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Sample records for odd factor parent

  1. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  2. Relationship between parenting stress and informant discrepancies on symptoms of ADHD/ODD and internalizing behaviors in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Tseng, Yu-Han

    2017-01-01

    Parent and teacher ratings of child behaviors are often discrepant, and these discrepancies may be correlated with parenting stress. The present study explored whether various parenting stress factors are associated with discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as internalizing symptoms in preschool children. We recruited 299 Taiwanese preschool children (aged 4–6 years) from the community or via clinical referrals. A structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among three factors derived from the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and informant discrepancies on symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and internalizing behaviors. Scores reported by parents were higher for each of the symptoms examined than those reported by teachers, and the degree of agreement between informants ranged from low to moderate. The parental distress factor of parenting stress was associated only with parent ratings, whereas other factors of parenting stress—parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parents’ stress resulted from their child’s temperament—were correlated with both parent and teacher ratings. Only parental distress factor predicted informant discrepancies for all behavioral symptoms assessed. Our findings suggest that parental distress should be considered when parent rating scores show significant discrepancies from that of teacher rating scores. PMID:29016602

  3. RENORMALIZATION FACTOR AND ODD-OMEGA GAP SINGLET SUPERCONDUCTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLGOV, OV; LOSYAKOV, VV

    1994-01-01

    Abrahams et al. [Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 513] have considered the possibility of a nonzero critical temperature of the superconductor transition to the state with odd-omega pp function and shown that the condition for it is the following inequality for the renormalization factor. Z (k, omega(n)) <1.

  4. Odd Structures Are Odd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 1567-1580 ISSN 0188-7009 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : graded vector space * monoidal structure * Odd endomorphism operad Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00006-016-0720-8

  5. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  6. Spiritual Struggle in Parents of Children with Cystic Fibrosis Increases Odds of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda D. Szczesniak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Spiritual struggle (SS is associated with poorer health outcomes including depression. The study’s main objectives were to characterize change in depression over time, examine longitudinal associations between SS and depression, and determine the extent to which experiencing SS at baseline was predictive of developing depression at follow-up. Methods. A two-site study collected questionnaire responses of parents (N=112; 72% female of children with cystic fibrosis followed longitudinally. Generalized linear mixed effects modeling examined the association between depression and SS over time and assessed potential mediators, moderators, and confounders. Results. Prevalence of depression increased from baseline to follow-up (OR: 3.6, P<0.0001, regardless of degree of SS. Parents with Moderate/Severe SS were more likely to have depressive symptoms, compared to parents without SS (OR: 15.2, P=0.0003 and parents who had Mild SS (OR: 10.2, P=0.0001. Being female and feeling less “at peace” also significantly predicted increased depression (OR: 2.5, P=0.0397, and OR: 1.15, P=0.0419, resp.. Experiencing SS at baseline was not predictive of having depression subsequently at follow-up. Conclusions. Parents experiencing SS were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms. Interventions to reduce SS have shown efficacy and may be considered.

  7. Factors influencing elementary school teachers' ratings of ADHD and ODD behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Quittner, A L; Abikoff, H

    1998-12-01

    Examined factors that influence teachers' ratings of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). 105 teachers watched 2 videotapes--1 depicting a normal child and the other a child with either ADHD or ODD--and rated each child using 2 different questionnaires. Results indicated that teachers accurately rated the child on the ADHD versus ODD tape as having significantly more inattention and hyperactivity but significantly less oppositionality. However, effect sizes indicated the presence of a unidirectional, negative halo effect of oppositional behaviors on ratings of hyperactivity and inattention. Teachers appeared less biased in their judgments when using a well-operationalized rating scale. Finally, knowledge, education, and experience with children with ADHD generally had no effect on the accuracy of teachers' ratings.

  8. Measurement and Structural Invariance of Parent Ratings of ADHD and ODD Symptoms across Gender for American and Malaysian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement (configural, metric, scalar, and residual) and structural (factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means) invariance of parent ratings of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention (ADHD-IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and oppositional defiant disorder…

  9. Effects of Velocity-Dependent Force on the Magnetic Form Factors of Odd-Z Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie-Kuang, Dong; Zhong-Zhou, Ren

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the velocity-dependent force on the magnetic form factors and magnetic moments of odd-Z nuclei. The form factors are calculated with the harmonic-oscillator wavefunctions. It is found that the contributions of the velocity-dependent force manifest themselves in the very large momentum transfer region (q ≥ 4fm- 1 ). In the low and medium q region the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are very small compared with those without this force. However, in the high-q region the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are larger than the normal form factors. The diffraction structures beyond the existing experimental data are found after the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are included. The formula of the correction to the single particle magnetic moment due to the velocity-dependent force is reproduced exactly in the long-wavelength limit (q = 0) of the M1 form factor

  10. Risk factors of abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

  11. Organisational factors and occupational balance in working parents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgh, Madeleine; Eek, Frida; Wagman, Petra; Håkansson, Carita

    2018-05-01

    Parents with small children constitute a vulnerable group as they have an increased risk of sick leave due to stress-related disorders compared to adults without children. It has been shown that mothers and fathers to small children together spend more time in paid work than any other group, which could create negative stress and an experience of low occupational balance. The aim of this study was to examine associations between organisational factors and occupational balance among parents with small children in Sweden. Data were collected by a survey including questions about occupational balance, organisational factors and age, sex, employment rate, work position, monthly household income, number of children at home, separation/divorce last five years and overtime. The total number of parents included in this study was 718 (490 mothers and 228 fathers). Logistic regression models were applied to examine the odds ratios for occupational balance in relation to organisational factors. Parents who experienced positive attitudes towards parenthood and parental leave among colleagues and managers were more likely to experience high occupational balance than parents who experienced negative or neutral attitudes. Having a clear structure for handover when absent from work was also strongly associated with high occupational balance. The result of the present study indicates that some organisational factors could be important for the occupational balance of parents with small children.

  12. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  14. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  15. Parent training for young Norwegian children with ODD and CD problems: predictors and mediators of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Sturla; Mørch, Willy-Tore; Handegård, Bjørn H; Drugli, May B; Larsson, Bo

    2009-04-01

    Participants were 121 children, aged 4-8 years referred for conduct problems, and their mothers. A parent training intervention was implemented in two outpatient clinics in Norway. Treatment responders were defined as children scoring below a cut-off on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, a score below an optimal cut-off for children in day-care and school as reported by teachers, in addition to a 30% reduction or greater in observed negative parenting. Self-reported parenting practices were explored as potential mediators. The results of logistic regression analyses showed that high levels of maternal stress, clinical levels of ADHD, and being a girl predicted a poorer outcome in conduct problems at home, while pretreatment clinical levels of ADHD predicted a poorer outcome as perceived by the teachers. Harsh and inconsistent parental disciplining emerged as significant partial mediators of changes in conduct problems, highlighting the importance of altering parenting practices to modify young children's conduct problems.

  16. Parental Separation and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Late Adolescence: A Cross-Cohort Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Gonçalves, Helen; Matijasevich, Alicia; Sequeira, Maija; Smith, George Davey; Menezes, Ana M B; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental separation during childhood (up to 18 years of age) and cardiometabolic risk factors (body mass index, fat mass index, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) in late adolescence using a cross-cohort comparison and to explore whether associations differ according to the age at which the parental separation occurred and the presence or absence of parental conflict prior to separation. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, United Kingdom) (1991-2011) and the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (Brazil) (1993-2011) were used. The associations of parental separation with children's cardiometabolic risk factors were largely null. Higher odds of daily smoking were observed in both cohorts for those adolescents whose parents separated (for ALSPAC, odds ratio = 1.46; for Pelotas Birth Cohort, odds ratio = 1.98). Some additional associations were observed in the Pelotas Birth Cohort but were generally in the opposite direction to our a priori hypothesis: Parental separation was associated with lower blood pressure and fat mass index, and with more physical activity. No consistent differences were observed when analyses were stratified by child's age at parental separation or parental conflict. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  17. The influence of parental education and other socio-economic factors on child car seat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rok Simon, Mateja; Korošec, Aleš; Bilban, Marjan

    2017-03-01

    The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children's healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables. 14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat. Low educational attainment influences parents' behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families.

  18. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children’s health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470 of a child between the ages of 2-10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Results: Obesity prevalence (21.7% did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96 were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47 was related to higher levels of obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  19. Parental, socio and cultural factors associated with adolescents' sports participation in four Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B

    2011-01-01

    .56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when......) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95...... controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation....

  20. Influence of Parenting Factors on Childhood Social Anxiety: Direct Observation of Parental Warmth and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rork, Kristine E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of parenting behaviors and social anxiety in children. Three parental factors--including parental socialization, control, and warmth--were investigated in a sample of 31 two-parent families. Rather than solely relying upon retrospective questionnaires, this study incorporated direct…

  1. Explaining use of food parenting practices: the importance of predisposing factors and parental cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus Wm; van Assema, Patricia; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef Pj

    2017-09-01

    The high energy intake from energy-dense foods among children in developed countries is undesirable. Improving food parenting practices has the potential to lower snack intakes among children. To inform the development of interventions, we aimed to predict food parenting practice patterns around snacking (i.e. 'high covert control and rewarding', 'low covert control and non-rewarding', 'high involvement and supportive' and 'low involvement and indulgent'). A cross-sectional survey was conducted. To predict the patterns of food parenting practices, multinomial logistic regression analyses were run with 888 parents. Predictors included predisposing factors (i.e. parents' and children's demographics and BMI, parents' personality, general parenting, and parenting practices used by their own parents) and parents' cognitions (i.e. perceived behaviour of other parents, subjective norms, attitudes, self-efficacy and outcome expectations). The Netherlands (October-November 2014). Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 years old. After backward elimination, nineteen factors had a statistically significant contribution to the model (Nagelkerke R 2=0·63). Overall, self-efficacy and outcome expectations were among the strongest explanatory factors. Considering the predisposing factors only, the general parenting factor nurturance most strongly predicted the food parenting clusters. Nurturance particularly distinguished highly involved parents from parents employing a pattern of low involvement. Parental cognitions and nurturance are important factors to explain the use of food parenting practices around snacking. The results suggest that intervention developers should attempt to increase self-efficacy and educate parents about what constitute effective and ineffective parenting practices. Promoting nurturance might be a prerequisite to achieve prolonged change.

  2. Factor associated with stress among parents of children with autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahida, S.; Khurshid, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with stress among parents of children with autism. Study Design: A cross-sectional field survey study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychology, GC University, Lahore, from September 2012 to November 2013. Methodology: The sample consisted of 100 parents (50 mothers and 50 fathers) of children with autism. Measures of childhood autism rating, sense of coherence, parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress, and demographic data sheet were completed by the parents in outdoor units of children hospital, institutes, and at their homes. Results: Significant correlations were found between severity of impairment and parenting stress (r = .53, p < .01), between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress (r = -.35, p < .01, and between sense of coherence and parenting stress (r = -.26, p < .05). No significant gender difference emerged in terms of parenting self-efficacy, sense of coherence, and parenting stress. Results of stepwise regression partially supported our hypothesized model, as severity of child impairment, and parenting self-efficacy appeared as significant predictors of parenting stress (R2 = .35). However, there was no evidence of role of demographic variables in the parenting stress. Conclusion: The severity of child's impairment emerged as the most salient risk factor for parenting stress; however, it was concluded that parents ability and confidence in their competence of parenting a child in challenging situations may reduce their stress. (author)

  3. Rethinking "Harmonious Parenting" Using a Three-Factor Discipline Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Diana Baumrind's typology of parenting is based on a two-factor model of "control" and "warmth". Her recommended discipline style, labeled "authoritative parenting", was constructed by taking high scores on these two factors. A problem with authoritative parenting is that it does not allow for flexible and differentiated responses to discipline…

  4. Factors Underlying the Relationship Between Parent and Child Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, David J; Cipriano, Madeline R

    2017-01-01

    The death of a parent in a child's life is a significant risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. While much has been written about the surviving parent's functioning and its effects on their bereaved children, little work has been done to look into factors underlying this effect such as how the parent copes. The present study recruited 38 parent-child dyads from a community-based grief support center. Parent and child, independently, completed various measures of emotional functioning, including grief symptoms and coping such as social support and locus of control. The results indicated that parental coping did have an impact on children's grief symptoms. This represents a unique view of adaptation in bereaved children: Parental coping strategies can have an impact on the child, independent of the child's coping strategies. By focusing on parent coping, we have highlighted another possible pathway through which parental functioning affects children's grief.

  5. Effect of Exceptional Parental Longevity and Lifestyle Factors on Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbi, Sriram; Schwartz, Elianna; Crandall, Jill; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Atzmon, Gil; Braunstein, Rebecca; Barzilai, Nir; Milman, Sofiya

    2017-12-15

    Offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL) manifest lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of lifestyle factors in this unique cohort is not known. Our study tested whether OPEL have lesser prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle factors. Prevalence of CVD and CVD risk factors was assessed in a population of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 to 94 years. Participants included OPEL (n = 395), defined as having at least 1 parent living past the age of 95 years, and offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS, n = 450), defined as having neither parent survive to 95 years. Medical and lifestyle information was obtained using standardized questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was defined based on validated classification scores. Dietary intake was evaluated with the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (2000) in a subgroup of the study population (n = 234). Our study found no significant differences in the prevalence of obesity, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, social strata scores, and dietary intake between the 2 groups. After adjustment for age and gender, the OPEL demonstrated 29% lower odds of having hypertension (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53 to 0.95), 65% lower odds of having had a stroke (95% CI 0.14 to 0.88), and 35% lower odds of having CVD (95% CI 0.43 to 0.98), compared with OPUS. In conclusion, exceptional parental longevity is associated with lower prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and nutrition, thus highlighting the potential role of genetics in disease-free survival among individuals with exceptional parental longevity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y; Khalil, Shamsun N; Ahmed, Razia A

    2016-01-01

    Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively). The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  7. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  8. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  9. Parental Expression of Disappointment: Should It Be a Factor in Hoffman's Model of Parental Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Renee B.; Gibbs, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The authors addressed whether parental expression of disappointment should be included as a distinct factor in M. L. Hoffman's (2000) well-established typology of parenting styles (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion). Hoffman's 3-factor model, along with a more inclusive 4-factor model (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion, and…

  10. Perceptions of parental smoking and sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans among parents of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Although public smoking restrictions have been implemented, children are still exposed to household smoking. Parental smoking is the main source of children's exposure to secondhand smoke. This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with parents' adoption of home smoking bans. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 768 parents of school-aged children in Taiwan. The home smoking restriction status, parents' perceptions of smoking in the presence of children and its influences, and parents' sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit model. More than 80% of the parents agreed with home smoking bans, whereas only approximately 26% of the parents actually restricted smoking at home completely. The crude odds ratios showed that parents who perceived the influence of parental smoking on children to be negative were more likely to adopt home smoking bans. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans, including a higher education level and older age of parents, a family composed of nonparent adults, and opposition to parental smoking in the presence of children. Children's health is a major concern for parents considering home smoking bans. Helping parents clarify misunderstandings regarding parental smoking, emphasizing the adverse effects of children's exposure to parental smoking, suggesting healthy substitutes for smoking, and providing effective strategies for maintaining a smoke-free home can motivate families to adopt home smoking bans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Parental, socio and cultural factors associated with adolescents' sports participation in four Danish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftegaard-Støckel, J; Nielsen, G A; Ibsen, B; Andersen, L B

    2011-08-01

    Despite the well-documented health effects of physical activity, few studies focus on the correlates of leisure-time sports and exercise participation. The present study examined correlations between adolescent sports participation and demographic factors, socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocultural factors. A school-based cross-sectional cluster sample including 6356 Danish fifth- and ninth-grade adolescents from four municipalities were included. Age (younger) and gender (boy) were associated with adolescents' sports participation. Girls were half as likely [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.55] to participate in sports than boys. Adolescents were more likely to participate in sports if they perceived their parents as active in exercise or sports. Adolescents with one or two unemployed parents were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.56-1.00), respectively, less likely to participate in sports than adolescents with two employed parents. In a gender-stratified analysis, parents' occupational status was only a predictor of sports participation in girls. Differences between municipalities in adolescents' sports participation remained significant when controlled for individual factors such as gender, age, parents' background or parents' physical activity. The association between sociocultural and SES was stronger for girls than boys. In conclusion, demographics, SES and sociocultural factors were the best determinants of adolescent sport participation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Maternal factors and experiences associated with observed parenting behavior in mothers attending a residential parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Rogers, Susan; Matthews, Jan; Allen, Beverley

    2010-01-01

    Parents experiencing early parenting difficulties often seek support through parenting programs. Characteristics of mothers seeking parenting support and information at an early parenting center in Victoria, Australia and the relationships between these factors and parenting behavior were explored using an observational measure of parent-child interaction. Participants were 43 mothers and children attending a 5-day residential parenting program at the Queen Elizabeth Centre. Maternal and sociodemographic data as well as an observational mother-child interaction task from the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Parent Child Interaction Teaching scale were completed and scored on the first day of the program. Certain maternal factors and experiences were associated with observed parenting behavior. Poorer maternal sleeping quality, unplanned pregnancy and preterm birth were all associated with less optimal parenting behavior in certain domains. Findings are discussed with reference to the impact of past experiences around pregnancy and birth as well as the current context and well-being of mothers attending early parenting centers. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Relation of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors between Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Tanya; Moran, Antoinette; Jacobs, David R; Steffen, Lyn M; Sinaiko, Alan R; Zhou, Xia; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-11-01

    To explore the relations of parent-child cardiometabolic risk factors and assess the influence of adiposity on these associations. Associations of adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting insulin and glucose, and a risk factor cluster score (CS) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 179 parents and their children (6-18 years, N = 255). Insulin resistance was assessed by euglycemic clamp in parents and children aged 10 years or older. Metabolic syndrome in parents was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. CSs of the risk factors were created based on age-specific z-scores. Analyses included Pearson correlation and linear regression, adjusted for parent and child age, sex, race, and body mass index (BMI), accounting for within-family correlation. We found positive parent-child correlations for measures of adiposity (BMI, BMI percentile, waist, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat; r = 0.22-0.34, all P ≤ .003), systolic BP (r = 0.20, P = .002), total cholesterol (r = 0.39, P parent-child correlations, except systolic BP, remained significant. Although adiposity is strongly correlated between parents and children, many cardiometabolic risk factors correlate independent of parent and child BMI. Adverse parental cardiometabolic profiles may identify at-risk children independent of the child's adiposity status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Insight of patients and their parents into schizophrenia: Exploring agreement and the influence of parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Alexandra; Norton, Joanna; Bortolon, Catherine; Robichon, Melissa; Rolland, Camille; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2015-08-30

    Poor insight is found in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients and has been associated with multiple factors of which cognitive functioning, social and environmental factors. Few studies have explored associations between patient insight and that of their biological parents', and the influence of parental factors. Insight was assessed in 41 patients and their biological parents with Amador's Scale for the assessment of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Parents' knowledge about schizophrenia and critical attitudes were assessed with validated self-report questionnaires. Both groups underwent cognitive assessments for working memory and executive functioning. Insight in patients and their parents was not associated for any of the SUMD dimensions but a significant correlation was found between patient and parent awareness of treatment effect for patient-parent dyads with frequent daily contact. Low parental critical attitude was associated with higher patient awareness of symptoms and a high parental memory task score with high patient insight. Our study is the first to suggest a possible influence of parental factors such as critical attitudes and cognitive performance on patient insight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamical symmetries for odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent work for developing dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries is reviewed. An accurate description of odd-odd nuclei requires inclusion of the fermion-fermion force (the residual interaction) and the distinguishing of fermion configurations which are particle like and those which are hole like. A parabolic dependence of the proton-neutron multiplet in odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. It is shown that a group structure for Bose-Fermi symmetries can be embedded in a supergroup. These methods are used to predict level schemes for Au-196 and Au-198. 11 refs., 3 figs

  16. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Đurišić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the system of integrated support for their students’, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for childrens’ success in the educational system. In this way, parental involement are increased, parents’ effort to support schools are encouraged, and they are directly making a positive impact to a successful educational system. Considering the importance of parents’ participation and involvement in school activities, in this paper, we will analyse the positive effects of parental involvement, summarize leading principles for the successful partnership of parents and school and present six factors (Parenting, Communicating, Volunteering, Learning at home, Decision-making and Collaborating with the community and six models (Protective Model, Expert Model, Transmission Model, Curriculum-Enrichment Model, Consumer Model and Partnership Model of parental involvement. In addition, we will draw conclusions and make recommendations that are important for planning programs that are focused on the improvement of parent involvement.

  17. Clustering of risk factors in parents of patients with type 1 diabetes and nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Lena M; Forsblom, Carol; Fagerudd, Johan; Pettersson-Fernholm, Kim; Kilpikari, Riika; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2007-05-01

    To assess the impact of parental risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. This cross-sectional study included 2,355 type 1 diabetic patients from the FinnDiane (Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy) study. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate >200 microg/min or >300 mg/24 h) or end-stage renal disease. Information was available from 4,676 parents. Parental scores were calculated based on the number of various traits in the parents. Patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had a higher prevalence of maternal (41 vs. 35%, P = 0.046) and parental (62 vs. 55%, P = 0.044) hypertension, maternal stroke (7.6 vs. 5.1%, P = 0.044), and maternal (1.4 vs. 0.7%, P = 0.058) and parental (4.3 vs. 2.9%, P = 0.030) type 1 diabetes. If both, compared with none, of the parents had hypertension, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for diabetic nephropathy in offspring was 1.56 (95% CI 1.13-2.15). The adjusted OR for diabetic nephropathy was 2.13 (1.36-3.33) for the parental hypertension-diabetes score (3-4 vs. 0 points) and 2.13 (1.37-3.33) for the parental hypertension-cardiovascular disease (CVD)-diabetes score (4-6 vs. 0 points). Fathers of patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had reduced overall survival (log-rank P = 0.04) and reduced cardiovascular survival (log-rank P = 0.03). A cluster of parental hypertension, CVD, and diabetes is associated with diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, as is paternal mortality.

  18. Risk factors for stress in children after parental stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Meijer, A.M.; Visser-Meily, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess risk factors for stress in children 3 years after parental stroke. Participants: Questionnaires were filled in by 44 children aged 7-18 years, parents who suffered a stroke and healthy spouses from 29 families recruited in 9 participating rehabilitation centers across the

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTAL AND CHILD CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Fesharak Nia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adult cardiovascular disease has its root in childhood. Cardiovascular disease aggregates in families, so identification of high-risk families and early screening and control of cardiovascular risk factors in offspring will help prevent cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to determine the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents having a positive history of premature myocardial infarction and their offspring. methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004 on 91 parents and their offspring (91 children. The parents were randomly selected from among patients hospitalized in the critical care unit of Vali-e-Asr hospital with premature myocardial infarction. Important indicators such as systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were measured in both groups. results: There was no significant relation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between parents and their offspring. Thirty-three percent of the parents were hypertensive. No cases of hypertension were found in children. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the children of hypertensive parents. Significant relations were seen between BMI and obesity in parents and their children. There was no significant relation between serum lipids, high TC, high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels in parents and their children. The commonest lipid disorder in parents and their offspring was low HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show a significant relation between hypertension, obesity and blood lipid disorders between parents with positive history of premature myocardial infraction and their children. Hence, screening programs in these children for detection of cardiovascular risk factors are recommended.     Keywords

  20. Parental bonding and depression: personality as a mediating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, the role of early experience and parenting is of crucial importance to child development and mental health. In addition, several research findings suggest that parental bonding and different types of attachment play a crucial role in personality development. The present study examines the association between parental bonding experiences (lack of parental care, overprotection or both) and depression during adulthood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different personality dimensions as possible mediators of the relation between perceptions of parental bonding and depressive symptoms in adult life. 181 participants (15- 49-years-old) completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The results show that lack of parental care and overprotection is linked with depressive symptoms and a number of personality characteristics, such as low self-esteem, introversion, distress and emotional instability. In contrast, high care and low protection (optimal bonding) is linked with increased self-confidence, less distress and less depressive symptoms. The results presented here are in line with Bowlby's theory of attachment and show that parental bonding is linked with problematic personality development and psychopathology. The present study provided evidence that personality factors may mediate the observed relationship between parental rearing style and depression. The potential causal mechanisms warrant longitudinal evaluation.

  1. Parenting and demographic factors as predictors of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies associated conduct disorder among adolescents with great societal damage. ... aggressive behaviour, hostility and deceitfulness) and the effectiveness of ... The results have implications for parenting factors associated with ...

  2. Observed parenting behaviors interact with a polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict the emergence of oppositional defiant and callous-unemotional behaviors at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Waschbusch, Daniel A

    2013-11-01

    Using the Durham Child Health and Development Study, this study (N = 171) tested whether observed parenting behaviors in infancy (6 and 12 months) and toddlerhood/preschool (24 and 36 months) interacted with a child polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors at age 3 years. Child genotype interacted with observed harsh and intrusive (but not sensitive) parenting to predict ODD and CU behaviors. Harsh-intrusive parenting was more strongly associated with ODD and CU for children with a methionine allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. CU behaviors were uniquely predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in infancy, whereas ODD behaviors were predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in both infancy and toddlerhood/preschool. The results are discussed from the perspective of the contributions of caregiving behaviors as contributing to distinct aspects of early onset disruptive behavior.

  3. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Y Ghazwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS, for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17-5.19, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial.

  4. Predicting success in an online parenting intervention: the role of child, parent, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Palmer, Melanie L; Sanders, Matthew R; Keown, Louise J

    2014-04-01

    The present study involved an examination of the extent to which a wide range of child, parent, family, and program-related factors predicted child behavior and parenting outcomes after participation in an 8-session online version of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants were mothers and fathers of 97 children aged between 3 and 8 years displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior problems. For both mothers and fathers, poorer child behavior outcomes at postintervention were predicted by the number of sessions of the intervention completed by the family. For mothers, postintervention child behavior was also predicted by the quality of the mother-child relationship at baseline; for fathers, baseline child behavior severity was an additional predictor. Mothers' postintervention ineffective parenting was predicted by session completion and preintervention levels of ineffective parenting, whereas the only predictor of fathers' ineffective parenting at postintervention was preintervention levels of ineffective parenting. Socioeconomic risk, parental adjustment, and father participation in the intervention were not significant predictors of mother- or father-reported treatment outcomes. The implications of the findings for the provision of online parenting support are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with parents' attitudes to unhealthy foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Quester, Pascale; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has identified convenience, enjoyment, value for money and perceived goodness as primary dimensions of parents' attitudes to foods and beverages. The aim of the present study was to examine the factors associated with parents' scores on each of these attitudinal dimensions to identify key issues for future interventions designed to improve parents' food provision behaviours and children's diets. A sample of 1302 Australian parents of children aged 8 to 14 years completed an online survey relating to their food-related beliefs. Linear regression analyses were undertaken to examine factors associated with parents' attitudes to soft drinks and energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. Consistent factors were identified for both energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and soft drinks, indicating that similar approaches could be adopted in interventions for both product categories. The primary factors were social norms, child pestering, television viewing and exposure to food advertising. Food advertising represents a common link between the primary factors, indicating that it constitutes a critical component of future interventions designed to modify parents' attitudes to unhealthy food products and to reduce the frequency with which these foods are consumed by children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Factors associated with the referral of anxious children to mental health care: the influence of family functioning, parenting, parental anxiety and child impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Level spectra, electromagnetic moments and transition rates and spectroscopic factors for odd rhodium isotopes in the Coriolis coupling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredbacka, A.; Brenner, M.; Malik, F.B.; Aabo Akademi, Turku

    1989-01-01

    Properties of low-lying positive- and negative-parity states of 97,99,101,103,105,107,109 Rh at low excitation energies have been analyzed in terms of a Coriolis coupling model. The model can account for the general trend of the level schemes for states of both parties. In particular, the 9/2, 7/2, and 5/2 triplet near the ground state, the occurrence of multiple 13/2 and at least one 15/2 and 19/2 state of positive parity are reasonably reproduced by the model. Similarly, 1/2 ground-state spin followed by a (3/2, 5/2) doublet, and one or more 13/2 and 17/2 states of negative parity are adequately understood in terms of the model. The calculated electromagnetic dipole and quadrupole moments and magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transition rates are in broad agreement with the observed ones. This is achieved without the use of any effective charge. The general trend of observed spectroscopic factors for pick-up reactions is in agreement with the calculated ones. The results are presented as a function of deformation. Because of the sparsity of data on many of these isotopes, no attempt has been made to find the best fit for each isotope individually. Since the model can reasonably reproduce the general trend of level schemes, electromagnetic properties and spectroscopic factors, one may conclude that the Coriolis coupling model provides a good description of the nuclear properties of these isotopes. (orig.)

  8. Parental Factors Associated with Mexican American Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mogro-Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options.

  9. Factors associated with parent support for condom education and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A

    2014-04-01

    Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in efforts to implement such programs. A representative statewide sample of households with children (N = 1,093) in California was employed to examine parent support for CEA and the potential influences of demographics (gender, age, and Hispanic ethnicity), sociodemographics (education, religious affiliation, religious service attendance, and political ideology), and condom-related beliefs (belief in condom effectiveness and belief that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible) on parent support for CEA. The parents in our sample reported a high level of support for CEA (M = 3.23 on a 4-point scale) and believing in a high level of condom effectiveness (M = 3.36 on a 4-point scale). In addition, 84% of the parents agreed that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents who were younger, Hispanic, with a lower educational attainment, without a religious affiliation, less religiously observant, and politically liberal were more supportive of CEA. After controlling for these demographic and sociodemographic factors, condom effectiveness and responsibility beliefs each added independently to the predictability of parent support for CEA. These findings suggest that parent education related to condom effectiveness could help increase support for school-based CEA programs.

  10. Individual and Parental Risk Factors for Sexual Exploitation Among High-Risk Youth in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Culbreth, Rachel; Wilson, Rebecca; Armistead, Lisa; Kasirye, Rogers; Swahn, Monica H

    2018-04-01

    This study examined risk factors to determine associations with commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC) in a convenience sample of adolescents living in the slums in Kampala, Uganda. Individual-level factors included demographic, adverse experiences (ever living on the streets; victim of dating violence, parental abuse, or rape), and behavioral risk (social media, alcohol use, age at first intercourse). Parental-risk factors included parent alcohol use and approval attitudes toward youth sex. Analyses included those who self-reported sexually active adolescents ( n = 593) of whom 39% reported CSEC history. CSEC was significantly associated with being female (odds ratio [ OR] = 6.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [4.22, 11.12]), living on the streets ( OR = 2.68; 95% CI = [1.65, 4.36]), using social media ( OR = 1.48; 95% CI = [0.94, 2.35]), being a victim of physical dating violence ( OR = 1.74; 95% CI = [1.08, 2.80]), and ever being raped ( OR = 4.03; 95% CI = [2.51, 6.47]). Further analyses suggested differential risk associates among females and males. This study contributes to our knowledge of risk factors for CSEC among adolescents living in high-risk circumstances in low-resource countries and suggests that preventive efforts should prioritize adolescents with a history of living on the streets who engage in social media, use alcohol, and have a history of trauma.

  11. Association of cardiovascular risk factors between Hispanic/Latino parents and youth: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Bishop, Virginia; Daviglus, Martha L; Delamater, Alan M; Gallo, Linda C; Perreira, Krista; Pulgaron, Elizabeth; Reina, Samantha; Talavera, Gregory A; Van Horn, Linda H; Isasi, Carmen R

    2017-04-01

    Hispanic/Latinos have a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors which may begin at young ages. We tested the association of CVD risk factors between Hispanic/Latino parents and their children. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Youth study. Girls (n = 674) and boys (n = 667) aged 8 to 16 years (mean age 12.1 years) and their parents (n = 942) had their CVD risk factors measured. CVD risk factors in parents were significantly positively associated with those same risk factors among youth. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, diet and physical activity, obese parents were significantly more likely to have youth who were overweight (odds ratios [ORs], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.76) or obese (OR, 6.16; 95% CI, 3.23-11.77) versus normal weight. Dyslipidemia among parents was associated with 1.98 higher odds of dyslipidemia among youth (95% CI, 1.37-2.87). Neither hypertension nor diabetes was associated with higher odds of high blood pressure or hyperglycemia (prediabetes or diabetes) in youth. Findings were consistent by sex and in younger (age parents, which portends high risk for adult CVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  13. [Becoming parents. Factors related to the feeling of competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, N; Paul, D

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, priority measures have been established within the health field in Québec for raising parents' self-esteem in regard to their role, and ensuring that their parenting skills improve. The study Perceptions de la relation conjugale, du fonctionnement familial et du sentiment de compétence parentale chez des pères et des mères d'un premier enfant âgé d'un an was conducted in keeping with these measures. Nathalie Léonard conducted the research as part of her studies toward a master's degree in nursing science; her thesis advisor was Denise Paul. One goal of her correlative descriptive study was to describe perceptions of the feeling of parental competence among couples with a first child one year of age. A survey of the literature enabled listing of the factors that influence the feeling of parental competence in three categories, according to whether it is linked to the parents, to the child or to their surroundings. Awareness of these factors enables nurses in hospital and community settings to provide more effective support to parents of a first child in their process of adapting to parenthood.

  14. Factors affecting children's oral health: perceptions among Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Dharma E; Réategui-Sharpe, Ludmila; Spiro Iii, Avron; García, Raul I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand factors that influence the oral health-related behaviors of Latino children, as reported by their parents. Focus groups and in-depth interviews assessed parental perceptions, experiences, attributions, and beliefs regarding their children's oral health. Guiding questions focused on a) the participant's child dental experiences; b) the impact of dental problems on the child's daily activities, emotions, self-esteem; c) parental experiences coping with child's dental problems; and d) hygienic and dietary habits. Participants were purposively sampled from dental clinics and public schools with a high concentration of Latinos; 92 urban low-income Latino Spanish-speaking parents participated. Transcriptions of the audio files were thematically analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Parents' explanations of their children's dental experiences were categorized under the following themes: caries and diet, access to dental care, migration experiences, and routines. Findings revealed fundamental multilevel (i.e., individual/child, family, and community) factors that are important to consider for future interventions to reduce oral health disparities: behaviors leading to caries, parental knowledge about optimal oral health, access to sugary foods within the living environment and to fluoridated water as well as barriers to oral health care such as lack of health insurance or limited health insurance coverage, among others. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with greater odds of remission with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α medications among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R W; Collins, E; Cao, B; Carrellas, M; Crowell, A M; Korzenik, J R

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin D has been linked to disease activity among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Prior investigation has also suggested that vitamin D levels may affect duration of therapy with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) medications among patients with IBD. To evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and odds of reaching remission while on an anti-TNF-α medication. A total of 521 IBD patients enrolled in the Brigham and Women's IBD Centre database were eligible for inclusion. Patients treated with anti-TNF-α therapy who had vitamin D levels drawn within 6 months prior or 2 weeks after initiation of anti-TNF-α medication and who had reported remission status at 3 months were included. A logistic regression model adjusting for age, gender, IBD diagnosis, anti-TNF-α medication (infliximab vs. adalimumab) and first or subsequent anti-TNF-α medication was used to identify the effect of vitamin D level on initial response to anti-TNF-α therapy. A total of 173 patients were included in the final analysis. On logistic regression, patients with normal vitamin D levels n = 122 at the time of anti-TNF-α medication initiation had a 2.64 increased odds of remission at 3 months compared to patients with low vitamin D levels n = 51 when controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, type of anti-TNF-α medication and first or subsequent anti-TNF-α medication (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.31-5.32, P = 0.0067). These findings suggest that vitamin D levels may influence initial response to anti-TNF-α medication and that low vitamin D levels may pre-dispose patients to decreased odds of remission. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Parental and Child Factors Associated with Under-Estimation of Children with Excess Weight in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Ingrid; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2017-11-01

    Objective Understanding obesity misperception and associated factors can improve strategies to increase obesity identification and intervention. We investigate underestimation of child excess weight with a broader perspective, incorporating perceptions, views, and psychosocial aspects associated with obesity. Methods This study used cross-sectional data from the Spanish National Health Survey in 2011-2012 for children aged 2-14 years who are overweight or obese. Percentages of parental misperceived excess weight were calculated. Crude and adjusted analyses were performed for both child and parental factors analyzing associations with underestimation. Results Two-five year olds have the highest prevalence of misperceived overweight or obesity around 90%. In the 10-14 year old age group approximately 63% of overweight teens were misperceived as normal weight and 35.7 and 40% of obese males and females. Child gender did not affect underestimation, whereas a younger age did. Aspects of child social and mental health were associated with under-estimation, as was short sleep duration. Exercise, weekend TV and videogames, and food habits had no effect on underestimation. Fathers were more likely to misperceive their child´s weight status; however parent's age had no effect. Smokers and parents with excess weight were less likely to misperceive their child´s weight status. Parents being on a diet also decreased odds of underestimation. Conclusions for practice This study identifies some characteristics of both parents and children which are associated with under-estimation of child excess weight. These characteristics can be used for consideration in primary care, prevention strategies and for further research.

  17. Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.D.; Gandhi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides. Collective model of odd-odd nuclei is applied to predict the magnetic dipole moments, (μ) of odd-odd lanthanides. A simplified version of expression for μ based on diagonalisation of Hamiltonian (subsequent use of eigenvectors to compute μ) is developed for cases of ground state as well as excited states using no configuration mixing and is applied to the cases of odd-odd lanthanides. The formulae applied to the eleven (11) cases of ground states show significant improvement over the results obtained using shell model. Configuration mixing and coriolis coupling is expected to cause further improvement in the results. On comparing the earlier work in this direction the present analysis has clarified that in the expression μ the projection factors have different signs for the case I=Ωp - Ωn and I=Ωn - Ωp, and sign of μ is negative in general in the second case while it is positive in all others of spin projection alignments. Although the general expression holds for excited states as well but in lanthanide region, the experimental reports of magnetic dipole moments of excite states (band heads of higher rational sequences) are not available except in case of five (5) neutron resonance states which cannot be handled on the basis of the present approach with no configuration mixing. Although in the present discussion, the model could not be applied to excited states but the systematics of change in its magnitude with increasing spin at higher rational states is very well understood. The particle part supressed under faster rotation of the nuclear core and thus finally at higher spin I, the value μ is given by μ=g c I (same as in case of even-even nuclei). These systematics are to be verified whenever enough data for higher excited states are available. (author). 11 refs

  18. Factors Influencing Parents' Preferences and Parents' Perceptions of Child Preferences of Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors influencing parents' preferences and their perceptions of their children's preferences for picturebooks. First, a content analysis was conducted on a set of picturebooks (N = 87) drawn from the sample described in Wagner (2013); Then, parents (N = 149) rated the books and several content properties were examined for their ability to predict parents' preferences and their perception of their children's preferences. The initial content analysis found correlated clusters of disparate measures of complexity (linguistic, cognitive, narrative) and identified a distinctive sub-genre of modern books featuring female protagonists. The experimental preference analysis found that parents' own preferences were most influenced by the books' age and status; parents' perceptions of their children's preferences were influenced by gender, with parents perceiving their sons (but not daughters) as dis-preferring books with female protagnoists. In addition, influences of the child's reading ability and the linguistic complexity of the book on preferences suggested a sensitivity to the cultural practice of joint book-reading. PMID:28919869

  19. Biobehavioral Risk Factors in Children of Schizophrenic Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.; Cornblatt, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    Research on risk factors for schizophrenia is reviewed with emphasis on children of schizophrenic parents. Four areas of biobehavioral functioning that have been examined in high-risk research are discussed. Three of these are considered compatible with hypothesis neurointegrative defect underlying schizophrenic-proneness. (Author/CL)

  20. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antisocial behavior Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating these other ...

  1. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  2. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  3. Democracy against the odds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    Why have a number of poor countries sustained electoral democracy against the odds? The extant literature on democracy and democratization consistently points to the importance of socioeconomic development and democratic neighboring countries, in particular, as important prerequisites for a stable...... demonstrates the enormous potential of political parties and civil society in processes of democratization. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Hvorfor opretholder en række fattige lande en demokratisk styreform imod alle odds? Demokratiforskere forventer, at et land må have et...

