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Sample records for ocular morbidity prevalence

  1. Prevalence of ocular morbidity in rural population of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Anupama Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular morbidity is a significant problem in rural areas of India as it remains undiagnosed and neglected. Aims & Objectives:  To determine the prevalence of ocular morbidity in the rural population of Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in the villages around RHTC Satrikh of HIMS Barabanki. Ocular examination and vision testing was done among 812 people using ophthalmoscopic instruments. Information was collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS and appropriate Statistical tests. Results: Of the total 812 individuals interviewed, the prevalence of ocular morbidity was 41.3% (335 subjects had one or more ocular morbidity; with 88.8% elderly affected (age >65 years.   Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.  Allergic and infective conjunctivitis affected 5.8% and 3.9%, respectively.  The prevalence of Vitamin A deficiency disorder (including night blindness and bitot spots was 1.3%.  Higher ocular morbidity was present in houses with higher SES. Environmental conditions had no significant relation to ocular morbidity.  Conclusion: The prevalence of ocular diseases among the elderly was highest and requires prompt attention.  Myopia was the most common ocular morbidity having a prevalence of 14.8%, followed by cataract (14.3% and hypermetropia (12.8%.

  2. Prevalence of ocular morbidity in school going children in West Uttar Pradesh

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    Veer Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5–15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Children needing further assessment were referred to a higher center. Interpretation and analysis of the data were done using Epi Info Software and t-test. Results: A total of 4838 students (2271 males and 2567 females were screened. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 29.35% (28.65% urban, 30.05% rural. Refractive error (17.36% was the major cause of ocular morbidity followed by convergence insufficiency (2.79%, blepharitis (2.11%, Vitamin A deficiency (2.09%, allergic conjunctivitis (1.92%, bacterial conjunctivitis (0.95%, amblyopia (0.41%, stye (0.31% and squint (0.27%. There was an increase in ocular morbidity with age, especially in refractive error and convergence insufficiency. On comparing urban and rural schools, Vitamin A deficiency showed a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05% in the rural (3.03% as compared to the urban sector (1.15%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 4.9/1000 children, and prevalence of blindness was 0.62/1000 children. Conclusion: This study was the first of its kind in West Uttar Pradesh, reporting a considerable high prevalence (29.35% of pediatric ocular morbidity, which was more in rural as compared to the urban sector. Since most of this morbidity is either preventable or treatable, school screening forms an effective method to reduce this load.

  3. Prevalence of ocular morbidity in school going children in West Uttar Pradesh

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    Singh, Veer; Malik, K P S; Malik, V K; Jain, Kirti

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5–15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Children needing further assessment were referred to a higher center. Interpretation and analysis of the data were done using Epi Info Software and t-test. Results: A total of 4838 students (2271 males and 2567 females) were screened. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 29.35% (28.65% urban, 30.05% rural). Refractive error (17.36%) was the major cause of ocular morbidity followed by convergence insufficiency (2.79%), blepharitis (2.11%), Vitamin A deficiency (2.09%), allergic conjunctivitis (1.92%), bacterial conjunctivitis (0.95%), amblyopia (0.41%), stye (0.31%) and squint (0.27%). There was an increase in ocular morbidity with age, especially in refractive error and convergence insufficiency. On comparing urban and rural schools, Vitamin A deficiency showed a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05%) in the rural (3.03%) as compared to the urban sector (1.15%). The prevalence of visual impairment was 4.9/1000 children, and prevalence of blindness was 0.62/1000 children. Conclusion: This study was the first of its kind in West Uttar Pradesh, reporting a considerable high prevalence (29.35%) of pediatric ocular morbidity, which was more in rural as compared to the urban sector. Since most of this morbidity is either preventable or treatable, school screening forms an effective method to reduce this load. PMID:28643716

  4. Ocular morbidity prevalence among school children in Shimla, Himachal, North India.

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    Gupta, Madhu; Gupta, Bhupinder P; Chauhan, Anil; Bhardwaj, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Data on eye diseases among school children is not readily available. Considering the fact that one-third of India's blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under five when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. To estimate the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age 6-16 years. Government and private coeducational schools in urban area of Shimla. Cross-sectional. Government and private coeducational schools selected by stratified random sampling. About 1561 school children, studying in elementary through secondary class in these schools were examined from August 2001 to January 2002 in Shimla. A doctor did visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic examination. The Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level. Prevalence of ocular morbidity was 31.6% (CI=29.9-32.1%), refractive errors 22% (CI=21.1-22.8%), squint 2.5% (CI=2.4-2.6%), color blindness 2.3% (CI=2.2-2.4%), vitamin A deficiency 1.8 % (CI=1.7-1.9%), conjunctivitis 0.8% (CI=0.79-0.81%). Overall prevalence of ocular morbidity in government and private schools did not show any statistical significant difference. Prevalence of conjunctivitis was significantly (P< 0.5) more in government schools. A high prevalence of ocular morbidity among high-school children was observed. Refractive errors were the most common ocular disorders.

  5. Ocular morbidity prevalence among school children in Shimla, Himachal, North India

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    Gupta Madhu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on eye diseases among school children is not readily available. Considering the fact that one-third of India′s blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under five when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age 6-16 years. Settings: Government and private coeducational schools in urban area of Shimla. Design: Cross-sectional Materials and Methods: Government and private coeducational schools selected by stratified random sampling. About 1561 school children, studying in elementary through secondary class in these schools were examined from August 2001 to January 2002 in Shimla. A doctor did visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic examination. Statistical analysis: The Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity was 31.6% (CI=29.9-32.1%, refractive errors 22% (CI=21.1-22.8%, squint 2.5% (CI=2.4-2.6%, color blindness 2.3% (CI=2.2-2.4%, vitamin A deficiency 1.8 % (CI=1.7-1.9%, conjunctivitis 0.8% (CI=0.79-0.81%. Overall prevalence of ocular morbidity in government and private schools did not show any statistical significant difference. Prevalence of conjunctivitis was significantly (P< 0.5 more in government schools. Conclusion: A high prevalence of ocular morbidity among high-school children was observed. Refractive errors were the most common ocular disorders.

  6. Prevalence of Ocular Morbidity Among School Adolescents of Gandhinagar District, Gujarat

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    Prakash Prajapati,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity (abnormal condition and various factors affecting it among school attending adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study abnormal ocular conditions like refractive errors, vitamin A deficiency, conjunctivitis, trachoma, ocular trauma, blephritis, stye, color blindness and pterygium among school adolescents of 10-19 years age in rural and urban areas of Gandhinagar district from January to July, 2009. Systematic sampling was done to select 20 schools having 6th to 12th standard education including 12 schools from rural and 8 from urban areas. Six adolescents from each age year (10-19 were selected randomly to achieve sample size of 60 from each school. In total, 1206 adolescents including 691 boys and 515 girls were selected. Information was collected from selected adolescents by using proforma. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen’s chart and all participants underwent an ophthalmic examination carried out by a trained doctor. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity among school adolescents was reported 13% (7.8% in boys, 5.6% in girls; with 5.2% have moderate visual impairment. Refractive error was most common ocular morbidity (40% both among boys and girls. Almost 30% of boys and girls reported vitamin A deficiency in various forms of xerophthalmia. Prevalence of night blindness was 0.91% and of Bitot`s spot 1.74%. Various factors like, illiterate or lower parents’ education, lower socio-economic class and malnutrition were significantly associated with ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Ocular morbidity in adolescents is mainly due to refractive error, moderate visual impairment and xerophthalmia.

  7. PREVENTION OF OCULAR MORBIDITY AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS BY PREVALENCE ASSESSMENT OF ASTHENOPIA AND ITS RISK FACTORS

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    Harpal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To determine the prevalence of asthenopia and to identify modifiable risk factors in medical students. Therefore, as to provide with necessory instruction and precaution to reduce the occurrence of the ocular morbidity. METHODS A cross sectional observational study was conducted amongst 200 medical students who are using smart phone, laptop and computer to determine the relationship between asthenopia and related risk factors. Data were based on demographic features, type and duration of electronic items used and asthenopic symptoms was collected by self-administered questionnaire. The data was compiled and entered into excel sheet and analyzed by using appropriate statistical test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20. RESULTS We found out of96% students, 51.56% had moderate asthenopic symptoms. Most of the students had more than one asthenopic symptoms, in which headache (56.77% was found to be the most common symptom followed by eye strain (50.52%, blurring of vision (40.62% and redness (23.95%. Those who were using electronic devices for4-10 hours, had more moderate to severe asthenopic symptoms about 85%. The ocular morbidity was found to be more among the smartphone users followed by laptops. There was association between ocular symptoms and type of electronic devices (χ2= 14.6, p < 0.006 and duration (χ2= 25.6, p<0.001 of its use. CONCLUSION With this study we can identify the modifiable risk factors and excess use of electronic devices, therefore we can guide the students to limit the risk factors so that we can reduce the ocular morbidity

  8. Prevalence and causes of ocular morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a population-based survey.

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    Kahaki Kimani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Ocular morbidity (OM describes any eye disease regardless of resultant visual loss. Ocular morbidity may affect large numbers of people in low income countries and could lead to many episodes of care. However there is limited evidence about the prevalence of ocular morbidity or resulting health-seeking behavior. This study in Mbeere District, Kenya, set out to explore both these issues. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2011. Trained teams moved from house to house examining and questioning residents on ocular morbidity and health-seeking behavior. Data were collected on standardized proformas and entered into a database for analysis. RESULTS: 3,691 people were examined (response rate 91.7%. 15.52% (95% CI 13.86-16.92 had at least one ocular morbidity in at least one eye. The leading cause was presbyopia which affected 25.11% (95% CI 22.05-28.45 of participants over 35 and increased with age. Other leading causes of OM were conditions that affected the lens (32.58% and the conjunctiva (31.31%. No association was found between educational attainment or employment and OM. 9.63% (7.87-11.74 self-reported an ocular morbidity in the previous six months and 45.94% (95% CI 37.1-55.04 stated that they had sought treatment for the condition. CONCLUSION: A large number of people were affected by an ocular morbidity in this survey. Most of these people could potentially be managed in their own communities through primary care services (e.g. those with presbyopia. Further work is required to understand the best way of providing an effective, equitable service for ocular morbidity.

  9. Ocular morbidity among porters at high altitudes.

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    Gnyawali, Subodh; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Khanal, Safal; Dennis, Talisa; Spencer, John C

    2017-01-01

    High altitude, often characterized by settings over 2400m, can be detrimental to the human body and pose a significant risk to ocular health. Reports concerning various ocular morbidities occurring as a consequence of high altitude are limited in the current literature. This study was aimed at evaluating the ocular health of porters working at high altitudesof Himalayas in Nepal. A mobile eye clinic was set up in Ghat and patient data were collected from its out- patient unit by a team of seven optometrists which was run for five days. Ghat is a small village in north-eastern Nepal, located at 2860 m altitude. Travellers walking through the trekking route were invited to get their eyes checked at the clinic. Comprehensive ocular examinations were performed, including visual acuities, objective and subjective refraction, anterior and posterior segment evaluations, and intraocular pressure measurements; blood pressure and blood glucose levels were also measured as required. Ocular therapeutics, prescription glasses, sunglasses and ocular health referrals were provided free of cost as necessary. A total of 1890 people visited the eye clinic, among which 57.4% (n=1084) were porters. Almost half of the porters had an ocular morbidity. Correctable refractive error was most prevalent, with other ocular health-related complications, including dry eye disease, infectious disorders, glaucoma and cataract. Proper provision of regular and effective eye care services should be made more available for those residing at these high altitudes in Nepal. © NEPjOPH.

  10. Factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal pediatric ocular disease study.

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    Adhikari, Srijana; Shrestha, Mohan Krishna; Adhikari, Kamala; Maharjan, Nhukesh; Shrestha, Ujjowala Devi

    2014-10-23

    Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study is a three year longitudinal population based study. Here we present the baseline survey report which aims to investigate various risk factors associated with childhood ocular morbidity and blindness in three ecological regions of Nepal. This baseline survey is a population based cross sectional study. The investigation was conducted in a district from each of the following regions: Terai, Hill and Mountain. The Village Development Committees (VDCs) from each district were selected by random sampling. Three Community health workers were given training on vision screening and identification of abnormal ocular signs in children. They conducted a house to house survey in their respected districts examining the children and gathering a standardized set of data variables. Children with abnormal vision or ocular signs were then further examined by pediatric ophthalmologists. A total of 10950 children aged 0-10 years (5403 from Terai, 3204 from the hills, 2343 from the mountains) were enrolled in the study. However 681 (6.2%) were non responders. The male to female ratio was 1.03. The overall prevalence of ocular morbidity was 3.7% (95% CI of 3.4%-4%) and blindness was 0.07% (95% CI of 0.02%-0.12%). Ocular morbidity was more prevalent in the mountain region whereas blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region.Children from the Terai region were more likely to suffer from congenital ocular anomalies compared to the other regions. Children whose mother smoked, drank alcohol, or was illiterate were significantly afflicted with ocular diseases (p Blindness was more prevalent in children who suffered from a systemic illness. Females and under-nourished children were more likely to have ocular morbidity and blindness. It was found that childhood blindness was more prevalent in the Terai region, the undernourished, females and in those with co-morbid systemic illnesses. This study strongly suggests that prevention of childhood

  11. Ocular Morbidity among Children Attending Government and Private Schools of Kathmandu Valley

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    R K Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. Results: A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 % being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No signifi cant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. Conclusions: A signifi cant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no signifi cant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools. Keywords: Myopia, ocular morbidity, school Students

  12. Ocular morbidity among children attending government and private schools of Kathmandu valley.

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    Shrestha, R K; Joshi, M R; Ghising, R; Rizyal, A

    2011-01-01

    Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 %) being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No significant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. A significant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no significant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools.

  13. Epidemiology of ocular allergy and co-morbidities in adolescents

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    Marcos Geraldini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis (AC has not been established. Estimates suggest that ocular allergies affect 15% to 20% of the worldwide population, yet most epidemiological studies encompass nasal and ocular allergy symptoms and have not been specific to AC. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of ocular allergy symptoms, co-morbidities, and their impact on adolescents. Methods: Adolescents were selected from a sample of schools, and completed in classrooms a previously validated questionnaire on symptoms of AC. AC diagnosis was considered when more than three episodes of ocular itching were reported in the past 12 months. Related symptoms such as tearing, photophobia, foreign body sensation, impact on daily activities, and diagnosis of AC were analyzed. Results: Questionnaires were obtained from 3,120 adolescents (mean age 13.3 ± 1.1 years. Ocular itching in the past 12 months occurred in 1,592 (51%. The most frequently associated symptom was tearing (74%, followed by photophobia (50.1% and foreign body sensation (37.1%. The prevalence of AC was 20.7%, affecting more females than males (56.1% versus 45.9%; p = 0.01. The risks of an adolescent with ocular allergy to present asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema were (OR = 5.7; 95% CI: 4.5 to 7.1, (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 3.0 to 4.3, and (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 2.0 to 3.5, respectively. Severe interference in daily activities was reported by 30.5%. Conclusions: Symptoms of ocular allergy are common, frequently associated to other allergic diseases, and impact the daily activities of adolescents. Resumo: Objetivo: A prevalência de conjuntivite alérgica (CA não foi estabelecida. Estimativas sugerem que alergias oculares afetam de 15 a 20% da população mundial, ainda que a maioria dos estudos epidemiológicos abranjam sintomas de alergia nasal e ocular e não sejam específicos a respeito da CA. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de sintomas

  14. Ocular morbidity and health seeking behaviour in Kwara state, Nigeria: implications for delivery of eye care services.

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    Laura Senyonjo

    Full Text Available There is currently limited information as to which conditions are most prevalent in communities in developing countries. This makes effective planning of eye services difficult.3,899 eligible individuals were recruited and examined in a cross-sectional survey in Asa Local Government Area, Nigeria. Those who self-reported an ocular morbidity were also asked about their health-seeking behaviour. Health records of local facilities were reviewed to collect information on those presenting with ocular morbidities.25.2% (95% CI: 22.0-28.6 had an ocular morbidity in at least one eye. Leading causes were presbyopia and conditions affecting the lens and conjunctiva. The odds of having an ocular morbidity increased with age and lower educational attainment. 10.1% (7.7-13.0 self-reported ocular morbidity; 48.6% (40.4-56.8 of them reported seeking treatment. At the facility level, 344 patients presented with an ocular morbidity over one month, the most common conditions were red (26.3% or itchy (20.8% eyes.Ocular morbidities, including many non vision impairing conditions, were prevalent with a quarter of the population affected. The delivery of eye care services needs to be tailored in order to address this need and ensure delivery in a cost-effective and sustainable manner.

  15. General morbidity prevalence in the Delhi slums

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    Marimuthu P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.

  16. Prevalence of cardiovascular morbidities in Myanmar.

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    Zaw, Ko Ko; Nwe, Nwe; Hlaing, Su Su

    2017-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are now in a rising trend in South East Asia including Myanmar due to increase in major cardiovascular risk factors in both urban and rural areas, such as smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to determine CVD morbidities in Myanmar for planning of prevention and control activities for CVDs. The cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2012 with 600 people aged 40 years and above in four townships (Kyauk-Tan, Mawlamyaing, Pathein and Pyay) and used face-to-face interview with standard questionnaire [Rose Angina Questionnaire and Questionnaire by European Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set (EUROCISS) Research Group] to determine the level of reported CVD morbidities in adult population. Age of the study population ranged from 40 to 99 years with the mean age of 56 years. Seventy-one percent of the study population was women. Nine percent of the study population have suffered from angina according to Rose Angina Questionnaire. Prevalence of possible heart attack, stroke and heart failure was 7.5, 1.5 and 2.8%. Prevalence of hypertension was 51%. The CVD morbidities are high. There is a need for strengthening prevention and control activities of CVDs.

  17. Pattern of Ocular Morbidity in the Elderly Population of Northern India.

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    Baldev, Vibha Florence; Chopra, Rupali; Batra, Nitin; Singh, Shavinder

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of eye diseases has been suggested to start increasing around 40 years of age, with an even steeper increase beginning around 60 years of age. Health promotions and curative and rehabilitative services for the visually impaired elderly population should therefore be a priority in the coming years especially in low and middle income countries. To examine the changing pattern of ocular morbidity in the elderly population of Northern India and to determine the socioeconomic status in relation to ocular morbidities. A team from the Department of Ophthalmology and Department of Community Medicine, conducted house visits and did a complete eye examination of 450 elderly subjects. They were selected by systematic random sampling from the data base available in the Department of Community Medicine. A total of 900 eyes were examined. Visual impairment and blindness was seen in 135 (30%) and 36 (8%) individuals respectively. The most common cause of blindness was cataract, followed by corneal opacity, glaucoma, refractive error, diabetic retinopathy, macular scar, age related macular degeneration, retinal detachment, retinitis pigmentosa. Visual impairment was more in individuals with low socioeconomic status. The results of this study suggest that though cataract remains the main cause of blindness, there is an increase in blindness and visual impairment due to corneal diseases and glaucoma which was not seen earlier. The availability and accessibility to eye care facilities particularly for corneal diseases and glaucoma should be increased to reduce blindness in Northern India.

  18. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among medical practitioners in ...

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    Background: Mental health problems can affect anybody including Doctors. It can be related to nature of our work and personal factors. Mental ill health includes a range of conditions like depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety and psychosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among Medical ...

  19. Ocular injury: Prevalence in different rural population of Bangladesh.

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    Khan, A K

    2013-12-01

    was 53% with median wage loss being 10 days. The study concludes that point-prevalence of ocular trauma in rural area is around 2% with blunt objects commonly causing the trauma and one in every 16 trauma-hit case undergo blind. Addressing blindness from ocular trauma, should, therefore, be a priority for eye care programs in rural Bangladesh.

  20. A RETROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE AND OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN VARIOUS OCULAR CAUSES FOR HEADACHE DISORDERS

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    Srinivasan Shanmugam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Headache or cephalgia is one of the commonest symptoms causing pain in head above eyes or the ears, behind the head in the occipital region or in the back of the upper neck causing pain as well as disability to an individual. WHO reports around 47% of adults worldwide will have experienced headache in the last year. Headache maybe primary or secondary. Tension headache is more common type of primary headache. Almost, 90% of adults have tension headache and it is more common in females than males. Migraine headache is third most prevalent disorder worldwide and ranked as seventh highest cause of disability. Migraine headaches are the second most common type of primary headaches, whereas cluster headache, a relatively uncommon type of primary headache affecting less than 1 in every 1000 adults. 1 Many people suffer from mixed headache disorder in which tension headache or secondary headache may trigger migraine. Headache on 15 or more days in every month affects 1.7-4% of the world adult population. Hospital-based studies of migraine shows India is home over 16% of world inhabitants suffering from migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS In our study, total screening of 1200 cases was done with headache symptomatology reported to Eye OPD directly as well as referred from ENT, Medical, NeuroMedical, Surgical, Neurosurgical, Psychiatry, Orthopaedics and Trauma Ward. A detailed clinical examination and ophthalmological examination was done in 1200 cases. RESULTS Sexual prevalence in our study indicated female with increased prevalence of 46.67% compared to male of 36%. Among 30 cases of migrainous headache with or without aura, the sexual prevalence in our study has female-to-male ratio as 2:1 (female - 20 cases and male - 10 cases. No cluster headache disorder was reported in our study. Among the tension headache presented with ocular manifestations like association of the refractive error, redness, burning sensation, the female prevalence among

  1. PREVALENCE OF OCCULT DEPRESSION IN ELDERLY WITH CHRONIC CO - MORBIDS

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    Sachin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth in elderly population has led to an increase in age related diseases and mainly depression which is affecting the quality of life. Depression is more prevalent amongst elderly individuals with medical illnesses and emerging public health problem leading to increased morbidity and disability worldwide. AIMS AND OBJE CTIVES: To assess the prevalence of occult depression in elderly patients with chronic co - morbid medical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a cross - sectional study conducted in tertiary hospital. Total 100 elderly patients with underlying chronic me dical illnesses were included. Depression in study population was assessed by geriatric depression scale and analyzed. RESULT: Out of 100 patients 23(23% had depression. Females 12/39(30.76% were affected more than males 11/61 (18.03%. Depression was mo re prevalent among patients with 3 or more co - morbid conditions (45.4% as compared to <3 (11.9%. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with multiple chronic medical illnesses may have associated occult depression. Screening of these patients for depression couple d with appropriate psychiatric referral should be an integral part of Geriatric service

  2. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

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    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Prevalence and pattern of ocular disorders seen among artisans in Owerri, Imo State

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    Joseph Chukwuma Eziechila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern and prevalence of ocular disorders among artisans with a view to make recommendations to the appropriate ministries for the formulation of necessary policies to preserve the ocular health status of these artisans.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross sectional study in which the sample population was selected using the proportion to size technique and simple random sampling.RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of degenerative conjunctival disorders among the artisans with pingueculum topping the list at 30.1%. Automobile mechanics had the highest prevalence for conjunctival disorders, corneal opacities, and allergic conjunctivitis. Superficial foreign bodies(74.4%were the most common work related injury observed while 13.6% of the artisans developed cataract from work related injuries.CONCLUSION: Governmental policies targeted at preserving and maintaining the ocular health of the artisans is needed to reduce the prevalence of ocular disorders noted in this study.

