squared charge radii of radioactive copper isotopes are presented. Reaching up to $^{78}$Cu ($Z=29$, $N=49$), produced at rates of only 10 particles per second, these measurements represent the most exotic laser spectroscopic investigations near the doubly-magic and very exotic $^{78}$Ni ($Z=28$,$N=50$) to date. This thesis outlines the technical developments and investigations of laser-atom interactions that were performed during this thesis. These developments were crucial for establishing a high-resolution, high sensitivity collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy experiment at ISOLDE, CERN. This thesis furthermore provides a detailed description of the analysis tools that were implemented and applied to extract the nuclear observables from the experimental data. The results were compared to several large-scale shell model calculations, and provide deep insight into the structure of $^{78}$N...

  16. Pb isotope investigations on Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Province, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macambira, M.J.B.; Galarza, M.A.T.; Souza, S.R.B.; Silva, C.M.G

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Province is the most important mineral province of Brazil hosting deposits of iron, copper, gold, manganese, nickel and others. In the last years, discoveries of large Cu-Au deposits in Carajas Province have demonstrated the vocation of this region for such deposits, which are, in general, associated with volcanosedimentary sequences and, in some cases, with Archean and/or Paleoproterozoic granitic instrusions. The age and nature of the deposits, as well as the metal source, are still not well understood. Someone believe that these deposits are volcano-exhalant in nature (e.g. Ferreira Filho, 1985; Vieira et al., 1988; Almada and Villas, 1999), while others propose a hydrothermal source for the ore associated with granitic intrusions (e.g. Winter, 1994; Lindenmayer et al., 1998; Tallarico et al., 2000). This work presents a brief discussion about three Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Basin (Bahia, Aguas Claras, and Pojuca deposits) based on new Pb isotope data on zircon and sulfides carried out in the Para-Iso Laboratory of the University of Para, Brazil (au)

  17. Isotope effects in the diffusion of hydrogen and deuterium in ferromagnetic binary alloys of the Cu3Au type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirscher, M.; Maier, C.U.; Schwendemann, B.; Kronmueller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion behaviour of hydrogen and deuterium at low temperatures was investigated in ordered and disordered alloys of Ni 3 Fe, Ni 3 Mn, and Fe 3 Pt by means of magnetic after-effect (MAE) measurements. After hydrogen charging all specimens show characteristic MAE relaxation spectra, which can be described taking into account the different octahedral positions of the hydrogen atoms in the Cu 3 Au structure. The observed isotope effect can qualitatively be explained by a thermally activated tunnelling process of the hydrogen isotopes. (orig.)

  18. Zn and Cu isotopes as tracers of anthropogenic contamination in a sediment core from an urban lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapalia, Anita; Borrok, David M.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Landa, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we use stable Zn and Cu isotopes to identify the sources and timing of the deposition of these metals in a sediment core from Lake Ballinger near Seattle, Washington, USA. The base of the Lake Ballinger core predates settlement in the region, while the upper sections record the effects of atmospheric emissions from a nearby smelter and rapid urbanization of the watershed. δ66Zn and δ65Cu varied by 0.50‰ and 0.29‰, respectively, over the 500 year core record. Isotopic changes were correlated with the presmelter period (∼1450 to 1900 with δ66Zn = +0.39‰ ± 0.09‰ and δ65Cu = +0.77‰ ± 0.06‰), period of smelter operation (1900 to 1985 with δ66Zn = +0.14 ± 0.06‰ and δ65Cu = +0.94 ± 0.10‰), and postsmelting/stable urban land use period (post 1985 with δ66Zn = 0.00 ± 0.10‰ and δ65Cu = +0.82‰ ± 0.12‰). Rapid early urbanization during the post World War II era increased metal loading to the lake but did not significantly alter the δ66Zn and δ65Cu, suggesting that increased metal loads during this time were derived mainly from mobilization of historically contaminated soils. Urban sources of Cu and Zn were dominant since the smelter closed in the 1980s, and the δ66Zn measured in tire samples suggests tire wear is a likely source of Zn.

  19. Multi isotopic characterization (Li-Cu-Zn-Pb) of waste waters pollution in a small watershed (Loire River basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study is to use multi-isotopic signature to track the pollution in surface waters, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in the environment. In the present study, we investigate waste water releases from a hospital water treatment plant and its potential impact in a small river basin near Orléans in France (Egoutier watershed: 15 km²and 5 km long). We decided to monitor this small watershed which is poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is located in a pristine area (forested area), while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. A sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Isotopic ratios were measured using a MC-ICP-MS at BRGM, after a specific protocol of purification for each isotopic systematics. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters along the main course of the stream. The waste water signal is very different from the natural background with significant heavy lithium contribution (high δ7Li). Lead isotopic compositions are rather homogenous in river waters and sediments with values close to geologic background. For Zn, the sediments with high concentrations and depleted isotopic compositions (low δ66Zn), typical of an anthropic pollution, are strongly impacted. The analyses of Cu isotopes in sediments show the impact of waster waters, but also isotopic fractionations due to redox processes in the watershed. To better understand these processes controlling the release of metals in water, sequential extractions on sediments are in progress under laboratory conditions and will provide important constraints for metal distribution in this river basin.

  20. Geochemistry of CI chondrites: Major and trace elements, and Cu and Zn Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Moynier, F.; Bollinger, C.; Liorzou, C.; Bayon, G.

    2012-04-01

    In order to check the heterogeneity of the CI chondrites and determine the average composition of this group of meteorites, we analyzed a series of six large chips (weighing between 0.6 and 1.2 g) of Orgueil prepared from five different stones. In addition, one sample from each of Ivuna and Alais was analyzed. Although the sizes of the chips used in this study were “large”, our results show evidence for minor chemical heterogeneity in Orgueil, particularly for alkali elements and U. After removal of one outlier sample, the spread of the results is considerably reduced. For most of the 46 elements analyzed in this study, the average composition calculated for Orgueil is in very good agreement with previous CI estimates. This average, obtained with a “large” mass of samples, is analytically homogeneous and is suitable for normalization purposes. Finally, the Cu and Zn isotopic ratios are homogeneously distributed within the CI parent body with a spread of less than 100 ppm per atomic mass unit (amu).

  1. Coulomb Excitation of Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Cu Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE and Miniball

    CERN Multimedia

    Lauer, M; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the properties of the odd-mass and the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu nuclei applying the Coulomb excitation technique and using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled to the Miniball array. The results from the Coulex experiments accomplished at REX-ISOLDE after its upgrade to 3 MeV/u during the last year have shown the power of this method and its importance in order to obtain information on the collective properties of even-even nuclei. Performing an experiment on the odd-mass and on the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu isotopes in the vicinity of N=40 should allow us to determine and interpret the effective proton and neutron charges in the region and to unravel the lowest proton-neutron multiplets in $^{68,70}$Cu. This experiment can take the advantage of the unique opportunity to accelerate isomerically separated beams using the RILIS ion source at ISOLDE.

  2. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy of 61Cu, an emerging medical isotope used in positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N.; Ellison, P.; Nickles, R.; McCutchan, E.; Sonzogni, A.; Smith, S.; Greene, J.; Carpenter, M.; Zhu, S.; Lister, C.; Moran, K.

    2017-09-01

    61Cu (t1 / 2 = 3.339h) is an important medical isotope used in positron emission tomography (PET) tumor hypoxia imaging scans; however, its beta-plus decay and the subsequent gamma decay of 61Ni has not been studied in over 30 years. Therefore, high quality decay data of 61Cu is desired to determine the overall dose delivered to a patient. In this study, 61Cu was produced at the University of Wisconsin - Madison cyclotron and then assayed using the Gammasphere array at Argonne National Laboratory. Consisting of 70 Compton-suppressed high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, Gammasphere provides precise decay data that exceeds that of previous 61Cu studies. γ-ray singles and coincident data were recorded and then analyzed using Radware gf3m software. Through γ- γ coincidence techniques, new γ-ray transitions were identified and high precision determination of γ-ray intensities were made. These modifications and additions to the current decay scheme will be presented, and their impact on the resulting does estimates will be discussed. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contract Nos. DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357 and by the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program (SULI).

  3. Cu-Zn isotope constraints on the provenance of air pollution in Central Europe: Using soluble and insoluble particles in snow and rime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Sipkova, Adela; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Voldrichova, Petra; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Prechova, Eva; Blaha, Vladimir; Curik, Jan; Farkas, Juraj; Erbanova, Lucie; Bohdalkova, Leona; Pasava, Jan; Mikova, Jitka; Komarek, Arnost; Krachler, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) isotope ratios can be used to fingerprint sources and dispersion pathways of pollutants in the environment. Little is known, however, about the potential of δ 65 Cu and δ 66 Zn values in liquid and solid forms of atmospheric deposition to distinguish between geogenic, industrial, local and remote sources of these potentially toxic base metals. Here we present Cu-Zn deposition fluxes at 10 mountain-top sites in the Czech Republic, a region affected by extremely high industrial emission rates 25 years ago. Additionally, we monitored isotope composition of Cu and Zn in vertical and horizontal atmospheric deposition at two sites. We compared δ 65 Cu and δ 66 Zn values in snow and rime, extracted by diluted HNO 3 and concentrated HF. Cu and Zn isotope signatures of industrial pollution sources were also determined. Cu and Zn deposition fluxes at all study sites were minute. The mean δ 65 Cu value of atmospheric deposition (-0.07‰) was higher than the mean δ 65 Cu value of pollution sources (-1.17‰). The variability in δ 65 Cu values of atmospheric deposition was lower, compared to the pollution sources. The mean δ 66 Zn value of atmospheric deposition (-0.09‰) was slightly higher than the mean δ 66 Zn value of pollution sources (-0.23‰). The variability in δ 66 Zn values of atmospheric deposition was indistinguishable from that of pollution sources. The largest isotope differences (0.35‰) were observed between the insoluble and soluble fractions of atmospheric deposition. These differences may result from different sources of Cu/Zn for each fraction. The difference in isotope composition of soluble and insoluble particles appears to be a promising tool for pollution provenance studies in Central Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cu induced reactions on 110Cd-108Cd-106Cd, 109Ag-107Ag and 110Pd. New rhenium, osmium and iridium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabot, C.; Della Negra, S.; Deprun, C.; Gauvin, H.; Le Beyec, Y.

    1978-01-01

    By 63 Cu induced reactions on 110 Cd, 108 Cd, 106 Cd, 109 Ag, 107 Ag and 110 Pd targets, new isotopes were searched in the Ir, Os, Re region. Cross bombardments and excitation function measurements were used to identify new α emitting isotopes. The α-decay measurements are compared to the Qα values obtained from different mass predictions

  5. Origin and fate of copper in a small Mediterranean vineyard catchment: New insights from combined chemical extraction and δ{sup 65}Cu isotopic composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Azzi, D. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement (ECOLAB), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); CNRS (France); ECOLAB, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); Viers, J. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), 14, avenue Édouard Belin, Toulouse31400 (France); CNRS, IRD, CNES (France); GET, 14, avenue Édouard Belin, Toulouse 31400 (France); Guiresse, M.; Probst, A. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement (ECOLAB), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); CNRS (France); ECOLAB, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); Aubert, D. [Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, CEntre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Environnements Méditérranéens (CEFREM), UMR 5110, F-66860, Perpignan (France); CNRS, CEFREM, UMR 5110, F-66860, Perpignan (France); Caparros, J.; Charles, F.; Guizien, K. [CNRS, FRE 3350, LECOB, Observatoire Océanologique, F-66651 Banyuls/mer (France); UPMC Université Paris 6, FRE 3350, LECOB, Observatoire Océanologique, F-66651 Banyuls/mer (France); Probst, J.L., E-mail: jean-luc.probst@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement (ECOLAB), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France); CNRS (France); ECOLAB, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan Cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    For centuries, many Mediterranean catchments were covered with vineyards in which copper was widely applied to protect grapevines against fungus. In the Mediterranean-type flow regime, brief and intense flood events increase the stream water discharge by up to 10 times and cause soil leaching and storm runoff. Because vineyards are primarily cultivated on steep slopes, high Cu fluxes are discharged by surface water runoff into the rivers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the riverine behavior and transport of anthropogenic Cu by coupling a sequential chemical extraction (SCE) procedure, used to determine Cu partitioning between residual and non-residual fractions, with δ{sup 65}Cu isotopic measurements in each fraction. In the Baillaury catchment, France, we sampled soils (cultivated and abandoned), river bed sediments (BS), suspended particulate matter (SPM), and river water during the flash flood event of February 2009. Copper partitioning using SCE show that most of Cu in abandoned vineyard soil was in the residual phase (> 60%) whereas in cultivated soil, BS and SPM, Cu was mostly (> 25%) in non-residual fractions, mainly adsorbed onto iron oxide fractions. A small fraction of Cu was associated with organic matter (5 to 10%). Calculated enrichment factors (EF) are higher than 2 and the anthropogenic contribution was estimated between 50 to 85%. Values for δ{sup 65}Cu in bulk samples were similar to bedrock therefore; δ{sup 65}Cu on SCE fractions of superficial soils and SPM allowed for discrimination between Cu origin and distribution. Copper in residual fractions was of natural mineral origin (δ{sup 65}Cu close to local bedrock, + 0.07‰). Copper in water soluble fraction of SPM (δ{sup 65}Cu = + 0.26‰) was similar to dissolved river Cu (δ{sup 65}Cu = + 0.31‰). Copper from fungicide treatment (δ{sup 65}Cu = − 0.35‰) was bound to organic matter (δ{sup 65}Cu = − 0.20‰) without or with slight isotopic fractioning. A preferential

  6. High resolution neutron total and capture cross-sections in separated isotopes of copper (6365Cu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    High resolution neutron total and capture cross section measurements have been performed on separated isotopes of copper ( 63 65 Cu). Measurements for capture cross section were made from about 1 keV to a few hundreds of keV. The total cross section measurements were made in the energy interval of approximately 10 keV to 150 keV. The resulting capture data have been analyzed by a generalized least square peak fitting computer code in the energy interval of 2.5 keV to 50 keV. Photon strengths are determined using the data up to approximately 250 keV. The resulting total cross section data have been analyzed by area-analysis on the transmission values and by R-matrix multilevel code on cross section values. Average s- and p-wave level spacing and s- and p-wave strength function values are determined. From the resonance parameters thus obtained, by the analysis, statistical distribution is studied for s- and p-wave level spacings and reduced neutron widths. A comparison has been made for adjacent level spacings with the theoretical predictions of level repulsion (of same J/sup π/) by Wigner considering levels with various spin states separately for s-wave resonances where confident spin assignment has been possible. Reduced neutron widths are compared with the Porter-Thomas distribution. Optical model formulated by Feshbach, Porter and Weiskopf describes the neutron-nucleus interaction. A comparison has been made between experimentally determined values of the s- and p-wave strength functions and that obtainable from optical model calculations, thereby determining the appropriate optical model parameters. The experimental arrangement, pertinent theoretical discussion, and the processes of data reduction and the analyses along with the comparison of the previously reported results with the present work are presented in detail

  7. Quantum and thermal ionic motion, oxygen isotope effect, and superexchange distribution in La2CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefliger, P. S.; Gerber, S.; Pramod, R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the zero-point and thermal ionic motion in La2CuO4 by means of high-resolution neutron-diffraction experiments. Our results demonstrate anisotropic motion of O and, to a lesser extent, Cu ions, both consistent with the structure of coupled CuO6 octahedra, and quantify the relative effect...... in J values that are subject to significant (8-12%) isotope effects. We demonstrate that this motional broadening of J can have substantial effects on certain electronic and magnetic properties in cuprates.......We study the zero-point and thermal ionic motion in La2CuO4 by means of high-resolution neutron-diffraction experiments. Our results demonstrate anisotropic motion of O and, to a lesser extent, Cu ions, both consistent with the structure of coupled CuO6 octahedra, and quantify the relative effects...

  8. 18O isotopic characterisation of non-point source contributed heavy metals (Zn and Cu) contamination of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.S.; Manjaiah, K.M.; Tyagi, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    In many urbanised areas, fast depletion and severe degradation of the of groundwater resource with contaminants such as nitrate, fluoride, and heavy metals is a common phenomenon, resulting in zonal disparity in fresh water availability. Therefore, for protection of groundwater from pollution and depletion, it is a matter of concern for the planners and decision makers to clearly characterise the sources of contamination and to search for an alternative approach for groundwater development and management. In this context, a new approach is presented here, based on monitoring of 18 O stable isotopic and heavy metals composition of groundwater, to clearly characterise non-point source contributed heavy metals pollution of groundwater in northern parts of Delhi area. In the investigated area, the Cu content in the groundwater ranges from 3-41 μg/l and Zn content ranges from 5-182 μg/l, showing considerable variation from location to location as well as within the small parts of a location. Wide variation in the 18 O stable isotope content of groundwater (δ value of -5.7 per mille to -8.5 per mille) is due to significant variation in the δ 18 O-contents of rainfall with space and time, as well as intensity and distribution of rainfall. Enrichment in 18 O composition with increasing Cu and Zn levels in groundwater suggest that infiltration of rain water, irrigation water and surface run-off water from the surrounding farm lands, along with agrochemicals and other salts present in the soil, to be the main processes causing groundwater contamination. The concentration of Cu and Zn in groundwater vary spatially, due to different degrees of evaporation/recharge, amounts of fertiliser applied and wastes disposed, adsorption/dispersion of species in the soils and lateral mixing of groundwater. Two opposite mechanisms adsorption and redistribution of infiltrating water along with Zn and Cu species in the soil zone are likely to affect the movement of the Zn and Cu species

  9. Investigation of Radioiodination of Meta-Iodobenzylguanidine Compound with 131I Isotope in Solid Phase Using Cu Catalyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davarpanah, M. R.; Attar Nosrati, S.; Khoshhosn, H.; Kazemi Boudani, M.; Fazlali, M.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the radioiodination process of meta-iodobenzylguanidine with 131 I isotope in presence of ammonium sulphate and Cu(II) Catalyzer was investigated. In order to optimize the process, the influence of different parameters on labeling yield was studied. The results of experiments showed that the use of oil bath with temperature of 160 d egree C is necessary. After the labeling process, purification step of the final product was carried out using Dowex-1 x 8 resin. The mean labeling yield was 97.2 p ercent . In this method radiolabelling of MIBG with 131 I (185 MBq for diagnostic dose and 3330 MBq for therapeutic dose) is quite simple and it complies with the requirements of routine production of 13 1I-MIBG radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This paper is a narration of industrial scale production of 131 I-MIBG radiopharmaceutical.

  10. Re-Os isotope systematics of the Radio Hill Ni-Cu-PGE complex, West Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, L.R.; McBride, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Radio Hill Complex is one of several layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions that were emplaced into the west Pilbara Craton at ca. 2.9 Ga. It is believed to be genetically related to other similar intrusions in the area which include the Munni Munni, Andover, Dingo and Maitland Complexes (Hoatson et al. 1999). The Radio Hill Complex is the only one of these intrusions to contain economic quantities of Ni and Cu at the present time. This relatively small intrusion (∼1200 m stratigraphic thickness) is divided into two zones, an upper gabbroic zone and a lower ultramafic zone, the base of which possesses massive magmatic sulfide mineralisation (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, magnetite). Re-Os isotopic data have been obtained for a suite of samples from underground, outcrop (gabbroic zone samples) and drill core. Os concentrations in the mineralised zone are very high, ranging from 19 to 191 ppb Os, with low Re/Os ratios ( 10,000), where R-factor is defined as the mass ratio of silicate magma to sulfide magma that it has equilibrated with. However, modelling of the Radio Hill ore system using Re, Os and PGE (Hoatson et al. 1992) concentrations suggest that the R-factor in the Radio Hill ore was low (100-900). Therefore, the initial Os isotopic composition of the ore should be radiogenic (high gOs >+500) if local crustal contamination triggered sulfide saturation. The slightly radiogenic initial Os isotopic composition suggests that the bulk parental magma was a crustally-contaminated magma. R-factor modelling further suggests that the parental magma to this intrusion was neither a basalt nor a pure komatiite, but more likely a contaminated komatiite (with a relatively high Os concentration). This agrees with the previous findings of Hoatson et al. (1992) who proposed a parental magma of siliceous high-magnesium basalt (SHMB) composition. Our Re-Os isotope modelling agrees with the trace elements, Nd and Sr isotope modelling of Hoatson et al. (1992

  11. ENDF/B-VI evaluations for isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.M.; Fu, C.Y.; Larson, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluations have been done for each of the stable isotopes of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and lead. They are based on analysis of experimental data and results of nuclear model calculations which reproduce the experimental data. Evaluated data are given for neutron induced reaction cross sections, angular and energy distributions, and gamma-ray production cross sections associated with the reactions. The new file 6 formats are used to represent energy-angle correlated data and recoil spectra for the first time in ENDF. This paper reviews the structure of the evaluations, notes the major pieces of experimental data utilized, gives a summary of the model codes used, and compares calculations to measured data

  12. Triaxiality in the odd-A nuclei 109−117I studied through a microscopic rotationparticle coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi Swati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of ground state spectrum with the triaxial deformation γ for odd-A Iodine isotopes 109−117I is carried out with the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach. The rotation-particle coupling is accomplished microscopically such that the matrix elements of a particle-plus-rotor system are written in terms of the rotor energies. The 5/2+ state is confirmed as ground state for odd-A 111−117I and also coming out as lowest in energy for 109I.

  13. Contrasting Cu-Au and Sn-W Granite Metallogeny through the Zircon Geochemical and Isotopic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Hawkesworth, Chris; Robb, Laurence; Whitehouse, Martin; Roberts, Nick; Kirkland, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Magmatic genesis and evolution - mediated by geodynamic setting - exert a primary control on the propensity of granites to be metal fertile. A revolution in our understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been made through a range of mineral-based tools, most notably the common accessory mineral zircon. There is consequently considerable interest in whether the geochemical and isotopic compositions of zircon can be applied to metallogenic problems. The paired magmatic belts of Myanmar have broadly contrasting metallogenic affinities (Sn-W versus Cu-Au), and are interpreted to have formed on the accretionary margin of the subducting Neo-Tethys Ocean. They therefore present the opportunity to geochemically compare and contrast the zircon compositions in two end-member types of granite-hosted mineral deposits generated in collisional settings. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset that fingerprint: (a) source; (b) redox conditions; and (c) degree of fractionation. These variables all impact on magma fertility, and our key question to address is whether they can be reliably traced and calibrated within the Myanmar zircon record. Granitoid-hosted zircons from the I-type copper arc have juvenile ɛHf (+7 to +12) and mantle-like δ18O (5.3 ‰), whereas zircons from the S-type tin belt have low ɛHf (-7 to -13) and heavier δ18O (6.2-7.7 ‰). Plotting Hf versus U/Yb reaffirms that the tin belt magmas contain greater crustal contributions than the copper arc rocks. Links between whole rock Rb/Sr and zircon Eu/Eu* highlights that the latter can be used to monitor magma fractionation in systems that crystallize plagioclase (low Sr/Y). Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* in zircon are thus sensitive to redox and fractionation respectively, and can be used to evaluate the sensitivity of zircons to the metallogenic affinity of their host rocks. Tin contents that exceed the solubility limit are required in order to make a magmatic

  14. Comparison of threshold reaction cross sections for the Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn isotopes from evaluated data libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, A I; Manokhin, V N; Nasyrova, S M [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    Evaluated excitation functions for various threshold reactions on Ti, V, Cr, Ge, Ni, Cu and Zn isotopes are compared to reveal discrepancies between different nuclear data libraries. The recommended excitation functions for (n,p), (n,np), (N,{alpha}) and (n,2n) reactions, evaluated on the basis of empirical systematics are given for comparison to facilitate selection of a more reliable data. The available experimental data are also plotted. (author) 10 refs, 70 figs

  15. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baktash, C; Garrett, J D; Winchell, D F; Smith, A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  16. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Garrett, J.D.; Winchell, D.F.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  17. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Garrett, J.D.; Winchell, D.F.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  19. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-A nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V P; Sharma, S D; Mahesh, P S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-12-01

    Using an extended version of A S Davydov and G F Filippov's model (1958), B E Chi and J P Davidson have calculated magnetic moments of odd-A nuclei in 2s-ld shell, diagonalizing the state matrices for a set of parameters giving the best fit for nuclear spectra (1966). To study the failure of this model in case of nuclear moments, instead of diagonalizing an attempt has been made to simplify the expression for magnetic dipole moment for single nucleonic states without configuration mixing. The model takes care of the proper sign of spin projections. On replacing the total angular momentum j of odd particle (proton or neutron) by its projection ..cap omega.., the expression reduces to that of Mottelson and Nilsson for spin-up nuclei. The Coriolis coupling calculations also have been performed for those odd-A nuclei with K = 1/2. The results are found in better agreement with experimental report in comparison with those of other models.

  20. Determination of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in Sediment Compartments by Sequential Extraction and Isotope Dilution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardolinski Paulo C. F. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in four different sediment fractions extracted in sequence were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled mass spectrometry (IDICPMS. The metals from each fraction were extracted following the sequential extraction procedure recommended by the Bureau Commun de Référence (BCR of the Commission of the European Communities. As an alternative to external calibration, the elements were quantified by spiking the extracted solutions with 112Cd, 63Cu, 208Pb and 66Zn and application of isotope dilution. The proposed approach was applied to a sample collected from a lake and two standard reference materials, NIST2704 river sediment from the National Institute of Standards & Technology and the BCR-277 estuarine sediment. Detection limits, for each extracted solution, varied from 0.31 to 0.53 mug L¹ for Cd, 0.92 to 2.9 mug L¹ for Cu, 0.22 to 1.1 mug L¹ for Pb and 1.3 to 7.6 mug L¹ for Zn. The sum of the metals concentration in the different fractions was compatible with 95% confidence level found amounts obtained with complete digestion of the samples and with the certified values of the standard reference materials.

  1. Nuclear spins, magnetic moments and quadrupole moments of Cu isotopes from N = 28 to N = 46: probes for core polarization effects

    CERN Document Server

    Vingerhoets, P; Avgoulea, M; Billowes, J; Bissell, M L; Blaum, K; Brown, B A; Cheal, B; De Rydt, M; Forest, D H; Geppert, Ch; Honma, M; Kowalska, M; Kramer, J; Krieger, A; Mane, E; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Otsuka, T; Schug, M; Stroke, H H; Tungate, G; Yordanov, D T

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the ground-state nuclear spins, magnetic and quadrupole moments of the copper isotopes from 61Cu up to 75Cu are reported. The experiments were performed at the ISOLDE facility, using the technique of collinear laser spectroscopy. The trend in the magnetic moments between the N=28 and N=50 shell closures is reasonably reproduced by large-scale shell-model calculations starting from a 56Ni core. The quadrupole moments reveal a strong polarization of the underlying Ni core when the neutron shell is opened, which is however strongly reduced at N=40 due to the parity change between the $pf$ and $g$ orbits. No enhanced core polarization is seen beyond N=40. Deviations between measured and calculated moments are attributed to the softness of the 56Ni core and weakening of the Z=28 and N=28 shell gaps.

  2. Noble Gas Isotope Evidence for Mantle Volatiles in the Cu-Mo Porphyry and Main Stage Polymetallic Veins at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, A. H.; Rusk, B. G.; Manning, A. H.; Hunt, A. G.; Landis, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that volatiles released from mafic intrusions may be important sources of heat, sulfur, and metals in porphyry Cu-Mo-Au and epithermal Au-Ag deposits associated with intermediate to silicic stocks. The huge Cu-Mo porphyry and Main Stage polymetallic vein deposits at Butte are well suited to test this hypothesis because there is no geologic or isotopic evidence of basaltic intrusions in the mine or drill holes. The Butte porphyry-vein system is associated with quartz monzonite stocks and dikes within the southwest part of the Late Cretaceous Boulder batholith. The Boulder batholith was emplaced into Mesoproterozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks. The Boulder batholith and Butte intrusions have Sri and eNd values indicative of crustal contamination. Eu and Ce anomalies in zircon from Butte intrusions provide evidence of oxidation due to magma degassing. To ascertain the source of volatiles in this system, 11 samples from the Cu-Mo porphyry and 16 from Main Stage veins were selected. The isotopic composition of Ar, Ne, and He extracted from fluid inclusions in quartz, magnetite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, and covellite were determined. Helium isotopes exceed blank levels in all samples and Ne and Ar in some samples. On a 38Ar/36Ar vs. 40Ar/36Ar diagram, data plot near air. On a 20Ne/22Ne vs. 21Ne/22Ne diagram, data extend from air along the trajectories of OIB and MORB. On a 36Ar/4He vs. 3He/4He RA diagram, data extend from crust toward the air-mantle mixing line. The maximum 3He/4He RA values in the Cu-Mo porphyry (2.86) and Main Stage veins (3.46) are from pyrite and these values correspond to 36 and 43 % mantle helium. The Ne and He results show that fluid inclusions contain volatiles discharged from mantle magmas and that these volatiles were diluted by groundwater containing He derived from country rocks. Despite the lack of mafic intrusions in the Butte magmatic center, noble gas

  3. Intracrystalline oxygen isotope effects in CuSO4.5H2O and their dependence on crystallization temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzinger, K.

    1976-01-01

    In copper sulphate pentahydrate the water molecules occupy three different sites, connected with different oxygen isotope ratios. Results of measurements of the change of these isotope ratios with crystallization temperature are reported. The temperature dependence found here provides the basis for the determination of crystallization temperatures of hydrated crystals from such intracrystalline oxygen isotope fractionation. Suppositions necessary for the application of this method are discussed. (author)

  4. Microscopic analysis of low-lying states in odd-A Tm isotopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexa, P.; Hons, Zdeněk; Kvasil, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2009), 045103 /1-045103/16 ISSN 0954-3899 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : RARE-EARTH * NUCLEI * EXCITATIONS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.124, year: 2009

  5. Particle-phonon coupling in the odd-A Rb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishan, K.; Basu, S.K.; Sen, S.

    1976-01-01

    The level properties of 83 Rb and 85 Rb have been calculated in a quasiparticle-phonon coupling model which couples the proton quasiparticle motion in the 1fsub(5/2), 2psub(1/2), 2psub(3/2) and 1gsub(9/2) orbitals to the vibrations of the neighbouring even core. The calculated level spectra, spectroscopic factors and B(E2) values for several levels are found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. Branching ratios for transitions originating from several levels are also reproduced. (author)

  6. The role of soil biogeochemistry in wine taste: Soil factors influencing grape elemental composition, photosynthetic biomarkers and Cu/Zn isotopic signature of Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotevogel, Simon; Oliva, Priscia; Darrozes, José; Viers, Jérôme; Audry, Stéphane; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Orgogozo, Laurent; Le Guedard, Marina; Schreck, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the influence of soil composition in wine taste is of great economic and environmental interest in France and around the world. Nevertheless the impact of soil composition on wine taste is still controversially discussed. Since inorganic soil components do not have a proper taste and do not enter the plant anyway, their influence needs to be induced by nutrient absorption and its impact on plant functioning and grape composition. Indeed recent development of geological tracers of origin proof the existence of soil chemical and isotopic signatures in wine. However, type and scale of the impact of soil composition on wine taste are not well understood yet, and little experimental evidence exists due to the complexity of mechanisms involved. Thus, to provide evidence for the impact of soil composition on grape composition and potentially wine taste, we studied soil and plant material from two relevant vineyards (Soave, Italia). On those two directly adjacent vineyards, two different wines are produced with the same plant material and cultivation techniques. The vineyards only differ by their underlying bedrock - limestone versus basaltic rock - and thus present suitable conditions for investigating the impact of soil composition on grapes and wine. Pedological and mineralogical parameters were analyzed for the two vineyards whereas chemical extractions (citrate, CaCl2) were performed to determine nutrient bioavailability in both soils. Elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS analyses in different compartments (soils, vine leaves and grapes). Isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn was investigated in various samples as source tracers and in order to better understand fractionation mechanisms involved. Finally, plant health was studied using the Omega-3 biomarker which determines the fatty acid composition in vine leaves, directly involved in photosynthetic processes. Results show that the vineyards are characterized by two different soil types due

  7. Distribution of isotopes produced in superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x and ferroelectric PbZr0.54Ti0.46O3 under irradiation by high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didik, V.A.; Malkovich, R.Sh.; Skoryatina, E.A.; Kozlovskij, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration profiles of transmutation radioactive isotopes, formed in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor and PbZr 0.54 Ti 0.46 O 3 ferroelectric under high-energy proton radiation (with 10 and 15 MeV energy), deuterons (4 MeV), the 3 He and 4 He nuclei (20 MeV), are studied. Two types of the concentration profiles: monotonous ones and profiles with the maximum are identified. It is shown that the isotope profile is determined by the character of energy dependence of the nuclear reaction cross section, leading to formation of the given isotope

  8. Genesis of the Bangbule Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic deposit in Tibet, western China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and S-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tian; Zheng, Youye; Gao, Shunbao

    2016-04-01

    The Banbule Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposit is located in the Longger-Gongbujiangda volcanic magma arc in the Gangdese-Nyainqentanglha Plate. It is the only lead-zinc polymetallic deposit discovered in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha metallogenic belt. The measured and indicated resources include 0.9 Mt of Pb+Zn (4.77% Pb and 4.74% Zn, respectively), 6499 t of Cu, and 178 t of Ag (18.75g/t Ag). The orebodies mainly occur as lenses, veins and irregular shapes in the contact zone between the quartz-porphyry and limestone of the Upper Permian Xiala Formation, or in the boundaries between limestone and sandstone. Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in the Banbule deposit is closely associated with skarns. The ore minerals are dominated by galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and magnetite, with subordinate pyrite, malachite, and azurite. The gangue minerals are mainly garnet, actinolite, diopside, quartz, and calcite. The ore-related quartz-porphyry displays LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 77.31±0.74 Ma. The δ34S values of sulfides define a narrow range of -0.8 to 4.7‰ indicating a magmatic source for the ore-forming materials. Lead isotopic systematics yield 206Pb/204Pb of 18.698 to 18.752, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.696 to 15.760, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.097 to 39.320. The data points are constrained around the growth curves of upper crust and orogenic belt according to the tectonic discrimination diagrams. The calculated Δβ - Δγ values plot within the magmatic field according to the discrimination diagram of Zhu et al. (1995). The S-Pb isotopic data suggest that Bangbule is a typical skarn deposit, and the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization is genetically related to the quartz-porphyry in the mining district. The discovery of the Bangbule deposit indicates that there is metallogenic potential in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha belt, which is of great importance for the exploration work in this area.

  9. Isotopic Exchange Reaction Assisted with Cu (I) generated ''in situ'' For Synthesis of Ready-to-Use for on-the-spot Formulation of [131 I] Iodobenzyl Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudaia, J.A.; Suliman, M.O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been examined that meta-Iodobenzylguanidine (m-IBG), para-Iodoamphetamine (p-IPA) and orth-Iodohippuric acid (o-IHA) are three commonly used Iodobenzyl derivative compounds, and can be formulated as Ready-to-Use Kits for on-the-spot labeling catalyzed with copper ion Cu+ (I) generated ''In Situ''. The labeling procedure efficiently has been established within 30 min of heating using an autoclave, 20 min. and 90 min. using dry heating block respectively. Isotopic exchange reaction with Iodine-131 radioactive of those three Ready-to-Use Kits has led to Radiochemical Purity ''RCP'' equals to 98%, > 98%, and almost 99%, and Radiochemical Yield ''RCY'' > 97%, >93% and > 98% respectively. Attention was paid to the Radiochemical Stability of those three Iodobenzyl derivatives for a period time of preservation at low temperature. As a result, this gave evidence that such Radiopharmaceuticals could be used as Ready-to-Use products at different times of preservations.

  10. Isotope shift of the 590-cm-1 Raman feature in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, K. C.; Wang, N. L.; Irwin, J. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Pantoja, A. E.; Trodahl, H. J.

    1999-10-01

    Raman-scattering studies have been performed on underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. In single crystals underdoped by oxygen removal, a 590-cm-1 peak is observed in the B1g spectrum. The feature is observed to soften in frequency by 3.8% with isotopic exchange of 16O by 18O. In contrast, the 590-cm-1 peak is not observed in crystals underdoped by Y substitution which suggests that it is a vibrational mode activated by oxygen deficency. We have also found that underdoping leads to a depletion of low-energy spectral weight from regions of the Fermi surface located near the Brillouin-zone axes.

  11. A new route of oxygen isotope exchange in the solid phase: demonstration in CuSO4.5H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Albert; Saig, Avraham; Finkelstein, Yacov; Koresh, Jacob E

    2005-11-10

    Temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD-MS) measurements on [(18)O]water-enriched copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO(4).5H(2)(18)O) reveal an unambiguous occurrence of efficient oxygen isotope exchange between the water of crystallization and the sulfate in its CuSO(4) solid phase. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of such an exchange was never observed in a solid phase. The exchange process was observed during the stepwise dehydration (50-300 degrees C) of the compound. Specifically, the exchange promptly occurs somewhere between 160 and 250 degrees C; however, the exact temperature could not be resolved conclusively. It is shown that only the fifth, sulfate-associated, anionic H(2)O molecule participates in the exchange process and that the exchange seems to occur in a preferable fashion with, at the most, one oxygen atom in SO(4). Such an exchange, occurring below 250 degrees C, questions the common conviction of unfeasible oxygen exchange under geothermic conditions. This new oxygen exchange phenomenon is not exclusive to copper sulfate but is unambiguously observed also in other sulfate- and nitrate-containing minerals.

  12. Copper isotope fractionation by desert shrubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Jesica U.; Viveros, Marian; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Borrok, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Copper has two naturally occurring stable isotopes of masses 63 and 65 which can undergo mass dependent fractionation during various biotic and abiotic chemical reactions. These interactions and their resulting Cu isotope fractionations can be used to determine the mechanisms involved in the cycling of Cu in natural systems. In this study, Cu isotope changes were investigated at the organismal level in the metal-accumulating desert plant, Prosopis pubescens. Initial results suggest that the lighter Cu isotope was preferentially incorporated into the leaves of the plant, which may suggest that Cu was actively transported via intracellular proteins. The roots and stems show a smaller degree of Cu isotope fractionation and the direction and magnitude of the fractionations was dependent upon the levels of Cu exposure. Based on this and previous work with bacteria and yeast, a trend is emerging that suggests the lighter Cu isotope is preferentially incorporated into biological components, while the heavier Cu isotope tends to become enriched in aqueous solutions. In bacteria, plants and animals, intracellular Cu concentrations are strictly regulated via dozens of enzymes that can bind, transport, and store Cu. Many of these enzymes reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I). These initial results seem to fit into a broader picture of Cu isotope cycling in natural systems where oxidation/reduction reactions are fundamental in controlling the distributions of Cu isotopes.