  4. Firearm Ownership and Acquisition Among Parents With Risk Factors for Self-Harm or Other Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Elliott, Marc N; Kanouse, David E; Schwebel, David C; Toomey, Sara L; Mrug, Sylvie; Cuccaro, Paula M; Tortolero, Susan R; Schuster, Mark A

    Recent policy initiatives aiming to reduce firearm morbidity focus on mental health and illness. However, few studies have simultaneously examined mental health and behavioral predictors within families, or their longitudinal association with newly acquiring a firearm. Population-based, longitudinal survey of 4251 parents of fifth-grade students in 3 US metropolitan areas; 2004 to 2011. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess associations between owning or acquiring a firearm and parent mental illness and substance use. Ninety-three percent of parents interviewed were women. Overall, 19.6% of families reported keeping a firearm in the home. After adjustment for confounders, history of depression (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.77), binge drinking (aOR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.68), and illicit drug use (aOR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.12-2.76) were associated with a higher likelihood of keeping a firearm in the home. After a mean of 3.1 years, 6.1% of parents who did not keep a firearm in the home at baseline acquired one by follow-up and kept it in the home (average annual likelihood = 2.1%). No risk factors for self-harm or other violence were associated with newly acquiring a gun in the home. Families with risk factors for self-harm or other violence have a modestly greater probability of having a firearm in the home compared with families without risk factors, and similar probability of newly acquiring a firearm. Treatment interventions for many of these risk factors might reduce firearm-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Associated with Parenting and Family Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetens, Imke; Claes, Laurence; Martin, Graham; Onghena, Patrick; Grietens, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Pieters, Ciska; Wiersema, Jan R.; Griffith, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the association of parenting and family factors with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in preadolescents. A sample of 1,439 preadolescents and their parents were assessed by means of (a) adolescent-reported parenting behaviors (support and behavioral/psychological control), (b) parent-reported parenting behaviors…

  6. Factors Associated with Parent-Child (Dis)Agreement on Child Behavior and Parenting Problems in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joey J.; Lau, Anna S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined familial and cultural factors predicting parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems. Immigrant Chinese parents (89.7% mothers; M age = 44.24 years) and their children (62 boys; 57.9%) between the ages of 9 and 17 years (M = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9) completed measures of parent punitive behavior and child…

  7. Odds per adjusted standard deviation: comparing strengths of associations for risk factors measured on different scales and across diseases and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, John L

    2015-11-15

    How can the "strengths" of risk factors, in the sense of how well they discriminate cases from controls, be compared when they are measured on different scales such as continuous, binary, and integer? Given that risk estimates take into account other fitted and design-related factors-and that is how risk gradients are interpreted-so should the presentation of risk gradients. Therefore, for each risk factor X0, I propose using appropriate regression techniques to derive from appropriate population data the best fitting relationship between the mean of X0 and all the other covariates fitted in the model or adjusted for by design (X1, X2, … , Xn). The odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) presents the risk association for X0 in terms of the change in risk per s = standard deviation of X0 adjusted for X1, X2, … , Xn, rather than the unadjusted standard deviation of X0 itself. If the increased risk is relative risk (RR)-fold over A adjusted standard deviations, then OPERA = exp[ln(RR)/A] = RR(s). This unifying approach is illustrated by considering breast cancer and published risk estimates. OPERA estimates are by definition independent and can be used to compare the predictive strengths of risk factors across diseases and populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively. Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week, long screen time (≥3 h/day and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.5–7.3, 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4, and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0 odds ratio (OR of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3; p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009. The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI

  9. Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Elementary School Children: Child Social-Cognitive Factors and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…

  10. Link Between Deployment Factors and Parenting Stress in Navy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER HT9404-13-1-TS05 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Purpose: Many service members today are married, and many also have children; deployments affect all members of the military family . The purpose of this...conducted. Findings: As deployment factors increased, parenting stress increased for fathers in the reintegration period, with a potential mediation

  11. Odd Shape Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jo Ann; Wells, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The Odd Shape Out task was an open-ended problem that engaged students in comparing shapes based on their properties. Four teachers submitted the work of 116 students from across the country. This article compares various student's responses to the task. The problem allowed for differentiation, as shown by the many different ways that students…

  12. Parenting a Child with Phenylketonuria: An Investigation into the Factors That Contribute to Parental Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Olivia; Medford, Emma; Hare, Dougal J

    2018-04-20

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic condition that can lead to the onset of intellectual disabilities if not strictly managed through a low-protein diet. Parents are responsible for supervising their child's treatment for PKU, which may impact on their experience of distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors that contribute to distress in parents who care for a child with PKU, distinct from parents in the general population. Thirty-eight parents of children and adolescents with PKU and 32 parents in the general population completed the questionnaires measuring parental psychological resilience, child behaviour problems, perceived social support and distress. Parents of children with PKU also completed measures of their child's care dependency and behaviour related to developmental and intellectual disabilities. The findings revealed no statistically significant differences in distress between the groups, but parents of children with PKU reported more child behaviour problems. Multiple regression analysis identified that parental psychological resilience and child anxious behaviour explained 35% of the variance in distress for parents of children with PKU. By comparison, parental psychological resilience and generic child behaviour only accounted for 19% of the variance in distress for parents in the general population. This has implications for developing interventions in clinical settings that aim to reduce parents' distress by enhancing their psychological resilience and supporting them to manage child behaviour difficulties, particularly anxious behaviour. Future research should include larger, more diverse samples and use longitudinal study designs.

  13. Vibrational-rotational model of odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.V.; Guseva, T.V.; Tamberg, Yu.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    The rotational vibrational (RV) model of odd nuclei is generalized to odd-odd nuclei. The hamiltonian, wave functions and matrix elements of the RV-model of odd-odd nuclei are obtained. The expressions obtained for matrix elements of the RV-model of odd-odd nuclei can be used to study the role of vibrational additions in low-lying two-particle states of odd-odd deformed nuclei. Such calculations permit to study more correctly the residual neutron-proton interaction of valent nucleons with respect to collectivization effects

  14. Parental consanguinity and associated factors in congenital talipes equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, T; Nataraj, A R

    2012-03-01

    The cause of congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is multifactorial and, consanguinity could be one of the causative factors in its development. The purpose of this study was, to determine the prevalence of parental consanguinity in CTEV and other factors like associated, congenital anomalies, maternal and fetal factors and also the severity of CTEV in these patients. The above factors were studied in 54 patients of less than 1 month of age with parental, consanguinity and 91 feet were evaluated for its severity using Dimeglio classification at the time of presentation. Out of 174 children presented to our department with CTEV, 54 (31%) children were born out, of consanguineous marriage. Thirty seven (68.5%) patients had bilateral CTEV. Twenty five (46.3%), patients had associated congenital anomalies and myelomeningocele being the commonest anomaly, associated. Out of 91 feet 61 (67%) were of grade 4 severity. High grade of severity observed in both idiopathic and non idiopathic CTEV suggests the, probable role of consanguinity as an etiological factor in the development of CTEV especially in our, part of the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  16. Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patial Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+ of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the Iπ = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.

  17. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in

  18. Impact of an empowerment-based parent education program on the reduction of youth suicide risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumbourou, John W; Gregg, M Elizabeth

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of parent education groups on youth suicide risk factors. The potential for informal transmission of intervention impacts within school communities was assessed. Parent education groups were offered to volunteers from 14 high schools that were closely matched to 14 comparison schools. The professionally led groups aimed to empower parents to assist one another to improve communication skills and relationships with adolescents. Australian 8th-grade students (aged 14 years) responded to classroom surveys repeated at baseline and after 3 months. Logistic regression was used to test for intervention impacts on adolescent substance use, deliquency, self-harm behavior, and depression. There were no differences between the intervention (n = 305) and comparison (n = 272) samples at baseline on the measures of depression, health behavior, or family relationships. Students in the intervention schools demonstrated increased maternal care (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.9), reductions in conflict with parents (AOR.5), reduced substance use (AOR.5 to.6), and less delinquency (AOR.2). Parent education group participants were more likely to be sole parents and their children reported higher rates of substance use at baseline. Intervention impacts revealed a dose-response with the largest impacts associated with directly participating parents, but significant impacts were also evident for others in the intervention schools. Where best friend dyads were identified, the best friend's positive family relationships reduced subsequent substance use among respondents. This and other social contagion processes were posited to explain the transfer of positive impacts beyond the minority of directly participating families. A whole-school parent education intervention demonstrated promising impacts on a range of risk behaviors and protective factors relevant to youth self-harm and suicide.

  19. [Comparison of the factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to compare factors influencing children's self-esteem between two parent families and single parent families. The participants were 692 children aged 11 to 13 yr (388 in two parent families and 304 in single parent families) recruited from 20 community agencies and 5 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province and Seoul City, South Korea. Data were collected from May to July, 2007 using a survey questionnaire containing items on self-esteem, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, family hardiness, parent-child communication and social support. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 program and factors affecting children's self-esteem were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. Scores for the study variables were significantly different between the two groups. The factors influencing children's self-esteem were also different according to family type. For two parent families, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.505, psingle parent families, social support, family hardiness, internal control, problematic behavior, school record, and parent-child communication significantly predicted the level of self-esteem (adjusted R(2)=.444, p<.001). Nurse working with children should consider family type-specific factors influencing their self-esteem.

  20. Orofacial clefts, parental cigarette smoking, and transforming growth factor-alpha gene variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R.; O`Malley, C.D. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Results of studies determine whether women who smoke during early pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering infants with orofacial clefts have been mixed, and recently a gene-environment interaction between maternal smoking, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFa), and clefting has been reported. Using a large population-based case-control study, we investigated whether parental periconceptional cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk for having offspring with orofacial clefts. We also investigated the influence of genetic variation of the TGFa locus on the relation between smoking and clefting. Parental smoking information was obtained from telephone interviews with mothers of 731 (84.7% of eligible) orofacial cleft case infants and with mothers of 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed control infants. DNA was obtained from newborn screening blood spots and genotyped for the allelic variants of TGFa. We found that risks associated with maternal smoking were most elevated for isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate, (odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6]) and for isolated cleft palate (odds ratio 2.2 [1.1-4.5]) when mothers smoked {ge} 20 cigarrettes/d. These risks for white infants ranged from 3-fold to 11-fold across phenotypic groups. Paternal smoking was not associated with clefting among the offspring of nonsmoking mothers, and passive smoke exposures were associated with at most slightly increased risks. This study offers evidence that the risk for orofacial clefting in infants may be influenced by maternal smoke exposures alone as well as in combination (gene-environment interaction) with the presence of the uncommon TGFa allele. 56 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. A model of parental distress and factors that mediate its link with parental monitoring of youth diabetes care, adherence, and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elizabeth M; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2016-12-01

    Parental monitoring of adolescents' diabetes self-care is associated with better adherence and glycemic control (A1c). A number of parent-level factors are associated with higher levels of parental monitoring, including lower levels of parental distress (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety), as well as higher levels of parental self-efficacy for diabetes management and authoritative parenting. Often studied in isolation, these factors may be best considered simultaneously as they are interrelated and are associated with parental monitoring and youth adherence. Structural equation modeling with a cross-sectional sample of 257 parent/youth (aged 11-14) dyads: (a) examined a broad model of parental factors (i.e., parental distress, parental diabetes self-efficacy, authoritative parenting), and (b) assessed their relation to parental monitoring, youth adherence, and A1c. Post hoc analyses of variance (ANOVAs) evaluated clinical implications of daily parental monitoring. Parental distress was not related directly to parental monitoring. Instead less distress related indirectly to more monitoring via higher parental self-efficacy and more authoritative parenting which, in turn, related to better adherence and A1c. Higher parental self-efficacy also related directly to better youth adherence and then to better A1c. Clinically, more parental monitoring related to more daily blood glucose checks and to better A1c (8.48% vs. 9.17%). A broad model of parent-level factors revealed more parental distress was linked only indirectly to less monitoring via lower parental self-efficacy and less authoritative parenting. Behaviorally, more parental monitoring related to better adherence and to clinically better A1c in adolescents. Further study of parent-level factors that relate to parental distress and monitoring of adherence appears warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Development of Physical Activity-Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R

    2017-09-01

    Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

  3. A Common Genetic Factor Explains the Covariation among ADHD ODD and CD Symptoms in 9-10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Zheng, Mo; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies examining the covariation among Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) have yielded inconsistent results. Some studies have concluded that the covariation among these symptoms is due to common genetic influences, whereas others have found a common…

  4. Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.A.; Levon, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i.e. energy spectra of collective bands in odd-odd nuclei are similar to the spectra of collective bands in heighbouring odd nuclei, which are based on the state of a strongly bound nucleon is included in the conflicting configuration

  5. Factors associated with parent concern for child weight and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.

  6. Parental Stress and Related Factors in Parents of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy display prominent motor dysfunction associated with other developmental disorders. Parenting a child with cerebral palsy presents a number of challenges and stresses. The first purpose of this study was to compare parental stress in parents of children with cerebral palsy to that in parents of children with typical development. The second purpose was to analyze the correlations between parental stress and parents' characteristics, the child's characteristics, the child's earliest age when rehabilitation was first commenced, and weekly frequency of rehabilitation for the child. A convenience sample of 63 parents of children with cerebral palsy (mean age of children, 4.3 ± 1.8 years was recruited. Forty parents of children with typical development were recruited as a comparison group. All parents filled out the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI, which consists of child domain and parent domain scales. The scores reported by parents of children with cerebral palsy in the child domain, parent domain, and PSI total scale were significantly higher than those for parents in the comparison group. The child domain score was significantly correlated to the child's age and severity of motor disability. A significant correlation was also found between the parent domain score and the child's earliest age of commencing rehabilitation. The PSI total scale score was significantly associated with both the child's severity of motor disability and age of commencing rehabilitation. Clinical professionals should be concerned about parental stress in parents of children with cerebral palsy and provide resources to support such parents. We suggest some strategies to reduce parental stress by strengthening parents' child-care skills.

  7. Angry Responses to Infant Challenges: Parent, Marital, and Child Genetic Factors Associated with Harsh Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own te...

  8. Angry responses to infant challenges: parent, marital, and child genetic factors associated with harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Heterogeneity in coverage for measles and varicella vaccination in toddlers - analysis of factors influencing parental acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Christine; Streng, Andrea; Kraemer, Alexander; Liese, Johannes G

    2017-09-19

    In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany for children aged 11-14 months. Routine measles vaccination had already been introduced in 1973 for the same age group, but coverage is still too low (measles. The present study assessed varicella and measles vaccination coverage and determinants of parental acceptance in two study regions, situated in Northern and Southern Bavaria (Germany). From 2009 to 2011, annual cross-sectional parent surveys were performed on random samples of 600 children aged 18-36 months in the Bavarian regions of both Munich and Würzburg. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with varicella and measles vaccination. In 2009, 2010 and 2011, vaccination coverage was lower in Munich than in Würzburg, for both varicella (Munich 53%, 67%, 69% vs. Würzburg 72%, 81%, 83%) and for measles (Munich 88%, 89%, 91% vs. Würzburg 92%, 93%, 95%). Recommendation by the physician was the main independent factor associated with varicella vaccination in both regions (adjusted odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI): Munich OR 19.7, CI 13.6-28.6; Würzburg OR 34.7, CI 22.6-53.2). Attendance at a childcare unit was positively associated with a higher acceptance of varicella vaccination in Munich (OR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.2). Regarding measles vaccination, attendance at a childcare unit was positively associated in both regions (Munich OR 2.0; CI 1.3-3.0; Würzburg OR 1.8; CI 1.1-3.1), and a higher level of parental school education was negatively associated in Würzburg (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9). Vaccination rates differed between regions, with rates constantly higher in Würzburg. Within each region, vaccination rates were lower for varicella than for measles. Measles vaccination status was mainly dependent upon socio-demographic factors (attendance at a childcare unit, parental school education), whereas for the more recently introduced varicella vaccination recommendation by the physician had the strongest

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Parents of Food-Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sheila Ohlsson; Mao, Guangyun; Caruso, Deanna; Hong, Xiumei; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that chronic stress may induce immune system malfunction and a broad range of adverse health outcomes; however, the underlying pathways for this relationship are unclear. Our study aimed to elucidate this question by examining the relationship between parental cardiovascular risk factors including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and maternal psychological stress score (MPSS) relative to the severity of the child's food allergy (FA) and number of affected children. SBP, DBP, BMI, and WHR were measured and calculated at the time of recruitment by trained nurses. MPSS was obtained based on self-report questionnaires covering lifestyle adjustments, perceived chronic stress, and quality of life. General linear models examined whether caregiver chronic stress was associated with FA. For mothers with children under age 5 years, SBP, DBP and number of affected children had strong and graded relationships with severity of the child's FA. MPSS was also significantly and positively associated with child FA severity (P parent. This was also the case for paternal SBP, DBP, and number of affected children of any age. There is a strong and graded link between cardiovascular risk and perceived stress in mothers of food-allergic children under age 5. Findings may have important implications for family-centered care of FA, may generalize to caregivers of children with chronic conditions, and extend the literature on allostatic load.

  11. Factors that Hinder Parents from the Communicating of Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Directorate of Research, Ethics and Consultancy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, ... Parent-adolescent communication about sexual matters is one of the means that ... and media to promote the strategy of parent-adolescent.

  12. Parental Involvement as a Important Factor for Successful Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurišic, Maša; Bunijevac, Mila

    2017-01-01

    To comply with the system of integrated support for their students, schools need to build partnership with parents and develop mutual responsibility for children's success in the educational system. In this way, parental involvement are increased, parents' effort to support schools are encouraged, and they are directly making a positive impact to…

  13. Figuring in the Father Factor. For Parents Particularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of father's involvement in childcare for the child's success and presents guidelines for successful fathering. Notes the difference between authoritative and authoritarian parenting. Suggest that fathers be a part of the child's day, show acceptance, use positive parenting, share parenting, and see fathering as worthwhile…

  14. Negative parental attributions mediate associations between risk factors and dysfunctional parenting: A replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Marieke; van Berkel, Sheila R; Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-05-12

    The primary goal of the current study was to replicate our previous study in which was found that negative maternal attributions mediate the association between parenting stress and harsh and abusive discipline. In addition, we investigated this association in fathers, and added observational parenting data. During two home visits mothers and fathers were observed with their children (age 1.5-6.0 years), filled in questionnaires, and completed the Parental Attributions of Child behavior Task (PACT; a computerized attribution task). Similar to our previous study, negative parental attributions mediated the relation between parenting stress and self-reported harsh and abusive parenting for both mothers and fathers. For mothers, this mediation effect was also found in the relation between parenting stress and lower levels of observed supportive parenting in a challenging disciplinary task. In addition, the relation of partner-related stress and abuse risk with harsh, abusive, and (low) supportive parenting were also mediated by maternal negative attributions. When parenting stress, partner-related stress, and abuse risk were studied in one model, only parenting stress remained significant. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of targeting parental attributions for prevention and intervention purposes in families experiencing stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Head Start: Factors Associated with Caregiver Knowledge of Child Development, Parenting Behavior, and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Watkins, Katara; Johnson, Elizabeth; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the role of socioeconomic status, parental mental health, and knowledge of child development on parenting styles and perceived parenting stress in caregivers of children, ages 3 months to 3 years, enrolled in Early Head Start (EHS). Caregivers of EHS students were interviewed using the Knowledge of Infant Development…

  16. Gender Differences in Factors Associated with How Parents Communicate with School in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Chin, Meejung

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored different factors that were associated with mothers' and fathers' choice between two forms of parent-school communication: school briefing sessions and parent-teacher conferences. A total of 585 parents--295 mothers and 290 fathers from different households--who had at least one child enrolled in middle school in Korea were…

  17. Factors Mediating Dysphoric Moods and Help Seeking Behaviour among Australian Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Matthew; Donnelly, James

    2016-01-01

    This study compared levels of state affect, dysphoric mood, and parenting sense of competence in Australian parents of children with or without autism. The effects of personality and location on the parents' experience were also examined, while controlling for current affect. Possible relationships among personality, location factors and…

  18. The Factors Predicting Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…

  19. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Styles: A Study of High Performing Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Carol; Lewko, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Examined parenting styles within families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with authoritative parenting style. Found that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among study participants and that a greater number of family-related variables emerge for females, whereas more…

  20. The Relation Between Parental Mental Illness and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Family Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Witteman, C.L.M.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness are often found to be at high risk of developing psychological problems themselves. Little is known about the role of family factors in the relation between parental and adolescent mental health. The current study focused on parent-child interaction and

  1. A Study of the Factors Influencing Parental Choice of a Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, Imaobong Columba

    2013-01-01

    The study discussed in this dissertation identified and examined the factors that influence parent charter school choice. The study was conducted for a rural K-8 charter school in Delaware. The survey instrument used was a parent questionnaire which contained questions that examined the reasons for parent charter school choice, the features of…

  2. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds.

  3. Parental risk factors and anorectal malformations: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwink Nadine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorectal malformations (ARM are rare forms of congenital uro-rectal anomalies with largely unknown causes. Besides genetic factors, prenatal exposures of the parents to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, illicit drugs, occupational hazards, overweight/obesity and diabetes mellitus are suspected as environmental risk factors. Methods Relevant studies published until August 2010 were identified through systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, related and cross-referencing publications were reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were determined to quantify associations of maternal and paternal smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, underweight (body mass index [BMI] Results 22 studies that reported on the association between prenatal environmental risk factors and infants born with ARM were included in this review. These were conducted in the United States of America (n = 12, Spain (n = 2, Sweden (n = 2, the Netherlands (n = 2, Japan (n = 1, France (n = 1, Germany (n = 1 and Hungary (n = 1. However, only few of these studies reported on the same risk factors. Studies were heterogeneous with respect to case numbers, control types and adjustment for covariates. Consistently increased risks were observed for paternal smoking and maternal overweight, obesity and diabetes, but not for maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. In meta-analyses, pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for paternal smoking, maternal overweight, obesity, pre-gestational and gestational diabetes were 1.53 (1.04-2.26, 1.25 (1.07-1.47, 1.64 (1.35-2.00, 4.51 (2.55-7.97 and 1.81 (1.23-2.65, respectively. Conclusion Evidence on risk factors for ARM from epidemiological studies is still very limited. Nevertheless, the few available studies indicate paternal smoking and maternal overweight, obesity and diabetes to be associated with increased risks. Further, ideally large

  4. Factors influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement in play therapy for sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Although much has been written about the role of therapists in children's recovery from child sexual abuse, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of nonoffending parents. This study investigated the work of a team of therapists who sometimes included such parents in therapy sessions with children. The study sought to understand what factors were influencing the degree and pattern of parental involvement and to understand what effect these patterns of parental involvement were having on the process and outcomes of therapy. The study successfully identified a range of factors influencing the patterns of parental involvement, but more research will be needed to understand the effect on outcomes.

  5. Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…

  6. Role of household factors in parental attitudes to pandemic influenza-related school closure in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mitsuo; Kaneko, Minoru; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-10-21

    To investigate how household background factors affect parental behavior during pandemic influenza-related school closures, we determined associations between such factors and three parental attitudes: "caring for the child", "taking leave from work", and "permitting out-of-home activities". A hypothetical pandemic influenza situation was presented and a questionnaire survey among households of 2146 schoolchildren from 6 schools was conducted. Odds ratios of background factors were estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Responses pertaining to 1510 children indicated that junior high school (OR = 0.11), both parents working (OR = 0.03), and family including grandparent(s) or other relatives (OR = 7.50) were factors associated with "caring for the child", and elementary school (OR = 2.28), special education school (OR = 3.18), and both parents working (OR = 5.74) were associated with "taking leave from work". Having an older sibling (OR = 0.74) and awareness of the technical term for school closure (OR = 0.73) were factors associated with "permitting out-of-home activities". Not only work status but also other household factors may be associated with parental behaviors during pandemic influenza-related school closures.

  7. Factors Mediating Dysphoric Moods and Help Seeking Behaviour Among Australian Parents of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Matthew; Donnelly, James

    2016-06-01

    This study compared levels of state affect, dysphoric mood, and parenting sense of competence in Australian parents of children with or without autism. The effects of personality and location on the parents' experience were also examined, while controlling for current affect. Possible relationships among personality, location factors and help-seeking behavior were also explored in parents of children with autism. Prior findings of higher dysphoric mood levels in parents of children with autism were supported, as was the positive correlation between dysphoric moods and Neuroticism levels. Parenting Sense of Competence did not differ across locations, and there were no parent type by location interactions. Access to services among parents of a child with autism did not moderate dysphoria levels.

  8. Parental psychological symptoms and familial risk factors of children and adolescents who exhibit school refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahali, K; Tahiroglu, A Y; Avci, A; Seydaoglu, G

    2011-12-01

    To assess the levels of psychological symptoms in the parents of children with school refusal and determine the familial risk factors in its development. This study was performed on 55 pairs of parents who had children exhibiting school refusal and were compared with a control group. A socio-demographic data form, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 revised were applied to these parents. Parents of the school refusal group had higher anxiety and depression scores than the controls. Among the risk factors for school refusal, physical punishment by the parents, a history of organic disease in the parents or children, and a history of psychiatric disorders in the parents or other relatives were found to be significant. Depending on genetic and environmental factors, parents with psychiatric disorders appeared to be associated with development of psychiatric disorders in their children. Moreover, psychiatric disorders in parents negatively affected the treatment of their children and adolescents who exhibited school refusal. It is therefore vital to treat psychiatric disorders of parents with the children having psychiatric disorders, and thus increase parent participation in their children's therapeutic process.

  9. Factors that Hinder Parents from the Communicating of Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parent-adolescent communication about sexual matters is one of the means that encourages adolescents to adopt responsible sexual behaviour. However, parents do not discuss sexual matters with adolescents and those who discuss to some extent; little information about sexuality is provided. This study, was, therefore ...

  10. Socio-Demographic Factors As Predictor Of Parents' Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlational Research design was adopted to examine the predictive influence of some socio-demographic variables on perspectives of parents towards the inclusion of HIV and AIDS education in Lagos State schools. Four hundred parents of pupils and students of four primary and secondary schools with diverse ...

  11. Factors associated with parental intent not to circumcise daughters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored intention of parents not to circumcise daughters in Enugu State, Nigeria using theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework. A survey of 1345 parents was carried out using structured questionnaire with FGM question items based on TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm (SN), perceived ...

  12. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  13. The relationship between parenting factors and trait anxiety: mediating role of cognitive errors and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Bridie; Cartwright-Hatton, Sam

    2008-05-01

    Research examining parenting factors in the development of anxiety has focused largely on the concepts of parental warmth and overcontrolling or intrusive parenting, This study investigated the relationship between these factors, and also parental discipline style and anxiety using self-report methodology with a sample of 16-18 year olds. In order to try to explain the relationship between parenting and anxiety, measures of cognition were also included. A multiple regression was conducted including all parenting factors as predictors of trait anxiety. The regression was a modest fit (R(2)=22%) and the model was significant (F(4, 141)=9.90, pdiscipline was significantly associated with increased cognitive distortions (r=0.361 pdiscipline style and trait anxiety. The implications of these findings and areas for future research are discussed.

  14. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  15. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  16. Factors Associated With Whether Pediatricians Inquire About Parents' Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Moira; Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; McCue Horwitz, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can have profound and lasting effects on parenting. Parents with a history of multiple ACE have greater challenges modulating their own stress responses and helping their children adapt to life stressors. We examined pediatric practice in inquiring about parents' childhood adversities as of 2013. Using data from the 85th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we restricted analyses to the 302 pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who answered questions regarding their beliefs about childhood stressors, their role in advising parents, and whether they asked about parents' ACEs. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Despite endorsing the influence of positive parenting on a child's life-course trajectory (96%), that their advice can impact parenting skills (79%), and that screening for social-emotional risks is within their scope of practice (81%), most pediatricians (61%) did not inquire about parents' ACE. Pediatricians who believed that their advice influences positive parenting skills inquired about more parents' ACE. As of 2013, few pediatricians inquired about parents' ACEs despite recognizing their negative impact on parenting behaviors and child development. Research is needed regarding the best approaches to the prevention and amelioration of ACEs and the promotion of family and child resilience. Pediatricians need resources and education about the AAP's proposed dyadic approach to assessing family and child risk factors and strengths and to providing guidance and management. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived Parental Disorders as Risk Factors for Child Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hundred and fourteen secondary school students in standard 9 and 10 in 3 ... Logistic Regression Analysis shows that among all the participants, `parent ... Mental health and social workers, educators and law enforcement agencies ...

  18. La agresividad en la infancia: el estilo de crianza parental como factor relacionado Aggression in childhood: Parenting style as related factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Raya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente estudio se propone analizar la posible relación existente entre la agresividad en los niños medida por sus padres a través del BASC (Sistema de Evaluación de la Conducta de Niños y Adolescentes y el estilo de crianza según el PCRI (Cuestionario de Crianza Parental compuesto por siete factores: apoyo, satisfacción con la crianza, compromiso, comunicación, disciplina, autonomía y distribución de rol, en una muestra de 338 niños (182 niños y 156 niñas entre 3 y 14 años. Los resultados muestran la existencia de una relación significativa entre la agresividad en los niños y la mayoría de los factores del estilo de crianza parental. Además se establece un modelo capaz de predecir el 27% de la varianza con respecto a la agresividad en los niños, compuesto por la disciplina de ambos progenitores, el compromiso y la satisfacción con la crianza de los padres y la autonomía de las madres. Finalmente se discute la utilidad de estos resultados para el planteamiento de estrategias de intervención en el ámbito familiar basadas en el estilo disciplinario.


    Palabras clave: Agresividad, padres, estilo parental, disciplina.
    Aggression

    This current study proposes to analyse the possible relationship which exists between aggression in children reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children, and the parenting style according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory composed of seven factors such as support, satisfaction with parenting, involvement, communication, limit setting, autonomy granting, and role orientation, in a sample of 338 children (182 male & 156 female between 3 and 14 years old. The results show the existence of a significant relationship between aggression in children and the majority of the parenting factors. Furthermore, a model is established which is able to predict 27% of the variance with respect to aggression in children, made

  19. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers' parenting practices in the postdeployment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S

    2015-08-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of postdeployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 postdeployed fathers who served in the National Guard/Reserves. Preintervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model assessing risk and protective factors for an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study using direct parent-child observations of fathers' parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Parental Incarceration as a Risk Factor for Children in Homeless Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin C.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Masten, Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of children of incarcerated parents (COIP) in a sample of homeless/highly mobile children, examine the relationship between parental incarceration and other risk factors, and investigate the effect of parental incarceration on child academic and mental health outcomes. The authors compared COIP (n = 45) to children whose parents were never incarcerated (n = 93) within a sample of 138, 4- to 7-year-old ethnically diverse children residing in emergency homeless shelters. Children's caregivers provided information about children's history of parental incarceration and other family experiences. Children's teachers reported academic and mental health outcomes in the subsequent school year. Compared to children with no history of parental incarceration, COIP experienced more negative life events. Regression models revealed that a history of parental incarceration was a significant predictor of teacher-reported internalizing problems. These results have implications for the identification and treatment of the highest risk homeless/highly mobile children. PMID:26478648

  1. Odd things, in odd places, in odd races | Ferndale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odd things, in odd places, in odd races. L Ferndale, R Wise, S R Thomson. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Vol. 5 (3) 2007: pp. 9-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v5i3.30737 · AJOL African Journals ...

  2. Parental brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype, child prosociality, and their interaction as predictors of parents' warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinun, Reut; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2017-05-01

    Parental warmth has been associated with various child behaviors, from effortful control to callous-unemotional traits. Factors that have been shown to affect parental warmth include heritability and child behavior. However, there is limited knowledge about which specific genes are involved, how they interact with child behavior, how they affect differential parenting, and how they affect fathers. We examined what affects paternal and maternal warmth by focusing on the child's prosocial behavior and parents' genotype, specifically a Valine to Methionine substitution at codon 66 in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Data was available from a sample of 6.5 year-old twins, consisting of 369 mothers and 663 children and 255 fathers and 458 children. Self-reports were used to assess mothers' and fathers' warmth. Child prosociality was assessed with the other-parent report and experimental assessments. Mothers' warmth was not affected by their BDNF genotype, neither as a main effect nor in an interaction with child prosociality. Fathers with the Met allele scored higher on warmth. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between fathers' BDNF genotype and child prosociality. For fathers with the Met allele there was a positive association between warmth and child prosociality. Conversely, for fathers with the Val/Val genotype there was no association between warmth and child prosociality. Results were repeated longitudinally in a subsample with data on age 8-9 years. A direct within family analysis showed that fathers with the Met allele were more likely than Val/Val carriers to exhibit differential parenting toward twins who differed in their prosocial behavior. The same pattern of findings was found with mother-rated and experimentally assessed prosociality. These results shed light on the genetic and environmental underpinnings of paternal behavior and differential parenting.

  3. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  4. Community factors to promote parents' quality of child-nurturing life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Megumi; Wei, Chang Nian; Chang-nian, Wei; Harada, Koichi; Ueda, Kimiyo; Takano, Miyuki; Ueda, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of community factors in parents' quality of child-nurturing life (QCNL). We developed a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of QCNL and determine the structural factors related to QCNL as community factors related to parents' QCNL derived from focus group interviews and the Delphi technique. The questionnaire also included the battery of the self-rating depression scale and Tsumori-Inage Infant's Developmental Test. Using the questionnaire, we then conducted a quantitative survey of parents whose children attended nursery schools in Kumamoto Prefecture. Factor analysis, calculation of the mean score and/or ratio to each item, Pearson's correlation coefficient, t test, multiple regression analysis, and covariance structure analysis were performed. The questionnaire we developed consisted of seven items with 75 elements, involving ten elements as community factors. Subjects included 699 parents (mean age 33.6 ± 5.4 years) and 965 children (age range 0-6 years). Factor analysis revealed that community factors consisted of five factors, such as "lifestyle rooted in the ground," "balance of housekeeping and work," "community network," "amenity," and "regeneration of life". These factors may be dominant in a rural area. Finally, we developed a structural model with "community factors," QCNL, QOL, and "child growth" by covariance structural analysis. The analysis revealed that community factors had a positive relation to parents' QCNL (r = 0.81, p < 0.001) and that parental SDS score had a negative relation to parents' QCNL (r = -0.59, p < 0.001). The analysis did show that community factors were positively related to the sound growth of children. The covariance structure analysis revealed that community factors were associated with parents' QCNL, SDS, and "child growth."

  5. Exploring parental factors related to weight management in survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Swartz, Maria C; Markham, Christine; Chandra, Joya; McCurdy, Sheryl; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Childhood central nervous system tumor survivors (CCNSTS) are at risk for adverse health issues. Little research has been conducted to explore the role of parental factors in weight management to mitigate adverse health outcomes. We conducted 9 group interviews (n=20) with CCNSTS, their parents, and health care providers to ascertain parental factors that may influence weight management practices in CCNSTS. Three main themes were identified: parenting style, parent-child connectedness, and food and physical activity (PA) environment. Although most parents adopted an authoritative parenting style related to diet and PA practices, some adopted a permissive parenting style. Participants expressed high levels of connection that may hinder the development of peer relationships and described the food and PA environments that promote or hinder weight management through parental modeling of healthy eating and PA and access to healthy food and activities. Weight management interventions for CCNSTS may experience greater benefit from using a family-focused approach, promoting positive food and PA environments, parental modeling of healthy eating and exercise, and partnering with youth to adopt weight management behaviors.

  6. The alienation of affection toward parents and influential factors in Chinese left-behind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Q; Yang, G; Hu, C; Wang, L; Liu, K; Guang, Y; Zhang, R; Xu, S; Liu, B; Yang, Y; Feng, Z

    2017-01-01

    Although alienation toward parents is important for children (for current mental health status or later interpersonal relationships in adulthood), it is undervalued and even lacks a standardized tool of assessment. Moreover, the large number of left-behind children in China is a cause of public concern. However, their experienced alienation toward their parents remains unclear, which may be important for early detection or intervention for behavioral problems in this population. Hence, the current study aimed to develop an alienation inventory for children and then use it to investigate the experienced alienation toward parents in Chinese left-behind children. Two studies were carried out. Study 1 was designed to develop a standard inventory of alienation toward parents (IAP). In study 2, 8361 children and adolescents (6704 of them were left-behind status) of the Chongqing area, aged between 8 and 19 years old, were recruited for investigation. All participants were surveyed with a standard sociodemographic questionnaire, children's cognitive style questionnaire, children's depression inventory, adolescent self-rating life events checklist, and newly built IAP in study 1. In study 1, we developed a two-component (communication and emotional distance) and 18-item (9 items for maternal or paternal form, respectively) IAP questionnaire. In study 2, exploratory factor analysis indicated an expected two-factor structure of IAP, which was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients showed a good reliability (0.887 and 0.821 for maternal and paternal form, respectively). Children with absent mother experienced the highest alienation toward parents. Boys as well as children aged 8-10 years old experienced higher alienation toward parents. Poor communication with parents (sparse or no connection), level of left-behind condition (parents divorced, been far away from parents), and psychosocial vulnerability (stressful life events, negative

  7. Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Nanpu; Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model. The two standard statistical tests of Random-Matrix Theory such as the distribution function p(s) of the nearest-neighbor level spacings (NNS) and the spectral rigidity Δ 3 are used to explore the statistical properties of the energy levels. By analyzing the properties of p(s) and Δ 3 under various conditions, the authors find that the quasiparticle features mainly affect the statistical properties of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y through the recoil term and the Coriolis force in this theoretical mode, and that the chaotic degree of the energy levels decreases with the decreasing of the Fermi energy and the energy-gap parameters. The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84 Y

  8. Parental stress, harsh treatment and parental monitoring as factors associated with aggressive behaviour[Estrés parental, trato rudo y monitoreo como factores asociados a la conducta agresiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivón Paola Guevara Marín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the joint contribution of three parenting practices in the explanation of aggressive behavior. The main interest was to investigate the associations between these factors, the socioeconomic status, and the differences between the reports provided by parents in regards to the aggressive behavior of their children. The sample included 256 couples whose children were teenagers with an age range between 12 and 18 years old. The results show that parental stress, the harsh treatment, and monitoring are significantly associated with aggressive behavior of children. Parental stress was the factor with the highest degree of prediction. Significant differences were found for the three factors in high and low socioeconomic levels, but in medium and high were not. As for the versions of the parents, there were no significant differences in stress and rough management, but monitoring.

  9. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of 170 Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements

  10. Mediating factors of coping process in parents of children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouie, Fatemeh; Mehrdad, Neda; Ebrahimi, Hossein

    2013-05-14

    Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition for children and their parents, the management for which imposes a vast responsibility. This study explores the mediating factors that affect Iranian parents' coping processes with their children's type 1 diabetes. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Participants were selected purposefully, and we continued with theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. The mediating factors of the parental coping process with their child's diabetes consist of the child's cooperation, crises and experiences, economic challenges, and parental participation in care. Findings highlight the necessity of well-informed nurses with insightful understanding of the mediating factors in parental coping with juvenile diabetes in order to meet the particular needs of this group.

  11. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors in parents and child obesity in Segamat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partap, Uttara; Young, Elizabeth H; Allotey, Pascale; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2017-10-01

    There is little evidence regarding risk factors for child obesity in Asian populations, including the role of parental anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the relation between parental risk factors and child obesity in a Malaysian population. We used data from health and demographic surveillance conducted by the South East Asia Community Observatory in Segamat, Malaysia. Analyses included 9207 individuals (4806 children, 2570 mothers and 1831 fathers). Child obesity was defined based on the World Health Organization 2007 reference. We assessed the relation between parental anthropometric (overweight, obesity and central obesity) and cardiometabolic (systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and hyperglycaemia) risk factors and child obesity, using mixed effects Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. We found a high burden of overweight and obesity among children in this population (30% overweight or obese). Children of one or more obese parents had a 2-fold greater risk of being obese compared with children of non-obese parents. Sequential adjustment for parental and child characteristics did not materially affect estimates (fully adjusted relative risk for obesity in both parents: 2.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.82, 3.10, P obesity. Parental obesity was strongly associated with child obesity in this population. Further exploration of the behavioural and environmental drivers of these associations may help inform strategies addressing child obesity in Asia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. Parent/Student Risk and Protective Factors in Understanding Early Adolescent's Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Willis, Don

    2016-01-01

    This article's aim is to examine correlates of middle school students' body mass index (BMI). Little research simultaneously has considered both child and parent correlates in predicting child's BMI; we examine the interrelationships between middle school students and their parent's risks and protective factors and their impact on the child's BMI.…

  13. Child, Parent and Family Factors as Predictors of Adjustment for Siblings of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, R.; Gavidia-Payne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Methods: Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling…

  14. Parents of children with cerebral palsy : a review of factors related to the process of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentinck, I. C. M.; Ketelaar, M.; Jongmans, M. J.; Gorter, J. W.

    Background Little is known about the way parents adapt to the situation when their child is diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Methods A literature search was performed to gain a deeper insight in the process of adaptation of parents with a child with cerebral palsy and on factors related to this

  15. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  16. The relations between parents’ big five personality factors and parenting: a meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Dekovic, M.; Reijntjes, A.H.A.; Belsky, J.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the association between Big Five personality factors and three dimensions of parenting-warmth, behavioral control, and autonomy support- the authors conducted meta-analyses using 5,853 parent-child dyads that were included in 30 studies. Effect sizes were significant and robust across

  17. Factors Moderating Children's Adjustment to Parental Separation: Findings from a Community Study in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Golding, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Research findings show that there is marked variability in children's response to parental separation, but few studies identify the sources of this variation. This prospective longitudinal study examines the factors modifying children's adjustment to parental separation in a community sample of 5,635 families in England. Children's…

  18. Clinician and Parent Perspectives on Parent and Family Contextual Factors that Impact Community Mental Health Services for Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family…

  19. Correction the Bias of Odds Ratio resulting from the Misclassification of Exposures in the Study of Environmental Risk Factors of Lung Cancer using Bayesian Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inability to measure exact exposure in epidemiological studies is a common problem in many studies, especially cross-sectional studies. Depending on the extent of misclassification, results may be affected. Existing methods for solving this problem require a lot of time and money and it is not practical for some of the exposures. Recently, new methods have been proposed in 1:1 matched case–control studies that have solved these problems to some extent. In the present study we have aimed to extend the existing Bayesian method to adjust for misclassification in matched case–control Studies with 1:2 matching. Methods: Here, the standard Dirichlet prior distribution for a multinomial model was extended to allow the data of exposure–disease (OR parameter to be imported into the model excluding other parameters. Information that exist in literature about association between exposure and disease were used as prior information about OR. In order to correct the misclassification Sensitivity Analysis was accomplished and the results were obtained under three Bayesian Methods. Results: The results of naïve Bayesian model were similar to the classic model. The second Bayesian model by employing prior information about the OR, was heavily affected by these information. The third proposed model provides maximum bias adjustment for the risk of heavy metals, smoking and drug abuse. This model showed that heavy metals are not an important risk factor although raw model (logistic regression Classic detected this exposure as an influencing factor on the incidence of lung cancer. Sensitivity analysis showed that third model is robust regarding to different levels of Sensitivity and Specificity. Conclusion: The present study showed that although in most of exposures the results of the second and third model were similar but the proposed model would be able to correct the misclassification to some extent.