  4. PREVALENCE OF DEVASTATING OCULAR TRAUMA, IT’S EMERGENCY AND SECONDARY MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    Jagadish Prasad Rou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Usually, young adults are the common victims of ocular trauma in their productive age. Severe ocular trauma most often leads to poor vision, at times total loss of vision, which is not only burden to their family, but also to the entire nation. Proper evaluation of severity of ocular trauma at the time of initial examination may help in planning for skillful management and help in prevention of severe visual morbidity. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of ocular trauma and the visual outcome after one year of its emergency management and secondary management in selected cases in a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS 89 cases of ocular trauma who presented to our tertiary care center of different age groups were studied prospectively from July 2016 to July 2017. Evaluation of all ocular trauma case was done primarily by slit-lamp examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy and 90D biomicroscopy, x-ray orbit, B-scan and CT scan orbit. All patients who required immediate admission and emergency management were included in the study and old cases of ocular trauma or underwent previous ocular surgical procedure and had ocular infections or any ocular pathology were excluded. All the subjects were managed either conservatively or surgically as and when required. Primary management like repair of lacerated lid injuries, corneal laceration and penetrating injury with or without iris prolapse, corneoscleral tear suturing, scleral tear suturing and removal of IOFB were done on emergency basis. Secondarily, patients were taken up for surgery for traumatic cataract extraction, posttraumatic glaucoma surgery, vitreoretinal surgery for vitreous haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage and retinal detachment. RESULTS Out of 89 cases, 69 were males and 20 were females. Agricultural injury was the leading cause of ocular trauma in which injury from vegetative matter were the most common causative aetiology followed by objects like knife and

  5. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

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    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  6. Ocular morbidity patterns among children in schools for the blind in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, M Vs; Sivakumar, S; Dayal, Ashutosh; Chitra, A; Subramaniam, Sudharshini

    2017-08-01

    To identify the morbidity patterns causing blindness in children attending schools for the blind in Chennai and comparing our data with similar studies done previously. A cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in two schools for the blind in Chennai. Blind schools were visited by a team of ophthalmologists and optometrists. Students with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 3/60 in the better eye were included and relevant history was noted. Every student underwent anterior segment evaluation and detailed fundus examination. Morbidity of the better eye was taken as cause of blindness. Health records maintained by the school were referred to wherever available. The anatomical causes of blindness include optic nerve disorders in 75 (24.8%) cases, retinal disorders in 55 (18.2%), corneal disorders in 47 (15.6%), lens-related disorders in 39 (12.9%), congenital anomalies in 11 (3.6%), and congenital glaucoma in 20 (6.6%) cases. The whole globe was involved in six cases (1.99%). Among conditions causing blindness, optic atrophy seen in 73 (24.17%) cases was the most common, followed by retinal dystrophy in 44 (14.56%), corneal scarring in 35 (11.59%), cataract in 22 (7.28%), and congenital glaucoma in 20 (6.6%) cases. It was found that avoidable causes of blindness were seen in 31% of cases and incurable causes in 45%. Optic nerve atrophy and retinal dystrophy are the emerging causes of blindness, underlining the need for genetic counseling and low vision rehabilitation centers, along with a targeted approach for avoidable causes of blindness.

  7. Vision Impairment and Ocular Morbidity in a Refugee Population in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Dinesh; Gyawali, Rajendra; Kandel, Himal; Reading, Angela; Msosa, Joseph Matiya

    2016-02-01

    To provide screening services and obtain information on the eye health status and distribution of visual impairments in a refugee population of the sole refugee camp in Malawi. A general eye screening at Dzaleka refugee settlement camp was organized in November 2012. Final-year optometry students conducted detailed optometry examinations, including visual acuity (VA) assessment for near and distance, retinoscopy, and subjective refraction in cases with distance VA less than 6/12 or near VA less than N8, anterior and posterior segment evaluation. Their findings were then verified by an optometrist. The World Health Organization definition of vision impairment was followed, and the cause of vision impairment was determined at the end of each examination. Where possible, participants requiring refractive correction were provided spectacles free of cost. Of a total 635 participants examined, around one-half were male with 61% in the 16 to 49 years age group. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness, severe vision impairment, and vision impairment were 1.3% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.5 to 2.4), 0.5% (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.1), and 3.6% (95% CI, 2.3 to 5.2), respectively. Overall vision impairment (VA vision impairment, and vision impairment were cataracts, refractive errors, and corneal opacities, respectively; and more than 90% of the overall vision impairment was avoidable. Refractive errors and presbyopia were the most common morbidity, present in more than two-thirds of the participants examined. Only 5% of all the participants ever had a previous eye examination. The prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment in a refugee population are comparable with those of the general population. Lack of basic eye care services in the health center for refugees is a major concern. The health care facility in the settlement camp needs to be upgraded to provide comprehensive eye care including refractive care services.

  8. Prevalence of Ocular Trauma among Paediatrics and Geriatrics: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    globe, 50 (29.1%) lacera ons, 5 (2.9%) chemical injuries, 6 (3.5%) thermal injuries were seen. The mean ... of all pa ents presen ng as ophthalmic accident and emergency ... process, limited recovery capacity, ocular pathology in pa ents ...

  9. Prevalence of ocular findings in a sample of Egyptian patients with psoriasis

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    Salma Samir Omar

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report on the prevalence of eye comorbidities in Egyptian psoriatic patients. Dry eyes were more common with psoriasis, particularly the erythrodermic type. Other ocular findings were not statistically significantly different except for conjunctival injection and pinguecula.

  10. The prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in the Australian National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Foreman, Joshua; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) is a population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. An eye was considered to have vision loss due to trauma if the best-corrected visual acuity was worse than 6/12 and the main cause was attributed to ocular trauma. This determination was made by two independent ophthalmologists and any disagreements were adjudicated by a third senior ophthalmologist. The sampling weight adjusted prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and over was 0.24% (95%CI: 0.10, 0.52) and 0.79% (95%CI: 0.56, 1.13), respectively. Trauma was attributed as an underlying cause of bilateral vision loss in one Indigenous participant, with all other cases being monocular. Males displayed a higher prevalence of vision loss from ocular trauma than females in both the non-Indigenous (0.47% vs. 1.25%, p=0.03) and Indigenous populations (0.12% vs. 0.38%, p=0.02). After multivariate adjustments, residing in Very Remote geographical areas was associated with higher odds of vision loss from ocular trauma. We estimate that 2.4 per 1000 non-Indigenous and 7.9 per 1000 Indigenous Australian adults have monocular vision loss due to a previous severe ocular trauma. Our findings indicate that males, Indigenous Australians and those residing in Very Remote communities may benefit from targeted health promotion to improve awareness of trauma prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tinnitus and the prevalence of co-morbid psychological stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three (3.2) patients had both depression and anxiety. Eighty three (90.2%) patients were in the active and productive age group with 13 patients (prevalence of 14.1%) having depression and 20 patients (prevalence of 21.7%) with anxiety. Conclusion: We recommend the screening or assessment for psychological distress ...

  12. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in diabetic population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, K.; Malik, I.; Shehzadi, A.; Mir, K.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common among diabetic patients and is linked with worse outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in patients with established type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: In this cross sectional study, patients with established T2DM were examined consecutively for depression by administering the nine-item PHQ-9. A sample of 112 participants was purposively selected. Differences in characteristics between participants were tested with independent t-test at 5% significance level. Results: One hundred-twelve patients were evaluated, including 41 (36.6%) males, 71 females (63.4%). The mean age of participants was 49.5 ± 12.1 years, with the mean duration of diabetes 8. 7.3 years. Mean PHQ-9 score was 11.9 ± 6.9, with 67 cases (59.8%) achieving the diagnosis of clinically significant depression. Depression was found to be more in females (13.14 ± 6.73) as compared to males (9.97 ± 6.92, p=0.02). A positive correlation was observed between depression and duration of diabetes, whereas a weak positive correlation was noticed between depression and age. However, no significant relationship was observed between depression and type of medication (p=0.094).Conclusions: The study showed high prevalence of depression in patients with T2DM, with higher occurrence in females as compared to males. The risk factors of depression were age and duration of diabetes. (author)

  13. Prevalence of reproductive morbidity amongst males in an urban slum of north India

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    Uppal Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of reproductive morbidity among males in India have chiefly focused on prevalence of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs among males attending Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics, blood donors and other selected population groups, with only few focused on the magnitude and the type of reproductive morbidity amongst Indian males at community level. Objective: To estimate prevalence of reproductive morbidity including (RTIs/STIs among males in the age group of 20-50 years residing in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods: Out of 268 males in the targeted age group, selected by systematic random sampling, residing in an urban sum of Delhi, 260 males were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory investigations for diagnosis of reproductive morbidity. Laboratory investigations were done for diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Non gonococcal urethritis and urinary tract infection. Results: A total of 90 (33.6% of 268 study subjects reported one or more perceived symptoms of reproductive tract / sexual morbidity in last six months. Overall reproductive morbidity based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis was present in 76 (29.2% study subjects and of this sexually acquired morbidity accounted for 21.2% cases. Hepatitis B was most common (10.3% reproductive morbidity followed by Urinary Tract Infection (5.0%, scabies (3.5% and congenital anomalies (3.5%. Conclusion: High prevalence of reproductive morbidity (29.2% amongst males in an urban slum highlights the need for more studies in different settings. There is a need for developing interventions in terms of early diagnosis and treatment and prevention.

  14. Prevalence of psychiatric and physical morbidity in an urban geriatric population

    OpenAIRE

    Seby, K.; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Chakraborty, Rudraprosad

    2011-01-01

    Background: With a rapidly increasing population of older aged people, epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of mental and physical illnesses are urgently required for proper health planning. However, there is a scarcity of such data from India. Aims: To study the frequency and pattern of psychiatric morbidity present and the association of physical illness with psychiatric morbidity in an elderly urban population. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study. Materials...

  15. Spatially Interpolated Disease Prevalence Estimation Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity and Ecological Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods) when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices) that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care) areas. PMID:24129116

  16. Spatially Interpolated Disease Prevalence Estimation Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity and Ecological Risk

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    Peter Congdon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care areas.

  17. Spatially interpolated disease prevalence estimation using collateral indicators of morbidity and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-10-14

    This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods) when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices) that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care) areas.

  18. Estimating Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease for Small Areas Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity

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    Peter Congdon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different indicators of morbidity for chronic disease may not necessarily be available at a disaggregated spatial scale (e.g., for small areas with populations under 10 thousand. Instead certain indicators may only be available at a more highly aggregated spatial scale; for example, deaths may be recorded for small areas, but disease prevalence only at a considerably higher spatial scale. Nevertheless prevalence estimates at small area level are important for assessing health need. An instance is provided by England where deaths and hospital admissions for coronary heart disease are available for small areas known as wards, but prevalence is only available for relatively large health authority areas. To estimate CHD prevalence at small area level in such a situation, a shared random effect method is proposed that pools information regarding spatial morbidity contrasts over different indicators (deaths, hospitalizations, prevalence. The shared random effect approach also incorporates differences between small areas in known risk factors (e.g., income, ethnic structure. A Poisson-multinomial equivalence may be used to ensure small area prevalence estimates sum to the known higher area total. An illustration is provided by data for London using hospital admissions and CHD deaths at ward level, together with CHD prevalence totals for considerably larger local health authority areas. The shared random effect involved a spatially correlated common factor, that accounts for clustering in latent risk factors, and also provides a summary measure of small area CHD morbidity.

  19. The Prevalence of Ocular Allergy and Comorbidities in Chinese School Children in Shanghai

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    Yanqing Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence and features of ocular allergy (OA and comorbidities among school children in Shanghai, China. Methods. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Each participant completed an ISAAC-based questionnaire. The prevalence of OA symptoms, allergic rhinitis (AR asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD, and sensitization to mites, pollen, and food was analyzed. Results. A total of 724 and 942 completed questionnaires from the 7–9-year-old (young group and the 12–14-year-old (teen group groups were analyzed, respectively. The overall prevalence of OA symptoms was 28%. However, more young students (10.6% reported mild to severe daily life interference caused by OA than the teens (5.7%. The young group had higher prevalence of diagnosed allergic conjunctivitis (10.2%. The overall prevalence of AR symptom, diagnosed asthma, and diagnosed AD was 40.4%, 11.6%, and 16.7%, respectively. Young children had higher prevalence of diagnosed AR and AD than the teens. There were gender associated differences in the prevalence of AR and asthma among young children, but not among the teens. The comorbidities associated with OA was also analyzed. Sensitization to mites, food, and pollen was associated with higher prevalence of allergic conditions. Conclusions. OA together with other allergic conditions affected a significant number of children in Shanghai.

  20. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Colin K; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Pavluck, Alexandre L; Willis, Rebecca; Alexander, Neal; Mabey, David C W; Cikamatana, Luisa; Kama, Mike; Rafai, Eric; Roberts, Chrissy H; Solomon, Anthony W

    2016-07-01

    Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji. A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1-9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control. The prevalence of active trachoma in 1-9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4-4.3%). The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1-9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009), and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4-2.5%). The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354). There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified. The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in this Division of Fiji, but the inconsistency with

  1. Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin K Macleod

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct. While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. This finding is at odds with the clinical experience of local healthcare workers who do not consider trachoma to be highly prevalent. We aimed to determine whether conjunctival infection with Ct could be detected in one administrative division of Fiji.A population-based survey of 2306 individuals was conducted using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. Population prevalence of active trachoma in children and trichiasis in adults was estimated using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 1009 children aged 1-9 years. DNA from swabs was tested for the presence of the Ct plasmid and human endogenous control.The prevalence of active trachoma in 1-9 year olds was 3.4%. The age-adjusted prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.4-4.3%. The unadjusted prevalence of ocular Ct infection in 1-9 year-olds was 1.9% (19/1009, and the age-adjusted infection prevalence was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.4-2.5%. The median DNA load was 41 Ct plasmid copies per swab (min 20, first quartile 32, mean 6665, third quartile 161, max 86354. There was no association between current infection and follicular trachoma. No cases of trachomatous trichiasis were identified.The Western Division of Fiji has a low prevalence of clinical trachoma. Ocular Ct infections were observed, but they were predominantly low load infections and were not correlated with clinical signs. Our study data suggest that trachoma does not meet the WHO definition of a public health problem in this Division of Fiji, but the

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, A; Nassirou, B; Kadri, B; Moussa, F; Munoz, B E; Opong, E; West, S K

    2007-01-01

    To determine the association of personal and household risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger. 12 villages were randomly selected. A census of all households was carried out, and 651 children aged 1-5 years were randomly selected and examined. Household and personal characteristics were determined, trachoma was clinically assessed and a swab for ocular C trachomatis infection was taken. The prevalence of trachoma was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39% to 47%) and of infection was 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%). Children aged 3-5 years had a stronger association of clinical signs with infection, compared with those aged 1-2 years. Those with unclean faces were three times more likely to have clinical trachoma or ocular C trachomatis infection, compared with those with clean faces (OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.6 to 6.2) and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 6.3), respectively). 75% of compounds were within 30 min of a water source. Flies on the face were a risk factor for trachoma but not for C trachomatis infection. The different association of clinical signs with infection in younger versus older children may be an age-dependent difference in the duration of clinical disease. In Niger, unclean faces are a major risk factor for trachoma. The ready availability of water for washing suggests that further research on the effect of a strong health education campaign promoting clean children is warranted in this area.

  3. The prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in a population of geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J M; Irving, A C; Bridges, J P; Jones, B R

    2014-01-01

    To provide an estimate of the prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand and to evaluate the importance of examination of the ocular fundi of cats over eight years of age. A total of 105 cats ≥8 years of age were examined and clinical signs recorded. Blood was collected for the laboratory measurement of the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose and creatinine in serum, urine was collected for determination of urine specific gravity (USG), and blood pressure (BP) was measured using high definition oscillometry equipment. A cat was determined to have systemic hypertension with a systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg and a diastolic BP ≥100 mm Hg. Each animal had an ocular fundic examination using a retinal camera to diagnose ocular lesions associated with hypertension, including retinopathies, choroidopathies and optic neuropathies. Blood pressure was successfully recorded in 73 cats. Of these, 37 (51%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions and no underlying disease diagnosed, 24 (33%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions detected, but underlying disease such as chronic kidney disease, hyperthyroidism or diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and 12 (16%) cats had evidence of hypertensive ocular lesions. Ten of the cats with hypertensive ocular lesions were hypertensive at the time of the first visit and two were normotensive. One additional cat had hypertensive ocular lesions, but it was not possible to obtain consistent BP readings in this animal. Chronic kidney disease was the most commonly diagnosed concurrent disease in cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (n=6). Mean systolic BP for cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (168.0 (SE 6.29) mm Hg) was higher than for those with no ocular lesions (144.7 (SE 3.11) mm Hg) or those with no lesions but with underlying disease (146.0 (SE 4.97) mm Hg) (p=0.001). Ocular fundic examination of cats over eight years of age allows identification of cats with

  4. WHO systematic review of maternal morbidity and mortality: the prevalence of severe acute maternal morbidity (near miss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattinson Robert C

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To determine the prevalence of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM worldwide (near miss. Method Systematic review of all available data. The methodology followed a pre-defined protocol, an extensive search strategy of 10 electronic databases as well as other sources. Articles were evaluated according to specified inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using data extraction instrument which collects additional information on the quality of reporting including definitions and identification of cases. Data were entered into a specially constructed database and tabulated using SAS statistical management and analysis software. Results A total of 30 studies are included in the systematic review. Designs are mainly cross-sectional and 24 were conducted in hospital settings, mostly teaching hospitals. Fourteen studies report on a defined SAMM condition while the remainder use a response to an event such as admission to intensive care unit as a proxy for SAMM. Criteria for identification of cases vary widely across studies. Prevalences vary between 0.80% – 8.23% in studies that use disease-specific criteria while the range is 0.38% – 1.09% in the group that use organ-system based criteria and included unselected group of women. Rates are within the range of 0.01% and 2.99% in studies using management-based criteria. It is not possible to pool data together to provide summary estimates or comparisons between different settings due to variations in case-identification criteria. Nevertheless, there seems to be an inverse trend in prevalence with development status of a country. Conclusion There is a clear need to set uniform criteria to classify patients as SAMM. This standardisation could be made for similar settings separately. An organ-system dysfunction/failure approach is the most epidemiologically sound as it is least open to bias, and thus could permit developing summary estimates.

  5. The distribution of the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in communities where trachoma is disappearing

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    Thomas M. Lietman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict that the prevalence of infection in different communities where an infectious disease is disappearing should approach a geometric distribution. Trachoma programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization (WHO has targeted trachoma to be eliminated as a public health concern by the year 2020. We assess the distribution of the community prevalence of childhood ocular chlamydia infection from periodic, cross-sectional surveys in two areas of Ethiopia. These surveys were taken in a controlled setting, where infection was documented to be disappearing over time. For both sets of surveys, the geometric distribution had the most parsimonious fit of the distributions tested, and goodness-of-fit testing was consistent with the prevalence of each community being drawn from a geometric distribution. When infection is disappearing, the single sufficient parameter describing a geometric distribution captures much of the distributional information found from examining every community. The relatively heavy tail of the geometric suggests that the presence of an occasional high-prevalence community is to be expected, and does not necessarily reflect a transmission hot spot or program failure. A single cross-sectional survey can reveal which direction a program is heading. A geometric distribution of the prevalence of infection across communities may be an encouraging sign, consistent with a disease on its way to eradication.

  6. How prevalent and morbid are subthreshold manifestations of major depression in adolescents? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrellas, Nicholas W; Biederman, Joseph; Uchida, Mai

    2017-03-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) among youth is a public health concern. Our aim was to examine the current body of knowledge to better characterize the prevalence and morbidity associated with subthreshold forms of MDD among youth. Given that MDD tends to develop gradually over time, we hypothesized a high prevalence and considerable impairment associated with youth suffering from depressive symptoms that fall short of full, syndromic status. A literature search was conducted using PubMed exclusively to identify studies assessing the prevalence and clinical characteristics of subthreshold MDD in adolescents. Six scientific papers that met our priori inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. All papers sampled adolescents. The prevalence of subthreshold MDD ranged from 5% over the past year, to 29% over the two weeks prior to screening. These papers reported clinically significant morbidity associated with subthreshold MDD among adolescents, with evidence for elevated rates of psychiatric comorbidities, impaired functioning in social and familial domains, increased suicidality, and frequent mental health service utilization. Though we examined a sizeable and diverse sample, we only identified six cross-sectional informative studies for this review. Variability of subthreshold MDD and major outcome definitions across studies, likely limits the specificity of findings. Subthreshold MDD is prevalent among youth, and is associated with emotional and social impairments that reach the level of obtaining clinical care. These findings could lead to early intervention efforts aimed at mitigating the adverse outcomes associated with subthreshold MDD as well as the progression to full syndrome MDD. Our review documents that regardless of whether progression to full diagnostic status occurs, this condition is morbid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Past History of Ocular Trauma in an Iranian Population-Based Study: Prevalence and its Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Mohazzab-Torabi, Saman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of a history of ocular trauma and its association to age, sex, and biometric components. Materials and Methods: Residents of Shahroud, Iran aged 40–64 years, were sampled through a cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling. Three hundred clusters were randomly selected, and 20 individuals were systematically selected from each cluster. The subjects underwent optometric and ophthalmic examinations, and ocular imaging. A history of ocular trauma was determined through personal interviews. Results: The prevalence of a history of trauma and blunt trauma, sharp trauma, and chemical burns were 8.57%, 3.91%, 3.82%, and 1.93%, respectively. After adjusting for age, the rate of all types of trauma was significantly higher for males. Only the prevalence of chemical burns significantly decreased with aging. A history of hospitalization was stated by 1.64% of the subjects. The axial length was significantly longer in cases with a history of trauma. The corneal curvature was significantly larger in cases with a history of sharp trauma and chemical burns. The prevalence of corneal opacities was significantly higher among cases with a history of the blunt trauma odds ratio (OR = 2.33) and sharp trauma (OR = 4.46). Based on corrected visual acuity, the odds of blindness was 3.32 times higher in those with a history of ocular trauma (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A considerable proportion of the 40–64-year-old population reported a history of ocular trauma. This observation has important health implications. Blindness, corneal opacities, and posterior subcapsular cataract were observed more frequently among these cases, and they demonstrated differences in some ocular biometric components. PMID:26180480

  8. The prevalence of early postpartum psychiatric morbidity in Dubai: a transcultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Saleh, M T; Ghubash, R

    1997-05-01

    There have been numerous studies of the prevalence of postpartum psychiatric illness and its putative risk factors in Western Europe and North America, but very few studies have been undertaken in developing countries, including the Arab world. A total of 95 women admitted to the New Dubai Hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, for childbirth were studied. All subjects were assessed in the postpartum period using clinical and socio-cultural instruments, namely the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) on day 2 and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) on day 7 after delivery. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 24% according to the SRQ and 18% according to the EPDS. A number of psychosocial factors emerged as putative risk factors for postpartum psychiatric disturbance, including depressive illness. It is concluded that the prevalence of postpartum psychiatric morbidity and its risk factors in this Arab culture are similar to the results obtained in numerous previous studies conducted in industrialized countries. These findings have implications for the early detection and care of women at risk for postpartum psychiatric illness.