  13. Analysis of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Fe) in seawater using single batch nitrilotriacetate resin extraction and isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Mi [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Boyle, Edward A., E-mail: eaboyle@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zhang Ruifeng [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Kayser, Richard A. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    A simple and accurate low-blank method has been developed for the analysis of total dissolved copper, cadmium, lead, and iron in a small volume (1.3-1.5 mL per element) of seawater. Pre-concentration and salt-separation of a stable isotope spiked sample are achieved by single batch extraction onto nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-type Superflow chelating resin beads (100-2400 beads depending on the element). Metals are released into 0.1-0.5 M HNO{sub 3}, and trace metal isotope ratios are determined by ICPMS. The benefit of this method compared to our previous Mg(OH){sub 2} coprecipitation method is that the final matrix is very dilute so cone-clogging and matrix sensitivity suppression are minimal, while still retaining the high accuracy of the isotope dilution technique. Recovery efficiencies are sensitive to sample pH, number of resin beads added, and the length of time allowed for sample-resin binding and elution; these factors are optimized for each element to yield the highest recovery. The method has a low procedural blank and high sensitivity sufficient for the analysis of pM-nM open-ocean trace metal concentrations. Application of this method to samples from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study station provides oceanographically consistent Cu, Cd, Pb, and Fe profiles that are in good agreement with other reliable data for this site. In addition, the method can potentially be modified for the simultaneous analysis of multiple elements, which will be beneficial for the analysis of large number of samples.

  14. Analysis of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Fe) in seawater using single batch nitrilotriacetate resin extraction and isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Zhang Ruifeng; Kayser, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and accurate low-blank method has been developed for the analysis of total dissolved copper, cadmium, lead, and iron in a small volume (1.3-1.5 mL per element) of seawater. Pre-concentration and salt-separation of a stable isotope spiked sample are achieved by single batch extraction onto nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-type Superflow chelating resin beads (100-2400 beads depending on the element). Metals are released into 0.1-0.5 M HNO 3 , and trace metal isotope ratios are determined by ICPMS. The benefit of this method compared to our previous Mg(OH) 2 coprecipitation method is that the final matrix is very dilute so cone-clogging and matrix sensitivity suppression are minimal, while still retaining the high accuracy of the isotope dilution technique. Recovery efficiencies are sensitive to sample pH, number of resin beads added, and the length of time allowed for sample-resin binding and elution; these factors are optimized for each element to yield the highest recovery. The method has a low procedural blank and high sensitivity sufficient for the analysis of pM-nM open-ocean trace metal concentrations. Application of this method to samples from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study station provides oceanographically consistent Cu, Cd, Pb, and Fe profiles that are in good agreement with other reliable data for this site. In addition, the method can potentially be modified for the simultaneous analysis of multiple elements, which will be beneficial for the analysis of large number of samples.

  15. Certification of the Cu and Cd amount contents in artificial food digest using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Pilot Study 13 of the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, E.; Quetel, C.R.; Petrov, I.

    2003-01-01

    The Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM) launched the Pilot Study 13, an interlaboratory comparison between the metrological organizations worldwide on the determination of Ca, Cu and Cd in artificial food digests. These samples (available in 7% HNO 3 and with a salinity evaluated around 370 mg kg -1 , including approx. 30 mg Na kg -1 ) were prepared by gravimetrical mixing, and thus reference values traceable to the Kg for the three elements were available eventually. This paper describes the contribution of IRMM for the certification of the Cu and the Cd amount contents. The analytical protocol developed was based on isotope dilution associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The Cu measurements required 125-fold dilution of the initial sample solution. An interference of 23 Na 40 Ar + on 63 Cu + was identified but, since the ratio between both species was over 1000, it was successfully overcome by the calculation of a correction factor for its effect on the Cu amount content directly. Dilution of the sample was not possible for Cd only present at the low ng g -1 level. Up to 1% difference was observed on Cd isotope ratio results between measurements performed directly or after matrix separation. This is rarely shown. As similar results could be obtained either way after the necessary corrections, the direct measurements approach associated to a correction for mass discrimination effects using the CCQM-P13 sample itself (and the IUPAC table values as reference for the natural Cd isotopic composition) was preferred as it was the easiest. SI traceable values were obtained for Cu and Cd with less than 1 and 1.5% combined uncertainty, respectively (6 995±55 (k=2) nmol kg -1 and 45.53±0.64 (k=2) nmol kg -1 ). The excellent agreement between these results and the reference values (less than 0.6 and 0.08% difference) further validated the analytical protocols developed

  16. Determination of uranium isotopes (235U, 238U) and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu and As) in bottled drinking water by Icp-SFMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara A, N.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Kuri de la C, A.; Perez B, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work we propose an optimized method for the quantification of uranium isotopes ( 235 U, 2 38 U) and the elements Cd, Pb, Cu and As in bottled water for drinking at trace levels of concentration. Based on the multi-element detection capability, the high sensitivity and resolution that the Mass Spectrometry with Magnetic Sector with Inductively Coupled Plasma Source (Icp-SFMS) technique offers; the high, medium and low resolution analysis conditions for the elements under study were established and optimized using and Element 2/Xr equipment and the 23 multi-elemental Certified Reference Material (CRM). The analysis method was validated using the standard reference material Nist 1643d and CRM mono-elemental s as external standards for the quantification of the analytes. Samples, targets and CRM were acidified with 2% of HNO 3 and analyzed without pretreatment under the established analysis conditions. The results obtained show concentrations of 235 U, 238 U, 111 Cd, 208 Pb, 63 Cu and 75 As in the range of μg L -1 , the linearity obtained from the calibration curves for each element has correlation coefficients < 0.99 in all cases, the accuracy of the method in terms of percent relative standard deviation (RSD %) was less than 5%, the mean recovery rate of Nist 1643d ranged from 96.46% to 101.12%. The optimization of the method guarantees the stability and calibration of the equipment throughout the analysis, as well as the ability to resolve interferences. In conclusion, the method proposed using Icp-SFMS offers the advantages of being fast and simple for the multi-elemental analysis in water at trace levels, with low limits of quantification and detection, with good linearity, accuracy, precision and reproducibility to a degree of reliability of 95%. (Author)

  17. Hydrochemical and isotopic patterns in a calc-alkaline Cu- and Au-rich arid Andean basin: The Elqui River watershed, North Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzún, Jorge; Carvajal, María José; Maturana, Hugo; Núñez, Jorge; Kretschmer, Nicole; Amezaga, Jaime M.; Rötting, Tobias S.; Strauch, Gerhard; Thyne, Geoffrey; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Major ions are provided by rock weathering and NaCl recycling. ► Aridity and cal-alkaline lithology effects abate acid drainage. ► Factors affecting hydrochemistry in mineral rich zone are addressed. ► Stable isotopes confirm the meteoric origin of groundwaters. ► High sulfate contents are explained by widespread sulfide minerals. - Abstract: The geochemistry of surface water and groundwater from the Elqui River basin, North-Central Chile, was studied in spring 2007 and fall 2008 to obtain a general understanding of the factors and mechanisms controlling the water chemistry of steep rivers located in mineral-rich, arid to semi arid zones. Besides its uniform intermediate igneous lithology, this basin is known for acid drainage and high As contents in the El Indio Au–Cu–As district, in its Andean head. Abundant tailings deposits are present in the middle part of the basin, where agricultural activities are important. According to the results, the chemical and isotopic composition of the Elqui basin surface water and groundwater is related to uniform calc-alkaline lithology and the major polluting system of the chemically reactive, but closed El Indio mining district. The resulting compositional imprints in surface and ground-water are, (a) high SO 4 levels, reaching about 1000 mg/L in the Toro River water, directly draining the mining area; (b) a major depletion of Fe and pollutant metals in surface water after the confluence of the Toro and La Laguna rivers; (c) similar chemical composition of surface and ground-waters that differ in H and O isotopic composition, reflecting the effect of differential evaporation processes downstream of the Puclaro dam; and (d) seasonal variations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in surface water. In contrast, the groundwater chemistry exhibits moderate seasonal changes, mainly in HCO 3 - content. In spite of the acid drainage pollution, water quality is adequate for human consumption and irrigation. This is a

  18. Magnetic Moment of $^{59}$Cu

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiment IS358 uses the intense and pure beams of copper isotopes provided by the ISOLDE RILIS (resonance ionization laser ion source). The isotopes are implanted and oriented in the low temperature nuclear orientation set-up NICOLE. Magnetic moments are measured by $\\beta$-NMR. Copper (Z=29), with a single proton above the proton-magic nickel isotopes provides an ideal testground for precise shell model calculations of magnetic moments and their experimental verification. In the course of our experiments we already determined the magnetic moments of $^{67}$Ni, $^{67}$Cu, $^{68g}$Cu, $^{69}$Cu and $^{71}$Cu which provide important information on the magicity of the N=40 subshell closure. In 2001 we plan to conclude our systematic investigations by measuring the magnetic moment of the neutron-deficient isotope $^{59}$Cu. This will pave the way for a subsequent study of the magnetic moment of $^{57}$Cu with a complementary method.

  19. Thermal expansion of organic superconductor κ-(D4-BEDT-TTF)2Cu{N(CN)2}Br. Isotopic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin, A. V.; Khlistuck, M. V.; Eselson, V. B.; Gavrilko, V. G.; Vinnikov, N. A.; Basnukaeva, R. M.; Konstantinov, V. A.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Linear thermal expansion coefficient (LTEC) of single crystal κ-(D4-BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br was studied across the crystal layers in the temperature range 2-290 K using the method of precise capacitive dilatometry. Below Tc = 11.6 K the LTEC of the sample had a small negative value, which is apparently due to the transition from the paramagnetic metal in the superconducting state. There was a bend of temperature dependence of the LTEC, which shows broad peak around 40 K and can be attributed to the elastic lattice anomaly around the end-point of Mott boundary. A sharp jump in the LTEC values and hysteresis was observed in the area of Tg ˜ 75-77 K, what is likely explained by the transition in a glass-like state. The isotope effect in the thermal expansion is discusses, which manifested itself in a shift of the phase transitions in comparison with fully deuterated BEDT-TTF sample.

  20. Binary and tertiary reaction cross-sections of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Pt and their isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron induced binary and tertiary reaction cross-sections have been evaluated for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Pt and their isotopes in the 'energy range 0.5 MeV to 20 MeV using the nuclear statistical empirical model. The reactions considered are (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He), (n,α), (n,np), (n,nd), (n,nt), (n,n 3 He), (n,nα), (n,pn), (n,2p), (n,ν), (n,αp), (n,dn) and (n,pα). Most of the above mentioned elements are used as structural materials in nuclear reactors and the measured cross-section data for the above listed reactions are seldom available for the radiation damage and safety analysis. With a view to providing these data, this nuclear model based evaluation has been undertaken. The associated uncertainties in the cross-sections and their fission averages have also been evaluated. (author)

  1. New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

    2008-02-01

    contribution of reduced and oxydized sulfur is also evident. Oxygen isotopic ratios in magnetite, quartz, and siderite yield calculated temperatures of ˜400°C and δ18O-enriched compositions (5 to 16.5 per mil) for the ore-forming fluids that suggest a magmatic input and/or an interaction with 18O-rich, probably sedimentary rocks. The late veins of the Igarapé Bahia deposit area were formed from saline aqueous fluids (2 to 60 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv) with δ18Ofluid compositions around 0 per mil that indicate contribution from meteoric fluids. With respect to geological features, Igarapé Bahia bears similarity with syngenetic, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS)-type deposits, as indicated by the volcano-sedimentary geological context, stratabound character, and association with submarine volcanic flows, hyaloclastite, and exhalative beds such as BIF and chert. On the other hand, the highly saline ore fluids and the mineral assemblage, dominated by magnetite and chalcopyrite, with associated gold, U- and LREE-minerals and scarce pyrite, indicate that Igarapé Bahia belongs to the Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) group of deposits. The available geochronologic data used to attest syngenetic or epigenetic origins for the mineralization are either imprecise or may not represent the main mineralization episode but a later, superimposed event. The C, S, and O isotopic results obtained in this study do not clearly discriminate between fluid sources. However, recent B isotope data obtained on tourmaline from the matrix of the fragmental rock ore unit (Xavier, Wiedenbeck, Dreher, Rhede, Monteiro, Araújo, Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from Archean and Paleoproterozoic Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, 1° Simpósio Brasileiro de Metalogenia, Gramado, Brazil, extended abstracts, CD-ROM, 2005) provide strong evidence of the involvement of a marine evaporitic source in the hydrothermal system of Igarapé Bahia. Evaporite-derived fluids may explain the

  2. Origin and evolution of mineralizing fluids and exploration of the Cerro Quema Au-Cu deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama) from a fluid inclusion and stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Isaac; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Merce; Canals, Angels; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Gras, David; Johnson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Cerro Quema is a high sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu deposit with a measured, indicated and inferred resource of 35.98 Mt. @ 0.77 g/t Au containing 893,600 oz. Au (including 183,930 oz. Au equiv. of Cu ore). It is characterized by a large hydrothermal alteration zone which is interpreted to represent the lithocap of a porphyry system. The innermost zone of the lithocap is constituted by vuggy quartz with advanced argillic alteration locally developed on its margin, enclosed by a well-developed zone of argillic alteration, grading to an external halo of propylitic alteration. The mineralization occurs in the form of disseminations and microveinlets of pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, tennantite, and trace sphalerite, crosscut by quartz, barite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena veins.Microthermometric analyses of two phase (L + V) secondary fluid inclusions in igneous quartz phenocrysts in vuggy quartz and advanced argillically altered samples indicate low temperature (140–216 °C) and low salinity (0.5–4.8 wt% NaCl eq.) fluids, with hotter and more saline fluids identified in the east half of the deposit (Cerro Quema area).Stable isotope analyses (S, O, H) were performed on mineralization and alteration minerals, including pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, alunite, barite, kaolinite, dickite and vuggy quartz. The range of δ34S of sulfides is from − 4.8 to − 12.7‰, whereas δ34S of sulfates range from 14.1 to 17.4‰. The estimated δ34SΣS of the hydrothermal fluid is − 0.5‰. Within the advanced argillic altered zone the δ34S values of sulfides and sulfates are interpreted to reflect isotopic equilibrium at temperatures of ~ 240 °C. The δ18O values of vuggy quartz range from 9.0 to 17.5‰, and the δ18O values estimated for the vuggy quartz-forming fluid range from − 2.3 to 3.0‰, indicating that it precipitated from mixing of magmatic fluids with surficial fluids. The δ18O of kaolinite ranges from 12.7 to 18.1‰ and

  3. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to ... his mother, Carolyn. "But we had an unshakable belief that Phillip would have hope and a future." ...

  4. Effect of the Pauli principle on the nonrotational states in odd-A deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The commutation relations between the quasiparticle and phonon operators are used to obtain the equations allowing a correct accounting of the Pauli principle for the description of the states of odd-A deformed nuclei. It is shown, that if in the quasiparticle plus phonon component the Pauli principle is not violated or is slightly violated, then a relevant vibrational state may exist in an odd-A deformed nucleus

  5. Effect of Na, Ca and pH on simultaneous uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the water flea Daphnia magna measured using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komjarova, I.; Blust, R.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of Na + , Ca 2+ and pH on the kinetics of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn uptake in Daphnia magna at low exposure concentrations measured using a stable isotope technique. Using experimental data the uptake rate constants were calculated for each metal individually on the basis of total metal concentrations. The copper uptake was not significantly affected by variations in chemical composition of the test medium. Calcium had a suppressing effect on the uptake of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Specifically, Cd and Ni uptake rate constants decreased with increases in calcium concentrations from 0.1 to 2.5 mM. The uptake of Zn and Pb was significantly suppressed only at 2.5 mM Ca. The effect of sodium was less clear. There was no effect of varying sodium concentrations on the Ni uptake rate constants. Cd and Pb showed an increase in uptake rate constants at elevated sodium concentrations (2-8 mM Na + for Cd and 8 mM Na + for Pb). A bell-shaped response on increasing Na + concentrations was observed for Zn with a maximum value of uptake rate constant at the middle value (2 mM Na + ). Variation in pH of the medium affected Cd, Ni and Zn uptake processes. When Daphnia were exposed to acidic conditions (pH 6), the Cd and Ni uptake rate constants were the highest, while similarly low values were observed at neutral and basic conditions. In contrast, the uptake rates of Zn were linearly increasing with increasing pH of the medium.

  6. Mineralization, geochemistry, fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope studies in the carbonate hosted Baqoroq Cu-Zn-As deposit (NE Anarak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Jazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Baqoroq Cu-Zn-As deposit is located northeast of the town ofAnarak in Isfahan province, in theeast central areaof Iran. Copper mineralization occursin upper cretaceous carbonate rocks.Studyof thegeologyof the Nakhlak area, the location ofa carbonate-hosted base metaldeposit, indicatesthe importance of stratigraphic, lithological and structural controls in the placement of this ore deposit. (Jazi et al., 2015.Some of the most world’s most important epigenetic, stratabound and discordant copperdeposits are the carbonate hosted Tsumeb and Kipushi type deposits,located in Africa. The Baqoroq deposit is believed to be of this type. Materials and methods In the current study, fifty rock samples were collected from old tunnels and surface mineralization. Twenty-two thin sections, ten polished sections and four thin-polished sections were prepared for microscopic study. Ten samples were selected for elemental analysis by ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry by the Zar Azma Company (Tehran and AAS (Atomic absorption spectrometry at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Seven doubly polished sections of barite mineralization were prepared for microthermometric analysis. Homogenization and last ice-melting temperatures were measured using a Linkam THMSG 600 combined heating and freezing stage at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Sulfur isotopes of five barite samples were determined by the Iso-Analytical Ltd. Company of the UK. The isotopic ratios are presented in per mil (‰notation relative to the Canyon Diablo Troilite. Results The upper Cretaceoushost rocks of the Baqoroq deposit include limestone, sandstone, and conglomerate units. Mineralization is controlled by two main factors: lithostratigraphy and structure. Epigenetic Cu-Zn mineralizationoccurs in ore zones as stratabound barite and barite-calcite veins and minor disseminated mineralization. Open space filling occurred as breccia matrix

  7. In-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses of the Xiangshan Ni-Cu-Co deposit in Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang), Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Constraints on the timing and genesis of the mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Jien; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2010-12-01

    The timing and genesis of the major Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit in the Xiangshan intrusion have been studied based on newly obtained in-situ U-Pb, Hf and Re-Os isotopic analyses. The SIMS U-Pb zircon ages of the gabbro hosting the Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit indicate that the Xiangshan intrusion was emplaced at 279.6 ± 1.1 Ma (95% confidence level, MSWD = 1.30, n = 15). On the basis of combined geological and geochronological evidence, we suggest that the Xiangshan and other adjacent Ni-Cu deposits were formed in the same period. Sulphides have low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios, similar to sulphide ores from the Duluth, Sally Malay and Voisey Bay complexes. The Re-Os isotopic data from the disseminated and massive ores from the Xiangshan intrusion do not form a single isochron, as they have different initial Os ratios. The Hf and Os isotopic data suggest that the Xiangshan intrusion and associated Ni-Cu-Co mineralization were derived from crustally contaminated mantle melts. The geochemical data show a tholeiitic affinity and a strong suprasubduction zone signature with negative Nb, Sr, and Ti anomalies similar to N-MORB and E-MORB. We suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks and associated Ni-Cu mineralization of the Eastern Tianshan orogen formed in an Alaska-type subduction zone-arc setting. Some diagnostic features of ridge-trench interaction are present in the Chinese East Tianshan orogen (e.g. granites, adakites, high-Mg andesites, near-trench magmatism, Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes, high-temperature metamorphic belts that prograde rapidly from low-grade belts, and orogenic gold deposits). The above distinctive rock groups are probably related to the same thermal event, ridge subduction, as in the Cenozoic orogen of Alaska. We suggest that ridge subduction is the most plausible mechanism to provide the necessary heat. Ridge subduction provides an important promising model for understanding many aspects of the evolution of the Chinese

  8. Cu-Mo-Au mineralization in Qarachilar area, Qaradagh batholith (NW Iran): Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies and Re-Os dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen

    2015-04-01

    The Qaradagh batholith is located in NW Iran, neighboring the Meghri-Ordubad granitoid in southern Armenia. This magmatic complex is emplaced in the northwestern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, which formed through north-eastward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the central Iranian domain in the late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic and hosts most of the porphyry copper deposits and prospects in Iran, such as Sarcheshmeh and Sungun. The Qaradagh batholith is comprised of Eocene-Oligocene intrusive rocks occurring as multi-episode stocks, where the dominant rock type is granodiorite. Hydrothermal alterations have also occurred in these rocks including potassic, phyllic-sericitic, argillic and propylitic alterations and silicification. These alterations are accompanied by vein-type and disseminated Cu, Mo and Au mineralization. The Qarachilar area is located in the central part of the Qaradagh batholith, which hosts mono-mineralic and quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets (several mm to <1 m thick and 50-700 m long) and silicic zones containing Cu-Mo-Au-Ag ore minerals (mainly pyrite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite). Microthermometric studies on the fluid inclusions of quartz-sulfide veins-veinlets show that the salinity ranges between 15-70 wt% NaCl, with the highest peak between 35-40 wt% NaCl. The homogenization temperature for primary 2-phase and multi-phase inclusions ranges between 220 and 540 °C. Two-phase inclusions homogenizing by vapor disappearance have TH values between 280 and 440 °C (mainly between 300 and 360 °C). A few of them homogenize into vapor state with TH values of 440-540 °C. Multi-phase inclusions show 3 types of homogenization. Most of them homogenize by simultaneous disappearance of vapor bubble and dissolution of halite daughter crystal, for which the TH value is 240-420 °C (mostly between 260 and 340 °C). Those homogenizing by halite dissolution show TH values about 220-360 °C and a few homogenizing by vapor

  9. Mineralogical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.; Spry, Paul G.; Melfos, Vasilios

    2012-05-01

    The Fakos porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te deposit, Limnos Island, Greece, is hosted in a ~20 Ma quartz monzonite and shoshonitic subvolcanic rocks that intruded middle Eocene to lower Miocene sedimentary basement rocks. Metallic mineralization formed in three stages in quartz and quartz-calcite veins. Early porphyry-style (Stage 1) metallic minerals consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, bornite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and iron oxides, which are surrounded by halos of potassic and propylitic alteration. Stage 2 mineralization is composed mostly of quartz-tourmaline veins associated with sericitic alteration and disseminated pyrite and molybdenite, whereas Stage 3, epithermal-style mineralization is characterized by polymetallic veins containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, bournonite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, hessite, petzite, altaite, an unknown cervelleite-like Ag-telluride, native Au, and Au-Ag alloy. Stage 3 veins are spatially associated with sericitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz from Stage 1 (porphyry-style) mineralization contain five types of inclusions. Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions, which homogenize at temperatures ranging from 189.5°C to 403.3°C have salinities of 14.8 to 19.9 wt. % NaCl equiv. Type II, liquid-vapor-NaCl, Type III liquid-vapor-NaCl-XCl2 (where XCl is an unknown chloride phase, likely CaCl2), and Type IV, liquid-vapor-hematite ± NaCl homogenize to the liquid phase by liquid-vapor homogenization or by daughter crystal dissolution at temperatures of 209.3 to 740.5 °C, 267.6 to 780.8 °C, and 357.9 to 684.2 °C, respectively, and, Type V, vapor-rich inclusions. Stage 2 veins are devoid of interpretable fluid inclusions. Quartz from Stage 3 (epithermal-style) veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase (191.6 to 310.0 °C) with salinities of 1.40 to 9.73 wt. % NaCl equiv., and Type II, vapor-rich inclusions. Mixing

  10. Systematics of Absolute Gamma Ray Transition Probabilities in Deformed Odd-A Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S G

    1965-11-15

    All known experimentally determined absolute gamma ray transition probabilities between different intrinsic states of deformed odd-A nuclei in the rare earth, region (153 < A < 181) and in the actinide region (A {>=} 227) are compared with transition probabilities (Weisskopf and Nilsson estimate). Systematic deviations from the theoretical values are found. Possible explanations for these deviations are given. This discussion includes Coriolis coupling, {delta}K ={+-}2 band-mixing effects and pairing interaction.

  11. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  12. Fission properties of odd-A nuclei in a mean field framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, S.; Robledo, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical tools at the level of the mean field approximation are used to explore the spontaneous fission properties of odd-A nuclei. The tools rely on the equal (or uniform) filling approximation to deal with the unpaired nucleon in a time-reversal preserving manner. Realistic calculations have been carried out with the finite range Gogny force D1S, which was tailored to reasonably reproduce fission properties in the actinides. The preliminary results obtained for the nucleus 235 U are analyzed and the physical origin for the hindrance factor for the spontaneous fission half life is discussed. (author)

  13. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  14. Low-energy E1 transitions and octupole softness in odd-A deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, G B [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hamamoto, I [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Kownacki, J; Satula, W [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)

    1992-08-01

    It is found that B(E1) values for yrast spectroscopy of deformed odd-A rare-earth nuclei calculated by using a model in which one quasiparticle is coupled to a rotor are more than an order of magnitude too small. Therefore, measured B(E1) values for {sup 169}Lu were analyzed by introducing parameters which effectively took octupole softness into account. Some preliminary results of the theoretical analysis which are presented in this paper still give do not agree completely with experiment. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  15. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21 % for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (orig.)

  16. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  17. Chiral doublet bands in odd-A nuclei 103,105Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Bin; Wang Shouyu; Zhang Shuangquan; Meng Jie

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is a phenomenon of general interest in chemistry, biology and particle physics. Since the pioneering work of nuclear chirality in 1997 [1] , much effort has been devoted to further explore this interesting phenomenon. Following the observation of chiral doublet bands in N = 75 isotones [2] more candidates have been reported over more than 20 nuclei experimentally in A∼100, 130 and 190 mass regions including odd-odd, odd-A and even-even nuclei. However, the identification and the intrinsic mechanism of candidate chiral doublet bands are still under debate. Although various versions of particle rotor model (PRM) and titled axis cranking model (TAC) had been applied to study chiral bands, the essential starting point for understanding their properties is based on the ideal picture, i.e. one particle and one hole coupled with a γ = 30 rigid triaxial rotor. On the other hand, from the investigation of semiclassical TAC based on the mean field, it is shown that the chiral doublet bands in the real nuclei are not always consistent with the static chirality, but mixed with the character of dynamic chirality. Thus it is necessary to construct a fully quantal model for the description of chiral doublet bands in the real nuclei, which is aimed to understand the properties of chiral doublet bands in real nuclei, and to present clearly the picture and character of chiral motion [3] . Recently, we have developed the multi-particle multi-hole coupled with the triaxial rotor model, which is able to describe the nuclear rotation related to many valence nucleons. Adopting this model, chirality in odd-A nuclei 103,105 Rh with πg 9/2 -1 ⊗νh 11/2 2 configuration and in odd-A nucleus 135 Nd with πh 11/2 2 ⊗νh 11/2 1 configuration [4] are studied in a fully quantal approach. For the chiral doublet bands, the observed energies and the B(M1) and B(E2) values are reproduced very well. Root mean square values of the angular momentum components

  18. Evolution with time of 12 metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi and U) and of lead isotopes in the snows of Coats Land (Antarctica) since the 1830's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, F.

    2001-01-01

    This work shows that it is now possible to get reliable data on the occurrence of numerous heavy metals at ultra low levels in Antarctic snow, by combining ultra clean field sampling and laboratory sub-sampling procedures and the use of ultra sensitive analytical techniques such as ICP-SFMS and TIMS. It has allowed us to determine concentrations of twelve metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi et U) and lead isotopic composition in the ultra clean series of snow samples collected at Coats Land, in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica. This work presents a 150 years record of metal inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to Antarctica from the 1830's to the early 1990's. Lead atmospheric pollution begins as early as the end of the 19. century, peaks during the 1970's-1980's and then falls sharply during recent decades. Evolution in lead isotopic abundance shows that Pb inputs to Antarctica reflect a complex blend of contributions originating from the Southern part of South America and Australia. For Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Bi and U, concentrations in the snow show significant increases from 1950 to 1980. These enhancements which cannot be explained by variations in natural inputs, illustrate that atmospheric pollution for heavy metals linked with anthropogenic activities in the Southern Hemisphere countries such as for example ferrous and non-ferrous metal mining and smelting is really global. Study of the time period 1920-1990, has allowed us to detail short-term (intra and inter annual) heavy metals concentration's changes. The large short-term variability, observed in Coats Land snow, shows the complex patterns of metal inputs to Antarctica, associated for instance to changes in long-range transport processes from mid-latitude to polar zone and to variability in the different natural sources, such local volcanic activity, sea-salt spray or crustal dust inputs. (author)

  19. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) mineralization at Fedj Hassene ore field, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions; Le champ filonien a Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) du district minier de Fedj Hassene (Nord Ouest de la Tunisie): Mineralogie, Elements en traces, Isotopes du Soufre et Inclusions Fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaouil, J.; Bouhlel, S.; Barca, D.; Braham, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Fedj Hassene district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within sub parallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassene, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.11 g/cm{sup 3} and pressure close to 200 bars. Micro thermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194 degree centigrade. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156 degree centigrade and 210 degree centigrade and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The {delta}{sup 3}4S (VCDT) values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6% to 6,4% (average=5,6%). Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the d{delta}{sup 3}4S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassene in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg) vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern

  20. Calibration setting numbers for dose calibrators for the PET isotopes "5"2Mn, "6"4Cu, "7"6Br, "8"6Y, "8"9Zr, "1"2"4I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, A. Lake; Lewis, Benjamin C.; Szatkowski, Daniel J.; Sultan, Deborah H.; Abdin, Kinda I.; Voller, Thomas F.; Liu, Yongjian; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    For PET radionuclides, the radioactivity of a sample can be conveniently measured by a dose calibrator. These devices depend on a “calibration setting number”, but many recommended settings from manuals were interpolated based on standard sources of other radionuclide(s). We conducted HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy, resulting in a reference for determining settings in two types of vessels containing one of several PET radionuclides. Our results reiterate the notion that in-house, experimental calibrations are recommended for different radionuclides and vessels. - Highlights: • Dose calibrators measure radioactivity by ionization of gas from emitted radiation. • Accuracy of dose calibrators depends on “calibration setting numbers” for isotopes. • Many manufacturer settings are interpolated from emissions of other radionuclides. • As a high-precision reference, HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy was conducted. • New calibrations were found for PET isotopes "5"2Mn, "6"4Cu, "7"6Br, "8"6Y, "8"9Zr, and "1"2"4I.

  1. Mineralization, geochemistry, fluid inclusion and sulfur stable isotope studies in the carbonate hosted Baqoroq Cu-Zn-As deposit (NE Anarak)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Jazi; Mohammad Hassan Karimpour; Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Baqoroq Cu-Zn-As deposit is located northeast of the town ofAnarak in Isfahan province, in theeast central areaof Iran. Copper mineralization occursin upper cretaceous carbonate rocks.Studyof thegeologyof the Nakhlak area, the location ofa carbonate-hosted base metaldeposit, indicatesthe importance of stratigraphic, lithological and structural controls in the placement of this ore deposit. (Jazi et al., 2015).Some of the most world’s most important epigenetic, stratabo...

  2. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  3. First Evidence for the Wobbling Mode in A Triaxial Superdeformed Odd-A Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, I.; Odegaerd, S.W.; Hagemann, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    The wobbling mode is uniquely related to rotation of a triaxial body. The Lu-Hf isotopes with N ∼ 94 provides a possible region of nuclei with pronounced triaxiality. We have investigated 163 Lu through the fusion- evaporation reaction 139 La( 29 Si,5n) 163 Lu with a beam energy of 152 MeV. The electromagnetic properties of several connecting transitions between two presumably Triaxial, Super Deformed (TSD) bands have been studied. New particle-rotor calculations in which an aligned i 13/2 proton is coupled to a ''wobbling'' core are presented and evidence for the assignment of the excited TSD band as a wobbling mode built on the yrast TSD band in 163 Lu is given. (author)

  4. Copper isotope fractionation between aqueous compounds relevant to low temperature geochemistry and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Moynier, Frédéric; Abe, Minori; Nemoto, Keisuke; Albarède, Francis

    2013-06-01

    Isotope fractionation between the common Cu species present in solution (Cu+, Cu2+, hydroxide, chloride, sulfide, carbonate, oxalate, and ascorbate) has been investigated using both ab initio methods and experimental solvent extraction techniques. In order to establish unambiguously the existence of equilibrium isotope fractionation (as opposed to kinetic isotope fractionation), we first performed laboratory-scale liquid-liquid distribution experiments. Upon exchange between HCl medium and a macrocyclic complex, the 65Cu/63Cu ratio fractionated by -1.06‰ to -0.39‰. The acidity dependence of the fractionation was appropriately explained by ligand exchange reactions between hydrated H2O and Cl- via intramolecular vibrations. The magnitude of the Cu isotope fractionation among important Cu ligands was also estimated by ab initio methods. The magnitude of the nuclear field shift effect to the Cu isotope fractionation represents only ˜3% of the mass-dependent fractionation. The theoretical estimation was expanded to chlorides, hydroxides, sulfides, sulfates, and carbonates under different conditions of pH. Copper isotope fractionation of up to 2‰ is expected for different forms of Cu present in seawater and for different sediments (carbonates, hydroxides, and sulfides). We found that Cu in dissolved carbonates and sulfates is isotopically much heavier (+0.6‰) than free Cu. Isotope fractionation of Cu in hydroxide is minimal. The relevance of these new results to the understanding of metabolic processes was also discussed. Copper is an essential element used by a large number of proteins for electron transfer. Further theoretical estimates of δ65Cu in hydrated Cu(I) and Cu(II) ions, Cu(II) ascorbates, and Cu(II) oxalate predict Cu isotope fractionation during the breakdown of ascorbate into oxalate and account for the isotopically heavy Cu found in animal kidneys.

  5. Quadrupole moments of odd-A 53−63Mn: Onset of collectivity towards N=40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Babcock

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the odd–even Mn isotopes between N=28 and N=38 have been measured using bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. In order to increase sensitivity to the quadrupole interaction, the measurements have been done using a transition in the ion rather than in the atom, with the additional advantage of better spectroscopic efficiency. Since the chosen transition is from a metastable state, optical pumping in ISOLDE's cooler and buncher (ISCOOL was used to populate this state. The extracted quadrupole moments are compared to large-scale shell model predictions using three effective interactions, GXPF1A, LNPS and modified A3DA. The inclusion of both the 1νg9/2 and 2νd5/2 orbitals in the model space is shown to be necessary to reproduce the observed increase in the quadrupole deformation from N=36 onwards. Specifically, the inclusion of the 2νd5/2 orbital induces an increase in neutron and proton excitations across the reduced gaps at N=40 and Z=28, leading to an increase in deformation above N=36.

  6. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2018-06-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  7. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2017-10-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  8. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2016-10-01

    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  9. The La Unión Au ± Cu prospect, Camagüey District, Cuba: fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence for ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Miriela María Ulloa; Moura, Márcia Abrahão; Olivo, Gema R.; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Kyser, T. Kurtis; Bühn, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The Camagüey district, Cuba, is known for its epithermal precious metal deposits in a Cretaceous volcanic arc setting. Recently, the La Unión prospect was discovered in the southern part of the district, containing gold and minor copper mineralization interpreted as porphyry type. Mineralization is hosted in a 73.0 ± 1.5 Ma calc-alkaline I-type oxidized porphyry quartz diorite intrusive within volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the early Cretaceous Guáimaro Formation. The porphyry is affected by propylitic alteration and crosscut by a network of quartz and carbonate veinlets and veins. Chlorite, epidote, sericite, quartz, and pyrite are the main minerals in the early veins which are cut by late carbonate and zeolite veins. Late barite pseudomorphously replaces pyrite. Gold is associated with pyrite as disseminations in the altered quartz diorite and in the veins, occurring as inclusions or filling fractures in pyrite with 4 g/t Au in bulk samples, and up to 900 ppm Au in in pyrite. Fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope data are consistent with a H2O-NaCl-(KCl) mineralizing fluid, derived from the quartz diorite magma, and trapped at least at 425°C and 1.2 kbar. This primary fluid unmixed into two fluid phases, a hypersaline aqueous fluid and a low-salinity vapor-rich fluid. Boiling during cooling may have played an important role in metal precipitation. Pyrite δ34S values for the La Unión prospect range between 0.71‰ and 1.31‰, consistent with a homogeneous magmatic sulfur source. The fluids in equilibrium with the mineralized rocks have estimated δ18O values from 8‰ to 11.8‰, calculated for a temperature range of 480-505°C. The tectonic environment of the La Unión prospect, its high gold and low copper contents, the physical-chemical characteristics of the mineralizing fluids and the isotopic signature of the alteration minerals and fluids indicate that the La Unión gold mineralization is similar to the porphyry gold type, even though the ore

  10. Determination of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu and As) in bottled drinking water by Icp-SFMS; Determinacion de isotopos de uranio ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) y elementos traza (Cd, Pb, Cu y As) en agua embotellada para beber por ICP-SFMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara A, N.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Kuri de la C, A.; Perez B, M. A., E-mail: nancy.lara@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    In the present work we propose an optimized method for the quantification of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, 2{sup 38}U) and the elements Cd, Pb, Cu and As in bottled water for drinking at trace levels of concentration. Based on the multi-element detection capability, the high sensitivity and resolution that the Mass Spectrometry with Magnetic Sector with Inductively Coupled Plasma Source (Icp-SFMS) technique offers; the high, medium and low resolution analysis conditions for the elements under study were established and optimized using and Element 2/Xr equipment and the 23 multi-elemental Certified Reference Material (CRM). The analysis method was validated using the standard reference material Nist 1643d and CRM mono-elemental s as external standards for the quantification of the analytes. Samples, targets and CRM were acidified with 2% of HNO{sub 3} and analyzed without pretreatment under the established analysis conditions. The results obtained show concentrations of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 111}Cd, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 63}Cu and {sup 75}As in the range of μg L{sup -1}, the linearity obtained from the calibration curves for each element has correlation coefficients < 0.99 in all cases, the accuracy of the method in terms of percent relative standard deviation (RSD %) was less than 5%, the mean recovery rate of Nist 1643d ranged from 96.46% to 101.12%. The optimization of the method guarantees the stability and calibration of the equipment throughout the analysis, as well as the ability to resolve interferences. In conclusion, the method proposed using Icp-SFMS offers the advantages of being fast and simple for the multi-elemental analysis in water at trace levels, with low limits of quantification and detection, with good linearity, accuracy, precision and reproducibility to a degree of reliability of 95%. (Author)

  11. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Claire M., E-mail: claire.thompson@anu.edu.au; Ellwood, Michael J., E-mail: michael.ellwood@anu.edu.au; Wille, Martin, E-mail: martin.wille@uni-tuebingen.de

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new sample preparation method for seawater copper isotopic analysis (δ{sup 65}Cu). •Solvent-extraction was used to pre-concentrate metals from seawater samples. •Anion-exchange was used to purify copper from the metal-rich extract. •δ{sup 65}Cu was measured in the north Tasman Sea. •Seawater δ{sup 65}Cu may be linked to marine biological activity. -- Abstract: Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater.