  20. Parental Factors Influencing the Development of Early Childhood Caries in Developing Nations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanjot Kaur Rai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEarly childhood caries (ECC is one of the most prevalent and chronic conditions of childhood. Various factors including biological and dietary factors along with an overlay of parental social factors have been found to be associated with the progression of ECC. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize available literature and to identify parent-level proximal and distal risk factors associated with the development of ECC in developing nations.MethodsStudies conducted in developing nations, published between 2005 and 2017 in English, that included children younger than 6 years and examined ECC were included. The outcome of interest were parental risk factors, which included parental knowledge, behavior, attitudes, sense of coherence (SOC, stress, socioeconomic status (SES, education, and breastfeeding duration. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, Ovid Medline, and PubMed.ResultsThe search yielded 325 studies, of which 18 were considered eligible for inclusion in this review. Ten studies found maternal education, and seven studies found parental education to be significantly associated with ECC. SES was significantly associated with ECC in 13 studies in the form of annual household income and occupation level. Four studies observed the significant association between oral health knowledge and attitudes with ECC, whereas only two studies found maternal attitude to be associated with ECC. Breastfeeding duration was a significant risk factor in four studies. One study each found significant associations of SOC, parental distress, and secondary smoke with ECC.ConclusionTo date, most of the researches done in developing countries have reported distal parental factors such as income and education being significant risk factors in caries development compared to proximal risk factors in low-income groups. Only a few studies analyzed the psychosocial and behavioral factors. Interventions could be designed to improve

  1. Role of parents as a protective factor against adolescent athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to act as role-models. Different forms of parents' influence on their children's sport ... more condom use and greater intention of safer sex behaviour in the future. .... simplify data interpretation the nominal response scale ('Yes', 'No', 'Do not know') .... regard social science research on doping is still in its infancy. Conclusion.

  2. Filipino Parents' School Choice and Loyalty: A Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; de Castro, Belinda V.; Aquino, Kieshia Albert B.; Buenaventura, Melinda Anne R.; Duque, Anna Celina C.; Enriquez, Mark Lawrence D. R.

    2008-01-01

    This quantitative study aims to ascertain the significant relationship existing between parents' profile, and their school choice and school loyalty. Data were gathered using the researcher's two-part made instrument. Respondents were first asked to fill in a "robotfoto" for purpose of profiling their baseline characteristics and were…

  3. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of The theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; Vermulst, Ad A; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in predicting the onset of smoking. A mediation model is applied in which parental factors affect smoking behavior indirectly by affecting smoking cognitions (i.e., attitude, self-efficacy, and social norm). The model was tested in a longitudinal study on 1,070 adolescents, aged 10-14 years old. Structural equation models (SEM) on current and on future smoking behavior were tested. The findings showed that the quality of the parent-child relationship and parental knowledge affected adolescents' smoking behavior indirectly, while parental smoking behavior had a direct effect. Strict control and psychological control were found to be unrelated to adolescents' smoking onset. In prevention campaigns, parents should be informed of the extent to which they exert influence on their child's smoking behavior and should be given advice and information on how they can prevent their children from starting to smoke.

  4. [Prevalence and influencing factors on psychological violence from parents to child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J Q; Jin, Y C; Li, J Y; Feng, Y N; Zhao, X X; Yu, B Y; Zhang, W J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of psychological violence against children by parents and to explore possible influencing factors. In two primary schools from a city, located in the northeast part of China, 1 164 parents of the pupils from grade 1 to 6, were anonymously surveyed by a self-administered questionnaire, to analyze the situation of psychological violence and influencing factors. Of the 1 164 parents, 78.1% reported that they practised psychological violence towards their children. Compared with girls, boys were more psychologically maltreated by their parents (81.3% vs. 74.7%,Pchildren: child being male (OR=1.684); initiated by the mother (OR=1.640), parents experiences of psychologically violent victimization (OR=2.064) during their childhood, supportive or tolerant attitudes towards corporal punishment (OR=2.618) from the parents, low awareness of the harmfulness of psychological violence against children (OR=1.666) of the parents, and lower social economic status (OR=1.745) of the family, etc. Psychological violence experienced by the parents appeared very common. Prevention programs on psychological violence should be strengthened to increase the awareness of parents on this serious problem.

  5. An Investigation of the Factors Related to Low Parent-Adolescent Attachment Security in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Chang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2017-09-01

    Adolescence may involve increases in many behavioral problems and psychosocial maladaptation. Adolescents must successfully cope with these challenges to achieve positive developmental milestones. To investigate whether low parental attachment security among adolescents in Taiwan is associated with their demographic characteristics, psychosocial maladaptation, and depression. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 335 adolescents completed the questionnaires. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Chinese version of the Youth Self-Report, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to survey the participants. Correlation and multiple linear regressions, using low attachment security as the response variable, were used in the statistical analysis. The prevalence of Taiwanese adolescents with low parental attachment security was 38.5%. Low parental attachment security in adolescents was significantly associated with parental remarriage status and psychosocial maladaptation. By considering these risk factors, nursing educators and nurses could develop effective interventions to strengthen parent-adolescent attachment security.

  6. Factors That Influence Israeli Muslim Arab Parents' Intention to Vaccinate Their Children Against Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Kabha, Samih; Yehia, Mamon; Hamza, Omar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore factors related to the intention of parents from the Muslim Arab ethnic minority in Israel to vaccinate their children against influenza, using the Health Belief Model (HBM). This study is a cross sectional quantitative study. A convenience sample of 200 parents of children aged 12 and younger completed a questionnaire based on the HBM. Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers predicted 88% of parents' intention to vaccinate their children. Parents who vaccinated their children in the past year were younger and had fewer children. Community nurses and physicians were identified as important cues to action. The HBM components predicted a high percentage of parents' intention to vaccinate their children Interventions to raise vaccination coverage rates among children belonging to an ethnic minority of Israeli Muslim Arabs should begin on the micro level of the parent-health care professional encounter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing parental decision making about stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Aslani, Parisa

    2013-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pediatric psychological condition commonly treated with stimulant medications. Negative media reports and stigmatizing societal attitudes surrounding the use of these medications make it difficult for parents of affected children to accept stimulant treatment, despite it being first line therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence parental decision making regarding stimulant treatment for ADHD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies: 1) that employed qualitative methodology, 2) that highlighted treatment decision(s) about stimulant medication, 3) in which the decision(s) were made by the parent of a child with an official ADHD diagnosis, and 4) that examined the factors affecting the decision(s) made. Individual factors influencing parental treatment decision making, and the major themes encompassing these factors, were identified and followed by a thematic analysis. Eleven studies reporting on the experiences of 335 parents of children with ADHD were included. Four major themes encompassing influences on parents' decisions were derived from the thematic analysis performed: confronting the diagnosis, external influences, apprehension regarding therapy, and experience with the healthcare system. The findings of this systematic review reveal that there are multiple factors that influence parents' decisions about stimulant therapy. This information can assist clinicians in enhancing information delivery to parents of children with ADHD, and help reduce parental ambivalence surrounding stimulant medication use. Future work needs to address parental concerns about stimulants, and increase their involvement in shared decision making with clinicians to empower them to make the most appropriate treatment decision for their child.

  9. Child maltreatment in the "children of the nineties" a longitudinal study of parental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, P; Golding, J

    2001-09-01

    To identify and validate factors within the parental background affecting risk of child maltreatment. A nested case-control study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children ("Children of the Nineties"), a cohort of children born in Avon in 1991 through 1992. Data on the childhood and psychiatric histories of the parents, along with other data on the social and family environments, have been collected through postal questionnaires from early antenatal booking onwards. Out of 14,138 participating children, 162 have been identified as having been maltreated. Using logistic regression analysis, significant risk factors within the mothers' backgrounds were age factors in the fathers' backgrounds were age factors on univariate, but not multivariate analysis included a parental history of childhood physical abuse; divorce or separation of the mother's parents; a maternal history of having been in care, or separated from her mother; parental alcohol or drug abuse; and a maternal history of depression. This study, the first of its kind in the UK, supports the findings of others that parental age, educational achievement, and a history of psychiatric illness are of prime importance in an understanding of child maltreatment. With the exception of maternal sexual abuse, a history of abuse in childhood is not significant once adjusted for other background factors. The study suggests that psychodynamic models are inadequate to explain child maltreatment, and wider models incorporating other ecological domains are needed.

  10. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  11. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for 238 Np, 244 Am, and 250 Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  13. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631

  14. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent-Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, M Angeles; Sierra-García, Purificación; Pons-Salvador, Gemma; Trenado, Rosa M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant's gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent's gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more "active" than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving 'in-out' of 'Child Social Approach neutral - Sensitive Approach neutral' state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state 'Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral' distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers) based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26) of the father-infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26) of the mother-infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and quantifies the actual moment-to-moment flow

  15. Factors influencing parents' decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Linda A; Pearce, Margaret M

    2014-11-01

    To examine factors that influence a parent's decision to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research. Grounded theory, using semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 postpartum mother or mother-father dyads in an urban teaching hospital. Data were collected from July 2011 to January 2012. Audiorecorded semistructured interviews were conducted in private rooms with mothers or mother-father dyads 24 to 48 hr after the birth of their healthy, full-term infant. Data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Parents' willingness to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk pediatric genetic research emerged as a process involving three interacting components: the parents, the scientist, and the comfort of the child embedded within the context of benefit to the child. The purpose of the study and parents' perception of their commitment of time and resources determined their willingness to participate. The scientist's ability to communicate trust in the research process influenced parents' decisions. Physical discomfort of the child shaped parents' decision to donate DNA. Parental perception of a direct benefit to their child affected their willingness to discuss genetic research and its outcomes. Significant gaps and misunderstandings in parental knowledge of pediatric genetic research may affect parental willingness to donate their healthy child's DNA. Nurses knowledgeable about the decision-making process parents utilize to donate their healthy infant's DNA for minimal-risk genetic research and the factors influencing that decision are well positioned to educate parents about the role of genetics in health and illness and reassure potential research participants of the value and safeguards in pediatric genetic research. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Parental perception and factors associated with treatment strategies for primary nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Thomson T; Tai, Brent T; Chang, Yu-Jun; Huang, Kuo-Hsuan

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the factors influencing parents seeking reasonable managements for their child and their overall outlook toward primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). We recruited 93 children with PNE from enuresis clinics and requested their parents to complete questionnaires regarding their child's medical history and behavior, their methods for coping with PNE, and their perception of enuresis. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate factors influencing the parents to adopt a positive approach toward enuresis and to subsequently seek a medical consultation. One-third of the parents had an encouraging attitude toward children with PNE, whereas slightly less than half reacted with anger. The more educated the father or the younger the child with NE, the larger the possibility of the parents utilizing a positive approach, such as encouragement, for coping with NE. Factors that influenced parents to seek medical consultation for NE were socioeconomic status, maternal educational level, and the age and birth order of their child. From our results, angry and frustrated parents (43.0%) were significantly more likely to punish their child for bedwetting than were parents who approached NE positively (comfort and encouragement; 33.3%). A lack of encouragement may negatively affect the self-esteem of children with NE. Moreover, an individual's self-esteem or confidence, both of which can help them eliminate NE, determines the person's behavioral response to bedwetting. In our study, approximately 50% of the parents who approached NE positively (comfort and encouragement) or inconsistently (ambivalence) reported that they comforted their child after bedwetting. Nearly half the parents reacted angrily to children with NE, and some parents even punished their child. The parents' socioeconomic background, education, and the age and birth order of the child were the factors associated with their seeking active treatment for NE. A father's education and

  17. Factors that influence quality of life in rural children with asthma and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer; Winkelstein, Marilyn; Land, Cassia; Lewis-Boyer, Lapricia; Quartey, Ruth; Pham, Luu; Butz, Arlene

    2008-01-01

    Among rural children with asthma and their parents, this study examined the relationship between parental and child reports of quality of life and described the relationship of several factors such as asthma severity, missed days of work, and asthma education on their quality of life. Two hundred one rural families with asthma were enrolled in a school-based educational program. Intervention parents and children participated in interactive asthma workshop(s) and received asthma devices and literature. Parent and child quality of life measurements were obtained before and after the intervention using Juniper's Paediatric Caregivers Quality of Life and Juniper's Paediatric Quality of Life Questionnaires. Asthma severity was measured using criteria from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. There was no association between parent and child total quality of life scores, and mean parental total quality of life scores were higher at baseline and follow-up than those of the children. All the parents' quality of life scores were correlated with parental reports of missed days of work. For all children, emotional quality of life (EQOL) was significantly associated with parental reports of school days missed (P = .03) and marginally associated with parental reports of hospitalizations due to asthma (P = .08). Parent's EQOL and activity quality of life (AQOL) were significantly associated with children's asthma severity (EQOL, P = .009; AQOL, P = .03), but not the asthma educational intervention. None of the child quality of life measurements was associated with asthma severity. Asthma interventions for rural families should help families focus on gaining and maintaining low asthma severity levels to enjoy an optimal quality of life. Health care providers should try to assess the child's quality of life at each asthma care visit independently of the parents.

  18. Child, parent and family factors as predictors of adjustment for siblings of children with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, R; Gavidia-Payne, S

    2006-12-01

    Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling coping; (3) parent stress; (4) parenting; and (5) family resilience. Multiple regression techniques were used. It was found that parent and family factors were stronger predictors of sibling adjustment difficulties than siblings' own experiences of stress and coping. Specifically, socio-economic status, past attendance at a sibling support group, parent stress, family time and routines, family problem-solving and communication, and family hardiness-predicted sibling adjustment difficulties. Finally, siblings' perceived intensity of daily uplifts significantly predicted sibling prosocial behaviour. The results revealed that the family level of risk and resilience factors were better predictors of sibling adjustment than siblings' own experiences of stress and coping resources, highlighting the importance of familial and parental contributions to the sibling adjustment process. The implications of these results for the design of interventions and supports for siblings are discussed.

  19. Parental Factors that Detract from the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety: Recommendations for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jerry V., III

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the recent empirical literature on the various parental factors that detract from the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for children with anxiety. Interventions such as treating parental anxiety and increasing parental involvement in the therapeutic process may combat these factors. Newer strategies such as…

  20. Adolescent-Parent Attachment and Externalizing Behavior: The Mediating Role of Individual and Social Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Asscher, Jessica J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 % male; aged 12-19 years) at risk for developing delinquent behaviors reported on attachment, parental monitoring, aggressive and delinquent behavior and peers. Mediation effects were tested by using structural equation modeling. Different pathways were found depending on the type of externalizing behavior. The association between attachment and direct and indirect aggressive behavior was mediated by cognitive distortions. The relation between attachment and delinquency was mediated by deviant peers and parental monitoring. We argue that clinical practice should focus on the attachment relationship between adolescent and parents in order to positively affect risk and protective factors for adolescents' aggressive and delinquent behavior.

  1. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  2. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhang, Yulin; Chi, Peilian; Ding, Wan; Heath, Melissa A.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xu, Shousen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress) and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms) in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality) was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress) and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided. PMID:29104548

  3. The Mutual Effect of Marital Quality and Parenting Stress on Child and Parent Depressive Symptoms in Families of Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the mutual relationships between dyadic level (i.e., marital quality and parenting stress and individual level factors (i.e., children and parental depressive symptoms in families of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD. Specifically, we explored whether marital interaction (marital quality was associated with symptoms of child depression through parent-child interaction (parenting stress and parent depressive symptoms. We also explored whether parent-child interaction was associated with symptoms of parent depression through marital interaction and child depressive symptoms. This study was conducted with 256 parent-child dyads, consisting of children with ODD and one of each child's parents. Participants were recruited from 14 primary schools located in northern, eastern, and southwestern China. Results revealed that marital quality predicted symptoms of child depression through the parenting stress, but not parent depressive symptoms; and parenting stress predicted symptoms of parent depression through marital quality, but not through child depressive symptoms. Also, parenting stress significantly and directly predicted parent depressive symptoms. We concluded in families of children with ODD, the association of marital interaction and parent-child interaction on both symptoms of parent and child depression highlighted the mutual effects of the couple subsystem and the parent-child subsystem. Furthermore, in regard to parental and child depressive symptoms, implications for intervention are provided.

  4. Multi-level influences on childhood obesity in Sweden: societal factors, parental determinants and child's lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraeus, L; Lissner, L; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Al-Ansari, U; Sjöberg, A

    2012-07-01

    Swedish school children living in rural areas and in areas with low education are at excess risk of becoming overweight. This study examines influences of societal and individual characteristics (children and their parents) on prevalence of overweight and obesity, in a national sample of 7-9-year-old children. Anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected in a nationally representative sample of 3636 Swedish children. Overweight and obesity (International Obesity Task Force (IOTF)) data were analyzed in relation to lifestyle factors, parental weight, education and breast-feeding. The prevalence of overweight was 15.6% including 2.6% obese. Urbanization level and parental characteristics (weight status and education) were related to risk of overweight. Overall less favorable lifestyle characteristics were observed in rural areas and for children of low/medium educated mothers. Boys had greater risk of obesity in semi-urban and rural areas but this was not true for girls. For children's overweight, the living area effect was attenuated in multivariate analysis, while there was an association with origin of parents, high parental weight and medium maternal education. For obesity, the living area effect remained in boys while having two non-Nordic parents predicted obesity in girls. Parental weight status was associated with obesity in both girls and boys. Individual and societal factors influence children's weight status, and parental weight status is a strong determinant. Including overweight and obese parents in future health promoting interventions could be a strategy to prevent children from becoming overweight, but identifying those parents may prove difficult. To ensure reaching children with the greatest needs, targeting high risk areas might be a more effective approach.

  5. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-odd nuclei up to 2p-1f shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V P; Verma, A K; Gandhi, R; Sharma, S D [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-02-01

    The expression for magnetic moments for the states comprising ground state configurations of odd-odd nuclei has been simplified by excluding mixing of other nucleonic configurations. This is contrary to Sharma's and Davidson's results which had been obtained by diagonalizing state matrices for a set of parameters using Davidov and Filippov's non-axial rotor model. According to the relative directions of spins of unpaired odd nucleons, the nuclei have been classified under four categories-an exercise not attempted till now. The calculations have been done with various quenching factors depending upon the relative spin orientations of odd nucleons. For most of the nuclei, the results show considerable improvement over those of Gallagher and Moszkowski and of Sharma.

  6. Filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among Taiwanese parents with school-aged children. Multiple risk factors associated with filicide-suicide ideation were assessed, and the potential effect of traditional family values was evaluated. A random sample of 1,564 parents was recruited from 21 elementary schools in a rural area of Taiwan. Potential risk factors, including demographics, family finance, psychological maladjustment, family interaction, and cultural beliefs, were further examined using a hierarchical logistic regression. Overall, 14.6% of the respondents reported having filicide-suicide ideation during the past year. The hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that demographic factors including age, gender, and ethnicity had no significant effect. Family finances, depression, and conflict with the respondent's spouse were positively associated with filicide-suicide ideation. Finally, the parents' beliefs in traditional family values had a positive effect on filicide-suicide ideation. In other words, filicide-suicide thoughts were more common among those who upheld a strong parental responsibility for care giving and family solidarity. This study revealed a substantial prevalence of filicide-suicide ideation among local parents and identified a number of risk factors associated with those thoughts, namely family financial status, parental depression, and conflict with one's spouse. More importantly, the results highlighted the effect of traditional family values in the process. The potential intention of filicide-suicide as mercy killing and its cultural relevance were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Persian version of the parental bonding instrument: factor structure and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Behnaz; Parker, Gordon

    2015-02-28

    The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) is a widely used self-report measure for quantifying key parenting styles as perceived by the child during its first 16 years. While its development study identified two key parental dimensions, subsequent studies have variably confirmed those two or argued for one or more additional parental constructs. We developed a Persian translation of the PBI and administered it to a sample of 340 high school students. The construct validity of the Persian PBI was examined by Exploratory Factor Analysis while Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to identify the most adequate model. Analyses of the Persian PBI favored a four-factor model for both parental forms. The Persian PBI has a factorial structure consistent with constructs identified in western cultures, as well as high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Multivariate analyses indicated significant differences between boys and girls across some factors. The PBI appears an acceptable and appropriate measure for quantifying parent-child bonding in Iranian samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnancy risk factors in relation to oppositional-defiant and conduct disorder symptoms in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisch, I Hyun; Buitelaar, Jan K; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Dietrich, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children. Outcomes were ODD and CD symptom scores at age 7;9 years using the Development and Well-Being Assessment interview. We analyzed maternal (N ≈ 6300) and teacher ratings (N ≈ 4400) of ODD and CD scores separately using negative binomial regression in multivariable models. Control variables included comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, ODD or CD symptoms as appropriate, and genetic risk scores based on an independent CD genome-wide association study. Higher ODD symptom scores were linked to paracetamol use (IRR = 1.24 [98.3% confidence interval 1.05-1.47], P = 0.002, teacher ratings) and life events stress (IRR = 1.22 [1.07-1.39], P = 0.002, maternal ratings) during pregnancy. Higher CD symptom scores were linked to maternal smoking (IRR = 1.33 [1.18-1.51], P < 0.001, maternal ratings), life events stress (IRR = 1.24 [1.11-1.38], P < 0.001, maternal ratings) and depressive symptoms (IRR = 1.14 [1.01-1.30], P = 0.006, maternal ratings) during pregnancy. Common and potentially preventable pregnancy risk factors were independently related to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in children from the general population. Future studies should further address genetic confounds and confounding by environmental factors later in life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure and symmetries of odd-odd triaxial nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Colaba, Mumbai (India); Bhat, G.H. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Govt. Degree College Kulgam, Department of Physics, Kulgam (India); Sheikh, J.A. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Cluster University of Srinagar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2017-05-15

    Rotational spectra of odd-odd Rh and Ag isotopes are investigated with the primary motivation to search for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon in these nuclei. The experimental results obtained on the degenerate dipole bands of some of these isotopes using a large array of gamma detectors are discussed and studied using the triaxial projected shell (TPSM) approach. It is shown that, first of all, to reproduce the odd-even staggering of the known yrast bands of these nuclei, large triaxial deformation is needed. This large triaxial deformation also gives rise to doublet band structures in many of these studied nuclei. The observed doublet bands in these isotopes are shown to be reproduced reasonably well by the TPSM calculations. Further, the TPSM calculations for neutron-rich nuclei indicate that the ideal manifestation of the chirality can be realised in {sup 106}Rh and {sup 112}Ag, where the doublet bands have similar electromagnetic properties along with small differences in excitation energies. (orig.)

  10. The Associations of Parenting Factors with Adolescent Body Mass Index in an Underserved Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current study examined parental factors related to risk of adolescent obesity within the context of a family systems framework. Methods. Seventy predominantly African American, low-income caregiver-adolescent dyads participated in the study. Validated measures of parental perceived child risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, parental limit setting for sedentary behavior, and parental nurturance were evaluated as predictors of adolescent body mass index. Results. In this cross-sectional study, multiple linear regression demonstrated that parents of adolescents with higher zBMI reported worrying more about their child's risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Parent limit setting was also a significant predictor of adolescent zBMI. Contrary to expectations, higher levels of nurturance were associated with higher adolescent zBMI. Post hoc analyses revealed a trend towards a significant interaction between nurturance and limit setting, such that high levels of both parental nurturance and limit setting were associated with lower adolescent zBMI. Conclusions. Current findings suggest the importance of authoritative parenting and monitoring of adolescent health behaviors in the treatment of obesity.

  11. Metabolic risk factors and arterial stiffness in Indian children of parents with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Pandit, Deepa S; Kinare, Arun S; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the possible association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and arterial stiffness in Indian children with parental MS status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 140 overweight/obese and 60 normal-weight Indian children (mean age, 11.4 ± 2.8 years) along with one of their parents during 2008-2009. Data on weight, height, blood pressure, serum lipids, zinc, insulin, and glucose were collected. Intima media thickness (CIMT) and stiffness parameters were assessed in the right carotid artery. Physical activity and diet were assessed using structured questionnaires. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. A gradual increase in the percentage of MS children with an increasing number of MS components in parents was observed. Mean values for arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity, and elastic modulus were significantly higher in MS children of MS parents than in MS children of normal parents (p parent pairs (p children's CIMT and arterial stiffness were significantly associated (p parental MS-CIMT. Parental MS status and lifestyle factors increase the risk of MS and arterial abnormalities in children.

  12. [What is "normal"? Maternal parenting behavior as risk and protective factor for psychopathology and identity diffusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Escher, Fabian J

    2018-06-01

    What is "normal"? Maternal parenting behavior as risk and protective factor for psychopathology and identity diffusion Objectives: This study analyzes the implications of today's highly altered maternal parenting behaviors on children's development and psychological health. The relationship between maternal parenting behaviors (support, psychological control, and anxious monitoring) and delayed identity development or identity diffusion as well as internalizing or externalizing symptomatology was investigated in a sample of 732 youths (301 adolescents, 351 young adults, and 80 patients). Cluster analysis identified two types of maternal parenting behaviors: authoritative maternal behavior and dysfunctionalmaternal behavior. As expected, patients exhibited a high degree of dysfunctional maternal parenting behavior (low support, high psychological control), delayed identity development as well as elevated identity diffusion and symptomatology.Authoritative maternal parenting emerged as a protective factor in the prediction of identity diffusion and symptomatology.All three groups described a high degree of anxious maternal monitoring. The implications of changed maternal parenting behaviors on identity diffusion and symptomatology are discussed in light of societal changes and changing criteria of personality disorders in the new DSM-5.

  13. A systematic study of odd-odd Gallium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegro, P.R.P.; Medina, N.H.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Ribas, R.V.; Cybulska, E.W.; Seale, W.A.; Zagatto, V.A.B.; Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Silveira, M.A.G.; Tabor, S.; Bender, P.; Tripathi, V.; Baby, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Recently, many studies have been published attempting to explain the role of the 0g 9/2 orbital in the high spin excited states of nuclei in the region of the mass A=50-80, especially very neutron rich nuclei like, for example 59-66 Fe [1], 65,67 Cu [2], 70,80 Ge [3,4] nuclei and those with odd mass number like As, Ge and Ga [5]. Stefanescu et al. [6] demonstrated the presence of bands in the neutron-rich isotopes Ga formed from excitation of a proton to the 0g 9/2 orbital and Cheal et al. [7] revealed, from the study of the spins and moments of the ground state, changes in nuclear structure of the odd Ga isotopes between N = 40 and N 50, indicating a change in the energy gap between the 0g 9/2 orbital and the pf shell. In this work, we have performed a systematic study of odd-odd 64,66,68,70 Ga nuclei to examine the behavior of the 0g 9/2 orbital with an increasing number of neutrons. We have compared the predictions of the Large Scale Shell Model, obtained using the Antoine code [8] with the FPG [9] and JUN45 [10] effective interactions, with the experimental results obtained with in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments performed at University of Sao Paulo using SACI-PERERE spectrometer and at Florida State University using the Clover Array System. We have also performed calculations to study 67 Ge, an odd nucleus in the same mass region, in order to verify the behavior of the effective interactions in a nucleus without the proton-neutron interaction. [1] S. Lunardi. et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 034303 (2007). [2] C. J. Chiara et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 024309 (2012). [3] M. Sugawara et al., Phys. Rev. C 81, 024309 (2010). [4] H. Iwasaki.et al., Phys. Rev. C 78, 021304(R) (2008). [5] N. Yoshinaga et al. Phys. Rev. C 78, 044320 (2008). [6] I. Stefanescu et al., Phys. Rev. C 79, 064302 (2009). [7] B. Cheal et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 252502 (2010). [8] E. Caurier and F. Nowacki, Acta Phys. Polonica B 30, 705 (1999). [9] O. Sorlin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett

  14. Predicting the change of child’s behavior problems: sociodemographic and maternal parenting stress factors

    OpenAIRE

    Viduolienė, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) and ...

  15. Parental Attitudes and Factors Associated With Varicella Vaccination in Preschool and Schoolchildren in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Wilson W.S.; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K.H.; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K.S.; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E. Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program. Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of f...

  16. Effect of Demographic Factors on Empowerment Attributions of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ashley H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of demographic factors on empowerment attributions of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Data were collected to determine differences between demographic factors of participants and self-reported empowerment attributions. A quantitative research design was employed in…

  17. Factors Associated with Parental Adaptation to Children with an Undiagnosed Medical Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Tatiane; Humphreys, Linda; McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Biesecker, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the adaptive process and experiences of parents raising a child with an undiagnosed medical condition. The present study aims to assess how uncertainty, hope, social support, and coping efficacy contributes to adaptation among parents of children with an undiagnosed medical condition. Sixty-two parents of child affected by an undiagnosed medical condition for at least two years completed an electronically self-administered survey. Descriptive analysis suggested parents in this population had significantly lower adaptation scores when compared to other parents of children with undiagnosed medical conditions, and parents of children with a diagnosed intellectual and/or physical disability. Similarly, parents in this population had significantly lower hope, perceived social support and coping efficacy when compared to parents of children with a diagnosed medical condition. Multiple linear regression was used to identify relationships between independent variables and domains of adaptation. Positive stress response was negatively associated with emotional support (B = −0.045, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.009, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive self-esteem was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B = −0.248, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with coping efficacy (B = 0.007, p ≤ 0.05). Adaptive social integration was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's social support (B-0.273, p ≤ 0.05), and positively associated with uncertainty towards child's health (B = 0.323, p ≤ 0.001), and affectionate support (B = 0.110, p ≤ 0.001). Finally, adaptive spiritual wellbeing was negatively associated with uncertainty towards one's family (B = −0.221, p ≤ 0.05). Findings from this study have highlighted the areas where parents believed additional support was required, and provided insight into factors that contribute to parental adaptation. PMID:28039658

  18. Odd nitrogen production by meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Menees, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The process by which odd nitrogen species (atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide) are formed during atmospheric entry of meteoroids is analyzed theoretically. An ablating meteoroid is assumed to be a point source of mass with a continuum regime evolving in its wake. The amounts of odd nitrogen species, produced by high-temperature reactions of air in the continuum wake, are calculated by numerical integration of chemical rate equations. Flow properties are assumed to be uniform across the wake, and 29 reactions involving five neutral species and five singly ionized species are considered, as well as vibrational and electron temperature nonequilibrium phenomena. The results, when they are summed over the observed mass, velocity, and entry-angle distribution of meteoroids, provide odd-nitrogen-species annual global production rates as functions of altitude. The peak production of nitric oxide is found to occur at an altitude of about 85 km; atomic nitrogen production peaks at about 95 km. The total annual rate for nitric oxide is 40 million kg; for atomic nitrogen it is 170 million kg.

  19. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  20. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Slone

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  1. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  2. Calculation of β-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1996-01-01

    In order to study β-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider β-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured β-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on β-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of β-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the β-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the β spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  3. Associations Between Parenting Factors, Motivation, and Physical Activity in Overweight African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Pate, Russell R

    2018-02-05

    Positive parenting practices and environmental supports have been linked to physical activity (PA) levels in youth, yet factors associated with positive parenting styles have been understudied in African American adolescents. This study expands on previous literature by examining associations between motivation, parenting factors associated with Self-Determination Theory's psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) including authoritative parenting, autonomy support and emotional and tangible support, and adolescent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA). Participants were African American adolescents (N = 148; Mage = 13.6 years; MBMI% = 96.6) and their care-givers (Mage = 43.4 years; MBMI = 37.4) enrolled in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss trial. Parenting factors were measured using self-report surveys, and PA minutes were measured using 7-day accelerometry estimates. Regression analyses indicated that overall models for MVPA (F(11,134) = 4.35; R2 = 0.26) and LPA (F(11,134) = 5.84, R2 = 0.32) were significant. Adolescent motivation for PA (B = 0.58, SE = 0.16) was positively associated with MVPA minutes. Authoritative parenting (B = 15.71, SE = 4.38) and tangible support (B = 8.53, SE = 4.02) were positively associated with adolescent LPA minutes. Unexpectedly, emotional support was negatively associated with both MVPA (B = -0.47, SE = 0.17) and LPA (B = -11.22, SE = 4.79), with follow-up analyses showing this relationship stronger in males. Findings highlight the importance of adolescent motivation for PA onMVPA and positive parenting styles and tangible supports on adolescent LPA in overweight African American youth. Recommendations for integrating these factors within the context of intervention studies are discussed.

  4. Parental Attitudes and Factors Associated With Varicella Vaccination in Preschool and Schoolchildren in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson W.S.; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K.H.; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K.S.; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E. Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program. Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of families, children's history of chickenpox infection and vaccination, and reasons for getting children vaccinated. Logistic regression was applied to examine the factors associated with vaccination. From the 3484 completed questionnaires, the calculated rates of varicella infection and vaccination were 20.7% and 69.0%, respectively. Barriers to vaccination included parental uncertainties about vaccine effectiveness, lack of recommendation from the government, and concerns on adverse effects. Overall, 71.8%, 69.0%, and 45.7% of the parents rated family doctors, specialists, and the government, respectively, as very important motivators of vaccination. Higher parental educational level and family income, better perceived knowledge of varicella and chance of infection, discussion with a family doctor, and positive health belief towards vaccination were associated with vaccination (all P vaccination in Hong Kong was higher than that of some other countries that also did not include the vaccine in their routine immunization programs. More positive parental attitudes, higher socioeconomic status, and discussion with a family doctor are associated with greater vaccination rates. The important roles that health professionals and the government play in promoting varicella vaccination were emphasized. PMID:26356725

  5. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  6. Maternal anxiety, risk factors and parenting in the first post-natal year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, M; Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Dunning, M

    2015-03-01

    The antecedents and consequences of maternal post-natal anxiety have received comparatively less attention than depression despite being one of the most frequently reported mental health difficulties experienced by parents following childbirth. The aim of this study was to extend emerging literature on post-natal anxiety by investigating the prevalence of maternal anxiety symptoms, and its relationship with parenting behaviours (i.e. warmth, hostility) and experiences (i.e. parenting efficacy and satisfaction) within the first post-natal year. The psychosocial risk factors for post-natal anxiety symptoms were also explored. A community sample of 224 Australian mothers of infants (aged 0-12 months) completed a self-report questionnaire. Mothers in the current sample reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety compared with a normative sample. Approximately 18% of mothers reported mild to extremely severe symptoms of anxiety, with a high proportion experiencing co-morbid depressive symptoms. Maternal anxiety was associated with low parenting warmth, involvement, efficacy and satisfaction, and high parenting hostility. Yet, co-morbid depression and anxiety was more strongly associated with these parenting behaviours and experiences than anxiety alone. A range of psychosocial risk factors (e.g. education, sleep, relationship quality) were associated with maternal post-natal anxiety symptoms, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Is always the family the main risk factor in Child to Parent Violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael March Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many of the programs carried out in order to intervene with Child to Parent Violence (CPV are directed mainly towards victims. The fact that family is the primary agent of socialization contributes to trying to find the reasons behind children and adolescents’ behavioral disorders in this field. Thus, many authors see CPV as a «high-risk» situation within the family in which minors are not properly treated, where there are degraded contexts, inadequate parenting styles, blurred boundaries, hostility and neglect, a pathological profile of the parents, conflicting relationships between the partner and disregard for the children who become considered as victims and tormentors at the same time. A large amount of research seems to support this point of view, but, is it true in most cases? Or, in other words: is always the family the main risk factor in Child to Parent Violence?

  8. Parent and family factors associated with child adjustment to pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B

    2007-05-01

    To identify factors that influence the association between parent and child distress among families of children with cancer and comparison peers. Parent and child distress, social support, and family environment were assessed among families of 95 children with cancer (94 mothers, 67 fathers) and 98 comparison peers (97 mothers, 77 fathers). Significant associations were found between parent and child distress. For models examining the impact of fathers' distress on children, several moderators were identified (i.e., family environment, child age and gender, a cancer diagnosis, and treatment severity). Family environment also partially mediated father and child distress. Children whose parents were distressed were more likely to be distressed themselves. Subgroups of children were particularly vulnerable, indicating a need to identify further mechanisms of risk and resilience and to develop family-based interventions. Support was found for including fathers as independent sources of information in pediatric psychology research and clinical practice.

  9. The Beliefs of Students, Parents and Teachers about Internal Factors of Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Smrtnik Vitulić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the beliefs of students, teachers and parents about the internal factors of academic achievement and to verify whether their beliefs vary. In this paper the beliefs about the internal factors of academic achievement: personality traits, intellectual ability, language competence, interest in the subject and locus of control are thematised. The sample included 516 students from grades 5, 7 and 9 of 12 different basic schools in central Slovenia, 408 of their parents and 195 teachers. Amongst the broad range of personality traits in the survey questionnaire, parents selected openness and conscientiousness as the most important traits for academic success, while students selected openness and extroversion, and teachers selected agreeableness and emotional stability. In the opinion of the participants in the research, amongst other internal factors of academic success emphasised, those that have the greatest influence on academic achievement are interest in the subject and internal locus of control, while students’ intellectual ability and language competence are attributed slightly less importance. Beliefs regarding the individual factors of academic achievement vary between the groups of participants. In the future, it would be sensible to encourage students, teachers and parents to reflect on the meaning of the individual factors of academic achievement, and especially to speak with them about the factors on which each respective group can exert an influence in order to improve students’ academic achievement.

  10. The Factor Structure and Validity of the Persian Version of the Baumrind Parenting Style Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    اصغر مینائی; سپیده نیک زاد

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the factor structure and validity of the Persian version of the Baumrind parenting style inventory were evaluated among 576 mothers of elementary school students in Tehran who had been selected through multistage cluster sampling method. This study is, due to its subject and purposes a descriptive study based on psychometric methods. The factor structure of the inventory was tested by AMOS software based on the fitting and modification indicators in the confirmatory factor anal...