  9. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity at Mobile Health Clinic in an urban community in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Harshal; Goswami, Kiran; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Sagar, Rajesh; Sreenivas, V

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity amongst patients attending Mobile Health Clinic (MHC) in an urban community in South Delhi. Adult subjects were recruited by systematic random sampling at outpatient MHC. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorder Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) was used for screening, and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) was used for the confirmation of diagnosis of psychiatric disorder of all PHQ-positive and 20% of PHQ-negative patients. Association of selected sociodemographic factors with psychiatric morbidity was also assessed. In total, 350 subjects were recruited, out of which 92 (26.3%) [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-31.0] were found to be PHQ positive. M.I.N.I. was administered to 141 subjects (92 PHQ positives and 52 PHQ negatives). Total estimated magnitude of psychiatric morbidity by M.I.N.I. was 25.4% (95% CI 20.9-29.9). Depression (15.7%) was observed to be the most common psychiatric disorder followed by generalized anxiety disorder (11.1%) and phobic disorders (10.1%). Suicidal ideation was reported by 37 (10.6%) patients. Literate status [odds ratio (OR)=0.43] and duration of migration >20 years to study area (OR=1.27) were found to be significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity. In resource-poor country like India, high psychiatric morbidity at MHC justifies the use of MHC for providing outreach mental health services in difficult areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment seeking adults with autism or ADHD and co-morbid Substance Use Disorder: Prevalence, risk factors and functional disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; Koeter, Maarten; Gorissen van Eenige, Marielle; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in adults, especially not about ASD with co-morbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). We wanted to examine how adults with ASD compare to adults with ADHD on prevalence and risk factors for co-morbid SUD, and on disability levels associated

  11. Prevalence of ocular symptoms and signs among professional computer users in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Dehghani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of ocular symptoms and signs in professional video display users (VDUs and non-users in Isfahan.
    • METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive case-control study. The VDUs group was selected from among employees working with computer and the control group was selected from among employees not working with computer. Fifty seven VDUs (34 male & 23 female with mean age of 30.7 ± 6.8 and 56 employees in the control group (25 male & 31 female, mean age of 27.6 ± 7.2 were evaluated. Complete ocular examination was done for both groups.
    • RESULTS: Among VDUs, 45 cases (79% had burning eyes and tearing, 38 cases (66% had dry eye, 37 cases (65% had asthenopia, and 47 cases (82.5% had musculoskeletal pain but these values for the control group were 24 (42.8%, 18 (32.2%, 22(39.3% and 15 (26.8% respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.037, p = 0.023, p = 0.044, p = 0.013. Schirmer's test was positive in 22 VDUs (38.5% vs. 6 (10.7% of control group (p = 0.012. There was heterophoria in 19 VDUs (33.3% vs. 3 controls (5.4% (p = 0.032.
    • CONCLUSION: Eye burning and tearing, dry eye, asthenopia and musculoskeletal problems were obviously more common in VDUs. Considering the extensive use of computers at home and work, a plan is required to detect dangers and provide appropriate solutions.
    • KEY WORDS: Video Display Terminal, Video Display Users, Computer Vision Syndrome, Dry Eye, Schirmer test, Asthenopia.

  12. Prevalence and morbidity of urethral Trichomonas vaginalis in Japanese men with or without urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, Kensaku; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Kubota, Yasuaki; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections. This microorganism is a common pathogen among women, but its significance as a cause of morbidity among men remains uncertain. We sought to determine the prevalence and morbidity of T. vaginalis infection in Japanese men with and without urethritis. We examined urine specimens from 215 men with urethritis and 98 men without urethritis for the presence of urethral T. vaginalis by PCR assay. Only four patients-one with gonococcal urethritis, one with non-gonococcal chlamydial urethritis, one with non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis and one without urethritis-were positive for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 1.4% in men with urethritis and 1.0% in men without urethritis. A possible relation between the appearance of T. vaginalis and clinical symptoms was not confirmed. In the present study, the incidence of urethral T. vaginalis infection appears to be rare in Japanese men with or without urethritis, and T. vaginalis may be an uncommon pathogen in male urethritis in Japan.

  13. Prevalência de metástases oculares em pacientes com doença metastática reconhecida: resultados preliminares Prevalence of ocular metastasis in patients with known metastatic disease: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria da Silva Corrêa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar de forma prospectiva a prevalência de metástases oculares, tumor primário mais freqüente e tecido ocular comprometido com mais freqüência pela metástase. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados consecutivamente pacientes internados em Hospital de referência em Oncologia (HSR durante o período de janeiro 2001 a julho de 2002, portadores de neoplasia maligna e metástases sistêmicas. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico completo incluindo oftalmoscopia binocular indireta sob midríase farmacológica usando lente de 28 dioptrias e, em casos suspeitos de neoplasia, realizados ultra-som e angiografia fluorescente. Nos casos de dúvida diagnóstica, os pacientes foram submetidos à biópsia aspirativa com agulha fina. O diagnóstico de tumor ocular metastático foi estabelecido com base nas características clínicas e no resultado dos exames complementares citados. RESULTADOS: Os 100 pacientes estudados apresentaram idades entre 17 a 87 anos, sendo 71 do sexo feminino e 29 do masculino. Houve predomínio de indivíduos brancos (n=88 nesse grupo. Vinte e um pacientes apresentaram lesões oculares sugestivas de metástase. O tumor primário que originou metástase ocular mais freqüentemente foi o câncer de mama (28,6%. Avaliando o tipo tumoral separadamente, o carcinoma de pulmão apresentou maior prevalência de metástase para o olho nesta amostra (71,5%. A coróide foi comprometida em 57% dos casos e a queixa ocular principal desses pacientes foi embaçamento ou diminuição da visão. Não houve diferença na freqüência de acometimento entre olho direito e esquerdo. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de metástases oculares em pacientes com neoplasia maligna e doença metastática na amostra estudada pareceu significativa. As neoplasias que provocaram metástase ocular com maior freqüência foram: carcinoma de mama e pulmão, sendo que a coróide foi comprometida com maior freqüência.PURPOSE: To evaluate, in a

  14. Prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in Graves' disease according to sex and age: A clinical study from Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sara; Moazezi, Zoleika; Bayani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid-associated eye disease (TED), previously known as Graves' ophthalmopathy is a cosmetically and functionally debilitating disease that is seen worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical severity of ocular manifestations of Graves' disease according to sex, age and duration in northern Iran. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 105 patients with Graves' disease, underwent ophthalmic examination, including ocular motility, exophthalmometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp and fundoscopy. Patients received scores according to modified Werner's NO SPECS classification. Ocular involvement was found in 70 patients with established Graves's disease. The mean age was 35.0 years, (SD 13.0, range 15 to 69). The most common ocular findings were exophthalmometric proptosis of more than 20 mm (63.8%), lid lag (55.7%), lid retraction (52.8%) and tearing (38.6%). Almost 70% of patients had bilateral involvement. Elevated IOP was seen in 15 (25.4%) patients, and was significantly related to proptosis (P=0.007). More than half of the patients (n=36, 52.2%) had a modified Werner's NO SPECS score of 3.00. Clinical severity as shown by the increasing number of signs and symptoms per patient was correlated to increasing age (r=0.31, P=0.01) but not to gender (P=0.17). Both functional (ocular motility disorders, increased IOP) and cosmetic (proptosis, periorbital edema) sequels are common ocular presentations in patients with Graves' disease. Proptosis was the most common finding in this study and was associated with elevated IOP. Clinical severity was found to correlate to increasing age.

  15. Prevalence of psychiatric and physical morbidity in an urban geriatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seby, K; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Chakraborty, Rudraprosad

    2011-04-01

    With a rapidly increasing population of older aged people, epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of mental and physical illnesses are urgently required for proper health planning. However, there is a scarcity of such data from India. To study the frequency and pattern of psychiatric morbidity present and the association of physical illness with psychiatric morbidity in an elderly urban population. Cross-sectional, epidemiological study. All the consenting elderly persons in a municipal ward division (n=202) were enrolled after surveying a total adult population of 7239 people. A door to door survey was undertaken where the participants were interviewed and physically examined. General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, CAGE Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were used in the interview apart from consulting the available documents. Other family members were also interviewed to verify the information. Chi-square test with Yates correction. Psychiatric illnesses were detected in 26.7% while physical illnesses were present in 69.8% of the population surveyed. Predominant psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorders, dementia, generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence and bipolar disorder. The most common physical illness was visual impairment, followed by cardiovascular disease, rheumatic illnesses, pulmonary illnesses, hearing impairment, genitourinary diseases and neurological disorders. Presence of dementia was associated with increased age, single/widowed/separated status, nuclear family, economic dependence, low education, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatic disorders and neurological disorders. Depression was associated with female sex, single/widowed/separated status, staying in nuclear families, economic dependence on others and co-morbid physical illnesses, specifically cardiovascular disorders and visual impairment. This study presented a higher rate of dementia and old age depression. The interesting

  16. Prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mark Yz; Man, Ryan Ek; Gupta, Preeti; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Lamoureux, Ecosse Luc

    2018-02-01

    To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore. We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, conducted between 2009 and 2011. OT was defined as self-reported history of any eye injury requiring medical attention with or without hospitalisation, and further classified as blunt object, sharp object or chemical burns related. Age and gender-standardised prevalence was estimated using the 2010 Singapore Chinese population census. Multivariable models were used to assess the independent associations of OT with age, gender, income, education, literacy, alcohol consumption, smoking and history of falls. The mean (SD) age was 59.7 (9.9) years and 49.4% were male. There were 138 OT cases, giving a crude and age and gender-standardised prevalence of 4.1% (95% CI 3.5% to 4.8%) and 4.4% (95% CI 3.7% to 5.2%), respectively. Of these, 45 (32.6%), 56 (40.6%) and 10 (7.3%) were blunt object, sharp object and chemical burns-related trauma, respectively. Twenty eight (20.3%) required hospitalisation, with no difference between subtypes. In multivariable models, men (OR (95% CI): 2.80 (1.79-4.39)), younger persons (per year decrease in age (1.03 (1.00-1.05)) and lower education levels (1.8 (1.25-2.60); comparing ≤6 years vs >6 years of education) were independent determinants of OT. OT affected one in 25 adults, with 20% of these requiring hospitalisation. Because OT is preventable, raising awareness and education strategies in the population would allow prevention of vision loss particularly in men, and younger and lesser-educated individuals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in United States military spouses: The Millennium Cohort Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Corry, Nida H; Qian, Meng; Li, Meng; McMaster, Hope Seib; Fairbank, John A; Stander, Valerie A; Hollahan, Laura; Marmar, Charles R

    2018-05-10

    Approximately half of US service members are married, equating to 1.1 million military spouses, yet the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among military spouses remains understudied. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of eight mental health conditions in spouses of service members with 2-5 years of service. We employed baseline data from the Millennium Cohort Family Study, a 21-year longitudinal survey following 9,872 military-affiliated married couples representing all US service branches and active duty, Reserve, and National Guard components. Couples were surveyed between 2011 and 2013, a period of high military operational activity associated with Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Primary outcomes included depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, alcohol misuse, insomnia, somatization, and binge eating, all assessed with validated self-report questionnaires. A total of 35.90% of military spouses met criteria for at least one psychiatric condition. The most commonly endorsed conditions were moderate-to-severe somatization symptoms (17.63%) and moderate-to-severe insomnia (15.65%). PTSD, anxiety, depression, panic, alcohol misuse, and binge eating were endorsed by 9.20%, 6.65%, 6.05%, 7.07%, 8.16%, and 5.23% of spouses, respectively. Having a partner who deployed with combat resulted in higher prevalence of anxiety, insomnia, and somatization. Spouses had lower prevalence of PTSD, alcohol misuse, and insomnia but higher rates of panic and binge eating than service members. Both members of a couple rarely endorsed having the same psychiatric problem. One third of junior military spouses screened positive for one or more psychiatric conditions, underscoring the need for high-quality prevention and treatment services. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and Morbidity of Undiagnosed Celiac Disease From a Community-based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Rok Seon; Larson, Scott A.; Khaleghi, Shahryar; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; King, Katherine S.; Larson, Joseph J.; Lahr, Brian D.; Poland, Gregory A.; Camilleri, Michael J.; Murray, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Little is known about the prevalence and burden of undiagnosed celiac disease in individuals younger than 50 years old. We determined the prevalence and morbidity of undiagnosed celiac disease in individuals younger than 50 years in a community. Methods We tested sera from 31,255 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (younger than 50 years old) without a prior diagnosis of celiac disease assay using an assay for immunoglobulin A (IgA) against tissue transglutaminase (tTG); in subjects with positive test results, celiac disease was confirmed using an assay for endomysial IgA. We performed a nested case–control study to compare the proportion of comorbidities between undiagnosed cases of celiac disease and age- and sex-matched seronegative controls (1:2). Medical records were abstracted to identify potential comorbidities. Results We identified 338 of 30,425 adults with positive results from both serologic tests. Based on this finding, we estimated the prevalence of celiac disease to be 1.1% (95% CI, 1.0%–1.2%); 8 of 830 children tested positive for IgA against tTG (1.0%, 95% CI, 0.4%–1.9%). No typical symptoms or classic consequences of diagnosed celiac disease (diarrhea, anemia, or fracture) were associated with undiagnosed celiac disease. Undiagnosed celiac disease was associated with increased rates of hypothyroidism (odds ratio, 2.2; Pceliac disease at 5 years after testing was 10.8% in persons with undiagnosed celiac disease vs 0.1% in seronegative persons (PCeliac disease status was not associated with overall survival. Conclusions Based on serologic tests of a community population for celiac disease, we estimated the prevalence of undiagnosed celiac disease to be 1%. Undiagnosed celiac disease appeared to be clinically silent and remained undetected, but long-term outcomes have not been determined. PMID:27916669

  19. Prevalence & factors associated with chronic obstetric morbidities in Nashik district, Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Agarwal, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: In India, community based data on chronic obstetric morbidities (COM) are scanty and largely derived from hospital records. The main aim of the study was to assess the community based prevalence and the factors associated with the defined COM - obstetric fistula, genital prolapse, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and secondary infertility among women in Nashik district of Maharashtra State, India. Methods: The study was cross-sectional with self-reports followed by clinical and gynaecological examination. Six primary health centre areas in Nashik district were selected by systematic random sampling. Six months were spent on rapport development with the community following which household interviews were conducted among 1560 women and they were mobilized to attend health facility for clinical examination. Results: Of the 1560 women interviewed at household level, 1167 women volunteered to undergo clinical examination giving a response rate of 75 per cent. The prevalence of defined COM among 1167 women was genital prolapse (7.1%), chronic PID (2.5%), secondary infertility (1.7%) and fistula (0.08%). Advancing age, illiteracy, high parity, conduction of deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and obesity were significantly associated with the occurrence of genital prolapse. History of at least one abortion was significantly associated with secondary infertility. Chronic PID had no significant association with any of the socio-demographic or obstetric factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings provided an insight in the magnitude of community-based prevalence of COM and the factors associated with it. The results showed that COM were prevalent among women which could be addressed by interventions at personal, social and health services delivery level. PMID:26609041

  20. Prevalence & factors associated with chronic obstetric morbidities in Nashik district, Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Agarwal, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In India, community based data on chronic obstetric morbidities (COM) are scanty and largely derived from hospital records. The main aim of the study was to assess the community based prevalence and the factors associated with the defined COM--obstetric fistula, genital prolapse, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and secondary infertility among women in Nashik district of Maharashtra State, India. The study was cross-sectional with self-reports followed by clinical and gynaecological examination. Six primary health centre areas in Nashik district were selected by systematic random sampling. Six months were spent on rapport development with the community following which household interviews were conducted among 1560 women and they were mobilized to attend health facility for clinical examination. Of the 1560 women interviewed at household level, 1167 women volunteered to undergo clinical examination giving a response rate of 75 per cent. The prevalence of defined COM among 1167 women was genital prolapse (7.1%), chronic PID (2.5%), secondary infertility (1.7%) and fistula (0.08%). Advancing age, illiteracy, high parity, conduction of deliveries by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and obesity were significantly associated with the occurrence of genital prolapse. History of at least one abortion was significantly associated with secondary infertility. Chronic PID had no significant association with any of the socio-demographic or obstetric factors. The study findings provided an insight in the magnitude of community-based prevalence of COM and the factors associated with it. The results showed that COM were prevalent among women which could be addressed by interventions at personal, social and health services delivery level.

  1. A Survey on Prevalence of Ocular Complications and It’s Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients of Diabetic Center of Nader Kazemi Clinic Shiraz- Iran 1998-2010

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    SM Kashfi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: With respect to an increase in diabetes prevalence, and the likelihood of ocular complications among them, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors and incidence of the ocular complications in patients of Nader Kazemi, Shiraz Diabetic center from 1998 to 2010.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study , subjects were selected based on a systematic random sampling to investigate the incidence of the ocular complications and the influence of factors such as age, sex, types of diabetes, job, education, blood triglyceride (TG and cholesterol level, Family history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of participation in educational classes, methods of treatment, duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar were considered on them.Results: Ocular complications were found among 229 diabetic patients (32.6%. patients having type II diabetic have more ocular complications comparing with patients with type I diabetes (P<0. 005. Factors such as job (P=0. 022, history of participation in educational classes (P<0. 001, education (P<0. 001, family history of diabetes (P<0. 001, blood triglyceride (TG (P=0. 021, duration of diabetes(P<0. 001,age (P<0. 001, method of treatment(P<0. 001and fasting blood sugar (P<0. 001 had a significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication. However, other risk factors such as hypertension,gender and cholesterol levels were not statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication.Conclusion: Given the prevalence of ocular complications, educating diabetics’ patients can have a significant influence in reducing the occurrence of ocular complications.

  2. Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from a data...... as routine to increase the precision in recognizing and reporting on childhood anxiety disorders.......The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from...... a database containing 83% of all youth referred from 2004 to 2007 (N=13,241). A prevalence of 5.7% of anxiety disorder was found in the sample. Homotypic co-morbidity was found in only 2.8%, whereas heterotypic co-morbidity was found in 42.9% of the cohort. A total of 73.6% had a principal anxiety disorder...

  3. Prevalence of co-morbidity and its relationship to treatment among unselected patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1993-1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, DJ; Janssen-Heijnen, MLG; Breed, WPM; Coebergh, JWW

    A population-based series of patients with cancer is likely to comprise more patients with serious co-morbidity than clinical trials because of restrictive eligibility criteria for the latter. Since co-morbidity may influence decision-making, we studied the age-specific prevalence of co-morbidity

  4. High prevalence of long-term cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity after treatment for craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Alberto M.; Schmid, Eva M.; Schutte, Pieter J.; Voormolen, Joan H. C.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; van Thiel, Sjoerd W.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Smit, Jan W. A.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of craniopharyngiomas is associated with long-term morbidity. To assess the long-term functional outcome and mortality rates after treatment for craniopharyngiomas, we audited our data with special focus on cardiovascular, neurological and psychosocial morbidity. Between 1965 and 2002,

  5. Study Prevalence and Causes Ocular Arising from Working in Mashhad Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ostadi-Moghaddam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Occupational accidents is considered as one of the sever dameage ocular structures which can produce permanent visual functionol impairment. 1048 occupational accidents files were reviewed from 1378-1381, randomly to analyze eye accidents caused at work and to present some plans and recommendation to reduce and prevent them. Materials & Methods: Demographic features and the way of the accidents happened were derived from the files of 63 ocular injuries from the industrial’s workshop of the social welfare organization and were analyzed by Excel software and Chi-square test. Results: 6.05 per cent of occupational accidents was related to the ocular accidents. There was no significant relationship between age and the cause of ocular accidents. 28.8 per cent of the accidents caused by not caring and using safety wares were happened between the ages of 20 to 40 years. 25.7 per cent of accidents were related to the enter of foreign bodies to the eyes in the age of 20 to 40 years. There was a significant relationship between occupational shift and season with the eye accidents (P<0.05. There was no relationship between the accident type and the season of the year and 26.2 per cent of entering of the foreign bodies into the eye was happened in the morning. Conclusion: As the results show, teaching workers and promoting their knowledge level and occupational skills, proper using of personal and group safety equipments, avoid using improper equipments at work, abstain from over work shifts and using enough lights for decreasing occupational accidents can be the first to do.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Noor Ani; Mohamad Kasim, Noraida; Mahmud, Nur Azna; Mohd Yusof, Yusniza; Othman, Salimah; Chan, Ying Ying; Abd Razak, Mohamad Aznuddin; Yusof, Muslimah; Omar, Maisarah; Abdul Aziz, Fazly Azry; Jamaluddin, Rasidah; Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah; Aris, Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washi...