  12. Magnetic dipole moments of 58Cu and 59Cu by in-source laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N. J.; Koester, U.; Stone, J. Rikovska; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Hass, M.; Lakshmi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Online measurements of the magnetic dipole moments and isotope shifts of 58 Cu and 59 Cu by the in-source laser spectroscopy method are reported. The results for the magnetic moments are μ ( 58 Cu) =+0.52(8) μ N ,μ( 59 Cu) =+1.84(3) μ N and for the isotope shifts δν 59,65 =1.72(22) GHz and δν 58,65 =1.99(30) GHz in the transition from the 3d 10 4s 2 S 1/2 ground state to the 3d 10 4p 2 P 1/2 state in Cu I. The magnetic moment of 58 Cu is discussed in the context of the strength of the subshell closure at 56 Ni, additivity rules and large-scale shell model calculations

  13. Collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy for neutron rich copper isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal aims to study the spins, magnetic moments and quadrupole moments of copper isotopes A=76-78. The information obtained from this experiment will provide an independent and more precise measurement of the magnetic moment of $^{77}$Cu and values for the spins and magnetic moments of $^{76,78}$Cu as well as the quadrupole moments of $^{76-78}$Cu.

  14. Simple description of odd-A nuclei around the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Pan Feng; Liu Yuxin; Luo Yanan; Draayer, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    An analytically solvable model, X(3/2j+1), is proposed to describe odd-A nuclei near the X(3) critical point. The model is constructed based on a collective core described by the X(3) critical point symmetry coupled to a spin-j particle. A detailed analysis of the spectral patterns for cases j=1/2 and j=3/2 is provided to illustrate dynamical features of the model. By comparing theory with experimental data and results of other models, it is found that the X(3/2j+1) model can be taken as a simple yet very effective scheme to describe those odd-A nuclei with an even-even core at the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape phase transition.

  15. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  16. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  17. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  18. The oxygen-isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in underdoped Y{sub 1-x} Pr{sub x} Ba{sub 2} Cu{sub 3} O{sub 7-{delta}} as revealed by muon-spin rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasanov, R [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Shengelaya, A [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Conder, K [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and PSI Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Morenzoni, E [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Savic, I M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Keller, H [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-01-22

    The oxygen-isotope ({sup 16}O/{sup 18}O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab} (0) in underdoped Y{sub 1-x} Pr{sub x} Ba{sub 2} Cu{sub 3} O{sub 7-{delta}} was studied by means of muon-spin rotation. A pronounced OIE on {lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} (0) was observed with a relative isotope shift of {delta}{lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} /{lambda} {sub ab}{sup -2} = -5(2)% for x=0.3 and -9(2)% for x=0.4. The OIE exponents of T{sub c} and of {lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} (0) exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for cuprate superconductors. (letter to the editor)

  19. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  20. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  1. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.E.; Mathur, R.; Dohnalkova, A.C.; Wall, A.J.; Runkel, R.L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed (Colorado, USA). The ??65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of enargite (??65Cu = -0.01 ?? 0.10???; 2??) and chalcopyrite (??65Cu = 0.16 ?? 0.10???) are within the range of reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1??? waters (1.38??? ??? ??65Cu ??? 1.69???). The average isotopic fractionation (??aq-min = ??65Cuaq - ??65Cumin, where the latter is measured on mineral samples from the field system), equals 1.43 ?? 0.14??? and 1.60 ?? 0.14??? for chalcopyrite and enargite, respectively. To interpret this field survey, we leached chalcopyrite and enargite in batch experiments and found that, as in the field, the leachate is enriched in 65Cu relative to chalcopyrite (1.37 ?? 0.14???) and enargite (0.98 ?? 0.14???) when microorganisms are absent. Leaching of minerals in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans results in smaller average fractionation in the opposite direction for chalcopyrite (??aq-mino = - 0.57 ?? 0.14 ???, where mino refers to the starting mineral) and no apparent fractionation for enargite (??aq-mino = 0.14 ?? 0.14 ???). Abiotic fractionation is attributed to preferential oxidation of 65Cu+ at the interface of the isotopically homogeneous mineral and the surface oxidized layer, followed by solubilization. When microorganisms are present, the abiotic fractionation is most likely not seen due to preferential association of 65Cuaq with A. ferrooxidans cells and related precipitates. In the biotic experiments, Cu was observed under TEM to occur in precipitates around bacteria and in intracellular polyphosphate granules. Thus, the values of ??65Cu in the field and laboratory systems are presumably determined by the balance of Cu released abiotically and Cu that interacts with cells and related precipitates. Such isotopic signatures resulting from Cu sulfide dissolution should be useful for acid mine drainage

  2. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  3. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  4. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  5. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  6. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  7. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  8. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ(65)Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (-0.12 to 0.24‰±0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (-0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ(65)Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ(65)Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (-0.37±0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23±0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20(th) July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ(65)Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël, E-mail: imfeld@unistra.fr

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ{sup 65}Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (− 0.12 to 0.24‰ ± 0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (− 0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ{sup 65}Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ{sup 65}Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (− 0.37 ± 0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23 ± 0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20{sup th} July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ{sup 65}Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (< 0.45 μm) compared to − 0.34 to − 0.02‰ in the SPM phase, indicating that clay and fine clay fractions were the main vectors of SPM-bound Cu in runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. - Highlights: • We investigated Cu sorption processes in vineyard soils and runoff transport. • Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass. • δ{sup 65}Cu values differed between the particle-size soil

  10. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ"6"5Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (− 0.12 to 0.24‰ ± 0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (− 0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ"6"5Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ"6"5Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (− 0.37 ± 0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23 ± 0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20"t"h July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ"6"5Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (< 0.45 μm) compared to − 0.34 to − 0.02‰ in the SPM phase, indicating that clay and fine clay fractions were the main vectors of SPM-bound Cu in runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. - Highlights: • We investigated Cu sorption processes in vineyard soils and runoff transport. • Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass. • δ"6"5Cu values differed between the particle-size soil fractions. • The clay soil

  11. Isotope angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinska, J.; Ruzyllo, W.; Konieczny, W.

    1979-01-01

    Method of technetium isotope 99 m pass through the heart recording with the aid of radioisotope scanner connected with seriograph and computer is being presented. Preliminary tests were carried out in 26 patients with coronary disease without or with previous myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, ventricular septal defect and in patients with artificial mitral and aortic valves. The obtained scans were evaluated qualitatively and compared with performed later contrast X-rays of the heart. Size of the right ventricle, volume and rate of left atrial evacuation, size and contractability of left ventricle were evaluated. Similarity of direct and isotope angiocardiographs, non-invasional character and repeatability of isotope angiocardiography advocate its usefulness. (author)

  12. Leatherback Isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  13. Isotope Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  14. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  15. A model of the isotope effect of the oxide superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liyuan.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper, a possible mechanism of producing negative correlation energy centers is proposed. Combining this electronic attractive potential with phonon mediated attractive potential between carriers the isotope effect exponent of La-Sr-Cu-O system is quantitatively explained. Generally, the isotope effect exponent is smaller than 1/2 in this mechanism. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig

  16. $\\beta$-NMR of copper isotopes in ionic liquids

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to test the feasibility of spin-polarization and $\\beta$-NMR studies on several short-lived copper isotopes, $^{58}$ Cu, $^{74}$Cu and $^{75}$Cu in crystals and liquids. The motivation is given by biological studies of Cu with $\\beta$-NMR in liquid samples, since Cu is present in a large number of enzymes involved in electron transfer and activation of oxygen. The technique is based on spin-polarization via optical pumping in the new VITO beamline. We will use the existing lasers, NMR magnet and NMR chambers and we will prepare a new optical pumping system. The studies will be devoted to tests of achieved $\\beta$-asymmetry in solid hosts, the behaviour of asymmetry when increasing vacuum, and finally NMR scans in ionic liquids. The achieved spin polarization will be also relevant for the plans to measure with high precision the magnetic moments of neutron-rich Cu isotopes.

  17. Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Huan, E-mail: huanzhong1982@hotmail.com [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Nanjing University, School of Environment, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Kraemer, Lisa; Evans, Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Mussels exposed to algal/sediment-Cu have different size-related Cu accumulation. • Size-related Cu accumulation in mussels could be more dependant on algal-Cu uptake. • Importance of algal/sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation varies with mussel body size. • Cu sources (algae and sediments) should be considered in “mussel watch” programs. • Cu stable isotope offers many advantages in Cu bioaccumulation studies. -- Abstract: Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ({sup 65}Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65–91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9–35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5 mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors.

  18. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  19. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  20. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  1. Study of the odd-${A}$, high-spin isomers in neutron-deficient trans-lead nuclei with ISOLTRAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Stanja, J; Huyse, M L; Wienholtz, F

    We propose to measure the excitation energy of the $\\frac{13^{+}}{2}$ isomers in the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{193,195,197}$Po with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer. The assignment of the low- and high-spin isomers will be made by measuring the energy of the $\\alpha$- particles emitted in the decay of purified beams implanted in a windmill system. Using $\\alpha$-decay information, it is then also possible to determine the excitation energy of the similar isomers in the $\\alpha$-daughter nuclei $^{189,191,193}$Pb, $\\alpha$-parent nuclei $^{197,199,201}$Rn, and $\\alpha$-grand-parent nuclei $^{201,203,205}$Ra. The polonium beams are produced with a UC$_{\\textrm{x}}$ target and using the RILIS.

  2. Steroid isotopic standards for gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Tobias, Herbert J; Brenna, J Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis of urinary steroids using gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) is a recognized test to detect illicit doping with synthetic testosterone. There are currently no universally used steroid isotopic standards (SIS). We adapted a protocol to prepare isotopically uniform steroids for use as a calibrant in GCC-IRMS that can be analyzed under the same conditions as used for steroids extracted from urine. Two separate SIS containing a mixture of steroids were created and coded CU/USADA 33-1 and CU/USADA 34-1, containing acetates and native steroids, respectively. CU/USADA 33-1 contains 5alpha-androstan-3beta-ol acetate (5alpha-A-AC), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one acetate (androsterone acetate, A-AC), 5beta-androstan-3alpha-ol-11, 17-dione acetate (11-ketoetiocholanolone acetate, 11k-AC) and 5alpha-cholestane (Cne). CU/USADA 34-1 contains 5beta-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one (etiocholanolone, E), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one (androsterone, A), and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha, 20alpha-diol (5betaP). Each mixture was prepared and dispensed into a set of about 100 ampoules using a protocol carefully designed to minimize isotopic fractionation and contamination. A natural gas reference material, NIST RM 8559, traceable to the international standard Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB) was used to calibrate the SIS. Absolute delta(13)C(VPDB) and Deltadelta(13)C(VPDB) values from randomly selected ampoules from both SIS indicate uniformity of steroid isotopic composition within measurement reproducibility, SD(delta(13)C)<0.2 per thousand. This procedure for creation of isotopic steroid mixtures results in consistent standards with isotope ratios traceable to the relevant international reference material.

  3. Isotopes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairiki, J.M.; Browne, E.; Firestone, R.B.; Lederer, C.M.; Shirley, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Isotopes Project compiles and evaluates nuclear structure and decay data and disseminates these data to the scientific community. From 1940-1978 the Project had as its main objective the production of the Table of Isotopes. Since publication of the seventh (and last) edition in 1978, the group now coordinates its nuclear data evaluation efforts with those of other data centers via national and international nuclear data networks. The group is currently responsible for the evaluation of mass chains A = 167-194. All evaluated data are entered into the International Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and are published in Nuclear Data Sheets. In addition to the evaluation effort, the Isotopes Project is responsible for production of the Radioactivity Handbook

  4. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  5. In-source laser spectroscopy of $^{75, 77, 78}$Cu Direct evidence for a change in the quasiparticle energy sequence in $^{75, 77}$Cu and an absence of longer-lived isomers in $^{78}$Cu

    CERN Document Server

    Koster, U; Serot, O; Fedosseev, V N; Kratz, K L; Stone, N J; Sjodin, A M; Materna, T; Flanagan, K T; Molkanov, P L; Stone, J R; Seliverstov, M D; Mathieu, L; Marsh, B A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes measurements on the isotopes (75,77,78)Cu by the technique of in-source laser spectroscopy, at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The role of this technique is briefly discussed in the context of this and other, higher resolution, methods applied to copper isotopes in the range (57-78)Cu. The data, analyzed in comparison with previous results on the lighter isotopes (59,63)Cu, establish the ground-state nuclear spin of (75,77)Cu as 5/2 and yield their magnetic dipole moments as +1.01(5)mu(N) and +1.61(5)mu(N), respectively. The results on (78)Cu show no evidence for long-lived isomerism at this mass number and are consistent with a spin in the range 3-6 and moment of 0.0(4) mu(N)

  6. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  7. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  8. Isotopically modified nanoparticles for enhanced detection in bioaccumulation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S.K.; Dybowska, A.; Berhanu, D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results on synthesis of isotopically enriched (99% 65Cu) copper oxide nanoparticles and its application in ecotoxicological studies. 65CuO nanoparticles were synthesized as spheres (7 nm) and rods (7 ?? 40 nm). Significant differences were observed between the reactivity and dissolution of spherical and rod shaped nanoparticles. The extreme sensitivity of the stable isotope tracing technique developed in this study allowed determining Cu uptake at exposure concentrations equivalent to background Cu concentrations in freshwater systems (0.2-30 ??g/L). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Cu was impossible, even at exposure concentrations surpassing some of the most contaminated water systems (>1 mg/L). ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Study on the energy spectra of sdg odd-A nuclei sup 1 sup 1 sup 5 sup - sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I with PDHF method

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Ying Tai

    2002-01-01

    The approximate angular-momentum-projected Hartree-Fock (PDHF) method is used to study some odd-A nuclei in the 3s-2d-1g shell: sup 1 sup 1 sup 5 sup - sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I. Their ground bands and low excited bands are calculated. The calculated results agree well with the experimental spectrum

  10. Isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1978-01-01

    The International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology was jointly organized by the IAEA and UNESCO, in co-operation with the National Committee of the Federal Republic of Germany for the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF). Upon the invitation of the Federal Republic of Germany the Symposium was held from 19-23 June 1978 in Neuherberg on the GSF campus. The Symposium was officially opened by Mr. S. Eklund, Director General of the IAEA. The symposium - the fifth meeting held on isotope hydrology - was attended by over 160 participants from 44 countries and four international organizations and by about 30 observers from the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the absence of scientists from the USSR five papers were cancelled and therefore only 46 papers of the original programme were presented in ten sessions

  11. The use of electrolysis for accurate delta O-17 and delta O-18 isotope measurements in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, HAJ; Li, WJ

    1998-01-01

    We present a new system to measure the relative isotopic abundances of both rare isotopes of oxygen in water. Using electrolysis with CuSO4 as electrolyte, water is transformed into oxygen gas. This gas is subsequently analyzed with a standard Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We investigated the

  12. Decay of new mass-separated neutron-deficient La and Ce isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, J.; Gizon, A.; Idrissi, N.; Weiss, B.; Beraud, R.; Charvet, A.; Duffait, R.; Emsallem, A.; Meyer, M.; Ollivier, T.; Redon, N.

    1987-01-01

    By use of a He jet system coupled to a Bernas-Nier ion-source, several new mass-separated A = 122 - 127 isotopes reached in heavy ion fusion reactions at SARA have been identified and studied. From experimental decay properties of La isotopes, systematics of low-lying energy levels have been extended for even-even and odd-A barium. New informations on Ce decay schemes are briefly reported

  13. Double differential cross sections for (p,n) reactions of 18 and 25 MeV protons with isotopes of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Mo, Pd and Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobel, W.; Blann, M.; Komoto, T.; Trabandt, M.; Grimes, S.M.; Hansen, L.F.; Pohl, B.A.; Wong, C.

    1984-06-01

    Cross sections for the inclusive production of neutrons from reactions of 25 MeV protons with 50 52 53 Cr, 54 56 58 Fe, 59 Co, 60 Ni, 63 Cu, 89 Y, 90 91 92 94 Zr, 92 94 95 96 97 98 100 Mo, 110 Pd and 159 Tb and of 18 MeV protons with 90 91 92 94 Zr have been measured with time-of-flight techniques for 16 angles between 3.5 0 less than or equal to theta/sub lab/ less than or equal to 159.0 0 . After a short presentation of the motivations for these measurements, the experimental set up is discussed with emphasis on the systematic and statistical error sources pertinent to this work, in particular the question of background correction in the continuous parts of the spectra. The main purpose of this report is to make the experimental results of this work (angle integrated spectra, angular distributions) available for distribution, reducing thereby the data required in publication of the results of these experiments. 20 references

  14. Copper and tin isotopic analysis of ancient bronzes for archaeological investigation: development and validation of a suitable analytical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliana, Eleonora; Aramendía, Maite; Resano, Martin; Barbante, Carlo; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Although in many cases Pb isotopic analysis can be relied on for provenance determination of ancient bronzes, sometimes the use of "non-traditional" isotopic systems, such as those of Cu and Sn, is required. The work reported on in this paper aimed at revising the methodology for Cu and Sn isotope ratio measurements in archaeological bronzes via optimization of the analytical procedures in terms of sample pre-treatment, measurement protocol, precision, and analytical uncertainty. For Cu isotopic analysis, both Zn and Ni were investigated for their merit as internal standard (IS) relied on for mass bias correction. The use of Ni as IS seems to be the most robust approach as Ni is less prone to contamination, has a lower abundance in bronzes and an ionization potential similar to that of Cu, and provides slightly better reproducibility values when applied to NIST SRM 976 Cu isotopic reference material. The possibility of carrying out direct isotopic analysis without prior Cu isolation (with AG-MP-1 anion exchange resin) was investigated by analysis of CRM IARM 91D bronze reference material, synthetic solutions, and archaeological bronzes. Both procedures (Cu isolation/no Cu isolation) provide similar δ (65)Cu results with similar uncertainty budgets in all cases (±0.02-0.04 per mil in delta units, k = 2, n = 4). Direct isotopic analysis of Cu therefore seems feasible, without evidence of spectral interference or matrix-induced effect on the extent of mass bias. For Sn, a separation protocol relying on TRU-Spec anion exchange resin was optimized, providing a recovery close to 100 % without on-column fractionation. Cu was recovered quantitatively together with the bronze matrix with this isolation protocol. Isotopic analysis of this Cu fraction provides δ (65)Cu results similar to those obtained upon isolation using AG-MP-1 resin. This means that Cu and Sn isotopic analysis of bronze alloys can therefore be carried out after a single chromatographic

  15. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  16. Preparation of carrier-free 67Cu by the 68Zn(γ,p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Kondo, K.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation of pure, carrier-free 67 Cu using the 68 Zn(γ, p) reaction with an isotopically enriched 68 Zn(98.97%) target is described. The production rates of 67 Cu and contaminants were determined as a function of the maximum bremsstrahlung energies between 30 and 60 MeV. The chemical separation of the carrier-free 67 Cu and the recovery of the 68 Zn target were also studied. (author)

  17. Non-collective oblate states in iodine isotopes at high spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E S; Ali, I; Cullen, D M; Fallon, P; Forbes, S A; Hanna, F; Nolan, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Bentley, M A; Bruce, A M; Simpson, J [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Clark, R M; Regan, P H; Wadsworth, R [York Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Fossan, D B; Hughes, J R; Lafosse, D R; Vaska, P; Waring, M P [Department of Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Liang, Y [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ma, R [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Competition between single-particle and collective modes of excitation has been observed in the odd-A {sup 113-119}I isotopes at high spin. A maximally-aligned non-collective 43/2{sup -} configuration at {gamma}=+ 60 degrees is seen at similar excitation energies in these nuclei. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  19. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  20. Non-traditional Stable Isotope Systematics of Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, O. J.

    2009-05-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges is one of the fundamental processes controlling the chemistry of the oceans and the altered oceanic crust. Past studies have demonstrated the complexity and diversity of seafloor hydrothermal systems and have highlighted the importance of subsurface environments in controlling the composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralization types. Traditionally, the behavior of metals in seafloor hydrothermal systems have been investigated by integrating results from laboratory studies, theoretical models, mineralogy and fluid and mineral chemistry. Isotope ratios of various metals and metalloids, such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Sb have recently provided new approaches for the study of seafloor hydrothermal systems. Despite these initial investigations, the cause of the isotopic variability of these elements remains poorly constrained. We have little understanding of the isotope variations between vent types (black or white smokers) as well as the influence of source rock composition (basalt, felsic or ultrabasic rocks) and alteration types. Here, I will review and present new results of metal isotope systematics of seafloor hydrothermal systems, in particular: (1) determination of empirical isotope fractionation factors for Zn, Fe and Cu-isotopes through isotopic analysis of mono-mineralic sulfide grains lining the internal chimney wall in contact with hydrothermal fluid; (2) comparison of Fe- and Cu-isotope signatures of vent fluids from mid- oceanic and back-arc hydrothermal fields, spanning wide ranges of pH, temperature, metal concentrations and contributions of magmatic fluids enriched in SO2. Ultimately, the use of complementary non-traditional stable isotope systems may help identify and constrain the complex interactions between fluids,minerals, and organisms in seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  1. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  2. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  3. Isotopically enriched structural materials in nuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.W.G., E-mail: Lee.Morgan@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Shimwell, J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gilbert, M.R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • C-B analysis of isotopic enrichment of structural materials is presented. • Some, previously, prohibited elements could be used as alloying elements in LAM's. • Adding enriched molybdenum and nickel, to EUROFER, could increase availability. • Isotope enrichment for EUROFER could be cost-effective. • Isotopically enriching copper, in CuCrZr, can reduce helium production by 50%. - Abstract: A large number of materials exist which have been labeled as low activation structural materials (LAM). Most often, these materials have been designed in order to substitute-out or completely remove elements that become activated and contribute significantly to shut-down activity after being irradiated by neutrons in a reactor environment. To date, one of the fundamental principles from which LAMs have been developed is that natural elemental compositions are the building blocks of LAMs. Thus, elements such as Co, Al, Ni, Mo, Nb, N and Cu that produce long-lived decay products are significantly reduced or removed from the LAM composition. These elements have an important part to play in the composition of steels and the removal/substitution can have a negative impact on materials properties such as yield stress and fracture toughness. This paper looks in more detail at whether using isotopic selection of the more mechanically desirable, but prohibited due to activation, elements can improve matters. In particular, this paper focuses on the activation of Eurofer. Carefully chosen isotopically enriched elements, which are normally considered to be on the prohibited element list, are added to EUROFER steel as potential alloying elements. The EUROFER activation results show that some prohibited elements can be used as alloying elements in LAM steels, providing the selected isotopes do not have a significant impact on waste disposal rating or shut-down dose. The economic implications of isotopically enriching elements and the potential implications for

  4. Study of isotopic exchange reactions of azidothymidine with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, G.V.; Zverkov, Yu.B.; Myasoedov, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Different reactions of isotopic exchange of azidothymidine (3 - azido-3 - desoxythymidine) with tritium, such as solid- and liquid-phase catalytic isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium and isotopic exchange in solution with tritium water, are investigated. It is determined that catalytic reactions of azidothymidine with gaseous tritium in solution lead to practically full reduction of azido group up to amino group. In reactions of solid-phase catalytic hydrogenation this process takes place too and 3 - azido-3 - desoxythymidine yield is from 20 to 70 %. Molar radioactivity of labelled with tritium azidothymidine prepared in reactions of solid-phase catalytic isotopic exchange with gaseous tritium and so by isotopic exchange in solution with tritium water does not exceed 0.5 Cu/mmol [ru

  5. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazar, Harun Resit, E-mail: yazar@nevsehir.edu.tr [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Art and Science (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  6. Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huan; Kraemer, Lisa; Evans, Douglas

    2013-10-15

    Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ((65)Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65-91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9-35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Copperton - Areachap Cu-Zn mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theart, H.F.J.

    1985-05-01

    Stratiform massive sulfide deposit at the Prieska Cu-Zn and Areachap mines are situated close to the eastern margin of the Namaqua Province, South Africa, within the Copperton and Jannelsepan Formations. The investigation of the petrology and geochemistry of the Prieska Cu-Zn deposits forms the basis of this study. Borehole core and surface samples were investigated petrographically. Knowledge gained during this investigation was used to select suitable samples for geochemical analysis. Suites of samples were analysed for their major element and some trace element concentrations by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Concentrations of some elements in the lanthanide group were determined using the inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Samples were also submitted for analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Determinations of concentrations of U and Pb and isotopic compositions of Pb were done for both whole rock samples and sulfide mineral separates. Major and trace element abundances within different rock types of the Copperton Formation are discussed and compared with those of the Jannelsepan and Hartebeest Pan Formations. The petrogenetic implications of these, the U-Pb isotope systematics and S isotope ratios are used to reconstruct the geological environment of mineralization. 187 refs., 106 figs., 68 tabs

  8. Isotope dilution measurement of copper absorption and excretion in rats fed different carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Bowman, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using 67 Cu was developed to measure true absorption (A) and endogenous excretion (EE) of Cu in rats. Specific activity (SA) of injected 67 Cu was least variable in 7 tissues on days 6-8 after injection. SA of feces compared to tissues was used to calculate EE and A. This method was used to study Cu metabolism in rats fed 5 ppm or 0.4 ppm Cu and diets containing fructose (FR), glucose (GL), sucrose (SU), or cornstarch (CS). In rats fed 5 ppm Cu, the A, EE, and balance (B) were greatest for CS animals. There were no differences in A, B, or EE between FR and SU rats (p > .05). Rats fed GL had B and A lower than other groups (p .05). Liver Cu did not differ among groups fed 0.4 ppm Cu. Kidney Cu was higher ( p .05) compared to rats fed GL and 5 ppm Cu. EE was significantly lower in all groups on 0.4 ppm Cu than 5 ppm Cu. EE was 1 μg Cu/d on the 0.4 ppm Cu diet

  9. Isotope puzzle in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms affecting multicomponent material sputtering are complex. Isotope sputtering is the simplest in the multicomponent materials sputtering. Although only mass effect plays a dominant role in the isotope sputtering, there is still an isotope puzzle in sputtering by ion bombardment. The major arguments are as follows: (1) At the zero fluence, is the isotope enrichment ejection-angle-independent or ejection-angle-dependent? (2) Is the isotope angular effect the primary or the secondary sputter effect? (3) How to understand the action of momentum asymmetry in collision cascade on the isotope sputtering?

  10. Accelerator Production of Isotopes for Medical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Suzanne

    2014-03-01

    The increase in use of radioisotopes for medical imaging and therapy has led to the development of novel routes of isotope production. For example, the production and purification of longer-lived position emitting radiometals has been explored to allow for nuclear imaging agents based on peptides, antibodies and nanoparticles. These isotopes (64Cu, 89Zr, 86Y) are typically produced via irradiation of solid targets on smaller medical cyclotrons at dedicated facilities. Recently, isotope harvesting from heavy ion accelerator facilities has also been suggested. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a new national user facility for nuclear science to be completed in 2020. Radioisotopes could be produced by dedicated runs by primary users or may be collected synergistically from the water in cooling-loops for the primary beam dump that cycle the water at flow rates in excess of hundreds of gallons per minute. A liquid water target system for harvesting radioisotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) was designed and constructed as the initial step in proof-of-principle experiments to harvest useful radioisotopes in this manner. This talk will provide an overview of isotope production using both dedicated machines and harvesting from larger accelerators typically used for nuclear physics. Funding from Department of Energy under DESC0007352 and DESC0006862.

  11. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Optical isotope shifts for unstable samarium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Grant, I.S.; England, J.G.; Fawcett, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using a tunable dye laser beam intersecting a thermal atomic beam, optical isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings have been measured for the four unstable samarium isotopes between 144 Sm and 154 Sm, covering the well known transition region from spherical to deformed shapes. (orig.)

  13. Guinier-Preston I zones in Al-1.75 at.% Cu single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.P.; Schoenfeld, B.; Kostorz, G.; Buehrer, W.

    1988-01-01

    The elastic diffuse neutron scattering from two Al-1.75 at.% Cu single crystals with either the isotope Cu-63 or Cu-65, aged to contain type-I Guinier-Preston zones has been measured along a reciprocal lattice line and evaluated based on an expansion of the atomic displacement scattering up to terms of third order. It is shown that erroneous results for the short-range order term are obtained if the evaluation does not include data from the first Brillouin zone. The most reliable short-range order scattering extracted for both crystals is consistent with essentially single-layered Cu-rich zones

  14. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Cross Sections of Cu-63 and Cu-65 in the Energy Region 0.7 to 1.4 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1964-08-15

    The gamma ray spectra from, the {sup 63}Cu (n, n'{gamma}) and {sup 65}Cu (n, n'{gamma}) reactions have been studied for seven neutron energies in the energy range 0.7 - 1.4 MeV using a Nal(Tl) scintillation spectrometer and time-of-flight techniques. Scatterers of natural copper have been used. Experimental excitation curves have been obtained for the two lowest excited levels in each of the Cu and Cu isotopes. The experimental (n, n') cross sections for the individual levels at 668 keV and 961 keV in {sup 63}Cu and 764 keV and 1114 keV in {sup 65}Cu have been compared to a modified Hauser-Feshbach theory for inelastic neutron scattering. This experiment has confirmed by other methods determined spins of these levels, i.e. 1/2{sup -} and 5/2{sup -} respectively.

  15. Nd isotopes and crustal growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarede, F.

    1988-01-01

    Sm/Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth is discussed. In order to constrain Sm/Nd fractionation between continental crust and depleted mantle, an extensive data base of isotopic measurements (assumed to be adequately representative of continental crust) was compiled. The results imply that the evolution of depleted mantles was roughly linear, with no major discontinuities over the course of geologic time. This is different from other determinations of depleting mantle evolution, which show nonlinear behavior. The Sm/Nd evolution lines for continental crust and depleted mantle intersect between 3.8 to 4.0 Ga, which may indicate that the onset of continental growth was later than 4.5 Ga. A mathematical model is described, the results of which imply that time integrated crustal additions from the mantle are about 1.8 to 2.5 cu km/a, whereas crustal subtractions by sediment recycling are about 0.6 to 1.5 cu km/a. This results in a net time integrated crustal growth rate of about 1 cu km/a, which is similar to present day rates determined, for example, by Reymer and Schubert

  16. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  17. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  18. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  19. Low-lying isomeric levels in Cu75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Grawe, H.; Pfützner, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Achouri, N. L.; Angélique, J. C.; Baiborodin, D.; Bentida, R.; Béraud, R.; Borcea, C.; Bingham, C. R.; Catford, W. N.; Emsallem, A.; de France, G.; Grzywacz, K. L.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lopez Jimenez, M. J.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Regan, P. H.; Rykaczewski, K.; Sauvestre, J. E.; Sawicka, M.; Stanoiu, M.; Sieja, K.; Nowacki, F.

    2010-03-01

    Isomeric low-lying states were identified and investigated in the Cu75 nucleus. Two states at 61.8(5)- and 128.3(7)-keV excitation energies with half-lives of 370(40)- and 170(15)-ns were assigned as Cu75m1 and Cu75m2, respectively. The measured half-lives combined with the recent spin assignment of the ground state allow one to deduce tentatively spin and parity of the two isomers and the dominant multipolarities of the isomeric transitions with respect to the systematics of the Cu isotopes. Shell-model calculations using an up-to-date effective interaction reproduce the evolution of the 1/2-, 3/2-, and 5/2- states for the neutron-rich odd-mass Cu isotopes when filling the νg9/2. The results indicate a significant change in the nuclear structure in this region, where a single-particle 5/2- state coexists with more and more collective 3/2- and 1/2- levels at low excitation energies.

  20. Study of Neutron-Deficient $^{202-205}$Fr Isotopes with Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    De Schepper, Stijn; Cocolios, Thomas; Budincevic, Ivan

    The scope of this master’s thesis is the study of neutron-deficient $^{202−205}$Fr isotopes. These isotopes are inside the neutron-deficient lead region, a region that has shown evidence of shape coexistence. For this thesis, this discussion is limited to the phenomenon where a low lying excited state has a different shape than the ground state. Shape coexistence is caused by intruder states. These are single-particle Shell Model states that are perturbed in energy due to the interaction with a deformed core. In the neutron-deficient lead region the main proton intruder orbit is the 3s$_{1/2}$orbit. When going towards more neutron-deficient isotopes, deformation increases. The $\\pi3s_{1/2}$orbit will rise in energy and will eventually become the ground state in odd- A bismuth (Z=83) isotopes. It is also observed in odd-A astatine (Z=85) isotopes, already in less neutron-deficient nuclei. The same phenomenon is expected to be present francium (Z=87) isotopes already at $^{199}$Fr. Although it is currently ...

  1. New Insights from Zinc and Copper Isotopic Compositions into the Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from Two Major European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R Ochoa; Strekopytov, S; Amato, F; Querol, X; Reche, C; Weiss, D

    2016-09-20

    This study reports spatial and temporal variability of Zn and Cu isotopes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected in two major European cities with contrasting atmospheric pollution, Barcelona and London. We demonstrate that nontraditional stable isotopes identify source contributions of Zn and Cu and can play a major role in future air quality studies. In Barcelona, samples of fine PM were collected at street level at sites with variable traffic density. The isotopic signatures ranged between -0.13 ± 0.09 and -0.51 ± 0.05‰ for δ(66)ZnIRMM and between +0.04 ± 0.20 and +0.33 ± 0.15‰ for δ(65)CuAE633. Copper isotope signatures similar to those of Cu sulfides and Cu/Sb ratios within the range typically found in brake wear suggest that nonexhaust emissions from vehicles are dominant. Negative Zn isotopic signatures characteristic for gaseous emissions from smelting and combustion and large enrichments of Zn and Cd suggest contribution from metallurgical industries. In London, samples of coarse PM collected on the top of a building over 18 months display isotope signatures ranging between +0.03 ± 0.04 and +0.49 ± 0.02‰ for δ(66)ZnIRMM and between +0.37 ± 0.17 and +0.97 ± 0.21‰ for δ(65)CuAE633. Heavy Cu isotope signatures (up to +0.97 ± 0.21‰) and higher enrichments and Cu/Sb ratios during winter time indicate important contribution from fossil fuel combustion. The positive δ(66)ZnIRMM signatures are in good agreement with signatures characteristic for ore concentrates used for the production of tires and galvanized materials, suggesting nonexhaust emissions from vehicles as the main source of Zn pollution.

  2. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, B.F.M.

    1983-11-01

    A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selective radiations preferentially absorbed by the isotopes of a certain type or by the molecules containing them, said absorption substantially increasing the probability of ionization of said atoms or molecules relative to the atoms or molecules that did not absorb the radiation. The process consists of placing the isotopic mixture in such a form, subjecting it in a separation zone to selective radiations and to an electrical field that produces migration of positive ions toward the negative electrodes and negative ions toward the positive electrodes, and withdrawing from certain such zones the fractions thus enriched in certain isotopes

  3. Isotope hydrogeochemistry in exploration for buried and blind mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, A.S.; Carr, G.R.; Giblin, A.M.; Whitford, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Buried and blind deposits, with no direct geological or geochemical manifestation at the surface, are becoming increasingly important targets in Australia. One of the key exploration challenges relates to assessing and ranking targets established from geophysical and other remotely sensed surveys. Sub-surface geology is reflected in the geochemistry of groundwaters (Giblin, 1996) and hydrogeochemical methods provide a particularly powerful technique in areas of poor surface exposure, deep weathering and where transported overburden obscures the underlying geology (Giblin, 1997). In such areas several hundred samples are used to define locally prospective areas although how these relate to a specific mineralization style may be difficult to determine. The question of proximity to an orebody is fundamental to mineral exploration and isotopic (S, Pb, Sr) methods are uniquely capable of contributing to an answer. The isotopic composition of ores and waters that interact with ores carries important information about the elemental source; S and Pb are direct ore indicators allowing straight-forward interpretation of possible ore associations. The isotopic methods also provide unequivocal evidence for mixing. The isotopic compositions of S, Pb and Sr in rocks are unaffected by weathering and in natural waters are unaffected by precipitation, evaporation or dilution. Isotopic methods provide information that is complementary to that obtainable from major and trace element abundances. The application of integrated isotopic studies to conventional hydrogeochemical interpretations was tested in several areas (Fig. 1); Menninnie Dam (Pb, Zn; Eyre Peninsula SA), Abra (Ag, Pb; Bangemall Basin WA), Benambra (Cu, Zn, Pb: Lachlan Fold Belt Vic), Goonumbla (Cu, Au; Lachlan Fold Belt NSW) and Kanmantoo (Cu, Pb, Zn, Au; Kanmantoo Fold Belt SA). These were chosen to include different deposit types, tectonic regimes, climatic and topographic environments and groundwater chemistry

  4. High precision isotopic ratio analysis of volatile metal chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachey, D.L.; Blais, J.C.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    High precision isotope ratio measurements have been made for a series of volatile alkaline earth and transition metal chelates using conventional GC/MS instrumentation. Electron ionization was used for alkaline earth chelates, whereas isobutane chemical ionization was used for transition metal studies. Natural isotopic abundances were determined for a series of Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn chelates. Absolute accuracy ranged between 0.01 and 1.19 at. %. Absolute precision ranged between +-0.01-0.27 at. % (RSD +- 0.07-10.26%) for elements that contained as many as eight natural isotopes. Calibration curves were prepared using natural abundance metals and their enriched 50 Cr, 60 Ni, and 65 Cu isotopes covering the range 0.1-1010.7 at. % excess. A separate multiple isotope calibration curve was similarly prepared using enriched 60 Ni (0.02-2.15 at. % excess) and 62 Ni (0.23-18.5 at. % excess). The samples were analyzed by GC/CI/MS. Human plasma, containing enriched 26 Mg and 44 Ca, was analyzed by EI/MS. 1 figure, 5 tables

  5. Isotopic marking and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

  6. Isotopes in oxidation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of isotopes in the study of organic oxidation mechanisms is discussed. The help provided by tracer studies to demonstrate the two-equivalent path - hydride transfer, is illustrated by the examples of carbonium oxidants and the Wacker reaction. The role of kinetic isotope effects in the study of the scission of carbon-hydrogen bonds is illustrated by hydride abstraction, hydrogen atom abstraction, proton abstraction and quantum mechanical tunnelling. Isotopic studies on the oxidation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, amines and hydrocarbons are discussed. The role of isotopes in the study of biochemical oxidation is illustrated with a discussion on nicotinamide and flavin coenzymes. (B.R.H.)