  11. Hindering and buffering factors for parental sleep in neonatal care. A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla; Angelhoff, Charlotte; Johnsson, Ewa; Karlsson, Jenny; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-03-01

    To explore and describe how parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care perceive their sleep. Parents experience many stressful situations when their newborn infant is preterm and/or sick. This affects bonding. By developing more family-centred care units with single-family rooms, parents are given the opportunity to stay and care for their newborn infant(s) 24 hours a day. Lack of sleep may affect new parents' ability to cope with the many challenges they face on a daily basis. A phenomenographic study with an inductive and exploratory design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve parents of infants in neonatal care between January-March 2012. To describe variations in perception of the phenomenon, data were analysed using phenomenography. Four descriptive categories were identified within the phenomenon sleep in parents of preterm and/or sick infants in neonatal care: impact of stress on sleep; how the environment affects sleep; keeping the family together improves sleep; and, how parents manage and prevent tiredness. Anxiety, uncertainty and powerlessness have a negative influence on sleep. This can be decreased by continuous information, guidance and practical support. Skin-to-skin care was perceived as a stress-reducing factor that improved relaxation and sleep and should be encouraged by the nurse. The parents also mentioned the importance of being together. Having a private place where they could relax and take care of themselves and their newborn infant improved sleep. It was also desirable to involve older siblings in order to decrease feelings of loneliness, sadness and isolation. Improved parental sleep in neonatal care may help the families cope with the situation and facilitate problem-solving, emotional regulation and the transition to parenthood. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Factors Associated With Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants' Oral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M; Levy, Steven M; Xu, Yinghui; Jackson, Richard D; Eckert, George J; Levy, Barcey T; Fontana, Margherita

    2016-07-01

    Parents have an important role ensuring their infants receive oral and medical health care. Their decisions affect the well-being of their children. This study used data collected from a longitudinal, prospective study with the aim of developing and validating a caries risk assessment tool. The objectives of this study are to (a) compare parents' perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums versus how well they do in taking care of the infants' medical health and (b) determine factors associated with parental perceptions of how well they do in taking care of the infants' teeth and/or gums. A total of 1323 parent/infant pairs were enrolled in the study at Duke University, Indiana University, and the University of Iowa. Through a survey, 283 (21%) of the parents perceived they did an excellent job of both taking care of both the infant's oral and medical health, while 861 (65%) perceived the care of their infant's medical health was better than their care of the teeth and/or gums. In the multivariable model, parents who perceived they provided excellent/very good/good care for the infants' teeth and/or gums were more likely to brush the infant's teeth daily, use toothpaste daily, clean inside the infant's mouth and/or gums daily, and not let the infant have something other than water after brushing and prior to bedtime. Also, those with infants having Medicaid or State Insurance, parents not eating sugary snacks frequently, and parents getting dental checkups at least annually were likely to perceive that they provided excellent/very good/good care for their infant's teeth and/or gums. Parents who provide good infant oral health care are more likely to perceive they provide good care and more likely to have better personal dental health behaviors. This agrees with previous studies concerning older children. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Decay properties of certain odd-Z SHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmel Vigila Bai, G.M.; Santhosh Kumar, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the well known Cubic plus Yukawa plus Exponential model (CYEM) in two sphere approximation and incorporating deformation effects to parents and daughter was used to study the alpha decay properties of certain odd-Z super heavy elements

  14. Factors associated with parents' attitudes to the HPV vaccination of their adolescent sons : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Gorjana; Chapman, Janine; Flight, Ingrid; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in parents of adolescent boys. This information is critical to the development of approaches to optimise HPV vaccine uptake among this population group. We performed a systematic search of the literature in addressing factors influencing parental attitudes to and beliefs about HPV vaccine and its acceptability for use. The findings were organised within the framework of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and summarised using a semi quantitative method. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Parental decisions were predominantly shaped by the perceived benefits of the vaccine; perceived risk of sons contracting the HPV infection, and having recommendations from health care providers. Fear of side effects and uncertainty about vaccine effectiveness, as well as cost and lack of healthcare, were barriers to HPV vaccination. Other factors such as knowledge, family characteristics, parent-child dialogue and egalitarian values appeared to be important when deciding whether to vaccinate boys. HPV vaccine uptake among male adolescents is suboptimal. Future programs need to address the predictors of uptake by educating parents about the boys' high susceptibility to infection, the benefits of vaccination, and reduce concerns regarding perceived barriers. Additionally, uptake may be facilitated by encouraging health care provider endorsement, particularly in countries without government-funded immunisation programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High spin states in odd-odd {sup 132}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Takehito [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Lu, J; Furuno, K [and others

    1998-03-01

    Excited states with spin larger than 5 {Dirac_h} were newly established in the {sup 132}Cs nucleus via the {sup 124}Sn({sup 11}B,3n) reaction. Rotational bands built on the {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}d{sub 5/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} configurations were observed up to spin I {approx} 16 {Dirac_h}. The {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} band shows inverted signature splitting below I < 14 {Dirac_h}. A dipole band was firstly observed in doubly odd Cs nuclei. (author)

  16. The effect of parental factors in children with large cup-to-disc ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Young Lopilly Park

    Full Text Available To investigate large cup-to-disc ratios (CDR in children and to determine the relationship between parental CDR and clinical characteristics associated with glaucoma.Two hundred thirty six children aged 6 to 12 years with CDR ≥ 0.6 were enrolled in this study. Subjects were classified into two groups based on parental CDR: disc suspect children with disc suspect (CDR ≥0.6 parents and disc suspect children without disc suspect parents. Ocular variables were compared between the two groups.Of the 236 disc suspect children, 100 (42.4% had at least one disc suspect parent. Intraocular pressure (IOP was higher in disc suspect children with disc suspect parents (16.52±2.66 mmHg than in disc suspect children without disc suspect parents (14.38±2.30 mmHg, p = 0.023. In the group with disc suspect parents, vertical CDR significantly correlated with IOP (R = -0.325, p = 0.001, average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness (R = -0.319, p = 0.001, rim area (R = -0.740, p = 0.001, and cup volume (R = 0.499, p = 0.001. However, spherical equivalent (R = 0.333, p = 0.001, AL (R = -0.223, p = 0.009, and disc area (R = 0.325, p = 0.001 significantly correlated with vertical CDR in disc suspect children without disc suspect parents, in contrast to those with disc suspect parents. Larger vertical CDR was associated with the presence of disc suspect parents (p = 0.001, larger disc area (p = 0.001, thinner rim area (p = 0.001, larger average CDR (p = 0.001, and larger cup volume (p = 0.021.Family history of large CDR was a significant factor associated with large vertical CDR in children. In children with disc suspect parents, there were significant correlations between IOP and average RNFL thickness and vertical CDR.

  17. The effect of parental factors in children with large cup-to-disc ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Ha, Min Ji; Shin, Sun Young

    2017-01-01

    To investigate large cup-to-disc ratios (CDR) in children and to determine the relationship between parental CDR and clinical characteristics associated with glaucoma. Two hundred thirty six children aged 6 to 12 years with CDR ≥ 0.6 were enrolled in this study. Subjects were classified into two groups based on parental CDR: disc suspect children with disc suspect (CDR ≥0.6) parents and disc suspect children without disc suspect parents. Ocular variables were compared between the two groups. Of the 236 disc suspect children, 100 (42.4%) had at least one disc suspect parent. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was higher in disc suspect children with disc suspect parents (16.52±2.66 mmHg) than in disc suspect children without disc suspect parents (14.38±2.30 mmHg, p = 0.023). In the group with disc suspect parents, vertical CDR significantly correlated with IOP (R = -0.325, p = 0.001), average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (R = -0.319, p = 0.001), rim area (R = -0.740, p = 0.001), and cup volume (R = 0.499, p = 0.001). However, spherical equivalent (R = 0.333, p = 0.001), AL (R = -0.223, p = 0.009), and disc area (R = 0.325, p = 0.001) significantly correlated with vertical CDR in disc suspect children without disc suspect parents, in contrast to those with disc suspect parents. Larger vertical CDR was associated with the presence of disc suspect parents (p = 0.001), larger disc area (p = 0.001), thinner rim area (p = 0.001), larger average CDR (p = 0.001), and larger cup volume (p = 0.021). Family history of large CDR was a significant factor associated with large vertical CDR in children. In children with disc suspect parents, there were significant correlations between IOP and average RNFL thickness and vertical CDR.

  18. Obesity in adolescence is associated with perinatal risk factors, parental BMI and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbilis, M; Moschonis, G; Mougios, V; Manios, Y

    2013-01-01

    To record the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in relation to perinatal risk factors, parental body mass index and sociodemographics. A sample of 2294 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years was examined in municipalities from four Greek counties. Weight and height were measured using standard procedures, whereas international thresholds were used for the definition of overweight and obesity. Perinatal and parental data were also recorded via standardized questionnaires. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 30.5% and 11.6%, respectively, with a higher prevalence of obesity in boys compared with girls (13.7% vs 9.5%, Pcharacteristics (that is, younger fathers, Greek nationality, less educated and overweight parents) as important risk factors for children's overweight and obesity, indicating the multifactorial nature of their etiology and the need to extend our understanding beyond positive energy equilibrium.

  19. Predictors of changes in child behaviour following parent management training: Child, context, and therapy factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Kristine Amlund; Ogden, Terje

    2017-04-01

    This non-randomised study examined a set of predictive factors of changes in child behaviour following parent management training (PMTO). Families of 331 Norwegian girls (26%) and boys with clinic-level conduct problems participated. The children ranged in age from 3 to 12 years (M age = 8.69). Retention rate was 72.2% at post-assessment. Child-, parent- and therapy-level variables were entered as predictors of multi-informant reported change in externalising behaviour and social skills. Behavioural improvements following PMTO amounted to 1 standard deviation on parent rated and ½ standard deviation on teacher rated externalising behaviour, while social skills improvements were more modest. Results suggested that children with higher symptom scores and lower social skills score at pre-treatment were more likely to show improvements in these areas. According to both parent- and teacher-ratings, girls tended to show greater improvements in externalising behaviour and social skills following treatment and, according to parents, ADHD symptomology appeared to inhibit improvements in social skills. Finally, observed increases in parental skill encouragement, therapists' satisfaction with treatment and the number of hours spent in therapy by children were also positive and significant predictors of child outcomes. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Beverage Intake among Children: Associations with Parent and Home-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Arwa; Davey, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Beverage intake can influence child diet quality in a positive or negative manner depending on the beverage type and amounts consumed. Parenting practices such as role modeling and control of home beverage availability have been associated with child beverage intake, whereas examination of the influence of parental beverage nutrition knowledge has been more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sugar-sweetened and dairy beverage intake among children (9–12 years) and home and parental factors. A questionnaire was administered among a convenience sample of parents (n = 194) to assess beverage nutrition knowledge, beverage intake and home availability of beverages. Children completed a questionnaire to estimate usual beverage intake. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage intake by children ranged from 0.4 to 48 oz. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine relationships. Parents were mostly female, white, well educated, and employed. Home availability of sugar-sweetened and dairy beverages was positively associated with child sugar-sweetened (OR = 1.48, p = 0.03) and dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.34, p = 0.03), respectively. Parent dairy beverage intake was associated with child dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.06, p = 0.01). Parent knowledge about sugar in beverages was related to child dairy beverage intake (OR = 1.46, p = 0.02), whereas calcium/dairy knowledge and general beverage nutrition knowledge were not related to child beverage intake. Parenting practices and knowledge may play a role in determining child beverage intake. PMID:28820455

  1. Family factors in shaping parental attitudes in young students at the stage of entering adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Karabanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.

  2. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  3. Bullying and Victimization: Predictive Role of Individual, Parental, and Academic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Gökhan; Güneri, Oya Yerin

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the roles of individual factors (age, gender, locus of control, self-esteem, and loneliness), parenting style, and academic achievement in discriminating students involved in bullying (as bullies, victims, and bully/victims) from those not involved. Participants comprised 742 middle school students (393 females, 349 males). The…

  4. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  5. Associations of Eating Two Breakfasts with Childhood Overweight Status, Sociodemographics, and Parental Factors among Preschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Afuso, Kevin; Mason, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: School breakfast may contribute to increased risk for obesity because children may be consuming two breakfasts: at home and at school. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of preschoolers consuming two breakfasts and to assess relationships with overweight/obesity and other factors. Method: Head Start parents (n =…

  6. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  7. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and

  8. Parental smoking and other risk factors for wheezing bronchitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, E; Pershagen, G; Eriksson, M; Nordvall, L

    1993-09-01

    A population-based case-control study was performed to investigate etiologic factors for wheezing bronchitis and asthma in children up to four years of age. A total of 199 children hospitalized for the first time with these diagnoses at a major hospital in Stockholm in 1986-1988 constituted the cases, 351 children from the catchment area of the hospital were used as controls. Information on known and suspected risk factors was obtained through home interviews with a parent. Parental smoking was associated with a relative risk of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.6) corresponding to a population attributable proportion of 27%. The strongest association was seen for maternal smoking and children below 18 months of age. Other major risk factors included atopic heredity, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and breast-feeding less than 3 months, which appeared to interact multiplicatively with parental smoking. The environmental factors had a stronger influence in the youngest age group, and the overall attributable proportion associated with parental smoking, short breast-feeding period and exposure to pets in the household was 43%. It is clear that successful primary prevention could dramatically reduce the incidence of wheezing bronchitis in children.

  9. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  10. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  11. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  12. The Factor Structure and Validity of the Persian Version of the Baumrind Parenting Style Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    اصغر مینائی

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factor structure and validity of the Persian version of the Baumrind parenting style inventory were evaluated among 576 mothers of elementary school students in Tehran who had been selected through multistage cluster sampling method. This study is, due to its subject and purposes a descriptive study based on psychometric methods. The factor structure of the inventory was tested by AMOS software based on the fitting and modification indicators in the confirmatory factor analysis. The results showed that all items of the parenting style inventory except the items of 24, 8, 13, 18, assess the previously determined factors of the inventory, and that the inventory’s questions have a relatively good validity. Also, stratified alpha was used to calculate the reliability of the whole inventory, and Guttman coefficient was utilized to calculate the reliability of subscales. The outcomes indicated that the inventory and its subscales possess a relatively good reliability.

  13. Parental risk factors for the development of pediatric acute and chronic postsurgical pain: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagé MG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available M Gabrielle Pagé,1 Fiona Campbell,2,3 Lisa Isaac,2,3 Jennifer Stinson,2,4 Joel Katz1,3,5 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Psychology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: The goal of this longitudinal study was to examine the associations among psychological factors and pain reports of children and their parents over the 12 month period after pediatric surgery. Materials and methods: Included in the study were 83 children aged 8–18 years undergoing major surgery. In each case, the child and one of their parents completed measures of pain intensity and unpleasantness, psychological function, and functional disability at 48–72 hours, 2 weeks (child only, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. Results: The strength of the correlation coefficients between the psychological measures of the parent and their child increased significantly over time. There was a fair level of agreement between parent ratings of child acute and chronic pain (6 months after surgery and the child's actual ratings. Parent and child pain anxiety scores 48–72 hours after surgery interacted significantly to predict pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and functional disability levels 2 weeks after discharge from hospital. Parent pain catastrophizing scores 48–72 hours after surgery predicted child pain intensity reports 12 months later. Conclusion: These results raise the possibility that as time from surgery increases, parents exert greater and greater influence over the pain response of their children, so that by 12 months postsurgery mark, parent pain catastrophizing (measured in the days after surgery is the

  14. Factors that influence parental decisions to participate in clinical research: consenters vs nonconsenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Shaikh, Nader; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Haralam, Mary Ann; Kearney, Diana H; Colborn, D Kathleen; Kienholz, Michelle L; Wang, Li; Bunker, Clareann H; Keren, Ron; Carpenter, Myra A; Greenfield, Saul P; Pohl, Hans G; Mathews, Ranjiv; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Chesney, Russell W

    2013-06-01

    A child's health, positive perceptions of the research team and consent process, and altruistic motives play significant roles in the decision-making process for parents who consent for their child to enroll in clinical research. This study identified that nonconsenting parents were better educated, had private insurance, showed lower levels of altruism, and less understanding of study design. To determine the factors associated with parental consent for their child's participation in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Cross-sectional survey conducted from July 2008 to May 2011. The survey was an ancillary study to the Randomized Intervention for Children with VesicoUreteral Reflux Study. Seven children's hospitals participating in a randomized trial evaluating management of children with vesicoureteral reflux. Parents asked to provide consent for their child's participation in the randomized trial were invited to complete an anonymous online survey about factors influencing their decision. A total of 120 of the 271 (44%) invited completed the survey; 58 of 125 (46%) who had provided consent and 62 of 144 (43%) who had declined consent completed the survey. A 60-question survey examining child, parent, and study characteristics; parental perception of the study; understanding of the design; external influences; and decision-making process. RESULTS Having graduated from college and private health insurance were associated with a lower likelihood of providing consent. Parents who perceived the trial as having a low degree of risk, resulting in greater benefit to their child and other children, causing little interference with standard care, or exhibiting potential for enhanced care, or who perceived the researcher as professional were significantly more likely to consent to participate. Higher levels of understanding of the randomization process, blinding, and right to withdraw were significantly positively associated with consent to participate. CONCLUSIONS AND

  15. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Gwynne O.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable ...

  16. The Beliefs of Students, Parents and Teachers about Internal Factors of Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Smrtnik Vitulić; Irena Lesar

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to determine the beliefs of students, teachers and parents about the internal factors of academic achievement and to verify whether their beliefs vary. In this paper the beliefs about the internal factors of academic achievement: personality traits, intellectual ability, language competence, interest in the subject and locus of control are thematised. The sample included 516 students from grades 5, 7 and 9 of 12 different basic schools in central Slovenia, 4...

  17. Parental and Related Factors Affecting Students' Academic Achievement in Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oladele K. Ogunsola; Kazeem A. Osuolale; Akintayo O. Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Many factors influence the educational outcome of students. Some of these have been studied by researchers with many emphasizing the role of students, schools, governments, peer groups and so on. More often than not, some of these factors influencing the academic achievement of the students have been traced back to parents and family; being the primary platform on which learning not only begins but is nurtured, encouraged and developed which later transforms to the perfor...

  18. Factors affecting eye care-seeking behavior of parents for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam M; Kumar, Divya Senthil; Kumaran, Sheela Evangeline; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Most of the causes of childhood blindness are either treatable or preventable. Eye care-seeking behavior (ESB) of parents for their children plays a pivotal role in reducing this problem. This study was done because there was a sparsity of literature in this context and with a view to help eye care professionals plan better programs and to identify factors facilitating and/or hindering ESB of parents for their school-going children in an urban area. This study adopted a qualitative snapshot narrative study design. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in areas of Chennai with parents and eye care professionals selected through stratified purposive sampling. Parents were based on those who sought care and did not seek care after a school eye screening program and on their socioeconomic status. Data were transcribed to English, familiarized, and inductive coded, and themes were formed. Redundancy was considered as end point of data collection. Two focus group discussions and 11 in-depth interviews were conducted. Squint, redness or watering of eyes, eye irritation, headache, family history of ocular diseases, severity, and repetitiveness of symptoms facilitate parents seeking eye care for their wards/children. Economic status was an important barrier reported to affect the ESB. Logistic factors like taking appointment with doctor, taking leave from work, transport, and traveling distance were noted. This study shows the facilitating factors and barriers for ESB of the Chennai urban parents for their wards. The results suggest that efforts needed to be put to overcome the barriers through planned awareness programs.

  19. Risk factors for suicide in offspring bereaved by sudden parental death from external causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Lisa Victoria; Mehlum, Lars; Qin, Ping

    2017-11-01

    Parentally bereaved offspring have an increased suicide risk as a group, but the ability to identify specific individuals at risk on the basis of risk and protective factors is limited. The present study aimed to investigate to what degree different risk factors influence suicide risk in offspring bereaved by parental death from external causes. Based on Norwegian registers, individual-level data were retrieved for 375 parentally bereaved suicide cases and 7500 parentally bereaved gender- and age-matched living controls. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Bereaved offspring with low social support, indicated by offspring's single status and repeated changes in marital status and residence, had a significantly increased suicide risk compared to bereaved offspring with high social support. Moreover, low socioeconomic status, having an immigration background, having lost both parents and loss due to suicide significantly increased suicide risk. Several variables relevant to bereavement outcome, such as coping mechanisms and the quality of the parent-offspring relationship are impossible to examine by utilizing population registers. Moreover, the availability of data did not enable the measurement of marital stability and residence stability across the entire lifespan for older individuals. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the additional risk posed by the identified risk factors and incorporate this knowledge into existing practice and risk assessment in order to identify individuals at risk and effectively target bereaved family and friends for prevention and intervention programs. Ideal follow-up for bereaved families should include a specific focus on mobilizing social support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Criminal track and risk factors of minors who exercise filio - parental violence

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo, Keren; Palanques, Natalia; Busquets, María del Pilar

    2017-01-01

    [EN] In the last few years, mass media have shown cases of a new kind of a worryingly domestic violence, the child-to-parent violence, which is increasing alarmingly. Thereby, the main objective of this paper is to analyse the criminal career and risk factors of the minors who have committed child-to-parent violence depending on the sex. The sample is composed of 57 minors (aged from 14 to 17, Average= 15.81) with at least one file in Castellón’s Juvenile Court. Likewise, 82.5% of the mino...

  1. The Predictors Factors of Parental Self-Efficacy in Mothers with Children Under Two Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    کارینه طهماسیان

    2014-02-01

    The study is descriptive- post hoc. A sample of 220 mothers were selected from Tehran by purposeful and accessible sampling method. They completed Parenting Stress Index, Sources of Social Support Scale, Maternal efficacy Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Maternal separation anxiety scale and Child temperament questionnaire. Stepwise regression analysis showed that child temperament, mother depression and parenting stress, in three steps, could explain 33% of variance in maternal self-efficacy. Therefore, educational programs relevant to the mentioned factors can enhance maternal self-efficacy and prevent children’s psychological problems.

  2. Prospective evaluation of parent distress following pediatric burns and identification of risk factors for young child and parent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Alexandra C; Hendrikz, Joan; Kenardy, Justin A; Cobham, Vanessa E; Kimble, Roy M

    2014-02-01

    Early childhood is a high-risk time for exposure to potentially traumatic medical events. We have previously reported that 10% of young children continue to have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months after burn injury. This study aimed to 1) document the prevalence and prospective change in parental psychological distress over 6 months following their child's burn injury and 2) identify risk factors for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in young children and their parents. Participants were 120 parents of 1-6-year-old children with unintentional burn injuries. Data were collected within 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months of burn injury using developmentally sensitive diagnostic interviews and questionnaires. Within the first month, ∼ 25% of parents had a probable PTSD diagnosis, and moderate to extremely severe levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Distress levels decreased significantly over time; however, 5% of parents still had probable PTSD at 6 months. Hierarchical multiple regression and path analyses indicated that parent posttraumatic stress reactions contributed significantly to the development and maintenance of child PTSS. Other risk factors for child PTSS included premorbid emotional and behavioral difficulties and larger burn size. Risk factors identified for parent PTSS included prior trauma history, acute distress, greater number of child invasive procedures, guilt, and child PTSS. The findings from this study suggest that parents' responses to a traumatic event may play a particularly important role in a young child's psychological recovery. However, further research is needed to confirm the direction of the relationship between child and parent distress. This study identified variables that could be incorporated into screening tools or targeted by early intervention protocols to prevent the development of persistent child and parent PTSS following medical trauma.

  3. Working parents: what factors are involved in their ability to take time off from work when their children are sick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Toomey, S; Furstenberg, F

    1999-08-01

    A series of studies has demonstrated that sick children fare better when their parents are present. To examine working conditions that determine whether parents can spend time with and become involved in the care of their children when they are sick. Survey with a multivariate analysis of factors influencing parental care of sick children. Mixed-income urban working parents aged 26 to 29 years participating in the Baltimore Parenthood Study. Only 42% of working parents in our sample cared for their young children when they became sick. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict which parents stayed at home when their children were sick. Those parents who had either paid sick or vacation leave were 5.2 times as likely to care for their children themselves when they were sick. Of parents with less than a high school education, 17% received paid leave, compared with 57% of parents with a general equivalency diploma, 76% of parents with a high school diploma, and 92% of parents with more than a high school education (Pparents were unable to care for their sick children themselves is important for pediatric care. While low-income children are more likely to face marked health problems and to be in need of parental care, they are more likely to live in households in which parents lack paid leave and cannot afford to take unpaid leave.

  4. Lifetimes and magnetic moments in odd-odd 70 As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Stanoiu, M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive experimental and theoretical work on the structure of N∼Z, A = 60-80 nuclei revealed many interesting features: large prolate deformations (β = 0.4), strong shape variations as a function of particle number, excitation energy, spin and shape coexistence effects. They are related with drastic changes of properties observed in nuclei with Z≥33 when going from spherical nuclei with N = 50 to neutron deficient nuclei with N = 38 or 40. Both the rapid changes in structure and the shape coexistence appear to reflect the competition between the shell gaps which occur at large oblate and prolate deformations near nucleon numbers 36 and 38 for both protons and neutrons. For N∼Z nuclei the same shell gaps appear simultaneously for both protons and neutrons and reinforce each other. The microscopic structure of the nuclei in the mass region A = 60-80 is essentially determined by the 1g 9/2 , 2p 1/2 , 1f 5/2 and 2p 3/2 orbitals. Because no unique interpretation of the unusual features discovered in these nuclei exists, the systematic experimental study of structure of these nuclei is still an interesting subject. As part of a systematic experimental study undertaken to investigate the structure of neutron deficient, odd-odd As nuclei, 68,70,72 As, the level scheme of 70 As was investigated using heavy ion induced reactions and in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy techniques. At energies between 500 and 900 keV a multiplet of negative parity levels has been observed. At higher energies a high-spin positive parity sequence of levels starting with a E x = 1676 keV, J π 8 + level is strongly populated. Additional information is required in order to establish the structure of low and high-spin levels of both parities. The magnetic moments of the 8 + and 9 + levels have been measured using the time-integral perturbed angular distribution technique and the lifetimes of four levels have been determined using the recoil-distance method. From the measured lifetime for the 9

  5. Parental and perinatal risk factors for sexual offending in men: a nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, K M; Seto, M C; Sariaslan, A; Lichtenstein, P; Fazel, S; Långström, N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1:5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. To examine risk-factor specificity for sexual offending, we also compared male violent, non-sexual offenders (n = 135 953) to controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. Predictors included parental (young maternal or paternal age at son's birth, educational attainment, violent crime, psychiatric disorder, substance misuse, suicide attempt) and perinatal (number of older brothers, low Apgar score, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, congenital malformations, small head size) variables. Conditional logistic regression models found consistent patterns of statistically significant, small to moderate independent associations of parental risk factors with sons' sexual offending and non-sexual violent offending. For perinatal risk factors, patterns varied more; small for gestational age and small head size exhibited similar risk effects for both offence types whereas a higher number of older biological brothers and any congenital malformation were small, independent risk factors only for non-sexual violence. This nationwide study suggests substantial commonalities in parental and perinatal risk factors for the onset of sexual and non-sexual violent offending.

  6. The Effect of Parents' Attitudes toward Divorce on Offspring's Attitudes: Gender and Parental Divorce as Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinus, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions: (a) What influence do parents' attitudes toward divorce have on offspring's attitudes? (b) How are offspring's attitudes toward divorce influenced by parental divorce, and do the effects vary depending on the gender of the child? and (c) How do conditions surrounding parental divorce influence young adults'…

  7. Obese parents--obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0-3: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Matthias; Bergmann, Sarah; Keitel, Anja; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Wendt, Verena; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2013-12-17

    The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children's weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants' weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent-child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent-child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the fathers, and the observation of parent

  8. Prevalence and Parental Risk Factors for Speech Disability Associated with Cleft Palate in Chinese Children—A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chunfeng; Wang, Zhenjie; He, Ping; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of oral clefts in China is among the highest worldwide, little is known about the prevalence of speech disability associated with cleft palate in Chinese children. The data for this study were collected from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, and identification of speech disability associated with cleft palate was based on consensus manuals. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A weighted number of 112,070 disabled children affected by cleft palate were identified, yielding a prevalence of 3.45 per 10,000 children (95% CI: 3.19–3.71). A history of speech disability in the mother (OR = 20.266, 95% CI 5.788–70.959, p cleft palate in the offspring. Our results showed that maternal speech disability, older paternal child-bearing age, and lower levels of parental education were independent risk factors for speech disability associated with cleft palate for children in China. These findings may have important implications for health disparities and prevention. PMID:27886104

  9. Social and cognitive factors associated with children's secret-keeping for a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Heidi M; Lyon, Thomas D; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined children's secret-keeping for a parent and its relation to trust, theory of mind, secrecy endorsement, and executive functioning (EF). Children (N = 107) between 4 and 12 years of age participated in a procedure wherein parents broke a toy and asked children to promise secrecy. Responses to open-ended and direct questions were examined. Overall, secret-keeping increased with age and promising to keep the secret was related to fewer disclosures in open-ended questioning. Children who kept the secret in direct questioning exhibited greater trust and better parental ratings of EF than children who disclosed the secret. Findings highlight the importance of both social and cognitive factors in secret-keeping development. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Social and cognitive factors associated with children’s secret-keeping for a parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Heidi M.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined children’s secret-keeping for a parent and its relationship to trust, theory of mind, secrecy endorsement, and executive functioning (EF). Children (N = 107) between 4 and 12 years of age participated in a procedure wherein parents broke a toy and asked children to promise secrecy. Responses to open-ended and direct questions were examined. Overall, secret-keeping increased with age and promising to keep the secret was related to fewer disclosures in open-ended questioning. Children who kept the secret in direct questioning exhibited greater trust and better parental ratings of EF than children who disclosed the secret. Findings highlight the importance of both social and cognitive factors in secret-keeping development. PMID:25291258

  11. The role of parents and related factors on adolescent computer use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Epstein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research suggested the importance of parents on their adolescents’ computer activity. Spending too much time on the computer for recreational purposes in particular has been found to be related to areas of public health concern in children/adolescents, including obesity and substance use. Design and Methods. The goal of the research was to determine the association between recreational computer use and potentially linked factors (parental monitoring, social influences to use computers including parents, age of first computer use, self-control, and particular internet activities. Participants (aged 13-17 years and residing in the United States were recruited via the Internet to complete an anonymous survey online using a survey tool. The target sample of 200 participants who completed the survey was achieved. The sample’s average age was 16 and was 63% girls. Results. A set of regressions with recreational computer use as dependent variables were run. Conclusions. Less parental monitoring, younger age at first computer use, listening or downloading music from the internet more frequently, using the internet for educational purposes less frequently, and parent’s use of the computer for pleasure was related to spending a greater percentage of time on non-school computer use. These findings suggest the importance of parental monitoring and parental computer use on their children’s own computer use, and the influence of some internet activities on adolescent computer use. Finally, programs aimed at parents to help them increase the age when their children start using computers and learn how to place limits on recreational computer use are needed.

  12. Migration Factors in West African Immigrant Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Neighborhood Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Cissé, Aïcha; Han, Ying; Roubeni, Sonia

    2018-02-12

    Immigrants make up large proportions of many low-income neighborhoods, but have been largely ignored in the neighborhood safety literature. We examined perceived safety's association with migration using a six-item, child-specific measure of parents' perceptions of school-aged (5-12 years of age) children's safety in a sample of 93 West African immigrant parents in New York City. Aims of the study were (a) to identify pre-migration correlates (e.g., trauma in home countries), (b) to identify migration-related correlates (e.g., immigration status, time spent separated from children during migration), and (c) to identify pre-migration and migration correlates that accounted for variance after controlling for non-migration-related correlates (e.g., neighborhood crime, parents' psychological distress). In a linear regression model, children's safety was associated with borough of residence, greater English ability, less emotional distress, less parenting difficulty, and a history of child separation. Parents' and children's gender, parents' immigration status, and the number of contacts in the U.S. pre-migration and pre-migration trauma were not associated with children's safety. That child separation was positively associated with safety perceptions suggests that the processes that facilitate parent-child separation might be reconceptualized as strengths for transnational families. Integrating migration-related factors into the discussion of neighborhood safety for immigrant populations allows for more nuanced views of immigrant families' well-being in host countries. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  13. Odds of observing the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H O /H I ) 2 , where H O is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H I is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  14. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  15. How modifiable factors influence parental decision-making about organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luberda, Kamila; Cleaver, Karen

    2017-11-07

    A global shortage of organs from children and adults available for transplantation is compounded by the failure of next of kin to consent for organs to be donated after death. Non-modifiable and modifiable factors influence decision-making in this area. Modifiable factors are of interest when examining families' decision-making about the donation of organs from their deceased child. A scoping review was undertaken to determine how modifiable factors influence parental decision-making about organ donation. Thematic analysis identified two themes: interactions with healthcare professionals and pre-disposition to organ donation. Satisfaction with experiences of hospital care, the information provided and the way it was communicated, as well as interactions pertaining to emotional support were all found to be modifiable factors that influenced decision making. Likewise, a predisposition to organ donation and knowing the deceased's wishes were associated with the consent decision. Nurses working in critical care environments need to be able to support parents during this difficult time. This article aims to raise awareness of modifiable factors that influence parental decision-making, highlighting their relevance for children's nursing practice. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  16. Perceived influence, decision-making and access to information in family services as factors of parental empowerment: a cross-sectional study of parents with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorenmaa, Maaret; Halme, Nina; Perälä, Marja-Leena; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2016-06-01

    Parental empowerment is known to increase parents' resources and to reduce stress, and therefore to improve family well-being. Professionals working in family services (child health clinics, school health care, day care, preschool and primary school) encounter families in various everyday settings and can significantly support parental empowerment. This study aimed (i) to identify associations between parental empowerment and demographic and family service characteristics (i.e. parents' participation and perceived influence, decision-making and access to information) and (ii) to identify predictors of maternal and paternal empowerment. Study design was cross-sectional. Participants were mothers (n = 571) and fathers (n = 384) of children aged 0-9 who were selected by stratified random sampling in 2009. Associations were analysed by t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis. Sufficient perceived influence and joint decision-making by family and professionals on family service appointments emerged as significant variables of increased parental empowerment. Access to adequate information about municipal services was also associated with high empowerment. These family service characteristics were associated with parents' sense that they were able to manage in everyday life and had influence on specific service situations and family services in general. Mothers with a child aged under 3 or a child in home care or primary school, and fathers with a lower education feel less empowered in family services than other parents. Knowledge about the factors associated with parental empowerment can contribute to further reinforce parental empowerment, help identify parents who need special attention and contribute to the development of family services. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Psychosocial factors influencing parental decision to allow or refuse potentially lifesaving enucleation in children with retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Enrique D. Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinoblastoma is the most common malignancy of the eye and ocular adnexa in the Philippines. It is curable when treated early, but delay in enucleation is common due to the parental refusal of surgery for varied reasons. The aim of this study is to identify the psychosocial barriers and facilitating factors for accepting versus refusing enucleation as treatment for retinoblastoma. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing structured interviews and a questionnaire. It was conducted at the Retinoblastoma Clinic of the Philippine General Hospital. A questionnaire using the Likert scale was constructed after performing key informant interviews and focus group discussions. It was pretested and revised before parents of patients with retinoblastoma were invited to participate in the study. Descriptive statistics, quantitative item analyses using inter-item correlations and item-total correlations was performed. Results: Factors that correlate with refusal to enucleate are the beliefs that cancer is a fatal illness, the fear of unacceptable esthetic outcome of the surgery, and the cost of treatment. Favorable factors include value of life, high regard for the opinion of medical practitioners, and appreciation of the efficacy of treatment. Conclusions: There are several favorable factors and barriers that health practitioners must consider in facilitating parental decision-making toward enucleation for retinoblastoma.

  19. Conflicting Coupling of Unpaired Nucleons and the Structure of Collective Bands in Odd-Odd Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levon, A.I.; Pasternak, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei is discussed. A very simple explanation is suggested for the damping of the energy spacing of the lowest levels in the rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei with the 'conflicting' coupling of an odd proton and an odd neutron comparative to those of the bands based on the state of a strongly coupled particle in the neighboring odd nucleus entering the 'conflicting' configuration.

  20. Parent Perceptions of Child Weight Status in Mexican-Origin Immigrant Families: An Investigation of Acculturation, Stress, and Coping Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Dorothy L; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Bohnert, Amy M; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo

    2018-04-01

    Parents often underestimate their child's weight status, particularly when the child is overweight or obese. This study examined acculturation, stress, coping, and involuntary responses to stress and their relation to estimation of child's weight status among Mexican-origin immigrant families. Eighty-six families provided data on child's height and weight, caregiver's perception of their child's weight status, and caregiver's responses to acculturation, stress, and coping scales. Parents underestimated their child's weight status, particularly when the child was overweight or obese. Although acculturation and stress were not associated with accuracy, parents' responses to stress were linked to parent perceptions. Parents who reported more frequent use of involuntary engagement (e.g., rumination, physiological arousal) were more accurate. Future research, as well as healthcare providers, should consider how parents manage and respond to stress in order to fully understand the factors that explain weight perceptions among Mexican-origin immigrant parents.

  1. Can Parental Bonding Be Assessed in Children? Factor Structure and Factorial Invariance of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) between Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousis, Ioannis; Mascha, Katerina; Giovazolias, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in the Greek population. Using confirmatory factor analysis different proposed models of the basic dimensions of PBI were evaluated. The results indicated that Kendler's three-factor (i.e. care, protectiveness and authoritarianism) solution was found to be more…

  2. CHILD-PARENT VIOLENCE: MAIN CHARACTERISTICS, RISK FACTORS AND KEYS TO INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luisa Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Child-parent Violence (hereinafter CPV is an increasingly evident problem in the social, health, and judicial protection systems which, however, continue to show a number of major deficiencies with respect to the main characteristics of CPV, the people involved, the underlying factors, and efficacious interventions. Nevertheless, there is a consensus regarding its devastating consequences. The present bibliographical review is focused on analysing the problem of CPV with the aim of offering useful data for future research and intervention proposals. Specifically, this paper provides a definition of CPV and its types, some data on prevalence, the main characteristics of aggressive children and abused parents, and the most important individual, family, school and community risk factors highlighted in the current scientific literature. The keys areas of intervention with this group are also presented.

  3. Co-occurring eating and psychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese college students: effects of gender and parental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-03-01

    To test whether gender and parental factors moderate the relationships between symptoms of eating disorder (ED) and other psychiatric symptoms. A total of 5,015 new entrants completed several questionnaires and 541 individuals with ED symptoms were identified by the Adult Self-Report Inventory-4 that assessed a wide range of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition psychopathology. The participants also reported on their parents' attitude toward them before their ages of 16. ED symptoms, female gender, less parental care, and more parental protection were associated with more severe co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Gender and parental factors also demonstrated differential moderating effects on the relationships between ED and co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Parenting counseling may be individualized to young adults with ED symptoms and different co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  5. Factors and Interventions Associated with Parental Attachment during Pregnancy in Iran: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kobra Salehi; Shahnaz Kohan; Fariba Taleghani

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Parents' attachment to the child is an intimate,warm and continuous relationship which is the basis of the natural development of the child. Attachment starts long before birth, and is affected by a variety of factors that are not definitively recognized. Also, several interventions have been proposed for improving it that their effectiveness has not yet been determined. Given the evidence about the role of cultural and national differences, it is necessary to review existing st...

  6. Factors and Interventions Associated with Parental Attachment during Pregnancy in Iran: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Salehi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents' attachment to the child is an intimate,warm and continuous relationship which is the basis of the natural development of the child. Attachment starts long before birth, and is affected by a variety of factors that are not definitively recognized. Also, several interventions have been proposed for improving it that their effectiveness has not yet been determined. Given the evidence about the role of cultural and national differences, it is necessary to review existing studies in order to identify these factors and interventions in Iran.Methods and Materials: In this review, Web of Science, Scopous, Proquest,Psycinfo, CINAHL and Pubmed databases and SID, Magiran, Irondoc, Barakat Knowledge Network System as Iranian databases were searched using English and Persian keywords such as prenatal attachment, relationship, maternal attachment between 2000 and 2017, to find articles related to prenatal attachment. The full text of the articles was studied by two reviewer and their main findings were extracted and categorized.Results: Factors and interventions associated with parental attachment summarized into 12 themes: parent education, culture, anxiety, family, planning for pregnancy, history of fetal loss, substance abuse, postpartum attachment, fetal anomaly, paternal attachment, attachment measurement tools, and effectiveness of education on prenatal attachment .Conclusion: the effect of education and counseling on prenatal attachment in Iranian parents suggests the use of these methods in prenatal care. Parent’s education, social support and marital satisfaction were significant associated factors with increasing maternal attachment. History of fetal loss, anxiety and smoking was associated with the poor prenatal attachment

  7. Factors influencing parents' decision-making when sending children with respiratory tract infections to nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Fran E; Rooshenas, Leila; Owen-Smith, Amanda; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-06-01

    Many families rely on formal day care provision, which can be problematic when children are unwell. Attendance in these circumstances may impact on the transmission of infections in both day care and the wider community. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate how parents make decisions about nursery care when children are unwell. Topics for discussion included: illness attitudes, current practice during childhood illness and potential nursery policy changes that could affect decision-making. A combination of illness perceptions and external factors affected decision-making. Parents: (i) considered the severity of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms differently, and stated that while most other contagious illnesses required nursery exclusion, coughs/colds did not; (ii) said decisions were not solely based on nursery policy, but on practical challenges such as work absences, financial penalties and alternative care availability; (iii) identified modifiable nursery policy factors that could potentially help parents keep unwell children at home, potentially reducing transmission of infectious illness. Decision-making is a complex interaction between the child's illness, personal circumstance and nursery policy. Improving our understanding of the modifiable aspects of nursery policies and the extent to which these factors affect decision-making could inform the design and implementation of interventions to reduce the transmission of infectious illness and the associated burden on NHS services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Factor Structure of the Chinese Version of the Parent Adult-Child Relationship Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Parent Adult-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PACQ included two identical versions of the 13-item scale, which were administered to each subject, one which referred to “relationship with mother” and the other to “relationship with father.” The PACQ, originally in English, is a self-report measure of the filial relationship. The present study aimed to develop a Chinese version of the PACQ and use it to explore Chinese parent adult-child relationships. A total of 454 Chinese adult-children completed the Chinese version of the PACQ. The structure of the questionnaire was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. We found that the Cronbach's α was 0.66–0.88 for fathers and 0.76–0.91 for mothers, which demonstrates high internal consistency reliabilities of the Chinese version of the PACQ. The Chinese version of the PACQ for father had similar constructs similar to with those of the original English version. However, a new factor for mothers, “attachment,” was derived from the original English version. The results suggested that the Chinese version of PACQ is a valid and reliable measure of relationship quality between Chinese adult-children and their parents.