  7. Neuropathic Pain and Psychological Morbidity in Patients with Treated Leprosy: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in Mumbai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. Conclusions/Significance One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity. PMID:21408111

  8. Prevalência de manifestações oculares em 198 pacientes com artrite reumatóide: um estudo retrospectivo Prevalence of ocular manifestation in 198 patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a restrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Guimarães Bettero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de manifestações oculares na população local de artrite reumatóide (AR. Estimar se a presença de auto-anticorpos como fator reumatóide (FR e fator antinuclear (FAN influi no aparecimento destas manifestações e se existe associação entre o aparecimento de manifestações oculares e índice funcional do paciente, idade ao diagnóstico e tempo de doença. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 198 prontuários de pacientes com AR, acompanhados durante o período de 2003 a 2006. Avaliou-se a prevalência das manifestações oftalmológicas, perfil de auto-anticorpos, dados demográficos e índice funcional de Steinbrock destes pacientes. RESULTADOS: Síndrome de Sjögren secundária apareceu em 12,1% dos pacientes sendo mais comum em mulheres (p=0,049 e em pacientes com maior dano articular (p=0,016. Ceratite ulcerativa e esclerite incidiram em torno de 2% dos pacientes. Fator reumatóide (FR e fator antinuclear (FAN assim como tempo de doença e idade do paciente ao diagnóstico não influíram no aparecimento das manifestações estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: A síndrome de Sjögren secundária é a manifestação ocular mais prevalente em pacientes com AR, sendo mais comum em mulheres e em pacientes com mais disfunção articular.PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of eye manifestations in the local rheumatoid arthritis (RA population, as well as to know if the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF and antinuclear antibodies (ANA affect this profile. To study if there is association between eye manifestations and patient's articular functional index, age at diagnosis and illness duration. METHODS: We reviewed 198 charts of rheumatoid arthritis patients followed-up from 2003 to 2006. They were studied for: prevalence of ophthalmologic manifestations, autoantibody profile, demographic data and Steinbrock's functional index. RESULTS: Secondary Sjögren's syndrome was seen in 12.1% of the patients being more common

  9. Prevalence and Morbidity of Late Preterm Infants: Current Status in a Medical Center of Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luen Tsai

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Late-preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal morbidities associated with organ immaturity. The results of this study emphasize the importance of judicious obstetrical decision-making when considering late preterm delivery, and the need to set up anticipatory clinical guidelines for the care of late preterm infants.

  10. Analysis of the Ocular Refractive State in Fighting Bulls: Astigmatism Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Bueno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.. The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between −1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D, with a mean of +0.66±0.85 D in post-mortem animals. Values for in vivo conditions were similar (+0.75±0.46 D. Left and right eyes were highly correlated in both sets (p<0.001. A fairly good correlation was also observed when comparing living and post-mortem eyes in the same animals. Anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D was diagnosed in 3 animals. Astigmatism (≥+0.5 D was detected in 93% of the eyes. To our knowledge, the ORS of the fighting bull has been reported for the first time. Although values vary among individuals, all eyes presented a marked astigmatism. Whereas the horizontal meridian was slightly hyperopic, the vertical meridian was always closer to emmetropia. These results represent a starting point to understand the ocular optics of this kind of animals, which might benefit the selection of animals at the farm before being sent to the bullfighting arena.

  11. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...

  12. The prevalence and morbidity of sensitization to fragrance mix I in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population. Furt...... supported a recent decrease in the prevalence of FM I and MP sensitization in Denmark. The study also showed that fragrance sensitization was associated with self-reported cosmetic dermatitis and use of health care related to cosmetic dermatitis....

  13. The distribution of ocular Chlamydia prevalence across Tanzanian communities where trachoma is declining.

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    Salman A Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict an exponential distribution of infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing. Trachoma control programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization has targeted trachoma for elimination as a public health concern by the year 2020. Local programs may benefit if a single survey could reveal whether infection was headed towards elimination. Using data from a previously-published 2009 survey, we test the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence across 75 Tanzanian communities where trachoma had been documented to be disappearing is exponentially distributed.We fit multiple continuous distributions to the Tanzanian data and found the exponential gave the best approximation. Model selection by Akaike Information Criteria (AICc suggested the exponential distribution had the most parsimonious fit to the data. Those distributions which do not include the exponential as a special or limiting case had much lower likelihoods of fitting the observed data. 95% confidence intervals for shape parameter estimates of those distributions which do include the exponential as a special or limiting case were consistent with the exponential. Lastly, goodness-of-fit testing was unable to reject the hypothesis that the prevalence data came from an exponential distribution.Models correctly predict that infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing is best described by an exponential distribution. In Tanzanian communities where local control efforts had reduced the clinical signs of trachoma by 80% over 10 years, an exponential distribution gave the best fit to prevalence data. An exponential distribution has a relatively heavy tail, thus occasional high-prevalence communities are to be expected even when infection is disappearing. A single cross-sectional survey may be able to reveal whether elimination efforts are on-track.

  14. The distribution of ocular Chlamydia prevalence across Tanzanian communities where trachoma is declining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Salman A; West, Sheila K; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; Porco, Travis C; Keenan, Jeremy D; Lietman, Thomas M

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical models predict an exponential distribution of infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing. Trachoma control programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization has targeted trachoma for elimination as a public health concern by the year 2020. Local programs may benefit if a single survey could reveal whether infection was headed towards elimination. Using data from a previously-published 2009 survey, we test the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence across 75 Tanzanian communities where trachoma had been documented to be disappearing is exponentially distributed. We fit multiple continuous distributions to the Tanzanian data and found the exponential gave the best approximation. Model selection by Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) suggested the exponential distribution had the most parsimonious fit to the data. Those distributions which do not include the exponential as a special or limiting case had much lower likelihoods of fitting the observed data. 95% confidence intervals for shape parameter estimates of those distributions which do include the exponential as a special or limiting case were consistent with the exponential. Lastly, goodness-of-fit testing was unable to reject the hypothesis that the prevalence data came from an exponential distribution. Models correctly predict that infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing is best described by an exponential distribution. In Tanzanian communities where local control efforts had reduced the clinical signs of trachoma by 80% over 10 years, an exponential distribution gave the best fit to prevalence data. An exponential distribution has a relatively heavy tail, thus occasional high-prevalence communities are to be expected even when infection is disappearing. A single cross-sectional survey may be able to reveal whether elimination efforts are on-track.

  15. Analysis of morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children from different age groups and regions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antypkin Yu.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to present retrospective study of the morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children from different age groups and regions according to Ukrainian Ministry of Health official government statistics from 2005 to 2014. Patients and methods. Retrospective study of the morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children in Ukraine from 2005 to 2014. Results. It was established that from 2012 to 2014 there was a tendency towards a decrease of bronchial asthma indicators — rate of sickness 11.9% and 11.4%, maximum reduction of the indicators was observed in the age group of 0–6 years 19.6% and 17% accordingly. The highest rate of bronchial asthma was registered in the age group 7–14 years (0.7–0.64 per 1000 children population, 15–17 years (9.22–8.66 per 1000 children population. Conclusions. Statistical analysis indicates a problem of hypo;diagnostics of bronchial asthma among children from Ukraine.

  16. Prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in seniors with psychiatric morbidity - example from central moravia, czech republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzny, Jan; Jurickova, Lubica

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) comprises emotional, financial, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect by other individuals, and self-neglect. Elder abuse and neglect in seniors with psychiatric morbidity was not monitored in the Czech Republic at all, despite the literature shows mental morbidity as one of the important risk factor for developing elder abuse and neglect. We designed comparative cross sectional study comprising 305 seniors hospitalized in Mental Hospital Kromeriz in June 2011 - group of 202 seniors hospitalized due to mental disorder in psychogeriatric ward and group of 103 seniors hospitalized due to somatic disorder in internal ward. Content analysis of medical records was done in both groups of seniors, with regards to symptoms of elder abuse. Then, we discussed the topic of elder abuse with 30 nurses of psychogeriatric ward in focus group interview. Between two compared groups of seniors we detected statistically higher prevalence of elder abuse in seniors with psychiatric morbidity (48 cases, 23.8% prevalence of EAN), compared to somatically ill seniors (3 cases, 2.9%). As for nursing staff, 5 from 30 nurses (16.7%) have never heard about symptoms of elder abuse and neglect, 10 from 30 nurses (33.3%) had just a partial knowledge about elder abuse and neglect and its symptoms, the rest of nurses (15 from 30 nurses, 50.0%) had good knowledge about elder abuse and neglect and its symptoms. Elder abuse and neglect seems to be a relevant problem in senior population with mental disorders. Development of educational programs for nursing and medical staff about Elder abuse and neglect (symptoms of EAN, early detection of EAN, knowledge how to report cases of EAN) could improve the situation and help mentally ill seniors to better quality of life.

  17. The prevalence of co-morbid depression in adults with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, K. D.; Skinner, T. C.; Peveler, R.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To review the literature estimating the cross-sectional prevalence of clinical depression in adults with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were used to identify studies published between January 2000 and June 2004, with a previous meta-analysis used to i...

  18. Correlation of Electronic Health Records Use and Reduced Prevalence of Diabetes Co-Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The general problem is Native American tribes have high prevalence rates of diabetes. The specific problem is the failure of IHS sites to adopt EHR may cause health care providers to miss critical opportunities to improve screening and triage processes that result in quality improvement. The purpose of the quantitative correlational study was to…

  19. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central

  20. Gender Dysphoria – Prevalence and Co-Morbidities in an Irish Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Ciaran; O’Donovan, Claire; Callaghan, Grainne; Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; O’Shea, Donal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender identity disorder was officially renamed “gender dysphoria” in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and has not been well-documented in Ireland. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirme...

  1. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  2. Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Though diabetes affects multiple organs, most studies highlight the occurence of only one complication in isolation. We conducted a hospital-based study to estimate the co-existence of significant systemic co-morbid conditions in patients with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods : A total of 170 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited for the study between June 2009 to June 2010 at a tertiary care eye centre in north India. Retinopathy was graded by fundus biomicroscopy and fundus photography and classified into three categories (mild-moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy requiring only laser and proliferative retinopathy requiring surgery. Nephropathy was classified by calculating the six variable estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR for all patients. Nerve conduction studies and clinical assessment were used to determine presence of neuropathy. Co-existence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease was also ascertained. Results : The percentages of patients with overt nephropathy in the three groups were 19.2, 38.0 and 41.2, respectively. Significant linear trends were observed for serum creatinine (P=0.004, albumin (P=0.017 and eGFR (P=0.030. A higher per cent had abnormal nerve conduction on electrophysiology than that diagnosed clinically (65.4 vs. 44.2, 76.0 vs. 40.0 and 64.8 vs. 48.6, respectively. The odds ratio (95% CI for co-existence of nephropathy, neuropathy, CVA (cerebrovascular accidents and PVD (peripheral vascular disease was 2.9, 0.9, 4.8 and 3.5, respectively. Independent of retinopathy severity, patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME had a higher percentage of nephropathy ( p0 < 0.005. Interpretation & conclusions : The co-existence of overt nephropathy, nerve conduction based neuropathy and macrovascular co-morbidity in patients with early grades of diabetic retinopathy was significant

  3. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Noor Ani; Mohamad Kasim, Noraida; Mahmud, Nur Azna; Mohd Yusof, Yusniza; Othman, Salimah; Chan, Ying Ying; Abd Razak, Mohamad Aznuddin; Yusof, Muslimah; Omar, Maisarah; Abdul Aziz, Fazly Azry; Jamaluddin, Rasidah; Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah; Aris, Tahir

    2017-09-29

    Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least "some difficulty" scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53). Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  4. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ani Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Results Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least “some difficulty” scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53. Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. Conclusions The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  5. Prevalence of Ocular, Respiratory and Cutaneous Symptoms in Indoor Swimming Pool Workers and Exposure to Disinfection By-Products (DBPs

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    Guglielmina Fantuzzi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory, ocular and cutaneous symptoms in subjects working at indoor swimming pools and to assess the relationship between frequency of declared symptoms and occupational exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs. Twenty indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 133 employees was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Subjects working at swimming pools claimed to frequently experience the following symptoms: cold (65.4%, sneezing (52.6%, red eyes (48.9% and itchy eyes (44.4%. Only 7.5% claimed to suffer from asthma. Red eyes, runny nose, voice loss and cold symptoms were declared more frequently by pool attendants (lifeguards and trainers when compared with employees working in other areas of the facility (office, cafe, etc.. Pool attendants experienced generally more verrucas, mycosis, eczema and rash than others workers; however, only the difference in the frequency of self-declared mycosis was statistically significant (p = 0.010. Exposure to DBPs was evaluated using both environmental and biological monitoring. Trihalomethanes (THMs, the main DBPs, were evaluated in alveolar air samples collected from subjects. Swimming pool workers experienced different THM exposure levels: lifeguards and trainers showed the highest mean values of THMs in alveolar air samples (28.5 ± 20.2 µg/m3, while subjects working in cafe areas (17.6 ± 12.1 µg/m3, offices (14.4 ± 12.0 µg/m3 and engine rooms (13.6 ± 4.4 µg/m3 showed lower exposure levels. Employees with THM alveolar air values higher than 21 µg/m3 (median value experienced higher risks for red eyes (OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.6–14.9, itchy eyes (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.5–8.0, dyspnea/asthma (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.0–27.2 and blocked nose (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.0–4.7 than subjects with less exposure. This study confirms

  6. Epidemiological methods for research with drug misusers: review of methods for studying prevalence and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn John

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of drug misusers have until recently relied on two main forms of sampling: probability and convenience. The former has been used when the aim was simply to estimate the prevalence of the condition and the latter when in depth studies of the characteristics, profiles and behaviour of drug users were required, but each method has its limitations. Probability samples become impracticable when the prevalence of the condition is very low, less than 0.5% for example, or when the condition being studied is a clandestine activity such as illicit drug use. When stratified random samples are used, it may be difficult to obtain a truly representative sample, depending on the quality of the information used to develop the stratification strategy. The main limitation of studies using convenience samples is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population of drug users due to selection bias and a lack of information concerning the sampling frame. New methods have been developed which aim to overcome some of these difficulties, for example, social network analysis, snowball sampling, capture-recapture techniques, privileged access interviewer method and contact tracing. All these methods have been applied to the study of drug misuse. The various methods are described and examples of their use given, drawn from both the Brazilian and international drug misuse literature.

  7. Gender dysphoria - prevalence and co-morbidities in an irish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Ciaran; O'Donovan, Claire; Callaghan, Grainne; Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; O'Shea, Donal

    2014-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual's psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender identity disorder was officially renamed "gender dysphoria" in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and has not been well-documented in Ireland. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy (HT) between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment during the study period. The prevalence of GD in the Irish population was 1:10,154 male-to-female (MTF) and 1:27,668 female-to-male (FTM), similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were MTF and 59 were FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort, respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6 years (MTF) and 32.2 years (FTM). 22 of the patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on HT, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS). Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%). The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health, and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals is essential.

  8. Gender dysphoria - prevalence and co-morbidities in an Irish adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran eJudge

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender dysphoria is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender Identity Disorder was officially renamed ‘Gender Dysphoria’ (GD in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and have not been well documented in Ireland.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment during the study period.Results: The prevalence of gender dysphoria in the Irish population was 1:10,154 MTF and 1:27,668 FTM, similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were male-to-female (MTF and 59 were female-to-male (FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6y (MTF and 32.2y (FTM. 22 patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on hormonal therapy, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS. Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%.Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals

  9. Hippocampal sclerosis of aging, a prevalent and high-morbidity brain disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles D.; Abner, Erin L.; Wilfred, Bernard J.; Wang, Wang-Xia; Neltner, Janna H.; Baker, Michael; Fardo, David W.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Scheff, Stephen W.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Jellinger, Kurt A.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Schmitt, Frederick A.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a causative factor in a large proportion of elderly dementia cases. The current definition of HS-Aging rests on pathologic criteria: neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampal formation that is out of proportion to AD-type pathology. HS-Aging is also strongly associated with TDP-43 pathology. HS-Aging pathology appears to be most prevalent in the oldest-old: autopsy series indicate that 5–30 % of nonagenarians have HS-Aging pathology. Among prior studies, differences in study design have contributed to the study-to-study variability in reported disease prevalence. The presence of HS-Aging pathology correlates with significant cognitive impairment which is often misdiagnosed as AD clinically. The antemortem diagnosis is further confounded by other diseases linked to hippocampal atrophy including frontotemporal lobar degeneration and cerebrovascular pathologies. Recent advances characterizing the neurocognitive profile of HS-Aging patients have begun to provide clues that may help identify living individuals with HS-Aging pathology. Structural brain imaging studies of research subjects followed to autopsy reveal hippocampal atrophy that is substantially greater in people with eventual HS-Aging pathology, compared to those with AD pathology alone. Data are presented from individuals who were followed with neurocognitive and neuroradiologic measurements, followed by neuropathologic evaluation at the University of Kentucky. Finally, we discuss factors that are hypothesized to cause or modify the disease. We conclude that the published literature on HS-Aging provides strong evidence of an important and under-appreciated brain disease of aging. Unfortunately, there is no therapy or preventive strategy currently available. PMID:23864344

  10. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Children and Associated Co-morbidities - A Hospital Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, H; Pokharel, A

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common neuro- developmental disorders of childhood characterized by the core symptoms including inattentiveness and distractibility and frequently involve impairments in executive functioning, increased impulsivity, and restlessness. Objective To find out the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among school aged children Presented to Pediatric clinic and also to investigate associated comorbidities. Method This study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar during April 2014 - March 2015. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was diagnosed by the developmental Pediatrician after taking relevant history and the clinical assessment using Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder rating scale with diagnostic criteria consistent with Diagnostic Statistical Manual - IV classification. Spence anxiety scale child and parent rated version and Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire were also used. Result Result showed the yearly prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder being 41(11.7%) with male: female ratio of 4:1. The study reported that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined type was the commonest type that was 26(63%) cases followed by Inattentive type 9(22%) cases and 6(15%) were hyperactive type. The mean age for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was 7 years and 5 months. The most common co-morbidities were sleep problem 12(29.3%), Learning difficulty 10(24.4%), Anxiety disorder 10(24.4), Oppositional Defiant Disorder 9(22%), Autism Spectrum Disorder 5(12%), speech delay 6(14.6%), and 4(10%) had associated tics. There was abnormal SDQ prevalence of 29.3% across the area of emotional distress. The mean abnormal SDQ score in total difficulty area 8 (20.7%), socializing with peer 9(22%), behavioral difficulty 11(26.8%), hyperactivity/inattention 23(56.1%) and impact of difficulties in young person's life being 5(12.2%). Conclusion There is

  11. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Roy Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above, having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7% had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6% of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients.

  12. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Mohan Roy; Karunakaran, Vidhukumar; Prabhakaran, Anil; Jayakumar, Krishnannair Lalithamma

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above), having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7%) had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6%) of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients. PMID:28066004

  13. Neuropathic ocular pain: an important yet underevaluated feature of dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, A; Levitt, R C; Felix, E R; Martin, E R; Sarantopoulos, C D

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye has gained recognition as a public health problem given its prevalence, morbidity, and cost implications. Dry eye can have a variety of symptoms including blurred vision, irritation, and ocular pain. Within dry eye-associated ocular pain, some patients report transient pain whereas others complain of chronic pain. In this review, we will summarize the evidence that chronicity is more likely to occur in patients with dysfunction in their ocular sensory apparatus (ie, neuropathic ocular pain). Clinical evidence of dysfunction includes the presence of spontaneous dysesthesias, allodynia, hyperalgesia, and corneal nerve morphologic and functional abnormalities. Both peripheral and central sensitizations likely play a role in generating the noted clinical characteristics. We will further discuss how evaluating for neuropathic ocular pain may affect the treatment of dry eye-associated chronic pain. PMID:25376119

  14. Measuring the burden of arboviral diseases: the spectrum of morbidity and mortality from four prevalent infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, arthropod-borne virus infections are increasingly common causes of severe febrile disease that can progress to long-term physical or cognitive impairment or result in early death. Because of the large populations at risk, it has been suggested that these outcomes represent a substantial health deficit not captured by current global disease burden assessments. Methods We reviewed newly available data on disease incidence and outcomes to critically evaluate the disease burden (as measured by disability-adjusted life years, or DALYs caused by yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV, and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. We searched available literature and official reports on these viruses combined with the terms "outbreak(s," "complication(s," "disability," "quality of life," "DALY," and "QALY," focusing on reports since 2000. We screened 210 published studies, with 38 selected for inclusion. Data on average incidence, duration, age at onset, mortality, and severity of acute and chronic outcomes were used to create DALY estimates for 2005, using the approach of the current Global Burden of Disease framework. Results Given the limitations of available data, nondiscounted, unweighted DALYs attributable to YFV, JEV, CHIKV, and RVFV were estimated to fall between 300,000 and 5,000,000 for 2005. YFV was the most prevalent infection of the four viruses evaluated, although a higher proportion of the world's population lives in countries at risk for CHIKV and JEV. Early mortality and long-term, related chronic conditions provided the largest DALY components for each disease. The better known, short-term viral febrile syndromes caused by these viruses contributed relatively lower proportions of the overall DALY scores. Conclusions Limitations in health systems in endemic areas undoubtedly lead to underestimation of arbovirus incidence and related complications. However, improving

  15. Analysis of the state of morbidity and prevalence of illnesses of the skeletal-muscular system in Ukraine and Volhynia areal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriychuk O.Y.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of morbidity and prevalence of illnesses of the skeletal-muscular system, modern problems of diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with arthrosis, is considered. The level of morbidity is analysed, prevalence and primary output on disability, caused by illnesses of the skeletal-muscular system in Ukraine and Volhynia area. The last researches of modern problems of medical rehabilitation are considered with the use of physical therapy procedures, ground of principles of a stage restoration treatment of patients with arthrosis.

  16. Child Health in the Peruvian Amazon: Prevalence and Factors Associated with Referred Morbidity and Health Care Access in the City of Iñapari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Silva Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Children under 5 years of age are more susceptible to developing morbidities such as diarrhea, respiratory infections, anemia, and malnutrition. The objective of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of reported morbidities in this age group in the city of Iñapari (Peru and the access to health services in this municipality. Methods. Data collection using interviews that assessed socioeconomic and demographic conditions, child morbidity, and access to health services was performed in 2011. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0. Results. Regarding morbidities that occurred during lifetime, 39.8% reported previous anemia and intestinal parasite infection. About 53.7% of the children reported any type of morbidities in the last 15 days before interview, being most frequent respiratory symptoms (38.9%, diarrhea (23,4%, and fever (23,1%. Only 63.1% of those reporting recent morbidities sought health care. These morbidities were associated with precarious sanitation and lack of infrastructure, the presence of other comorbidities, and poor access to health services. Conclusion. The main referred morbidities in Amazonian Peruvian children were diarrhea, respiratory symptoms, anemia, and vomiting. Incentives and improvements in the health and sanitation conditions would be important measures to improve the quality of life of the Amazonian child population.