  7. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  8. Discovery of the iron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Non-statistical effects in the radiative capture cross sections of the neodymium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, A.R.; Allen, B.J.; Boldeman, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the stable neodymium isotopes have been measured with high energy resolution in the keV region at the 40 m station of ORELA. Average resonance parameters are extracted for s-wave resonances. Significant positive correlations are found between gamma-n-0 and gamma-gamma for all isotopes. The magnitude of the observed correlation coefficient, particularly for 142 Nd (rho = 0.9), cannot be explained in terms of valence neutron capture and additional mechanisms are discussed. The average s-wave radiative widths for the odd-A isotopes are markedly greater than for the even-A isotopes, while the p-wave radiative width for 142 Nd is considerably less than the s-wave width. (author)

  12. Descriptions of carbon isotopes within the energy density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Atef [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt); Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Tammam, M. [Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt)

    2014-10-24

    Within the energy density functional (EDF) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied. The shell model calculations are done for both even-A and odd-A nuclei, to study the structure of rich-neutron Carbon isotopes. The EDF theory indicates the single-neutron halo structures in {sup 15}C, {sup 17}C and {sup 19}C, and the two-neutron halo structures in {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C nuclei. It is also found that close to the neutron drip-line, there exist amazing increase in the neutron radii and decrease on the binding energies BE, which are tightly related with the blocking effect and correspondingly the blocking effect plays a significant role in the shell model configurations.

  13. Descriptions of carbon isotopes within the energy density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Atef; Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana; Tammam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the energy density functional (EDF) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied. The shell model calculations are done for both even-A and odd-A nuclei, to study the structure of rich-neutron Carbon isotopes. The EDF theory indicates the single-neutron halo structures in 15 C, 17 C and 19 C, and the two-neutron halo structures in 16 C and 22 C nuclei. It is also found that close to the neutron drip-line, there exist amazing increase in the neutron radii and decrease on the binding energies BE, which are tightly related with the blocking effect and correspondingly the blocking effect plays a significant role in the shell model configurations

  14. Isotopic research in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, H.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1978 scientists of the Central Institute of Isotope- and Radiation Research of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR have participated in antarctic research. Substantial results have been achieved in research on isotope ratios, on the dynamics of water resources, on concentration of deuterium in lichens, and on age determination of a mummified seal and a penguin colony

  15. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  16. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  18. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  20. Isotope research materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Preparation of research isotope materials is described. Topics covered include: separation of tritium from aqueous effluents by bipolar electrolysis; stable isotope targets and research materials; radioisotope targets and research materials; preparation of an 241 Am metallurgical specimen; reactor dosimeters; ceramic and cermet development; fission-fragment-generating targets of 235 UO 2 ; and wire dosimeters for Westinghouse--Bettis

  1. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  2. Superdeformation in Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    The Relatvistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is used to explore the structure of superdeformed (SD) 190,212 Pb isotopes using the non-linear NL3* and density dependent (DD-ME2, DD-PC1) interactions. We have studied the the excitation energy, the potential depth and the deformation of these Pb isotopes

  3. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  4. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  5. Isotope dilution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudge, A.

    1978-12-15

    The following aspects of isotope dilution analysis are covered in this report: fundamental aspects of the technique; elements of interest in the nuclear field, choice and standardization of spike nuclide; pre-treatment to achieve isotopic exchange and chemical separation; sensitivity; selectivity; and accuracy.

  6. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  7. Environmental isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Environmental isotope hydrology is a relatively new field of investigation based on isotopic variations observed in natural waters. These isotopic characteristics have been established over a broad space and time scale. They cannot be controlled by man, but can be observed and interpreted to gain valuable regional information on the origin, turnover and transit time of water in the system which often cannot be obtained by other techniques. The cost of such investigations is usually relatively small in comparison with the cost of classical hydrological studies. The main environmental isotopes of hydrological interest are the stable isotopes deuterium (hydrogen-2), carbon-13, oxygen-18, and the radioactive isotopes tritium (hydrogen-3) and carbon-14. Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are ideal geochemical tracers of water because their concentrations are usually not subject to change by interaction with the aquifer material. On the other hand, carbon compounds in groundwater may interact with the aquifer material, complicating the interpretation of carbon-14 data. A few other environmental isotopes such as 32 Si and 238 U/ 234 U have been proposed recently for hydrological purposes but their use has been quite limited until now and they will not be discussed here. (author)

  8. Laser assisted aerodynamic isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. van den

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the efficiency of conventional aerodynamic isotope seperation can be improved by two orders of magnitude with the aid of a relatively weak cw infrared laser which is used to induce isotopically selective condensation. Overall isotope enrichment factors in excess of 2 are obtained as compared to about 1.02 in the conventional seperation. Sulphur isotopes in SF 6 as well as Silicon isotopes in SiF 4 and Bromine isotopes in CF 3 Br are seperated on a laboratory scale. Infrared vibrational predissociation by itself and in combination with isotopically selective condensation are also shown to be effective new ways of isotope separation. (orig.) [de

  9. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    Greenland ice cores offer a unique opportunity to investigate the climate system behaviour. The objective of this PhD project is to investigate isotope modelling of present- day conditions and conduct model-data comparison using Greenland ice cores. Thus this thesis investigates how the integration...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  10. Applications of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, and 18 O are discussed

  11. The preliminary result of the δ65Cu and δ34S values of major ore minerals in the Erdenetiin-Ovoo Cu-Mo porphyry deposit, Northern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Y.; Lee, I.; Oyungerel, S.; Jargal, L.; Tsedenbal, T.; Ryu, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The copper isotope (δ65Cu) and sulfur isotope (δ34S) compositions of major ore minerals from the Erdenetiin-Ovoo Cu-Mo porphyry deposit were measured to trace sources of copper and sulfur, and to evaluate the precipitation environment of ore minerals. The major ore minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and chalcocite developed in the QSP (Quartz-Sericite-Pyrite) alteration zone. The sulfide minerals such as sphalerite and covellite, and carbonate ore minerals like malachite, azurite are also identified. The copper isotope ratios (65Cu/63Cu) of copper ore minerals (chalcopyrite, chalcocite, malachite, azurite, covellite and chrysocolla) were analyzed by the MC-ICPMS in KBSI located in Ochang, South Korea. The measured δ65Cu values relative to NIST 976 range from -1.01 ‰ to 5.76 ‰. The average δ65Cu values of sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite (1.03 ‰), chalcocite (0.62 ‰) and covellite (0.51 ‰) seem to be relatively lower than those of carbonate and silicate Cu minerals such as malachite (0.24 ‰), azurite (2.17 ‰) and chrysocolla (5.76 ‰). The sulfur isotope ratios (34S/32S) of major sulfide minerals were measured by EA-CF-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer - Continuous Flow - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer) in NCIRF, Seoul National University. The average δ34SV-CDT value is -1.1 ‰ indicating the magmatic signature of sulfur. There is the difference of δ34S values between sulfide minerals. While the δ34S values of pyrite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite range from -0.9 to 0.8 ‰, the δ34S values of chalcocite range from -2.6 ‰ to -1.4 ‰. These lower values might be attributed to the sulfur isotope fractionation during its precipitation.

  12. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  13. Theoretical explanation of EPR parameters for Cu2+ ion in TiO2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.N.; Wu, S.Y.; Li, P.

    2004-01-01

    The EPR parameters anisotropic g-factors g x , g y and g z for Cu 2+ ion and hyperfine structure constants A x , A y and A z for 63 Cu 2+ and 65 Cu 2+ isotopes in rutile (TiO 2 ) crystal are calculated by the method of diagonalizing the full Hamiltonian matrix. The crystal-field parameters contact with the crystal structure by the aid of the superposition model. The calculated results are in reasonable agreement with the observed values. The results are discussed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. New production cross sections for the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupillo, Gaia; Sounalet, Thomas; Michel, Nathalie; Mou, Liliana; Esposito, Juan; Haddad, Férid

    2018-01-01

    The cross sections of the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu, 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga and 68Zn(p,3n)66Ga reactions were measured at the ARRONAX facility by using the 70 MeV cyclotron, with particular attention to the production of the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu. Enriched 68Zn material was electroplated on silver backing and exposed to a low-intensity proton beam by using the stacked-foils target method. Since 67Cu and 67Ga radionuclides have similar half-lives and same γ-lines (they both decay to 67Zn), a radiochemical process aimed at Cu/Ga separation was mandatory to avoid interferences in γ-spectrometry measurements. A simple chemical procedure having a high separation efficiency (>99%) was developed and monitored during each foil processing, thanks to the tracer isotopes 61Cu and 66Ga. Nuclear cross sections were measured in the energy range 35-70 MeV by using reference reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to monitor beam flux. In comparison with literature data a general good agreement on the trend of the nuclear reactions was noted, especially with latest measurements, but slightly lower values were obtained in case of 67Cu. Experimental results of the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu, 68Zn(p,2n)67Ga and 68Zn(p,3n)66Ga reactions were also compared with the theoretical values estimated by using the software TALYS. The production yield of the theranostic radionuclide 67Cu was estimated considering the results obtained in this work.

  15. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  16. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    the δ53Cr value of continental runoff into the ocean. The major findings were that river water is characterised by heavy δ53Cr values (+0.1‰ to +1.6‰), while soils are characterised by light δ53Cr values (-0.3‰), relative to the catchment bedrock (-0.17‰ to -0.21‰), indicating that Cr isotopes......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify......Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...

  17. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  18. Heavy element stable isotope ratios. Analytical approaches and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Continuous developments in inorganic mass spectrometry techniques, including a combination of an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a magnetic sector-based mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple-collector array, have revolutionized the precision of isotope ratio measurements, and applications of inorganic mass spectrometry for biochemistry, geochemistry, and marine chemistry are beginning to appear on the horizon. Series of pioneering studies have revealed that natural stable isotope fractionations of many elements heavier than S (e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ce, Nd, Mo, Cd, W, Tl, and U) are common on Earth, and it had been widely recognized that most physicochemical reactions or biochemical processes induce mass-dependent isotope fractionation. The variations in isotope ratios of the heavy elements can provide new insights into past and present biochemical and geochemical processes. To achieve this, the analytical community is actively solving problems such as spectral interference, mass discrimination drift, chemical separation and purification, and reduction of the contamination of analytes. This article describes data calibration and standardization protocols to allow interlaboratory comparisons or to maintain traceability of data, and basic principles of isotope fractionation in nature, together with high-selectivity and high-yield chemical separation and purification techniques for stable isotope studies.

  19. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating a given material into two or more parts, in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in the said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase UF 6 by infrared photon absorption followed by selective reaction of said excited UF 6 with atomic chlorine, bromine, or iodine to form a product which may be separated by means known in the art

  20. Radiation gradient isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for transporting, separating and storing charged particles, charged antiparticles and fully or partially ionized isotopes of any element comprising a laser beam generator, laser beam intensity profiler, a laser beam variable intensity attenuator, and means for injecting charged particles, charged antiparticles and ionized isotopes into the beam and extracting them from the system as required. The invention is particularly useful for channelling electrons and ions used for fuel pellet compression in inertial fusion systems, for separating the isotopes of elements and for the confinement of charged antiparticles and particle/antiparticle plasmas

  1. Paleozoic–Mesozoic Porphyry Cu(Mo and Mo(Cu Deposits within the Southern Margin of the Siberian Craton: Geochemistry, Geochronology, and Petrogenesis (a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita N. Berzina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The southern margin of the Siberian craton hosts numerous Cu(Mo and Mo(Cu porphyry deposits. This review provides the first comprehensive set of geological characteristics, geochronological data, petrochemistry, and Sr–Nd isotopic data of representative porphyry Cu(Mo and Mo(Cu deposits within the southern margin of the Siberian craton and discusses the igneous processes that controlled the evolution of these magmatic systems related to mineralization. Geochronological data show that these porphyry deposits have an eastward-younging trend evolving from the Early Paleozoic to Middle Mesozoic. The western part of the area (Altay-Sayan segment hosts porphyry Cu and Mo–Cu deposits that generally formed in the Early Paleozoic time, whereas porphyry Cu–Mo deposits in the central part (Northern Mongolia formed in the Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic. The geodynamic setting of the region during these mineralizing events is consistent with Early Paleozoic subduction of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate with the continuous accretion of oceanic components to the Siberian continent and Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic subduction of the west gulf of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean under the Siberian continent. The eastern part of the study area (Eastern Transbaikalia hosts molybdenum-dominated Mo and Mo–Cu porphyry deposits that formed in the Jurassic. The regional geodynamic setting during this mineralizing process is related to the collision of the Siberian and North China–Mongolia continents during the closure of the central part of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean in the Jurassic. Available isotopic data show that the magmas related to porphyritic Cu–Mo and Mo–Cu mineralization during the Early Paleozoic and Late Paleozoic–Early Mesozoic were mainly derived from mantle materials. The generation of fertile melts, related to porphyritic Mo and Mo–Cu mineralization during the Jurassic involved variable amounts of metasomatized mantle source component, the

  2. Atomic and molecular isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, N.T.

    1979-01-01

    A method for differentially exciting a selected isotopic species in a mixture of isotopic species is described characterized in that almost the entire isotopic mixture is placed in an excited gaseous state; and a preselected isotopic species is then selectively de-excited through stimulated emission

  3. High resolution optical spectroscopy in isotopically-pure Si using radioactive isotopes: towards a re-evaluation of deep centres

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Deep centres in silicon have been studied in great detail over the last 50 years and much progress has been made in the understanding and control of impurities in this material. Much of this effort has been focussed on the problems of metallic impurities such as Fe, Ag, Cu and Au. These are impurities that diffuse quickly into the crystal and hamper device performance. Although the understanding of these impurity centres in Si is widely thought to be "solved" recent experiments with isotopically-pure Si are disproving long-held results and are opening up new perspectives on the constitutent nature of deep centres in Si. In particular, there is new evidence to show that the family of Cu, Ag and Au may all show essentially the same behaviour by forming a cluster of $\\textbf{any four atoms}$ of these elements. This has been established for Cu and Ag through the use of different stable isotopes in the preparation of samples, but the case of Au remains unproven since there is only one stable Au isotope. In this pr...

  4. CuO reduction induced formation of CuO/Cu2O hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Yin, Qiyue; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Reduction of CuO nanowires results in the formation of a unique hierarchical hybrid nanostructure, in which the parent oxide phase (CuO) works as the skeleton while the lower oxide (Cu2O) resulting from the reduction reaction forms as partially embedded nanoparticles that decorate the skeleton of the parent oxide. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of the reduction process of CuO nanowires, we demonstrate that the formation of such a hierarchical hybrid oxide structure is induced by topotactic nucleation and growth of Cu2O islands on the parent CuO nanowires.

  5. Isotope Production Facility (IPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced radioactive isotopes for medicine and research since the mid 1970s, when targets were first irradiated using the 800...

  6. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  7. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  8. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  9. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  10. Laser separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for separating uranium isotopes are claimed. The method comprises the steps of irradiating a uranyl source material at a wavelength selective to a desired isotope and at an effective temperature for isotope spectral line splitting below about 77 deg.K., further irradiating the source material within the fluorescent lifetime of the source material to selectively photochemically reduce the excited isotopic species, and chemically separating the reduced isotope species from the remaining uranyl salt compound

  11. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the isotope separation art and, more particularly, to a selectively photon-induced energy level transition of an isotopic molecule containing the isotope to be separated and a chemical reaction with a chemically reactive agent to provide a chemical compound containing atoms of the isotope desired. In particular a description is given of a method of laser isotope separation applied to the separation of 235 UF 6 from 238 UF 6 . (U.K.)

  12. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  13. Isotope toolbox turns 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenander, Fredrik; Riisager, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes.......REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes....

  14. Laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re and Tc

  15. UWIS isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtasiewicz, A. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995 the University of Warsaw Isotope Separator group has participated in the ISOL/IGISOL project at the Heavy Ion Cyclotron. This project consists in installation of an isotope separator (on line with cyclotron heavy ion beam) with a hot plasma ion source (ISOL system) and/or with an ion guide source (IGISOL system). In the report the short description of the present status of the project is presented. 2 figs, 10 refs.

  16. Laser isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re, and Tc. 9 claims, 1 drawing figure

  17. Isotopes in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.; Rozanski, K.; Vose, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive and stable isotopes have long been considered a very efficient tool for studying physical and biological aspects of how the global ecosystem functions. Their applications in environmental research are numerous, embracing research at all levels. This article looks at only a few of the approaches to environmental problems that involve the use of isotopes. Special attention is given to studies of the Amazon Basin. Environmental isotopes are very efficient tools in water cycle studies. Tritium, a radioactive tracer, is especially useful in studying dynamics of water movement in different compartments of the hydrosphere, both on the local and global scales. Heavy stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen (deuterium and oxygen-18) provide information about steady-state characteristics of the water cycle. Isotope methods, some relatively new, have a major role in site-specific studies. Some indicative examples include: Studying turnover of organic matter. Changes in the carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic ratio of organic matter were used to determine the respective contributions of organic carbon derived from forest and pasture. Studying biological nitrogen fixation. One of the ways nitrogen levels in soil can be maintained for productivity is by biological nitrogen fixation. Studying nitrogen availability and losses. The experimental use of nitrogen-15 is invaluable for defining losses of soil nitrogen to the atmosphere and to groundwater. Studies can similarly be done with stable and radioactive sulphur isotopes. This article indicates some potential uses of isotopes in environmental research. While the major problem of global climate change has not been specifically addressed here, the clearing of the Amazon forest, one focus of the IAEA's environmental programme, may have serious consequences for the global climate. These include substantial reduction of the amount of latent heat transported to the regions outside the tropics and acceleration of the greenhouse

  18. Isotopes in everyday life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligman, H.; Gillen, V.A.

    1990-12-01

    Isotopes represent a tool which can do certain jobs better, easier, quicker, more simply and cheaper than competitive methods. Some measurements could not be done at all without the use of isotopes as there are no alternative methods available. A short review of these tools of science in their different fields is given: food and agriculture, human health applications, industry, hydrology, geology, geochemistry, geophysics and dating, environment, basic scientific research

  19. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabicar, J.; Stamberg, K.; Katzer, J.

    1983-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by the method of controlled distribution is claimed. A first phase is either a solution of isotopic components and a ligand (from 10 - 6 M to a saturated solution), or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components, or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components and an inert gas. The isotopes are in the starting mixture in molar ratio from 1:10 5 to 1:10 - 5 . The second phase is a solid sorbent such as styrene-divinylbenzene ion exchangers, or bio-sorbents on the basis of mycelium of lower fungi and sorbents on the basis of cellulose, or an extraction agent such as tributyl phosphate and trioctyl amine, if need be, kept by a carrier such as teflon, silica gel and cellulose. The two-phase system exhibits non-linear equilibrium isotherm for sorption and/or desorption or for extraction and/or re-extraction. After bringing both phases into contact the rate of transport of isotopic components from one phase into another is not equal. Retardation of isotopic exchange takes place by complexation of isotopes with ligands such as cabonate, sulphate, citrate, chloride and ethylenediamine tetraacetate ions, or by using sorbents and extraction agents with chelating functional groups such as carboxyl and hyroxyl groups, groups on the basis of phosphorus, nitrogen and sulphur and/or by operating in darkness, or in the light having wave length between 2.5x10 2 and 10 9 nm. The contact time is between 10 - 2 and 10 6 s, temperature between 10 2 and 10 3 K, the number of stirrer revolutions between 10 - 2 and 10 4 revolutions per s, flow rate at column arrangement between 10 - 6 and 10 - 1 m/s and the size of particles of sorbent between 10 - 6 and 10 - 2 m

  20. Medical isotope development and supply opportunities in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.; Schenter, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Research in extending medical isotopes for the diagnosis and treatment of numerous health maladies is hampered by outages and upsets in major supply sources. Investigations in cures for brain cancer ( 211 At), HIV/AIDS virus ( 213 Bi), and even bacterial vectors are either in reduced progress mode or have been cancelled until isotopes become available. Examples of several key radioactive medical isotopes include 99m Tc for diagnostics, 131 I for non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and thyroid cancer, 225 Ac for acute myelogenous leukemia, and 67 Cu for lymphoma cancer. Possibilities for developing commercially viable sources using compact accelerators and next generation research and production reactors are discussed. (author)

  1. Isotope separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.I.

    1983-01-01

    This application discloses a method for and an apparatus in which isotopes of an element in a compared are separated from each other while that compound, i.e., including a mixture of such isotopes, flows along a predetermined path. The apparatus includes a flow tube having a beginning and an end. The mixture of isotopes is introduced into the flow tube at a first introduction point between the beginning and the end thereof to flow the mixture toward the end thereof. A laser irradiates the flow tube dissociating compounds of a preselected one of said isotopes thereby converting the mixture in an isotopically selective manner. The dissociation products are removed from the tube at a first removal point between the first introduction point and the end. The dissociation product removed at the the first removal point are reconverted back into the comound thereby providing a first stage enriched compound. This first stage enriched compound is reintroduced into the flow tube at a second introduction point between the beginning thereof and the first introduction point. Further product is removed from the flow tube at a second removal point between the second introduction point and the first introduction point. The second introduction point is chosen so that the isotope composition of the first stage enriched compound is approximately the same as that of the compound in the flow tube

  2. International Isotopes Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies world markets of stable and radioactive isotopes. Isotopes have found various applications in science, industry, agriculture and other sectors of the economy, but especially - in medicine. Nuclear medicine is developing intensively all over the world thanks to the success in the treatment of various diseases with the help of radioactive pharmaceuticals (radiopharmaceuticals. The article uses empirical data from a forecast study of the global radiopharmaceuticals market made in 2015 by a research company «Markets and Markets» for the European, North American and global markets. The paper also analyzes the statistical data on the global export and import of natural uranium, enriched and depleted uranium, plutonium, thorium and some stable isotopes of non-medical purposes, presented by a company «Trend economy» in 2014. Despite a unique industrial base for the production of isotopes created in the Soviet Union Russia occupies a modest position on the world market of nuclear medicine except for certain areas. More than 80% of isotopes, produced in USSR were consumed domestically, the export of the stable and radioactive isotopes was in equal proportions. Now the country's domestic radiopharmaceuticals market is poorly developed. To radically change the situation, it is necessary to carry out reforms that stimulate the development of nuclear medicine.

  3. Beneficial use of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Stevens, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives an outlook on the main isotopes currently used for beneficial applications, provides an overview on geographic distribution of isotope production capabilities and identifies the main suppliers world-wide. It analyses trends in different countries and regions, including the refurbishment and/or replacement of ageing facilities and the implementation of new capabilities. Issues related to adequate supply of isotopes and potential under or over capacity of production for some key products are discussed. The evolution of the isotope production sector is analysed. Issues such as lowering of governmental support to production facilities, emergence of international co-operation and agreements on production capabilities, and developments in non-OECD/NEA countries are addressed. The paper offers some concluding remarks on the importance of maintaining and enhancing beneficial uses of isotopes, the role of government policies, the need for co-operation between countries and between the private and public sectors. The paper addresses the role of international cooperation in making efficient use of existing isotope production capacity and investigates ways for reducing the need for investment in additional capacity. (author)

  4. Normal variations in the isotopic composition of metabolically relevant transition metals in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heghe, L.; Cloquet, C.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2012-04-01

    Cu, Fe and Zn are transition metals with great catalytic, structural and regulating importance in the human body. Hence, an aberrant metabolism of these elements can have serious implications on the health of a person. It is assumed that, due to differences in isotope fractionation, the isotopic composition of these elements in whole blood of patients can be different from that in blood of healthy subjects. Therefore, isotopic analysis of the element affected by the disease can be a promising approach for early diagnosis. A method for isotopic analysis of Cu, Fe and Zn in human whole blood was developed. The simultaneous chromatographic isolation of these elements and the conditions for isotope ratio measurement via multi-collector ICP - mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were optimized. So far, only whole blood of supposedly healthy volunteers (reference population) was analyzed. Results for Fe confirmed the known differences in isotopic composition between male and female blood. It is also shown that other parameters can have influence as well, e.g., the isotopic composition of Zn seems to be governed by the diet.

  5. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in the water of crystallization of copper sulfate pentahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, I.; Matsuo, S.

    1981-01-01

    Difference in the isotopic partition at different sites of the water of crystallization of CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (the site preference) was estimated for the hydrogen isotopes. Fractional dehydration of CuSO 4 .5H 2 O under vacuum at 0 and 25 0 C was used to determine the isotopic ratio, the amount of dehydrated water, and the rate process of dehydration. The following results were obtained. (1) Two maxima occur in the isotopic ratio in the dehydration range, F < 0.8. (2) The dehydration occurs by the three sequential zeroth-order rate processes which have different rate constants for dehydration. The three different rate constants may be explained by the combination of the rate constants of dehydration of the water molecules dehydrated. The estimation of the difference in hydrogen isotope distribution for different sites, i.e., four of the five water molecules in the coordination sphere of copper ion (site A) and one bonded to the sulfate ion through hydrogen bonding (site B) was made. The site preference of hydrogen isotopes (delta D,%) was concluded to be -3.20 +- 0.52 for site A and +2.26 +- 2.09 for site B, where the delta D value was referred to the isotopic ratio of the mother liquor from which the crystal was formed

  6. Intracrystalline site preference of hydrogen isotopes in the water of crystallization of copper sulfate pentahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, I.; Matsuo, S.

    1981-04-02

    Difference in the isotopic partition at different sites of the water of crystallization of CuSO/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O (the site preference) was estimated for the hydrogen isotopes. Fractional dehydration of CuSO/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O under vacuum at 0 and 25/sup 0/C was used to determine the isotopic ratio, the amount of dehydrated water, and the rate process of dehydration. The following results were obtained. (1) Two maxima occur in the isotopic ratio in the dehydration range, F < 0.8. (2) The dehydration occurs by the three sequential zeroth-order rate processes which have different rate constants for dehydration. The three different rate constants may be explained by the combination of the rate constants of dehydration of the water molecules dehydrated. The estimation of the difference in hydrogen isotope distribution for different sites, i.e., four of the five water molecules in the coordination sphere of copper ion (site A) and one bonded to the sulfate ion through hydrogen bonding (site B) was made. The site preference of hydrogen isotopes (delta D,%) was concluded to be -3.20 +- 0.52 for site A and +2.26 +- 2.09 for site B, where the delta D value was referred to the isotopic ratio of the mother liquor from which the crystal was formed.

  7. Isotopically exchangeable Al in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A.M. [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Géosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, Aix en Provence (France); Fink, D. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement des Géosciences de l' Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, Aix en Provence (France); Rose, J. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Waite, T. David [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Collins, Richard N., E-mail: richard.collins@unsw.edu.au [UNSW Water Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Periodic discharges of high concentrations of aluminium (Al) causing fish kills and other adverse effects occur worldwide in waterways affected by coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS). The exchangeability — a metal's ability to readily transfer between the soil solid- and solution-phases — of Al in these soils is therefore of particular importance as it has implications for metal transport, plant availability and toxicity to living organisms. In the present study, the concentrations of isotopically exchangeable Al (E values) were measured in 27 CLASS and compared with common salt extractions (i.e. KCl and CuCl{sub 2}) used to estimate exchangeable soil pools of Al. E values of Al were high in the soils, ranging from 357 to 3040 mg·kg{sup −1}. Exchangeable concentrations estimated using 1 M KCl were consistently lower than measured E values, although a reasonable correlation was obtained between the two values (E = 1.68 × Al{sub KCl}, r{sup 2} = 0.66, n = 25). The addition of a 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} extraction step improved the 1:1 agreement between extractable and isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations, but lead to significant mobilisation of non-isotopically exchangeable Al in surficial ‘organic-rich’ CLASS having E values < 1000 mg·kg{sup −1}. It was concluded that currently used (i.e. 1 M KCl) methodology severely underestimates exchangeable Al and total actual acidity values in CLASS and should be corrected by a factor similar to the one determined here. - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Al was compared to 1 M KCl or 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} extractable Al. • 1 M KCl always underestimated isotopically exchangeable Al concentrations. • 0.2 M CuCl{sub 2} mobilised non-isotopically exchangeable Al • 1 M KCl values require correction of ~ 1.7 to reflect exchangeable Al concentrations.

  8. On the superconductivity of doped La2 Cu O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliu-Doloc, L.; Apostol, M.

    1992-01-01

    The superconducting critical temperature and the oxygen isotope shift are analyzed as functions of the doping level x for both La 2-x Sr x Cu O 4 and La 2-x Ba x Cu O 4 within the framework of the theory of high-temperature superconductivity that assumes a coupling between the charge carriers and the oxygen-displacive modes of the lattice. It is shown that an energy gap in the electronic structure at q = ± π/4 (1,±1,0) would markedly depress the critical temperature around x = 1/8 , as for low-temperature tetragonal phase of La 2-x Ba x Cu O 4 , even in the absence of the Fermi surface nesting. On the other hand, a slight reduction in the coupling strength of the model, which may arise in the narrow range around x = 0.12, implies an increase in the oxygen-mass exponent of the lattice frequencies, a decrease in the isotope shift of the critical temperature and a depression of the critical temperature as observed experimentally for both compounds. (Author)

  9. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  10. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, Sol; Young, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Description is given of method for separating a specific isotope from a mixture of isotopes of an actinide element present as MF 6 , wherein M is the actinide element. It comprises: preparing a feed gas mixture of MF 6 in a propellant gas; passing the feed gas mixture under pressure through an expansion nozzle while heating the mixture to about 600 0 C; releasing the heated gas mixture from the nozzle into an exhaust chamber having a reduced pressure, whereby a gas jet of MF 6 molecules, MF 6 molecular clusters and propellant gas molecules is formed, the MF 6 molecules having a translational energy of about 3 eV; converting the MF 6 molecules to MF 6 ions by passing the jet through a cross jet of electron donor atoms so that an electron transfer takes place between the MF 6 - molecules and the electron donor atoms whereby the jet is now quasi-neutral, containing negative MF 6 - ions and positive donor ions; passing the quasi-neutral jet through a radiofrequency mass filter tuned to separate the MF 6 ions containing the specific isotope from the MF 6 - ions of the other isotopes and neutralizing and collecting the MF 6 molecules of the specific isotope [fr

  11. Noncovalent Hydrogen Isotope Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Breslavskaya, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Zero-point energies (ZPE) and isotope effects, induced by intermolecular, noncovalent vibrations, are computed and tested by experimental data. The ZPE differences of H- and D-complexes of water with hydrogen, methane, and water molecules are about 100-300 cal/mol; they result to isotope effects IE of 1.20-1.70. Semi-ionic bonds between metal ions and water ligands in M(H2O) 6 2+ complexes are much stronger; their ZPEs are about 12-14 kcal/mol per molecule and result to IE of 1.9-2.1 at 300 K. Protonated (deuterated) water and biwater exhibit the largest ZPE differences and isotope effects; the latter are 25-28 and 12-13 for water and biwater, respectively. Noncovalent IEs contribute markedly into the experimentally measured effects and explain many anomalous and even magic properties of the effects, such as the dependence of IE on the solvents and on the presence of the third substances, enormously large isotope effects at the mild conditions, the difference between IEs measured in the reactions of individual protiated and deuterated compounds and those measured in their mixture. Noncovalent IEs are not negligible and should be taken into account to make correct and substantiated conclusions on the reaction mechanisms. The kinetic equations are derived for the total isotope effects, which include noncovalent IEs as additive factors.

  12. Transportation of medical isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document

  13. Isotope methods in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1980-01-01

    Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Isomer separation of $^{70g}Cu$ and $^{70m}Cu$ with a resonance ionization laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Köster, U; Mishin, V I; Weissman, L; Huyse, M; Kruglov, K; Müller, W F; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Thirolf, P G; Thomas, H C; Weisshaar, D W; Schulze, W; Borcea, R; La Commara, M; Schatz, H; Schmidt, K; Röttger, S; Huber, G; Sebastian, V; Kratz, K L; Catherall, R; Georg, U; Lettry, Jacques; Oinonen, M; Ravn, H L; Simon, H

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive copper isotopes were ionized with the resonance ionization laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE (CERN). Using the different hyperfine structure in the 3d/sup 10/ 4s /sup 2/S/sub 1/2/-3d/sup 10/ 4p /sup 2/P/sub 1/2//sup 0/ transition the low- and high-spin isomers of /sup 70/Cu were selectively enhanced by tuning the laser wavelength. The light was provided by a narrow-bandwidth dye laser pumped by copper vapor lasers and frequency doubled in a BBO crystal. The ground state to isomeric state intensity ratio could be varied by a factor of 30, allowing to assign gamma transitions unambiguously to the decay of the individual isomers. It is shown that the method can also be used to determine magnetic moments. In a first experiment for the 1/sup +/ ground state of /sup 70/Cu a magnetic moment of (+)1.8(3) mu /sub N/ and for the high-spin isomer of /sup 70/Cu a magnetic moment of (+or-)1.2(3) mu /sub N/ could be deduced. (20 refs).

  15. Separation of uranium isotopes by accelerated isotope exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, M.; Miyake, T.; Inada, K.; Ochi, K.; Sakamoto, T.

    1977-01-01

    A novel catalyst for isotope exchange reaction between uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) compounds enables acceleration of the reaction rate as much as 3000 times to make industrial separation of uranium isotopes economically possible

  16. β decay studies of n-rich Cs isotopes with the ISOLDE Decay Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, R.; Benzoni, G.; Morales, A. I.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; Mach, H.; Madurga, M.; Sotty, C.; Vedia, V.; De Witte, H.; Benito, J.; Berry, T.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Charviakova, V.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Costache, C.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Creswell, J.; Fernández-Martínez, G.; Fynbo, H.; Greenlees, P.; Homm, I.; Huyse, M.; Jolie, J.; Karayonchev, V.; Köster, U.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Lazarus, I.; Leoni, S.; Lund, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Mihai, R.; Negret, A.; Orduz, A.; Patyk, Z.; Pascu, S.; Pucknell, V.; Rahkila, P.; Regis, J. M.; Rotaru, F.; Saed-Sami, N.; Sánchez-Tembleque, V.; Stanoiu, M.; Tengblad, O.; Thuerauf, M.; Turturica, A.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.

    2017-05-01

    Neutron-rich Ba isotopes are expected to exhibit octupolar correlations, reaching their maximum in isotopes around mass A = 146. The odd-A neutron-rich members of this isotopic chain show typical patterns related to non-axially symmetric shapes, which are however less marked compared to even-A ones, pointing to a major contribution from vibrations. In the present paper we present results from a recent study focused on 148-150Cs β-decay performed at the ISOLDE Decay Station equipped with fast-timing detectors. A detailed analysis of the measured decay half-lives and decay scheme of 149Ba is presented, giving a first insight in the structure of this neutron-rich nucleus.

  17. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  18. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  19. Isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an isotope separation device comprising a system for converting into gaseous form a first and second isotope to be separated, a monochromatic excitation light source to excite the gaseous molecules of these two isotopes in a distinct manner, a first and second receiver to collect selectively the molecules of the first and second distinctly excited isotopes. The frequency FL of the excitation light is selected between a lower limit and a higher limit F2 + 1/2 LD, depending on the frequences F1 and F2 of two absorption lines near this first and second isotope. The difference DF between these two frequencies F1 and F2 is less than the Doppler width LD of each one of these lines and greater than the natural width LN of each of these two lines and also the width of line LR of the excitation light source. The probability that the molecules will be excited by this light depends on the direction of their displacement to a major and different extent for both isotopes. An ionising light source LI is set up to irradiate the seat of interaction between the excitation light and the gaseous molecules with an ionisation light able to ionise the excited molecules without ionising the molecules that are not excited. The receivers are able to collect selectively the ionised molecules. A sufficiently low gas pressure is selected for the distance between the place of interaction and the first receiver to be less than double the free mean travel of the molecules in the gas [fr

  20. Climate and isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    The applications of natural radioactivity and isotopic measurements in the sciences concerning Earth and its atmosphere, are numerous: carbon 14 dating with the Tandetron apparatus at the Cea, measurement of oxygen 18 in coral or sediment limestone for the determination of ocean temperature and salinity, carbon 14 dating of corals for the determination of sea level variations, deuterium content in polar ice-cap leads to temperature variations determination; isotopic measurements also enable the determination of present climate features such as global warming, oceanic general circulation

  1. Method to separate isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, H.; Neuschuetz, D.

    1980-01-01

    An extraction by means of supercritical pure gases (e.g. CD 2 ) or gas mixtures is proposed to separate isotopes, especially H/D, Li-6/Li-7, and U-235/U-238, and water or benzol is used as entrainer. The extraction shall be carried out at pressure rates of about 350 bar above the critical pressure with the temperature being by up to 100 0 C above the critical temperature. A NaCl-solution and the change of the isotopic ratio Cl-35/Cl-37 are investigated for example purpose. (UWI) [de

  2. Environmental isotope survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacovides, J.S.

    1979-03-01

    Work was initiated on the 1st of September 1971 with the objective of finding out how best to use environmental isotopes in the interpretation of the hydrology, particularly subsurface hydrology, of Cyprus through a sparse reconnaissance sampling of all the major aquifers and springs covering the whole island. The distribution of sampling was such that the survey in itself could assist in clarifying particular hydrogeologic problems, provide a better understanding of the water systems of the island, establish a general environmental isotope - framework of the hydrologic regimen of Cyprus as well as to provide the basis for specific, more detailed, studies to be undertaken subsequently

  3. Lectures in isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.; Hunziker, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Designed for a introductory course in geochronology and the geochemistry of stable isotopes, this text has been written by recognized experts in the field. Emphasis is on the interpretation and on applications, and examples of these are offered along with each technique. Extraterrestrial applications have been avoided and the treatment of pure experimentation has been kept at a minimum. This text will be appreciated by geologists who want to learn more about methods used in isotope geology, how they can be applied, and how to gauge their usefulness. (orig.) [de

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of cesium removal by CuFC adsorption. The effects of initial concentration, CuFC dosage and co-existing ions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Xu; Ping Gu; Guang-Hui Zhang; Jun Zhao; Lu Wang; Xiang-Zhu Xiao; Fei Han

    2017-01-01

    To use copper ferrocyanide (CuFC) more efficiently in wastewater treatment, the method of isotope carrying used in "1"3"7Cs removal was investigated. A calculation model based on Freundlich isotherm was established to determine the optimum initial cesium concentration, at which the highest decontamination factor (DF) could be obtained at a certain CuFC dosage. An accurate DF prediction model was developed to describe synergistic effects of sodium and potassium. A novel index called volumetric distribution coefficient (K_v_d) was proposed to evaluate adsorption performance in terms of DF and concentration factor. (author)

  5. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  6. Isotope separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are specified for separating a mixture of isotopes present in a compound, preferably a gaseous compound, into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes differ from the natural abundances of the isotopes in the compound. The invention particularly relates to carrying out a laser induced, isotopically selective conversion of gaseous molecules in such a manner as to achieve more than one stage of isotope separation along the length of the laser beam. As an example, the invention is applied to the separation of the isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , in which either the U-235 or U-238 isotope is selectively excited by means of irradiation from an infrared laser, and the selectively excited isotope converted into a product that can be recovered from UF 6 by one of a variety of methods that are described. (U.K.)