  9. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction between parental psychosis and risk factors during pregnancy and birth for schizophrenia - the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, E; Miettunen, J; Koivumaa-Honkanen, H; Mäki, P; Isohanni, M; Jääskeläinen, E

    2013-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between parental psychosis and potential risk factors for schizophrenia and their interaction. We evaluated whether the factors during pregnancy and birth have a different effect among subjects with and without a history of parental psychosis and whether parental psychosis may even explain their effects on the risk of schizophrenia. The sample comprised 10,526 individuals from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. A total of 150 (1.4%) cohort members had schizophrenia by the age of 44 years, of them 18 (12.0%) had a parent with a history of psychosis. In non-psychotic cohort members, this figure was 495 (4.8%). In the parental psychosis group, significant early biological risk factors for schizophrenia included high birth weight (hazard ratio, HR 11.4; 95% confidence interval 3.3-39.7) and length (HR 4.1; 1.3-12.5), high birth weight in relation to gestational age (HR 3.2; 1.1-9.0), and high maternal age (HR 2.6.; 1.0-6.7). High birth weight and length and high maternal education had a significant interaction with parental psychosis. The presence of any biological risk factor increased the risk of schizophrenia significantly only among the parental psychosis group (HR 4.0; 1.5-10.5), whereas the presence of any psychosocial risk factor had no interaction with parental psychosis. Parental psychosis can act as an effect modifier on early risk factors for schizophrenia. Evaluation of the mechanisms behind the risk factors should, therefore, include consideration of the parental history of psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Trend Odds Model for Ordinal Data‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Ana W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values (Peterson and Harrell, 1990). We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, where the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points. We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc Nlmixed, and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical dataset is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a Swine Influenza example where the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. PMID:23225520

  12. The trend odds model for ordinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Ana W; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2013-06-15

    Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values. We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, wherein the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points. We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc NLMIXED and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical data set is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a swine influenza example wherein the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers’ parenting practices in the post-deployment environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K.; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of post-deployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 post-deployed fathers who served in the Army National Guard/Reserves. Pre-intervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and PTSD symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model predicting an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study utilizing direct parent-child observations of father’s parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:26213794

  14. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  15. Parenting and youth sexual risk in context: The role of community factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrum, Nada M; Armistead, Lisa P; Tully, Erin C; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Black South African youth are disproportionately affected by HIV, and risky sexual behaviors increase youths' vulnerability to infection. U.S.-based research has highlighted several contextual influences on sexual risk, but these processes have not been examined in a South African context. In a convenience sample of Black South African caregivers and their 10-14-year-old youth (M age  = 11.7, SD = 1.4; 52.5% female), we examined the relation between parenting and youth sexual risk within the context of community-level processes, including neighborhood quality and maternal social support. Hypotheses were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that better neighborhood quality and more social support predicted positive parenting, which in turn predicted less youth sexual risk. There was a significant indirect effect from neighborhood quality to youth sexual risk via parenting. Results highlight the importance of the community context in parenting and youth sexual risk in this understudied sample. HIV prevention-interventions should be informed by these contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  17. Parental 'affectionless control' as an antecedent to adult depression: a risk factor refined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, A; Henderson, A S; Andrews, G

    1993-02-01

    It has been well established that individuals with a history of depression report their parents as being less caring and more overprotective of them than do controls. 'Affectionless control' in childhood has thus been proposed as a risk factor for depression. Evidence is presented from a logistic regression analysis of data from a volunteer community sample that lack of care rather than over-protection is the primary risk factor. No evidence for an interaction effect of low care and over-protection was found.

  18. Religious Values and Tuition Vouchers: An Empirical Case Study of Parent Religiosity as a Factor of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether parent religiosity is a statistically significant school choice factor. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was administered to 215 parents in an urban, PreK-12 religious private school that participated in the Ohio Educational Choice (EdChoice) voucher program. The null hypothesis that there was…

  19. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  20. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  1. Factors Associated with Parents’ Perceptions of Parental Smoking in the Presence of Children and Its Consequences on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Parental smoking is the major source of children’s secondhand smoke exposure and is influenced by parents’ perception of children’s exposure. However, the factors associated with these perceptions remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with parents’ perceptions about parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on parents’ perceptions of parental smoking and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and smoking-related experience. Results show that parents’ gender, education level, occupational type, smoking status, and agreement on a home smoking ban independently predict parents’ evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking in the presence of children. Parents’ gender, education level, annual family income, smoking status, agreement on a home smoking ban, and evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking independently predicted parents’ perceptions. Findings indicated that a specific group expressed greater acceptance of parental smoking and was less aware of its risks. Motivating parents to create a smoke-free home and increasing awareness of the adverse consequences of parental smoking is beneficial in reinforcing attitudes opposed to parental smoking. PMID:23296207

  2. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities.

  3. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Whitley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.

  4. Coulomb Excitation of Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Cu Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE and Miniball

    CERN Multimedia

    Lauer, M; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the properties of the odd-mass and the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu nuclei applying the Coulomb excitation technique and using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled to the Miniball array. The results from the Coulex experiments accomplished at REX-ISOLDE after its upgrade to 3 MeV/u during the last year have shown the power of this method and its importance in order to obtain information on the collective properties of even-even nuclei. Performing an experiment on the odd-mass and on the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu isotopes in the vicinity of N=40 should allow us to determine and interpret the effective proton and neutron charges in the region and to unravel the lowest proton-neutron multiplets in $^{68,70}$Cu. This experiment can take the advantage of the unique opportunity to accelerate isomerically separated beams using the RILIS ion source at ISOLDE.

  5. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Lambert, Matthew C; Watkins, Marley W; Power, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale-5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM-5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity-impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale-5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika

    2010-05-04

    Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a

  7. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  8. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Omar, Khairani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity.

  9. Factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (Taiwan) was amended to more effectively restrict smoking in indoor public places and workplaces in Taiwan. However, the lack of prohibitions for smoking in private homes may place family members at increased risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The aim of our study was to determine the factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Methods In 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study of factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires. Quota sampling was used to select five primary schools from four different regions of Taiwan. Parents were surveyed to identify parental smokers and 307 parental smokers were selected for participation in our study. Questionnaire data regarding parental smoking in the presence of children at home and related interactions among family members were analyzed. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the best-fit model for examining the relationships among the variables related to parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Results Two-thirds of parents who smoked reported smoking in the presence of their children. The results of the hierarchical logistic regression analysis identified the smokers’ compliance with their family’s antismoking responses, mutual agreement with smoking bans, daily smoking, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day, the education level of the parental smoker, and the annual family income as determinants of smoking in the presence of children at home. Conclusions Households with smoking parents should be targeted for interventions to encourage the adoption and enforcement of home smoking bans. Educational interventions that promote smoke-free homes for children and provide support to help parents stop smoking are critical factors in reducing the frequency of children’s ETS exposure in the home. PMID

  10. The Need for an Ecological Approach to Parental Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Combined Role of Individual and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derguy, C.; M'Bailara, K.; Michel, G.; Roux, S.; Bouvard, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify parental stress predictors in ASD by considering individual and environmental factors in an ecological approach. Participants were 115 parents of children with ASD aged from 3 to 10 years. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the best predictors of parental stress among child-related, parent-related…

  11. Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConley, Regina L; Mrug, Sylvie; Gilliland, M Janice; Lowry, Richard; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Franzini, Luisa; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad L; Franklin, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers who participated in the Healthy Passages study. Results showed that associations of maternal depression and single parenthood with child BMI are mediated by parenting quality and its relation to children's leisure activity and sedentary behavior. Interventions for child obesity may be more successful if they target family environment, particularly parenting quality and its impact on children's active and sedentary behaviors.

  12. Prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai--a school based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajinkya, Shaunak; Kaur, Darpan; Gursale, Akshay; Jadhav, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    To study the prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai. One hundred twenty two children including both boys and girls aged between 6 y and 11 y were selected from a school at Navi Mumbai and their parents were given the National Innovative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to be filled and returned, which was subsequently analyzed using SPSS (version 16). The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was 12.3 % with boy to girl ratio of 3:2. It was more prevalent in nuclear type of family and in families where a single parent was working especially where the father was the sole breadwinner and doing semi-skilled or unskilled type of work. No significant relation was found between the numbers of work-related hours when parents were away from children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is prevalent in the primary school-going population of Navi Mumbai, especially in boys. The increased prevalence in nuclear families and families with single working parent should further be explored. Further studies with larger sample size and longer period of follow up may be recommended. The study also recommends screening of school children for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for early diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-odd nuclei in 2s-1d and 2p-1f shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, A K; Garg, V P; Sharma, S D [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1979-01-01

    A simple expression is derived for the computation of the magnetic moments of odd-odd nuclei. The computation of magnetic dipole moments is done with and without quenching factors for the last proton and neutron. The results are found to improve for /sup 22/Na, /sup 24/Na, sup(82m)Rb, /sup 14/N, /sup 68/Gd, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 86/Rb with extreme coupling of angular moments.

  14. "Lay epidemiology": an important factor in Danish parents' decision of whether to allow their child to receive a BCG vaccination. A qualitative exploration of parental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Johannessen, Helle; Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Jane Schmidt; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2017-11-21

    Vaccination is used worldwide to prevent infectious diseases. However, vaccination programmes in western countries face challenges in sustaining high coverage rates. The aim of this study was to explore how parents in Denmark make a decision about whether to allow their child to receive a Bacille Calmette Guerin vaccine at birth for the purpose of achieving non-specific effects on the immune system. A total of five focus groups were conducted with expectant mothers and fathers. Written information about the vaccine and information about the hypothesis of non-specific effects of the vaccine were delivered in order to discuss considerations and determinants of parents' decisions. Heritable factors and the possibility of stimulating the immune system of the child to achieve less atopic diseases and fewer infections were identified as arguments in favour of receiving the BCG vaccine. Arguments against receiving BCG mainly focused on concerns about its described and non-described side effects. Both arguments for and arguments against the vaccine were seen as parents attempt to make an individual risk evaluation for their child. Attitudes and beliefs in the local network were identified as important for parents' decisions. It is discussed how "lay epidemiology" characterizes parents' risk evaluation as an individual addition to the population-based risk declaration. It is furthermore discussed how health professionals should engage with both the empirical element and the value element of "Lay epidemiology". "Lay epidemiology" forms the basis for the parental decision of whether to allow their child to receive a BCG vaccination. Attitudes and beliefs about the causes and distribution of illnesses in the family or local network influence parents' risk evaluations. It would be ideal for parents if health professionals focused their communication about the BCG vaccine on individual risk evaluations.

  15. Factors that influence parental vaccination decisions for adolescents, 13 to 17 years old: National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Kennedy, Allison; Stokley, Shannon

    2013-02-01

    We aim to describe factors that influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents. Data from the July to December 2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen Parental Concerns Module were analyzed to determine factors that influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents. Parents reported that their adolescent's health care provider recommended tetanus toxoid/tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Td/Tdap; 74.4%), meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY; 60.3%), and human papillomavirus (HPV; 71.3%). Vaccination coverage estimates were significantly higher among parents who reported receiving a provider recommendation: 85.2% versus 76.7% (Td/Tdap), 77.3% versus 49.7% (MenACWY), and 62.2% versus 21.5% (HPV). Compared with Td/Tdap and MenACWY, fewer HPV vaccination conversations included recommendations for vaccination. Other than health care providers, school requirements (46.1%), news coverage (31.2%), and family (31.0%) were most frequently reported influences on parental vaccination decisions. Many factors influence parental decisions to vaccinate their adolescents; one of the most important factors is the provider recommendation. Missed opportunities for vaccination persist when strong vaccination recommendations are not given or are delayed.

  16. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  17. Isomeric structures in neutron-rich odd-odd Pm (Z = 61) isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, P.C.; Singh, B.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Each of the heavier odd-odd isotopes, namely, 152 Pm, 154 Pm and 156 Pm, have multiple low-lying isomers, almost all of them with undefined configuration and also undefined energy placement. Present investigations attempt credible characterization of the isomers using a simplified two-quasiparticle rotor model which has been widely employed for description of odd-odd deformed nuclei

  18. What factors influence parents' perception of the quality of life of children and adolescents with neurocardiogenic syncope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi Capitello, Teresa; Fiorilli, Caterina; Placidi, Silvia; Vallone, Roberta; Drago, Fabrizio; Gentile, Simonetta

    2016-05-17

    Health-related quality of life, which can be investigated using self-reports or parental reports, could help healthcare providers understand the subjective perception of well-being of children suffering from recurrent syncopal episodes. Quality of life is not only a measure of health but is also a reflection of patients' and parents' perceptions and expectations of health. This study assessed: 1) the consistency and agreement between pediatric patients' self-reports and parents' proxy-reports of their child's quality of life; 2) whether this patient-parent agreement is dependent on additional demographic and clinical or distress factors; 3) whether the parents' psychological distress influences children's and parents' responses to questionnaires on quality of life. One hundred and twenty-five Italian children aged 6-18 years old (Mean age 12.75, SD 2.73, 48 % female) and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory with self-reports and parent-proxy reports, the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18. Patients' and parents' scores on quality of life were analyzed via an intra-class correlation coefficient, Spearman's correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plot. Child-rated quality of life was lower than parent-rated quality of life. However, there were no statistically significant differences between pediatric patients' self-reports and their parents' proxy-reports of on quality of life. Clinically significant patient-parent variation in pediatric health-related quality of life was observed. Differences in patient-parent proxy Pediatric Quality of Life inventory Total Scale Score scores were significantly associated with patient age. Concerning parents' proxy-ratings of their children's quality of life on the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, parental stress was found to be negatively associated with their perceptions of their child's psychological quality

  19. Factors associated with the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filogônio Cintia B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period of adolescence physical appearance takes on significant importance in the construction of personal identity, including one's relationship with one's own body. A variety of social, cultural, psychological and personal factors influences the self-perception of dental appearance and the decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Adolescents who seek orthodontic treatment are concerned with improving their appearance and social acceptance. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated to the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents. Methods The sample consisted of 403 subjects aged 14 to 18 years, selected randomly from a population of 182,291 schoolchildren in the same age group. The outcome variable "desire for orthodontic treatment" was assessed through a questionnaire. Self-perception of dental aesthetics was assessed using the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI was used for clinical assessment. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test as well as both simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The majority (78% of the Brazilian adolescents desired orthodontic treatment and 69% of the parents reported that their children were not in orthodontic treatment due to the high costs involved. There was significant association (p ≤ 0.05 between the desire for orthodontic treatment and most types of malocclusion. However, there was no significant association between the desire for orthodontic treatment and the variables gender and age. Conclusions The following were considered factors associated to the desire for treatment: upper anterior crowding ≥ 2 mm and parents' perception of their child's need for treatment.

  20. Factors associated with the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background In the period of adolescence physical appearance takes on significant importance in the construction of personal identity, including one's relationship with one's own body. A variety of social, cultural, psychological and personal factors influences the self-perception of dental appearance and the decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Adolescents who seek orthodontic treatment are concerned with improving their appearance and social acceptance. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated to the desire for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents and their parents. Methods The sample consisted of 403 subjects aged 14 to 18 years, selected randomly from a population of 182,291 schoolchildren in the same age group. The outcome variable "desire for orthodontic treatment" was assessed through a questionnaire. Self-perception of dental aesthetics was assessed using the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS) and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was used for clinical assessment. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test as well as both simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The majority (78%) of the Brazilian adolescents desired orthodontic treatment and 69% of the parents reported that their children were not in orthodontic treatment due to the high costs involved. There was significant association (p ≤ 0.05) between the desire for orthodontic treatment and most types of malocclusion. However, there was no significant association between the desire for orthodontic treatment and the variables gender and age. Conclusions The following were considered factors associated to the desire for treatment: upper anterior crowding ≥ 2 mm and parents' perception of their child's need for treatment. PMID:20021649

  1. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  2. Odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubov, A A [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tanaka, Y [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Asano, Y [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tanuma, Y [Institute of Physics, Kanagawa University, 3-7-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan)], E-mail: a.golubov@utwente.nl

    2009-04-22

    We review the theory of odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures, where an odd-frequency pairing component is induced near interfaces. A general description of the superconducting proximity effect in a normal metal or a ferromagnet attached to an unconventional superconductor (S) is given within quasiclassical kinetic theory for various types of symmetry state in S. Various possible symmetry classes in a superconductor are considered which are consistent with the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity (ESE) state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity (ETO) state, odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity (OTE) state and odd-frequency spin-singlet odd-parity (OSO) state. As an example, we consider a junction between a diffusive normal metal (DN) and a p-wave superconductor (even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity symmetry), where the pairing amplitude in DN belongs to an odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity symmetry class. We also discuss the manifestation of odd-frequency pairing in conventional superconductor/normal (S/N) proximity systems and its relation to the classical McMillan-Rowell oscillations.

  3. Factors associated with patient and parent satisfaction after orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Pereira, José Roberto; Dick, Bruce D; Perez, Arnaldo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with orthodontic treatment satisfaction of patients and their caregivers, when applicable. MEDLINE via Ovid, PubMed, EBM Reviews and EMBASE via OVIDSP, LILACS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched electronically. Reference lists of included articles were also screened for potential relevant studies missed during the electronic searches. Studies evaluating the satisfaction levels of patients or caregivers after orthodontic treatment were considered. Methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, representing 2891 patients and 464 parents. The risk of bias was moderate in 13 and low in 4 of the included articles. The studies used different questionnaires and timings to assess postorthodontic treatment satisfaction. Based on the available limited evidence, satisfaction was associated with perceived esthetic outcomes, psychological benefits, and quality of care. The latter was specifically linked to dentist-staff-patient interactions. Dissatisfaction was associated with treatment duration, pain levels and discomfort, and the use of retention appliances. When both assessments were available, the patient's and the parent's satisfaction levels were strongly correlated. Based on the limited available evidence with moderate risk of bias, we identified factors that appear to be more commonly associated with a high or low level of satisfaction. Consideration of these factors could be important for practitioners attempting to set realistic expectations of their patients and caregivers regarding orthodontic treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A systematic review of factors influencing human papillomavirus vaccination among immigrant parents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; LeClaire, Anna-Rae

    2017-11-21

    To critically appraise factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among immigrant parents in the United States, a comprehensive search of electronic databases and reference lists was conducted. The findings from 22 articles were ordered based on a socioecological model. About 30% of children initiated and 14% completed a three-dose series. Correlates of HPV vaccine initiation rates included lack of information, concerns about vaccine safety and promiscuity, providers' recommendations, school mandates, financial issues, immigration laws, and living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Upstream initiatives embracing cultural descriptors could facilitate HPV vaccination, reducing HPV-related disparities in cancer among immigrants in the US.

  5. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Feeding Emotions Scale. A measure of parent emotions in the context of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie; Fisher, Jennifer O; Power, Thomas G; Chen, Tzu-An; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-08-01

    Assessing parent affect is important because studies examining the parent-child dyad have shown that parent affect has a profound impact on parent-child interactions and related outcomes. Although some measures that assess general affect during daily lives exist, to date there are only few tools that assess parent affect in the context of feeding. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure parent affect specific to the feeding context and determine its validity and reliability. A brief instrument consisting of 20 items was developed that specifically asks how parents feel during the feeding process. This brief instrument draws on the structure of a well-validated general affect measure. A total of 296 Hispanic and Black Head Start parents of preschoolers completed the Feeding Emotions Scale along with other parent-report measures as part of a larger study designed to better understand feeding interactions during the dinner meal. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model with independent subscales of positive affect and negative affect (Cronbach's alphas of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). Concurrent and convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the subscales of the Feeding Emotions Scale with positive emotionality and negative emotionality from the Differential Emotions Scale - a measure of general adult emotions. Concurrent and convergent criterion validity was evaluated by testing mean differences in affect across parent feeding styles using ANOVA. A significant difference was found across maternal weight status for positive feeding affect. The resulting validated measure can be used to assess parent affect in studies of feeding to better understand how interactions during feeding may impact the development of child eating behaviors and possibly weight status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental psychosocial factors and childhood caries prevention: Data from an American Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Henderson, William G; Thomas, Jacob F; Braun, Patricia A; Batliner, Terrence S

    2018-04-10

    The objective of this study was to examine the association among psychological and social variables reported by American Indian parents/caregivers of preschool children and changes in their Oral Health Knowledge and Behaviors related to care of their children's teeth. We also investigated the relationship of these factors with progression of caries, as reflected by changes in their children's dmfs. The data used for this study were collected at baseline in a clinical trial of an oral health promotion intervention comprising behavioural and clinical interventions for caries prevention delivered by tribal members on a large Southwestern American Indian reservation. Linear regression analyses were performed for changes (baseline to Year 1) in dmfs, Oral Health Knowledge and Oral Health Behavior scores, with baseline psychosocial measures, taken individually, as the independent variables. Parents' attitudes and beliefs were associated with increases in their Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior and also with the progression of caries for their children. When all participants were considered together, increases in children's dmfs were smaller when the caregiver had higher Internal Oral Health Locus of Control (e = -1.33, P = .004), higher Health Literacy (e = -1.55, P Health Belief Model. For parents in the Intervention group, higher scores on Locus of Control, reflecting beliefs that chance, or other people determine their children's oral health, were associated with larger increases in Oral Health Knowledge (e = 1.73, P = .04) and Behaviors (e = 4.00, P = .005). Prevention of early childhood caries in American Indian children has proved to be especially challenging. Some of the measures identified in this report may suggest promising directions to prevention through approaches that build on competencies and skills to be learned and used within a context more broadly focused on parenting and management of health and family challenges. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A

  7. Viewing movie smoking undermines antismoking parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that viewing depictions of smoking in movies makes adolescents less responsive to parenting factors that prevent smoking. Cross-sectional survey of 4807 students (grades 5-8) through which we ascertained exposure to smoking in movies, parent smoking, and adolescents' perception of parental responsiveness (support), and parental demandingness (behavioral control). Adolescents attending randomly selected middle schools in the Northeastern U.S. ever tried smoking a cigarette. Exposure to movie smoking was ascertained by counting occurrences of tobacco use in 601 recent popular motion pictures; surveying students to identify films they had seen from a random subset of 50 films; and summing tobacco use occurrences for the films each adolescent reported seeing. We also measured adolescents' perceptions of parent smoking, parental responsiveness and demandingness. The overall prevalence of adolescent smoking was 17.4 percent. The prevalence of smoking increased with exposure to movie smoking (low vs. high exposure 8.8 vs. 25.8%, p Parenting factors associated with lower rates of adolescent smoking were parent non smoking status (11.0% vs. 27.7% for parents who smoke, p parental responsiveness (12.4% vs. 23.1% for low parental responsiveness, p Parenting factors were not strongly associated with exposure to movie smoking. For adolescents with low exposure to movie smoking the adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of smoking were 0.31 (0.23, 0.42) if parents did not smoke, 0.57 (0.42, 0.78) if parents exerted high demandingness, and 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) if parents were highly responsive. Parents had significantly less influence for adolescents with high exposure to movie smoking, for whom the adjusted odds of smoking were only 0.50 if parents did not smoke (p = 0.014 for the interaction effect), 0.97 if parents exerted high demandingness (p = 0.007 for the interaction effect) and 0.73 if parents were highly responsive (p = 0.045 for the interaction

  8. Parental factors associated with depression and anxiety in young people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Pilkington, Pamela Doreen; Ryan, Siobhan Mary; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2014-03-01

    There is a burgeoning and varied literature examining the associations between parental factors and depression or anxiety disorders in young people. However, there is hitherto no systematic review of this complex literature with a focus on the 12-18 years age range, when the first onset for these disorders peaks. Furthermore, to facilitate the application of the evidence in prevention, a focus on modifiable factors is required. Employing the PRISMA method, we conducted a systematic review of parental factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders in young people which parents can potentially modify. We identified 181 articles altogether, with 140 examining depression, 17 examining anxiety problems, and 24 examining both outcomes. Stouffer's method of combining p values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable, and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the mean effect sizes of associations between each parental factor and outcome. Limitations include sacrificing micro-level detail for a macro-level synthesis of the literature, not systematically reviewing moderators and mediators, the lack of generalizability across cultures and to younger or adult children, and the inability to conduct a meta-analysis on all included studies. Parental factors with a sound evidence base indicating increased risk for both depression and anxiety include less warmth, more inter-parental conflict, over-involvement, and aversiveness; and for depression additionally, they include less autonomy granting and monitoring. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Examining Parents' Ratings of Middle-School Students' Academic Self-Regulation Using Principal Axis Factoring Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P.; Cleary, Timothy J.; Lui, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the "Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale" ("SRSI-PRS"), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS:…

  10. “Expectant Parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas A Janneke BM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of the infant-parent relationship from the child’s perspective is acknowledged worldwide, there is still a lack of knowledge about predictors and long-term benefits or consequences of the quality of parent-infant relationships from the parent’s perspective. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the quality of parent-infant relationships from parents’ perspectives, both in the prenatal and postpartum period. This study therefore focuses on prenatal (risk factors that may influence the quality of pre- and postnatal bonding, the transition to parenthood, and bonding as a process within families with young children. In contrast to most research concerning pregnancy and infant development, not only the roles and experiences of mothers during pregnancy and the first two years of infants’ lives are studied, but also those of fathers. Methods/design The present study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, in which pregnant women (N = 466 and their partners (N = 319 are followed from 15 weeks gestation until their child is 24 months old. During pregnancy, midwives register the presence of prenatal risk factors and provide obstetric information after the child’s birth. Parental characteristics are investigated using self-report questionnaires at 15, 26, and 36 weeks gestational age and at 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postpartum. At 26 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum, parents are interviewed concerning their representations of the (unborn child. At 6 months postpartum, the mother-child interaction is observed in several situations within the home setting. When children are 4, 6, 12, and 24 months old, parents also completed questionnaires concerning the child’s (social-emotional development and the parent-child relationship. Additionally, at 12 months information about the child’s physical development and well-being during the first year of life is retrieved from

  11. Parent education and biologic factors influence on cognition in sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Allison A.; Strouse, John J.; Rodeghier, Mark J.; Compas, Bruce E.; Casella, James F.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Noetzel, Michael J.; Quinn, Charles T.; Ichord, Rebecca; Dowling, Michael M.; Miller, J. Philip; DeBaun, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia have a high prevalence of silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs) that are associated with decreased full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). While the educational attainment of parents is a known strong predictor of the cognitive development of children in general, the role of parental education in sickle cell anemia along with other factors that adversely affect cognitive function (anemia, cerebral infarcts) is not known. We tested the hypothesis that both the presence of SCI and parental education would impact FSIQ in children with sickle cell anemia. A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in 19 US sites of the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial among children with sickle cell anemia, age 5–15 years. All were screened for SCIs. Participants with and without SCI were administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. A total of 150 participants (107 with and 43 without SCIs) were included in the analysis. In a multivariable linear regression model for FSIQ, the absence of college education for the head of household was associated with a decrease of 6.2 points (P=0.005); presence of SCI with a 5.2 point decrease (P=0.017); each $1000 of family income per capita with a 0.33 point increase (P=0.023); each increase of 1 year in age with a 0.96 point decrease (P=0.023); and each 1% (absolute) decrease in hemoglobin oxygen saturation with 0.75 point decrease (P=0.030). In conclusion, FSIQ in children with sickle cell anemia is best accounted for by a multivariate model that includes both biologic and socioenvironmental factors. PMID:24123128

  12. The odd side of torsion geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of Kähler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is sho...

  13. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  15. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  16. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking

  17. Youth suicide attempts and the dose-response relationship to parental risk factors: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D; Beautrai, A L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk for suic......BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk...... for suicide attempt.MethodWe designed a population-based two-generation nested case-control study and used Danish register data. A population of 403 431 individuals born between 1983 and 1989 was sampled. Among these, 3465 (0.8%) were registered as having had a suicide attempt. Twenty controls were matched...... to each case and a link to the offspring's biological parents was established. RESULTS: There was a dose-response relationship between the number of exposures and the risk of suicide attempts, with the increased risk seeming to be a multiplicative effect. Parental suicide, suicide attempt, psychiatric...

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-12-26

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity.

  19. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  20. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the ...

  1. Do family and parenting factors in adolescence influence condom use in early adulthood in a multiethnic sample of young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A; Kopak, Albert M; Robillard, Alyssa G

    2011-11-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental control/monitoring of adolescent behaviors and parent-child communication about sex, assessed in adolescence, were related to condom use in late adolescence/early adulthood among African American (n = 1,986), Chinese American (n = 163), Mexican American (n = 1,011) and White (n = 6,971) youth. Controlling for demographic variables and number of sex partners, the results showed that family support was positively related and parent-child communication was negatively related to condom use for the sample as a whole and for the white sample, but not for the other groups. Parent-child communication about sex and parental control were negatively related to condom use in the Chinese American sample. None of the family factors was related to condom use in the African American or Mexican American samples. Overall, parents talked more with daughters than sons about sexual matters. Condom use was most common among African Americans and among males. Greater attention to cultural expectations regarding sex and gender roles, as well as the causal ordering of effects, are important directions for future research.

  2. Factor Structure and Convergent Validity of the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (SIPA) in Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadeh, Hana-May; Langberg, Joshua M; Molitor, Stephen J; Behrhorst, Katie; Smith, Zoe R; Evans, Steven W

    2018-02-01

    Parenting stress is common in families with an adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (SIPA) was developed to assess parenting stress but has not been validated outside of the original development work. This study examined the factor structure and sources of convergent validity of the SIPA in a sample of adolescents diagnosed with ADHD ( M age = 12.3, N = 327) and their caregivers. Three first-order models, two bifactor models, and one higher order model were evaluated; none met overall model fit criteria but the first-order nine-factor model displayed the best fit. Convergent validity was also assessed and the SIPA adolescent domain was moderately correlated with measures of family impairment and conflict after accounting for ADHD symptom severity. Implications of these findings for use of the SIPA in ADHD samples are discussed along with directions for future research focused on parent stress and ADHD.

  3. Exploring Helpful Nursing Care in Pediatric Mental Health Settings: The Perceptions of Children with Suicide Risk Factors and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Marjorie; Butler, Kat J D; Stachura, Michal; Pugnaire Gros, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive study explored helpful nursing care from the perspective of children with suicide-associated risk factors, and their parents. Data were collected through participant observation followed by a debriefing session with children, and semi-structured interviews with parents. The inductive analysis revealed four themes of helpful interventions: (1) caring for the child as a special person; (2) caring for the parents; (3) managing the child's illness; and (4) creating a therapeutic environment. The study findings highlight the importance of the relational aspect of nursing care and provide important insights related to family-centered and strengths-based practice with children at increased risk for suicide later in life.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parental Factors in School Children Aged Nine to Ten Years in Muscat, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia S. Al-Ghannami

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and specific parental risk factors that may contribute to the development of ADHD in children. Methods: The study was conducted in Oman among fourth-grade students (aged nine to 10 years. A standardized Arabic version of the National Initiative for Children’s Health Quality Vanderbilt Assessment Scale (Teachers questionnaire was used to determine the presence of ADHD. Parental factors such as socioeconomic status, education, and occupation were documented. Results: The prevalence rate of ADHD was 8.8%. Poor maternal education status, low familial socioeconomic status, and paternal occupation were significantly associated with an increased risk of ADHD. Conclusions: This was the first study that examined familial and parental characteristics of children with ADHD as potential risk factors for the condition. Such psychosocial factors could be employed to further the development of more proficient preventative measures and remedial services.

  5. [The parenting style as protective or risk factor for substance use and other behavior problems among Spanish adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Madrid, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the parental socialization styles as a protective or a risk factor for substance use in a sample of 673 Spanish adolescents (51.7% were women) aged 14-17 (M = 15.49, SD = 1.06). All participants completed the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) and a scale of substance use. Additionally, they also completed a scale of delinquency and another one of school misconduct. A multivariate (4×2×2) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied for substance use, delinquency and school misconduct with parenting style, sex and age. Results from this study showed that indulgent parenting style was a protective factor for substance use whereas authoritarian style was identified as a risk factor. Moreover, results from protective and risk parenting styles on delinquency and school misconduct were consistent with those obtained on substance use. These findings have important implications for the development of family-based substance use prevention programs among Spanish adolescents and other similar cultures where indulgent parenting style is currently displaying a beneficial impact.

  6. Gamma bands in doubly odd rhenium and iridium nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balodis M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure of the |K ± 2| bands in doubly-odd nuclei belonging to the transitional deformation region at A∼190 is discussed. Relation of these quasi gamma-bands with the non-axial deformation of the parent two-quasiparticle configurations is studied. Using available experimental information, new tentative |K ± 2| bands are proposed in 188Re, and 192,194Ir nuclei. Coexistence of two-quasiparticle states with different deformation modes is considered in the case of 188Re and 194Ir.

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Sperm Banking in Adolescents Newly Diagnosed With Cancer: Examination of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Factors Influencing Fertility Preservation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Wang, Fang; Russell, Kathryn M; Zhang, Hui; Flynn, Jessica S; Huang, Lu; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Landier, Wendy; Leonard, Marcia; Albritton, Karen H; Gupta, Abha A; Casillas, Jacqueline; Colte, Paul; Kutteh, William H; Schover, Leslie R

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of sperm banking among adolescent males newly diagnosed with cancer and to identify factors associated with banking outcomes. Patients and Methods A prospective, single-group, observational study design was used to test the contribution of sociodemographic, medical, psychological/health belief, communication, and developmental factors to fertility preservation outcomes. At-risk adolescent males (N = 146; age 13.00 to 21.99 years; Tanner stage ≥ 3), their parents, and medical providers from eight leading pediatric oncology centers across the United States and Canada completed self-report questionnaires within 1 week of treatment initiation. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for specified banking outcomes (collection attempt v no attempt and successful completion of banking v no banking). Results Among adolescents (mean age, 16.49 years; standard deviation, 2.02 years), 53.4% (78 of 146) made a collection attempt, with 43.8% (64 of 146) successfully banking sperm (82.1% of attempters). The overall attempt model revealed adolescent consultation with a fertility specialist (OR, 29.96; 95% CI, 2.48 to 361.41; P = .007), parent recommendation to bank (OR, 12.30; 95% CI, 2.01 to 75.94; P = .007), and higher Tanner stage (OR, 5.42; 95% CI, 1.75 to 16.78; P = .003) were associated with an increased likelihood of a collection attempt. Adolescent history of masturbation (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 1.25 to 28.50; P = .025), banking self-efficacy (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.45; P = .012), and parent (OR, 4.62; 95% CI, 1.46 to 14.73; P = .010) or medical team (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.45 to 12.43; P = .008) recommendation to bank were associated with increased likelihood of sperm banking completion. Conclusion Although findings suggest that banking is underutilized, modifiable adolescent, parent, and provider factors associated with banking outcomes were identified and should be targeted in future

  8. Signature inversion of the semi-decoupled band in the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Yang Chunxiang; Zhou Hongyu; Sun Huibin; Lu Jingbin; Zhao Guangyi; Yin Lichang; Liu Yunzuo

    2001-01-01

    The high-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 170 Ta have been studied by the 155 Gd( 19 F, 4n) 170 Ta reaction at the beam energy of 97 MeV. The α = 1 sequence of the semi-decoupled band has been pushed to higher-spin states and the signature inversion point was observed at 19.5 ℎ. the results are compared with those of the neighbouring odd-odd nuclei

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Patsopoulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ, the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2 and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ. Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy, maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity.

  10. Motivational and Parental Mediation Factors Related to Kenyan Adolescents' Intake of Sexual Radio and TV Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Miller, Ann Neville; Mberia, Hellen K

    2018-06-01

    Research on the influence of media on youths' sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa has focused almost entirely on the effects of multimedia health communication campaigns and edutainment programming. Scholarly literature is nearly silent about the influence of the multiple hours that young people in many sub-Saharan nations spend immersed in increasingly sex-heavy entertainment programming. We surveyed a stratified cluster sample of 437 Nairobi public high school students about motivational and parental mediation factors associated with their exposure to sexual radio and TV content. Watching sexual content in the bedroom predicted higher intake of both sexual radio and TV content. Believing that parents were successful in their efforts to limit media use predicted lower intake of both sexual radio and TV content. A friend/companion motive for watching was associated with taking in higher levels of sexual TV content. For day school students, watching sexual content in the sitting room also predicted higher levels of exposure to sexual TV content.

  11. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  12. Developmental outcomes of toddlers of young Latina mothers: Cultural, family, and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Josefina M; Duran, Petra A; Castellanos, Patricia; Smith, Erin N; Silberman, Stephanie G; Wood, Lauren E

    2015-11-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at risk for poor developmental outcomes. This study is among the first to examine how cultural, family, and parenting factors prospectively predict the cognitive and language development of children of young Latina mothers (N=170; Mage=17.9 years). Mothers were interviewed and observed interacting with their children at 18 months (W1). Children were tested at 18 (W1) and 24 (W2) months. Mothers' cultural orientation (W1) was related to aspects of the childrearing environment (W1), which in turn had implications for the children's development (W2). Specifically, a stronger orientation toward American culture was related to higher mother-reported engagement in parenting by their own mothers (grandmothers), which in turn predicted stronger gains in cognitive and expressive language functioning from W1 to W2. A stronger Latino orientation related to the display of more directiveness and greater mother-reported engagement by the children's biological fathers; directiveness, in turn, predicted fewer gains in cognitive functioning only when father engagement was low and did not predict expressive language development. Finally, mothers' display of more positive affect, a stronger American orientation, and higher grandmother engagement uniquely predicted gains in W2 expressive language functioning. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness: Development and Preliminary Factor Structure of a Self-Report Youth Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marco A; Chen, Diane; Garofalo, Robert; Forbes, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Parental acceptance of gender identity/expression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) youth moderates the effects of minority stress on mental health outcomes. Given this association, mental health clinicians of gender-expansive adolescents often assess the degree to which these youth perceive their parents/primary caregivers as accepting or nonaffirming of their gender identity and expression. While existing measures may reliably assess youth's perceptions of general family support, no known tool aids in the assessment an adolescent's perceived parental support related to adolescent gender-expansive experiences. Methods: To provide both clinicians and researchers with an empirically derived tool, the current study used factor analysis to explore an underlying factor structure of a brief questionnaire developed by subject-matter experts and pertaining to multiple aspects of perceived parental support in gender-expansive adolescents and young adults. Respondents were gender-expansive adolescents and young adults seeking care in an interdisciplinary gender-health clinic within a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Results: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item questionnaire comprised of two subscales assessing perceived parental nonaffirmation and perceived parental acceptance. Internal consistency and construct validity results provided support for this new questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Youth (PAGES-Y). These findings demonstrate both the clinical and research utility of the PAGES-Y, a tool that can yield a more nuanced understanding of family-related risk and protective factors in gender-expansive adolescents.

  14. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  15. Factors Associated with Successful Mentoring of Parents Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abigail Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.

  16. Factors that Predict Parental Willingness to Have Their Children Vaccinated against HPV in a Country with Low HPV Vaccination Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Owsianka, Barbara; Korzeń, Marcin

    2018-03-31

    Background: Adolescent HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) vaccination is yet to be introduced as a mandatory program in Poland. Polish literature on factors associated with adolescent HPV vaccination is scant, despite the fact that uptake is one of the poorest in the European Union. Objectives: To assess HPV awareness and identify independent predictors for parental willingness to have their children vaccinated against HPV. Methods: All parents of first grade students from three selected high schools in Zgorzelec, Poland, who participated in parent-teacher meetings at the time the study was conducted, had their children unvaccinated regarding HPV, and who gave informed consent to participate were included. There were 600 first grade students; 9 were vaccinated against HPV. This left 591 parents who met the eligibility criteria; the response rate was 76.1%. Results: Awareness of HPV was reported by 55.3% of 450 parents (mean age 42 years, 70.9% females); 85.1% expressed their willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV; 31.3% identified HPV as a sexually transmitted pathogen, and 36.2% identified it as a risk factor of cervical cancer. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that being employed (OR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10-3.86), having positive attitudes toward vaccines (OR 3.02; 95% CI: 1.34-6.49), previous information about HPV (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.17-3.51), and concerns about the side effects of the HPV vaccine (OR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.35-0.99) were independent predictors of parents' willingness to vaccinate. Conclusions: Attitudes regarding their child being vaccinated against HPV were positive among Polish parents, even though awareness and knowledge of HPV in this group were low. Most of the significant factors that influenced their willingness were modifiable, such as being informed about HPV and having positive attitudes toward vaccines. Future interventions should focus specifically on vulnerable subgroups, such as unemployed parents.

  17. Long-term impacts of parental migration on Chinese children's psychosocial well-being: mitigating and exacerbating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenyue; Wang, Feng; Li, Leah; Zhou, Xudong; Hesketh, Therese

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged separation from migrant parents raises concerns for the well-being of 60 million left behind children (LBC) in rural China. This study aimed to investigate the impact of current and previous parental migration on child psychosocial well-being, with a focus on emotional and behavioral outcomes, while considering factors in family care and support. Children were recruited from schools in migrant-sending rural areas in Zhejiang and Guizhou provinces by random stratified sampling. A self-administered questionnaire measured children's psychosocial well-being, demographics, household characteristics, and social support. Multiple linear regression models examined the effects of parental migration and other factors on psychosocial difficulties. Data from 1930 current, 907 previous, and 701 never LBC were included (mean age 12.4, SD 2.1). Adjusted models showed both previous and current parental migration was associated with significantly higher overall psychosocial difficulties, involving aspects of emotion, conduct, peer relationships, hyperactivity, and pro-social behaviors. Parental divorce and lack of available support demonstrated a strong association with greater total difficulties. While children in Guizhou had much worse psychosocial outcomes than those in Zhejiang, adjusted subgroup analysis showed similar magnitude of between-province disparities regardless of parental migration status. However, having divorced parents and lack of support were greater psychosocial risk factors for current and previous-LBC than for never LBC. Parental migration has an independent, long-lasting adverse effect on children. Psychosocial well-being of LBC depends more on the relationship bonds between nuclear family members and the availability of support, rather than socioeconomic status.