  17. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population : a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Krol, B.; Blankenstein, N.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the

  18. A Survey on Prevalence of Ocular Complications and It’s Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients Referred to Diabetic Center of Nader Kazemi Clinic Shiraz- Iran 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali khani jeihooni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: With respect to increasing prevalence of diabetes, the chance for incidence of ocular complications among diabetics, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for the incidence of the ocular complications in the patients referred to the Nader Kazemi Shiraz Diabetic center from 1998 to 2010.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study , subjects were selected based on a systematic random sampling to investigate the incidence of the ocular complications and factors influencing like wise age, sex, type of diabet, job, education, blood triglyceride (TG and cholesterol level, Family history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of participation in educational classes, method of treatment, duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar were considered.Results: Ocular complications were found among 229 diabetic patients (32.6%. Ocular complications of type II diabetic patients than in patients with type I diabetes (P<0. 005. Factors such as job(P=0. 022, history of participation in educational classes(P<0. 001, education(P<0. 001, Family history of diabetes(P<0. 001, blood triglyceride (TG (P=0. 021, duration of diabetes(P<0. 001,age (P<0. 001, method of treatment(P<0. 001and fasting blood sugar (P<0. 001 had a significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication. But other risk factors such as hypertension, gender and cholesterol levels were not statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication.Conclusion: Given the prevalence of ocular complications, continuing education on the disease of diabetes complications, it can have a role in reducing the occurrence of ocular complications.

  19. Evaluation of the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologist members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the self-reported prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologists members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG) and to identify factors contributing to burnout. We mailed an anonymous survey to 125 radiation oncologists members of the KROSG. The survey included; the demographic data, the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). There were 87 responses out of 125 eligible respondents (69.6% response rate). In terms of burnout, three participants (3.4%) fulfilled the MBI-HSS criteria of having simultaneously high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP) and low sense of personal accomplishment (PA). Eighteen (20.6%) reported a high score for either EE or DP meeting the alternative criteria for burnout with three of these simultaneously having high EE and high DP. The prevalence of psychological morbidity estimated using GHQ-12 was 32%. A high level of EE and low level of PA significantly correlated with high level of psychological morbidity with P < 0.001 and <0.01 respectively. Having palliative care activities other than radiotherapy and number of patients treated per year were the only factors associated with burnout. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologists in Japan. Compared with other studies involving radiation oncologists, the prevalence of low personal accomplishment was particularly high in the present study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was almost the double that of the Japanese general population and was significantly associated with low PA and high EE.

  20. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el melanoma ocular? Written By: Daniel Porter Reviewed By: Robert H Janigian Jr MD Sep. 01, 2017 Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment. ...

  1. Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Sleeve Bariatric Surgery in Iran and Association With Other Comorbid Conditions

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    Karimi-Sari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease including simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. NASH could progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing by increasing the prevalence of obesity. Objectives This study was designed to determine the prevalence of NASH in morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve bariatric surgery and its correlation with other comorbidities. Patients and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, 114 morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy were selected. Liver ultrasonography was performed for all patients before surgery and NAFLD existence and its grade was determined by hyperechoic texture and fatty infiltration. The liver enzymes and lipid profile were also measured. Prevalence of NAFLD in these patients and its correlation with other comorbid conditions (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hypothyroidism and ischemic heart disease were evaluated by SPSS software version 18. Results One hundred fourteen patients with a mean age of 33.96 ± 9.92 years and mean BMI of 43.61 ± 5.77 kg/m2 were enrolled (48 males and 66 females. The prevalence of NAFLD was 16.7%. NAFLD existence was associated with systolic blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and potassium (P < 0.05. Conclusions According to high prevalence of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy in Iran, we suggest using gold standard diagnostic method to determine the exact NAFLD prevalence and evaluation of impact of sleeve surgery on NAFLD in short and long term follow-up periods.

  2. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  3. Mental disorders in primary care: prevalence and co-morbidity among disorders. results from the functional illness in primary care (FIP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Tomas; Fink, Per; Oernboel, Eva; Christensen, Kaj; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Olesen, Frede

    2005-08-01

    Prevalence and co-occurrence of mental disorders is high among patients consulting their family general practitioner (GP) for a new health problem, but data on diagnostics and socio-demographics are sketchy. A cross-sectional two-phase epidemiological study. A total of 1785 consecutive patients with new complaints, aged 18-65 years, consulting 28 family practices during March-April 2000 in Aarhus County, Denmark were screened, in the waiting room, for mental and somatic symptoms with SCL-8 and SCL-Somatization questionnaires, for illness worry with Whitely-7 and for alcohol dependency with CAGE. In a stratified random sample of 701 patients, physician interviewers established ICD-10 diagnoses using the SCAN interview. Prevalence was calculated using weighted logistic regression, thus correcting for sample skewness. Half of the patients fulfilled criteria for an ICD-10 mental disorders and a third of these for more than one group of disorders. Women had higher prevalence of somatization disorder and overall mental disorders than men. Men had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and hypochondriasis than women. Psychiatric morbidity tended to increase with age. Prevalence of somatoform disorders was 35.9% (95% CI 30.4-41.9), anxiety disorders 164% (95% CI 12.7-20.9), mood disorders 13.5% (95% CI 11.1-16.3), organic mental disorders 3.1% (95% CI 1.6-5.7) and alcohol abuse 2.2% (95% CI 1.5-3.1). Co-morbidities between these groups were highest for anxiety disorders, where 89% also had another mental diagnosis, and lowest for somatoform disorders with 39%. ICD-10 mental disorders are very prevalent in primary care and there is a high co-occurrence between most disorders. Somatoform disorders, however, more often than not exist without other mental disorders.

  4. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, A.; Johannsen, T. H.; Stochholm, K.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inf...

  5. Prevalence of Eye Disease among Inmates of Ilesa Prison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In Nigeria, like many other developing countries where prisoners have restricted access to health care including eye health care, severe untreated eye disorders are common causes of ocular morbidity and blindness. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and pattern of eye disease among ...

  6. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  7. Ocular findings in systemic lupus erythemato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir S. Shoughy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.

  8. Ocular findings in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease. Ocular complications occur in up to one-third of patients with SLE. The ocular findings may represent the initial manifestation of the disease and may lead to severe ocular morbidity and loss of vision. Early diagnosis and prompt management of patients with SLE are mandatory and require collaboration between the ophthalmologist and the rheumatologist.

  9. Ocular Complications of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Mady

    2015-01-01

    the usual intestinal manifestations, leading to an earlier diagnosis. Thus, it is important to understand the clinical presentation of possible ocular manifestations in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to help prevent significant visual morbidity.

  10. Ocular Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  11. Traumatismos oculares Ocular traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelen Welch Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 72 ojos de 72 pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Militar Central “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” desde enero de 1999 hasta enero de 2005. Para el análisis estadístico de la información se utilizó el programa automatizado SPSS versión 11.5 en el cual también se conformó la base de datos y se realizaron los cálculos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable analizada. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen, tendencia central y asociación estadística con un nivel de significación de p A retrospective longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out in 72 eyes from 72 patients with mechanical occular traumas, who had been hospitalized in “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” Military Hospital from December 1999 to January 2005. For the statistical data analysis, an automated program (SPSS 11.5 version was used to create the database and estimations were made according to the variable types. Summary measures, central tendency measures and statistical association with significance level equal to p < 0.05 were employed. Males prevailed (95.8%, the average age was 30.26 years with a minimum rate of 17 years and maximum rate of 82 years. The most frequent mechanisms of trauma were aggressions (23. 6% and injures from secondary projectiles (13.9%. The anterior segment traumas were more frequent (61, 1% than posterior segment traumas (6.94%. Both segments of the eyeball were affected in 39, 1% of eyes which evinced the worst visual acuity. The most common associated injures were hyphema (54, 2% and vitreous hemorrhage (16.6%. Closed trauma (contusions were more common and most of the eyes had better final visual acuity (45, 2% with vision range of 0.6-1.0 and 26.2% with vision range of 0.59-0.1. On the other hand, eyes affected by open trauma (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with intraocular foreign body and

  12. [Internet addiction as a co-morbid disorder among patients of german addiction rehabilitation facilities: an exploratory investigation of clinical prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai W; Koch, Andreas; Beutel, Manfred E; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Medenwaldt, Jens; Wölfling, Klaus

    2012-08-01

    Excessive internet use is being discussed as a non-substance-related addiction disorder. Estimations of its prevalence show that 1% of the German general population is affected by internet addiction. However, it is still unclear, whether internet addiction as a co-morbid disorder is also common among patients of the general health care system, especially in patients being treated in inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers. It seems plausible that these patients have a heightened proneness to co-morbid internet addiction. In order to address this issue, a government-funded cooperation project was conducted. Within six months every new patient admitted to one of 15 rehabilitation facilities was screened for internet addiction. 4.2% of the patients fulfilled criteria for internet addiction. Male patients of younger age with main diagnosis of cannabis dependence or pathological gambling were found to be at higher risk. Internet addiction is more common among patients of the rehabilitation system than in the general population. Especially young, male patients in treatment for cannabis dependence or pathological gambling are at risk for co-morbid internet addiction. It is recommended that regular screening for internet addiction should be implemented in facilities with patients at risk in order to offer indicative treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Plateaued national utilization of adolescent bariatric surgery despite increasing prevalence of obesity-associated co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindel, Tammy L; Lomelin, Daniel; McBride, Corrigan; Kothari, Vishal; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    The number of adolescent bariatric surgeries (ABS) performed from 2003 to 2009 has been stable despite reports of an increase in adolescent morbid obesity. We sought to determine the trend in national ABS volume and the changes in obesity-associated co-morbidities (OACM) from 2004 to 2011. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample database. The National Inpatient Sample database was queried for adolescents undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, or sleeve gastrectomy from 2004 to 2011. Twelve OACM categories were created by ICD-9 code. From 2004 to 2011, an estimated 968 ABS cases per year were performed with no significant change in yearly volumes. There was a significant decrease in the annual volume of Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses (85.7%-54.4%, Padolescent increased significantly, from 1.44±1.3 in 2004-2005 to 1.85±1.5 in 2010-2011 (Padolescent bariatric surgical evaluation and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Lessons from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    • A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...

  15. Impact of deleting 5 DSM-IV personality disorders on prevalence, comorbidity, and the association between personality disorder pathology and psychosocial morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Martinez, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    A high rate of comorbidity among the personality disorders has been consistently identified as a problem. To address the problem of excessive comorbidity, the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group recommended reducing the number of specific personality disorder diagnoses from 10 to 5 by eliminating paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, narcissistic, and dependent personality disorders. No study has examined the impact of this change. The present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project examined the impact of eliminating these 5 personality disorders on the prevalence of personality disorders in a large sample of psychiatric outpatients presenting for treatment, comorbidity among the personality disorders, and association with psychosocial morbidity. From September 1997 to June 2008, 2,150 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. More than one-quarter of the patients were diagnosed with one of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (28.6%, n = 614). When 5 personality disorders were excluded from consideration, then 25.8% (n = 555) were diagnosed with at least 1 of the 5 personality disorders proposed for retention in DSM-5, and the comorbidity rate dropped from 29.8% to 21.3%. Compared to patients without a personality disorder, the patients with either a retained or an excluded personality disorder had greater psychosocial morbidity. There was little difference in psychosocial morbidity between patients with a retained and an excluded personality disorder. The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group's desired goal of reducing comorbidity would be achieved by deleting 5 personality disorders, although comorbidity would not be eliminated. The reduction of comorbidity could come with a cost of false-negative diagnoses

  16. Prevalence of co-morbid depression in out-patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Tapash

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression in out-patients with Type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods In this cross-sectional study a random sample of 483 diabetes out-patients from three diabetes clinics in Bangladesh was invited to participate. Of them 417 patients took part. Depressive symptoms were measured using previously developed and culturally standardized Bengali and Sylheti versions of the World HealthOrganization-5 Well Being Index (WHO-5 and the Patient Health Questionairre-9 (PHQ-9 with predefined cut-off scores. Data was collected using two different modes; e.g. standard assisted collection and audio questionnaire methods. Associations between depression and patient characteristics were explored using regression analysis. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 34% (PHQ-9 score ≥ 5 and 36% (WHO-5 score  Conclusions This study demonstrated that depression prevalence is common in out-patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. In a setting where recognition, screening and treatment levels remain low, health care providers need to focus their efforts on diagnosing, referring and effectively treating this important disease in order to improve service delivery.

  17. Prevalence of somatization and minor psychiatric morbidity in primary healthcare in Saudi Arabia: A preliminary study in Asir region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Alqahtani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design : Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. Results : About half of the sample had one or more psychological disorders. The prevalence of somatization detected by the GHQ-28 was 16%. The prevalence of somatization indicated by GPs′ identification of medically unexplained symptoms was 14%. Women displayed higher levels of somatization than men. Conclusion : This study reported prevalence of psychological disorders that was as high as found in the more modern areas of Saudi Arabia such as Riyadh. The view that individuals in less open areas are protected from psychological disorders associated with stress and lifestyle pressure seems to be unsubstantiated. The results highlight the potential value of screening for psychological disorders using such simple instruments as the GHQ

  18. Prevalence of somatization and minor psychiatric morbidity in primary healthcare in saudi arabia: a preliminary study in asir region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M; Salmon, Peter

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. About half of the sample had one or more psychological disorders. The prevalence of somatization detected by the GHQ-28 was 16%. The prevalence of somatization indicated by GPs' identification of medically unexplained symptoms was 14%. Women displayed higher levels of somatization than men. This study reported prevalence of psychological disorders that was as high as found in the more modern areas of Saudi Arabia such as Riyadh. The view that individuals in less open areas are protected from psychological disorders associated with stress and lifestyle pressure seems to be unsubstantiated. The results highlight the potential value of screening for psychological disorders using such simple instruments as the GHQ.

  19. Ocular emergencies presenting to Menelik II Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Dereje; Bejiga, Abebe

    2011-01-01

    Ocular conditions such as trauma, painful red eye of any cause, painless sudden visual loss and others are commonly seen as ocular emergencies, and can lead to ocular morbidity and visual loss. To determine types and causes of ocular emergencies seen at Menelik II hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to October, 2007. Consecutive patients who presented with ocular emergencies at any time of the day were prospectively evaluated and registered on a formatted questionnaire. Evaluation of the patients included history of presenting illness, visual acuity testing intraocular pressure measurement on non-perforated and non-infected eyes, and complete eye examination in order to arrive at the diagnosis. A total of 26,400 patients attended Menelik II hospital during the study period. Of these, 758 (3%) were persons with an ocular emergency. The majority of patients (n=551; 72.7%) were male, with a male to female ratio of 2.7:1. The age group of 16 to 30 years was the most affected (47.9%), followed by those aged 15 years or younger (27.3%). Ocular trauma and ocular infections accounted for 75.6% and 13.1% of cases, respectively. Of the total ocular emergencies, open globe injuries constituted 171 (22.6%), corneal foreign bodies and abrasion 125 (16.5%), and open adnexal injuries 119 (15.7%). Metal and wood were the commonest work-related causes of ocular injuries in adults, with both together accounting for 60% of all ocular injuries. Children, on the other hand, sustained ocular injury while playing with others in 128 (22.3%) of cases. This study was able to provide a more complete picture to improve understanding of the nature and circumstances of ocular emergencies in Ethiopia. Ocular emergencies were dominated by ocular trauma, particularly affecting males and working-age adults. Public education and use of protective safety measures are recommended to alleviate the problem.

  20. Severe MUPS in a sick-listed population: a cross-sectional study on prevalence, recognition, psychiatric co-morbidity and impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmans Petra C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with

  1. Prevalence, psychosocial correlates and service utilization of depressive and anxiety disorders in Hong Kong: the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey (HKMMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linda Chiu-Wa; Wong, Corine Sau-Man; Wang, Min-Jung; Chan, Wai-Chi; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Ng, Roger Man-Kin; Hung, Se-Fong; Cheung, Eric Fuk-Chi; Sham, Pak-Chung; Chiu, Helen Fung-Kum; Lam, Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chiang, Tin-Po; Lau, Joseph Tak-Fai; van Os, Jim; Lewis, Glyn; Bebbington, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Data on mental disorder prevalence and health service utilization required to inform healthcare management and planning are lacking in Hong Kong. The current study determined the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), and examined the patterns of mental health service utilization and associated factors. We analyzed data from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey (HKMMS) of 5,719 Chinese adults aged 16-75 years in the general Hong Kong population, using the Chinese Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). The weighted prevalence estimate for any past-week CMD was 13.3 %, with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder being the most frequent diagnoses. CMD was positively associated with female gender, being divorced or separated, alcohol misuse, substance dependence, lack of regular physical exercise, and a family history of mental disorder. Among individuals with CMD, only 26 % had consulted mental health services in the past year; less than 10 % consulted general practitioners or family physicians. Lack of mental health service usage was significantly more likely in men and those with lower educational attainment. Apart from attention to psychosocial risks, health and lifestyle factors are important considerations for mental health promotion. Service utilization for individuals with CMD in Hong Kong remains suboptimal, and would be enhanced by strengthening community primary care.

  2. Psychiatric Co-Morbidities in Pregnant Women with Opioid Use Disorders: Prevalence, Impact, and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudo, Camila L; Andraka-Christou, Barbara; Allgood, Kacy

    2017-01-01

    This review seeks to investigate three questions: What is the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD)? How do comorbid psychiatric illnesses impact pregnant women with OUD? And how do comorbid psychiatric illnesses affect the ability of pregnant women with OUD to adhere to and complete OUD treatment? Based on this literature review, 25-33% of pregnant women with OUD have a psychiatric comorbidity, with depression and anxiety being especially common. However, of the 17 studies reviewed only 5 have prevalence rates of dual diagnosis in pregnant women with OUD as their primary outcome measures, their N's were typically small, methods for determining psychiatric diagnosis were variable, and many of the studies were undertaken with women presenting for treatment which carries with its implicit selection bias. Of the women enrolled in treatment programs for SUD, those with psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to have impaired psychological and family/social functioning than those without psychiatric comorbidity. Greater severity of comorbid psychiatric illness appears to predict poorer adherence to treatment, but more research is needed to clarify this relationship with the psychiatric illness is less severe. While cooccurrence of psychiatric disorders in pregnant women with opioid use disorder appears to be common, large population-based studies with validated diagnostic tools and longitudinal assessments are needed to obtain definitive rates and characteristics of cooccurring illnesses. Integrated prenatal, addiction, and psychiatric treatment in a setting that provides social support to pregnant patients with OUD is most effective in maintaining women in treatment. More research is still needed to identify optimal treatment settings, therapy modalities, and medication management for dually diagnosed pregnant women with OUD.

  3. Prevalência de transtornos oculares na população de idosos residentes na cidade de Veranópolis, RS, Brasil Prevalence of ocular diseases in a population of elderly residents of the city of Veranópolis, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Antônio Romani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os transtornos oculares e a sua prevalência em pessoas com 80 anos de idade, ou mais, na cidade de Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODOS: 187 idosos foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico por meio de inspeção externa, motilidade extrínseca, medidas de acuidade visual para longe e perto, tonometria de aplanação, biomicroscopia, cicloplegia, fundoscopia direta e esquiascopia estática. RESULTADOS: As doenças mais prevalentes foram: presbiopia em 173 (92,5% pacientes, catarata em 160 (85,6%, ectrópio senil em 130 (69,5%, hipermetropia em 130 (69,5% e a degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI em 59 (31,5%. Na população estudada, 85 (45,4% pacientes apresentaram baixa visual acentuada cujas causas principais eram a catarata em 46 (54,1% e erros de refração em 16 (18,9% dos idosos. A principal causa de queixas dos idosos foi relacionada com a presença de ectrópio senil. CONCLUSÃO: Doenças comuns como a catarata e os erros de refração continuam a ser um desafio para os oftalmologistas, pois são importantes causas de dificuldade visual nos idosos, com conseqüente perda de qualidade em suas vidas.ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of diseases of the eye in a population aged 80 years and above in the city of Veranopolis, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: 187 elderly people were submitted to ophthalmologic tests including external inspection, ocular motility examination, visual acuity determination for near and far distance, applanation tonometry, biomicroscopy, cyclopegia, direct fundus examination and static skiascopy. RESULTS: The most prevalent disease was presbyopia in 173 (92,5% patients, cataract in 160 (85,6%, age-related ectropion in 130 (69,5%, hypermetropia in 130 (69,5% and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD in 59 (31,5% patients. 85 (45,4% patients presented marked low vision whose main causes were cataract in 46 (54,1% and refractive error in 16 (18,9% of the studied

  4. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  5. Ocular Straylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Mueller-Schotte OD, MSc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular straylight can cause decreased visual functioning, and it may cause diminished vision-related quality of life (VRQOL. This cross-sectional population-based study investigates the association between straylight and VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between straylight modeled continuously and cutoff at the recommended fitness-to-drive value, straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s, and VRQOL. The study showed that participants with normal straylight values, straylight ≤ 1.4 log(s, rated their VRQOL slightly better than those with high straylight values (straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis revealed a borderline statistical significant association ( p = .06 between intra-ocular straylight and self-reported VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The association between straylight and self-reported VRQOL was not influenced by the status of the intra-ocular lens (natural vs. artificial intra-ocular lens after cataract extraction or the number of (instrumental activities of daily living that were reported as difficult for the elderly individuals.