  7. Positron range in PET imaging: non-conventional isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jødal, L; Le Loirec, C; Champion, C

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional short-lived radionuclides, longer-lived isotopes are becoming increasingly important to positron emission tomography (PET). The longer half-life both allows for circumvention of the in-house production of radionuclides, and expands the spectrum of physiological processes amenable to PET imaging, including processes with prohibitively slow kinetics for investigation with short-lived radiotracers. However, many of these radionuclides emit ‘high-energy’ positrons and gamma rays which affect the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of PET images. The objective of the present work is to investigate the positron range distribution for some of these long-lived isotopes. Based on existing Monte Carlo simulations of positron interactions in water, the probability distribution of the line of response displacement have been empirically described by means of analytic displacement functions. Relevant distributions have been derived for the isotopes 22 Na, 52 Mn, 89 Zr, 45 Ti, 51 Mn, 94m Tc, 52m Mn, 38 K, 64 Cu, 86 Y, 124 I, and 120 I. It was found that the distribution functions previously found for a series of conventional isotopes (Jødal et al 2012 Phys. Med. Bio. 57 3931–43), were also applicable to these non-conventional isotopes, except that for 120 I, 124 I, 89 Zr, 52 Mn, and 64 Cu, parameters in the formulae were less well predicted by mean positron energy alone. Both conventional and non-conventional range distributions can be described by relatively simple analytic expressions. The results will be applicable to image-reconstruction software to improve the resolution. (paper)

  8. Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a hybrid description of Cu + Cu collisions using (3 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamics (music) for the bulk evolution and a Monte Carlo simulation (martini) for the evolution of high-momentum partons in the hydrodynamical background. We explore the limits of this description by going to small system sizes and determine the dependence on different fractions of wounded nucleon and binary collisions scaling of the initial energy density. We find that Cu + Cu collisions are well described by the hybrid description at least up to 20% central collisions.

  9. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Sun Shuhua

    1987-12-01

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  10. Isotopic signatures suggest important contributions from recycled gasoline, road dust and non-exhaust traffic sources for copper, zinc and lead in PM10 in London, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuofei; Ochoa Gonzalez, Raquel; Harrison, Roy M.; Green, David; North, Robin; Fowler, Geoff; Weiss, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of what controls the isotope composition of Cu, Zn and Pb in particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment and to develop these isotope systems as possible source tracers. To this end, isotope ratios (Cu, Zn and Pb) and trace element concentrations (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba, Pb, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in PM10 collected at two road sites with contrasting traffic densities in central London, UK, during two weeks in summer 2010, and in potential sources, including non-combustion traffic emissions (tires and brakes), road furniture (road paint, manhole cover and road tarmac surface) and road dust. Iron, Ba and Sb were used as proxies for emissions derived from brake pads, and Ni, and V for emissions derived from fossil fuel oil. The isotopic composition of Pb (expressed using 206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.1137 and 1.1364. The isotope ratios of Cu and Zn expressed as δ65CuNIST976 and δ66ZnLyon ranged between -0.01‰ and +0.51‰ and between -0.21‰ and +0.33‰, respectively. We did not find significant differences in the isotope signatures in PM10 over the two weeks sampling period and between the two sites, suggesting similar sources for each metal at both sites despite their different traffic densities. The stable isotope composition of Pb suggests significant contribution from road dust resuspension and from recycled leaded gasoline. The Cu and Zn isotope signatures of tires, brakes and road dust overlap with those of PM10. The correlation between the enrichments of Sb, Cu, Ba and Fe in PM10 support the previously established hypothesis that Cu isotope ratios are controlled by non-exhaust traffic emission sources in urban environments (Ochoa Gonzalez et al., 2016). Analysis of the Zn isotope signatures in PM10 and possible sources at the two sites suggests significant contribution from tire wear. However, temporary additional sources, likely high temperature industrial emissions, need to be invoked

  11. Chlorine isotope fractionation during supergene enrichment of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M.; Barnes, J.; Barra, F.; Milojevic, C.; Drew, D.

    2017-12-01

    Supergene enrichment of Cu deposits in the Atacama Desert has played a critical role in making this the prime Cu-producing province of the world. The Cu-hydroxychloride atacamite is a major component of supergene zones in this region whereas in similar deposits elsewhere it is rare. Atacamite requires saline water to form and dissolves rapidly when exposed to fresh, meteoric water. Previous chlorine stable isotope data [1] for atacamite mineralization at the Radomiro Tomic, Chuquicamata and Mina Sur Cu deposits show δ37Cl values that range from -0.1 to +0.2‰, indicating a similar nonmagmatic source for the introduction of chloride. However, distal atacamite mineralization on the periphery of these orebodies show more fractionated and lighter δ37Cl values (-3.2 to -0.1‰). Although little disagreement currently exists about the involvement of saline groundwater during the formation of atacamite [2], no δ37Cl data are currently available for atacamite within a single deposit and/or supergene enrichment profile that allow explaining the aforementioned differences in the observed δ37Cl values. Furthermore, no experimental data for chlorine isotope fractionation between Cu-hydroxychloride minerals and water exist that help evaluate possible mechanisms of fractionation along the groundwater flow path. Here we present a new database that combines detailed mineralogical observations with δ37Cl data of atacamite along a thick ( 100 m) supergene enrichment profile at the Barreal Seco IOCG deposit in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Chlorine stable isotope data of atacamite vary between -0.62 and +2.1 ‰ and show a well-defined trend where δ37Cl values progressively decrease (become lighter) with depth. These data, when combined with new experimental determinations of chlorine isotope fractionation between atacamite and water, point to changes triggered by the progressive deepening of groundwater tables during Andean uplift and the extreme desiccation of

  12. Isotope separation using tunable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snavely, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Various processes for laser isotope separation based upon the use of the spectroscopic isotope effect in atomic and molecular vapors are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon processes which are suitable for uranium enrichment. A demonstration process for the separation of uranium isotopes using selective photoionization is described. (U.S.)

  13. Isotope effects on nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    This review concentrates upon empirical trends and practical uses of mostly secondary isotope effects, both of the intrinsic and equilibrium types. The text and the tables are arranged in the following fashion. The most 'popular' isotope effect is treated first, deuterium isotope effects on 13 C nuclear shielding, followed by deuterium on 1 H nuclear shieldings, etc. Focus is thus on the isotopes producing the effect rather than on the nuclei suffering the effect. After a brief treatment of each type of isotope effect, general trends are dealt with. Basic trends of intrinsic isotope effects such as additivity, solvent effects, temperature effects, steric effects, substituent effects and hyperconjugation are discussed. Uses of isotope effects for assignment purposes, in stereochemical studies, in hydrogen bonding and in isotopic tracer studies are dealt with. Kinetic studies, especially of phosphates, are frequently performed by utilizing isotope effects. In addition, equilibrium isotope effects are treated in great detail as these are felt to be new and very important and may lead to new uses of isotope effects. Techniques used to obtain isotope effects are briefly surveyed at the end of the chapter. (author)

  14. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  15. Uranium Isotopic Analysis with the FRAM Isotopic Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    FRAM is the acronym for Fixed-Energy Response-Function Analysis with Multiple efficiency. This software was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory originally for plutonium isotopic analysis. Later, it was adapted for uranium isotopic analysis in addition to plutonium. It is a code based on a self-calibration using several gamma-ray peaks for determining the isotopic ratios. The versatile-parameter database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration and detector type

  16. A diffuse neutron scattering study of clustering kinetics in Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrijen, J.; Radelaar, S.; Schwahn, D.

    1977-01-01

    Diffuse scattering of thermal neutrons was used to investigate the kinetics of clustering in Cu-Ni alloys. In order to optimize the experimental conditions the isotopes 65 Cu and 62 Ni were alloyed. The time evolution of the diffuse scattered intensity at 400 0 C has been measured for eight Cu-Ni alloys, varying in composition between 30 and 80 at. pour cent Ni. The relaxation of the so called null matrix, containing 56.5 at. pour cent Ni has also been investigated at 320, 340, 425 and 450 0 C. Using Cook's model from all these measurements information has been deduced about diffusion at low temperatures and about thermodynamic properties of the Cu-Ni system. It turns out that Cook's model is not sufficiently detailed for an accurate description of the initial stages of these relaxations

  17. Isotopes in aquaculture research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Dash, B.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The applications of isotopes in aquaculture research include areas like aquatic production process, nutrient cycles and food chain dynamics, fish nutrition, fish physiology, genetics and immunology. The radioisotopes commonly used are beta emitters. The use of different radioisotopes in aquaculture research are presented. 2 tabs

  18. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  19. SHELL ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The land snail Limicolaria kambeul chudeaui Germain was collected ... Key words/phrases: Ethiopia, isotope geochemistry, Lake Tilo, Limicolaria .... 1984), (c) 6'80 values of precipitation at Addis Ababa, with i 1 S.D. bars for the .... (breakfast cereal), deionised water and cuttlefish bone, the carbon and oxygen.

  20. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  1. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  2. Isotopes in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    For most people the obvious application of nuclear technology is in power generation. But there are many other uses for radioactive materials or for products made with their help. They are found in our factories, hospitals, offices and homes. ''Isotopes in Action'' looks at the many applications of radioisotopes in our society. (author)

  3. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  4. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  5. Actinide isotopic analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Ruhter, W.D.; Gunnink, R.

    1990-01-01

    This manual provides instructions and procedures for using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's two-detector actinide isotope analysis system to measure plutonium samples with other possible actinides (including uranium, americium, and neptunium) by gamma-ray spectrometry. The computer program that controls the system and analyzes the gamma-ray spectral data is driven by a menu of one-, two-, or three-letter options chosen by the operator. Provided in this manual are descriptions of these options and their functions, plus detailed instructions (operator dialog) for choosing among the options. Also provided are general instructions for calibrating the actinide isotropic analysis system and for monitoring its performance. The inventory measurement of a sample's total plutonium and other actinides content is determined by two nondestructive measurements. One is a calorimetry measurement of the sample's heat or power output, and the other is a gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of its relative isotopic abundances. The isotopic measurements needed to interpret the observed calorimetric power measurement are the relative abundances of various plutonium and uranium isotopes and americium-241. The actinide analysis system carries out these measurements. 8 figs

  6. Radio-isotope production using laser Wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.; Rodgers, D.; Catravas, P.E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Fubiani, G.; Toth, C.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Donahue, R.; Smith, A.; Reitsma, A.

    2001-01-01

    A 10 Hz, 10 TW solid state laser system has been used to produce electron beams suitable for radio-isotope production. The laser beam was focused using a 30 cm focal length f/6 off-axis parabola on a gas plume produced by a high pressure pulsed gas jet. Electrons were trapped and accelerated by high gradient wakefields excited in the ionized gas through the self-modulated laser wakefield instability. The electron beam was measured to contain excesses of 5 nC/bunch. A composite Pb/Cu target was used to convert the electron beam into gamma rays which subsequently produced radio-isotopes through (gamma, n) reactions. Isotope identification through gamma-ray spectroscopy and half-life time measurements demonstrated that Cu 61 was produced which indicates that 20-25 MeV gamma rays were produced, and hence electrons with energies greater than 25-30 MeV. The production of high energy electrons was independently confirmed using a bending magnet spectrometer. The measured spectra had an exponential distribution with a 3 MeV width. The amount of activation was on the order of 2.5 uCi after 3 hours of operation at 1 Hz. Future experiments will aim at increasing this yield by post-accelerating the electron beam using a channel guided laser wakefield accelerator

  7. Application of the isotopic index in isotope geochemical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, H.

    1982-06-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate approximately isotope exchange equilibria between different crystalline silicates. The algorithm uses a newly introduced isotopic index. It is defined using isotopic increments of the variant types of silicatic bonds. This isotopic index gives a quantitative measure of the ability to enrich 18 O or 30 Si, respectively. The dependence of isotopic fractionations on temperature can be calculated approximately by means of the isotopic index, too. On this theoretical base some problems of magmatism and two varieties of an isotope geochemical model of the evolution of the Earth's crust are treated. Finally, the possibility is demonstrated to give prognostic statements about the likelihood of ore bearing of different granites. (author)

  8. Production of Medical Isotopes with Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, D A; Alford, K.; Bailey, J. L.; Bowers, D. L.; Brossard, T.; Brown, M. A.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Ehst, D.; Greene, J.; Gromov, R. G.; Grudzinski, J.J.; Hafenrichter, L.; Hebden, A. S.; Henning, W.; Heltemes, T. A.; Jerden, J.; Jonah, C. D.; Kalensky, M.; Krebs, J. F.; Makarashvili, V.; Micklich, B.; Nolen, J.; Quigley, K. J.; Schneider, J. F.; Smith, N. A.; Stepinski, D. C.; Sun, Z.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Virgo, M J; Wesolowski, K. A.; Youker, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Radioisotopes play important roles in numerous areas ranging from medical treatments to national security and basic research. Radionuclide production technology for medical applications has been pursued since the early 1900s both commercially and in nuclear science centers. Many medical isotopes are now in routine production and are used in day-to-day medical procedures. Despite these advancements, research is accelerating around the world to improve the existing production methodologies as well as to develop novel radionuclides for new medical appli-cations. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) represent a unique method for the production of radioisotopes. Even though the basic technology has been around for decades, only recently have electron linacs capable of producing photons with sufficient energy and flux for radioisotope production become available. Housed in Argonne Nation-al Laboratory’s Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) is a newly upgraded 55 MeV/25-kW electron linear ac-celerator, capable of producing a wide range of radioiso-topes. This talk will focus on the work being performed for the production of the medical isotopes 99Mo (99Mo/99mTc generator), 67Cu, and 47Sc.

  9. Porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, A.; Yazdi, M.; Mehrpartou, M.; Vosoughi, M.; Younesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mirkuh Ali Mirza Cu-Au porphyry system in East Azerbaijan Province is located on the western part of the Cenozoic Alborz-Azerbaijan volcanic belt. The belt is also an important Cu-Mo-Au metallogenic province in northwestern Iran. The exposed rocks in the study area consist of a volcaniclastic sequence, subvolcanic rocks and intermediate to mafic lava flows of Neogene age. The volcanic rocks show a typical subduction-related magmatic arc geological and geochemical signature, with low concentration of Nb, Ta, and Ti. Mineralization is hosted by Neogene dacitic tuff and porphyritic dacite situated at the intersections of northeast and northwest faults. Field observations, alteration zonation, geochemical haloes and isotopic data of the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex show similarities with typical convergent margin Cu-Au porphyry type deposits. The following features confirm the classic model for Cu-Au porphyry systems: (a) close spatial association with high-K calcalkaline to shoshonitic rock related to post-collision extensional setting (b) low grade Cu (0.57%) (c) stockworks as well as disseminated sulfides (c) zonality of the alteration patterns from intense phyllic at the center to outward weak-phyllic, argillic, and propylitic (d) the presence of a pyritic halo (e) accompanied by sheeted veins and low-sulfidation epithermal gold (f) mineralization spatially associated with intersection of structures, (g) genetically related to diorite porphyry stocks at depth (h) geochemical zonation of (Cu ± Au ± Ag ± Bi) → (Cu + Mo ± Bi ± Au ± Pb ± Zn ± As) → (Au + Mo ± Pb ± Zn) → (As + Ag + Sb + Mn + Ba + Pb + Zn + Hg) → Hg from center to outwards (i) The range of sulfur isotopic values is approximately zero (interpreted to have magmatic source) and similar to other subduction-related porphyry Cu deposits.

  10. Isotopic separation by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.G.; Barre, Y.; Neige, R.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic exchange reaction and the isotopic separation factor are first recalled; the principles of ion chromatography applied to lithium isotope separation are then reviewed (displacement chromatography) and the process is modelled in the view of dimensioning and optimizing the industrial process; the various dimensioning parameters are the isotopic separation factor, the isotopic exchange kinetics and the material flow rate. Effects of the resin type and structure are presented. Dimensioning is also affected by physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters. Industrial implementation features are also discussed. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  11. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1994-08-01

    Control of the isotopic composition of semiconductors offers a wide range of new scientific opportunities. In this paper a number of recent results obtained with isotopically pure as well as deliberately mixed diamond and Ge bulk single crystals and Ge isotope superlattices will be reviewed. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, bandstructure and lattice constant in subtle but theoretically well understood ways. Large effects are observed for thermal conductivity, local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping (NTD). Several experiments which could profit greatly from isotope control are proposed

  12. Stability of Cu-Precipitates in Al-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten E. M. Staab

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present first principle calculations on formation and binding energies for Cu and Zn as solute atoms forming small clusters up to nine atoms in Al-Cu and Al-Zn alloys. We employ a density-functional approach implemented using projector-augmented waves and plane wave expansions. We find that some structures, in which Cu atoms are closely packed on {100}-planes, turn out to be extraordinary stable. We compare the results with existing numerical or experimental data when possible. We find that Cu atoms precipitating in the form of two-dimensional platelets on {100}-planes in the fcc aluminum are more stable than three-dimensional structures consisting of the same number of Cu-atoms. The preference turns out to be opposite for Zn in Al. Both observations are in agreement with experimental observations.

  13. Atomic structure and formation of CuZrAl bulk metallic glasses and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaban, I.; Jóvári, P.; Escher, B.; Tran, D.T.; Svensson, G.; Webb, M.A.; Regier, T.Z.; Kokotin, V.; Beuneu, B.; Gemming, T.; Eckert, J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Partial radial distribution functions for Cu 47.5 Zr 47.5 Al 5 metallic glass and relevant crystal structures. - Abstract: Cu 47.5 Zr 47.5 Al 5 metallic glass is studied experimentally by high-energy X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution, electron diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The atomic structure of the glass is modeled by reverse Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. RMC modeling of seven experimental datasets enabled reliable separation of all partial pair distribution functions for Cu 47.5 Zr 47.5 Al 5 metallic glass. A peculiar structural feature of the ternary alloy is formation of the strong Al–Zr bonds, which are supposed to determine its high viscosity and enhanced bulk glass formation. Analysis of the local atomic order in Cu 47.5 Zr 47.5 Al 5 glass and Cu 10 Zr 7 , CuZr 2 and CuZr B2 crystalline structures elucidates their similarities and differences explaining the phase formation sequence by devitrification of the glass.

  14. Understanding H isotope adsorption and absorption of Al-alloys using modeling and experiments (LDRD: #165724)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Donald K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, Xiaowang [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolasinski, Robert [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Michael E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Thurmer, Konrad [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chao, Paul [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Epperly, Ethan Nicholas [Livermore Valley Charter Preparatory High School, Livermore, CA (United States); Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, Bryan M. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Sills, Ryan B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Current austenitic stainless steel storage reservoirs for hydrogen isotopes (e.g. deuterium and tritium) have performance and operational life-limiting interactions (e.g. embrittlement) with H-isotopes. Aluminum alloys (e.g.AA2219), alternatively, have very low H-isotope solubilities, suggesting high resistance towards aging vulnerabilities. This report summarizes the work performed during the life of the Lab Directed Research and Development in the Nuclear Weapons investment area (165724), and provides invaluable modeling and experimental insights into the interactions of H isotopes with surfaces and bulk AlCu-alloys. The modeling work establishes and builds a multi-scale framework which includes: a density functional theory informed bond-order potential for classical molecular dynamics (MD), and subsequent use of MD simulations to inform defect level dislocation dynamics models. Furthermore, low energy ion scattering and thermal desorption spectroscopy experiments are performed to validate these models and add greater physical understanding to them.

  15. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.; Rabinowitz, P.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating the isotopes of an element is described, which comprises the steps of (i) subjecting molecules of a gaseous compound of the element simultaneously to two infrared radiations of different wavelengths, the first radiation having a wavelength which corresponds to an absorption band of the compound, which in turn corresponds to a mode of molecular motion in which there is participation by atoms of the element, and the second radiation having a power density greater than 10 6 watts per cm 2 , thereby exciting molecules of the compound in an isotopically selective manner, this step being conducted in such manner that the excited molecules either receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by unimolecular decomposition or receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by reaction with molecules of another gas present for that purpose; and (ii) separating and recovering converted molecules from unconverted molecules. (author)

  16. Decontamination of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotovic, R.; Music, S.; Subotic, B.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of radioactive isotopes under controlled conditions is determined by a number of physical and chemical properties considered radiocontaminating and by the characteristics of the contaminated object. Determination of quantitative and qualitative factors for equilibrium in a contamination-decontamination system provides the basis for rational and successful decontamination. The decontamination of various ''solid/liquid'' systems is interesting from the scientific and technological point of view. These systems are of great importance in radiation protection (decontamination of various surfaces, liquids, drinking water, fixation or collection of radiocontaminants). Different types of decontamination systems are discussed. The dependence of rate and efficiency of the preparation conditions and on the ageing of the scavenger is described. The influence of coagulating electrolyte on radioactive isotope fixation efficiency was also determined. The fixation of fission radionuclide on oxide scavengers has been studied. The connection between fundamental investigations and practical decontamination of the ''solid/liquid'' systems is discussed. (author)

  17. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Rechargeable radioactive isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.K.; Cerone, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The description is given of a rechargeable radioactive isotope generator having the following features: a box containing a transport shield, a shielded generator including elements for the absorption and holding of the parent isotope, an eluant tank, a first pipe causing this tank to communicate with the transport shield, a second pipe causing this transport shield to communicate with the shielded generator and a third pipe placing the shielded generator in communication with the outside of the unit. It also includes a shelf across the external front part of the unit a part of which is shielded by external components, a shielded elution flask in which the eluate is poured and a filter set at a point between the flask and the third pipe [fr

  19. Production and identification of heavy Ni isotopes: Evidence for the doubly magic nucleus 7828Ni. Short note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, C.; Ameil, F.; Bernas, M.; Heinz, A.; Janas, Z.; Kozhuharov, C.; Miehe, C.; Pfuetzner, M.; Roehl, C.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Voss, B.

    1995-07-01

    We report the first observation of the doubly magic nucleus 78 Ni 50 and the heavy isotopes 77 Ni, 73,74,75 Co, 80 Cu. The isotopes were produced by nuclear fission in collisions of 750 A.MeV projectiles of 238 U on Be target nuclei. The fully-stripped fission products were separated in-flight by the fragment separator FRS and identified event-by-event by measuring the magnetic rigidity, the trajectory, the energy deposit, and the time of flight. Production cross-sections and fission yields for the new Ni-isotopes are given. (orig.)

  20. Equipment for isotope diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns an improvement of equipment for isotope diagnostics allowing to mark special intensity ranges of the recorded measurements by means of different colors. For undisturbed operation it is of advantage to avoid electric circuits between movable and unmovable parts of the color recorder. According to the invention, long gear wheels of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide are used for these connections. (ORU) [de

  1. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  2. Stable-isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Structures of bacteriochlorophyll b and the Krasnovskii photoreduction products of chlorophyll a are given. All 55 13 C and 4 15 N NMR transitions in chlorophyl a and its magnesium-free derivative pheophytin a were assigned. ESR of triplet states of chlorophylls a, b, c/sub z/, and c 2 and bacteriochlorophyll a are reported. Experiments in the cultivation of 13 C-enriched morning glory plants indicated that the isotope enrichment can produce observable morphological changes. (U.S.)

  3. Protected isotope heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.K.; Shure, L.I.; Katzen, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive isotope capsule is disposed in a container (heat shield) which will have a single stable trim attitude when reentering the earth's atmosphere and while falling to earth. The center of gravity of the heat source is located forward of the midpoint between the front face and the rear face of the container. The capsule is insulated from the front face of the container but not from the rear surface of the container. (auth)

  4. Isotopes and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavolta, E.

    1988-01-01

    The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author) [pt

  5. The isotope correlation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Schoof, S.

    1983-01-01

    The ESARDA working group on Isotopic Correlation Techniques, ICT and Reprocessing Input Analysis performed an Isotope Correlation Experiment, ICE with the aim to check the feasibility of the new technique. Ten input batches of the reprocessing of the KWO fuel at the WAK plant were analysed by 4 laboratories. All information to compare ICT with the gravimetric and volumetric methods was available. ICT combined with simplified reactor physics calculation was included. The main objectives of the statistical data evaluation were detection of outliers, the estimation of random errors and of systematic errors of the measurements performed by the 4 laboratories. Different methods for outlier detection, analysis of variances, Grubbs' analysis for the constant-bias model and Jaech's non-constant-bias model were applied. Some of the results of the statistical analysis may seem inconsistent which is due to the following reasons. For the statistical evaluations isotope abundance data (weight percent) as well as nuclear concentration data (atoms/initial metal atoms) were subjected to different outlier criteria before being used for further statistical evaluations. None of the four data evaluation groups performed a complete statistical data analysis which would render possible a comparison of the different methods applied since no commonly agreed statistical evaluation procedure existed. The results prove that ICT is as accurate as conventional techniques which have to rely on costly mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. The potential of outlier detection by ICT on the basis of the results from a single laboratory is as good as outlier detection by costly interlaboratory comparison. The application of fission product or Cm-244 correlations would be more timely than remeasurements at safeguards laboratories

  6. Isotopic safeguards statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Stewart, K.B.

    1978-06-01

    The methods and results of our statistical analysis of isotopic data using isotopic safeguards techniques are illustrated using example data from the Yankee Rowe reactor. The statistical methods used in this analysis are the paired comparison and the regression analyses. A paired comparison results when a sample from a batch is analyzed by two different laboratories. Paired comparison techniques can be used with regression analysis to detect and identify outlier batches. The second analysis tool, linear regression, involves comparing various regression approaches. These approaches use two basic types of models: the intercept model (y = α + βx) and the initial point model [y - y 0 = β(x - x 0 )]. The intercept model fits strictly the exposure or burnup values of isotopic functions, while the initial point model utilizes the exposure values plus the initial or fabricator's data values in the regression analysis. Two fitting methods are applied to each of these models. These methods are: (1) the usual least squares fitting approach where x is measured without error, and (2) Deming's approach which uses the variance estimates obtained from the paired comparison results and considers x and y are both measured with error. The Yankee Rowe data were first measured by Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) and remeasured by Nuclear Audit and Testing Company (NATCO). The ratio of Pu/U versus 235 D (in which 235 D is the amount of depleted 235 U expressed in weight percent) using actual numbers is the isotopic function illustrated. Statistical results using the Yankee Rowe data indicates the attractiveness of Deming's regression model over the usual approach by simple comparison of the given regression variances with the random variance from the paired comparison results

  7. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  8. Lead isotopic studies of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H.; Pallister, J.S.

    1981-04-10

    The isotopic composition of Pb and the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb have been determined for samples from various lithologic units and massive sulfides of the Samail ophiolite. The observed /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios range from 17.90 to 19.06, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios from 15.43 to 15.63, and /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb from 37.66 to 38.78. In Pb isotopic evolution diagrams, the initial Pb isotopic compositions of most of the samples from the Samail ophiolite plot within the field of oceanic basalt, clearly distinct from island arc data, and define some of the least radiogenic Pb observed from oceanic rocks. Lead data from the Samail are compatible with a model involving magma generation from an oceanic mantle source and formation of the ophiolite at an oceanic spreading center. U--Th--Pb isotopic systematics demonstrate that vertical heterogeneity in the oceanic crust can be created through differential concentration of U, Th, and Pb during crystal fractionation and alteration at, or near, the spreading ridge. Calcite form amygdules in the ophiolite basalt has similar Pb isotopic composition to the igneous rocks, suggesting precipitation of the calcite from seawater which contained Pb derived mostly from the oceanic crust. Lead isotopic data on Fe--Cu sulfides are also similar to the results from the igneous suite suggesting that the source of the sulfides is predominently from the oceanic crust. Lead data from serpentinized peridotite and a galena sample from below the ophiolite suggest that part of the serpentinization process and the formation of galena could involve addition of radiogenic Pb from either a continental source or from oceanic sediments.

  9. Marginal-Fermi-liquid theory and the isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, E.J.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In the marginal-Fermi-liquid model, the coupling between two electrons is via charge (attractive) and spin (repulsive) fluctuations, and so it does not exhibit an isotope effect. To include this effect, an additional phonon contribution must be introduced. Using the case of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , for illustrative purposes, with a total isotope effect coefficient of β tot congruent 0.05 at a T c of 90 K, we find that the implied electron-phonon mass renormalization is very small for coupling to high-energy phonons but increases rapidly with decreasing phonon frequency or an increasing amount of spin fluctuations. Finally, we examine how β increases with decreasing T c when charge fluctuations are reduced or spin fluctuations augmented

  10. Efficiencies of laser dyes for atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuo; Oki, Yuji; Uchiumi, Michihiro; Takao, Takayuki; Igarashi, Kaoru; Shimamoto, Kojiro.

    1995-01-01

    Efficiencies of 30 laser dyes for the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) are experimentally evaluated with a dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. On the other hand, a simulation code is developed to describe the laser action of Rhodamine 6G, and the dependence of the laser efficiency on the pump wavelength is calculated. Following conclusions are obtained by these considerations:space: 1) Pyrromethene 567 showed 16% higher laser efficiency than Rhodamine 6G by 532 nm pumping, and Pyrromethene 556 has an ability to provide better efficiency by green light pumping with a Cu vapor laser; 2) Kiton red 620 and Rhodamine 640, whose efficiencies were almost the same as Rhodamine 6G by 532 nm pumping, will show better efficiencies by two-wavelength pumping with a Cu vapor laser. (author)

  11. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  12. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  13. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  14. Deuterium transport in Cu, CuCrZr, and Cu/Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Hankins, M. R.; Longhurst, G. R.; Pawelko, R. J.

    This paper presents the results of deuterium implantation/permeation experiments and TMAP4 simulations for a CuCrZr alloy, for OFHC-Cu and for a Cu/Be bi-layered structure at temperatures from 700 to 800 K. Experiments used a mass-analyzed, 3-keV D 3+ ion beam with particle flux densities of 5 × 10 19 to 7 × 10 19 D/m 2 s. Effective diffusivities and surface molecular recombination coefficients were derived giving Arrhenius pre-exponentials and activation energies for each material: CuCrZr alloy, (2.0 × 10 -2 m 2/s, 1.2 eV) for diffusivity and (2.9 × x10 -14 m 4/s, 1.92 eV) for surface molecular recombination coefficients; OFHC Cu, (2.1 × 10 -6 m 2/s, 0.52 eV) for diffusivity and (9.1 × 10 -18 m 4/s, 0.99 eV) for surface molecular recombination coefficients. TMAP4 simulation of permeation data measured for a Cu/Be bi-layer sample was achieved using a four-layer structure (Cu/BeO interface/Be/BeO back surface) and recommended values for diffusivity and solubility in Be, BeO and Cu.

  15. Isotope effects on chemical equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium constants of three deuterated substituted acetic acids are reported. The calculation of secondary isotope effects of the second kind for the three isotopic acid pairs has been accomplished by the appropriate comparison of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, and by the comparison of isotopic slopes. The effect of substituent variation on the isotope effects reported here disqualifies the simple inductive model as a legitimate description of secondary isotope effects of the second kind. The correlation of diminishing isotope effect per deuterium atom with increasing acidity is also invalidated by the present results. The syntheses of 9-thia-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-9-oxide and thioxanthene-10-oxide are described. These compounds have been partially deuterated at their respective methylene positions. Spectral evidence indicates stereoselectivity of the methylene protons in the exchange reactions of both compounds. (author)

  16. Therapeutic use of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    In December, researchers from ISOLDE-CERN, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) published the results of an in vivo study which successfully proved the effectiveness of four terbium isotopes for diagnosing and treating cancerous tumours.   Four terbium isotopes suitable for clinical purposes. “ISOLDE is the only installation capable of supplying terbium isotopes of such purity and intensity in the case of three out of the four types used in this study,” explains Karl Johnson, a physicist at ISOLDE.  “Producing over a thousand different isotopes, our equipment offers the widest choice of isotopes in the world!” Initially intended for fundamental physics research, ISOLDE has diversified its activities over time to invest in various projects in the materials science, biochemistry and nuclear medicine fields. The proof-of-concept study has confirmed that the four terbium isotopes 149Tb, 152Tb, 155Tb produ...

  17. Cu-Cr Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Need, Ryan F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Cu-Cr alloys are part of a class of face-centered cubic (FCC)-body-centered cubic (BCC) composites that includes similar alloys, such as Cu-Nb and Cu-Ta. When heavily deformed, these FCC-BCC materials create 'in situ' composites with a characteristic structure-nanoscale BCC filaments in a ductile FCC matrix. The strength of these composites is vastly greater than predicted by the rule of mixtures, and has been shown to be inversely proportional to the filament spacing. Lower raw materials costs suggest that Cu-Cr alloys may offer more economical solution to high-strength, high-conductivity wire than either their Nb or Ta counterparts. However, Cr is also more brittle and soluble in Cu than Nb or Ta. These qualities necessitate thermal treatments to remove solute atoms from the Cu matrix, improve conductivity, and maintain the ductility of the Cr filaments. Through the use of different thermomechanical processing routes or the addition of select dopants, alloys with strength in excess of 1 GPa at 70% IACS have been achieved. To date, previous research on Cu-Cr alloys has focused on a relatively small number of alloy compositions and processing methods while the effects of dopants and ageing treatments have only been studied independently. Consequently, there remains considerable opportunity for the development and optimization of these alloys as a leading high-strength, high-conductivity material.

  18. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  19. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  20. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  1. Thallium isotope variations in an ore-bearing continental igneous setting: Collahuasi Formation, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. G. A.; Rehkämper, M.; Ihlenfeld, C.; Oates, C. J.; Coggon, R.

    2010-08-01

    Thallium is a highly incompatible element and a large fraction of the bulk silicate Earth Tl budget is, therefore, expected to reside in the continental crust. Nonetheless, the Tl isotope systematics of continental rocks are essentially unexplored at present. Here, we present new Tl isotope composition and concentration data for a suite of 36 intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks from the vicinity of porphyry Cu deposits in the Collahuasi Formation of the Central Andes in northern Chile. The igneous lithologies of the rocks are variably affected by the hydrothermal alteration that accompanied the formation of the Cu deposits. The samples display Tl concentrations that vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 0.1 to 3.2 μg/g, whilst ɛ 205Tl ranges between -5.1 and +0.1 (ɛ 205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/ 203Tl isotope ratio of a sample from a standard in parts per 10 4). These variations are primarily thought to be a consequence of hydrothermal alteration processes, including metasomatic transport of Tl, and formation/breakdown of Tl-bearing minerals, which are associated with small but significant Tl isotope effects. The Tl abundances show excellent correlations with both K and Rb concentrations but no co-variation with Cu. This demonstrates that Tl displays only limited chalcophile affinity in the continental crust of the Collahuasi Formation, but behaves as a lithophile element with a distribution that is primarily governed by partitioning of Tl + into K +-bearing phases. Collahuasi samples with propylitic alteration features, which are derived from the marginal parts of the hydrothermal systems, have, on average, slightly lighter Tl isotope compositions than rocks from the more central sericitic and argillic alteration zones. This small but statistically significant difference most likely reflects preferential retention of isotopically heavy Tl in alteration phases, such as white micas and clays, which formed during sericitic and argillic alteration.

  2. Determination of k{sub 0} for {sup 63}Cu(n,γ){sup 64}Cu reaction with covariance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Livia F.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: lfbarros@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays the k{sub 0} Method is one of the most used procedures on Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). For an element of interest, the parameter k{sub 0} can be used to determine its mass concentration. The recommended nuclear data has been investigated, and the measurement of this parameter for {sup 63}Cu(n,γ){sup 64}Cu reaction was motivated by some discrepancies that were observed in the literature. The irradiations were performed near the core of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW nuclear research reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN-CNEN/SP, in São Paulo, Brazil. Two irradiations were carried out in sequence, using two sets of samples: the first one with a cadmium cover around the samples and the second one without it. The activity measurements were carried out in a previously calibrated HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. Standard sources of {sup 152}Eu, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 60}Co and {sup 13}'7Cs supplied by the IAEA with gamma transitions ranging from 121 keV to 1408 keV were used in order to obtain the HPGe gamma-ray peak efficiency as a function of the energy. The covariance matrix methodology was applied to all uncertainties involved. The resulting value of k{sub 0} for {sup 63}Cu(n,γ){sup 64}Cu reaction for the gamma transition energy of the formed isotope {sup 64}Cu 1345.77 keV was 4.99 x 10{sup -4} (78).This final value for k{sub 0} has been compared with the literature. (author)

  3. Cu-ZSM-5, Cu-ZSM-11, and Cu-ZSM-12 Catalysts for Direct NO Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christiansen, Sofie E.

    2006-01-01

    Cu-ZSM-5 has for many years been recognized as a unique catalyst for direct NO decomposition. Here, it is discovered that both Cu-ZSM-11 and Cu-ZSM-12 are about twice as active as Cu-ZSM-5. This difference is attributed to the active sites located almost exclusively in the straight zeolite pores...

  4. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF/sub 3/ gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF/sub 3/. Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF/sub 3/ solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references.