  18. The effects of maternal psychosocial factors on parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M; Hall, L A

    1998-01-01

    Although recent evidence implies linkages among depression or depressive symptoms, self-esteem, history of childhood abuse, and parenting attitudes, the evidence does not clearly elucidate the relationships among these variables. To investigate the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors (history of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms) and parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers who have young children. Secondary analyses of data from in-home interviews with 206 low-income, single mothers from a southeastern United States urban area were conducted. A variety of scales, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), were used to measure maternal psychosocial factors. Using the AAPI, a Modified Parenting Attitudes Measure (MPAM), and subscales, a three-stage regression procedure was used to test the model. For stages 1 and 2, everyday stressors were the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Childhood sexual abuse, everyday stressors, low self-esteem, and control variables accounted for 58% of variance in depressive symptoms. In the third stage for the AAPI, only control variables were retained except in the Lack of Empathy subscale, where depressive symptoms and control variables accounted for 16% of the variance. The third stage for the MPAM yielded, by subscale: Only control variables predicted Corporal Punishment Beliefs; depressive symptoms were the strongest predictor for the total MPAM (19% of variance) and of the Inappropriate Emotional Expectations subscale (17%); and childhood physical abuse was the only predictor of Role Reversal. Depressive symptoms mediated the effects of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, and self-esteem and provided the linkage between these variables and at-risk parenting attitudes. Self-esteem decreased as everyday stressors increased but did not directly affect parenting attitudes. A relationship was not found between childhood abuse and low self-esteem. This study

  19. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  20. Attitude and flexibility are the most important work place factors for working parents' mental wellbeing, stress, and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Frida; Axmon, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The need to combine active employment and parenthood is a reality for many parents today. Knowing more about which work place factors are associated with better or worse health could help employers to form a work environment that provides optimal conditions to maintain or increase health and work engagement in this group. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between different subjective and objective work factors and benefits, and a range of outcome variables such as stress, symptom report, wellbeing, work-related fatigue, work engagement, and work-family conflict among working mothers and fathers with small children. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between work place factors categorised into three different dimensions; flexibility, benefits, and attitude and the outcome measures were performed, including questionnaire responses from 1562 working parents. The results showed that work place factors related to flexibility and, especially among women, attitude to parenthood appear to have the strongest effect on working parents' subjective stress and wellbeing, while benefits appear to have less impact. Except regarding factors related to attitudes at the work place, most associations were similar among men and women. Most likely, different factors are better suited or more important for some individuals than others depending on their total work, as well as family situation and also depending on individual factors such as personality and priorities. A positive attitude towards parenthood and a flexible work situation seem, however, beneficial for the general wellbeing and work engagement among working parents.

  1. Making time for family meals: Parental influences, home eating environments, barriers and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L

    2018-04-06

    Frequent family mealtimes have been associated with numerous positive dietary, health, and behavioral outcomes for children and families. This review article summarizes some of the beneficial outcomes associated with having frequent family dinners. Current trends in family dinner frequency are discussed in the context of barriers that influence how often families eat dinner together, including time issues, work issues, and distractions in the home environment. Next, several parental influences and home environment factors that promote healthy and consistent family dinners are outlined. Finally, limitations are discussed and a few practical suggestions are mentioned to help encourage families, employers, and policy-makers to make family mealtimes a regular practice for as many families as possible. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Factors Affecting Parent-Adolescent Discussion on Reproductive Health Issues in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Open family discussion on reproductive health (RH issues often leads to increased awareness on RH matters and reduces risky behaviors among adolescents. This study was conducted to assess factors affecting parent-adolescent discussion on RH issues in Harar, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using face to face interview supplemented with focus group discussion (FGD was conducted on 751 randomly selected parents of 10–19-year-old adolescents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results. More than one-fourth (28.76% of parents reported discussing RH issues with their adolescents during the last six months. In the logistic regression, parents who have demonstrated good RH knowledge and positive attitude towards RH were almost six times and seventy percent (AOR 5.69, 95% CI: 3.67–8.82; AOR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08–2.68 higher in discussing RH with their adolescents than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Parent-adolescent discussion about RH issues rarely occurs and is bounded by lack of knowledge, sociocultural norms, and parental concern that discussion would encourage premarital sex. Reproductive health programs should target on improving awareness of parents and addressing sociocultural norms surrounding reproductive health issues.

  3. Association between parental socio-demographic factors and declined linear growth of young children in Jakarta

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    Hartono Gunardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, approximately 35.5% of children under five years old were stunted. Stunting is related to shorter adult stature, poor cognition and educational performance, low adult wages, lost productivity, and higher risk of nutrition-related chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify parental socio-demographic risk factors of declined linear growth in children younger than 2 years old.Methods: This was a cohort-prospective study between August 2012 and May 2014 at three primary community health care centers (Puskesmas in Jakarta, Indonesia, namely Puskesmas Jatinegara, Mampang, and Tebet. Subjects were healthy children under 2 years old, in which their weight and height were measured serially (at 6–11 weeks old and 18–24 months old. The length-for-age based on those data was used to determine stature status. The serial measurement was done to detect growth pattern. Parental socio-demographic data were obtained from questionnairesResults: From the total of 160 subjects, 14 (8.7% showed declined growth pattern from normal to stunted and 10 (6.2% to severely stunted. As many as 134 (83.8% subjects showed consistent normal growth pattern. Only 2 (1.2% showed improvement in the linear growth. Maternal education duration less than 9 years (RR=2.60, 95% CI=1.23–5.46; p=0.02 showed statistically significant association with declined linear growth in children.Conclusion: Mother with education duration less than 9 years was the determining socio-demographic risk factor that contributed to the declined linear growth in children less than 2 years of age.

  4. Correlates of Chilean Adolescents’ Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking. PMID:22157230

  5. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale: two-factor model and association with adult depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2007-06-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression. 664 respondents from the general population (48% men, mean age 54.6+/-14.2 years) completed the RRP(10), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Beck Depression Inventory. The Alienation and Control dimensions of the RRP(10) displayed a sound factor structure, good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.83-0.86), and convergent validity against the PBI scales. No significant gender differences were found on the RRP(10) scales. Stratifying by RRP(10) dimensions showed that respondents high in Alienation and Control, for both father (33.3% vs. 14.5%, pparental Alienation and Control. High Alienation and Control were independently related to increased risk of depressive symptoms. Given the brevity of the RRP(10), it can easily be used in epidemiological/clinical research on the link between the remembered relationship with parents and mental/physical health.

  6. Correlates of chilean adolescents' negative attitudes toward cigarettes: the role of gender, peer, parental, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls' but not boys' attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth's attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking.

  7. Parental Attitudes and Factors Associated With Varicella Vaccination in Preschool and Schoolchildren in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson W S; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K H; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K S; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E Anthony S

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program.Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of families, children's history of chickenpox infection and vaccination, and reasons for getting children vaccinated. Logistic regression was applied to examine the factors associated with vaccination.From the 3484 completed questionnaires, the calculated rates of varicella infection and vaccination were 20.7% and 69.0%, respectively. Barriers to vaccination included parental uncertainties about vaccine effectiveness, lack of recommendation from the government, and concerns on adverse effects. Overall, 71.8%, 69.0%, and 45.7% of the parents rated family doctors, specialists, and the government, respectively, as very important motivators of vaccination. Higher parental educational level and family income, better perceived knowledge of varicella and chance of infection, discussion with a family doctor, and positive health belief towards vaccination were associated with vaccination (all P vaccination in Hong Kong was higher than that of some other countries that also did not include the vaccine in their routine immunization programs. More positive parental attitudes, higher socioeconomic status, and discussion with a family doctor are associated with greater vaccination rates. The important roles that health professionals and the government play in promoting varicella vaccination were emphasized.

  8. Viewing Generativity and Social Capital as Underlying Factors of Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sharon; Patel, Nimisha

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement in education is a multifaceted support that has many well-documented benefits for students of all ages. Parent involvement is also a common expression of generativity as defined in Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. The activities parents engage in during their children's educational pursuits, as well as their…

  9. Parental factors and sexual risk-taking among young people in C& ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings suggest that parental monitoring and control are important predictors of youth sexual behaviours and underscore the need to target parents and guardians in efforts to promote responsible sexual behaviours among adolescents. It is important to promote parent-child communication about sexual issues and ...

  10. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  11. Factors Related to Parents' Choices of Treatments for Their Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.; Butter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The history of autism treatment has been plagued with fad therapies which waste parents' and children's time, energy, and money. To determine if referral sources, such as professionals' recommendations, media, or scholarly sources, have influenced parents' treatment decisions, parents of at least one child with an autism spectrum disorder (N =…

  12. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ellen K; Koo, Helen P

    2010-12-14

    In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters), we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1) parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2) factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes). Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers) talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and identifies gender differences in

  13. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Helen P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent

  14. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Associated with Parental Communication with Young People about Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, Abubakar; Kotoh, Agnes M.; Asante, Rexford Kofi Oduro; Ankomah, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Available studies on parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in Ghana have largely focused on assessing communication frequency, barriers, and who communicates with whom within the family. The purpose of this paper is to examine parental and family contextual factors that predict parental communication with young…

  16. Factors associated with posttraumatic growth among parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Nao; Mori, Naoko; Ishimaru, Sae; Ohyama, Wataru; Yuza, Yuki; Kaneko, Takashi; Kanda, Eiichiro; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2017-09-01

    Parents of children with cancer are susceptible to psychological distress; however, many parents also report posttraumatic growth (PTG). The objective of this study was to explore the variables associated with PTG in parents of children with cancer who were either on treatment or off treatment. One hundred and nineteen parents (71 mothers and 48 fathers) of children with cancer completed self-report questionnaires, including the PTG Inventory, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Demographic data and children's medical information were also collected. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the variables associated with PTG. The mean age of participants was 41.4 years (SD = 6). Higher PTG Inventory scores were associated with parents' lower trait anxiety (P = .028), parents' sex (female; P = .004), treatment status (within 12 months from treatment end compared with on-treatment; P = .048), surgery (P = .007), and late effects (P = .01). Parents' PTG was associated with children's clinical characteristics, parents' sex, and parents' anxiety levels. When dealing with PTG, the parents' psychological characteristics and children's clinical characteristics should be considered. Particularly for parents with high trait anxiety, it is important to reduce anxiety first before addressing PTG. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, A. A.; Tanaka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Asano, Y.

    2007-03-01

    We present a general theory of the proximity effect in junctions between unconventional superconductors and diffusive normal metals (DN) or ferromagnets (DF). We consider all possible symmetry classes in a superconductor allowed by the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity state, odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity state and odd-frequency spin-singlet odd-parity state. For each of the above states, symmetry and spectral properties of the induced pair amplitude in the DN (DF) are determined. The cases of junctions with spin-singlet s- and d-wave superconductors and spin-triplet p-wave superconductors are adressed in detail. We discuss the interplay between the proximity effect and midgap Andreev bound states arising at interfaces in unconventional (d- or p-wave) junctions. The most striking property is the odd-frequency symmetry of the pairing amplitude induced in DN (DF) in contacts with p-wave superconductors. This leads to zero-energy singularity in the density of states and to anomalous screening of an external magnetic field. Peculiarities of Josephson effect in d- or p-wave junctions are discussed. Experiments are suggested to detect an order parameter symmetry using heterostructures with unconventional superconductors.

  18. Behavioral and Pharmacological Adherence in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Parent-Child Agreement and Family Factors Associated With Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Page H; Carmody, Julia K; Belkin, Mary H; Janicke, David M

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate agreement between children and parents on a measure of behavioral and pharmacological adherence in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), and the associations among family factors (i.e., problem-solving skills, routines, communication) and adherence behaviors. In all, 85 children (aged 8-18 years) with SCD and their parents completed questionnaires assessing individual and family factors. Overall parent-child agreement on an adherence measure was poor, particularly for boys and older children. Greater use of child routines was associated with better overall child-reported adherence. Open family communication was associated with higher overall parent-reported adherence. While further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn, results suggest the need to assess child adherence behaviors via both child and parent reports. Findings also suggest that more daily family routines and open family communication may be protective factors for better disease management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Socioeconomic status and oppositional defiant disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Louwaars, Leonie; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children's executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors. The sample included 622 three-year-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed. Structural Equation Modeling showed that the associations between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels differed by children's gender: (a) for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was partially mediated by difficulties in EF inhibition, and parenting practices defined by corporal punishment and inconsistent discipline obtained a quasi-significant indirect effect into the association between SES and ODD; (b) for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control) had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation. SES seems a good indicator to identify children at high-risk for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  1. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed that children’s gender achieved a moderating role into the pathways valuing the underlying process between SES, EF, parenting style and ODD levels: a for girls, the association of low SES and high ODD scores was mediated by parenting practices (punishment and inconsistent discipline and by difficulties in EF inhibition, and a direct predictive effect on ODD level was achieved for SES, punishment and inconsistence in rearing style and inhibition; b for boys, SES and EF (inhibition and emotional control had a direct effect on ODD with no mediation.Conclusion. SES seems a good indicator to identify at high-risk children for prevention and intervention programs for ODD. Girls with ODD in families of low SES may particularly benefit from parent training practices and training in inhibition control.

  2. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  3. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  4. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.

  5. Factors Associated with Parental Satisfaction with a Pediatric Crisis Clinic (PCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan; Korczak, Daphne

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about parental satisfaction with pediatric crisis clinics (PCCs) that provide a single consultation to families in need of urgent psychiatric care. Parental satisfaction may improve long-term adherence to physician recommendations. To explore parental satisfaction with a PCC. Parental satisfaction was ascertained by a structured telephone interview following crisis consultation at the PCC of an academic, tertiary care centre. Parents of 71% (n = 124) of 174 pediatric patients seen in the PCC from 2007-2008 participated in the post-consultation interview. The majority of parents stated they were either somewhat satisfied (49/122, 40.2%) or very satisfied (49/122, 40.2%) with the PCC. Parental satisfaction correlated with time between referral and consultation (p<0.05), the degree to which parents felt listened to by the consultant (p<0.01), the amount of psychoeducation parents felt they received (p<0.01), and appointment length (p<0.001). Parents were satisfied overall with an urgent care service model. Satisfaction was correlated with the time between referral and consultation, degree to which they felt their consultant had listened to them, and the amount of information they received at the consultation's conclusion.

  6. Development and analysis of the factor structure of parents' internalized stigma of neurodevelopmental disorder in child scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, frequently face public stigma which is often internalized and leads to psychological burden. However, there is a lack of data on the perceptions of internalized stigma among parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially from lower-middle-income countries like India. Aims: This study aims to develop an adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale for use in parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders and to explore the factor structure of this instrument through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient setting in a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition were recruited for the study after screening for psychiatric disorder using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 6.0. A modified 16-item scale was constructed Parents' Internalized Stigma of Neurodevelopmental Disorder in Child (PISNC scale and applied on 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, after translation to Hindi and back-translation, in keeping with the World Health Organization's translation-back-translation methodology. Statistical Analysis: EFA was carried out using principal component analysis with orthogonal (varimax rotation. Internal consistency of the Hindi version of the scale was estimated in the form of Cronbach's alpha. Spearman–Brown coefficient and Guttman split-half coefficient were calculated to evaluate the split-half reliability. Results: The initial factor analysis yielded three-factor models with an eigenvalue of >1 and the total variance explained by these factors was 62.017%. The internal consistency of the 16-item scale was 0

  7. Childhood Anxiety in a Diverse Primary Care Population: Parent-Child Reports, Ethnicity and SCARED Factor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Frances J.; Berg, Eric A.; Heiden, Lynda A.; Kinnamon, Carolyn J.; Ohlson, Lirio A.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Bernal, M. Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore in a multiethnic primary care population the impact of child gender and of race/ethnicity on parent and child reports of school-age anxiety and on the factor structure of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Method: A consecutive sample of 515 children (8 to less than 13 years) and their…

  8. Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Five Years by Child and Parental Factors in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Luoma, Ilona; Latva, Reija; Salmelin, Raili K.; Tamminen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study examined child and parental factors in infancy and toddlerhood predicting subclinical or clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years of age. Ninety-six children and their families participated. They were assessed when the children were 4-10 weeks old (T1), 2 years (T2) and 5 years old (T3). Child risks…

  9. Influence of Exogenous Factors on Genomic Imprinting. 2. Effect of Bad Habits of Parents on Genomic Imprinting of the Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research data, which suggest that alcohol abuse and smoking of parents have an adverse effect on fetal development and the health of the child. These factors disrupt the processes of DNA methylation of imprinted genes, causing an increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, and of pathological abnormalities in fetal neurogenesis.

  10. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  11. Influence of parental factors on adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse in Nairobi, Kenya: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Kabiru, Caroline W; Mumah, Joyce N; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien

    2015-08-21

    Several studies have demonstrated a link between young people's sexual behavior and levels of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parental discipline in Western countries. However, little is known about this association in African settings, especially among young people living in high poverty settings such as urban slums. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of parental factors (monitoring, communication, and discipline) on the transition to first sexual intercourse among unmarried adolescents living in urban slums in Kenya. Longitudinal data collected from young people living in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya were used. The sample was restricted to unmarried adolescents aged 12-19 years at Wave 1 (weighted n = 1927). Parental factors at Wave 1 were used to predict adolescents' transition to first sexual intercourse by Wave 2. Relevant covariates including the adolescents' age, sex, residence, school enrollment, religiosity, delinquency, and peer models for risk behavior were controlled for. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of interest. All analyses were conducted using Stata version 13. Approximately 6% of our sample transitioned to first sexual intercourse within the one-year study period; there was no sex difference in the transition rate. In the multivariate analyses, male adolescents who reported communication with their mothers were less likely to transition to first sexual intercourse compared to those who did not (p impacts on delaying sexual debut, and possibly reducing sexual risk behaviors, among young people in high-risk settings such as slums.

  12. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHARZEEV, D.; PISARSKI, R.D.; TYTGAT, M.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N r a rrow ∞. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T d , is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero θ--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T d . Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the ηprime meson, and especially the η meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as η r a rrow π 0 π 0 , are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define

  13. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  14. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  15. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  16. Predicting Parent-Child Aggression Risk: Cognitive Factors and Their Interaction With Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2018-02-01

    Several cognitive elements have previously been proposed to elevate risk for physical child abuse. To predict parent-child aggression risk, the current study evaluated the role of approval of parent-child aggression, perceptions of children as poorly behaved, and discipline attributions. Several dimensions of attributions specifically tied to parents' discipline practices were targeted. In addition, anger experienced during discipline episodes was considered a potential moderator of these cognitive processes. Using a largely multiple-indicator approach, a sample of 110 mothers reported on these cognitive and affective aspects that may occur when disciplining their children as well as responding to measures of parent-child aggression risk. Findings suggest that greater approval of parent-child aggression, negative perceptions of their child's behavior, and discipline attributions independently predicted parent-child aggression risk, with anger significantly interacting with mothers' perception of their child as more poorly behaved to exacerbate their parent-child aggression risk. Of the discipline attribution dimensions evaluated, mothers' sense of external locus of control and believing their child deserved their discipline were related to increase parent-child aggression risk. Future work is encouraged to comprehensively evaluate how cognitive and affective components contribute and interact to increase risk for parent-child aggression.

  17. Overweight, obesity, high blood pressure and lifestyle factors among Mexican children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Colín-Ramírez, Eloisa; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify associations in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and high blood pressure between children and their parents, as well as their eating and physical patterns. In this cross-sectional study, we obtained data on 83 pairs of school-aged children and one of their parents relating to dietary habits and various physical parameters, including the body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure of the children, which were adjusted by age and gender. Both the children and the parents were asked to complete a questionnaire aimed at providing measures of eating behavior. The questions focused on the consumption of fruit and vegetables and soda drinks as well as on physical activity patterns. Parent BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight values. Obesity was diagnosed in 10.8% of the children, and the prevalence of overweight was 28.9%. There was a relationship between a child's weight status and that of his/her parent according to the BMI; 45% of overweight/obese children had overweight/obese parents. In addition, a parent's fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with his/her child's fruit and vegetable consumption (r = 0.47, p parents and children (r = 0.30, p children and those of their parents.

  18. Physical activity and parents of very young children: The role of beliefs and social-cognitive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Eloise; White, Katherine; Hamilton, Kyra

    2018-05-14

    Despite the unequivocal benefits of regular physical activity, many parents engage in lower levels of physical activity (PA) following the birth of a child. Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health action process approach (HAPA), an integrative model was developed to examine variables predicting PA in parents of very young children. In addition, key beliefs related to PA intentions and behaviour among parents of very young children were investigated. A prospective-correlational design with two waves of data collection, spaced one week apart, was adopted. Parents (N = 297) completed an online- or paper-based questionnaire assessing TPB global constructs and belief-based items as well as family social support and planning from the HAPA. One week later, parents self-reported their PA behaviour. Data were analysed using latent variable structural equation modelling. Findings revealed the model was a good fit to the data, accounting for 62% and 27% of the variance in PA intentions and behaviour, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. Family social support failed to predict both planning and intentions. Physical activity was predicted by planning only, with an indirect effect occurring from intentions to behaviour through planning. A number of key beliefs on intentions and behaviour were also identified. This formative research provides further understanding of the factors that influence the PA behaviour of parents of very young children. Results provide targets for future interventions to increase PA for parents in a transition phase where PA levels decline. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Despite physical activity benefits, many parents are inactive following the birth of a child Social-cognitive models have demonstrated efficacy in predicting physical activity Weaknesses are inherent in the use of single theories to explain behaviour What does this study

  19. Parent and family stress factors predict health-related quality in pediatric patients with new-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Follansbee-Junger, Katherine; Rausch, Joseph; Modi, Avani

    2014-06-01

    To examine the influence of parent and family general and epilepsy-related stress on longitudinal generic and epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for children with new-onset epilepsy, while controlling for demographic characteristics, disease factors, and antiepileptic drug (AED) adherence. This prospective, longitudinal study included 124 children with new-onset epilepsy (mean age 7.2 years, standard deviation [SD] 2.9 years). Parents completed questionnaires on parenting stress, perceived stigma, fears and concerns, and HRQOL at 1, 13, and 25 months after diagnosis. Adherence to AEDs was assessed using electronic monitors. A medical chart review was conducted at each visit to obtain seizure and side effect data. Higher levels of general and epilepsy-specific parent and family stress, fears and concerns, and perceived stigma negatively affected child generic and epilepsy-specific HRQOL, above and beyond disease and demographic factors. General parenting and family stress affected child generic and epilepsy-specific HRQOL more in the first year of disease management than at 2 years after diagnosis. Higher fears and concerns predicted higher epilepsy-specific HRQOL at 13 months postdiagnosis, whereas 2 years postdiagnosis, higher fears and concerns predicted lower epilepsy-specific HRQOL. Several demographic (i.e., age) and disease-related variables (i.e., side effects and AED adherence) influenced child generic and epilepsy-specific HRQOL. Although some findings were consistent across generic and epilepsy-specific HRQOL measures, others were unique. Modifiable parent factors (i.e., general and disease-specific parent and family stress, perceived stigma) impact HRQOL for children with new-onset epilepsy differently over the first 2 years postdiagnosis. Psychosocial interventions to improve HRQOL within the first year postdiagnosis should address parenting and family stress, overall coping, and anticipatory guidance on managing epilepsy

  20. Preschooler obesity and parenting styles of mothers and fathers: Australian national population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Hardy, Pollyanna; Smith, Katherine

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine relationships between BMI status at ages 4 to 5 years and mothers' and fathers' parenting dimensions and parenting styles. Participants were composed of all 4983 of the 4- to 5-year-old children in wave 1 of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children with complete BMI and maternal parenting data. Mothers and fathers self-reported their parenting behaviors on 3 multi-item continuous scales (warmth, control, and irritability) and were each categorized as having 1 of 4 parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged) using internal warmth and control tertile cut points. Using a proportional odds model, odds ratios for children being in a higher BMI category were computed for mothers and fathers separately and together, after adjustment for factors associated with child BMI, including mothers' and fathers' BMI status. The sample was composed of 2537 boys and 2446 girls with a mean age 56.9 months; 15% were overweight and 5% were obese (International Obesity Task Force criteria). Mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were not associated in any model with higher odds of children being in a heavier BMI category, with or without multiple imputation to account for missing maternal BMI data. Higher father control scores were associated with lower odds of the child being in a higher BMI category. Compared with the reference authoritative style, children of fathers with permissive and disengaged parenting styles had higher odds of being in a higher BMI category. This article is the first, to our knowledge, to examine the parenting of both parents in relation to preschoolers' BMI status while also adjusting for parental BMI status. Fathers' but not mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were associated with increased risks of preschooler overweight and obesity. Longitudinal impacts of parenting on BMI gain remain to be determined.

  1. Measurement Invariance Testing of a Three-Factor Model of Parental Warmth, Psychological Control, and Knowledge across European and Asian/Pacific Islander American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.

  2. Parenting Styles: A Key Factor to Self Determination and Personal Growth of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Manika Arbab; Sultan, Sarwat

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the impact of parenting styles of adolescents on their self-determination and personal growth. The data was collected from 300 adults evenly divided by gender, aged 23-38 years. To measure the parenting styles, level of self-determination and personal growth, the Caregivers Practices Report, Self Determination…

  3. Understanding Teachers' Perspectives of Factors That Influence Parental Involvement Practices in Special Education in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Stacey; Mahon, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Parental involvement has been defined in various ways by researchers and is reported to have many advantages for children's education. The research utilises a case study strategy to investigate teachers' perspectives of parental involvement at four case sites in Barbados. In-depth interviews were done with teachers and analysis utilised content…

  4. The Impact of Childrens' Divorce on Parents: And Some Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Ralph; Kaslow, Florence

    1985-01-01

    Considers the impact of an adult child's divorce on his or her parents. Within the context of a cybernetic circular systems model of conceptualization about family relations, it is posited that older parents' reactions impact upon their childrens' post-divorce readjustment. (Author/NRB)

  5. Parenting styles as a tobacco-use protective factor among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondowski, Cláudia S; Bedendo, André; Zuquetto, Carla; Locatelli, Danilo P; Opaleye, Emérita S; Noto, Ana R

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco use (previous month and frequent use), parenting styles and parental smoking behavior in a sample of high school students. Participants were recruited from public and private high schools from 27 Brazilian state capitals (N = 17,246). The overall prevalence of tobacco use in life was 25.2%; 15.3% in the previous year; 8.6% in the previous month; and 3.2% for frequent use. Tobacco use by the parents was reported by 28.6% of the students. Regarding parenting styles, 39.2% were classified as negligent, 33.3% authoritative, 15.6% as indulgent and 11.9% authoritarian. Compared to adolescents with authoritative parents, those with negligent or indulgent parents were more prone to report tobacco use during the last month or frequent use. This study showed an association between parenting styles and tobacco use by high school students. Authoritative parents were associated with protection from frequent and previous month tobacco use among adolescents.

  6. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  7. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: the mediating role of individual and social factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  8. Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether the associations between adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing problem behavior of adolescents were mediated by adolescent cognitive distortions, self-esteem, parental monitoring and association with deviant peers. A total of 102 adolescents (71 %

  9. Parent and Child Psychological Factors in Pediatric Syncope and Other Somatic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Ronald L.; Morris, Julie A. B.; Cheng, Patricia S.; Campbell, Robert M.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined associations among parental and child adjustment, child syncope, somatic, and school problems. Participants were children (N = 56) ages 7-18 years with syncope. Measures included syncope severity, parental distress, and children's internalizing symptoms. For children diagnosed negative for neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), their…

  10. Parental Factors in Children's Motivation for Learning English: A Case in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    Schools in China and elsewhere are starting to teach English as a second language or foreign language (FL) to students at increasingly earlier ages. Although young learners (YLs), due to their developmental stage, are likely to be particularly susceptible to the influence of parents, parents' roles in YLs' motivation to learn English as an FL is…

  11. Cross-National Study on Factors That Influence Parents' Knowledge about Their Children's Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Hermida, Jose-Ramon; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Juan, Montse; Sumnall, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that parents underestimate their children's substance use. The aim of the present work was to analyze parental estimation of their children's use of alcohol in five countries from northern, central, and southern Europe, and to explore the variables that influenced this perceptual bias. The sample comprised 1,181…

  12. Factors Affecting Parental Decision-Making Regarding Interventions for Their Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus

    2014-01-01

    Due to the numerous interventions available for children with autism, parents are faced with challenging decisions regarding treatments from the time of diagnosis and throughout their child's life. This exploratory qualitative study investigated the reasons behind parents' decisions about interventions for their child with autism. In-depth…

  13. Gamow-Teller decay of T = 1 nuclei to odd-odd N = Z nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisetskiy, A F [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Gelberg, A [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Institute of Physical and Chemical Reasearch (RIKEN), Wako, 351-0198 (Japan); Brentano, P von [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Transition strengths of Gamow-Teller decay of T{sub z} = {+-}1 nuclei to N = Z odd-odd nuclei have been calculated in a two-nucleon approximation for spherical and deformed nuclei. The results obtained for the latter are quite close to the values obtained by full-space shell-model calculations and to the experiment.

  14. Posttraumatic stress, partner violence victimization, and harmful drinking: risk factors for relationship discord in new parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotskova, Alina; Woodin, Erica M

    2013-11-01

    The first year of parenthood can be a stressful time, especially for high-risk couples. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) have been associated with decreased intimacy, communication, and relationship adjustment, yet there is a lack of research on how PTS symptoms might affect couples in early parenthood. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the way in which PTS symptoms may affect couples above and beyond known risk factors such as intimate partner violence (IPV) and harmful alcohol use. The current study investigated how PTS symptoms were related to new parents' relationship satisfaction in the context of IPV and harmful drinking. Ninety-eight heterosexual couples filled out questionnaires 1 year after the birth of their first child. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that, for men, PTS symptoms predicted lower relationship satisfaction over and above IPV victimization and harmful drinking. However, for women, psychological IPV victimization was the only significant multivariate predictor. In addition, for men, PTS symptoms interacted with harmful drinking to predict poorer relationship satisfaction. The results suggest that women's relationship satisfaction is particularly linked to psychological IPV victimization during early parenthood, whereas men's relationship satisfaction is particularly associated with their own harmful drinking and PTS symptoms. Implications are discussed.

  15. Risks and Protective Factors for Stress Self-Management in Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Integrated Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonis, Susan A; Sawin, Kathleen J

    Stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been reported to be very high. However, little is known about what risk and protective factors influence parental stress self-management in this population. Accordingly, this manuscript is a synthesis of the risk and protective factors that impact self-management of stress in these parents. The concepts in the individual and family self-management theory context domain were used as a framework to guide data collection and analysis. Searches were conducted using CINAHL, MedLine and PsychInfo. Studies were included if they addressed context factors in parents of children with ASD and were written in English. Ninety-eight studies met review criteria. This review highlighted risk factors to parental stress self-management within the context of condition-specific factors, physical and social environment, and individual and family. The most concerning of these findings is that parents struggle accessing a diagnosis and services for their child and are frustrated with health care providers' knowledge of ASD and lack of communication. The risks parents experience as they care for their child with ASD far outweigh the protective factors for self-management of parental stress. Nurses who are aware of these issues can make important changes to their practice and have a significant impact on parental stress self-management and the care of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intergenerational Transmission of Family Factors: Parenting Styles, Attachment Styles & Family Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    میرمحمدباقر آزادموسوی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the relationship between parental styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, attachment styles (secure, avoidant and ambivalent & family climate (hot and cold of two generations. Subjects were 220 (110 boy students of third class of secondary schools of two districts of Qazvin, and 110 parents who were selected via cluster sampling. In this study, Schaffer,s parenting questionnaires styles (Naqashian, 1358 and Collins and Read,s attachment (Collins & Read, 1990 were used as measures for collecting required data. Analyzes were carried out using simple linear regression, pearson correlation and chi-square. Results revealed that parenting styles, attachment styles and family climate of parents, predict same variables in children as second generation.

  17. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  18. Factors influencing parenting efficacy of Asian immigrant, first-time mothers: A cross-sectional, correlational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eun Ha; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, Somi; Song, Ju-Eun

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we determined the factors influencing parenting efficacy of Asian immigrant, first-time mothers. The research design was a cross-sectional, correlational study. The study included 125 first-time mothers who immigrated and married Korean men, and were living in Korea. Data were collected using translated questionnaires, and analyzed for descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The major finding was that the parenting efficacy of immigrant women was influenced by childcare support from their husbands, maternal identity, and original nationality. The findings suggest that customized programs be developed and used to enhance parenting efficacy for Asian immigrant, first-time mothers. In developing such programs, the advantages of maternal identity, social support from the husband, and women's cultural context should be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Preschoolers’ Genetic, Physiological, and Behavioral Sensitivity Factors Moderate Links Between Parenting Stress and Child Internalizing, Externalizing, and Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers’ adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism - the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator - children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator - mothers’ reports of children’s negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage = 30.68 years, SDage = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers’ (Mage = 3.50 years, SDage = .51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. PMID:28295263

  20. Odd-parity baryons: progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The odd-parity baryons have provided a graveyard for many cherished ideas about hadrons. The simple quark shell model, with QCD-inspired phenomenological perturbations, is the only model able to describe the states with even partial qualitative success. There are also important unexplained residual dynamical effects. Resonance decays can be accounted for, provided the usual spectator model is abandoned. Better experimental data could help to sort out the many remaining puzzles

  1. Protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol and drug use disorders: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Wlodarczyk

    Full Text Available Children of parents with drug and alcohol use disorders often grow up under severe stress and are at greater risk of developing psychological and social problems. However, a substantial proportion of affected children adapt to their distressing life conditions and show positive development in terms of their mental health. These children are described as resilient. One difference between resilient and maladapted children is the presence of protective factors. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the current state of the research concerning protective mental health factors in children of parents with alcohol or drug use disorders (COPAD. For that purpose, the PsychInfo, PubMed, CINAHL and ISI Web of Science databases were searched through January 2017. All the identified publications were screened using previously developed inclusion criteria. The search yielded 3,402 articles. Eleven of these publications (2003-2013 met the criteria for inclusion in the present review. Information on the studies was extracted using an extraction form. A narrative analysis was performed, and the methodological quality was examined using a checklist based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The research identified familial, parental, child-related and biological factors that influenced mental health outcomes in affected children (N = 1,376, age range = 1-20 years. Overall, protective mental health factors are understudied in this target group. Most of the included studies were conducted in the United States and employed a cross-sectional design. A comparison of the included cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicated consistent results related to a secure parent-child attachment. Based on the current state of the research, no causal conclusions with regard to the effectiveness of protective factors can be drawn. To develop effective prevention programs, further longitudinal studies and studies assessing the interactions between

  2. Against the odds: foster carers' perceptions of family, commitment and belonging in successful placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Nicholas; Rostill-Brookes, Helen; Larkin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines carer attributes associated with placement stability for teenagers growing up in long term foster care, focusing on unexpected placement success. We explored experiences and perceptions relating to family, belonging and commitment in a group of foster carers providing a stable placement for a young person who had not been expected to settle. These placements showed positive outcome, despite factors in the child's history that might have predicted otherwise. Seven foster carers were interviewed following a semi-structured guide, which covered their ideas about their relationship with the child in question, about the foster family, and the child's sense of belonging in foster and birth family. Analysis of carers' accounts of placements which had succeeded 'against the odds' revealed four major themes, described under the headings My Child--emotional bonding, the carers' enlarged view of family and their parental regard for the young person; Jam in the Sandwich--working within a 'compromised space' between Local Authority and birth family; Repair and Rebuild--the craft of fostering including managing the foster/birth family boundary; Sticking with It--resilience, tenacity and maintaining hopefulness. The carers' accounts offer pointers towards the ingredients of successful placements and prompt reflection on how these may be supported and promoted. They also highlight tensions inherent in the foster carer task relating to carers' parental functioning for young people in long-term foster care.

  3. Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.

  4. Criminal track and risk factors of minors who exercise filio-parental violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cuervo

    2017-10-01

    The profile found in this study for this kind of crime is a boy of 16 years old, who has born in Spain, has committed one aggression towards his parents, has also committed other sort of crimes and has risk in the areas of Parenting and Education/employment. On the other hand, the feminine profile is a girl of 15 years old, who has born in Spain, has committed one aggression towards her parents, has not committed other kind of crimes and has risk in the area of leisure/recreation.

  5. Nuclear orientation experiments concerning odd-A gold isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligthart, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes nuclear spectroscopy aspects of nuclear orientation in the odd-A gold isotopes 191 Au, 193 Au, 195 Au and 197 Au. These isotopes lie in a transitional region between the spherical nuclei in the lead region and the strongly deformed rare earth isotopes. Following a general introduction to nuclear orientation, the experimental arrangement is described. A new technique is presented that applies in-beam recoil implantation inside the refrigerator itself and this was applied to the case of 191 Au. The three other gold isotopes were oriented using a conventional dilution refrigerator. The nuclear orientation experiments concerning 11/2 - isomers of the isotopes are described. The long-lived isomeric states were oriented using the large hyperfine field of gold in iron. Higher lying levels were studied by nuclear orientation of the Hg parent states. (Auth./C.F.)

  6. Participation of children with neurodevelopmental risk factors in the early rehabilitation program in relation to the level of parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja; Radanović, Branko

    2011-12-01

    Many factors that have an adverse effect on fetal growth and development can manifest later in the child's development. Because of the biological basis, children born under the influence of these factors belong to the group of neurorisk children. They need special attention and prompt participation in the early rehabilitation program to encourage the use of brain plasticity. In addition to the biological influences, socioeconomic status affects a wide array of medical, cognitive and socio-emotional consequences in children, which begin before birth and continue into adulthood. This retrospective study included 50 children aged one to three years, hospitalized at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the frequency of inclusion of children with neurodevelopmental risks in the early rehabilitation program according to the level of parental education. The results showed the highest percentage of parents of neurorisk children to have high school education, while the smallest number of parents had elementary school education. These data pointed to the lack of public awareness of the importance of the early period of life. However, they also indicated the lack of parental knowledge of their rights and opportunities for involvement of their neurorisk children in the early rehabilitation programs.

  7. The effect of social media (#SoMe) on journal impact factor and parental awareness in paediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, F; Nason, G J; Manecksha, R P; Cascio, S; Quinn, F J; Leonard, M; Koyle, M A; Farhat, W; Leveridge, M J

    2017-10-01

    Social media (SoMe) comprises a number of internet-based applications that have the capability to disseminate multimodal media and allow for unprecedented inter-user connectivity. The role of Twitter has been studied in conferences and education; moreover, there is increasing evidence that patients are more likely to use social media for their own health education. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media platforms on the impact factor of both urological and paediatric journals that publish on paediatric urology, and to assess parental awareness of social media in paediatric urology. A filtered Journal of Citation Reports (JCR) search was performed for the period 2012-16 for journals that published articles on paediatric urology. Journals were ranked according to impact factor, and each individual journal website was accessed to assess for the presence of social media. Parents in paediatric urology clinics and non-paediatric urology patients also filled out a questionnaire to assess for awareness and attitudes to social media. All statistical analysis was performed using Prism 6 software (Prism 6, GraphPad Software, California, USA). Overall, there were 50 urological journals and 39 paediatric journals with a mean impact factor of 2.303 and 1.766, respectively. There was an overall average increase in impact factor across all urological journals between 2012 and 16. The presence of a Twitter feed was statistically significant for a rise in impact factor over the 4 years (P = 0.017). The cohort of parents was statistically more likely to have completed post-secondary education, to have and access to a social media profile, use it for health education, and use it to access journal/physician/hospital social media accounts. This study examined, for the first time, the role of social media in paediatric urology, and demonstrated that SoMe use is associated with a positive influence in impact factor, but also a parental appetite for it

  8. Parental rearing style: examining for links with personality vulnerability factors for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G

    1993-07-01

    Recent research provides evidence of links between anomalous parenting experiences in childhood and subsequent depression. A study was designed to pursue the possibility that anomalous parenting effects a diathesis to depression by inducing a vulnerable cognitive style rather than by disposing directly to depression. Possible mediating personality style variables were explored in a study of 123 depressed subjects who scored their parents on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), as well as completing a state depression and several relevant personality measures. Low self-esteem and a related dysfunction cognitive style were the personality variables most clearly linked with PBI scores, with links persisting after partialling out state levels of depression. Failure to find links between PBI scores and depression levels limited explication of the diathesis stress model.

  9. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated…

  10. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic fai...

  11. Conocimientos sobre riesgo de embarazo y autoeficacia en hombres adolescentes:apoyo parental y factores escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Estrada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar la asociación entre conocimiento sobre riesgo de embarazo y autoeficacia en el uso del condón, con el apoyo parental y factores escolares, en hom­bres. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal con 448 estudiantes en Puebla y Morelos. Se ajustaron dos modelos logísticos. Resultados. Los conocimientos sobre riesgo de embarazo se asocian con el que los padres hablen sobre sexualidad (RM=2.45, IC95% 1.35-4.47, con el agrado por asistir a la escuela (RM=2.18, IC95% 1.15-4.13, con el que los profesores hablen frecuentemente/muy frecuentemente sobre equidad de género (RM=1.69, IC95% 1.06-2.67 y con la edad (RM=1.77, IC95%1.26-2.50. La autoeficacia en el uso de condón se relaciona con el que los padres hablen sobre sexualidad (RM=1.80, IC95% 1.01-3.20, con el agrado por asistir a la escuela (RM=2.60, IC95% 1.42-4.77, con el nivel socioeconómico medio (RM=1.82, IC95% 1.07-3.11 y con alto grado de marginación (RM=0.47, IC95% 0.30-0.73. Con­clusiones. Estudiar el apoyo familiar y escolar, considerando la influencia del entorno social, permite mayor entendimiento de la adquisición de habilidades para una conducta sexual preventiva en hombres durante la adolescencia temprana

  12. [The influencing factors on suicide attempt among adolescents in South Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2008-06-01

    Suicide has been considered a large public health concern in recent years because suicide mortality has been increasing rapidly. This study was done to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of a suicide attempt among adolescents in South Korea. The data of the 2006 Youth Health Risk Behavior web-based Survey collected by the Korean Center for Disease Control was analyzed using logistic regression for this study. The prevalence of a suicide attempt was 5.2% in South Korea. The risk factors of a suicide attempt were suicidal ideation (odds 31.83), depression (odds 7.98), drug use (odds 4.67), currently smoking (odds 3.19), feeling unhappiness (odds 2.77), stress (odds 2.60), currently drinking alcohol (odds 2.39), sexual activity (odds 2.33), living with neither parent (odds 2.24), initial alcohol drinking by age 9 (odds 1.80), health status (odds 2.15), skipped breakfast (odds 1.75), disease (odds 1.65), and school records (odds 1.22). Suicide screening and prevention programs should be developed, considering these risk factors. Suicide prevention programs should be applied to the at risk population prior to a suicide attempt.