  6. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, A; Johannsen, T H; Stochholm, K; Aksglaede, L; Fedder, J; Viuff, M H; Main, K M; Gravholt, C H

    2017-08-01

    What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inferior on outcome parameters such as education and long-term income. 46,XX DSD males are rare and estimates of prevalence and incidence are limited. An increased morbidity and mortality as well as a negatively affected socioeconomic status are described in males with Klinefelter Syndrome. However, this has never been systematically studied in 46,XX DSD males. In this nationwide registry study including 44 males with a verified diagnosis of 46,XX DSD we aimed to estimate incidence, prevalence and diagnostic delay. Further, we aimed to study morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic outcome parameters using the Danish registries. The socioeconomic outcome parameters were education, income, retirement, parenthood and cohabitation. 46,XX DSD males were born during 1908-2012 and follow-up started at birth or at start of registration and ended in 2014. Potential cases (n = 69) were identified in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry and the diagnosis was verified by medical record evaluation (n = 44). A randomly selected age-matched control group of 100 males and 100 females per case was identified by Statistics Denmark. Among newborn males the prevalence of diagnosed 46,XX DSD males was 3.5-4.7 per 100 000. Median age at diagnosis was 17.0 years (range: 0.0-62.8). Overall morbidity was increased compared to male controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.8-3.3) but not when excluding endocrine and urogenital diseases as well as congenital malformations (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.6). Mortality was not increased (HR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-2.5) compared to male controls. 46,XX DSD males had poorer education (HR = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9) and fewer fatherhoods (HR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) than male controls

  7. Ocular candidiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, C P; McKey, J; Spirn, M J; Maguire, J

    2008-04-01

    To review the epidemiology, diagnosis and changing treatment paradigm of ocular candidiasis, and report current prevalence rates and risk factors at one inpatient hospital. Retrospective review; systematic literature review. All Wills Eye Institute inpatient ophthalmology consultations from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed between June 2006 and November 2006. All consultations for candidaemia were included. The outcome variables included chorioretinitis, endophthalmitis, visual symptoms and Candida speciation. The ophthalmic literature was reviewed using PubMed. Keywords included Candida, candidaemia, chorioretinitis, vitritis and endophthalmitis. Bibliographies were manually searched. Three of the 38 consultations for candidaemia (7.9%) had chorioretinitis. There were no cases of vitritis or endophthalmitis. The presence of symptoms, or the inability to articulate symptoms, was significantly associated with risk of ocular candidiasis (p = 0.003). All three cases of chorioretinitis had positive blood cultures for Candida albicans (p = 0.089) and were treated with oral fluconazole. Various factors have led to the increasing prevalence of inpatient candidaemia. Risk factors for ocular involvement include albicans species and the presence of, or inability to articulate, visual symptoms. For those without abnormal findings on initial examination, a subsequent retinal examination should be performed in 2 weeks, particularly if new symptoms develop or if the patient is unable to relay symptoms. Patients with chorioretinitis should be treated with systemic antifungal agents. For those with vitritis or endophthalmitis, particularly if worsening on systemic therapy alone, intravitreal antifungal medications or early vitrectomy should be considered.

  8. OCULAR FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral palsy is commonly associated with ocular abnormalities which often impact on their development and education. There is paucity of studies on this in Nigeria. We decided to study/ determine the prevalence of ocular abnormalities among children with cerebral palsy that attended the neurology clinic of University of ...

  9. Mental health in Dutch adolescents: a TRAILS report on prevalence, severity, age of onset, continuity and co-morbidity of DSM disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, J; Raven, D; van Oort, F; Hartman, C A; Reijneveld, S A; Veenstra, R; Vollebergh, W A M; Buitelaar, J; Verhulst, F C; Oldehinkel, A J

    2015-01-01

    With psychopathology rising during adolescence and evidence suggesting that adult mental health burden is often due to disorders beginning in youth, it is important to investigate the epidemiology of adolescent mental disorders. We analysed data gathered at ages 11 (baseline) and 19 years from the population-based Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study. At baseline we administered the Achenbach measures (Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report) and at age 19 years the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) to 1584 youths. Lifetime, 12-month and 30-day prevalences of any CIDI-DSM-IV disorder were 45, 31 and 15%, respectively. Half were severe. Anxiety disorders were the most common but the least severe whereas mood and behaviour disorders were less prevalent but more severe. Disorders persisted, mostly by recurrence in mood disorders and chronicity in anxiety disorders. Median onset age varied substantially across disorders. Having one disorder increased subjects' risk of developing another disorder. We found substantial homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Baseline problems predicted the development of diagnosable disorders in adolescence. Non-intact families and low maternal education predicted externalizing disorders. Most morbidity concentrated in 5-10% of the sample, experiencing 34-55% of all severe lifetime disorders. At late adolescence, 22% of youths have experienced a severe episode and 23% only mild episodes. This psychopathology is rather persistent, mostly due to recurrence, showing both monotypic and heterotypic continuity, with family context affecting particularly externalizing disorders. High problem levels at age 11 years are modest precursors of incident adolescent disorders. The burden of mental illness concentrates in 5-10% of the adolescent population.

  10. Hemolytische ziekte van de pasgeborene en irregulaire- bloedgroepantagonisme in Nederland: Prevalentie en morbiditeit [Haemolytic disease of the newborn and irregular blood group antagonism in the Netherlands: Prevalence and morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A. van; Hirasing, R.A.; Overbeeke, M.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To inventory prevalence and morbidity of haemolytic disease of newborn caused by irregular anti-erythrocyte antibodies other than antirhesus-D. Design. Prospective registration study. Method. All paediatricians (n = 380) in general hospitals and contact persons (n = 79) in university

  11. Tuberculosis ocular

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    Francisco Infante Barrera

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspección, un tacto y una serología con una obsesión sifilítica. En la época actual el médico y en especial el oftalmólogo debe tener una obsesión tuberculosa en la investigación etiológica. Cuántas veces en una afección ocular que de una manera lenta pero progresiva produce profundas alteraciones oculares, lleva el sello soterrado de una tuberculosis? Cuántos enfermos de una constitución en apariencia envidiable hacen precisamente por un exceso de sus defensas una alergia tuberculosa? Tan traicionera como la sífilis es la tuberculosis. La sífilis quema sus etapas y estalla con una hemorragia cerebral, una locura, una parálisis general, una ataxia locomotriz progresiva, una goma o una meningitis sifilítica. La tuberculosis hace su presentación con una afección ocular, una goma, una granulia, una artritis, una osteítis, o una meningitis óptico-quiasmática. Siendo esto así, es necesario, en la mayoría de las afecciones oculares, tratar de identificarla por los medios de diagnóstico de que hoy disponemos.

  12. Diverse prevalence of large deletions within the OA1 gene in ocular albinism type 1 patients from Europe and North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, M. T.; Bergen, A. A.; Bitoun, P.; Charles, S. J.; Clementi, M.; Gosselin, R.; Hurst, J.; Lewis, R. A.; Lorenz, B.; Meitinger, T.; Messiaen, L.; Ramesar, R. S.; Ballabio, A.; Schiaffino, M. V.

    2001-01-01

    Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) is an X-linked disorder mainly characterized by congenital nystagmus and photodysphoria, moderate to severe reduction of visual acuity, hypopigmentation of the retina, and the presence of macromelanosomes in the skin and eyes. We have previously isolated the gene for OA1

  13. Ocular Complications among Cases of Head Injury Seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head injuries with ocular involvement are of great importance due to the visual morbidity and mortality which may result. Objective: To determine the pattern of ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in Memphys Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu, in south-eastern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: ...

  14. Prevalência de obesidade em idosos longevos e sua associação com fatores de risco e morbidades cardiovasculares Obesity prevalence among oldest-old and its association with risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Beatrice Mânica Da Cruz

    2004-04-01

    risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity in the oldest old (>80 years old residing at the municipality of Veranópolis - RS, Brazil. METHODOS: 196 elderly participated in the study (69 male and 127 female, 91% of the population aged >80 until June, 1996. For obesity evaluation and classification, we used the body mass index (BMI and the World Health Organization (WHO and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III criteria. The cardiovascular risk factors investigated were sex, age, systemic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes mellitus (DM and smoking. For cardiovascular morbidities, we considered acute myocardial infarction, intermittent claudication and stroke. Waist-hip ratio (W/H, regular consumption of alcoholic beverages and physical activity were investigated too. Results: the obesity prevalence was 23.3% according to WHO (without difference between sex, p=0.124 and 45.6% according to NHANES III criteria (significantly higher in female, p=0.05. Obesity associations with risk factors were sex-dependent (the obese females presented higher levels of systolic blood pressure and glucose, lower levels of HDL-c, and higher systemic hypertension and DM frequencies; while the obese males presented higher levels of diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-c and higher hypercholesterolemia frequency. W/H and triglycerides, as well as hypertriglyceridemia frequency, were higher in obese people. CONCLUSIONS: the obesity prevalence was high among the long-living elderly, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors was sex-dependent. As regards morbidities, we did not observe differences between obese and non-obese people.

  15. The role of herpesviruses in ocular infections

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    Asim V Farooq

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Asim V Farooq1, Arpeet Shah1, Deepak Shukla21Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Ocular infections caused by herpesviruses are an important cause of morbidity. The majority of cases are believed to be associated with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1, although HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV are also associated with various ocular diseases. The ability of some herpes viruses to infect various anatomic regions of the eye may be facilitated by entry processes that are cell-type specific, and in many cases may occur more frequently in the immunocompromised. The elimination of the role of herpesviruses in ocular disease remains elusive, as they often develop life-long latency in a large proportion of humans. Experimental vaccines for ocular HSV have shown some benefit in animal models, a result that has not been adequately demonstrated in clinical trials. Meanwhile, ocular involvement in VZV remains unpredictable, and CMV retinitis continues to be an important cause of blindness in those infected by HIV.Keywords: ocular herpes, viral entry, antivirals, epidemiology, seroprevalence, ocular lymphomas, viral vaccine

  16. Prevalence of undiagnosed and inadequately treated type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperension, and dyslipidemia in morbidly obese patients who present for bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Pharmacotherapy is considered the primary treatment modality for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and dyslipidemia (DYS). Objective: We hypothesize that these metabolic diseases become exceedingly difficult to treat with pharmacotherapy in morbidly ob...

  17. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

  18. Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity among patients attending dental OPD and the role of consultation-liaison psychiatry in dental practice in a tertiary care general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Pradip K; Ray Bhattacharya, Sampa; Makhal, Manabendra; Majumder, Uttam; De, Shantanu; Ghosh, Subhankar

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidities are frequent among patients attending dental OPD, some of which go unrecognized and hence untreated. The present study has been carried out to detect the psychiatric co-morbidities among dental patients and determine the scope of consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry in a rural teaching hospital regarding comprehensive management of the patients. This cross-sectional, descriptive type study was conducted in a multi-speciality tertiary care teaching hospital in the northern part of West Bengal, India. One hundred patients attending the dental OPD were randomly included in the study and every patient was consecutively referred to psychiatry department for assessment, during the period from 1(st) November 2013 to 30(th) April 2014. All referred patients were clinically examined and psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed by the help of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28 and Mental Status Examination. The data were subjected to statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), version 16, and statistically analyzed using Cross tab and Chi test. P psychiatric co-morbidity according to GHQ-28 total score. Sixty-eight patients were diagnosed to have mental disorder on mental status examination. Somatoform disorder (25%) was the commonest type of mental disorder, followed by mixed anxiety and depression (14%). This study has pointed the need for psychological examination of patients visiting dental specialty with unexplained physical symptoms. Such patients can be identified and treated, provided a psychiatric consultation service exists.

  19. PAEDIATRIC OCULAR INJURIES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinayagamurthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Childhood blindness constitutes a burden on the economy of the country and produces psychosocial and emotional disturbance to the child and family at large. Similar to the visual impairment produced by vitamin deficiency state in children, ocular injuries form another group which if identified early and treated promptly can reduce irreversible damage. Eye injuries are responsible for the large scale ocular morbidity worldwide. At extremes of age, the incidence of eye injuries are common because of the negligence in their care. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence, various mechanisms, agents of injury and environmental influence causing eye injuries in children brought to Ophthalmic Outpatient Department of Chengalpattu Medical College in Kanchipuram District, Tamilnadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review of medical records of 230 children who attended Ophthalmic Outpatient in Chengalpattu Medical College Hospital between 01.09.2015 to 30.09.2016. Records of children of both genders between the age group of (0 to 12 years who attended the Ophthalmic Outpatient Department with history of ocular injury coming from both rural and urban areas of the district. Their data was collected and analysed and tabulated based on demography, mechanism and place of injury. RESULTS School going age groups (5-12 years, 84% sustained injuries more commonly. Children from rural areas sustained 54.7% injuries. Blunt trauma accounted for 65% injuries. 52.6% injuries occurred at home. 41.7% were due to stick and wood. Children were admitted to hospital for a mean of 4 days, range (1-25 days, 96% >6/12 v/a, 3% children had v/a (6/18-6/60, 1% blind 6/60 vision. Bilateral blindness was not reported. 1% visual impairment registered. CONCLUSION This study showed that rural children suffered more ocular injuries;commonest were injuries due to sticks followed by cracker injuries. Home-based injuries were more common. Visual prognosis was

  20. Nanotherapies for the treatment of ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimondez-Troitiño, S; Csaba, N; Alonso, M J; de la Fuente, M

    2015-09-01

    The topical route is the most frequent and preferred way to deliver drugs to the eye. Unfortunately, the very low ocular drug bioavailability (less than 5%) associated with this modality of administration, makes the efficient treatment of several ocular diseases a significant challenge. In the last decades, it has been shown that specific nanocarriers can interact with the ocular mucosa, thereby increasing the retention time of the associated drug onto the eye, as well as its permeability across the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In this review, we comparatively analyze the mechanism of action and specific potential of the most studied nano-drug delivery carriers. In addition, we present the success achieved until now using a number of nanotherapies for the treatment of the most prevalent ocular pathologies, such as infections, inflammation, dry eye, glaucoma, and retinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the prevalence ...

  2. Randomised intervention study to assess the prevalence of subclinical vascular disease and hidden kidney disease and its impact on morbidity and mortality: The ILERVAS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Betriu

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The ILERVAS project will reveal the prevalence of subclinical vascular disease and hidden kidney disease, determine whether or not their early diagnosis brings health benefits and will also allow investigation of new risk factors.

  3. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  4. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  5. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  6. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantes

  7. Co-morbid disorders in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette Marinette Monique

    2013-01-01

    in persons with TS. Both in clinical cohorts and in population-based cohorts the prevalence of co-morbidities is high. The presence of co-morbid ADHD and/or OCD has an impact on psychosocial, educational, and neuropsychological consequences of TS and it is associated with higher rates of other co......-morbid disorders, like rage, anxiety, and conduct disorders. The symptoms of a co-morbid disorder might appear prior to the time that tics reach clinical attention. The TS phenotype probably changes during the course of the disease. The exact aetiology of the co-occurrence of co-morbid disorders and TS...

  8. [Ocular surface system integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, T N; Pateyuk, L S

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of different structures belonging to either the anterior segment of the eye or its accessory visual apparatus, which all share common embryological, anatomical, functional, and physiological features, is discussed. Explanation of such terms, as ocular surface, lacrimal functional unit, and ocular surface system, is provided.

  9. [Descending ocular myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, M R; Nascimento, O J

    1975-06-01

    The case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  10. Peripheral Arterial Disease Study (PERART: Prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundó Magda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study. Methods/Design This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain. The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI Discussion In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low AAI may be a better marker of arterial disease than the classical cardiovascular risk factors and may, therefore, contribute to improving the predictive value of the equations of cardiovascular risk and thereby allowing optimisation of multifactorial treatment of atherosclerotic disease.

  11. The prevalence of physical activity and its associated factors among Malaysian adults: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, C H; Lim, K K; Chan, Y Y; Lim, K H; Azahadi, O; Hamizatul Akmar, A H; Ummi Nadiah, Y; Syafinaz, M S; Kee, C C; Yeo, P S; Fadhli, Y

    2014-05-01

    Despite the health-enhancing benefits of physical activity, a large segment of the Malaysian population does not engage in regular physical activity at the recommended level. This study aimed to determine physical activity patterns and the associated sociodemographic correlates of physical activity. Data on physical activity were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2011, a nationally representative, population-based cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of Malaysian adults aged 16 years and above. A total of 19,145 adults aged 16 years and above were recruited, and face-to-face interviews were conducted using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version. The correlates for physical activity were identified using multivariate analysis. In this study, 64.3% (95%CI: 63.1-65.5) of Malaysian adults aged 16 and above were physically active, but overall physical activity levels decreased with advancing age. Men, rural residents, 'other' ethnic groups, and married women were more likely to demonstrate higher levels of physical activity. Approximately 65% of Malaysian adults were physically active. However, it is recommended that health promotions for active lifestyles should be targeted to the least active segments, which constitute more than a quarter of the Malaysian population. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The reliability of the McCabe score as a marker of co-morbidity in healthcare-associated infection point prevalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J S; Coignard, B; Price, L; Godwin, J; Cairns, S; Hopkins, S; Lyytikäinen, O; Hansen, S; Malcolm, W; Hughes, G J

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the reliability of the McCabe score in a healthcare-associated infection point prevalence survey.   A 10 European Union Member States survey in 20 hospitals (n = 1912) indicated that there was a moderate level of agreement (κ = 0.57) with the score. The reliability of the application of the score could be increased by training data collectors, particularly with reference to the ultimately fatal criteria. This is important if the score is to be used to risk adjust data to drive infection prevention and control interventions.

  13. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  14. Pediatric Ocular Manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Makurdi Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of all the children aged 1-16 years, diagnosed cases of ... Visual acuity and Ocular diagnosis of all Seropositive HIV/AIDS children reviewed. ... HIV/AIDS were the major causes of ocular morbidity and visual impairment.

  15. Peripheral Arterial Disease study (PERART): prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, María Teresa; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Sorribes, Marta; Forés, Rosa; Toran, Pere; Vicheto, Marisa; Pera, Guillem; Reina, María Dolores; Albaladejo, Carlos; Llussà, Judith; Bundó, Magda; Sancho, Amparo; Heras, Antonio; Rubiés, Joan; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2007-12-11

    The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI) is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease) is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic) in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study). This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain). The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI < 0.90, determined by portable Doppler (8 Mhz probe) measured twice by trained personnel. Cardiovascular risk will be calculated with the Framingham-Wilson tables, with Framingham calibrated by the REGICOR and SCORE groups. The subjects included will be evaluted every 6 months by telephone interview and the clnical history and death registries will be reviewed. The appearance of the following cardiovascular events will be considered as variables of response: transitory ischaemic accident, ictus, angina, myocardial infartction, symptomatic abdominal aneurysm and vascular mortality. In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low AAI may be a better marker of

  16. Association between Exposure to Smartphones and Ocular Health in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joowon; Hwang, Yunji; Kang, Seungheon; Kim, Minhye; Kim, Tae-Shin; Kim, Jay; Seo, Jeongmin; Ahn, Hyojeong; Yoon, Sungjoon; Yun, Jun Pil; Lee, Yae Lim; Ham, Hyunsoo; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Park, Sue K

    2016-08-01

    Smartphone use has dramatically increased in recent years. Smartphones may have adverse health effects, particularly on the eyes, because users stare at the screen for a much longer time than they do with ordinary mobile phones. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between smartphone use and ocular symptoms among adolescents. Information on smartphone use and ocular symptoms (blurring, redness, visual disturbance, secretion, inflammation, lacrimation and dryness) related to eye fatigue and strain from 715 adolescent subjects from three cities in Korea was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Ocular health was scored using number of ocular symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and p-values for ocular symptoms were calculated with binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. Higher prevalence rates for ocular symptoms were observed in groups with greater exposure to smartphones (p 2 hours daily and ≤2 hours continuously) and excessive/persistent use (>2 hours daily and >2 hours continuously) compared to shorter use (<2 hours daily) were associated with multiple ocular symptoms (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.09-4.39; OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.11-4.57, respectively). A higher lifetime exposure to smartphones was associated with a higher likelihood of having multiple ocular symptoms (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.51-6.19; p = 0.001). Increasing exposure to smartphones can have a negative impact on ocular health in adolescents.

  17. The impact of a school health programme on the prevalence and morbidity of urinary schistosomiasis in Mwera Division, Pangani District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, P; Ndawi, B; Sheshe, A K

    2001-01-01

    in class 5 (median age 14 years, range 11-17) by urine filtration techniques. Treatment was administered as 40 mg/kg praziquantel in a single dose at the beginning of the school year. The programme was implemented by schoolteachers and coordinated by the District Health Management Team in collaboration......The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Pangani District (Tanzania) was assessed rapidly by a questionnaire approach. Based on the results, a strategy of selective treatment with praziquantel was adopted. Eleven primary schools in Mwera Division, Pangani District...... parents pay for the treatment of children with episodes of visible haematuria during the school year. Communities also participated in the improvement of sanitary installations at the schools....

  18. Impact of Universal Hepatitis B Vaccination on Prevalence, Infection-Associated Morbidity and Mortality, and Circulation of Immune Escape Variants in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina V Klushkina

    Full Text Available 6,217 sera samples collected from volunteers in six epidemiologically different regions of Russia were tested for serological and molecular markers of HBV infection. A mathematical model developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was used to estimate the effect of vaccination and birth dose coverage on the incidence of HB and adverse outcomes of infection.Prevalence of HBsAg in the study population varied from 1.2% to 8.2%; anti-HBc detection rates were 13.0-46.2%. HBsAg detection rates in epidemiologically significant cohorts were 0.6-10.5% in women of childbearing age; 0-2.4% in children ≤5 years old; 1.9-8.1% in adults ≥30 years old. Mathematical modeling demonstrated that the current 96.1-99.6% level of birth dose coverage increased the effectiveness of vaccination 10-21 times compared to 50% and 0% birth dose coverage scenarios. HBV DNA was detected in 63 sera samples. The frequency of amino acid substitutions in HBsAg was 38% (24/63. Only in 3% (2/63 the mutations were within the a-determinant of HBsAg (M133T and G145S, one case each. None of the identified mutations eluded HBsAg detection, since all these samples tested positive for HBsAg by commercial ELISA.Despite a significant decline in acute HB incidence after the introduction of universal vaccination, many undiagnosed potential sources of infection remain. Low prevalence of HBV immune escape variants is a favorable predictor of vaccine effectiveness in the future.

  19. Evaluating ocular blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Maram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that vascular impairment plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of various ocular diseases including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal venous occlusive disease. Thus, qualitative and quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow (BF is a topic of interest for early disease detection, diagnosis, and management. Owing to the rapid improvement in technology, there are several invasive and noninvasive techniques available for evaluating ocular BF, with each of these techniques having their own limitations and advantages. This article reviews these important techniques, with a particular focus on Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT and OCT-angiography.

  20. Ocular fishhook injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C S

    2001-06-01

    Ocular fishhook injuries are rare, yet potentially vision threatening as complications such as corneal scarring, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis may result. The surgical management of these cases is challenging due to the construction of barbed fishhooks.

  1. THERAPY FOR OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROTHOVA, A; MEENKEN, C; BRINKMAN, CJ; BAARSMA, GS; BOENTAN, TN; DEJONG, PTVM; KLAASSENBROEKEMA, N; SCHWEITZER, CMC; TIMMERMAN, Z; DEVRIES, J; ZAAL, MJW; KIJLSTRA, A

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,

  2. Mediators of ocular angiogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. ocular angiogenesis; corneal neovascularization; retinal neovascularization; diabetic retinopathy; age-related macular degeneration; retinopathy of prematurity; VEGF; PEDF; Flt-1; Flk-1; endostatin; angiopoietin; erythropoietin; Tie2; inflammation; complement; gene therapy; TLR-3; Robo4.