  5. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  6. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  7. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  8. Isotope separation by ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  9. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF 3 gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF 3 . Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF 3 solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references

  10. Isotope separation by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  11. Physical mechanisms of Cu-Cu wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern manufacturing processes of complex integrated semiconductor devices are based on wafer-level manufacturing of components which are subsequently interconnected. When compared with classical monolithic bi-dimensional integrated circuits (2D ICs), the new approach of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) exhibits significant benefits in terms of signal propagation delay and power consumption due to the reduced metal interconnection length and allows high integration levels with reduced form factor. Metal thermo-compression bonding is a process suitable for 3D interconnects applications at wafer level, which facilitates the electrical and mechanical connection of two wafers even processed in different technologies, such as complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Due to its high electrical conductivity, copper is a very attractive material for electrical interconnects. For Cu-Cu wafer bonding the process requires typically bonding for around 1 h at 400°C and high contact pressure applied during bonding. Temperature reduction below such values is required in order to solve issues regarding (i) throughput in the wafer bonder, (ii) wafer-to-wafer misalignment after bonding and (iii) to minimise thermo-mechanical stresses or device degradation. The aim of this work was to study the physical mechanisms of Cu-Cu bonding and based on this study to further optimise the bonding process for low temperatures. The critical sample parameters (roughness, oxide, crystallinity) were identified using selected analytical techniques and correlated with the characteristics of the bonded Cu-Cu interfaces. Based on the results of this study the impact of several materials and process specifications on the bonding result were theoretically defined and experimentally proven. These fundamental findings subsequently facilitated low temperature (LT) metal thermo-compression Cu-Cu wafer bonding and even room temperature direct

  12. Experimental determination of one- and two-neutron separation energies for neutron-rich copper isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mian; Wei, Hui-Ling; Song, Yi-Dan; Ma, Chun-Wang

    2017-09-01

    A method is proposed to determine the one-neutron S n or two-neutron S 2n separation energy of neutron-rich isotopes. Relationships between S n (S 2n) and isotopic cross sections have been deduced from an empirical formula, i.e., the cross section of an isotope exponentially depends on the average binding energy per nucleon B/A. The proposed relationships have been verified using the neutron-rich copper isotopes measured in the 64A MeV 86Kr + 9Be reaction. S n, S 2n, and B/A for the very neutron-rich 77,78,79Cu isotopes are determined from the proposed correlations. It is also proposed that the correlations between S n, S 2n and isotopic cross sections can be used to find the location of neutron drip line isotopes. Supported by Program for Science and Technology Innovation Talents at Universities of Henan Province (13HASTIT046), Natural and Science Foundation in Henan Province (162300410179), Program for the Excellent Youth at Henan Normal University (154100510007) and Y-D Song thanks the support from the Creative Experimental Project of National Undergraduate Students (CEPNU 201510476017)

  13. The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue 67Cu retention kinetics in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 μCi 67 Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on 67 Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained 67 Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained 67 Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained 67 Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of 67 Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of 67 Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted

  14. Renal Cu and Na excretion and hepatic Cu metabolism in both Cu acclimated and non acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosell, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Wood, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    protein depending on whether the Cu is derived from recent branchial uptake or is already present in the plasma prior to Cu-64 exposure. The plasma Cu pool derived from recent branchial uptake and the Cu pool present in the plasma prior to Cu-64 exposure is accessible to renal excretion to different...... Na+ efflux decreased by 40%, which was largely due to increased tubular Na+ reabsorption. Renal compensation for the impaired branchial Na+ uptake, seen during Cu exposure, thus seems to be involved in Cu acclimation in rainbow trout. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  15. Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 production with 4.2 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Mario; Morales, J.R.; Riquelme, H.O.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The natural copper irradiation with deuterons produces the Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 radionuclides. Of two radioisotopes, those with deficiencies in neutrons, are applied in nuclear medicine diagnostic processes, mainly for the nuclear characteristic of the decay modes. The positron emitters, of short life mean Cu-62 (9.1 min, β + ) and Cu(12.7 h), are radionuclides applied in radio pharmacological preparation for brain, core, blood flux studies. The radiochemical process consists in the de solution of the irradiated metallic copper target, in acid medium. The result solution, can be neutralized with a base or a buffer at wished pH. Using a deuteron beam of 4,2 ± 0,1 MeV energy has been obtained total yields of 1,103 ± 0,011 μCl/μAh medium for 62 Cu and of 0,148 ± 0,015 μCl/μAh for 64 Cu

  16. Tailoring Graphene Morphology and Orientation on Cu(100), Cu(110), and Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobberger, Robert; Arnold, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Graphene CVD on Cu is phenomenologically complex, yielding diverse crystal morphologies, such as lobes, dendrites, stars, and hexagons, of various orientations. We present a comprehensive study of the evolution of these morphologies as a function of Cu surface orientation, pressure, H2:CH4, and nucleation density. Growth was studied on ultra-smooth, epitaxial Cu films inside Cu enclosures to minimize factors that normally complicate growth. With low H2:CH4, Mullins-Sekerka instabilities propagate to form dendrites, indicating transport limited growth. In LPCVD, the dendrites extend hundreds of microns in the 100, 111, and 110 directions on Cu(100), (110), and (111) and are perturbed by twin boundaries. In APCVD, multiple preferred dendrite orientations exist. With increasing H2:CH4, the dendritic nature of growth is suppressed. In LPCVD, square, rectangle, and hexagon crystals form on Cu(100), (110) and (111), reflecting the Cu crystallography. In APCVD, the morphology becomes hexagonal on each surface. If given ample time, every growth regime yields high-quality monolayers with D:G Raman ratio rationally tailor the graphene crystal morphology and orientation.

  17. Advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems

  18. Isotope effect and isotope separation. A chemist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takanobu

    2002-01-01

    What causes the isotope effects (IE)? This presentation will be centered around the equilibrium isotope effects due to the differences in the nuclear masses. The occurrence of the equilibrium constant, K, of isotope exchange reactions which differ from the values predicted by the classical theory of statistical mechanics, K cl , is explored. The non-classical K corresponds to the unit-stage separation factor, α, that is different from unity and forms a basis of an isotope separation process involving the chemical exchange reaction. Here, the word 'chemical exchange' includes not only the isotope exchange chemical reactions between two or more chemical species but also the isotope exchanges involving the equilibria between liquid and vapor phases and liquid-gas, liquid solution-gas, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid phases. In Section I, origins of the isotope effect phenomena will be explored and, in the process, various quantities used in discussions of isotope effect that have often caused confusions will be unambiguously defined. This Section will also correlate equilibrium constant with separation factor. In Section II, various forms of temperature-dependence of IE and separation factor will be discussed. (author)

  19. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  20. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  1. Applied isotope hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, F.J. jr; Balderer, W.; Gautschi, A.

    1991-01-01

    This volume is a report on the isotopic investigations of ground-water in northern Switzerland and adjacent regions carried out since 1981 by Nagra, the Swiss National Cooperation for the Storage of Radio-active Waste. This study was undertaken to support a programme assessing potential sites for nuclear waste repositories. It includes measurements on a large number of stable- and radioisotopes and noble gases, supported by complete water chemical analyses and many rock and mineral analyses. A synthesis and interpretation of the data, along with the data themselves, are given here. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Isotope diagnostics apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a measuring probe for an isotope diagnostics apparatus to determine the distribution of radioactive substances in a body by measuring the radiation emanating from this body by means of a multiplicity of measuring probes directed simultaneously towards areas of measuring surfae and carried in guidances of a holding block. The measuring results of the individual probes are recorded separately, thus allowing the possibility of being evaluated separately, too. Measuring probes of this kind are used in multi-channel measuring objects and are useful particularly for determining the regional cerebral blood flow. (orig./ORU) [de

  3. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  4. Isotopic Thermionic Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemot, M.; Devin, B.; Durand, J.P.

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the general design of a thermionic direct conversion space generator. The power source used is a radioisotope. Two radioisotopes are considered: Pu 238 and Cm 244. The system is made up of a heat pipe concentrating the thermal flux from the isotope to the emitter, and of a second heat pipe evacuating the waste heat from the collector to the outer wall used as radiating panel. Calculations are given in the particular case of a 100 electrical watts output power. (authors) [fr

  5. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Kaldor, A.

    1977-01-01

    In a method for the separation of isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , the UF 6 is subjected to ir radiation at a predetermined wavelength or set of wavelengths for less than 10 -3 sec in such a manner that at least 0.1% of the 235 UF 6 molecules absorb an energy of more than 2000 cm -1 . The excited UF 6 is then reacted with a gaseous reagent, F 2 , Cl 2 , or Br 2 , to produce a product which is then recovered by means known in the art

  6. Morphology and chemical composition of Cu/Sn/Cu and Cu(5 at-%Ni)/Sn/Cu(5 at-%Ni) interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierzbicka-Miernik, A.; Wojewoda-Budka, J.; Litynska-Dobrzynska, L.; Kodentsov, A.; Zieba, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, scanning and transmission electron microscopies as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy investigations were performed to describe the morphology and chemical composition of the intermetallic phases growing in Cu/Sn/Cu and Cu(Ni)/Sn/Cu(Ni) interconnections during the

  7. Compound cuing in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors.

  8. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  9. Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles: Novel synthesis by exploding wire technique and extensive characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Anshuman [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201307 (India); Goswami, Navendu, E-mail: navendugoswami@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida 201307 (India); Kaushik, S.D. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research Mumbai Centre, R5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tripathi, Shilpa [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore, M.P. (India)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: The salient features of this research article are following: • Mixed phase synthesis of Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles prepared by Exploding Wire Technique (EWT). • Predominant Cu/Cu{sub 2}O phases along with minor CuO phase revealed through XRD, TEM, Raman, FTIR, UV–Visible and PL analyses. • XPS analysis provided direct evidences of Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} along with O deficiency for prepared nanoparticles. • Room temperature weak ferromagnetic behaviour was demonstrated for Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this article, we explore potential of Exploding Wire Technique (EWT) to synthesize the copper nanoparticles using the copper metal in a plate and wire geometry. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared material indicates presence of mixed phases of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O). Agglomerates of copper and copper oxide comprised of ∼20 nm average size nanoparticles observed through high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Micro-Raman (μR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies of prepared nanoparticles reveal existence of additional minority CuO phase, not determined earlier through XRD and TEM analysis. μR investigations vividly reveal cubic Cu{sub 2}O and monoclinic CuO phases based on the difference of space group symmetries. In good agreement with μRaman analysis, FTIR stretching modes corresponding to Cu{sub 2}-O and Cu-O were also distinguished. Investigations of μR and FTIR vibrational modes are in accordance and affirm concurrence of CuO phases besides predominant Cu and Cu{sub 2}O phase. Quantum confinement effects along with increase of band gaps for direct and indirect optical transitions of Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/CuO nanoparticles are reflected through UV–vis (UV–vis) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy spots the electronic levels of each phase and optical transitions processes

  10. Isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems, according to the calculations of the equilibrium constants for oxygen isotopic exchange reactions, and the calculations of the oxygen isotope separation factors between two phases. The equilibrium constants (K65, K67, K68 and K69) of 16 O- 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O exchange reactions between diatomic oxides were calculated in a wide temperature range on the basis of quantum statistical mechanics. Many equilibrium constants showed the anomalous mass effects, and then had the crossover temperatures and the mass independent fractionation (MIF) temperatures which held K67 = K65, K67 = K68, or K67 = K69, etc. For example, the equilibrium constants for the reactions between OH and the other diatomic oxides (MO) showed the anomalous mass effects, when M was Li, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Al, Ge, Zr, Pt, etc. The 16 O 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O oxygen isotope separation factors (S65, S67, S68 and S69) between two phases were calculated, when OH and CO were in the first phase, and SiO was in the second phase. Although the oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria in the two phases had no MIF and crossover temperatures, the separation factors showed the anomalous mass effects and had the temperatures. According to what is called the normal mass effects for the equilibrium constant of isotopic exchange reaction, the value of InK68/InK67 is 1.885. Therefore, the value of InS68/InS67 should be 1.885 too. The value calculated, however, widely changed. It can be concluded from the results obtained in the present work that some oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria cause the anomalous mass effects, the anomalous oxygen isotope separation factors, and then isotope anomalies

  11. Decay Spectroscopy of 76-79Cu, 79-81Zn, and 83-85Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, C.J.; Winger, J.A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Liddick, S.N.; Darby, I.G.; Grzywacz, R.K.; Bingham, C.R.; Shapira, D.; Mazzocchi, C.; Padgett, S.; Rajabali, M.M.; Cartegni, L.; Zganjar, E.F.; Piechaczek, A.; Batchelder, J.C.; Hamilton, J.H.; Goodin, C.T.; Korgul, A.; Krolas, W.

    2009-01-01

    The β-decay properties of neutron-rich fission fragments of Cu, Zn, and Ga isotopes were studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Beams of 75-79 Cu, 79-81 Zn, and 83-85 Ga were formed and delivered to two new end-stations at the facility. The Low-energy Radioactive Ion Beam Spectroscopy Station is a traditional on-line low energy (200 keV) beam line with 4 clover Ge detectors, two half-cylindrical plastic β-detectors, and a moving tape collector. In addition, many of the beams were accelerated to above 2 MeV/u and delivered to a micro-channel plate and transmission ion chamber located just in front of the same detector setup. In both cases, fine adjustment of an isobar separator was used to enhance the isotope of interest. Excited levels in the daughters and β-delayed neutron branching ratios were measured and used to confirm isotope identification. The decays from 79 Cu and 85 Ga were observed for the first time as was the 84 Ge 2 1 + level populated by β and βn decay channels

  12. Zirconium isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.H.; Lahoda, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the amount of zirconium 91 isotope in zirconium comprising: forming a first solution of (a) a first solvent, (b) a scavenger, and (c) a zirconium compound which is soluble in the first solvent and reacts with the scavenger when exposed to light of a wavelength of 220 to 600 nm; irradiating the first solution with light at the wavelength for a time sufficient to photoreact a disproportionate amount of the zirconium compound containing the zirconium 91 isotope with the scavenger to form a reaction product in the first solution; contacting the first solution, while effecting the irradiation, with a second solvent which is immiscible with the first solvent, which the second solvent is a preferential solvent for the reaction product relative to the first solvent, such that at least a portion of the reaction product is transferred to the second solvent to form a second solution; and separating the second solution from the first solution after the contacting

  13. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved

  14. Isotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Part 1: The stable isotope of nitrogen 15N has become widely used as tracer in agriculture, medicine and biology research. The film gives an overview of the sample preparation and analytical procedures followed in the analysis of the nitrogen isotopic composition (14N/15N ratio) by optical emission spectrometry at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The subsampling of plant material and the several steps of chemical pretreatment such as Kjeldahl digestion, distillation, titration and adjustment of the proper N concentration in the extract are demonstrated. The preparation of the discharge tubes is shown in detail. Final measurement of the 14N/15N ratio is carried out with the NOI-5 and JASCO emission spectrometers. Part 2: This training film deals with the use of 32P-labelled materials in field and greenhouse experimentation in soil-plant relationships studies. All technical aspects, including safe handling and radiation protection procedures to be considered in the layout and harvesting of field experiments are documented in detail. Procedures followed up in the evaluation of P fertilizers such as rock phosphates under greenhouse conditions are described. Several soil injection techniques available for determination of the root activity pattern of trees are shown

  15. Isotope techniques for hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-01-01

    In the body of the Panel's report specific conclusions and recommendations are presented in the context of each subject. The general consensus of the Panel is as follows: by the study of this report, the 1961 Panel report, the Proceedings of the March 1963 Tokyo Symposium and other reports of research and technological advances, isotope-technique applications to hydrologic problems have provided some useful avenues for understanding the nature of the hydrologic cycle and in the solution of specific engineering problems. Some techniques are developed thoroughly enough for fairly routine application as tools for use in the solution of practical problems, but further research and development is needed on other concepts to determined whether or not they can be beneficially applied to either research or engineering problems. A concerted effort is required on the part of both hydrologists and isotope specialists working as teams to assure that proper synthesis of scientific advances in the respective fields and translation of these advances into practical technology is achieved.

  16. Method of isotope separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, R K

    1975-05-22

    Isotopes of a gaseous compound can be separated by multi-infrared photoabsorption which follows a selective dissociation of the excited molecules by single photon absorption of photons of visible or UV radiation. The process involves three steps. Firstly, the molecules to be separated are irradiated with a high-energy IR laser, whereby the molecules of the compound containing the lighter isotopes are preferably excited. They are then irradiated by a second laser with UV or visible light whose frequency of radiation brings the excited molecules into a form in which they can be separated from the non-excited molecules. The third step is the reformation of the substances according to known methods. A power density of at least 10/sup 4/ watt/cm/sup 2/ per torr gas pressure with an irradiation time of 10/sup -10/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ seconds in the presence of a second gas with at least 5 times higher partial pressure is necessary for the IR radiation. The method may be used for UF/sub 6/ for which an example is given here.

  17. Isotopic geochemistry at Wairakei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1985-12-01

    Deuterium measurements on geothermal water at Wairakei are consistent with the water being derived from rainfall which has percolated down from the surface. The oxygen-18 content, however, is enriched compared to average rainfall. This 18 O shift is due to isotopic exchange between water and rock at greater-than-explored depths. The magnitude of the shift implied that the mass ration (W/R) of water that has passed through the system (W) to the rock it has exchanged with (R) is about 1 assuming open (i.e. single-pass) conditions. (The ratio is about 2 if it has been a closed system, but this is thought to be less likely). The residence time of water underground cannot be determined from tritium and carbon-14 measurements at present, but arguments based on the argon isotope and deuterium contents suggest mean residence times of a few tens of thousand years. The water-rock ratio and large natural outflow of thermal water prior to exploitation are consistent with this. The 18 O content of the water has changed only slightly, and the D content not at all, during exploitation at Wairakei (measurements from 1963, 1974 and 1981). An initial tendency for the 18 O to increase because of steam loss (also shown more clearly by chloride), has been followed by decrease of 18 O (and chloride) because of dilution with infiltrating near-surface water in parts of the field

  18. Dielectrophoretic separation of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous isotopes are separated from a mixture in a vertically elongated chamber by subjecting the mixture to a nonuniform transverse electric field. Dielectrophoretic separation of the isotopes is effected, producing a transverse temperature gradient in the chamber, thereby enhancing the separation by convective countercurrent flow. In the example given, the process and apparatus are applied to the production of heavy water from steam

  19. Boron isotopes in geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.

    1997-01-01

    Boron is a highly mobile element and during water-rock reactions, boron is leached out of rocks with no apparent fractionation. In geothermal systems where the water recharging the systems are meteoric in origin, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal fluid reflects the B isotope ratio of the rocks. Seawater has a distinctive B isotope ratio and where seawater recharges the geothermal system, the B isotope ratio of the geothermal system reflects the mixing of rock derived B and seawater derived B. Any deviations of the actual B isotope ratio of a mixture reflects subtle differences in the water-rock ratios in the cold downwelling limb of the hydrothermal system. This paper will present data from a variety of different geothermal systems, including New Zealand; Iceland; Yellowston, USA; Ibusuki, Japan to show the range in B isotope ratios in active geothermal systems. Some of these systems show well defined mixing trends between seawater and the host rocks, whilst others show the boron isotope ratios of the host rock only. In geothermal systems containing high amounts of CO 2 boron isotope ratios from a volatile B source can also be inferred. (auth)

  20. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  1. Lead isotope in mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date state-of-the-art review of lead isotopes in mineral exploration. Beginning with an historical review on suggested uses of lead isotopes in mineral exploration, the author then outlines the theoretical aspects of lead isotopes and illustrates that the method is based on well-known principles of radioactive decay, from which isotopic signatures for different styles of mineralization are derived. The varying isotopic signatures are then introduced. The major part of the book details over 40 case histories for base and precious metals, uranium and tin using sampling media such as sulfides, gossans, soils, weathered bedrock, vegetation and groundwaters. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Examples are given of the use of lead isotopes in testing conceptual models for exploration. The success rate and cost-effectiveness of the method are illustrated by actual exploration examples. Analytical advances which should lower the cost of the method and future uses are outlined. Many of the case histories use recently published or unpublished data, 27 tables of which are given in an appendix. Details of sampling, the methods for obtaining the isotope ratios, and a commercially-available integrated lead isotope service are also provided. (Auth.)

  2. Method for separating krypton isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for separating krypton isotopes utilizing low temperature selective infrared excitation of 85krypton difluoride in an isotopic compound mixture. Multiphoton ir excitation and uv excitation techniques are used, as well as cryogenic matrix isolation and inert buffer gas isolation techniques

  3. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  4. Calcium isotopes in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  5. Sulfate and sulfide sulfur isotopes (δ34S and δ33S) measured by solution and laser ablation MC-ICP-MS: An enhanced approach using external correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Michael; Ridley, William I.; Emsbo, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Isotope ratio measurements using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) commonly use standard-sample bracketing with a single isotope standard for mass bias correction for elements with narrow-range isotope systems measured by MC-ICP-MS, e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, and Hg. However, sulfur (S) isotopic composition (δ34S) in nature can range from at least − 40 to + 40‰, potentially exceeding the ability of standard-sample bracketing using a single sulfur isotope standard to accurately correct for mass bias. Isotopic fractionation via solution and laser ablation introduction was determined during sulfate sulfur (Ssulfate) isotope measurements. An external isotope calibration curve was constructed using in-house and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Ssulfate isotope reference materials (RM) in an attempt to correct for the difference. The ability of external isotope correction for Ssulfate isotope measurements was evaluated by analyzing NIST and United States Geological Survey (USGS) Ssulfate isotope reference materials as unknowns. Differences in δ34Ssulfate between standard-sample bracketing and standard-sample bracketing with external isotope correction for sulfate samples ranged from 0.72‰ to 2.35‰ over a δ34S range of 1.40‰ to 21.17‰. No isotopic differences were observed when analyzing Ssulfide reference materials over a δ34Ssulfide range of − 32.1‰ to 17.3‰ and a δ33S range of − 16.5‰ to 8.9‰ via laser ablation (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. Here, we identify a possible plasma induced fractionation for Ssulfate and describe a new method using external isotope calibration corrections using solution and LA-MC-ICP-MS.

  6. Correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Sinem K.; Vogts, Angela; Kröhnert, Katharina; Hillion, François; Rizzoli, Silvio O.; Wessels, Johannes T.

    2014-04-01

    The isotopic composition of different materials can be imaged by secondary ion mass spectrometry. In biology, this method is mainly used to study cellular metabolism and turnover, by pulsing the cells with marker molecules such as amino acids labelled with stable isotopes (15N, 13C). The incorporation of the markers is then imaged with a lateral resolution that can surpass 100 nm. However, secondary ion mass spectrometry cannot identify specific subcellular structures like organelles, and needs to be correlated with a second technique, such as fluorescence imaging. Here, we present a method based on stimulated emission depletion microscopy that provides correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy (COIN) images. We use this approach to study the protein turnover in different organelles from cultured hippocampal neurons. Correlated optical and isotopic nanoscopy can be applied to a variety of biological samples, and should therefore enable the investigation of the isotopic composition of many organelles and subcellular structures.

  7. Thermochemical properties of oxides in Y-Ba-Cu-O, Sr-Bi-O, Cu-Nb-O, Sr-Cu-O, Ca-Cu-O, Cu-O and Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, G.K.; Vatolin, N.A.; Il'inykh, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    Thermochemical properties (ΔH 0 298 , S 0 298 , H 0 298 -H 0 0 , C p (T), C p at T>T melt ) of complex oxides in Y-Ba-Cu-O, Sr-Bi-O, Cu-Nb-O, Sr-Cu-O, Ca-Cu-O, Cu-O and Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O systems obtained with application of calculation methods are presented. Nonexperimental methods of estimation, revision and correction of standard formation enthalpies of inorganic compounds are described [ru

  8. Comparative study of Cu-Zr and Cu-Ru alloy films for barrier-free Cu metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Cao Fei; Zhang Milin; Liu Yuntao

    2011-01-01

    The properties of Cu-Zr and Cu-Ru alloy films were comparatively studied to evaluate their potential use as alloying elements. Cu alloy films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. Samples were subsequently annealed and analyzed by four-point probe measurement, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction data suggest that Cu film has preferential (111) crystal orientation and no extra peak corresponding to any compound of Cu, Zr, Ru, and Si. According to transmission electron microscopy results, Cu grains grow in size for both systems but the grain sizes of the Cu alloy films are smaller than that of pure Cu films. These results indicate that Cu-Zr film is suitable for advanced barrier-free metallization in terms of interfacial stability and lower resistivity.

  9. Averaged cross sections for the reactions 68Zn(n,p)68gCu and 68Zn(n,p)68mCu for a 235U fission neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestelman, A.J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Arribere, M.A.; Cohen, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Making use of the method developed in our laboratory for the simultaneous determination of cross sections leading to both the ground and metastable states, we have measured the 68 Zn(n,p) 68g Cu and 68 Zn(n,p) 68m Cu reactions, using Zn enriched to 99.4% in its isotope 68 Zn. The measured cross sections are (15.04±0.35) and (3.69±0.30) μb for the ground and metastable state, respectively. However, a direct determination of the cross section leading to the metastable state gives a value of (4.75±0.38) μb. A possible reason for this discrepancy-which is outside experimental uncertainties-is that some tabulated values used in our calculations for the decay parameters of 68g Cu and 68m Cu, have either larger than quoted, or unknown systematic, uncertainties

  10. Averaged cross sections for the reactions {sup 68}Zn(n,p){sup 68g}Cu and {sup 68}Zn(n,p){sup 68m}Cu for a {sup 235}U fission neutron spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestelman, A.J. [Laboratorio de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica, Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica y Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)]. E-mail: kestelma@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Ribeiro Guevara, S. [Laboratorio de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica, Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica y Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Arribere, M.A. [Laboratorio de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica, Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica y Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Cohen, I.M. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Medrano 951 (C1179AAQ) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-15

    Making use of the method developed in our laboratory for the simultaneous determination of cross sections leading to both the ground and metastable states, we have measured the {sup 68}Zn(n,p){sup 68g}Cu and {sup 68}Zn(n,p){sup 68m}Cu reactions, using Zn enriched to 99.4% in its isotope {sup 68}Zn. The measured cross sections are (15.04{+-}0.35) and (3.69{+-}0.30) {mu}b for the ground and metastable state, respectively. However, a direct determination of the cross section leading to the metastable state gives a value of (4.75{+-}0.38) {mu}b. A possible reason for this discrepancy-which is outside experimental uncertainties-is that some tabulated values used in our calculations for the decay parameters of {sup 68g}Cu and {sup 68m}Cu, have either larger than quoted, or unknown systematic, uncertainties.

  11. Spin dynamics in CuO and Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretta, P.; Corti, M.; Rigamonti, A. (Department of Physics Alessandro Volta,' ' University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    [sup 63]Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear antiferromagnetic resonance (AFNMR), and spin-lattice relaxation, as well as [sup 7]Li NMR and relaxation measurements in CuO and in Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

  12. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  13. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  14. Automated Sample Preparation for Radiogenic and Non-Traditional Metal Isotopes: Removing an Analytical Barrier for High Sample Throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M. Paul; Romaniello, Stephen; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Herrmann, Achim; Martinez-Boti, Miguel A.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Foster, Gavin L.

    2014-05-01

    MC-ICP-MS has dramatically improved the analytical throughput for high-precision radiogenic and non-traditional isotope ratio measurements, compared to TIMS. The generation of large data sets, however, remains hampered by tedious manual drip chromatography required for sample purification. A new, automated chromatography system reduces the laboratory bottle neck and expands the utility of high-precision isotope analyses in applications where large data sets are required: geochemistry, forensic anthropology, nuclear forensics, medical research and food authentication. We have developed protocols to automate ion exchange purification for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U) using the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha). The system is not only inert (all-flouropolymer flow paths), but is also very flexible and can easily facilitate different resins, samples, and reagent types. When programmed, precise and accurate user defined volumes and flow rates are implemented to automatically load samples, wash the column, condition the column and elute fractions. Unattended, the automated, low-pressure ion exchange chromatography system can process up to 60 samples overnight. Excellent reproducibility, reliability, recovery, with low blank and carry over for samples in a variety of different matrices, have been demonstrated to give accurate and precise isotopic ratios within analytical error for several isotopic systems (B, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Pb and U). This illustrates the potential of the new prepFAST-MC™ (ESI, Nebraska, Omaha) as a powerful tool in radiogenic and non-traditional isotope research.

  15. Source identification of heavy metal contamination using metal association and Pb isotopes in Ulsan Bay sediments, East Sea, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jung Sun; Choi, Man Sik; Song, Yun Ho; Um, In Kwon; Kim, Jae Gon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The levels of Cu, Zn, and Pb in sediments were higher than the Korean TEL at one-third of all sites. • The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor. • Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as endmembers using Pb isotopes. • The major anthropogenic Pb sources were identified as imported ores from Australia and Peru. • Isotope ratios in anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay to offshore could be identified. - Abstract: To determine the characteristics of metal pollution sources in Ulsan Bay, East Sea, 39 surface and nine core sediments were collected within the bay and offshore area, and analyzed for metals and stable lead (Pb) isotopes. Most surface sediments (>95% from 48 sites) had high copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and Pb concentrations that were as much as 1.3 times higher than background values. The primary source of metal contamination came from activities related to nonferrous metal refineries near Onsan Harbor, and the next largest source was from shipbuilding companies located at the mouth of the Taehwa River. Three different anthropogenic sources and background sediments could be identified as end-members using Pb isotopes. Isotopic ratios for the anthropogenic Pb revealed that the sources were imported ores from Australia, Peru, and the United States. In addition, Pb isotopes of anthropogenic Pb discharged from Ulsan Bay toward offshore could be determined

  16. Direct Observation of Reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Terminal Alkynes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanghui; Yi, Hong; Zhang, Guoting; Deng, Yi; Bai, Ruopeng; Zhang, Heng; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Kropf, Arthur J.; Bunel, Emilio E.; Lei, Aiwen

    2014-01-06

    ABSTRACT: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in situ electron paramagnetic resonance evidence were provided for the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) species by alkynes in the presence of tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA), in which TMEDA plays dual roles as both ligand and base. The structures of the starting Cu(II) species and the obtained Cu(I) species were determined as (TMEDA)- CuCl2 and [(TMEDA)CuCl]2 dimer, respectively.

  17. Lasers for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hair, E.A.; Piltch, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is conducting research on uranium enrichment. All processes being studied employ uranium molecules and use lasers to provide isotopic selectivity and enrichment. There are four well-defined infrared frequencies and two ultraviolet frequency bands of interest. The infrared frequencies are outside the range of the available lasers and an extensive research and development activity is currently underway. Lasers are available in the uv bands, however, much development work remains. The specification for the commercial uranium enrichment plant lasers will depend upon the results of the current enrichment experiments, the laser capital cost, reliability, and maintenance cost. For the processes under investigation there are specific photon requirements but latitude in how these requirements can be met. The final laser selections for the pilot plant need not be made until the mid-1980's. Between now and that time as extensive as possible a research and development effort will be maintained

  18. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical applications include the galactose breath test which consists of oral administration of 13 C-labeled galactose and measurement of the 13 C content of respired CO 2 as a function of time in patients with cirrhotic livers for diagnosis of liver dysfunction. Another application was the breath test to study glucose metabolism in children. Respired 13 CO 2 from ingested glucose- 13 C was measured for normal and diabetic children. Studies on mice in which 60 percent of the body carbon was replaced with 13 C failed to show significant effects of the isotope. Studies on biochemical applications include nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 13 C-labeled amino acids from Chlorella pyrenoidosa; studies on 15 N nmr spectra of arginine-guanidino- 13 C-2,3-- 15 N 2 as a function of pH; and isolation of fatty acids from algae

  19. Galilei-isotopic relativities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    In this note we further develop the proposal made in preceding works of constructing the infinite family of Lie-isotopic liftings of Galilei's relativity for closed-isolated systems of particles possessing local, potential and selfadjoint, as well as nonlocal, nonhamiltonian and non selfadjoint internal forces. In particular, we show that the nonlinear and nonlocal generalization of the Galilei transformations introduced in a preceding note do indeed represent motion of extended particles within resistive media, but in such a way to coincide with the conventional transformations at the abstract, realization-free level. This allows the preservation of the basic, physical and mathematical axioms of Galilei's relativity under our liftings, and their realization in the most general possible nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian way. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig

  20. Stable-isotope paleoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuser, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Seasonal variations of temperature and salinity in the surface waters of large parts of the oceans are well established. Available data on seasonal distributions of planktonic foraminifera show that the abundances of different species groups peak at different times of the year with an apparent succession of abundance peaks through most of the year. This evidence suggests that a measure of seasonal contrast is recorded in the isotope ratios of oxygen, and perhaps carbon, in the tests of different foraminiferal species. The evaluation of this potential paleoclimatologic tool awaits planned experiments with recent foraminifera in well-known settings, but a variety of available data is consistent with the idea that interspecies differences in 18 O content contain a seasonal component.(auth.)

  1. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable is described. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  2. Radio-isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the dispersions that may be used for preparing radio-isotopic tracers, technetium labelled dispersions, processes for preparing these dispersions and their use as tracers. Technetium 99m sulphur colloids are utilized as scintillation tracers to give a picture of the reticulo-endothelial system, particularly the liver and spleen. A dispersion is provided which only requires the addition of a radioactive nuclide to form a radioactively labelled dispersion that can be injected as a tracer. It is formed of a colloid of tin sulphur dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution. Such a reagent has the advantage of being safe and reliable and is easier to use. The colloid can be prepared more quickly since additions of several different reagents are avoided. There is no need to heat up and no sulphuretted hydrogen, which is a toxic gas, is used [fr

  3. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  4. Canada's isotope crisis : what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, J.; Wallace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Canada urgently requires a rigorous debate on the strategic options for ensuring a robust, reliable, and affordable supply of radioactive isotopes. Should the debate be confined to how Canada can best develop the necessary technologies solely for our own use or should Canada abandon the idea of producing its own isotope supply and any future aspirations to serve the global market? Canada's Isotope Crisis focuses on the central policy question: do we dare to try to shape the future or do we retreat into silence because we are not prepared to make the necessary investments for the future well-being of Canadians? This volume showcases pointed essays and analysis from members of the academy and individuals who have made contributions to the development of medical isotopes and pioneered their use in medical practice. It also includes commentary from those involved in the production, manufacturing, processing, and distribution of isotopes. Canada's Isotope Crisis is a multi-disciplinary effort that addresses the global dimension of isotope supply and combines expert opinions on the present and past with knowledge of the relevant government agencies and the basis for their decisions at critical junctures.

  5. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  6. Natural variations of copper and sulfur stable isotopes in blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Vincent; Nogueira da Costa, Andre; Paky Bondanese, Victor; Jaouen, Klervia; Lamboux, Aline; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Vincent, Nicolas; Fourel, François; Télouk, Philippe; Gigou, Michelle; Lécuyer, Christophe; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Bréchot, Christian; Albarède, Francis; Hainaut, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The widespread hypoxic conditions of the tumor microenvironment can impair the metabolism of bioessential elements such as copper and sulfur, notably by changing their redox state and, as a consequence, their ability to bind specific molecules. Because competing redox state is known to drive isotopic fractionation, we have used here the stable isotope compositions of copper (65Cu/63Cu) and sulfur (34S/32S) in the blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a tool to explore the cancer-driven copper and sulfur imbalances. We report that copper is 63Cu-enriched by ∼0.4‰ and sulfur is 32S-enriched by ∼1.5‰ in the blood of patients compared with that of control subjects. As expected, HCC patients have more copper in red blood cells and serum compared with control subjects. However, the isotopic signature of this blood extra copper burden is not in favor of a dietary origin but rather suggests a reallocation in the body of copper bound to cysteine-rich proteins such as metallothioneins. The magnitude of the sulfur isotope effect is similar in red blood cells and serum of HCC patients, implying that sulfur fractionation is systemic. The 32S-enrichment of sulfur in the blood of HCC patients is compatible with the notion that sulfur partly originates from tumor-derived sulfides. The measurement of natural variations of stable isotope compositions, using techniques developed in the field of Earth sciences, can provide new means to detect and quantify cancer metabolic changes and provide insights into underlying mechanisms.

  7. Controllable synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic properties of Cu2O/Cu31S16 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Facile sonochemical route. ► The content of Cu 31 S 16 in the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 can be easily controlled. ► Structure and optical properties of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 were discussed. ► Enhanced photocatalytic property of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 . ► Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 core/shell structures were more stable than single Cu 2 O particles. -- Abstract: The controlled synthesis of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposites with hierarchical structures had been prepared via a convenient sonochemical route. Ultrasonic irradiation of a mixture of Cu 2 O and (NH 2 ) 2 CS in an aqueous medium yielded Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 composites. The content of Cu 31 S 16 in the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 can be easily controlled by adjusting the synthesis time. The Cu 31 S 16 layer not only protected and stabilized Cu 2 O particles, but also prohibited the recombination of photogenerated electrons–holes pair between Cu 31 S 16 and Cu 2 O. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. Photocatalytic performance of the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 hierarchical structures was evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methyl orange solution under natural light. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the preparation and photocatalytic activity of Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposite. Additionally, the Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 core/shell structures were more stable than single Cu 2 O particles during photocatalytic process since the photocatalytic activity of the second reused architecture sample was much higher than that of pure Cu 2 O. The Cu 2 O/Cu 31 S 16 microcomposites may be a good promising candidate for wastewater treatment.

  8. Isotopic fingerprints of gold-containing luminescence centers in 28Si

    CERN Document Server

    Steger, M; Sekiguchi, T; Saeedi, K; Thewalt, M L W; Henry, M O; Johnston, K; Riemann, H; Abrosimov, N V; Churbanov,; Gusev, A V; Bulanov, A D; Kaliteevski, I D; Godisov, O N; Becker, P; Pohl, H J

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that the dramatic reduction in linewidth of many deep luminescence centers in highly enriched 28Si can lead to the observation of isotopic fingerprints, revealing not only that a specific element is involved in the defect complex, but also the number of atoms of that element. This has led to many surprises regarding the actual constituents of supposedly well known luminescence centers, as well as the discovery of new members of a family of four-atom centers where the constituents can be chosen from Cu, Ag, Au and Li. Obtaining the isotopic fingerprint of Au is problematic, since only 197Au is stable, but we have now used the relatively long-lived 195Au to reveal the presence, and the number, of Au atoms in several of these centers. We find a series of four-atom centers containing one Au plus Cu and/or Li. Surprisingly, the Au isotopic fingerprint also reveals a series of five-atom centers containing a single Au plus Cu and/or Li. Further evidence for the ubiquity of these four- and five...

  9. Application of the stable-isotope system to the study of sources and fate of Hg in the environment: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Runsheng; Feng Xinbin; Shi Wenfang

    2010-01-01

    With the improvement of analytical methods and the development of multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP/MS), research on non-traditional stable isotope (Cu, Zn, Fe, Se, Mo, Cr, Hg) in geochemistry has made tremendous progress in the past decade. Recent studies have demonstrated that both organic and inorganic reactions may cause Hg isotope fractionation, and variations of Hg isotopic composition in the environment have been successfully employed to explain Hg pollution history, Hg sources and tracking Hg pathways in nature. Furthermore, Hg isotopic fractionation studies can be a powerful tool in the calibration of global Hg cycling models. Stable isotope geochemistry of Hg is therefore becoming a new frontier subject in earth sciences. Based on summarizing previous research, this paper outlines the main advances in the study of Hg stable isotopes with particular emphasis placed on a brief explanation of Hg isotope analytical techniques, possible Hg isotope fractionation mechanisms observed in both natural and experimental processes, Hg isotope composition variations in different environmental matrices, and the application prospects of the Hg stable isotopes in environmental geosciences.