  13. Modeling the relationship between family home environment factors and parental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didericksen, Katharine Wickel; Berge, Jerica M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding parental health is an important part of understanding family health. Previous research suggests that family meals, familial relationship satisfaction, and family physical activity may separately be related to physical health. The current study aims to combine these variables into a structural equation model to determine the collective relationship they have with adult health within a sample of parents (n = 1,435). Most parents were married, White, and highly educated. The relationship between family meals and parental health was significant (β = -.07, t = -2.29, p Familial relationship satisfaction and family physical activity were not found to be associated with parental health. Exploratory findings of the sample stratified by biological sex are described. Findings from the current study were consistent with a systemic perspective in that parents may have health benefits when they participate in family-level behavior (e.g., family meals). Additional areas for research and limitations to the current study are also discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  15. Study on rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei 102,l04Nb by using PSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yongsheng; Hu Wentao; Feng Youliang; Wang Jinbao; Yu Shaoying; Shen Caiwan

    2012-01-01

    The Projected Shell Model (PSM) is used to study the low energy scheme of the neutron-rich normal-deformed isotopes of odd-odd nuclei 102,104 Nb. The quasiparticle configuration is assigned. The theoretical calculations of the energy band of 102,104 Nb could well reproduce the experimental data. It is shown that PSM is a valid method for studying the low energy scheme of heavy nuclei. (authors)

  16. High-Spin States in Odd-Odd N=Z {sup 46}V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, C.D.; Bentley, M.A.; Appelbe, D.E.; Bark, R.A.; Cullen, D.M.; Erturk, S.; Maj. A.; Sheikh, J.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1999-12-31

    High-spin states up to the F{sub 7/2}-shell band termination at J{pi}=15+ have been observed for the first time in the odd-odd N=Z=23 nucleous {sup 46}V. The new level scheme has two separate structures corresponding to spherical and prolate shapes. A rotational band has very similar energies to the yrast sequence in {sup 46}Ti and is therefore assumed to be a T=1 configuration.

  17. Evaluation of the Factor Structure of the Obstacles to Engagement Scale with Low-income African American Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Winders Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parenting anticipatory guidance is one way to promote optimal child health and development and minimize disparities between children from lower socio-economic status families and their higher income peers. However, low rates of attendance at and completion of parenting programs has been demonstrated. Understanding barriers to participation has important implications. The Obstacles to Engagement Scale (OES has been used in some populations, but it has not been evaluated for use with low-income African American samples. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the factor structure of the OES with a sample of low-income, African American parents.Method: Parents or legal guardians with children aged 3-8 years completed a survey in the waiting room of a primary care pediatric academic practice in an urban location in the southern United States of America (N = 114. Almost 87% had < 12th grade education and 93% of the children received Medicaid services. The OES was one measure from a larger study and only participants with complete data on the OES were included in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA.Results: The EFA did not support the previous 4-factor solution (intervention demands, personal or family stressors or obstacles, relevance of or trust in intervention, and time and scheduling demands. Instead, a 3-factor statistical solution emerged, but not all items held together conceptually.Conclusions: The current study supports the necessity for evaluating study instruments for use with specific populations. Larger samples are needed to disentangle the effects of educational and poverty status from race and ethnicity and to develop and validate instruments that are appropriate for the study population.

  18. Exploring factors influencing health-seeking decisions and retention in childhood cancer treatment programmes: perspectives of parents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lorna Awo; McGill, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control. This exploratory qualitative study was conducted based on an interpretative epistemology using a social constructionist approach. Purposive sampling of parents attending the Paediatric Oncology Unit, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana was undertaken. Twelve semi-structured moderate interviews and two small focus group discussions with a total of seven participants were undertaken. Data analysis was through thematic content analysis. Five major themes emerged. Knowledge and perceptions revealed a total lack of appropriate knowledge prior to diagnosis. Health-seeking behaviour was determined by interplay of individual and environmental factors. Orthodox medical treatment was largely perceived favourably. The impact of cancer on parents and children included psychological, physical and socioeconomic effects. Financial, spiritual and psychosocial support helped in coping. Parents recommended public education and health financing to address the major barriers. Broad social determinants and experiences influence parental decision making for children with cancer. This implies Health Promotion strategies with multi-sectorial involvement will be required for effective implementation of the National Strategy for Cancer Control. Funded by authors.

  19. Objective and subjective factors as predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in parents of children with cancer--a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Lindahl Norberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents of children with cancer report post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS years after the child's successful treatment is completed. The aim of the present study was to analyze a number of objective and subjective childhood cancer-related factors as predictors of parental PTSS. METHODS: Data were collected from 224 parents during and after their child's cancer treatment. Data sources include self-report questionnaires and medical records. RESULTS: In a multivariate hierarchical model death of the child, parent's perception of child psychological distress and total symptom burden predicted higher levels of PTSS. In addition, immigrants and unemployed parents reported higher levels of PTSS. The following factors did not predict PTSS: parent gender, family income, previous trauma, child's prognosis, treatment intensity, non-fatal relapse, and parent's satisfaction with the child's care. CONCLUSIONS: Although medical complications can be temporarily stressful, a parent's perception of the child's distress is a more powerful predictor of parental PTSS. The vulnerability of unemployed parents and immigrants should be acknowledged. In addition, findings highlight that the death of a child is as traumatic as could be expected.

  20. The evens and odds of CMB anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppuso, A.; Kitazawa, N.; Lattanzi, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.; Sagnotti, A.

    2018-06-01

    The lack of power of large-angle CMB anisotropies is known to increase its statistical significance at higher Galactic latitudes, where a string-inspired pre-inflationary scale Δ can also be detected. Considering the Planck 2015 data, and relying largely on a Bayesian approach, we show that the effect is mostly driven by the even - ℓ harmonic multipoles with ℓ ≲ 20, which appear sizably suppressed in a way that is robust with respect to Galactic masking, along with the corresponding detections of Δ. On the other hand, the first odd - ℓ multipoles are only suppressed at high Galactic latitudes. We investigate this behavior in different sky masks, constraining Δ through even and odd multipoles, and we elaborate on possible implications. We include low- ℓ polarization data which, despite being noise-limited, help in attaining confidence levels of about 3 σ in the detection of Δ. We also show by direct forecasts that a future all-sky E-mode cosmic-variance-limited polarization survey may push the constraining power for Δ beyond 5 σ.

  1. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

    2016-04-04

    In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  2. Signature inversion in doubly odd 124La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, H.J.; Paul, E.S.; Boston, A.J.; Choy, P.T.W.; Nolan, P.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Davids, C.N.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R.; Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; Chiara, C.J.; Fossan, D.B.; Koike, T.; LaFosse, D.R.; Starosta, K.; Fletcher, A.M.; Smith, J.F.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kelsall, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    High-spin states have been studied in neutron-deficient 57 124 La 67 , populated through the 64 Zn( 64 Zn,3pn) reaction at 260 MeV. The Gammasphere γ-ray spectrometer has been used in conjunction with the Microball charged-particle detector, the Neutron Shell, and the Argonne Fragment Mass Analyzer, in order to select evaporation residues of interest. The known band structures have been extended and new bands found. Most of the bands are linked together, allowing more consistent spin and parity assignments. Comparison of band properties to cranking calculations has allowed configuration assignments to be made and includes the first identification of the g 9/2 proton-hole in an odd-odd lanthanum isotope. Two bands have been assigned a πh 11/2 xνh 11/2 structure; the yrast one exhibits a signature inversion in its level energies below I=18.5(ℎ/2π), while the excited one exhibits a signature inversion above I=18.5(ℎ/2π)

  3. Association of Parental History of Diabetes with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer R; Stafford, Jeanette M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Badaru, Angela; Crume, Tessa L; Dabelea, Dana; Dolan, Lawrence M; Lawrence, Jean M; Pettitt, David J; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Aims Determine if parental diabetes(DM) is associated with unhealthier cardiovascular disease(CVD) risk profiles in youth with type 2 diabetes(T2D), and whether associations differed by race/ethnicity. Methods Family history was available for 382 youth with T2D from 2001 prevalent and 2002–2005 incident SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth cohorts. Parental DM was evaluated two ways two-category— any parent vs. no parent DM (evaluated overall and stratified by race/ethnicity); four-category— both parents, mother only, father only, or no parent DM (evaluated overall only). Associations with hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), fasting lipids, blood pressure(BP), and urine albumin:creatinine ratio(ACR) were examined using regression models. Results Overall, sample characteristics included: 35.9% male, 19.1% non-Hispanic white(NHW), mean T2D duration 26.6 ± 22.2 months, mean HbA1c 7.9 ± 2.5% (62.6 ± 27.8mmol/mol). Unadjusted two-category comparisons showed youth with parental DM had higher HbA1c, higher DBP, and higher frequency of elevated ACR. Adjusted two-category comparisons showed associations remaining in non-stratified analysis for ACR [OR95%CI)=2.3(1.1, 5.0)] and in NHW youth for HbA1c [6.8% ± 0.4 v. 8.0 ± 0.4 (51.1±4.8mmol/mol v.63.9 ± 4.2), p=.015], DBP (67.7% ± 4.5 v. 76.9 ± 4.4 mmHg, p=.014) and lnTG (4.7±0.3 v. 5.3±0.3, p=.008). There were no significant findings in the adjusted four-category evaluation. Conclusions Parental history of diabetes may be associated with unhealthier CVD risk factors in youth with T2D. PMID:25784087

  4. Parental and family factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2007-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine the association between attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and maternal psychological distress, parenting style and perceived family support, and the child's interaction with parents and behavioural problems at home in Taiwan. The sample included 375 medicated pediatric patients with DSM-IV ADHD, and 750 school controls selected based on the age and gender structures of the ADHD group. Mothers reported on the Chinese Health Questionnaire, the Chinese versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve, and the Home Behaviours of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents. Mothers of children with ADHD reported greater psychological distress and perceived less support from their families than did mothers of controls. Moreover, mothers of children with ADHD were less affectionate and more overprotective and controlling toward their children than were mothers of controls. This difference was more apparent in boys than in girls. Children with ADHD were less likely to interact with their parents, yet demonstrated more severe behavioural problems at home. Although the Taiwanese children with ADHD were under treatment with methylphenidate, they and their families still encountered a variety of difficulties in interaction, support, and communication with each other. Therefore, the parental approach should be integrated into the medication treatment for ADHD in Taiwan.

  5. Field testing a questionnaire assessing parental psychosocial factors related to consumption of calcium-rich foods by Hispanic, Asian, and Non-Hispanic white young adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyduna, Jennifer L; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine M; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry W; Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Schram, Jessica; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Intervention strategies to increase calcium intake of parents and young adolescent children could be improved by identifying psychosocial factors influencing intake. The objective was to develop a tool to assess factors related to calcium intake among parents and Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white young adolescent children (10-13 years) meeting acceptable standards for psychometric properties. A parent questionnaire was constructed from interviews conducted to identify factors. Parents (n = 166) in the United States completed the questionnaire, with seventy-one completing it twice. Two constructs (Attitudes/Preferences and Social/Environmental) were identified and described by eighteen subscales with Cronbach's alpha levels from .50 to .79. Test-retest coefficients ranged from .68 to .85 (p food intake among parents and young adolescent children.

  6. Is parental rearing an associated factor of quality of life in adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacques J; Eisemann, Martin R; Fleck, Marcelo P

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that favorable parental rearing is associated with better quality of life in adulthood. Two hundred and ninety seven university students answered questions on quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), parenting style (s-EMBU), coping strategies (Coping Strategies Inventory), life events (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Data was analyzed by means of hierarchical multiple linear regression. The remote variable of perceived child rearing practices was significantly associated with the quality of life of the students. Maternal emotional warmth was associated with two quality of life domains, psychological and social relationships, in addition to global quality of life. These results strengthen the empirical notion that favorable parental care may be associated with better quality of life in adulthood.

  7. Factors that Predict Parental Willingness to Have Their Children Vaccinated against HPV in a Country with Low HPV Vaccination Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ganczak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent HPV (Human Papilloma Virus vaccination is yet to be introduced as a mandatory program in Poland. Polish literature on factors associated with adolescent HPV vaccination is scant, despite the fact that uptake is one of the poorest in the European Union. Objectives: To assess HPV awareness and identify independent predictors for parental willingness to have their children vaccinated against HPV. Methods: All parents of first grade students from three selected high schools in Zgorzelec, Poland, who participated in parent–teacher meetings at the time the study was conducted, had their children unvaccinated regarding HPV, and who gave informed consent to participate were included. There were 600 first grade students; 9 were vaccinated against HPV. This left 591 parents who met the eligibility criteria; the response rate was 76.1%. Results: Awareness of HPV was reported by 55.3% of 450 parents (mean age 42 years, 70.9% females; 85.1% expressed their willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV; 31.3% identified HPV as a sexually transmitted pathogen, and 36.2% identified it as a risk factor of cervical cancer. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that being employed (OR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10–3.86, having positive attitudes toward vaccines (OR 3.02; 95% CI: 1.34–6.49, previous information about HPV (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.17–3.51, and concerns about the side effects of the HPV vaccine (OR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.35–0.99 were independent predictors of parents’ willingness to vaccinate. Conclusions: Attitudes regarding their child being vaccinated against HPV were positive among Polish parents, even though awareness and knowledge of HPV in this group were low. Most of the significant factors that influenced their willingness were modifiable, such as being informed about HPV and having positive attitudes toward vaccines. Future interventions should focus specifically on vulnerable subgroups, such as unemployed

  8. Long-Term Effects of Pre-Placement Risk Factors on Children's Psychological Symptoms and Parenting Stress among Families Adopting Children from Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Erum; Waterman, Jill; Foster, Jared; Paczkowski, Emilie; Belin, Thomas R.; Miranda, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory longitudinal study examined behavioral outcomes and parenting stress among families with children adopted from foster care, taking into account environmental and biological risk factors. Child internalizing and externalizing problems and parenting stress were assessed in 82 adopted children and their families at 2 months…

  9. The Role of Practitioner Self-Efficacy, Training, Program and Workplace Factors on the Implementation of an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Karen M. T.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting the implementation by primary care practitioners (nursing, education, allied health, and medical) of a brief parenting and family support intervention (the Primary Care Triple P--Positive Parenting Program) following professional training. It assesses the impact of prior experience, self-efficacy, program…

  10. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Possible Odd Parity State in 128Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, L.; Malmskog, S.G.

    1966-07-01

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 ± 0.05, 526.5 ± 0.5, 742.4 ±1.0, 969.0 ± 1.0, and 1136.5 ±2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in 128 Xe at 1579 ± 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 ± 0.3 of the (β - feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0 + level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in children with ASD and their parents: a 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, K; Dougali, A; Sideri, K; Kroupis, C; Vasdekis, V; Dima, K; Douzenis, A

    2018-05-01

    Several lines of evidence point to a probable relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the BDNF serum level in ASD. The study aimed to assess those levels in children with ASD and their families. BDNF serum levels were measured in 45 ASD children without intellectual disability (ID) and allergies, age 30-42 months and age-matched normal controls. BDNF serum levels in the parents of the ASD subjects were compared to normal controls. BDNF serum levels in the ASD subjects were followed up for 3 years and correlated with adaptive functioning changes. BDNF serum levels were measured to be lower in children with ASD and independent of all the major baseline characteristics of the subjects. Having a child with ASD raises the BDNF levels in parents comparing to controls. Prospectively, no correlation between the change of BDNF variables in time and the change of the Vineland scores was found. Our results contradict those from recent published meta-analyses with the age, the presence of ID and allergies being possible contributing factors. The parents' data indeed point to a role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of ASD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ODD irritability is associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and not ADHD in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Lespérance, Paul; Achim, André; Tellier, Geneviève; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois

    2014-12-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aging Parents with Adult Mentally Retarded Children: Family Risk Factors and Sources of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    1989-01-01

    Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…

  15. Relations between Neighborhood Factors, Parenting Behaviors, Peer Deviance, and Delinquency among Serious Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, He Len; Steinberg, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relations among neighborhood structural and social characteristics, parenting practices, peer group affiliations, and delinquency among a group of serious adolescent offenders. The sample of 14-18-year-old boys (N = 488) was composed primarily of economically disadvantaged, ethnic-minority youth living in urban…

  16. Childhood obesity and parental smoking as risk factors for childhood ADHD in Liverpool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, Gibby; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD prevalence has risen in parallel with rising prevalence of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity. The objective was to determine the epidemiological association of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity with ADHD. A cross-sectional community study was conducted in 2006 using a parental

  17. The Impact of Parenting Factors, Deviant Peers, and Coping Style upon Adolescent Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental Divorce: A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on parental divorce and early childhood development, using developmental psychopathology as an organizing framework. Because this review is unique in its focus on divorce-related issues specific to young children, limitations of existing research are noted and directions for future research are suggested. (Contains 63…

  19. Family Matters. The role of parental and family-related psychosocial factors in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is common childhood disease with children from lower socioeconomic status experiencing disproportionately higher levels of the disease. Parents and the broader family environment may play an important role in the development of childhood dental caries as mediators / moderators of risk.

  20. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African adolescents with mental health problems: a qualitative study of parental perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Donenberg, Geri; Davids, Alicia; Vermaak, Redwaan; Simbayi, Leickness; Ward, Catherine; Naidoo, Pamela; Mthembu, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus group discussions with 28 mothers of adolescents receiving services at two mental health clinics in South Africa to identify, from their perspectives, the key community problems facing their children. Participants indicated that HIV remained a serious threat to their adolescent children's well-being, in addition to substance abuse, early sexual debut, and teenage pregnancy. These social problems were mentioned as external to their household dynamics, and thus seemingly beyond the purview of the parent-adolescent relationship. These data have implications for the design of family-based interventions to ameliorate the factors associated with HIV-risk among youth receiving mental health services.

  1. Parental social support, coping strategies, resilience factors, stress, anxiety and depression levels in parents of children with MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) or children with intellectual disabilities (ID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sheena; Cross, Elaine; Wraith, James Edmond; Jones, Simon; Mahon, Louise; Lomax, Michelle; Bigger, Brian; Hare, Dougal

    2013-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder, caused by a deficiency in one of four enzymes involved in the catabolism of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. It is a degenerative disorder, with a progressive decline in children's intellectual and physical functioning. There is currently no cure for the disorder. To date there is a paucity of research on how this disorder impacts parents psychological functioning. Specifically, research in the area has failed to employ adequate control groups to assess if the impact of this disorder on parents psychological functioning differs from parenting a child with intellectual disability (ID). The current study examined child behaviour and parental psychological functioning in 23 parents of children with MPS III and 23 parents of children with ID. Parents completed postal questionnaires about their child's behaviour and abilities and their own psychological functioning. Parents of children with MPS III reported fewer behavioural difficulties as their child aged, more severe level of intellectual disability, and similar levels of perceived social support, coping techniques, stress, anxiety and depression levels as parents of children with ID. Both groups of parents scored above the clinical cut off for anxiety and depression. Parents of children with MPS III rated themselves as significantly less future-orientated and goal directed than parents of children with ID. Services should develop support packages for parents of children with MPS III that incorporate an understanding of the unique stressors and current-difficulty approach of this population. Future research should examine gender differences between parental psychological functioning, using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches, and utilise matched developmental level and typically developing control groups.

  2. Provider Communication Regarding Psychosocial Factors Predicts Pain Beliefs in Parent and Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Erica; Pinder, Wendy; Pendley, Jennifer S.; Fisher, Alicia O.; Wali, Prateek D.; del Rosario, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of provider communication about psychosocial causes of abdominal pain and recommendations for psychosocial intervention during a gastroenterology clinic visit in predicting families’ causal beliefs and perceptions of treatment acceptability. Method Participants were 57 children with a diagnosed or suspected abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) presenting for an outpatient gastroenterology follow-up visit and their accompanying parent. Children and parents completed questionnaires assessing child anxiety and abdominal pain severity, recall of provider communication about causes of abdominal pain and recommendations for intervention, their own causal beliefs about pain, and perceived acceptability of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and standard medical treatment (SMT) after reading descriptions of each treatment. Providers completed a questionnaire assessing their perceptions and communication about the causes of the child’s abdominal pain and perceived acceptability of CBT. Results Provider communication about psychosocial causes and interventions was reported infrequently by parents, children, and providers. Parents rated psychosocial causes for abdominal pain as less likely than physical causes, and children and parents rated CBT as less acceptable than SMT. Parents’ recall of provider communication about psychosocial causes was associated with their own causal beliefs about pain and their perceived acceptability of CBT. Children’s and parents’ recall of provider recommendations for psychosocial intervention was associated with their perceived acceptability of CBT. Conclusion Results highlight the importance of provider communication about psychosocial contributors to abdominal pain and psychosocial interventions for children with FGIDs. Medical and mental health providers can partner to deliver care to children with FGIDs using a biopsychosocial approach. PMID:27035693

  3. Factors Influencing the Decision-Making Process and Long-Term Interpersonal Outcomes for Parents Who Undergo Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Fanconi Anemia: a Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haude, K; McCarthy Veach, P; LeRoy, B; Zierhut, H

    2017-06-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat FA, and best results are attained with sibling donors who are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical matches. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers parents of an affected child the opportunity to have an unaffected child who is an HLA match. While some research has investigated parents' experiences during the PGD process, no published studies specifically address factors influencing their decision-making process and long-term interpersonal outcomes. The aims of this study are to: (1) examine parents' expectations and the influence of media, bioethics, and religion on their decision to undergo PGD; (2) examine parents' social support and emotional experiences during their PGD process; and (3) characterize long-term effects of PGD on relationship dynamics (partner, family, friends), others' attitudes, and parental regret. Nine parents participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed their decision to use PGD was variously influenced by media, bioethics, and religion, in particular, affecting parents' initial confidence levels. Moreover, the PGD process was emotionally complex, with parents desiring varying amounts and types of support from different sources at different times. Parents reported others' attitudes towards them were similar or no different than before PGD. Parental regret regarding PGD was negligible. Results of this study will promote optimization of long-term care for FA families.

  4. First observation of yrast band in odd-odd 162Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.H.; Yuan, G.J.; Liu, X.A.

    1996-01-01

    High spin states of the odd-odd 162 Lu nucleus have been studied via 147 Sm( 19 F, 4nγ) 162 Lu reaction at 95MeV beam energy. Level scheme for yrast band based on π[h 11/2 ] υ[i 13/2 ] quasiparticle configuration was established up to I π =(23 - ) for the first time. This band shows the signature inversion in energy before backbending generally appeared in this mass region. It is stressed that the signature splitting in 162 Lu is larger than that in the 160 Tm nucleus. (orig.)

  5. Odd-odd neutron-excess nuclei from the magicity region close to 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhina, K.I.; Isakov, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series devoted to theoretical study of neutron-excess nuclei close to the doubly magic nuclide 132 Sn. Odd-odd nuclei from this region are considered by using the quasi-boson approximation. Energy level spectra, electromagnetic transition probabilities, and β-decay properties of nuclei are analyzed. Among other things, the renormalization of the axial-vector constant in the nucleus is determined. Numerical calculations are made for 134 Sb, 130 In, 132 Sb, and 132 In nuclides. Whenever possible, the results are compared with experimental data. 33 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  6. High-spin states in odd-odd 106,108,110,112Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiades, N.; Cizewski, J.A.; Kruecken, R.; McNabb, D.P.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Younes, W.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.

    2003-01-01

    The level structures of 106,108,110,112 Rh have been studied in the fission of the compound system formed in three different heavy-ion induced reactions. Sequences of five transitions, together with weak crossover transitions, have been assigned to each isotope based on coincidences with known transitions in the complementary fragments. Comparison with the lighter odd-odd Rh isotopes supports assignment of these sequences as the yrast bands built on the πg 9/2 xνh 11/2 configuration

  7. Single proton transfer reactions on odd-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of one proton transfer reactions, performed with the use of the magnetic spectrograph QMG/2 of the KVI, in two regions of the mass table. Stripping and pickup reactions on the odd-A target nuclei 193 Ir and 197 Au are described in the first part. The experimental spectroscopic factors obtained are used to test several collective models that are based on coupling between bosons (phonons) and fermions. In the second part, the proton stripping reactions on 113 In and 115 In are studied. Shell model calculations are performed and applied to the experimental results. (Auth.)

  8. Factors influencing self- and parent-reporting health-related quality of life in children with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Iori; Higuchi, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Takaaki; Mukasa, Akitake; Ida, Kohmei; Sawamura, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Saito, Nobuhito; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Ishida, Yasushi; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2013-02-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is not only a degree of health but also reflects patient perceptions and expectations of health. For children with brain tumors, better understanding of HRQOL requires the use of complementary reports from parents and interviewer-administered reports for children. Here, we aimed to test whether or not the trait anxiety of children and the psychological distress of their parents influence children's and parents' responses to HRQOL questionnaires, and whether or not the report-administration method for children influences children's responses to HRQOL questionnaires. One hundred and thirty-four children aged 5-18 with brain tumors and one of their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory(™) (PedsQL(™)) Brain Tumor Module questionnaires. In addition, the children also completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), and the parents also completed the Kessler-10 (K10) and health and sociodemographic characteristics questionnaires. The child questionnaires were administered either by the child (self-administered) or an interviewer. Rater-dependent perceptions about HRQOL were derived from the subscales scores of the PedsQL(™) Brain Tumor Module using structural equation modeling based on a multitrait-multimethod model. The STAIC trait-anxiety score, K10 score, report-administration method, and other health and sociodemographic factors related to each child's or parent's perceptions were identified through multiple linear regression analyses of the questionnaire responses. We used a path analysis to estimate the change in a PedsQL(™) child-reported score that occurs when interviewer-administration changes the child's perception about HRQOL. Surveys for 89 children were self-administered while those for 45 were interviewer-administered. The perceptions of the children and parents were calculated by fitting data to the model (chi-squared P = 0.087, normed fit index = 0.932, comparative fit

  9. A Tailored Web-Based Intervention to Improve Parenting Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Problems: Postintervention Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Mahtani, Shireen; Rapee, Ronald M; Nicolas, Claire; Lawrence, Katherine A; Mackinnon, Andrew; Jorm, Anthony F

    2018-01-19

    Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Parents have an important role in reducing the risk of these disorders, but cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking. This study aimed to examine the postintervention effects of the Partners in Parenting (PiP) program on parenting risk and protective factors for adolescent depression and anxiety, and on adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. A two-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted with 359 parent-adolescent dyads, recruited primarily through schools across Australia. Parents and adolescents were assessed at baseline and 3 months later (postintervention). Parents in the intervention condition received PiP, a tailored Web-based parenting intervention designed following Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) principles to target parenting factors associated with adolescents' risk for depression and anxiety problems. PiP comprises a tailored feedback report highlighting each parent's strengths and areas for improvement, followed by a set of interactive modules (up to nine) that is specifically recommended for the parent based on individually identified areas for improvement. Parents in the active-control condition received a standardized package of five Web-based factsheets about adolescent development and well-being. Parents in both conditions received a 5-min weekly call to encourage progress through their allocated program to completion. Both programs were delivered weekly via the trial website. The primary outcome measure at postintervention was parent-reported changes in parenting risk and protective factors, which were measured using the Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale (PRADAS). Secondary outcome measures were the adolescent-report PRADAS, the parent- and child-report Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (depressive symptoms), and parent- and child-report Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

  10. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent-child connectedness: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent-child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent-child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents' understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 10 households, 9 focus group discussions and 60 in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVIVO qualitative data analysis software. The structural factors with greatest influence on connectedness were economic circumstances, gender, social status, state education, and globalisation. Economic circumstances impacted on parent-child connectedness through parents' ability to provide for their children's material needs, and the time their occupation allowed for them to spend with their children and monitor their activities. Appropriate parent-child interactions were shaped by gender norms and by social status in the form of respectability, adolescents' adherence to norms of respect/obedience shaping their parents' affection. State education affected parents' preferences between children but also undermined parental authority, as did broader globalisation. Connectedness was related to SRH in a bi-directional way: lack of connectedness was linked to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned pregnancies seriously undermined young women's connectedness with their parents. Since material provision was perceived to be a central element of parent-child connectedness, structural factors limiting provision made transactional sex more likely both through direct material pathways and emotional ones. Motives for transactional sex were said to be material needs and to feel loved and cared for. An important pathway by which structural factors shape

  11. Influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, R.R.; Luo, X.D.; Timar, J.; Sohler, S.; Nyako, B.M.; Zolnai, L.; Paul, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Signature inversion in the A ∼ 100 region has been reported earlier only in the case of the odd-odd 98 Rh nucleus. Our studies on the 100-103 Rh isotopes and a close inspection of the known πg 9/2 νh 11/ 2 bands of the Rh (Z = 45) and Ag (Z = 47) isotopes revealed that the signature splitting effects, earlier considered as quenchings of signature splitting, are not only quenchings but signature inversions. Indeed, the energetically favored signature at low spins in these πg 9/2 νh 11/2 bands is the α = 1 branch (odd spins) instead of the expected α = 0 branch (even spins). The systematic occurrence of signature inversion in this mass region is discussed in Refs. together with attempts to understand its behavior qualitatively. Among many attempts for interpreting the mechanism of signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei, a model using an axially symmetric rotor plus two quasi-particles has already been successfully applied to describe the observed signature inversions in the A ∼ 80 and A ∼ 160 mass regions. According to this model the signature inversion is caused by the competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. Such calculations have been also successfully applied to the π g9/2 νh 11/2 bands in the odd-odd 98 Rh and 102 Rh nuclei. Recent observations of chiral band structures in the nearby Rh nuclei suggest a possibility of triaxiality in these nuclei, too. In the present work we examined the possible influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and compared the results with the experimental data of 98 Rh and 102 Rh. The calculations provided a better agreement with the experiment than the axially symmetric calculations. Compared to the axially symmetric case, the triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high-spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the

  12. Odd-parity light baryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamermann, D.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Salcedo, L. L.; Nieves, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use a consistent SU(6) extension of the meson-baryon chiral Lagrangian within a coupled channel unitary approach in order to calculate the T matrix for meson-baryon scattering in the s wave. The building blocks of the scheme are the π and N octets, the ρ nonet and the Δ decuplet. We identify poles in this unitary T matrix and interpret them as resonances. We study here the nonexotic sectors with strangeness S=0, -1, -2, -3 and spin J=(1/2), (3/2) and (5/2). Many of the poles generated can be associated with known N, Δ, Σ, Λ, Ξ and Ω resonances with negative parity. We show that most of the low-lying three and four star odd-parity baryon resonances with spin (1/2) and (3/2) can be related to multiplets of the spin-flavor symmetry group SU(6). This study allows us to predict the spin-parity of the Ξ(1620), Ξ(1690), Ξ(1950), Ξ(2250), Ω(2250) and Ω(2380) resonances, which have not been determined experimentally yet.

  13. Correlates of smoking among youth: the role of parents, friends, attitudes/beliefs, and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Sly, David F; Lee, David J; McClure, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Family engagement has been shown to play a crucial role in youth cigarette use prevention and uptake. We examine cross-sectional and longitudinal data to determine whether changes in parental monitoring factors influence changes in smoking susceptibility. Two cross-sectional surveys of Florida youth (12-17 years) were conducted in 2009, with a follow-up survey in 2010. Multivariable analyses examined demographics, parent characteristics, family engagement, and parental monitoring on youth susceptibility to smoke. Cross-sectional data show eating together 6+ times/week and doing something for fun 5+ times/week were related to an increased likelihood of Very Low and decreased likelihood of High susceptibility, respectively. Parental monitoring factors and parents tell on a friend who smokes was significantly related to having Very Low susceptibility in both surveys. Mother's education, parent smokes, family engagement factors, and parental monitoring were significant in both survey rounds. Longitudinal analyses showed change in eating together did not significantly affect the odds of change in smoking susceptibility; however, change in the frequency of doing things for fun with a parent showed decreased odds of susceptibility (OR = .63 [.49-.82]), opposite of the hypothesized direction. Lastly, as youth aged, they were more likely to experience a greater odds of decreased susceptibility (OR14-15y = 1.47 [1.08-1.99] and OR≥16y = 1.40 [1.05-1.84], respectively) and less likely to experience an increased odds of susceptibility (OR14-15y = .65 [.49-.86] and OR≥16y = .72 [.56-.93], respectively). We found mixed results for family engagement and parental monitoring on changes in youth smoking susceptibility. Cross-sectional data showed general associations in the expected direction; however, longitudinal analyses showed family engagement variables had significance, but in the opposite hypothesized direction.

  14. History of postpartum depression and the odds of maternal corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Rosenberger, Ryan; Sarwar, Sajjad; Mangewala, Vikas; Klag, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    Corporal punishment is closely related to physical abuse of children and is associated with several negative characteristics and experiences in children and youths. This study examined the relative unique contribution of 6 variables (social support, socioeconomic status, depression, self-efficacy, knowledge of child development, and history of postpartum depression) to maternal corporal punishment of children. A sample of 76 mothers was dichotomized into those who never spanked or hit with an object and those who have spanked or hit with an object. The mothers were recruited from a community mental health agency, an urban community center, and a court of common pleas. The measures in the present study were administered prior to mothers' participation in a parent training program. Mothers referred by the court of common pleas were mandated to participate in the parent training program, and the mothers from the community mental health agency and the urban community center volunteered to participate in the parent training program. However, all participants voluntarily completed the research measures. Binary logistic regression identified postpartum depression as the only variable to significantly increase the odds of corporal punishment (odds ratio = 6.307, 95% confidence interval = 1.098-36.214, p = .039). The findings demonstrate increased odds of corporal punishment among a high-risk sample of women with postpartum depression. The generalizability of these findings may be limited to low socioeconomic class and White and African American mothers enrolled in parent-training programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Positive youth development among African American adolescents: examining single parents as a factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.

  16. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  17. Parental use of sun protection for their children-does skin color matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Marcus G; Nag, Shudeshna; Weinstein, Miriam

    2018-03-01

    Excessive sun exposure during childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer. This study aimed to compare the frequency of ideal sun protection use between parents with lighter- and darker-skinned children and explore their attitudes and beliefs on sun safety and their choice of sun protection. Parents of children aged 6 months to 6 years completed self-administered questionnaires about sun protection practices for their children. Parents assessed their child's Fitzpatrick phototype and were divided into lighter- (Fitzpatrick phototype I-III) and darker-skinned (Fitzpatrick phototype IV-VI) groups. Sun safety guidelines from the Canadian Dermatology Association were used to qualify ideal sun protection. A total of 183 parents were included. Overall, 31 parents (17%) used ideal sun protection for their children. As their children grew older, parents were less likely to use ideal sun protection (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.90). Parents in the lighter-skinned group were more likely to use ideal sun protection for their children (odds ratio = 7.4, 95% confidence interval = 2.7-20.1), believe that sun exposure was harmful (odds ratio = 17.2, 95% confidence interval = 4.0-74.9), and perceive value in sun protection (odds ratio = 11.4, 95% confidence interval = 3.3-39.0); the darker-skinned group believed that darker skin tones provided more sun protection (odds ratio = 12.4, 95% confidence interval = 6.1-25.4). Ideal parental sun protection efforts are overall low, particularly in parents of darker-skinned children. The identified attitudes toward and beliefs about sun safety may aid in delivery of future sun protection interventions, especially in multiracial populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. In search of risk factors for chronic pain in adolescents: a case–control study of childhood and parental associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenders A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alies Coenders,1 Cindy Chapman,2 Patricia Hannaford,3 Tiina Jaaniste,2,3 Wen Qiu,2 David Anderson,2 Maline Glogauer,2 Evelyn Goodison-Farnsworth,2 Marianne McCormick,2 David Champion2,31University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; 2Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 3University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, AustraliaObjectives: This study was designed to investigate whether an individual and parental history of functional pain syndromes (FPS is found more often in adolescents suffering from chronic pain than in their pain-free peers.Methods: Our case–control study involved 101 adolescents aged 10–18 years. Cases were 45 patients of the Chronic Pain Clinic at Sydney Children's Hospital with diverse chronic pain disorders. Controls consisted of 56 adolescent volunteers who did not have chronic pain. Adolescents and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing demographic data as well as known and potential risk factors for chronic pain. A history of FPS was assessed by questionnaire, including restless legs syndrome (RLS. Chi-squared tests and t-tests were used to investigate univariate associations between chronic pain in adolescents and lifetime prevalence of FPS. Logistic regression was used to test multivariate associations, while controlling for possible confounders.Results: Migraine, non-migraine headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP, and RLS were reported significantly more frequently in cases than controls (P-values of 0.01, <0.001, 0.01, and 0.03, respectively. Parental migraine, RAP, and RLS were also significantly associated with adolescent chronic pain in the multivariate analyses. Individual history of migraine, non-migraine headaches, and RAP, along with parental history of RAP and depression significantly accounted for 36%–49% of variance in chronic pain. Other associations with chronic pain were generally in accordance with previous reports

  19. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-05-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (M age  = 30.68 years, SD age  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (M age  = 3.50 years, SD age  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  1. Socioeconomic status and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in preschoolers: parenting practices and executive functioning as mediating variables

    OpenAIRE

    Roser eGranero; Roser eGranero; Leonie eLouwaars; Lourdes eEzpeleta; Lourdes eEzpeleta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the mediating mechanisms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in preschoolers through pathways analysis, considering the family socioeconomic status (SES) as the independent variable and the parenting style and the children’s executive functioning (EF) as the mediating factors.Method. Sample included 622 three years-old children from the general population. Multi-informant reports from parents and teachers were analyzed.Results. Structural Equation Modeling showed...

  2. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: a study of individual and parenting factors Relaciones sexuales entre adolescentes de Santiago, Chile: un estudio de factores individuales y de crianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninive Sanchez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine a range of individual, parenting, and family factors associated with sexual intercourse among a community sample of youth and their families in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: Data were taken from the Santiago Longitudinal Study conducted in January 2008-November 2009. Participants were 766 youth (mean age = 14.03 years, 51% male from municipalities of low- to mid-socioeconomic status. Variables included emotional and behavioral subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist's Youth Self Report, parental monitoring, family involvement, parental control and autonomy, relationship with each parent, and sexual activity. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of sexual intercourse initiation. RESULTS: Seventy (9.14% youth reported having had sex in their lifetime; the average age of first sexual intercourse among this group was 13.5 years (Standard Deviation [SD] = 1.74 for males and 14.08 (SD = 1.40 for females. Having sex was inversely associated with withdrawn-depressed symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.84, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-0.97, but positively associated with somatic complaints (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04-1.38 and rule breaking behavior (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.08-1.36, after adjusting for demographic and other individual and parenting variables. The majority (80% of the youth who had had sex reported using protection at the time of last intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the role that mental health problems-some of them not commonly associated with onset of sexual activity-may play in a youth's decision to have sex. The potential protective effects of several parenting and family characteristics disappeared with youth age and youth behavioral problems.OBJETIVO: Examinar distintos factores relacionados con el inicio de la actividad sexual que presentan los jóvenes, sus padres y su familia en una muestra de jóvenes y su respectiva familia tomada de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile

  3. Fertility preservation in the male pediatric population: factors influencing the decision of parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, C; Collienne, C; Shenfield, F; Robert, A; Laurent, P; Roegiers, L; Brichard, B

    2015-09-01

    How can the decision process for fertility preservation (FP) in adolescents and prepubertal boys be improved based on patient and parent feelings about FP counseling? The content of information given to patients and parents and hope for future parenthood appeared to positively impact on the decision to preserve fertility in the pediatric population and, therefore, deserves special attention to improve FP care. A vast body of literature on adult cancer patients shows that reproductive capacity is a major quality-of-life issue. Patients also have a strong desire to be informed of available FP options with a view to future parenthood of their own genetic child, considering that parents were able to make an informed and voluntary decision for their prepubertal sons despite the heavy emotional burden at the time of diagnosis, there is so far very limited information on patient expectations regarding FP. A lack of awareness often equates to suboptimal care by oncologists and FP specialists, and poor access to FP, therefore improving knowledge and identifying the expectations of pediatric patients and their parents are crucial for optimizing multidisciplinary collaborative care pathways (MCCPs), including counseling and access to FP methods, in the youngest population. A questionnaire survey was posted to an eligible population between May 2005 and May 2013. A total of 348 prepubertal boys and adolescents aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with cancer in a university hospital setting, were eligible. Three different questionnaires for two age groups of children (parents were established based on information from focus groups. Questions were subsequently reviewed by the institutional ethics board before being sent. Of the 348 eligible patients, 44 died and 14 were lost to follow-up. Thus, 290 patients (77 aged 12-18 years and 213 aged questionnaire. In total, 120 questionnaires were recovered, 45.5% (n = 35/77) from adolescents and 39.9% (n = 85/213) from children. FP acceptance

  4. The role of prenatal, obstetric, and post-partum factors in the parenting stress of mothers and fathers of 9-month old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Murphy, Gillian; Murphy, Mike

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the role of perinatal, obstetric and post partum factors on maternal and paternal stress. It will present the first examination of the role of prenatal, obstetric, post-partum, and demographic variables in parenting stress for mothers and fathers at 9 months. Data from 6821 parental dyads of 9-month-old infants were extracted from the Growing Up in Ireland National Longitudinal Study of Children. Participants completed the Parental Stress Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Quality of Attachment Sub-scale from the Maternal and Paternal Postnatal Attachment Scales, and a single item health status question from the Short Form 12 Health Survey. Information on prenatal care, pregnancy complications, obstetric outcomes, infant health, and participant demographics were also collected. Separate hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for mothers and fathers Results: Mothers reported higher levels of parenting stress than fathers (p stress was predicted by attachment, own health status, average sleep, occupation, household income, and having a very rapid labor. Paternal parenting stress was predicted by attachment and own health status. A range of perinatal factors was associated with an increased risk of higher parenting stress at 9 months post-partum and the roles of these factors differ between mothers and fathers. These findings are important for predicting and reducing risk of parenting stress in both genders.