  3. Therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Meenken, C.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Brinkman, C. J.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Klaassen-Broekema, N.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study of the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies for ocular toxoplasmosis in 149 patients. Treatment consisted of the following three triple-drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and corticosteroids; group 2, clindamycin, sulfadiazine,

  4. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms in expectant mothers and fathers: results from a perinatal psychiatric morbidity cohort study in the east and west coasts of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Hashima E; Rahman, Jamalludin Ab; Rus, Razman Mohd; Kartiwi, Mira; Sutan, Rosnah; Edhborg, Maigun

    2018-06-15

    Research on antepartum psychiatric morbidities investigating depressive and anxiety symptoms in expectant mothers and fathers is lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of antepartum depressive, anxiety and co-occurring significant symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of Malaysian expectant mothers and fathers. We used cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort study of 911 expectant mothers and 587 expectant fathers during their third trimester of pregnancy, from health clinics of two states in the east and west coasts of Malaysia. The validated Malay version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the anxiety sub-scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were used to measure the depressive and anxiety symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS). Prevalence of ADS was 12.2% in expectant mothers and 8.4% in expectant fathers, while AAS was 28.8% in expectant mothers and 13.3% in expectant fathers, and co-occurring significant symptoms was 8.0% in expectant mothers and 4.0% in expectant fathers. Expectant mothers and fathers having perceived social/family support were less likely to suffer from ADS. Intimate partner violence, poor relationship with husbands, depression in earlier pregnancy and husband's depression in current pregnancy in expectant mothers, and living in rented house, sex preference for the unborn child, stressful life events and wife's depression in current pregnancy in expectant fathers were associated with a greater likelihood of ADS. The determinants for AAS were living in rented house and with parents/in-laws, poor relationship with husbands, restrictions during pregnancy and stressful life events for expectant mothers, and stressful life events and being unsupportive towards wives in household chores for expectant fathers. Both ADS and AAS are prevalent in expectant

  6. Ocular abnormalities in atopic dermatitis in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaujalgi Radhika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease. Long-standing, severe AD with repeated scratching and rubbing of the face, which requires continuous dermatologic care, predisposes the patient to various ocular complications. The knowledge of the frequency and significance of these ocular complications may allow their early diagnosis and treatment. The present study assesses the ocular complications in Indian children suffering from AD. Methods: In order to study the ocular complications in AD, 100 patients (61 male and 39 female between the ages of 1 and 14 years were recruited. All the patients had complete dilated fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy. The lid, conjunctiva and cornea were examined. Also, any evidence of cataract formation and retinal disorders were recorded. Results: The mean age of the children was 5.4 years. Forty-three (43.0% AD patients showed ocular abnormalities in the form of lid and conjunctival changes. Of these, 18 (41.9% patients showed only lid involvement, 16 (37.2% only conjunctival involvement and both conjunctival and lid changes were seen in nine (20.9% patients. Conjunctival changes were mostly in the form of a cobblestone appearance of the papillae, with mild to moderate papillary reaction and papillary hypertrophy. Variables observed to have a significant impact on the development of ocular abnormalities were age more than 5 years, duration of illness> 12 months, positive family history of atopy, presence of palmar hyperlinearity and a combination of both xerosis and Dennie-Morgan fold. Conclusions: The present study is the first of its kind from India to document an association between AD in children and various ocular manifestations. The ocular manifestations observed in our cohort were not associated with significant ocular morbidity or visual impairment possibly because of a less-severe disease in Indians.

  7. Afecções oculares prevalentes em crianças de baixa renda atendidas em um serviço oftalmológico na cidade do Recife - PE, Brasil Prevalence of ocular disorders in poor children attending an ophthalmologic clinic in Recife - PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Costa Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever os distúrbios visuais diagnosticados em um grupo de crianças carentes, assistidas no serviço oftalmológico do Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, realizado com uma amostra representativa (n=388, selecionada de forma aleatória da clientela de baixa renda na faixa etária de 0 a 15 anos, atendida no período de fevereiro a outubro de 2001 no IMIP. Os diagnósticos, estabelecidos pelos médicos oftalmologistas do serviço, foram classificados de acordo com o CID-10. RESULTADOS: Os distúrbios visuais mais detectados (63,9%, foram os transtornos dos músculos oculares, do movimento binocular, da acomodação e da refração, sendo o estrabismo e a hipermetropia os mais comuns. Seguiram-se os transtornos da conjuntiva e da pálpebra (20,0%, da coróide e da retina (5,1% e do cristalino (3,9. Transtornos da esclerótica e do humor vítreo, glaucoma congênito, cegueira e outros distúrbios foram observados em menor freqüência. CONCLUSÕES: Os distúrbios visuais são comuns nas crianças carentes, sendo os erros de refração e o estrabismo os mais observados na casuística estudada, o que justifica programas de triagem na população infantil.PURPOSE: To describe the commonest visual disorders in a group of poor children attending the Ophthalmology Clinic at the "Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP". METHODS: Descritive study. A randomly selected sample (n=388 of children under the age of 15, from low-income families, seen at IMIP between February and October 2001. Eye disorders were classifical according to the ICD-10 by ophthalmologists in the clinic. RESULTS: Visual problems related to eye muscular disorders (binocular movement, accommodation, refraction were detected in most cases (63.9% and hyperopia and strabismus were the commonest. Disorders of the conjunctiva and eyelid were found in 20% of the cases, followed by choroid and retina (5.1% and the lens (3

  8. Crash and Burn: Ocular Injuries due to Fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravija; Mukherjee, Bipasha

    2016-01-01

    To identify the patterns of ocular injury and to determine ocular morbidity resulting from the use of firecrackers. A prospective observational study of all patients presenting with ocular trauma consequent to fireworks usage in a tertiary eye care center in South India over a one-month period around the autumn festival of Diwali. We also reviewed the published literature from around the world reporting ocular injuries due to firecrackers. 49 patients were included in the study, out of which the vast majority (40/81%) were males. The mean age was 17 years. Almost an equal number of bystanders (24/48.9%) was affected as compared to people handling the fireworks (25/51%). 13 (26.53%) patients had open-globe injury whereas 33 (67.34%) patients had closed-globe injury. Twenty-two (44.8%) patients underwent surgical intervention. Eighteen (36.7%) patients had final vision less then 20/40 (range = 20/50 to No Perception of Light) with eight patients having no perception of light in the affected eye. Unregulated use of firecrackers can lead to significant ocular morbidity, mainly involving children, young males, and even innocent bystanders. A combination of public awareness and appropriate legislative laws should be formulated regarding the use of fireworks to decrease the load of needless blindness on society.

  9. Clinics of ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishali; Shoughy, Samir S; Mahajan, Sarakshi; Khairallah, Moncef; Rosenbaum, James T; Curi, Andre; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-02-01

    Ocular tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary tuberculous condition and has variable manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of ocular tuberculosis affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Review of literature using Pubmed database. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to formation of conjunctival granuloma, nodular scleritis, and interstitial keratitis. Lacrimal gland and orbital caseating granulomas are rare but may occur. The intraocular structures are also a target of insult by M. tuberculosis and may cause anterior granulomatous uveitis, anterior and posterior synechiae, secondary glaucoma, and cataract. The bacillus may involve the ciliary body, resulting in the formation of a localized caseating granuloma. Posterior segment manifestations include vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal tubercules, subretinal neovascularization, and, rarely, endophthalmitis. The recognition of clinical signs of ocular tuberculosis is of utmost importance as it can provide clinical pathway toward tailored investigations and decision making for initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy.

  10. Artefactos en ultrasonido ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mayorquín Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ultrasonido ocular es un estudio dependiente del operador. Un buen estudio ecográfico debe tener como base el conocimiento de la anatomía y fisiología normales y de los cambios producidos en diferentes enfermedades, así como los cambios tras una cirugía ocular o trauma. El conocimiento de los fenómenos físicos producidos por el ultrasonido es la base para entender y reconocer la presencia de artefactos en el ultrasonido ocular. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer un recuento de los artefactos que pueden ocasionar confusión al interpretar una imagen ecográfica, así como explicar la base física en la que se basan, reduciendo de esta manera los errores de interpretación y diagnósticos.

  11. What Is an Ocular Migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When to seek help What is an ocular migraine? Is it a sign of something serious? Answers ... and retinal migraine, which could signal something serious. Migraine aura affecting your vision Ocular migraine sometimes describes ...

  12. Prevalência de doenças oculares e causas de comprometimento visual em crianças atendidas em um Centro de Referência em Oftalmologia do centro-oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nice Araujo Moraes Rocha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar os níveis de comprometimento visual e a prevalência de oftalmopatias e ametropias em crianças atendidas em um centro de referência em oftalmologia do centro-oeste brasileiro. Comparar os achados com dados publicados referentes a outras regiões do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo e retrospectivo com análise de prontuários de crianças atendidas no Centro de Referência em Oftalmologia (CEROF da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no período compreendido entre abril de 2009 e março de 2010. Resultados: Foram avaliados 2408 prontuários, sendo 2128 (88,4% de atendimento eletivo e 280 (11,6% de atendimento no setor de urgências do CEROF. Houve predomínio na faixa etária de 6 a 10 anos (44,2%, seguido pela de 11 a 14 anos (29,6%. O exame foi considerado normal em 12,9% (n=274 dos atendimentos eletivos e em 6,8 (n=19 dos atendimentos de urgência. As doenças mais encontradas nas crianças foram as conjuntivites infecciosas (248 casos, 26,4% e alérgicas (204 casos, 21,7%, blefarite (69 casos, 7,3%, calázio (34 casos, 3,6%, estrabismo (133 casos, 12,06%, as doenças de retina e vítreo (24 casos, 2,6%, catarata e alterações de cristalino (20 casos, 2,1%. As ametropias mais frequentes, contadas por olho, foram a hipermetropia (46,9% e o astigmatismo (42,2% e as doenças sistêmicas mais informadas foramprematuridade (30 casos e diabete melito (26 casos. Conclusão: Este estudo identificou as principais causas de doenças oculares em crianças atendidas em um centro universitário de referência. O grupo de doenças mais prevalente foi o das doenças de córnea e conjuntiva (conjuntivites alérgicas, olho seco e ceratites. As doenças de pálpebra ocuparam o segundo lugar (blefarite, calázio, e obstrução de vias lacrimais. As ametropias mais frequentes foram a hipermetropia e o astigmatismo. Os achados na população estudada mostram-se semelhantes aos observados na literatura nacional.

  13. Corporal punishment-related ocular injuries in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Adegbehingbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contribution of corporal punishment to ocular morbidity and visual impairment in Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted of all patients aged 0-15 years seen with ocular injuries over a four year period. Those who sustained ocular injuries during the administration of corporal punishment were further studied. Relevant information was documented using a semistructured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by simple descriptive statistics using SPSS statistical package version 10. Results: A total of 186 children were seen within the study period. Eighty-nine (47.8% had ocular injuries and 27 (30.3% had ocular injuries resulting from corporal punishment. Of the latter group, eighteen were males and nine were females. Their ages ranged from 3-15 years (mean = 8.5 ± 2.4 years. Corporal punishment-associated injuries occurred most commonly as seen in 17 (63% of our study population who were aged 7-12 years. These 27 cases of injuries were sustained in the schools: 13 (48.2%, homes: eight (29.6%, market place: three (11.1%, workshop: two (7.4% and worship houses: one (3.7%. A stick was the object mostly implicated in causing ocular injuries in 13 (48.2% followed by a belt in five (18.5% and a whip in four (14.8%. Severe visual impairment occurred in two (7.4% patients while blindness occurred in three (11.1% patients. Conclusion: Corporal punishment is a major cause of ocular morbidity and blindness in Nigerian children.

  14. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management

  15. Spectrum of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.N.; Hussain, M.; Shah, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the pattern of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), clinical presentations, the risk factors and treatment options. The study included 36 eyes of 35 patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface neoplasia. The details of patients regarding age, gender, laterality and risk factors were entered into a specially-designed proforma. Each patient was also assessed biomicroscopically for type and complications of ocular surface neoplasia. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37 among admitted hospital patients. Among 36 cases of OSSN, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was the most common type of OSSN seen in 63.9%, followed by carcinoma in situ of conjunctiva in 25% and carcinoma in situ of cornea in 11.1%. Male patients outnumbered female (65.7% vs 34.3%) with 71.42% of patients above 60 years of age. The risk factors identified were: old age, ultraviolet B exposure and xeroderma pigmentosa. Treatment consisted of local resection with or without adjuvant therapy in 61.1%, exenteration in 30.5%, enucleation in 5.5% and chemo/radiotherapy in 2.7%. Intraocular invasion was seen in 5.5% and orbital spread in 30.5%. The frequency of OSSN was 0.37% among admitted patients. Identification of exact etiological factors will enable to formulate strategies that are likely to decrease the incidence of this disease and the associated morbidity and mortality. (author)

  16. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic...... methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of obesity, age, sex, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus) does not point towards a single causal factor. Co-influence of additional pathogenetic factors are likely in the development of liver changes in morbid obesity....

  17. Ocular manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination of acute, non-granulomatous, panuveitis, hypopyon, vasculitis, optic disc edema, membranous vitreous opacities and absence of choroiditis or retinitis have high predictive value for the clinical diagnosis of leptospiral uveitis. Geographic location of the patient, occupation, socio-economic status, risk factors related to exposure, past history of fever or jaundice also aid in diagnosis.Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for leptospiral uveitis. Depending upon the severity and anatomical location of inflammatory lesion, topical, peri-ocular and/or systemic steroids are given. The prognosis is generally good, even when the inflammation is severe.

  18. Ocular straylight in albinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, Bastiaan; Franssen, Luuk; Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Albinism is an inherited disorder that affects the melanin biosynthesis pathway, which results in reduced or absent pigment formation. This may lead to increased light transmission through the iris and more reflected light from the fundus. Both these effects contribute to the occurrence of ocular

  19. Therapy of ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Buitenhuis, H. J.; Meenken, C.; Baarsma, G. S.; Boen-Tan, T. N.; de Jong, P. T.; Schweitzer, C. M.; Timmerman, Z.; de Vries, J.; Zaal, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    We performed a prospective multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies currently used for ocular toxoplasmosis in a large number of patients (n = 106). Treatment was given for at least four weeks and consisted of three triple drug combinations: group 1, pyrimethamine,

  20. Profile of ocular trauma in industries-related hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikala, P; Sadiqulla, Mohammed; Shivakumar, D; Prakash, K H

    2013-05-01

    Ocular trauma is a worldwide cause of visual morbidity, a significant proportion of which occurs in the industrial workplace and includes a spectrum of simple ocular surface foreign bodies, abrasions to devastating perforating injuries causing blindness. Being preventable is of social and medical concern. A prospective case series study, to know the profile of ocular trauma at a hospital caters exclusively to factory employees and their families, to co-relate their demographic and clinical profile and to identify the risk factors. Patients with ocular trauma who presented at ESIC Model hospital, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, from June 2010 to May 2011 were taken a detailed demographic data, nature and cause of injury, time interval between the time of injury and presentation along with any treatment received. Ocular evaluation including visual acuity, anterior and posterior segment findings, intra-ocular pressure and gonio-scopy in closed globe injuries, X-rays for intraocular foreign body, B-scan and CT scan were done. Data analyzed as per the ocular trauma classification group. The rehabilitation undertaken medically or surgically was analyzed. At follow-up, the final best corrected visual acuity was noted. A total of 306 cases of ocular trauma were reported; predominantly in 20-40 year age group (72.2%) and in men (75%). The work place related cases were 50.7%and of these, fall of foreign bodies led the list. Visual prognosis was poorer in road traffic accidents rather than work place injuries owing to higher occurrence of open globe injuries and optic neuropathy. Finally, 11% of injured cases ended up with poor vision. Targeting groups most at risk, providing effective eye protection, and developing workplace safety cultures may together reduce occupational eye injuries.

  1. INCIDENCE OF OCULAR TRAUMA IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN VISAKHAPATNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Madusudanarao Kanukollu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ocular trauma is a major cause of preventable ocular blindness in the world. The present available data represents the tip of iceberg. The data pertaining to ocular trauma is just hospital based data which does not accurately represent the population at risk. The ocular morbidity may be disproportionate to the severity of injury. Though eyes represent only 0.21% of body surface area and 4% of facial area, they are the third most common trauma exposed areas after hands and feet. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study group consisted of 341 patients who attended ophthalmology OPD with history of ocular trauma of whom 221 were males and 121 were females. The study was conducted over a period of one year. A complete anterior and posterior segment evaluation of all the patients was done. Other accessory ocular and systemic investigations wherever essential were done. RESULTS The ocular trauma was more common in males (64.52% predominantly affecting patients of 20-40 years age group (36.07%. Most often the injuries were occupation related (73.90% and the most common work related injury observed was extraocular foreign body in 134 patients (39.29%. Closed globe injuries were more common as compared to open globe injuries. Eyes with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis. Blinding trauma was observed in 29 patients (8.50%. CONCLUSION Ocular injuries are more commonly occupation related and mostly effect young males who are the main work force of our society. Stringent implementation of preventive norms in industries to all the workers and safety precautions during sports, driving need to be enforced.

  2. Evaluation of morbidity from mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Massé, H; Aubenque, M

    1983-01-01

    The authors have attempted to measure morbidity involved in mortality, from French regional statistics of causes of death, for the 1968-1970 period. Particularly, they have estimated prevalence rates (proportion of patients at a given moment) and incidence rates (annual proportion of new patients). These rates have been assessed by sex, and for age groups: 15-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years, 75 years and more, and for 18 leading causes of death, according to the International Classification of Diseases (1965). Statistics of causes of deaths have been corrected to take into account non specified causes of death.

  3. Sclerodermatomyositis, ocular manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Seres, M; Serna-Ojeda, J C; Flores-Suárez, L F

    2017-07-01

    Sclerodermatomyositis is an overlap syndrome of myositis and scleroderma, with dermatological, muscular and joint involvement, but may also present with ocular manifestations. A 57 year-old woman presented with ophthalmological manifestations, including scleral thinning 360°, and the presence of cells in the anterior and posterior chamber. Oriented physical examination and laboratory studies led to the diagnosis, with the need for systemic treatment. Sclerodermatomyositis is a rare disease. Its diagnosis needs thorough clinical and laboratory studies, and its management should be multidisciplinary when inflammatory ocular manifestations may be present. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Miopatia ocular descendente

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    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.

  6. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika O. U; Suma Job

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocu...

  7. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika O. U

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocular signs of hyperthyroidism were evaluated and followed up for an average period of 1 year. Detailed ocular examination included exophthalmometric measurements, ocular movements and Worth four-dot test. T3, T4, TSH, CT scan and antimicrosomal antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies were done along with routine investigations. Study Design- Prospective cohort study. RESULTS Statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between the level of serum T3 and severity of ocular findings. Majority of the cases were euthyroid with moderate ocular myopathy having multiple muscle involvement. Inferior rectus was affected most. CONCLUSION The ocular signs of hyperthyroidism in the present study seem to be mild. The severe eye changes like corneal involvement and optic nerve changes were less common.

  8. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warninghoff, Jan C; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta; Straube, Andreas

    2009-07-07

    Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD), vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV)) have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, BMI (body mass index), migraine, other headache, and psychiatric diseases in general and the likelihood of a depression in particular. We noted hypertension in 29.0% of the cohort, diabetes mellitus in 6.1%, migraine in 8.4%, other headache in 32.1%, psychiatric diseases in 16.0%, overweight and obesity in 33.6% and 13.7% respectively, as well as a clinical indication for depression in 15.9%. In general, we did not detect an increased prevalence of the co-morbidities diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, migraine, other headache and obesity compared to the general population. There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was elevated in patients with MD.

  9. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Uta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD, vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. Methods All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, BMI (body mass index, migraine, other headache, and psychiatric diseases in general and the likelihood of a depression in particular. Results We noted hypertension in 29.0% of the cohort, diabetes mellitus in 6.1%, migraine in 8.4%, other headache in 32.1%, psychiatric diseases in 16.0%, overweight and obesity in 33.6% and 13.7% respectively, as well as a clinical indication for depression in 15.9%. Conclusion In general, we did not detect an increased prevalence of the co-morbidities diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, migraine, other headache and obesity compared to the general population. There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was elevated in patients with MD.

  10. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery de...

  11. Ocular manifestations of graft-versus-host disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Amr; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Aljurf, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has evolved over the past two decades to become the standard of care for hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. Major ocular complications after allogeneic HSCT have been increasing in number and severity. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of ocular morbidity after allogeneic HSCT. The main objective of this review is to elucidate the ocular complications in patients developing GVHD following HSCT. Ocular complications secondary to GVHD are common and include dry eye syndrome, acquisition of ocular allergy from donors with allergic disorders. Eyelid changes may occur in GVHD leading to scleroderma-like changes. Patients may develop poliosis, madarosis, vitiligo, lagophthalmos, and entropion. The cornea may show filamentary keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, corneal ulcers, and peripheral corneal melting which may lead to perforation in severe cases. Scleritis may also occur which can be anterior or posterior. Keratoconjunctivis sicca appears to be the most common presentation of GVHD. The lacrimal glands may be involved with mononuclear cell infiltration of both the major and accessory lacrimal glands and decrease in tear production. Severe dry eye syndrome in patients with GVHD may develop conjunctival scarring, keratinization, and cicatrization of the conjunctiva. Therapy of GVHD includes systemic immunosuppression and local therapy. Surgical treatment in refractory cases includes surgical intervention to improve the manifestation of GVHD of the eye. This may include tarsorrhapy, prose lenses, punctal occlusions and corneal transplantation. PMID:24227989

  12. Ocular Adnexal and Anterior Segment Manifestations of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Benue State has the highest rate of sero-prevalence to human immuno virus (HIV) infections among the ten hyper-endemic states in Nigeria. This study evaluates the pattern of ocular adnexal and anterior segment manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients attending the HIV clinic at the NAF Hospital in Makurdi, ...