  10. Isotopic shift in even-even barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Afaque; Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    We have discussed the correlation between a nuclear shape and its matter distribution. Here, we present the root-mean-square radii (r rms ) and rms charge radius (r ch ). We have also discussed the isotopic shift in terms of the observable ‹Δr 2 c › N,82 and its differential ‹Δr 2 c › N-2,N . We present nuclear radii evaluated using different interactions. Neutron radii and charge radii for all the isotopic chains are shown. Neutron radii for Ba isotopes show an increasing trend with the neutron number for all isotopic chains. One can observe a clear kink about magic number N=82

  11. Stable isotope genealogy of meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillinger, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    One of the oldest problems in meteoritics is that of taxonomically grouping samples. In recent years the use of isotopes, particularly oxygen isotopes has proved very successful in this respect. Other light-element systematics potentially can perform the same function. For example, nitrogen in iron meteorites, and nitrogen and carbon in ureilites and SNC meteorites. These measurements will serve to extend and augment existing classification schemes and provide clues to the nature of meteorite parent bodies. They can also aid in the recognition of the isotopic signatures relating to inaccessible regions of the Earth. (author)

  12. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine

  13. Advances in laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, I.P.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The physical and chemical concepts required to understand laser isotope separation are presented and discussed. The numerous successful demonstrations of separating isotopes using lasers are reviewed to 1983. Emphasis is placed on the separation of 235-U from 238-U by multi-step selective ioniation of uranium atomic vapor, and on the separation of D and H and of T from D, by pulsed infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation of fluoroform and chloroform, respectively, because they are among the most successful and important examples of laser isotope separation to date. 161 refs.; 7 figs

  14. Isotope Exchange in Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V.; Miller, Irvin M.; Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Wood, George M., Jr.; Hoyt, Ronald F.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Replacement technique maintains level of CO2/18 in closed-cycle CO2 lasers. High-energy, pulsed CO2 lasers using rare chemical isotopes must be operated in closed cycles to conserve gas. Rare isotopes operated in closed cycles to conserve gas. Rare isotopes as CO2/18 used for improved transmission of laser beam in atmosphere. To maintain laser power, CO2 must be regenerated, and O2 concentration kept below few tenths of percent. Conditions achieved by recombining CO and O2.

  15. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  16. Iodine isotopes and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, B.; Nedvekajte, T.; Filistovich, V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of concentration determination of stable and radioactive iodine isotopes in the Earth's different geospheres are described. Iodine isotopes concentration data, chemical forms and transformations as well as their exchange among separate geospheres of their global biochemical circulation (ocean, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere) are presented. Information on iodine isotopes as after-effects of nuclear installations accident (in particular, the Chernobyl accident) is generalized. The book is intended for scientists and practical workers in ecology and radioactivity protection and for a students of physics. 442 refs.; 82 figs.; 36 tabs

  17. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1

  18. Neodymium isotopic variations in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepgras, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Direct measurement of the isotopic composition of Nd in the Atlantic agree with the Nd content in ferromanganese sediments and differ from the observed amounts in the Pacific samples. These data indicate the existence of distinctive differences in the isotopic composition of Nd in the waters of major oceans; the average values determined from seawater and ferromanganese sediments are considerably lower than in sources with oceanic mantle affinities showing that the REE in the oceans is dominated by continental sources. The Nd isotopic variations in seawater are applied to relate the residence time of Nd and mixing rates between the oceans.

  19. Photonuclear spallation reactions in Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, S.; Imamura, M.; Miyachi, T.

    1986-06-01

    Formation yields of 24 radioactive nuclides by the interaction of bremsstrahlung in the maximum end-point energies of 100 MeV - 1 GeV with Cu have been measured by direct γ-ray counting of irradiated targets. The yields in the mass range of 42 to 60 except for 60 Cu were analysed by non-linear least-squares fit to construct the mass yield and charge dispersion curves in spallation reactions. From the parameter values obtained, the energy dependence of the slope of the mass yield curve and the relationship between target N/Z and the most probable product N/Z were investigated in comparison with the results of proton, α and heavy ion-induced spallations of Cu. The characteristics of photon-induced spallations are discussed. (author)

  20. General physical fundamentals of isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the measurement and measuring units of stable isotopes, the physical properties, measurement and measuring units of radioactive isotopes, the fundamentals of the tracer technique, the environmental isotope distribution in the hydrosphere and the radiation protection in isotope hydrological investigations. (HK) [de

  1. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.; Bloom, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances

  2. Hypoxia induces copper stable isotope fractionation in hepatocellular carcinoma, in a HIF-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondanese, Victor P; Lamboux, Aline; Simon, Melanie; Lafont, Jérôme E; Albalat, Emmanuelle; Pichat, Sylvain; Vanacker, Jean-Marc; Telouk, Philippe; Balter, Vincent; Oger, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2016-11-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent type of primary liver cancer, with increasing incidence worldwide. The unrestrained proliferation of tumour cells leads to tumour hypoxia which in turn promotes cancer aggressiveness. While changes in the concentration of copper (Cu) have long been observed upon cancerization, we have recently reported that the isotopic composition of copper is also altered in several types of cancer. In particular, we showed that in hepatocellular carcinoma, tumour tissue contains heavier copper compared to the surrounding parenchyma. However, the reasons behind such isotopic signature remained elusive. Here we show that hypoxia causes heavy copper enrichment in several human cell lines. We also demonstrate that this effect of hypoxia is pH, HIF-1 and -2 independent. Our data identify a previously unrecognized cellular process associated with hypoxia, and suggests that in vivo tumour hypoxia determines copper isotope fractionation in HCC and other solid cancers.

  3. Isotopic method of testing the dynamics of melt flow through a sedimentation tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazaniak, Z.; Chamer, R.; Stec, J.; Przybytniak, W.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic method of a simultaneous measurement of copper matte and slag flow parameters is discussed. For marking Cu-64 and Zr 95/97, isotopes characterized by various gamma radiation energy are used. The chemical form of copper and zirconium compounds was chosen from the viewpoint of assuring a selective solubility in the tested phases. To interpret the results of isotopic tests, the Wolf-Resnick model was made. The obtained results have confirmed the hypothesis of a possible occurrence of the copper matte flotation effect. In order to reduce of copper uplifted with the shaft slag, a redesigning is suggested of the sedimentation tank that would assure a reduction of the ideal mixing participation and an increase of the zone characterized by the piston flow. (author)

  4. Nuclear Spectroscopy with Copper Isotopes of Extreme N/Z Ratios

    CERN Multimedia

    La commara, M; Roeckl, E; Van duppen, P L E; Schmidt, K A; Lettry, J

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration aims to obtain detailed nuclear spectroscopy information on isotopes close to the magic proton number Z=28 Very neutron-rich and neutron-deficient copper isotopes are ionized with the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) to provide beams with low cross contamination.\\\\ \\\\On the neutron-deficient side the high $Q_\\beta$-values of $^{56}$Cu (15~MeV) and $^{57}$Cu (8.8~MeV) allow to study levels at high excitation energies in the doubly magic nucleus $^{56}$Ni and the neighbouring $^{57}$Ni. On the neutron-rich side the spectroscopy with separated copper isotopes allows presently the closest approach to the doubly magic $^{78}$Ni at an ISOL facility. Up to now no suitable target material with a rapid release was found for nickel itself. A slow release behaviour has to be assumed also for the chemically similar elements iron and cobalt.\\\\ \\\\Using a narrow-bandwidth dye laser and tuning of the laser frequency allows to scan the hyperfine splittings of the copper isotopes and isome...

  5. Diffusion of Cu+ in β-phase CuI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.X.M.Z.; Skoeld, K.; Joergensen, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ionic diffusion of Cu + in solid CuI in the β-phase is carried out with a non-destructive radioactive tracer technique, utilizing coincidence counting of the annihilation gammas from the positron decay of 64 Cu. The diffusion coefficient and the activation energy for the diffusion are evaluated. The experimental results show distinct diffusion character in the β-phase which differs from those in the γ- and α-phases. The β-phase diffusion properties together with the previous results for γ-and α-phases will provide valuable guidance for MD calculations, in which the diffusion coefficients and activation energies have been overestimated and the γ-β phase transition does not appear. The ionic conductivity of CuI estimated from tracer diffusion results and the Nernst-Einstein relation are compared with values from electro-chemical methods. In all three phases the conductivities obtained from electro-chemical methods are much lower than those calculated from the measured tracer diffusion coefficients. (author). 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Cu/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles: Novel synthesis by exploding wire technique and extensive characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Anshuman; Goswami, Navendu; Kaushik, S. D.; Tripathi, Shilpa

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we explore potential of Exploding Wire Technique (EWT) to synthesize the copper nanoparticles using the copper metal in a plate and wire geometry. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared material indicates presence of mixed phases of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (Cu2O). Agglomerates of copper and copper oxide comprised of ∼20 nm average size nanoparticles observed through high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Micro-Raman (μR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies of prepared nanoparticles reveal existence of additional minority CuO phase, not determined earlier through XRD and TEM analysis. μR investigations vividly reveal cubic Cu2O and monoclinic CuO phases based on the difference of space group symmetries. In good agreement with μRaman analysis, FTIR stretching modes corresponding to Cu2-O and Cu-O were also distinguished. Investigations of μR and FTIR vibrational modes are in accordance and affirm concurrence of CuO phases besides predominant Cu and Cu2O phase. Quantum confinement effects along with increase of band gaps for direct and indirect optical transitions of Cu/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles are reflected through UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy spots the electronic levels of each phase and optical transitions processes occurring therein. Iterative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) fitting of core level spectra of Cu (2p3/2) and O (1s), divulges presence of Cu2+ and Cu+ in the lattice with an interesting evidence of O deficiency in the lattice structure and surface adsorption. Magnetic analysis illustrates that the prepared nanomaterial demonstrates ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature.

  7. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  8. High atomic weight isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    A continuously operating device is described which separates one isotopic species of a given element from a mixture. The given element is vaporized and formed into a neutral beam containing the isotopes desired to be separated. The plasma is accelerated through a laser beam which is formed by two separate lasers which operate in the continuous wave mode in which the beams are as nearly as possible in the same beam path. The two laser output beams excite and ionize the isotope of interest while leaving the remaining atoms unaffected. The ionized isotopes are then separated from the beam by an electrostatic deflection technique and the unaffected atoms continue on in their path and are directed to a recovery device

  9. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    country of discovery as well as the production mechanism used to produce the isotopes. ... the disintegration products of bombarded uranium, as a consequence of a ..... advanced accelerator and newly developed separation and detection ...

  10. Isotope separation by standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altshuler, S.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of isotopes is accomplished by scattering a beam of particles from a standing electromagnetic wave. The particles may consist of either atoms or molecules, the beam having in either case a desired isotope and at least one other. The particle beam is directed so as to impinge on the standing electromagnetic wave, which may be a light wave. The particles, that is, the atomic or molecular quantum-mechanical waves, see basically a diffraction grating corresponding to the troughs and peaks of the electromagnetic wave. The frequency of the standing electromagnetic wave substantially corresponds to an internal energy level-transition of the desired isotope. Accordingly, the desired isotope is spatially separated by being scattered or diffracted. (author)

  11. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  12. Isotope-based quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    G Plekhanov, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial...

  13. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  14. Dielectrophoretic separation of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for the separation of gaseous isotopes by electrophoresis assisted by convective countercurrent flow and to an apparatus for use in the process. The invention is especially applicable to heavy water separation from steam; however, it is to be understood that the invention is broadly applicable to the separation of gaseous isotopes having different dipole moments and/or different molecular weights. (author)

  15. Isotope effects in photochemical rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Taking anthracene resp. 9-deuteroanthracene as the initial substance, different substitution products have been prepared. The products originating by direct photolysis have been characterized and their structure has been determined. By comparing the measured kinetic isotope effect and the quantum yield of the nondeuterated and the monodeuterated fluorenes formed it could been demonstrated that the isotope effect mainly is due to the reaction rates and the influence of the deuterium substitution upon the radiationless desactivation against that is small. (HBR) [de

  16. Isotope studies in brain diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silfverskioeld, B [Department of Neurology, Soedersjukhuset, S-100 64 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1978-09-01

    Serial pictures of cerebral isotope flow and accumulation after intravenous injection provide several kinds of valuable diagnostic information. The reliability can be increased by using computer-processed pictures on a TV screen and by numerical analysis in accordance with paritcular programs constructed for our routine work. An isotope study should be done when computerized transmission tomography scans have failed to provide a conclusive diagnosis. It should then be performed with optimal technique in order to reduce the need of angiograms.

  17. Isotopes and radiations in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the spectacular advances in agriculture in developing nations have stimulated wide interest both in basic as well as adaptive research and in harnessing all the tools that science can offer for progress of agriculture. The nuclear tools are relevant in this respect and also offer particular promise in some areas. Ionising radiations and isotopes have immense applications in agriculture. Both radioisotopes and stable isotopes are being used

  18. Phonon scattering by isotopic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacol, D.K.

    1974-06-01

    The effects upon vibrations of a perfect crystal lattice due to the replacement of some of its atoms by isotopes of these atoms are studied. The approach consists in considering the isotopic impurities as scattering centres for the quanta of the elastic waves the objective is to obtain the scattering amplitudes. These amplitudes are obtained through a canonical transformation method which was introduced by Chevalier and Rideau in the study of the Wentzel's model in quantum field theory

  19. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  20. Isotopic study of Karst water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovsek-Sefman, H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the isotopic composition of water formed part of an extended investigation of the water drainage system in the Slovenian Karst. These studies were planned to complement geological and speleological investigations which are already being performed in this area, with the knowledge of the mechanism of changes in the isotopic composition of water in the natural environment on some smaller locations, Planina cave near Postojna where the vertical percolation of meteoric water through the karstified carbonate ceiling was studied and the water catchment areas of some small rivers, Ljubljanica, Rizana and Idrijca. Mass spectrometric investigations of the isotopic composition of some elements ( 18 O, D, 13 C and T) in water and in dissolved carbonates, as well as the isotopic composition of 18 O and 13 C in cave carbonates were performed. The results allow to conclude that the waters in karst aquifers in spite of producing the homogenisation to a great extent, qualitative determination of the retention time and of the prevailing sources for some springs and surface and underground water flows is nevertheless possible. The isotopic composition of 18 O in water and of 18 O and 13 C in dissolved carbonates depends on climatic conditions and on denudation processes. The investigation of cave carbonates revealed that they have different isotopic compositions of 18 O and 13 C because of different locations and also different ages

  1. Isotopic meteoric line for Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez N, Cesar O

    2004-01-01

    Isotope analyses from representative rainfall samples taken from different areas in Colombia were processed to yield the meteoric line. Stable isotope composition in precipitation reflects the effects of temperature, altitude and of the continental site, being affected by different sources of atmospheric humidity over the Colombian territory. There is a seasonal variation in isotopic composition of precipitation with grater σ deviation during the rainy season and lower values in the dry season. In coastal areas the variation is smaller and is more pronounced than at continental stations. Correlation between altitude and isotope content led to equations, which indicate, on a regional level, a change in isotopic composition with altitude, of about 0.5 σ units per 200 m, for O 18 and 4 σ units per 200 m for H 2 . Such equations may be used to identify the original altitude of precipitation water, in hydrological surface and groundwater studies. Meteoric line and the concepts derived from the resulting equations presented in this paper may be applied to the interpretation of isotope analysis in future hydrological studies, particularly in areas without available data

  2. Isotope-based quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plekhanov, Vladimir G.

    2012-01-01

    The present book provides to the main ideas and techniques of the rapid progressing field of quantum information and quantum computation using isotope - mixed materials. It starts with an introduction to the isotope physics and then describes of the isotope - based quantum information and quantum computation. The ability to manipulate and control electron and/or nucleus spin in semiconductor devices provides a new route to expand the capabilities of inorganic semiconductor-based electronics and to design innovative devices with potential application in quantum computing. One of the major challenges towards these objectives is to develop semiconductor-based systems and architectures in which the spatial distribution of spins and their properties can be controlled. For instance, to eliminate electron spin decoherence resulting from hyperfine interaction due to nuclear spin background, isotopically controlled devices are needed (i.e., nuclear spin-depleted). In other emerging concepts, the control of the spatial distribution of isotopes with nuclear spins is a prerequisite to implement the quantum bits (or qbits). Therefore, stable semiconductor isotopes are important elements in the development of solid-state quantum information. There are not only different algorithms of quantum computation discussed but also the different models of quantum computers are presented. With numerous illustrations this small book is of great interest for undergraduate students taking courses in mesoscopic physics or nanoelectronics as well as quantum information, and academic and industrial researches working in this field.

  3. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferably substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. Because the molecules in the beam occupy various degenerate energy levels, if the laser beam comprises chirped pulses comprising selected wavelengths, the laser beam will very efficiently excite substantially all unexcited molecules and will cause stimulated emission of substantially all excited molecules of a selected one of the isotopes in the beam which such pulses encounter. Excitation caused by first direction chirped pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning chirped pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement of essentially all the molecules containing the one isotope is accomplished by a large number of chirped pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam

  4. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.; Ehrfeld, U.

    1977-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium enrichment is not a principal problem of technological feasibility. Several processes exist for producing LWR fuel and the enrichment method can be selected in consideration of economical, environmental, and political aspects. To date, the gaseous diffusion process constitutes the major part of enrichment capacity. This process has been well demonstrated for over 30 years and, as a matter of fact, no major technological and economical progress is to be expected in the future. Because of their comparatively high development potential, the centrifuge and the separation nozzle method may become increasingly favorable in economics. The development of the centrifuge process which is superior by its low specific energy consumption aims at technological improvements. In the separation nozzle process which offers the advantage of a comparatively simple technology a further reduction of the specific energy consumption is to be expected because of the thermodynamically favorable separation mechanism of this process. Laser isotope separation methods are still on the laboratory scale, although large financial funds have been spent. (orig.) [de

  5. Insects, isotopes and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingkvist, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The IAEA activity on coordinating the IAEA member-state efforts in the field of pest control is considered. A complex program of agricultural pest control (IPM), applied in many parts of the world is developed. The program provides for the use of natural means of control and cases of critical pest numbers-the use of insecticides. When controlling certain types of insects it is advisable to apply the 'large area control' methods which provide for the insect destruction in places of their concentration prior to migration. Methods of pest control over large areas also include radiation sexual sterilization method (SSM), application of insect phoromons (sexual attractants) to prevent mating, other types of chemical attractants, traps, mass cultivation and reproduction of parasite plants and animals, destroying insects, as well as improvement of host-plant resistance. A great attention is paid to isotope and radiation application in pest control (labelling, sexual sterilization using ionising radiation, radiation application in genetic engineering, mutant plant cultivation)

  6. Hydrogen isotope technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen pumping speeds on panels of molecular sieve types 5A and Na-Y were compared for a variety of sieve (and chevron) temperatures between 10 and 30 K. Although pumping speeds declined with time, probably because of the slow diffusion of hydrogen from the surface of the sieve crystals into the internal regions, the different sieve materials and operating conditions could be compared using time-averaged pump speeds. The (average) pumping speeds declined with increasing temperature. Under some conditions, the Na-Y sieve performed much better than the 5A sieve. Studies of the effect of small concentrations (approx. 4%) of hydrogen on helium pumping indicate that compound cryopumps in fusion reactors will not have to provide complete screening of hydrogen from helium panels. The concentrations of hydrogen did not lower effective helium pumping speeds or shorten the helium operating period between instabilities. Studies of tritium recovery from blankets of liquid lithium focused on design and construction of a flowing-lithium test system and on ultimate removal of tritium from yttrium sorbents. At 505 0 C, tritium release from yttrium behaves as a diffusion-controlled process, but the release rates are very low. Apparently, higher temperatures will be required for effective sorbent regeneration. An innovative technique for separating hydrogen isotopes by using bipolar electrolysis with permeable electrodes was analyzed to determine its potential usefulness in multistage separation

  7. CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation on Cu(1 1 1), Cu@Cu(1 1 1), Rh@Cu(1 1 1) and RhCu(1 1 1) surfaces: A comparison studies of catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Riguang; Duan, Tian [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Ling, Lixia [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Research Institute of Special Chemicals, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Wang, Baojun, E-mail: wangbaojun@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Adsorbed Rh atom on Cu catalyst exhibits better catalytic activity for CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation. • The adsorbed Rh atom is the reaction active center for CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation. • The morphology of Cu substrate has negligible effect on CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation. - Abstract: In the CVD growth of graphene, the reaction barriers of the dehydrogenation for hydrocarbon molecules directly decide the graphene CVD growth temperature. In this study, density functional theory method has been employed to comparatively probe into CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation on four types of Cu(1 1 1) surface, including the flat Cu(1 1 1) surface (labeled as Cu(1 1 1)) and the Cu(1 1 1) surface with one surface Cu atom substituted by one Rh atom (labeled as RhCu(1 1 1)), as well as the Cu(1 1 1) surface with one Cu or Rh adatom (labeled as Cu@Cu(1 1 1) and Rh@Cu(1 1 1), respectively). Our results show that the highest barrier of the whole CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation process is remarkably reduced from 448.7 and 418.4 kJ mol{sup −1} on the flat Cu(1 1 1) and Cu@Cu(1 1 1) surfaces to 258.9 kJ mol{sup −1} on RhCu(1 1 1) surface, and to 180.0 kJ mol{sup −1} on Rh@Cu(1 1 1) surface, indicating that the adsorbed or substituted Rh atom on Cu catalyst can exhibit better catalytic activity for CH{sub 4} complete dehydrogenation; meanwhile, since the differences for the highest barrier between Cu@Cu(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) surfaces are smaller, the catalytic behaviors of Cu@Cu(1 1 1) surface are very close to the flat Cu(1 1 1) surface, suggesting that the morphology of Cu substrate does not obviously affect the dehydrogenation of CH{sub 4}, which accords with the reported experimental observations. As a result, the adsorbed or substituted Rh atom on Cu catalyst exhibit a better catalytic activity for CH{sub 4} dehydrogenation compared to the pure Cu catalyst, especially on Rh-adsorbed Cu catalyst, we can conclude that the potential of synthesizing high-quality graphene with the

  8. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  9. Isotope and chemical techniques in assessing groundwater contamination from Metro Manila landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalina V.; Ascano, Luz; Del Castillo, Lorena A.; Fernandez, Lourdes G.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Iblan, Cynthia L.; Baui, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of the investigations is establishing benchmark isotopic characteristics of water sources and baseline concentrations of main environmental parameters related to contamination from the landfill. Water samples were collected from the production wells and surface water in the municipalities in proximity of the landfill, in Rodriguez and in San Mateo. Stable isotope characterization of the deep groundwater and rivers shows isotopic values clustering along the LMWL with ae 18 O ranging from -7.5 promille to -6.5 promille and ae 2 H ranging from - 53.59 promille to -42.91. The shallow groundwater are more isotopically enriched trending towards the evaporation line, with mean ae 18 O and aeD values of -6.46 promille and -44.14 promille, respectively. The mean isotopic signatures of surface water, with mean ae 18 O of -7.19 promille and deep groundwater, with mean ae 18 O of -6.67 promille, in Rodriguez are significantly distinct. San Mateo groundwater appear to be more isotopically enriched, indicating recharge different from that of Rodriguez groundwater. Leachate from the landfill exhibits a distinct isotopic composition from the freshwaters, with ae 18 O and aeD values of -5.58 promille and -31.66 promille. The significant differences in the isotopic signatures of the different water sources in the study area would facilitate detection of contamination from leachate run-off to the surface water, and eventually, to the groundwater. Trace metals in the water samples collected, generally, were below the regulatory limits for drinking water and surface water. Results of elemental determination in the sediment samples obtained from rivers showed that aside from the major crustal elements, Zn, Cu, and Ni were also present in significant amount. (author)

  10. The effect of inducing uniform Cu growth on formation of electroless Cu seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Taeho; Kim, Myung Jun; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kwang Hwan; Choe, Seunghoe; Lee, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The uniformity of Cu growth on Pd nanocatalysts was controlled by using organic additives in the formation of electroless Cu seed layers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw. 8000) not only reduced the deposition rate but also improved the uniformity of Cu growth on each Pd nanocatalyst during the seed layer formation. The stronger suppression effect of PEG on Cu than on Pd reduced the difference in the deposition rate between the two surfaces, resulting in the uniform deposition. Meanwhile, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide degraded the uniformity by strong and nonselective suppression. The sheet resistance measurement and atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that the uniform Cu growth by PEG was more advantageous for the formation of a thin and smooth Cu seed layer than the non-uniform growth. The uniform Cu growth also had a positive influence on the subsequent Cu electrodeposition: the 60-nm-thick electrodeposited Cu film on the Cu seed layer showed low resistivity (2.70 μΩ·cm), low surface roughness (6.98 nm), and good adhesion strength. - Highlights: • Uniform Cu growth on Pd was achieved in formation of electroless Cu seed layer. • PEG addition to electroless bath improved the uniformity of Cu growth on Pd. • A thin, smooth and continuous Cu seed layer was obtained with PEG. • Adhesion strength of the Cu seed layer was also improved with PEG. • The uniformity improvement positively affected subsequent Cu electrodeposition

  11. Punicalagin Green Functionalized Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Potential Electrochemical Transducer and Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuku, X.; Kaviyarasu, K.; Matinise, N.; Maaza, M.

    2016-09-01

    A novel ternary Punica granatum L-Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanocomposite was successfully synthesised via green route. In this work, we demonstrate that the green synthesis of metal oxides is more viable and facile compare to other methods, i.e., physical and chemical routes while presenting a potential electrode for energy applications. The prepared nanocomposite was characterised by both microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques revealed different transitional phases with an average nanocrystallite size of 29-20 mm. It was observed that the nanocomposites changed from amorphous-slightly crystalline Cu/Cu2O to polycrystalline Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO at different calcination temperatures (room temperature-RT- 600 °C). The Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO metal oxides proved to be highly crystalline and showed irregularly distributed particles with different sizes. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the purity while together with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy proved the proposed mechanism of the synthesised nanocomposite. UV-Vis showed improved catalytic activity of the prepared metal oxides, evident by narrow band gap energy. The redox and electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite were achieved by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). The maximum specific capacitance ( C s) was calculated to be 241 F g-1 at 50 mV s-1 for Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanoplatelets structured electrode. Moreover, all the CuO nanostructures reveal better power performance, excellent rate as well as long term cycling stability. Such a study will encourages a new design for a wide spectrum of materials for smart electronic device applications.

  12. Preparation of Cu Nanoclusters within Dendrimer Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, M

    1998-01-01

    ... (16-atom Cu cluster in G4 and 64-atom Cu cluster in G6 dendrimers). The clusters remain trapped within the dendrimers for extended periods of time, do not agglomerate, and do not precipitate. The clusters can also be oxidized to yield dendrimer-encapsulated Cu(2+).

  13. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  14. Growth of intermetallics between Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horváth, Barbara; Illés, Balázs; Shinohara, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Intermetallic growth mechanisms and rates are investigated in Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layer systems. An 8–10 μm thick Sn surface finish layer was electroplated onto a Cu substrate with a 1.5–2 μm thick Ni or Ag barrier layer. In order to induce intermetallic layer growth, the samples were aged in elevated temperatures: 50 °C and 125 °C. Intermetallic layer growth was checked by focused ion beam–scanning ion microscope. The microstructures and chemical compositions of the intermetallic layers were observed with a transmission electron microscope. It has been found that Ni barrier layers can effectively block the development of Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics. The intermetallic growth characteristics in the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni/Cu systems are very similar. The intermetallic layer grows towards the Sn layer and forms a discrete layer. Differences were observed only in the growth gradients and surface roughness of the intermetallic layer which may explain the different tin whiskering properties. It was observed that the intermetallic layer growth mechanisms are completely different in the Ag barrier layers compared to the Ni layers. In the case of Sn/Ag/Cu systems, the Sn and Cu diffused through the Ag layer, formed Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics mainly at the Sn/Ag interface and consumed the Ag barrier layer. - Highlights: • Intermetallic growth was characterised in Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layer systems. • Intermetallic growth rates and roughness are similar in the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni/Cu systems. • Sn/Ni/Cu system contains the following intermetallic layer structure Sn–Ni3Sn4–Ni3Sn2–Ni3Sn–Ni. • In the case of Sn/Ag/Cu systems the Sn and Cu diffusion consumes the Ag barrier layer. • When Cu reaches the Sn/Ag interface a large amount of Cu 6 Sn 5 forms above the Ag layer

  15. Influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of Ti–Cu sintered alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Erlin, E-mail: zhangel@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Zheng, Lanlan [Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Liu, Jie [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dept. of Prosthodontics, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003 (China); Bai, Bing [Dept. of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Liaoning Institute of Dental Research, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Cong [Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The cell toxicity and the cell function of Ti–Cu sintered alloys with different Cu contents (2, 5, 10 and 25 wt.%, respectively) have been investigated in comparison with commercial pure titanium in order to assess the influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of the Ti–Cu alloys. The cytotoxicity was studied by examining the MG63 cell response by CCK8 assessment. The cell morphology was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence and observed under scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The cell function was monitored by measuring the AKP activity. It has been shown by the AO/EB morphology results that the cell death on both cp-Ti sample and Ti–Cu samples is due to apoptosis rather than necrosis. Although more apoptotic cells were found on the Ti–2Cu and Ti–5Cu samples, no evidence of Cu content dependent manner of apoptosis has been found. SEM observation indicated very good cell adhesion and spread on the cp-Ti sample and the Ti–Cu samples with different Cu contents. CCK8 results displayed that increase in the Cu content in Ti–Cu alloys does not bring about any difference in the cell viability. In addition, AKP test results indicated that no difference in the differentiation of MG63 was found between the cp-Ti and the Ti–Cu samples and among the Ti–Cu samples. All results indicated that Ti–Cu alloys exhibit very good cell biocompatibility and the Cu content up to 25 wt.% in the Ti–Cu alloys has no influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • The effect of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility has been investigated. • Cu content shows no influence on the cell proliferation. • Cu content shows no effect on the cell differentiation.

  16. Influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of Ti–Cu sintered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Erlin; Zheng, Lanlan; Liu, Jie; Bai, Bing; Liu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    The cell toxicity and the cell function of Ti–Cu sintered alloys with different Cu contents (2, 5, 10 and 25 wt.%, respectively) have been investigated in comparison with commercial pure titanium in order to assess the influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of the Ti–Cu alloys. The cytotoxicity was studied by examining the MG63 cell response by CCK8 assessment. The cell morphology was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence and observed under scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The cell function was monitored by measuring the AKP activity. It has been shown by the AO/EB morphology results that the cell death on both cp-Ti sample and Ti–Cu samples is due to apoptosis rather than necrosis. Although more apoptotic cells were found on the Ti–2Cu and Ti–5Cu samples, no evidence of Cu content dependent manner of apoptosis has been found. SEM observation indicated very good cell adhesion and spread on the cp-Ti sample and the Ti–Cu samples with different Cu contents. CCK8 results displayed that increase in the Cu content in Ti–Cu alloys does not bring about any difference in the cell viability. In addition, AKP test results indicated that no difference in the differentiation of MG63 was found between the cp-Ti and the Ti–Cu samples and among the Ti–Cu samples. All results indicated that Ti–Cu alloys exhibit very good cell biocompatibility and the Cu content up to 25 wt.% in the Ti–Cu alloys has no influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • The effect of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility has been investigated. • Cu content shows no influence on the cell proliferation. • Cu content shows no effect on the cell differentiation

  17. Calcium Isotope Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, S.; Richter, S.

    2010-12-01

    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. This presentation discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. Additionally, the availability of Ca isotope reference materials will be discussed.

  18. Geology of redbed Cu-U occurrences in the Upper Devonian Catskill Fm., Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    A regional and detailed geologic, petrographic and geochemical study of 40 redbed Cu-U occurrences and the host Upper Devonian Catskill Fm. in Pennsylvania shows that depositional environment and diagenetic processes were the most important controls on the formation of the occurrences. The Catskill Fm. in Pa. has been divided into 4 magnafacies (Mf). In ascending order, Mf-A contains interbedded marine and non-marine shale and fine sandstones; Mf-B contains mainly thick red shales and thin sandstones interpreted to be low-energy fluvial deposits on an inactive coastal plain interrupted by occasional thin transgressive marine sandstones. Mf-C is composed of thick sandstones deposited by braided rivers; and Mf-D is composed of thick fining-up cycles deposited by meandering rivers. The Cu-U occurrences are located in areas of thick Mf-B; they occur in Mf-A, -B and -D. Cu-sulfides formed during diagenesis with chlorite in pockets of plant trash within or below a marine or fluvial sandstones, which contain a greater percentage of ductile grains than similar sandstones are inferred to have been more permeable than non-mineralized sandstones. The Cu-sulfides formed after early hematite, clay coatings and calcite cement. Based on isotopic, textural and compositional evidence, the calcite is considered to have formed near the surface at temperatures of less than 100 0 C from oxidizing waters reduced by plant material. The Cu and U in a typical occurrence could easily have been derived by leaching of 1-3% of the total Cu and U from a volume of sediment equivalent to a cube of 40 m or less on a side. Cu appears to have been mobilized during compaction and was derived from the fine fraction of the sediments by Cl-bearing solutions introduced during marine transgressions

  19. ITER isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.; Sherman, R.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents the results of a study that examined the technical operating and economic viability of an alternative Isotope Separation System (ISS) design based on the distributed design concept. In the distributed design, the ISS is broken up into local independently operable subsystems matched to local processing requirements. The distributed design accepts the same feeds and produces essentially the same products as the reference design. The distributed design consists of two separate, independent subsystems. The first, called ISS-H, receives only protium-dominated streams and waste water from tritium extraction. It has two cryogenic distillation columns and can produce a 50 percent D, 50 percent T product since it lacks D/T separation capability. A final 80 percent T 2 concentration product can be obtained by blending the 50 percent T 2 stream from ISS-H with the more than 99 percent T 2 stream from the second subsystem, ISS-D. The second subsystem receives only deuterium-dominated feeds, which also contain some protium. ISS-D is as complex as the reference design, but smaller. Although each subsystem has some advantages, such as only two cryogenic distillation columns in ISS-H and better than 99 percent steady state T 2 product in ISS-D, the combined subsystems do not offer any real advantage compared to the reference IISS. The entire distributed ISS design has been simulated using Ontario Hydro's FLOSHEET steady state process simulator. Dynamic analysis has not been done for the distributed design. (10 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.)

  20. Porous HKUST-1 derived CuO/Cu2O shell wrapped Cu(OH)2 derived CuO/Cu2O core nanowire arrays for electrochemical nonenzymatic glucose sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuiping; Cui, Jiewu; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhang, Jianfang; Shu, Xia; Liu, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-05-01

    Self-supported CuO/Cu2O@CuO/Cu2O core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) are successfully fabricated by a simple and efficient method in this paper. Anodized Cu(OH)2 NWAs could in-situ convert to HKUST-1 at room temperature easily. Cu(OH)2 NWAs cores and HKUST-1 shells transform into CuO/Cu2O simultaneously after calcinations and form CuO/Cu2O@CuO/Cu2O core-shell NWAs. This smart configuration of the core-shell structure not only avoids the agglomeration of the traditional MOF-derived materials in particle-shape, but also facilitates the ion diffusion and increases the active sites. This novel structure is employed as substrate to construct nonenzymatic glucose sensors. The results indicate that glucose sensor based on CuO/Cu2O@CuO/Cu2O core-shell NWAs presents ultrahigh sensitivity (10,090 μA mM-1 cm-2), low detection limit (0.48 μM) and wide linear range (0.99-1,330 μM). In addition, it also shows excellent anti-interference ability toward uric acid, ascorbic acid and L-Cysteine co-existing with glucose, good reproducibility and superior ability of real sample analysis.

  1. Synthesis of Cu2O, CuCl, and Cu2OCl2 nanoparticles by ultrafast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... 800 nm and ∼2 ps laser pulses. Cu2O NPs exhibited two-photon absorption at lower peak intensities while three-photon absorption was observed at higher peak intensities. Other samples exhibited two-photon absorption at all peak intensities. Keywords. Picosecond; laser ablation; copper complex; ...

  2. Synthesis of Cu 2 O, CuCl, and Cu2OCl 2 nanoparticles by ultrafast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... We have also performed nonlinear optical studies of colloidal nanoparticles using Z-scan technique at 800 nm and ∼2 ps laser pulses. Cu2O NPs exhibited two-photon absorption at lower peak intensities while three-photon absorption was observed at higher peak intensities. Other samples exhibited ...

  3. NO oxidation on Zeolite Supported Cu Catalysts: Formation and Reactivity of Surface Nitrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hai-Ying; Wei, Zhehao; Kollar, Marton; Gao, Feng; Wang, Yilin; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2016-04-18

    The comparative activities of a small-pore Cu-CHA and a large-pore Cu-BEA catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3, and for the oxidation of NO to NO2 and the subsequent formation of surface nitrates were investigated. Although both catalysts are highly active in SCR reactions, they exhibit very low NO oxidation activity. Furthermore, Cu-CHA is even less active than Cu-BEA in catalyzing NO oxidation but is clearly more active for SCR reactions. Temperature-programed desorption (TPD) experiments following the adsorption of (NO2 + NO + O2) with different NO2:NO ratios reveal that the poor NO oxidation activity of the two catalysts is not due to the formation of stable surface nitrates. On the contrary, NO is found to reduce and decompose the surface nitrates on both catalysts. To monitor the reaction pathways, isotope exchange experiments were conducted by using 15NO to react with 14N-nitrate covered catalyst surfaces. The evolution of FTIR spectra during the isotope exchange process demonstrates that 14N-nitrates are simply displaced with no formation of 15N-nitrates on the Cu-CHA sample, which is clearly different from that observed on the Cu-BEA sample where formation of 15N-nitrates is apparent. The results suggest that the formal oxidation state of N during the NO oxidation on Cu-CHA mainly proceeds from its original +2 to a +3 oxidation state, whereas reaching a higher oxidation state for N, such as +4 or +5, is possible on Cu-BEA. The authors at PNNL gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  4. Epitaxial growth of Cu on Cu(001): Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, Itay; Biham, Ofer; Zuo, Jiang-Kai; Swan, Anna K.; Wendelken, John

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative comparison between experimental and Monte Carlo simulation results for the epitaxial growth of Cu/Cu(001) in the submonolayer regime is presented. The simulations take into account a complete set of hopping processes whose activation energies are derived from semiempirical calculations using the embedded-atom method. The island separation is measured as a function of the incoming flux and the temperature. A good quantitative agreement between the experiment and simulation is found for the island separation, the activation energies for the dominant processes, and the exponents that characterize the growth. The simulation results are then analyzed at lower coverages, which are not accessible experimentally, providing good agreement with theoretical predictions as well

  5. Preparation of conductive Cu patterns by directly writing using nano-Cu ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Wenjiang; Wei, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tan, Junjun [School of Chemical and Materials and Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Hubei 435003 (China); Chen, Minfang, E-mail: mfchentj@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Conductive and air-stable Cu patterns were directly made on ordinary photo paper using a roller pen filled with nano-Cu ink, which was mainly composed of metallic Cu nanoparticles (NPs) capped with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). The nano-Cu NPs were obtained via the reduction of Cu{sup 2+} ions by using an excess of hydrazine and PVP. The low sintering temperature (160 °C) in Ar atmosphere played an important role for the preparation of air-stable Cu patterns. The conductivity of a radio-frequency identification antenna made from nano-Cu ink was tested by a lamp, and its resistivity achieved 13.4 ± 0.4 μΩ cm. The Cu NPs were confirmed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectra, and the Cu patterns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. A mechanism for the high conductivity of the Cu pattern made from Cu NPs is proposed. - Highlights: • The synthesis of pure Cu is related to the reducing agent and capping agent. • The sintering under Ar atmosphere prevents Cu pattern's rapid oxidation. • The formation of the bulk Cu decreases the resistivity of the Cu pattern.