  5. Peer support for parents of disabled children part 2: how organizational and process factors influenced shared experience in a one-to-one service, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, V; Bailey, S; Logan, S; Morris, C

    2015-07-01

    Parents of disabled children often seek support from their peers. The shared experience between parents appears to be a crucial mediating factor. Understanding how a sense of shared experience is fostered can help to design and evaluate services that seek to provide peer support. We carried out a qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants were 12 parents and 23 befrienders who had contact with the Face2Face one-to-one befriending service in Devon and Cornwall during a 12-month period, and 10 professionals from health, social care and education. Formal structures and processes in place such as training and ongoing supervision and support were highly valued as was the highly personalized, confidential, flexible, one-to-one at-home nature of the service. Crucial to establishing rapport was putting the right people together and ensuring a good match between befrienders and parents. Clearly, the befriending parent has to be emotionally prepared to provide help. However, if the parent being offered support was not ready to accept help at the time it was offered or the type of support was not right for them, they are less likely to engage with the service. Organizational and process factors as well as characteristics of the parents offering and receiving support contribute to the sense of shared experience in one-to-one peer support. These factors interact to influence whether peer support is effective and should be explicitly considered when designing and evaluating services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High-Spin Structure in Odd-Odd 160Lu Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lie-Lin; Lu Jing-Bin; Yang Dong; Ma Ke-Yan; Yin Li-Chang; Zhou Yin-Hang; Wu Xiao-Guang; Wen Shu-Xian; Li Guang-Sheng; Yang Chun-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The high-spin states of 160 Lu are populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction 144 Sm( 19 F,3n) 160 Lu at beam energies of 90 and 106 MeV. A new level scheme of 160 Lu is established. A possible isomeric state based on the πh 11/2 νh 9/2 configuration is observed. The new decoupled band with the configuration of πd 3/2 [411]1/2 + νi 13/2 [660]1/2 + is established, and the configurations of these similar decoupled bands in the neighboring odd-odd 162−166 Lu nuclei are suggested. A positive parity coupled band is assigned as the πd 5/2 [402]5/2 + νi 13/2 [660]1/2 + configuration. (nuclear physics)

  7. High-spin states in the transitional odd-odd nuclei 150Eu and 152Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneoud, D.; Foin, C.; Pinston, J.A.; Monnand, E.

    1983-06-01

    The ( 7 Li, 5n) and ( 11 B, 5n) reactions have been used to study the high-spin states in the two odd-odd nuclei 150 Eu and 152 Tb. Three decoupled bands have been evidenced in each nucleus belonging to the same configurations [f 7/2]sub(n) [h 11/2]sub(p), [h 9/2]sub(n) [h 11/2 ]sub(p) and [i 13/2]sub(n) [h 11/2]sub(p). The latter one is well developped and improves our knowledge of this system between the spherical and deformed region. The analysis of the collective moment of inertia and transition ratios strongly suggests an increase of the deformation when the rotational frequency increases in these two transitional nuclei 150 Eu and 152 Tb

  8. Searches for possible T-odd and P-odd short range interactions using polarized nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu P. H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Various theories predict the possible existence of T-odd and P-odd shortrange forces between spin ½ fermions, proportional to S・r where S is the fermion spin and r is the separation between particles. We use ensembles of polarized nuclei and an un-polarized mass to search for such a force over sub-mm ranges. We established an improved upper bound on the product gsgpn of the scalar coupling to particles in the un-polarized mass and the pseudo-scalar coupling of polarized neutrons for force ranges from 10−4 to 10−2 m, corresponding to a mass range of 2・10−3 to 2・10−5 eV for the exchange boson [1].

  9. Influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan; Luo Xiangdong; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Paul, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of signature inversion in the πg 9/2 νh 11/2 bands of odd-odd 98,102 Rh nuclei is studied. Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation

  10. Effective neutron-proton interaction in rare earth odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, Jean-Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The effective neutron-proton interaction V(np) in the rare earth odd-odd deformed nuclei is studied. The parameters of the effective interaction are determined from least square fits of calculated matrix elements compared to the ones extracted from experiment. These fits show the existence of a long range repulsive component as well the importance of the even term of the tensor part of V(np). Some informations are obtained concerning the influence of the choice of the sample of experimental data, of the average field and finally, of the radial shape of the effective interaction. Some predictions are made concerning as yet unconfirmed V(np) matrix elements [fr

  11. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  12. Energy of the 4(+) isomer and new bands in the odd-odd nucleus 74Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, J.; Holcomb, J.W.; Johnson, T.D.; Riley, M.A.; Tabor, S.L.; Womble, P.C.; Winter, G.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 74 Br were investigated via the reactions 58 Ni ( 19 F,2pn) 74 Br and 65 Cu( 12 C,3n) 74 Br at beam energies of 62 and 50 MeV, respectively. On the basis of coincidence data new levels have been introduced and partly grouped into rotational bands. Some of these new states decay to known levels of negative-parity bands built on both the ground state and the long-lived 4 (+) isomer. Thus, an excitation energy of 13.8 keV has been deduced for the long-lived isomer in 74 Br. The level sequences observed are interpreted in terms of Nilsson configurations in conjunction with collective excitations

  13. Factors associated with adolescent–parent communication of reproductive  health issues among high school and preparatory students in Boditi town, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanta M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Muluken Fanta,1 Seblewengel Lemma,2 Getu Gamo Sagaro,3 Mengistu Meskele3 1Wolaita Zone Health Department, Southern Nations Nationalities and People Region State, Wolaita Sodo, 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Background: Communication from parents on reproductive health (RH issues with their adolescent children plays a great role in preventing morbidity and mortality associated with RH. The majority of Ethiopian adolescents do not communicate on these matters with their parents. This study aimed to identify the factors that affect communication on RH issues between parents and high school and preparatory students in Boditi town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the level of communication, and factors affecting communication between high school and preparatory students with their parents on RH issues in Boditi town.Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to February 20, 2015 among high school and preparatory students in Boditi town. A multistage sampling technique was used to sample the study participants. Data were collected by using a self-administrated structured questionnaire, which was developed based on previous literature incorporating all variables to be assessed. Data were entered and analyzed through Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16.0, respectively.Results: This study revealed that 40.70% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.2%–44.2% of students discussed RH issues with their parents. Factors such as being a female student (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.42; 95% CI 1.00–1.95; being in the 10th grade (AOR =1.62; 95% CI 1.04–2.50; having a mother who was educated (able to read and write only; AOR =0.56; 95% CI 0.34–0.91, who had completed secondary education (AOR =0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.80, or who had

  14. El contexto familiar como factor fundamental en la violencia filio-parental

    OpenAIRE

    Lema-Moreira, Estefanía

    2015-01-01

    Revista de psicologia da criança e do adolescente. - ISSN 1647-4120. - V. 5, n. 1 (Janeiro-Junho 2014). - p. 267-275. La violencia filio-parental, en adelante VFP, se trata de una forma de violencia en la que los progenitores son víctimas directos de sus hijos. Es sabido que el seno familiar es un contexto de socialización sumamente importante (Musitu Ochoa, Estévez López, y Jiménez Gutiérrez, 2010) y por ello la influencia de este proceso en el desarrollo emocional es indiscutible (Sprint...

  15. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Angeles Cerezo; Purificación Sierra-García; Gemma Pons-Salvador; Rosa M. Trenado

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS) approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each gro...

  16. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flink Ilse JE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. Methods We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5; information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. Results After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1. When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (P Conclusions This study showed that preschoolers from ethnic minorities and particularly children of first generation immigrants are at an increased risk of problem behaviour compared to children born to a Dutch mother. Although socio-economic factors were found to partly explain the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour, a similar part was explained by family functioning and parenting factors. Considering these findings, it is important for health care workers to also be attentive to symptoms of parental psychopathology (e.g. depression, poor

  17. Agreement between parents and adolescents on emotional and behavioral problems and its associated factors among Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiana; Liu, Li; Wu, Hui; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

    2014-04-15

    Most studies about informant agreements on adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries, but this subject has not been well researched in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of parent-adolescent agreement on adolescents' problems and its associated factors among school-age adolescents in China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2010. A questionnaire including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the characteristics of the child (age and gender), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and family (family structure, negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 2,199 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 15 public schools in Liaoning Province, who completed the questionnaire, became our final participants. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess parent-adolescent agreement, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors of parent-adolescent discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems. The parent-adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was high (mean r = 0.6). The scores of YSR were higher than those of CBCL. Factors that increased informant discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems were boys, older age, the experience of negative life events, low levels of cohesion and organization, and high levels of conflict in the family. A high level of parent-adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was found. Adolescents reported more problems than their parents did. Family environment is an important factor to be considered when interpreting informant discrepancies on the mental health of Chinese adolescents.

  18. Parenting style and mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, John David; Paksarian, Diana; He, Jian-Ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2018-01-01

    We examined associations between parenting style and past-year mental disorders in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of US adolescents and whether the associations differed by adolescent demographic characteristics. The sample included 6483 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were interviewed for a full range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Parenting style was assessed by adolescent-reported maternal and paternal care and control using items from the Parental Bonding Instrument. We controlled for socio-demographics, parental history of mental disorders, stressful life events, sexual violence, inter-parental conflict, and household composition. We also tested for two-way interactions between parental care and control and adolescent age, sex, and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, high maternal care was associated with lower odds of depressive, eating, and behavioral disorders, and high maternal control was associated with greater odds of depressive, anxiety, eating, and behavioral disorders. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of social phobia and alcohol abuse/dependence. High paternal control was associated with greater odds of agoraphobia and alcohol abuse/dependence but with lower odds of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Associations of maternal and paternal control with anxiety disorders and substance abuse/dependence differed by sex. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of anxiety disorders only among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Perceived parental care and control were associated with adolescent mental disorders after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Differential patterns of association were found according to adolescent sex and race/ethnicity. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention programs that incorporate familial contextual factors.

  19. Validating a Model of Motivational Factors Influencing Involvement for Parents of Transition-Age Youth with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Kara A.; Shanley, Lina; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Rowe, Dawn A.; Lindstrom, Lauren; Leve, Leslie D.

    2018-01-01

    Parent involvement is a predictor of postsecondary education and employment outcomes, but rigorous measures of parent involvement for youth with disabilities are lacking. Hirano, Garbacz, Shanley, and Rowe adapted scales based on Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement for use with parents of youth with disabilities aged 14 to 23.…

  20. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  1. Maternal sociodemographic factors that influence full child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single parenting, inadequate antenatal care, ethnicity and negative belief in vaccination to low immunisation uptake around the ... the maternal sociodemographic factors that are associated with child ... mothers <18 years old (odds ratio (OR) 0.53; confidence interval (CI) 0.34 - 0.84) and mothers residing in the northern ...

  2. Perception of emotional relationship with parents as the main factor that influence on teen pregnancy in Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ivonne Trinidad-Noguera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted in the VIFAC house at Veracruz, Mexico; pregnant teenagers who attended this institution where interviewed. Based on the data obtained from the investigation, we observed risk factors that exponentially increased that teenage girls between 12 and 19 years of age get pregnant, viewed from the perspective of own teenager. This study was conducted on a sample of 16 participants divided in two groups, one of pregnant teenagers and one with parent and / or guardian of these, so get a broader situation of each scenario and to evaluate how each of the factors were influencing their environment so that pregnancy is arrived at such young age, for which we apply two types of semi-structured interview depending on the group to which they belonged.

  3. The odds of duplicate gene persistence after polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chain Frédéric JJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication is an important biological phenomenon associated with genomic redundancy, degeneration, specialization, innovation, and speciation. After duplication, both copies continue functioning when natural selection favors duplicated protein function or expression, or when mutations make them functionally distinct before one copy is silenced. Results Here we quantify the degree to which genetic parameters related to gene expression, molecular evolution, and gene structure in a diploid frog - Silurana tropicalis - influence the odds of functional persistence of orthologous duplicate genes in a closely related tetraploid species - Xenopus laevis. Using public databases and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained genetic and expression data from S. tropicalis orthologs of 3,387 X. laevis paralogs and 4,746 X. laevis singletons - the most comprehensive dataset for African clawed frogs yet analyzed. Using logistic regression, we demonstrate that the most important predictors of the odds of duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid species are the total gene expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and development in the diploid species. Slow protein evolution and information density (fewer exons, shorter introns in the diploid are also positively correlated with duplicate gene persistence in the tetraploid. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a combination of factors contribute to duplicate gene persistence following whole genome duplication, but that the total expression level and evenness of expression across tissues and through development before duplication are most important. We speculate that these parameters are useful predictors of duplicate gene longevity after whole genome duplication in other taxa.

  4. Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles Cerezo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of parental gender on their interaction with their infants, considering, as well, the role of the infant’s gender. The State Space Grid (SSG method, a graphical tool based on the non-linear dynamic system (NDS approach was used to analyze the interaction, in Free-Play setting, of 52 infants, aged 6 to 10 months, divided into two groups: half of the infants interacted with their fathers and half with their mothers. There were 50% boys in each group. MANOVA results showed no differential parenting of boys and girls. Additionally, mothers and fathers showed no differences in the Diversity of behavioral dyadic states nor in Predictability. However, differences associated with parent’s gender were found in that the paternal dyads were more “active” than the maternal dyads: they were faster in the rates per second of behavioral events and transitions or change of state. In contrast, maternal dyads were more repetitive because, once they visited a certain dyadic state, they tend to be involved in more events. Results showed a significant discriminant function on the parental groups, fathers and mothers. Specifically, the content analyses carried out for the three NDS variables, that previously showed differences between groups, showed particular dyadic behavioral states associated with the rate of Transitions and the Events per Visit ratio. Thus, the transitions involving ‘in–out’ of ‘Child Social Approach neutral – Sensitive Approach neutral’ state and the repetitions of events in the dyadic state ‘Child Play-Sensitive Approach neutral’ distinguished fathers from mothers. The classification of dyads (with fathers and mothers based on this discriminant function identified 73.10% (19/26 of the father–infant dyads and 88.5% (23/26 of the mother–infant dyads. The study of father-infant interaction using the SSG approach offers interesting possibilities because it characterizes and

  5. Factors associated with parent-child communication about HIV/AIDS in the United States and Kenya: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Melissa N; Miller, Kim S; Lin, Carol; Fasula, Amy; Vandenhoudt, Hilde; Wyckoff, Sarah C; Ochura, Juliet; Obong'o, Christopher O; Forehand, Rex

    2010-10-01

    This study explored parent-child communication about HIV/AIDS among two populations disproportionately affected by HIV. Similar computer-assisted surveys were completed by parents of pre-teens, including 1,115 African American parents of 9-12-year-old children in southeastern US and 403 parents of 10-12-year-old children in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Multivariate analyses identified factors associated with parental report of ever talking to their child about HIV/AIDS. Twenty-nine percent of US parents and 40% in Kenya had never talked to their pre-teen about HIV/AIDS. In both countries, communication was more likely if parents perceived their child to be ready to learn about sex topics, had gotten information to educate their child about sex, and had greater sexual communication responsiveness (skill, comfort, and confidence communicating about sexuality). Programs are needed that help parents assess children's readiness to learn about sexual issues; access accurate information about adolescent sexual risks; and acquire the responsiveness needed to discuss sexual issues, including HIV/AIDS.

  6. Association of parental history of type 2 diabetes with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at type 2 diabetes diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Berencsi, Klara; Sander, Simone

    2016-01-01

    in Type 2 Diabetes cohort. We examined the prevalence ratios (PR) of demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and clinical factors according to parental history, using Poisson regression adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS: Of 2825 T2D patients, 34% (n = 964) had a parental history of T2D. Parental......BACKGROUND: We investigated whether parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at the time of T2D diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Centre for Strategic Research...... history was associated with younger age at diagnosis [adjusted (a)PR 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.31) for age

  7. Social ecological factors associated with future orientation of children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui

    2016-07-01

    From a social ecological perspective, this study examined the effects of stigma (societal level), trusting relationships with current caregivers (familial level), and self-esteem (individual level) on future orientation of children affected by HIV infection and AIDS. Comparing self-report data from 1221 children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS and 404 unaffected children, affected children reported greater stigma and lower future orientation, trusting relationships, and self-esteem. Based on structural equation modeling, stigma experiences, trusting relationships, and self-esteem had direct effects on future orientation, with self-esteem and trusting relationships partially mediating the effect of stigma experiences on children's future orientation. Implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Parents' accounts : factors considered when deciding how far to involve their son/daughter with learning disabilities in choice-making

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Wendy Ann

    2012-01-01

    There is limited literature on the processes of choice-making in families of young people with learning disabilities. This paper examines the factors considered by parents of young people with learning disabilities when deciding their own and their child's role in a range of significant choices (health, social care and education) about their child's life. The paper reports data collected from a sub-sample of 14 parents recruited from 11 families participating in a longitudinal (2007-2010) qua...

  9. Risk Factors for Eating Disturbances in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes and Chronic Asthma: The Role of Parenting Style and Self-Esteem.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatton, J

    2014-01-01

    Background Research indicates that eating disturbances are twice as prevalent among adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to their healthy peers; comparisons with other chronic illness groups are inconclusive. Adolescent self-esteem and parenting factors have been found to be associated with eating disturbances in type 1 diabetes. However, to date the literature is methodologically limited by a lack of comparison group, and has failed to consider the role of parent care and overprotect...

  10. High-spin level scheme of odd-odd 142Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minliang; Zhang Yuhu; Zhou Xiaohong; He Jianjun; Guo Yingxiang; Lei Xiangguo; Huang Wenxue; Liu Zhong; Luo Yixiao; Feng Xichen; Zhang Shuangquan; Xu Xiao; Zheng Yong; Luo Wanju

    2002-01-01

    The level structure of doubly odd nucleus 142 Pm has been studied via the 128 Te( 19 F, 5nγ) 142 Pm reaction in the energy region from 75 to 95 MeV. In-beam γ rays were measured including the excited function, γ-ray singles and γ-γ coincidences in experiment. The level scheme of 142 Pm has been extended up to excitation energy of 7030.0 keV including 25 new γ rays and 13 new levels. Based on the measured γ-ray anisotropies, the level spins in 142 Pm have been suggested

  11. Do parental coronary heart disease risk factors (non-modifiable effect their young ones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: Advancing age may result in changes that could be atherogenic in the future. Such atherogenic changes have already initiated when the subjects are about 21 years old. The incidence of atherogenic changes is far greater when mothers who are having any of the risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, HTN and myocardial infarction than that fathers who are having similar risk factors.

  12. Parental Suicidality as a Risk Factor for Delinquency among Hispanic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have examined the factors associated with juvenile delinquency, but this literature remains limited largely because it has not moved beyond traditional factors generally and because of the lack of research conducted on minority--especially Hispanic--youth. This study seeks to overcome these two limitations by using data from a…

  13. Beyond Food Access: The Impact of Parent-, Home-, and Neighborhood-Level Factors on Children’s Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Futrell Dunaway

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth in empirical research on neighborhood environmental characteristics and their influence on children’s diets, physical activity, and obesity, much remains to be learned, as few have examined the relationship between neighborhood food availability on dietary behavior in children, specifically. This analysis utilized data from a community-based, cross-sectional sample of children (n = 199 that was collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2010. This dataset was linked to food environment data to assess the impact of neighborhood food access as well as household and parent factors on children’s diets. We observed a negligible impact of the neighborhood food environment on children’s diets, except with respect to fast food, with children who had access to fast food within 500 m around their home significantly less likely (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8 to consume vegetables. Key parental and household factors did play a role in diet, including receipt of public assistance and cooking meals at home. Children receiving public assistance were 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.1, 5.4 more likely to consume fruit more than twice per day compared with children not receiving public assistance. Children whose family cooked dinner at home more than 5 times per week had significantly more consumption of fruit (64% vs. 58% and vegetables (55% vs. 39%, but less soda (27% vs. 43%. Findings highlight the need for future research that focuses on the dynamic and complex relationships between built and social factors in the communities and homes of children that impact their diet in order to develop multilevel prevention approaches that address childhood obesity.

  14. THE PRENATAL PARENTAL REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING QUESTIONNAIRE: EXPLORING FACTOR STRUCTURE AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF A NEW MEASURE IN THE FINN BRAIN BIRTH COHORT PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Linnea; Halme-Chowdhury, Elina; Öst, Camilla; Luyten, Patrick; Mayes, Linda; Karlsson, Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (PRF) is the capacity to focus on experience and feelings in oneself and in the child. Individual differences in PRF reportedly affect child attachment and socioemotional development. In this study, we report work on developing a questionnaire to assess PRF during pregnancy (Prenatal Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire; P-PRFQ). The factor structure of the 33-item version of the P-PRFQ was explored using pilot study data from the Finn Brain Birth Cohort Study (n = 124 mothers, n = 82 fathers). Construct validity was assessed against the Pregnancy Interview (PI; A. Slade, L. Grunebaum, L. Huganir, & M. Reeves, 1987, 2002, 2011) in a subsample of 29 mothers from the same pilot sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item P-PRFQ, with three factors which seem to capture relevant aspects of prenatal parental mentalization-F1: "Opacity of mental states," F2: "Reflecting on the fetus-child," and F3: "The dynamic nature of the mental states." Functioning of the factor structure was further tested in the large cohort with 600 mothers and 600 fathers. Correlations with the PI result were high, both regarding total and factor scores of the P-PRFQ. Cost-effective tools to assess key areas of early parenting are needed for both research and clinical purposes. The 14-item P-PRFQ seems to be an applicable and promising new tool for assessing very early parental mentalizing capacity. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanti Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders.

  16. The combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on cannabis use in young adults in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakyi, Kwame S; Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Surkan, Pamela J

    2012-11-01

    The joint effects of multiple social risk factors on substance use, such as parental divorce and parental history of depression, have rarely been studied in young adult offspring. We examined the combined effects of parental divorce and parental history of depression on current cannabis use among a community sample of young adults in France. Parental divorce was ascertained as divorce or separation before 2009. Parental history of depression based on parental reports of depression (1989-2009) and offspring reports of parental lifetime history of depression. Current cannabis use was defined as use at least once in the preceding 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models controlling for young adult and parental socio-demographic variables. Approximately one fourth of youth (23%) reported consuming cannabis at least once in the past year. At the same time, 15% had parents who were divorced and 30% parents with a history of depression. The association between parental divorce and cannabis use in young adults was not statistically significant (adjusted OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 0.97-2.31). History of parental depression conferred a marginally statistically significant 42% higher odds of young adult cannabis use (adjusted OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.00-2.01). Young adults who experienced both parental history of divorce and depression were more than two times as likely to be current cannabis users compared to those who experienced neither of these (adjusted OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.26-4.48). Our findings highlight the critical importance of considering familial context in understanding cannabis use in young adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of parental education on child mental health in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Llácer, Alicia; Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    To analyze the association between parental education and offspring's mental health in a nationally representative Spanish sample, and assess the contribution of other socioeconomic factors to the association. We conducted a secondary analysis of data on 4- to 15-year-olds participating in the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Mental health was assessed using the parent-reported Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire. Parents' respective educational levels were summarized in a single variable. Univariate and multivariate analyses, controlling for family-, child- and parent-related characteristics, were used to study the association. The final sample comprised 5,635 children. A strong association between parental education and parent-reported child mental health was observed among 4- to 11-year-olds, with odds ratios (ORs) increasing as parental educational level decreased. Where both parents had a sub-university level, maternal education showed a stronger association than did paternal education. Following adjustment for covariates, parental education continued to be the strongest risk factor for parent-reported child mental health problems, OR = 3.7 (95% CI 2.4-5.8) for the lowest educational level, but no association was found among 12- to 15-year-olds. Male sex, immigrant status, activity limitation, parent's poor mental health, low social support, poor family function, single-parent families, low family income and social class were associated with parent-reported child mental health problems in both age groups. Our results show that there is a strong association between parental education and parent-reported child mental health, and that this is indeed stronger than that for income and social class. Among adolescents, however, the effect of parental education would appear to be outweighed by other factors.

  18. Household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Roser, Katharina; Baenziger, Julia; Tinner, Eva Maria; Scheinemann, Katrin; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; Michel, Gisela

    2017-08-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life and may place the family at risk-of-poverty. We aimed to (i) compare the household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) to parents of the general population, and (ii) identify sociodemographic and cancer-related factors associated with risk-of-poverty. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of CCS aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on parents of the general population came from the Swiss Household Panel (parents with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Risk-of-poverty was defined as having a monthly household income of poverty. We included parents of 383 CCS and 769 control parent households. Parent-couples of CCS had a lower household income (P trend poverty (30.4% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.001) compared to control parent-couples. Household income and risk-of-poverty of single parents of CCS was similar to control single parents. Parents of CCS were at higher risk-of-poverty if they had only standard education (OR mother = 3.77 [where OR is odds ratio], confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-8.82; OR father = 8.59, CI: 4.16-17.72) and were from the German language region (OR = 1.99, CI: 1.13-3.50). We found no cancer-related risk factors. Parents of long-term CCS reported lower household income and higher risk-of-poverty than control parents. Support strategies may be developed to mitigate parents' risk-of-poverty in the long term, particularly among parents with lower education. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Care burden and its predictive factors in parents of newly diagnosed children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in academic hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingting; Shen, Nanping; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Min; Xie, Anwei; Howell, Doris; Yuan, Changrong

    2017-12-01

    Caring for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a distressing experience for parents without medical training. The experience can lead to parents' care burden. This study explored care burden among parents of children with ALL and its related factors. A total of 130 parents were surveyed with the Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS), Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), and a study specific demographic information questionnaire. Independent-samples T test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis (stepwise method), and binomial logistic regression were used in data analysis. The mean score of parents' care burden overall was 37.74 ± 16.57, 17 (13.08%) had little or no burden, 57 (43.85%) had mild-to-moderate burden, 44 (33.84%) had moderate-to-severe burden, and 12 (9.23%) had severe burden. Regression analyses indicated daily care time, anxiety, general health, average monthly family income, social support, and number of co-caregivers were factors associated with care burden. These variables accounted for 51% of the variance in care burden. Other demographic information of parents and children, depression, and other dimensions of SF-36 were not related to care burden. The severe burden level was associated the increase risk of emotional distress compared with little or no burden group (OR = 37.500, 95% CI = 4.515-311.348, P = 0.001). The results indicated that care burden in parents of children newly diagnosed with ALL is high. Parents with lower levels of care burden tend to have less daily care time, more co-caregivers, higher income, less anxiety, better general health, and social support. Strategies are needed to help reduce parents' care burden.

  20. Highly-distorted and doubly-decoupled rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarris, W.C.; Olivier, W.A.; Rios, A.; Hampton, C.; Chou, Wentsae; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1991-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induce large amounts of angular momentum; hence, they selectively populate rotationally-aligned particle states in compound nuclei. Such states tend to deexcite through similar states connected by large coriolis matrix elements, resulting in relatively few - but highly distorted - bands in the lower-energy portions of odd-odd spectra. The extreme cases of this are doubly-decoupled, K ∼ 1 (π 1/2 x ν 1/2) bands, whose γ transitions are the most intense in spectra from many light Re and Ir nuclei. The authors made a two-pronged assault on such bands, studying them via different HI reactions at different laboratories and using interacting-boson (IBFFA) calculations to aid in sorting them out. The authors are beginning to understand the types of (primarily coriolis) distortions involved and hope to grasp a handle on aspects of the p-n residual interaction, although the coriolis distortions are large enough to mask much of the latter. They also discuss similar but complementary effects in the light Pr region

  1. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes $^{106, 108}$In

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, A; Blazhev, A; Van de Walle, J; Weisshaar, D; Zielinska, M; Tveten, G M; Marsh, B A; Siem, S; Gorska, M; Engeland, T; Hurst, A M; Cederkall, J; Finke, F; Iwanicki, J; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Sletten, G; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Butler, P A; Fahlander, C; Stefanescu, I; Koester, U; Ivanov, O; Wenander, F; Voulot, D

    2010-01-01

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes In-106,In-108 have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu d(5/2) and pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu g7/2 multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed gamma-ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6(+) ground state in In-106. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in In-108 is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) val...

  2. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 184}Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P.C. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Department of Physics, Prasanthinilayam (India)

    2016-02-15

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus {sub 73}{sup 184}Ta{sub 111} is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from {sup 184}Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that {sup 184}Hf (Q{sub β} = 1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β -branches to {sup 184}Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak (1f{sup u}) β -branches populating J{sup π} = 2{sup -} levels in {sup 184}Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying (E{sub x} = 260(40) keV) high-spin (J{sup π} = 10{sup -}) long-lived isomer in this nucleus. (orig.)

  3. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes {sup 106,108}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, A.; Fahlander, C. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Cederkaell, J. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Box 118, Lund (Sweden); CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Engeland, T. [University of Oslo, Physics Department and Center of Mathematics for Applications, Oslo (Norway); Blazhev, A.; Eberth, J.; Finke, F.; Reiter, P.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D. [University of Cologne, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Butler, P.A.; Hurst, A.M. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Goergen, A. [Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ivanov, O.; Stefanescu, I. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Iwanicki, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); Koester, U. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Marsh, B.A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics, Manchester (United Kingdom); CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mierzejewski, J. [University of Warsaw, Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw (Poland); University of Warsaw, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Siem, S. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Sletten, G. [University of Copenhagen, Physics Department, Copenhagen (Denmark); Tveten, G.M. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Van de Walle, J. [CERN, PH Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Voulot, D.; Wenander, F. [CERN, AB Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes {sup 106,108}In have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu}d{sub 5/2} and {pi}g{sub 9/2}{sup -1} x {nu} g{sub 7/2} multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed {gamma} -ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6{sup +} ground state in {sup 106}In. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in {sup 108}In is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) values have been extracted where possible. A previously unknown low-lying state at 367keV in {sup 106}In is also reported. (orig.)

  4. Parental hostility and its sources in psychologically abusive mothers: a test of the three-factor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L

    1995-01-01

    A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.

  5. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  6. Patterns of Bullying and Sexual Harassment: Connections with Parents and Teachers as Direct Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jennifer L; Gower, Amy L; Rudi, Jessie H; McMorris, Barbara J; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-11-01

    Involvement in bullying and sexual harassment in adolescence is associated with a variety of internalizing, externalizing, and health-risk behaviors. Yet, the two behaviors are often studied independently. The current study examined how bullying and sexual harassment co-occur and whether social connections protected youth from risk patterns. The data for this study come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 121,311; 50% female, 74% White, 26% received free or reduced-price lunch; M age  = 14.9, SD = 1.3). Students reported on bullying and sexual harassment victimization and perpetration. Using latent class analysis, youth were classified into five patterns: High-Risk of All Forms of Victimization and Perpetration (7%), Relational and Cyberbullying Victimization (17%), Sexual Harassment Victimization and Perpetration (8%), Physical Bullying Perpetration (6%), and Low-Risk (62%). Compared to the low-risk class, the four other classes had lower levels of social connections, particularly with teachers and parents. Older youth (9th and 11th grade students) were at greater risk for the sexual harassment pattern, while younger youth (8th grade students) were at greater risk for bullying patterns. The results indicate that efforts to reduce bullying should also address sexual harassment and social connections with adults.

  7. Predictors of Positive Outcomes in Offspring of Depressed Parents and Non-depressed Parents Across 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeli, Helen; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Mancini, Anthony; Weissman, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in factors leading to positive outcomes in high-risk and low-risk offspring has important implications for preventive interventions. We identified variables predicting positive outcomes in a cohort of 235 offspring from 76 families in which one, both, or neither parent had major depressive disorder. Positive outcomes were termed resilient in offspring of depressed parents, and competent in offspring of non-depressed parents, and defined by two separate criteria: absence of psychiatric diagnosis and consistently high functioning at 2, 10, and 20 years follow-up. In offspring of depressed parents, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Lower maternal overprotection, greater offspring self-esteem, and higher IQ were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis indicated that resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis was best predicted by offspring self-esteem; resilient outcome defined by functioning was best predicted by maternal overprotection and self-esteem. Among offspring of non-depressed parents, greater family cohesion, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of offspring competent outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Higher maternal affection and greater offspring self-esteem were associated with greater odds of competent outcome, defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis for each criterion indicated that competent outcome was best predicted by offspring self-esteem. As the most robust predictor of positive outcomes in offspring of depressed and non-depressed parents, self-esteem is an important target for youth preventive interventions. PMID:25374449

  8. Factors that influence vaccination decision-making by parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, I.A.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Mollema, L.; Kok, G.; de Melker, H.E.R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, parents have become more disparaging towards childhood vaccination. One group that is critical about the National Immunization Program (NIP) and participates less comprises parents with an anthroposophical worldview. Despite the fact that various studies have identified

  9. Factors influencing perceptions of need for and decisions to solicit child mental health services by parents of 9-12 year-old Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Hyun-Chung; Cho, Hyun; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2007-12-01

    As children with emotional or behavioral problems often fail to receive the treatment available to them, this study examined (1) the degree of perceived need (PN) among Korean parents regarding mental health services for their children, (2) the factors associated with such perceptions, (3) the degree to which Korean parents actually engage mental health services for their children, and (4) the factors associated with such use. To determine the degrees of PN and actual use, 1,058 children aged between 9 and 12 years were asked to complete the Children's Depression Inventory, while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. About 11.4% of the parents demonstrated PN, compared to 2.7% who actually engaged child mental health services. While most of the CBCL factors were associated with PN, the child's self-report significantly affected the perception as well. The attention problem score in the CBCL was the only factor that strongly corresponded to the actual use of services in Korea, a country where academic achievement is considered paramount, which suggests that cultural forces may play a powerful role in determining parents' decisions regarding child mental health care.

  10. Which Better Predicts Conduct Problems? The Relationship of Trajectories of Conduct Problems with ODD and ADHD Symptoms from Childhood into Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A. C.; van der Ende, Jan; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess the co-occurrence in deviant trajectories of parent-rated symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from age 4 to 18 years old in a general population sample of Dutch children. Methods: Developmental trajectories of CD, ODD, and ADHD were…

  11. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  12. Bullying Among Tunisian Middle School Students: the Prevalence, Psychosocial Associated Factors and Perceived Involvement of Parents, Teachers and Classmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Jihene; Mellouli, Menel; El Ghardallou, Meriam; Limam, Manel; Gallas, Mouna; Ammar, Asma; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ajmi, Thouraya Nebli; Zedini, Chekib

    2018-05-05

    Bullying is a serious public health concern remarkably common among youth. Involvement in bullying can lead to deleterious effect on the emotional well-being of pupils. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bullying, its psychosocial associated factors and the perceived involvement of parents, teachers, and classmates to counteract this behavior. A cross-sectional study. We conducted this study in 2015 among a representative multistage sample of 1584 students enrolled in middle schools in the Region of Sousse using the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. It assesses the prevalence of bullying and covers qualitative details of bullying including psychosocial factors and perceived efforts of others to counteract bullying. 11.7% of respondents were classified as pure victims, 7.8% as pure bullies, 3.2% as bully-victims and 75.5% as bystanders. Compared to other groups, the bully-victims were less likely to report a feeling of empathy and liking school. They were more likely to be afraid of being bullied, aggressive and to have fewer friends in the class. Only 30.3% of the victims indicated that they told someone about being bullied. The majority of the middle school students perceived that classmates (54.1%) and teachers (39.5%) did nothing to counteract bullying. Information about bullying is critical and must be gathered before effective intervention is planned. Parents, teachers and students should learn effective ways to handle the bullying problem since the most effective programs are comprehensive targeting students, schools, families and the community.

  13. Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children with ASD: Evaluation of a Contextual Model of Parental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Elizabeth M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; O'Kelley, Sarah E.; Fite, Paula; Greening, Leilani

    2018-01-01

    Parental adjustment, parenting behaviors, and child routines have been linked to internalizing and externalizing child behavior. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a comprehensive model examining relations among these variables in children with ASD and their parents. Based on Sameroff's Transactional Model of Development (Sameroff…

  14. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mental health among single and partnered parents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Choi, Hee Yeon; Kim, Soo In

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it. We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013. Mental health was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires including depressive mood for recent two weeks, presence of suicidal ideation, and the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Covariates included age, physical illness, socioeconomic status (family income, recipient of national basic livelihood guarantees, educational level, house ownership, job, and residential area), family structure, and support (co-residence of another adult). Multiple logistic regression was carried out and the explained fractions of each covariate was calculated. Single parents had significantly poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with odds ratio (OR) of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-2.63) for depressive symptoms, 1.69 (95% CI 1.27-2.25) for suicidal ideation, and 1.74 (95% CI 1.38-2.20) for any of the three mental health statuses (suspicious depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol dependence) after controlling for the covariates. The odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.50-3.93) and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.97-3.17) among both single fathers and mothers were higher than partnered parents. However, the odds of alcohol dependence were 3.6 times higher among single mothers than partnered mothers (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.81-7.08) and were 1.4 times greater among single fathers than partnered fathers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.25). Socio-economic status explained more than 50% (except for substance use disorders) of the poorer mental health in single

  16. Mental health among single and partnered parents in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    Full Text Available This study compares the mental health of single parents relative to partnered parents and assesses the contribution of the social and demographic factors to this difference, examining the gender difference in it.We analyzed 12,024 single and partnered subjects, aged 30-59 years, living with children, aged 0-19 years, drawn from the 4th, 5th, and 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES dataset in South Korea conducted from 2007-2013. Mental health was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires including depressive mood for recent two weeks, presence of suicidal ideation, and the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Covariates included age, physical illness, socioeconomic status (family income, recipient of national basic livelihood guarantees, educational level, house ownership, job, and residential area, family structure, and support (co-residence of another adult. Multiple logistic regression was carried out and the explained fractions of each covariate was calculated.Single parents had significantly poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with odds ratio (OR of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.56-2.63 for depressive symptoms, 1.69 (95% CI 1.27-2.25 for suicidal ideation, and 1.74 (95% CI 1.38-2.20 for any of the three mental health statuses (suspicious depression, suicidal ideation, and alcohol dependence after controlling for the covariates. The odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.50-3.93 and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.97-3.17 among both single fathers and mothers were higher than partnered parents. However, the odds of alcohol dependence were 3.6 times higher among single mothers than partnered mothers (OR = 3.58, 95% CI 1.81-7.08 and were 1.4 times greater among single fathers than partnered fathers (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.81-2.25. Socio-economic status explained more than 50% (except for substance use disorders of the poorer mental health in

  17. Confidence in Attachment Relationships and Marital Status as Protective Factors for Self-Perceived Parental Role and In-Person Visitation with Children Among Incarcerated Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquale, Michele Giovanni; Coppola, Gabrielle; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Pasceri, Maria; Pietralunga, Susanna; Taurino, Alessandro; Semeraro, Cristina; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2018-04-16

    The study aimed at investigating the role of confidence in attachment relationships and marital status as protective factors for incarcerated fathers' self-perceived parental role and in-person contacts with their children. Participants included 150 inmate fathers and 145 nonincarcerated control fathers who provided background sociodemographic information and completed two self-reports, the Attachment Style Questionnaire and the Self-Perception of Parental Role. A two-phased cluster analytic plan allowed us to highlight two profiles of self-perceived parental roles, with incarceration and low confidence in attachment relationships increasing the risk of the less optimal of the two profiles. Higher confidence in attachment relationships and having a stable romantic relationship increased the likelihood of incarcerated fathers engaging in frequent contacts with their children, while the profile of self-perceived parental role had no effect. Implications for practice are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. The Betting Odds Rating System: Using soccer forecasts to forecast soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Fabian; Memmert, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Betting odds are frequently found to outperform mathematical models in sports related forecasting tasks, however the factors contributing to betting odds are not fully traceable and in contrast to rating-based forecasts no straightforward measure of team-specific quality is deducible from the betting odds. The present study investigates the approach of combining the methods of mathematical models and the information included in betting odds. A soccer forecasting model based on the well-known ELO rating system and taking advantage of betting odds as a source of information is presented. Data from almost 15.000 soccer matches (seasons 2007/2008 until 2016/2017) are used, including both domestic matches (English Premier League, German Bundesliga, Spanish Primera Division and Italian Serie A) and international matches (UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europe League). The novel betting odds based ELO model is shown to outperform classic ELO models, thus demonstrating that betting odds prior to a match contain more relevant information than the result of the match itself. It is shown how the novel model can help to gain valuable insights into the quality of soccer teams and its development over time, thus having a practical benefit in performance analysis. Moreover, it is argued that network based approaches might help in further improving