  6. Stability enhancement of Cu2S against Cu vacancy formation by Ag alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sajib K.; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2018-04-01

    As a potential solar absorber material, Cu2S has proved its importance in the field of renewable energy. However, almost all the known minerals of Cu2S suffer from spontaneous Cu vacancy formation in the structure. The Cu vacancy formation causes the structure to possess very high p-type doping that leads the material to behave as a degenerate semiconductor. This vacancy formation tendency is a major obstacle for this material in this regard. A relatively new predicted phase of Cu2S which has an acanthite-like structure was found to be preferable than the well-known low chalcocite Cu2S. However, the Cu-vacancy formation tendency in this phase remained similar. We have found that alloying silver with this structure can help to reduce Cu vacancy formation tendency without altering its electronic property. The band gap of silver alloyed structure is higher than pristine acanthite Cu2S. In addition, Cu diffusion in the structure can be reduced with Ag doped in Cu sites. In this study, a systematic approach is presented within the density functional theory framework to study Cu vacancy formation tendency and diffusion in silver alloyed acanthite Cu2S, and proposed a possible route to stabilize Cu2S against Cu vacancy formations by alloying it with Ag.

  7. Highly charged swelling mica reduces Cu bioavailability in Cu-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckey, Jason W. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Neaman, Alexander [Facultad de Agronomia, P. Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (Chile); Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Martinez, Carmen Enid [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: cem17@psu.edu

    2009-01-15

    This is the first test of a highly charged swelling mica's (Na-2-mica) ability to reduce the plant-absorbed Cu in Cu-contaminated soils from Chile. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was grown in two acid soils (Sector 2: pH 4.2, total Cu = 172 mg Cu kg{sup -1} and Sector 3: pH 4.2, total Cu = 112 mg Cu kg{sup -1}) amended with 0.5% and 1% (w/w) mica, and 1% (w/w) montmorillonite. At 10 weeks of growth, both mica treatments decreased the shoot Cu of ryegrass grown in Sector 2 producing shoot Cu concentrations above 21-22 mg Cu kg{sup -1} (the phytotoxicity threshold for that species), yet the mica treatments did not reduce shoot Cu concentrations when grown in Sector 3, which were at a typical level. The mica treatments improved shoot growth in Sector 3 by reducing free and extractable Cu to low enough levels where other nutrients could compete for plant absorption and translocation. In addition, the mica treatments improved root growth in both soils, and the 1% mica treatment reduced root Cu in both soils. This swelling mica warrants further testing of its ability to assist re-vegetation and reduce Cu bioavailability in Cu-contaminated surface soils. - In situ remediation of Cu-contaminated soils with a synthetic mica (Na-2-mica) will aid in re-vegetative efforts.

  8. Irradiation Effects on RIA Fragmentation Cu Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes, Susana; Boles, Jason; Stein, Werner; Wirth, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of conceptual R&D activities in support of the Rare-Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility, high priority is given to the development of high-power fragmentation beam dumps. A pre-study was made of a static water-cooled Cu beam dump that can meet requirements for a 400 MeV/u uranium beam. The issue of beam sputtering was addressed and found to be not a significant issue. Preliminary radiation transport simulations show significant damage (dpa) in the vicinity of the Bragg peak of uranium ions. Experimental data show that defects in Cu following neutron or high-energy particle irradiation tend to saturate at doses between 1 and 5 dpa, and this saturation in defect density also results in saturation of mechanical property degradation. However, effects of swift heavy ion irradiation and the production of gaseous and solid transmutant elements still need to be addressed. Initial calculations indicate that He concentrations on the order of 100 appm are produced in the beam dump after several weeks...

  9. Development of isotope hydrology technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhangsu

    1988-01-01

    The development of isotope hydrology technology in China is described. The isotope technology provides an independent approach for solving hydrological problems. Isotope hydrology is applied in three ways: the use of change in environmental isotopic composition of water (especially used in water resources exploitation), the use of artificial radioactive tracers and the use of redioisotope instruments. Many important achievements have been obtained in application of isotopic hydrology technology. For the sake of promoting rapid development of isotope hydrology the topics on management, technology and others are commented

  10. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  11. Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskaran, Mark (ed.) [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. Geology

    2011-07-01

    Applications of radioactive and stable isotopes have revolutionized our understanding of the Earth and near-earth surface processes. The utility of the isotopes are ever-increasing and our sole focus is to bring out the applications of these isotopes as tracers and chronometers to a wider audience so that they can be used as powerful tools to solve environmental problems. New developments in this field remain mostly in peer-reviewed journal articles and hence our goal is to synthesize these findings for easy reference for students, faculty, regulators in governmental and non-governmental agencies, and environmental companies. While this volume maintains its rigor in terms of its depth of knowledge and quantitative information, it contains the breadth needed for wide variety problems and applications in the environmental sciences. This volume presents all of the newer and older applications of isotopes pertaining to the environmental problems in one place that is readily accessible to readers. This book not only has the depth and rigor that is needed for academia, but it has the breadth and case studies to illustrate the utility of the isotopes in a wide variety of environments (atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers and streams, terrestrial environments, and sub-surface environments) and serves a large audience, from students and researchers, regulators in federal, state and local governments, and environmental companies. (orig.)

  12. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferable substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. The laser beam comprises pi-pulses of a selected wavelength which excite unexcited molecules, or cause stimulated emission of excited molecules of one of the isotopes. Excitation caused by first direction pi-pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning pi-pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement is accomplished by a large number of pi-pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam

  13. Isotope-equipped measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the steel industry, though the investment in isotope-equipped measuring instruments is small as compared with that in machinery, they play important role in the moisture measurement in sintering and blast furnaces, the thickness measurement in rolling process and others in automatic control systems. The economic aspect of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments is described on the basis of the practices in Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation: distribution of such instruments, evaluation of economic effects, usefulness evaluation in view of raising the accuracy, and usefulness evaluation viewed from the failure of the isotope instruments. The evaluation of economic effects was made under the premise that the isotope-equipped measuring instruments are not employed. Then, the effects of raising the accuracy are evaluated for a γ-ray plate thickness gauge and a neutron moisture gauge for coke in a blast furnace. Finally, the usefulness was evaluated, assuming possible failure of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments. (J.P.N.)

  14. Isotopes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ellam, Rob

    2016-01-01

    An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...

  15. Determining metal assimilation efficiency in aquatic invertebrates using enriched stable metal isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Luoma, Samuel N.; Pellet, Bastien

    2007-01-01

    We employ a novel approach that combines pulse-chase feeding and multi-labelled stable isotopes to determine gut passage time (GPT), gut retention time (GRT), food ingestion rate (IR) and assimilation efficiency (AE) of three trace elements for a freshwater gastropod. Lettuce isotopically enriched in 53 Cr, 65 Cu and 106 Cd was fed for 2 h to Lymnaea stagnalis. The release of tracers in feces and water was monitored for 48 h, during which unlabelled lettuce was provided ad libidum. The first defecation of 53 Cr occurred after 5 h of depuration (GPT), whereas 90% of the ingested 53 Cr was recovered in the feces after 22.5 h of depuration (GRT). 53 Chromium was not significantly accumulated in the soft tissues upon exposure. In contrast, 65 Cu and 106 Cd assimilation was detectable for most experimental snails, i.e., 65/63 Cu and 106/114 Cd ratios in exposed snails were higher than those for controls. Food IR during the labelled feeding phase was 0.16 ± 0.07 g g -1 d -1 . IR was inferred from the amount of 53 Cr egested in the feces during depuration and the concentration of 53 Cr in the labelled lettuce. Assimilation efficiencies (±95% CI) determined using mass balance calculations were 84 ± 4% for Cu and 85 ± 3% for Cd. The ratio method yields similar AE estimates. Expanding the application of this novel stable isotope tracer technique to other metals in a wide variety of species will provide unique opportunities to evaluate the interplay between digestive processes and dietary influx of metals. Understanding the biological processes that modulate dietborne metal uptake is crucial to assess the toxicity of dietborne metals

  16. LA-MC-ICPMS Determination of Copper Isotope Ratios in Turquoise from the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. J.; Fayek, M.; Riciputi, L.; Anovitz, L.; Hull, S.; Mathien, F. J.; Milford, H.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV, CA, NM, and CO. The turquoise have [Cu] from 0.1 to 10 wt% and are all found in near-surface alteration zones. Analyses of individual turquoise grains are reproducible to better than 0.4\\permil \\delta65Cu (1\\sigma) (relative to NBS-976). \\delta65Cu values show significant variation (ca. 10\\permil) between the deposits, equal to the total range reported for continental ores and both hypogene and supergene deposits. The variability between deposits may reflect differences in source Cu isotopic composition or more likely, hydrothermal processes during leaching and deposition. The mining and trade of turquoise played an important role in early social and economic development between Mesoamerica and N. America. Copper isotopes will improve differentiation between turquoise source areas, aiding archaeological and cultural studies of trade between and within Mesoamerica and the SW USA. Research sponsored by NSF-BCS (Archaeology) grant #0312088 to Fayek and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

  17. Copper interactions in TlCu7S4 and TlCu7Se4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noren, L.; Delaplane, R.G.; Berger, R.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The copper chalcogenides ACu 7 S 4 (A=NH 4 + , Tl + , Rb + ) are quasi-one-dimensional metals at ambient and higher temperatures which is due to the high mobility of copper in these structures. TlCu 7 S 4 and TlCu 7 Se 4 are isostructural compounds, space group I4/m, which can be described on the basis of a TlX 8 cube with two different Cu sites, Cu(1) and Cu(2). Cu(2)-Cu(2) zigzag chains run along the c axis with only 3/4 occupation of the Cu(2) sites. However, these two compounds differ in behaviour on cooling. The sulphide shows a polymorphic first-order transition to the CsAg 7 S 4 type (P4/n) owing to ordering of the vacancies in the Cu(2)-Cu(2) chains. In order to study the nature of the Cu(2) order/disorder in the two title compounds, a series of neutron diffraction measurements (both Bragg and diffuse scattering) were made at several temperatures from 40 to 713 K on the instrument SLAD at Studsvik. The structure at each temperature was modelled using RMC techniques. The resulting configuration show that as the temperature increases, there is a marked increase in the mobility of the Cu atoms in the Cu(2)-Cu(2) chains for TlCu 7 S 4 but not for TlCu 7 Se 4 . This is due to the initial difference in the Cu(2)-Cu(2) distances, only 2.2A for the thiocuprate, but 2.7A in the selenocuprate which explains the relative ease for Cu(2) ordering in the latter case. (author)

  18. Retention of gaseous isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Mailen, J.C.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    difficult as the tritium combines and distributes with the water inventory throughout the plant. To avoid this, a high temperature (550 0 C) volatilation step, termed voloxidation, is being developed at ORNL which drives most (up to 99%) of the tritium out of the fuel and traps it prior to aqueous processing. Other processes for tritium control under study include total retention of water and isotopic separation of tritium from plant aqueous effluents. Carbon-14 is produced in oxide fuels primarily by n-p reactions with 14 N contaminant in the fuel. Little is known about the actual behavior of 14 C in a reprocessing plant, and most of the effort is directed toward identifying the chemical forms and process sources of the 14 C effluents

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's isotope enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Enrichment Program (IEP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the production and distribution of ∼225 enriched stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. In addition, ORNL distributes enriched actinide isotopes and provides extensive physical- and chemical-form processing of enriched isotopes to meet customer requirements. For more than 50 yr, ORNL has been a major provider of enriched isotopes and isotope-related services to research, medical, and industrial institutions throughout the world. Consolidation of the Isotope Distribution Office (IDO), the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML), and the stable isotope inventories in the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) have improved operational efficiencies and customer services. Recent changes in the IEP have included adopting policies for long-term contracts, which offer program stability and pricing advantages for the customer, and prorated service charges, which greatly improve pricing to the small research users. The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Loan Program has been converted to a lease program, which makes large-quantity or very expensive isotopes available for nondestructive research at a nominal cost. Current efforts are being pursued to improve and expand the isotope separation capabilities as well as the extensive chemical- and physical-form processing that now exists. The IEF's quality management system is ISO 9002 registered and accredited in the United States, Canada, and Europe

  20. Isotopic depletion with Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Rathkopf, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    This work considers a method to deplete isotopes during a time- dependent Monte Carlo simulation of an evolving system. The method is based on explicitly combining a conventional estimator for the scalar flux with the analytical solutions to the isotopic depletion equations. There are no auxiliary calculations; the method is an integral part of the Monte Carlo calculation. The method eliminates negative densities and reduces the variance in the estimates for the isotope densities, compared to existing methods. Moreover, existing methods are shown to be special cases of the general method described in this work, as they can be derived by combining a high variance estimator for the scalar flux with a low-order approximation to the analytical solution to the depletion equation

  1. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval

  2. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  3. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  4. Shielding container for radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tetsuo; Tosa, Masayoshi; Hatogai, Tatsuaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To effect opening and closing bidirectional radiation used particularly for a gamma densimeter or the like by one operation. Structure: This device comprises a rotatable shielding body for receiving radioactive isotope in the central portion thereof and having at least two radiation openings through which radiation is taken out of the isotope, and a shielding container having openings corresponding to the first mentioned radiation openings, respectively. The radioactive isotope is secured to a rotational shaft of the shielding body, and the shielding body is rotated to register the openings of the shielding container with the openings of the shielding body or to shield the openings, thereby effecting radiation and cut off of gamma ray in the bidirection by one operation. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Shape coexistence in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Cao Zhongbin; Xu Furong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear shape change and shape coexistence in the Selenium isotopes have been investigated by Total-Routhian-Surface (TRS) calculations. It is found that nuclear shapes vary significantly with increasing neutron number. The TRS calculations for the ground states of 66,72,92,94 Se isotopes show that both neutron-deficient and neutron-dripline Selenium isotopes have oblate and prolate shape coexistence. The cranking shell-model calculations for 72,94 Se give that prolate and oblate shape coexistence in low rotational frequency. However, oblate rotational bands disappear and prolate rotational bands become yrast bands with increasing rotational frequency, which is due to the intrusion of the g 9/2 orbitals. (authors)

  6. Isotopic composition of past precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.W.D.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of stable isotopes in precipitation provides critical quantitative information about the global water cycle. The first PAGES/IAEA ISOMAP workshop was held at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, 24-26 August 1998, which gathered 32 participants. The presentation and discussions demonstrated that a high level of sophistication already exists in the development of transfer functions between measured parameters and precipitation, as a result of the extensive use of water isotope tracers in paleo-environmental investigations, but a major challenge facing both producers and users of paleo-isotope data is the effective management of data and meta-data, to permit ready retrieval of raw and inferred data for comparison and reinterpretation. This will be in important goal of future ISOMAP activities. The critical need for more paleo-data from low latitudes was clearly recognized

  7. Cyclotron production of Cu-61

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Seifert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S323-S323 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02010797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * PET * Cu-61 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  8. Cu diffusion as an alternative method for nanopatterned CuTCNQ film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitán, M J; Álvarez, J; Miranda, R; Navío, C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show by means of ‘in situ’ x-ray diffraction studies that CuTCNQ formation from Cu(solid)–TCNQ(solid tetracyanoquinodimethane) goes through Cu diffusion at room temperature. The film quality depends on the TCNQ evaporation rate. At low evaporation rate we get a single phase-I CuTCNQ film very well crystallized and well oriented. The film has a CuTCNQ(0 2 0) orientation. The film is formed by CuTCNQ nanorods of a very homogeneous size. The film homogeneity has also been seen by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electronic properties of the film have been measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Thus, the Cu-diffusion method has arisen as a very simple, clean and efficient method to grow localized CuTCNQ nanorods on Cu, opening up new insights for technological applications. (paper)

  9. Growth and characterisation of potentiostatically electrodeposited Cu2O and Cu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesundera, R.P.; Hidaka, M.; Koga, K.; Sakai, M.; Siripala, W.

    2006-01-01

    Cuprous oxide and copper thin films were potentiostatically electrodeposited in an acetate bath. Voltammetric curves were used to investigate the growth parameters; deposition potential, pH and temperature of the bath. Deposition potential dependency on the structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties of the films were investigated by the X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron micrographs, absorption measurements and dark and light current-voltage characterisations. It was observed that single phase polycrystalline Cu 2 O can be deposited from 0 to - 300 mV Vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and co-deposition of Cu and Cu 2 O starts at - 400 mV Vs SCE. Further increase in deposition potential from - 700 mV Vs SCE produces single phase Cu thin films. Single phase polycrystalline Cu 2 O thin films with cubic grains of 1-2 μm can be possible within the very narrow potential domain around - 200 mV Vs SCE. Enhanced photoresponse in a photoelectrochemical cell is produced by the Cu 2 O thin film prepared at - 400 mV Vs SCE, where Cu is co-deposited with Cu 2 O with random distribution of Cu spheres on the Cu 2 O surface. This study reveals that a single deposition bath can be used to deposit both Cu and Cu 2 O separately and an admixture of Cu-Cu 2 O by controlling the deposition parameters

  10. Isotopes in research and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-01-15

    A comprehensive review of the present state of the use of radioisotopes in the physical sciences and industry was made at a major international conference in Copenhagen from 6 to 16 September 1960. The conference covers the use of radioisotopes in geophysics, metallurgy, solid state physics and nuclear physics, industrial applications of radioisotopes, which were divided into two groups, namely applications based on the tracer function of isotopes and those based on the penetration, absorption or scattering of radiation, use of isotopes in various branches of chemistry - from analysis to determine extremely small amounts of material to a study of the mechanism of various chemical reactions.

  11. Electron scattering off palladium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.B. van der.

    1986-01-01

    The low-lying states of the even Pd isotopes are characterized by vibrator-like properties. In this thesis the results of an electron scattering experiment on the Pd isotopes, designed to study the description of such nuclei in the Anharmonic Vibrator Model (AVM) and the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), are presented and discussed. Data have been taken at the high-resolution electron scattering facility of NIKHEF-K and covered a momentum-transfer range of 0.4 to 2.5 fm -1 . (Auth.)

  12. Natural fractionation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordmann, Janine

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis was the investigation of U (n( 238 U) / n( 235 U)) isotope variations in nature with a focus on samples (1) that represent the continental crust and its weathering products (i.e. granites, shales and river water) (2) that represent products of hydrothermal alteration on mid-ocean ridges (i.e. altered basalts, carbonate veins and hydrothermal water) and (3) from restricted euxinic basins (i.e. from the water column and respective sediments). The overall goal was to explore the environmental conditions and unravel the mechanisms that fractionate the two most abundant U isotopes, n( 238 U) and n( 235 U), on Earth.

  13. Separation process for boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, S D

    1975-06-12

    The method according to the invention is characterized by the steps of preparing a gaseous mixture of BCl/sub 3/ containing the isotopes of boron and oxygen as the extractor, irradiating that mixture in the tube of the separator device by means of P- or R-lines of a CO/sub 2/ laser for exciting the molecules containing a given isotope of boron, simultaneously irradiating the mixture with UV for photodissociating the excited BCl/sub 3/ molecules and separating BCl/sub 3/ from the reaction products of photodissociation and from oxygen. Such method is suitable for preparing boron used in nuclear reactors.

  14. Isotopic cisternography. Its clinical value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, J.P.; Bizais, Y.; Herzog, B.

    1976-01-01

    A brief study of isotopic cisternography with a new tracer is performed. After describing the physiological circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid the different tracers used are studied and experience with 111 Indium DTPA which is tending to replace the other tracers is given. The indications and the normal and pathological results are discussed. The different forms of hydrocephalus are described; this examination makes it possible in particular to diagnose cases of hydrocephalus with normal pressure, cysts, or localized, subarachnoid pockets. Cerebrospinal fluid fistulas are detected by this technique. Finally, the place of isotopic cisternography in relation to the other neuroradiological examinations and in relation to tomodensitometric investigations is discussed [fr

  15. Simultaneous spectroscopy of $\\gamma$- rays and conversion electrons: Systematic study of EO transitions and intruder states in close vicinity of mid-shell point in odd-Au isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Venhart, M; Grant, A F; Petrik, K

    This proposal focuses on detailed systematic studies of the $\\beta$ /EC-decays of $^{179,181,183,185}$Hg leading to excited states in the neutron-deficient Au isotopes in the vicinity of the N=104 midshell. $\\gamma$-ray, X-ray and conversion electron de-excitations of odd-A Au isotopes will be studied simultaneously. These studies will address important structural questions such as the excitation energies of coexisting states, properties of multiple intruder states (i.e. intruder particles coupled to intruder cores) and mixing of coexisting structures. The unique combination of Hg beam purity and yields make ISOLDE a unique facility for these experiments.

  16. Bimetallic AgCu/Cu2O hybrid for the synergetic adsorption of iodide from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuechan; Liang, Jie; Zhou, Qihang; Dai, Yuexuan; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Shouwen; Yang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    To further improve the capacity of Cu 2 O to absorb I - anions from solution, and to understand the difference between the adsorption mechanisms of Ag/Cu 2 O and Cu/Cu 2 O adsorbents, bimetallic AgCu was doped into Cu 2 O through a facile solvothermal route. Samples were characterized and employed to adsorb I - anions under different experimental conditions. The results show that the Cu content can be tuned by adding different volumes of Ag sols. After doping bimetallic AgCu, the adsorption capacity of the samples can be increased from 0.02 mmol g -1 to 0.52 mmol g -1 . Moreover, the optimal adsorption is reached within only 240 min. Meanwhile, the difference between the adsorption mechanisms of Ag/Cu 2 O and Cu/Cu 2 O adsorbents was verified, and the cooperative adsorption mechanism of the AgCu/Cu 2 O hybrid was proposed and verified. In addition, the AgCu/Cu 2 O hybrid showed excellent selectivity, e.g., its adsorption efficiencies are 85.1%, 81.9%, 85.9% and 85.7% in the presence of the Cl - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- and NO 3 - competitive anions, respectively. Furthermore, the AgCu/Cu 2 O hybrid can worked well in other harsh environments (e.g., acidic, alkaline and seawater environments). Therefore, this study is expected to promote the development of Cu 2 O into a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of iodide from solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  18. Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to isotope separation employing isotopically selective vibrational excitation and vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. Uranium enrichment, using uranium hexafluoride, is a particular embodiment. (U.K.)

  19. Isotope applications in the environmental field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, R.

    1978-01-01

    Established uses of enriched isotopes in the environmental field were surveyed to determine future trends in isotope needs. Based on established isotope uses, on the projected increase in the pollution problem, and on the apparent social and economic pressure for pollution abatement, a significant demand for enriched isotopes appears to be developing for the assessment and control of air, water, and soil pollutants. Isotopic techniques will be used in combination with conventional methods of detection and measurement, such as gas chromatography, x-ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption. Recent advances in economical isotope separation methods, instrumentation, and methodology promise to place isotopic technology within the reach of most research and industrial institutions. Increased application of isotope techniques appears most likely to occur in areas where data are needed to characterize the movement, behavior, and fate of pollutants in the environment

  20. High mass isotope separation process and arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules by either photon-induced pure rovibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope

  1. C-13 isotopic studies of the surface catalysed reactions of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, M.A.; He, S.J.X.; Adebajo, M.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of methane to methylate aromatic compounds, which are considered to be models for coal, is being studied. Related to this reaction, but at higher temperatures, is the direct formation of benzene from methane in the presence of these catalysts. Controversy exists in the literature on the former reaction, and 13 C isotope studies are being used to resolve the question. The interest in this reaction arises because the utilisation of methane, in the form of natural gas, in place of hydrogen for direct coal liquefaction would have major economic advantage. For this reason Isotope studies in this area have contributed significantly to an understanding of the methylation reactions. The paper describes experiments utilising methane 13 C, which show that methylation of aromatics such as naphthalene by the methane 13 C is catalysed by microporous, Cu-exchanged SAPO-5, at elevated pressures (6.8 MPa) and temperatures around 400 degree C. The mass spectrometric analysis and n.m.r. study of the isotopic composition of the products of the methylation reaction demonstrate unequivocally that methane provides the additional carbon atom for the methylated products. Thermodynamic calculations predict that the reaction is favourable at high methane pressures under these experimental conditions. The mechanism as suggested by the isotope study is discussed. The catalysts which show activity for the activation of methane for direct methylation of organic compounds, such as naphthalene, toluene, phenol and pyrene, are substituted aluminophosphate molecular sieves, EIAPO-5 (where El=Pb, Cu, Ni and Si) and a number of metal substituted zeolites. Our earlier tritium studies had shown that these catalysts will activate alkanes, at least as far as isotope hydrogen exchange reactions are concerned

  2. Geochemical and isotopic study of soils and waters from an Italian contaminated site: Agro Aversano (Campania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, M.A.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.

    2011-01-01

    Lead isotope applications have been widely used in recent years in environmental studies conducted on different kinds of sampled media. In the present paper, Pb isotope ratios have been used to determine the sources of metal pollution in soils and waters in the Agro Aversano area. During three different sampling phases, a total of 113 surface soils (5-20. cm), 20 samples from 2 soil profiles (0-1. m), 11 stream waters and 4 groundwaters were collected. Major element concentrations in sampled media have been analyzed by the ICP-MS technique. Surface soils (20 samples), all soil profiles and all waters have been also analyzed for Pb isotope compositions by thermal ionization (TIMS). The geochemical data were assessed using statistic methods and cartographically elaborated in order to have a clear picture of the level of disturbance of the area. Pb isotopic data were studied to discriminate between anthropogenic and geologic sources. Our results show that As (5.6-25.6. mg/kg), Cu (9-677. mg/kg), Pb (22-193. mg/kg), Tl (0.53-3.62. mg/kg), V (26-142. mg/kg) and Zn (34-215. mg//kg) contents in analyzed soils, exceed the intervention limits fixed by the Italian Environmental Law for residential areas in some of the sampled sites, while intervention limit for industrial areas is exceeded only for Cu concentrations. Lead isotopic data, show that there is a high similarity between the ratios measured in the leached soil samples and those deriving from anthropic activities. This similarity with anthropogenic Pb is also evident in the ratios measured in both groundwater and stream water samples. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Method and device for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The method works with a converted Q machine. The plasma containing the isotopes to be separated is crossed by a magnetic field running in the direction of the plasma column. More energy is transfered to the chosen isotope by oscillating magnetic and/or electric fields or by sound waves by using the specific resonance frequency for the selected isotope. The isotopes thus heated to different extents can be separated according to various methods given in the patent claims. (GG) [de

  4. Isotope mixtures of hydrogen in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking-Schloetensack, P.

    1982-03-01

    The properties of isotope-mixtures of Protium and Deuterium stored in Vanadium have been studied. Protium and Deuterium are existing as interstitial-atoms on tetrahedral sites as well as on octahedral sites in this system. This feature leads to large isotopic-effects between the two isotopes. The dependence of the thermodynamic functions like heat of solution, nonconfigurational entropy, specific heat and ordering temperatures from the composition of the isotope-mixture has been determined. (orig.)

  5. Evolution of nuclear structure in neutron-rich odd-Zn isotopes and isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wraith

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Collinear laser spectroscopy was performed on Zn (Z=30 isotopes at ISOLDE, CERN. The study of hyperfine spectra of nuclei across the Zn isotopic chain, N=33–49, allowed the measurement of nuclear spins for the ground and isomeric states in odd-A neutron-rich nuclei up to N=50. Exactly one long-lived (>10 ms isomeric state has been established in each 69–79Zn isotope. The nuclear magnetic dipole moments and spectroscopic quadrupole moments are well reproduced by large-scale shell–model calculations in the f5pg9 and fpg9d5 model spaces, thus establishing the dominant term in their wave function. The magnetic moment of the intruder Iπ=1/2+ isomer in 79Zn is reproduced only if the νs1/2 orbital is added to the valence space, as realized in the recently developed PFSDG-U interaction. The spin and moments of the low-lying isomeric state in 73Zn suggest a strong onset of deformation at N=43, while the progression towards 79Zn points to the stability of the Z=28 and N=50 shell gaps, supporting the magicity of 78Ni.

  6. IR and TPD studies of the interaction of alkenes with Cu + sites in CuNaY and CuNaX zeolites of various Cu content. The heterogeneity of Cu + sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datka, J.; Kukulska-Zajaç, E.; Kozyra, P.

    2006-08-01

    Cu + ions in zeolites activate organic molecules containing π electrons by π back donation, which results in a distinct weakening of multiple bonds. In this study, we followed the activation of alkenes (ethene and propene) by Cu + ions in CuY and CuX zeolites of various Cu content. We also studied the strength of bonding of alkenes to Cu + ions. IR studies have shown that there are two kinds of Cu + sites of various electron donor properties. We suppose that they could be attributed to the presence of Cu + ions of various number of oxygen atoms surrounding the cation. IR studies have shown that Cu ions introduced into Y and X zeolites in the first-order (at low Cu content) form Cu + ions of stronger electron donor properties (i.e. activate alkenes to larger extend) than Cu ions introduced in the next order (at higher Cu content). IR and TPD studies of alkenes desorption evidenced that Cu + ions of stronger electron donor properties bond alkenes stronger than less electron donor ones. It suggests that π back donation has more important contribution to the strength of bonding alkenes to cation than π donation.

  7. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  8. Isotope exchange reactions in hydrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaplinski, W.; Gula, A.; Kravtsov, A.; Mikhailov, A.; Popov, N.

    1990-12-01

    The rates of isotopic exchange for the excited states of muonic hydrogen are calculated as functions of collision energy. Ground state population q 1s for different collision energies, target densities and isotope concentrations is obtained. It is shown that for principal quantum numbers n > 5 the isotopic exchange still considerably influences the value of q 1s . (author)

  9. Dynamical symmetry breaking in barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Bir Singh; Chattopadhyay, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The isotopes of Xe with mass numbers 124, 126, 128, 130 and the isotopes of barium with mass numbers 128, 130, 132, 134 were shown to correspond to the O(6) dynamical symmetry of IBM. In the investigation of the dynamical symmetry breaking in this region, the barium isotopes for departures from O(6) symmetry have been studied

  10. ICP-MS for isotope ratio measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of stable isotopes in mineral nutrition research has become a fundamental aspect of conducting this research. A gradual transition has occurred, now virtually complete, from radioactive isotope studies to those using stable isotopes. Although primarily used in human research, mineral stable ...

  11. Isotopes in day to day life

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Developments are reported in the use of isotopic labeling and isotope irradiation in agriculture, medical science, hydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, environment pollution detection, and industries. Radioisotope instruments are described as well as techniques for gamma radiography, neutron radiography, and autoradiography. Isotope dating in geology and archaeology is covered. Basic scientific research topics in various areas are listed.

  12. Use of Isotopes for Studying Reaction Mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this series, we discussed how isotopes can be used as markers to determine the nature of intermediates in chemical reactions. The second part covered the effect of isotopes on equilibria and reactions, in processes where the bond to the isotopic a tom is broken. We showed with specific examples how.

  13. Comparison of DOTA and NODAGA as chelators for (64)Cu-labeled immunoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sukhen C; Pinkston, Kenneth L; Robinson, Holly; Harvey, Barrett R; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Gore, Karen; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Azhdarinia, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Bifunctional chelators have been shown to impact the biodistribution of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based imaging agents. Recently, radiolabeled 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA)-peptide complexes have demonstrated improved in vivo stability and performance compared to their 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) counterparts. Here, we investigated if similar utility could be achieved with mAbs and compared (64)Cu-labeled DOTA and NODAGA-immunoconjugates for the detection of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in a prostate cancer model. DOTA and NODAGA-immunoconjugates of an EpCAM targeting mAb (mAb7) were synthesized and radiolabeled with (64)Cu (DOTA: 40°C for 1hr; NODAGA: 25°C for 1hr). The average number of chelators per mAb was quantified by isotopic dilution, and the biological activity of the immunoconjugates was evaluated by flow cytometry and ELISA. Radioligand assays were performed to compare cellular uptake and determine the dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) for the immunoconjugates using DsRed-transfected PC3-cells. A PC3-DsRed xenograft tumor model was established in nude mice and used to perform biodistribution studies to compare organ uptake and pharmacokinetics. (64)Cu-DOTA-mAb7 and (64)Cu-NODAGA-mAb7 were prepared with chelator/protein ratios of 2-3 and obtained in comparable radiochemical yields ranging from 59 to 71%. Similar immunoreactivity was observed with both agents, and mock labeling studies indicated that incubation at room temperature or 40°C did not affect potency. (64)Cu-NODAGA-mAb7 demonstrated higher in vitro cellular uptake while (64)Cu-DOTA-mAb7 had higher Kd and Bmax values. From the biodistribution data, we found similar tumor uptake (13.44±1.21%ID/g and 13.24±4.86%ID/g for (64)Cu-DOTA-mAb7 and (64)Cu-NODAGA-mAb7, respectively) for both agents at 24hr, although normal prostate tissue was significantly lower for (64)Cu-NODAGA-mAb7

  14. Theoretical explanation of EPR parameters for Cu{sup 2+} ion in TiO{sub 2} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, H.N. [Institute of Applied Physics and College of Electronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wu, S.Y. [International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, P. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    The EPR parameters anisotropic g-factors g{sub x}, g{sub y} and g{sub z} for Cu{sup 2+} ion and hyperfine structure constants A{sub x}, A{sub y} and A{sub z} for {sup 63}Cu{sup 2+} and {sup 65}Cu{sup 2+} isotopes in rutile (TiO{sub 2}) crystal are calculated by the method of diagonalizing the full Hamiltonian matrix. The crystal-field parameters contact with the crystal structure by the aid of the superposition model. The calculated results are in reasonable agreement with the observed values. The results are discussed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua, E-mail: liangxaut@gmail.com; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic copper (FDC) was synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl. • FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl solution. • Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O was found at the edge of FDC. Nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained by using Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy. • The potential difference between CuAl{sub 2} and α-Al phase and the replacement reaction in multiphase solution are key factors. - Abstract: Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl solution. Compared to Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 60} and Cu{sub 45}Al{sub 55} alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is <110>, and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl{sub 2} intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  16. Cu-Zr-Ag bulk metallic glasses based on Cu8Zr5 icosahedron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junhai; Qiang Jianbing; Wang Yingmin; Wang Qing; Dong Chuang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the cluster line criterion, the Ag addition into the Cu 8 Zr 5 cluster composition is investigated for the search of ternary Cu-Zr-Ag bulk metallic glasses with high glass forming abilities. Two initial binary compositions Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 and Cu 0.64 Zr 0.36 are selected. The former one corresponds to a deep eutectic point; it is also the composition of the Cu 8 Zr 5 icosahedron, which is derived from the Cu 8 Zr 3 structure. The latter one, which can be regarded as the Cu 8 Zr 5 cluster plus a glue atom Cu, is the best glass-forming composition in the Cu-Zr binary system. Two composition lines (Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 ) 1-x Ag x and (Cu 0.64 Zr 0.36 ) 1-x Ag x are thus constructed in the Cu-Zr-Ag system by linking these two compositions with the third constitute Ag. A series of Cu-Zr-Ag bulk metallic glasses are found with 2-8 at.% Ag contents in both composition lines. The optimum composition (Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 ) 0.92 Ag 0.08 within the searched region with the highest T g /T l = 0.633, is located along the cluster line (Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 ) 1-x Ag x , where the deep eutectic Cu 0.618 Zr 0.382 exactly corresponds to the dense packing cluster Cu 8 Zr 5 . The alloying mechanism is discussed in the light of atomic size and electron concentration factors

  17. TPD IR studies of CO desorption from zeolites CuY and CuX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datka, Jerzy; Kozyra, Paweł

    2005-06-01

    The desorption of CO from zeolites CuY and CuX was followed by TPD-IR method. This is a combination of temperature programmed desorption and IR spectroscopy. In this method, the status of activated zeolite (before adsorption), the process of adsorption, and the status of adsorbed molecules can be followed by IR spectroscopy, and the process of desorption (with linear temperature increase) can be followed both by IR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. IR spectra have shown two kinds of Cu + sites in both CuY and CuX. Low frequency (l.f.) band (2140 cm -1 in CuY and 2130 cm -1 in CuX) of adsorbed CO represents Cu + sites for which π back donation is stronger and σ donation is weaker whereas high frequency h.f. band (2160 cm -1 in CuY and 2155 cm -1 in CuX) represent Cu + sites for which π back donation is weaker and σ donation is stronger. The TPD-IR experiments evidenced that the Cu + sites represented by l.f. band bond CO more weakly than those represented by h.f. one, indicating that σ donation has more important impact to the strength of Cu +-CO bonding. On the contrary, π back donation has bigger contribution to the activation of adsorbed molecules.

  18. Radioactive isotopes on the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A limited review of experiments and studies of radioactivity and isotope ratios in lunar materials is given. Observations made on the first few millimeters of the surface where the effects of solar flare particles are important, some measurements on individual rocks, and some studies of radioactivities produced deep in the lunar soil by galactic cosmic rays, are among the experiments discussed

  19. Isotopes in the earth sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Robert

    1988-01-01

    This book examines significant aspects of isotope applications in geology and geochemistry commencing with basic matters, such as atomic structure, stable nuclides and their fractionation, as well as the various decay modes of unstable nuclides. Modern mass spectrometry techniques including electrostatic tandem accelerators are followed by a review of radioisotope dating technology. The relatively new method using the rare earth elements samarium and neodymium are covered. Other geochronometers, applicable to both rocks and minerals not dateable otherwise, are included. A review is given of isotopes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the Earth. Those of oxygen and hydrogen together with the cosmogenic radionuclides tritium and radiocarbon are discussed in relation to the biosphere. The role of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur is described and extended to fossil fuels and rocks as well as meteorites. Related themes such as Phanerozoic oceans, oceanic palaeothermometry, snow and ice stratigraphy and geothermal waters are covered. The field of isotopic palaeoecology is discussed. Radioactive wastes, their accumulation, dangers and disposal are investigated with especial reference to their environmental impacts.

  20. Isotopes in the atomic age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnikar, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The first accessible, practical account of isotopes separation processes for engineers. This guide gives expert guidance on all the most important methods (including references to the original papers), how to improve their yields, with discussions of theory and application of each technique. Presentation is clear and non-mathematical. Illustrated