  13. Childhood respiratory morbidity and cooking practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Household air pollution is a leading risk factor for respiratory morbidity and mortality in developing countries where biomass fuel is mainly used for cooking. Materials and Method: A household cross-sectional survey was conducted in a predominantly rural area of Ghana in 2007 to determine the prevalence of ...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus ocular infection: methicillin-resistance, clinical features, and antibiotic susceptibilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection is an important public health issue. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of ocular infections caused by MRSA and to identify the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of ocular MRSA infections by comparing those of ocular methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The medical records of the patients (n = 519 with culture-proven S. aureus ocular infections seen between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and seventy-four patients with MRSA and 245 with MSSA ocular infections were identified. The average rate of MRSA in S. aureus infections was 52.8% and the trend was stable over the ten years (P value for trend  = 0.228. MRSA ocular infections were significantly more common among the patients with healthcare exposure (P = 0.024, but 66.1% (181/274 patients with MRSA ocular infections had no healthcare exposure. The most common clinical presentation for both MRSA and MSSA ocular infections was keratitis; MRSA and MSSA caused a similar disease spectrum except for lid infections. MRSA was significantly more resistant than MSSA to clindamycin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (all P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated a paralleled trend of ocular MRSA infection in a highly prevalent MRSA country by hospital-based survey. Except for lid disorder, MRSA shared similar spectrum of ocular pathology with MSSA. Since S. aureus is a common ocular pathogen, our results raise clinician's attention to the existence of highly prevalent MRSA.

  15. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  16. Profile of ocular injury in pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishk Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical profile of ocular injuries in children in a tertiary care center in Northern India.METHODS: This was a hospital based descriptive study. All children of ocular injuries up to 16y of age were included. Data regarding the socio-economic status, medical/surgical treatment, and condition at discharge were recorded. Follow-up to 3mo was done in the study. Initial and final visual acuity was recorded. Ocular Trauma Classification Group guidelines and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology were used for the definitions and classifications of ocular trauma. Socio-economic status grading is done according to modified B.G. Prasad classification and Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale.RESULTS: Out of 42 children, male to female ratio was 3.6:1.Maximum number(50%of injuries occurred between 11-16y of age. Most of the children(59.52%belonged to lower socio-economic class and were from arural background. Ocular injuries occurred at home in 20(47.61%children followed by 6(14.28%each in school, playground, and street. Open globe injuries were seen in 19(45.24%children and 23(54.75%children had closed globe injuries. Injuries by wooden stick, stone, firework, fall, toy were 12(28.57%, 5(11.90%, 3(7.14%, 3(7.14%, and 2(4.76%. Seventeen(40.47%children required medical management and 25(59.53%were treated surgically.CONCLUSION:Male children in rural regions and of lower socio-economic background were more prone to ocular injuries. Children were more risk of ocular injuries at home. Wooden sticks and stone were the commonest cause of ocular injuries. Ocular morbidity and poor visual outcome were seen more in open globe injuries. Further population-based studies are required to reinforce findings of present study. Based on this, a long term strategy can be planned to prevent ocular injuries in children in this region.

  17. OCULAR DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

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    Meera Suresh Joshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, an estimated 1.5-2.5% children below 2 years of age are developmentally delayed. A higher incidence of ocular disability is seen in these children, refractive errors and strabismus being most common. These can add to the overall burden of health as most of them have developmental comorbidities. The aim of the study is to study the ocular disorders in children with developmental delay. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 112 children between the 2-12 years of age diagnosed to have developmental delay. All the subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity testing using Snellen’s charts (3m and 6m and Log MAR charts (recorded as per Snellen’s vision testing to maintain uniformity, cycloplegic refraction, torchlight and slit-lamp evaluation and dilated fundus examination. The data was tabulated and represented using bar diagrams, Pie charts and graphs. The results were expressed as percentages. Design-Cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS 66 boys and 46 girls (total 112 were evaluated. The mean age of the study population was 7.8 years ± 2.4 SD. The aetiology of developmental delay was cerebral palsy (64%, Down syndrome (22%, autism (7%, intellectual disability (4.5% and 1 case each of congenital hypothyroidism and ataxia telangiectasia. The prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 84.8%, which was slightly higher in girls (87% as compared to boys (83%. Refractive error (79.5% was the commonest ocular disorder followed by strabismus (46.4%. Astigmatism (44.6% was the commonest refractive error, which was divided into myopic astigmatism (19.6%, hyperopic astigmatism (13.8% and mixed astigmatism (11.2%. Simple hyperopia was seen in 21.9% subjects and simple myopia in 12.1%. Exotropia (52% was commoner than esotropia (48%. Other ocular abnormalities included optic atrophy, nystagmus, epicanthal folds, cataract, mongoloid slant, ptosis, telecanthus, conjunctival telangiectasia and

  18. Patterns of ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.T.; Marwat, M.; Shah, A.; Murad, Y.; Khan, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the patterns of ocular trauma, cause of injury and its effects on eye. A retrospective case series. Medical records of 1105 patients admitted with ocular trauma were reviewed. The details of patients regarding age, gender, literacy, cause of injury and its effects on eye were entered into specially-designed performa. Sample selection consisted of all patients with history of ocular trauma and who were admitted to hospital. Population details consisted patients who were referred to the hospital from all parts of N.W.F.P. Thus, the frequency of trauma in the hospital admissions was analysed. Ophthalmic trauma comprised 6.78% of the hospital admission. One thousand one hundred and five patients presented with eye injuries. Out of them, 21 patients suffered from trauma to both eyes. Almost 80% patients were male and 69% patients were below 30 years of age. Delayed presentation was more common and 63.61% patients presented after one week. Open globe injuries were more common (520 eyes (46.18%)) than closed globe injuries (484 eyes (42.98%)). 23.26% of open globe injuries were associated with intraocular and intra-orbital foreign bodies. Superficial non-perforating, eyelid and adnexal and burns were seen in 122 eyes (10.83%). Among the complications, lens damage and hyphema was seen in more than 50% of the patients, 16.60% eyes were infected at the time of admission and 4.88% of eyes needed enucleation or evisceration. The common causes of injury were violence in 37.37%, occupational in 24.43% and domestic accidents in 19.18%. Ophthalmic trauma is a major public health problem. Majority of the involved are male and under 30 years of age. Delayed presentation is more common. Open globe injuries are more frequent. Violence and occupational injuries are the major causes. (author)

  19. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantesThe case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  20. Diabetes y enfermedad ocular

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Ojeda, Desireé

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una revisión bibliográfica de la diabetes en relación con las diferentes patologías oculares a las que está asociada. La diabetes, es una enfermedad crónica que comporta un importante problema sanitario y social, que afecta a muchos órganos. De entre todos ellos, el ojo parece afectarse especialmente por los cambios de glucosa en sangre. Una vez entendida la estructura del ojo humano, el trabajo estudia las partes especialmente afectadas en pacientes ...

  1. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    that involved 6 eye cancer centers from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2010. A total of 105 patients with follicular OAL were identified, of which 7 patients were excluded because of missing clinical data. The median follow-up time was 52 months (range, 13-118 months). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Overall...... in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma, and 10 (10%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The lacrimal gland (28%), conjunctiva (28%), and orbit (28%) were the most frequently involved sites. Of the 69 patients with primary follicular lymphoma, 38 (55%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma...

  2. Anomalias oculares em pacientes portadores de deficiência auditiva genética Ocular abnormalities in genetically deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chen

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Para se verificar a prevalência de anomalias oculares em indivíduos portadores de deficiência auditiva de causa genética definitiva ou suspeita, este trabalho apresenta a avaliação oftalmológica de 97 indivíduos portadores de deficiência auditiva. Pacientes e Métodos: 97 indivíduos com diagnóstico definitivo ou suspeito de causa genética para disacusia foram submetidos a exame clínico oftalmológico completo; destes, 10 foram excluídos. Resultados: 42 (48,28% dos pacientes apresentaram uma ou mais anomalias oculares, 22 (25,29% pacientes apresentaram várias anormalidades oculares e quadro clínico compatíveis com síndromes genéticas estabelecidas. Conclusões: O exame oftalmológico é importante no diagnóstico sindrômico e etiológico de alguns quadros de disacusia, pois as alterações oculares podem ser a única anomalia associada à mesma.Purpose: In order to verify the prevalence of ocular abnormalities in patients who are deaf due to genetic causes, this paper presents the visual assessment of 97 deaf patients. Methods: 97 patients with definite or suspected diagno- sis of congenital and genetic deafness underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation; 10 patients were excluded. Results: 42 (48.28% patients presented one or more ocular abnormalities, 22 (25.29% patients presented several abnormalities and clinical manifestations of established genetic diseases. Conclusions: The ocular abnormalities may be the only clinical manifestations associated with deafness. Therefore the ophthalmological examination is a helpful tool for the etiological diagnosis of deafness.

  3. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  4. A STUDY OF OCULAR INJURIES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Diddigam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Worldwide, ocular trauma is an important cause of eye morbidity and a leading cause of non-congenital monocular blindness among children. In general, children are more susceptible to eye injuries because of their immature motor skills, limited common sense, tendency to imitate adult behaviour without evaluating risks, lessened emotional control, relative ignorance, and natural curiosity. Adult supervision is extremely important in preventing accidents. 1 PATIENTS AND METHODS The material for this study consisted of paediatric patients below 15 years of age who presented with history of different types of ocular injuries during the period from March 2007 to February 2010. In all cases, a thorough history was obtained from patients and their parents regarding the circumstances leading to the injury, the exact nature of the event and the object causing the injury. All the patients were also subjected to complete ophthalmic examination and followed up for 6 months. RESULTS 34 (68% were males and 16 (32% were females. The average age was 10.9 years (range 1-15 years. The highest incidence of blunt injuries was seen in age group of 11-15 years (58%. 20 (40% injuries occurred during domestic and leisure activities, 7(14% injuries occurred at work, 13 (26% during sports, 6 (12% were due to assault and 4 (8% from RTAs. CONCLUSION Blunt trauma to the eye causes a wide variety of damage to ocular tissues. Anterior or posterior segments are preferentially involved. Males were observed to be at increased risk for an eye injury necessitating admission to hospital.

  5. Ocular leech infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology

  6. Work-related ocular injuries in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyo Nyo Min

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To describe the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries and its visual outcome in tertiary hospital in southern Malaysia. METHODS:Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed as work-related ocular injuries who attended to the eye casualty of Hospital Sultan Ismail in Johor Bahru, Malaysia from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013. Data for clinical presentation, types of injuries, use of eye protective device(EPDand visual outcome were collected using a standardized proforma.RESULTS: A total of 935 ocular injuries attended to Hospital Sultan Ismail during 3y period. Among them 440 cases were work-related ocular injuries and included in the study. There was significant male preponderance(98.19%and commonest age group affected was 21 to 30y(45%. The most common type of injury was superficial injuries(70.91%, followed by chemical(11.13%, open globe(8.41%, closed globe(6.83%and thermal(2.72%. Although Malays are commonly involved in work-related ocular injury accounted for 78.47%, two-thirds of open globe injuries were seen in foreign workers. Only 59 patients(13.41%reported that they wore EPD at the time of incident. Generally, 89.86%(n=399had good vision, 5.45%(n=24had moderate vision and 3.86%(n=17poor vision. Visual outcome related to specific types of injuries showed that poor outcome was higher in open globe injuries groups compared with closed globe injuries \\〖odd ratio(OR=3.33, 95% confidence interval(CI=0.68 to 16.33\\〗. Overall hospital attendance rate of work-related ocular trauma ranged from 20.7 to 51.9 per 1000 new cases and decline of approximately 1.5% per year(PCONCLUSION: Work-related ocular trauma is important cause of ocular morbidity in working forces particularly young men. Malay males between 21 to 40y have higher risk. Majority of work-related ocular trauma seen in our hospital are generally of superficial injuries and potentially preventable. This study indicates they need to improve safety measures to

  7. Community Based Survey on Psychiatric Morbidity in Eastern Nepal

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    Pramod Mohan Shyangwa

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Community prevalence rate of some common psychiatric disorders is high which calls for special attention to address depressive and alcohol related disorder from all quarters of society particularly from government. Keywords: community survey; mental illness; psychiatric morbidity.

  8. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  9. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  10. Ocular myasthenia gravis: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Patil-Chhablani, Preeti; Venkatramani, Devendra V; Gandhi, Rashmin Anilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease that affects the neuro-muscular junction resulting in classical symptoms of variable muscle weakness and fatigability. It is called the great masquerader owing to its varied clinical presentations. Very often, a patient of MG may present to the ophthalmologist given that a large proportion of patients with systemic myasthenia have ocular involvement either at presentation or during the later course of the disease. The treatment of ocular MG involves both the neurologist and ophthalmologist. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the current diagnosis, investigations, and treatment of ocular MG. PMID:25449931

  11. Ocular Behçet disease: current therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklioglu, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To alert physician to timely recognition and current treatment of recurrent hypopyon iridocyclitis or panuveitis in ocular Behçet disease (OBD). Interferon-α, rituximab, intravitreal triamcinolone, and biological response modifiers by tumor necrosis factor inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab are being used increasingly for the treatment of severe sight-threatening ocular inflammation including retinal vasculitis and cystoid macular edema (CME). Biological agents offer tremendous potential in the treatment of OBD. Given that OBD predominantly afflicts the younger adults in their most productive years, dermatologist, rheumatologist, internist, or general practitioners supervising patients with oculo-articulo-oromucocutaneous syndromes should be aware of systemic Behçet disease. Early recognition of ocular involvement is important and such patients should strongly be instructed to visit immediately an ophthalmologist, as uveitis management differs from extraocular involvements with high ocular morbidity from sight-threatening complications due to relapsing inflammatory attacks in the posterior segment of the eye. A single infliximab infusion should be considered for the control of acute panuveitis, whereas repeated long-term infliximab infusions were proved to be more effective in reducing the number of episodes in refractory uveoretinitis with faster regression and complete remission of CME.

  12. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...

  13. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  14. Ocular findings seen among the staff of an institution in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The degree to which ocular morbidity affects workers productivity in the developing countries has not been studied adequately. A federal government research institute based in Lagos introduced an annual health screen for all its workers, which included eye tests. This provided an opportunity to study the ...

  15. Vision Profile and Ocular Characteristics of Special Olympics Athletes: Report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Sumalini, Rebecca; Narasaiah, Asa; Panda, Soumya

    2017-08-01

    Previous reports, albeit isolated, of vision and ocular screening of athletes with intellectual disability participating in the Special Olympics, UK, indicated high rates of refractive error and ocular morbidity; however, there have been no reports of similar sports events for this population from India. This study set out to evaluate the vision profile and ocular characteristics of athletes with intellectual disability attending the Special Olympics Lions Club International Opening Eyes (SOLCIOE) event in 2012 in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted, where a protocol-based ophthalmological assessment was performed by trained optometrists at a tertiary eye care center. Overall, 172 athletes (mean age 18.6 years, 70% male) with intellectual disability participated, and 138 (80%) were able to cooperate for complete or nearly complete vision and ocular assessment. A total of 56 (32%) had never had a previous vision or ocular health status examination. A total of 46 (32%) presented with low vision (World Health Organization definition <6/18 to 3/60 in the better eye), 21% needed a first or updated spectacle prescription, and 28% had significant ocular pathology as the cause of visual loss. The proportions of refractive errors and ocular disorders in athletes with intellectual disability attending the SOLCIOE program in South India are similar to those reported for able-bodied school-aged children in urban and rural India. Like that of their able-bodied peers, the visual needs of children with intellectual disability are also not adequately being met.

  16. The UK Paediatric Ocular Trauma Study 2 (POTS2): demographics and mechanisms of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sii, Freda; Barry, Robert J; Abbott, Joseph; Blanch, Richard J; MacEwen, Caroline J; Shah, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric ocular trauma is an important cause of visual morbidity worldwide, accounting for up to one-third of all ocular trauma admissions. It has long-term implications for those affected and significant economic consequences for healthcare providers. It has been estimated that 90% of all ocular trauma is preventable. Targeted strategies are required to reduce the incidence and the severity of pediatric ocular trauma; this requires an understanding of the epidemiology and characteristics of these injuries and the children involved. Prospective, observational study of pediatric ocular trauma cases presenting to UK-based ophthalmologists over a 1-year period; reporting cards were distributed by the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit, and clinicians were asked to report incidents of acute orbital and ocular trauma in children aged ≤16 years requiring inpatient or day-case admission. A validated, standardized questionnaire was sent to reporting ophthalmologists to collect data on the demographics and circumstances of injury. Median age at presentation was 7.7 years, with boys more than twice as likely to be affected than girls (M:F =2.1:1.0). Almost 50% of injuries occurred at home, with 25% occurring in school or nursery. A total of 67% of injuries occurred during play, and 31% involved a sharp implement. Pediatric ocular trauma remains an important public health problem. At least three-quarters of all injuries are preventable through measures, including education of children and responsible adults, restricting access to sharp implements, improving adult supervision, and appropriate use of eye protection.

  17. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  18. Traumatismos oculares en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Elizalde

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los traumatismos oculares durante la práctica deportiva son relativamente frecuentes, pueden acontecer en el contexto de cualquier deporte y son muy variados, tanto en su origen, gravedad y forma de presentación clínica (traumatismos incisos, contusos o inciso-contusos. A pesar de que el diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento adecuado a cargo de un oftalmólogo especialista suele ayudar a mejorar el pronóstico de estos casos, es cierto que en algunas situaciones las lesiones oculares secundarias al traumatismo son clínicamente irreversibles. El autor revisa la repercusión clínica ocular de los accidentes deportivos con compromiso de la órbita, de los párpados, del segmento anterior y/o posterior del globo ocular, y de las vías ópticas. La mayoría de estas lesiones se pueden evitar optimizando el estado físico (y ocular antes de la práctica deportiva, y utilizando la técnica y el material adecuado para cada situación. Asimismo una buena educación deportiva desde la infancia y la utilización de gafas de protección ocular adaptadas a cada deporte juegan un papel esencial en la prevención de estos accidentes.

  19. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  20. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries among cocoa farmers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Boadi-Kusi Samuel; Rekha, Hansraj; Percy, Mashige Khathutshelo

    2016-03-01

    The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. To determine the prevalence of ocular injuries and health seeking behaviour following injury among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Five hundred and fifty six participants were recruited through simple random sampling using a multistage approach from four cocoa growing districts in Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information such as demography, ocular hazards and injuries experienced. An ocular examination was also conducted to assess the eye health of the participants. Descriptive and regression statistics were used to analyze the data. The rate of ocular injuries was calculated by using the number of injuries reported that resulted in lost work time/days divided by the number of worker years at risk of injury (sum of years worked in cocoa farms for all the participants). The rate of ocular injuries was 11.3/1000 worker years (95% CI: 9.4 - 31) which led to lost work time of 37.3/1000 worker years (95% CI: 34.1 - 40.8). The major causes of ocular injury were plants/branches (n=73, 51.1%), chemicals (n=27, 18.9%), cocoa pod/husk (n=14, 9.8%) and occurred mostly during weeding, harvesting and chemical spraying. Few (n=34, 6.1%) participants reported the use of ocular protection. Fifty-five (38.5%) participants visited the local chemical shops, while 37 (25.9%) visited hospitals/clinics for ocular treatment of their injuries. There is a high rate of ocular injuries among cocoa farmers who make insufficient use of appropriate eye care services. There is the need for eye health education among cocoa farmers in Ghana.

  1. Ocular TRUST: nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in ocular isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Colby, Kathryn A; Deng, Sophie; McDonnell, Peter; Meisler, David M; Raizman, Michael B; Sheppard, John D; Sahm, Daniel F

    2008-06-01

    Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates. Laboratory investigation. Prospectively collected ocular isolates (197 S. aureus, 49 S. pneumoniae, and 32 H. influenzae) from 35 institutions and archived ocular isolates (760 S. pneumoniae and 356 H. influenzae) from 34 institutions were tested by an independent, central laboratory. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations that would inhibit growth of 90% of the tested isolates (MIC(90)) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant according to standardized breakpoints for systemic treatment. S. aureus isolates were classified as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA). MSSA or MRSA susceptibility patterns were virtually identical for the fluoroquinolones, that is, MSSA susceptibility was 79.9% to 81.1% and MRSA susceptibility was 15.2%. Trimethoprim was the only agent tested with high activity against MRSA. All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; 89.8% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. H. influenzae isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested agents but trimethoprim. Ocular TRUST 1 data were consistent with the eight-year longitudinal sample of archived ocular isolates. The fluoroquinolones were consistently active in MSSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae. After more than a decade of intensive ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use as systemic therapy, 100% of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin was less than 15%. High-level in vitro MRSA resistance suggests the need to consider alternative therapy to fluoroquinolones when MRSA is a

  2. Screening athletes with Down syndrome for ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutstein, Walter; Sinclair, Stephen H; North, Rachel V; Bekiroglu, N

    2010-02-01

    Persons with Down syndrome are well known to have a high prevalence of vision and eye health problems, many of which are undetected or untreated primarily because of infrequent ocular examinations. Public screening programs, directed toward the pediatric population, have become more popular and commonly use letter or symbol charts. This study compares 2 vision screening methods, the Lea Symbol chart and a newly developed interactive computer program, the Vimetrics Central Vision Analyzer (CVA), in their ability to identify ocular disease in the Down syndrome population. Athletes with Down syndrome participating in the European Special Olympics underwent an ocular screening including history, auto-refraction, colour vision assessment, stereopsis assessment, motility assessment, pupil reactivity, and tonometry testing, as well as anterior segment and fundus examinations to evaluate for ocular disease. Visual acuity was tested with the Lea chart and CVA to evaluate these as screening tests for detecting ocular disease as well as significant, uncorrected refractive errors. Among the 91 athletes that presented to the screening, 79 (158 eyes) were sufficiently cooperative for the examination to be completed. Mean age was 26 years +/-10.8 SD. Significant, uncorrected refractive errors (>/=1.00 spherical equivalent) were detected in 28 (18%) eyes and ocular pathology in 51 (32%) eyes. The Lea chart sensitivity and specificity were 43% and 74%, respectively, for detecting ocular pathology and 58% and 100% for detecting uncorrected refractive errors. The CVA sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 86% for detecting pathology and 71% and 100% for detecting uncorrected refractive errors. This study confirmed the findings of prior studies in identifying a significant presence of uncorrected refractive errors and ocular pathology in the Down syndrome population. Screening with the Lea symbol chart found borderline sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the test to be used

  3. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  4. Epidemiologia da alergia ocular e comorbidades em adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Geraldini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A prevalência de conjuntivite alérgica (CA não foi estabelecida. Estimativas sugerem que alergias oculares afetam de 15 a 20% da população mundial, ainda que a maioria dos estudos epidemiológicos abranjam sintomas de alergia nasal e ocular e não sejam específicos a respeito da CA. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de sintomas, comorbidades e o impacto da alergia ocular em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Os adolescentes foram selecionados de uma amostra de escolas e preencheram, em sala de aula, um questionário previamente validado sobre os sintomas da CA. O seu diagnóstico foi considerado quando mais de três episódios de prurido ocular foram relatados nos últimos 12 meses. Sintomas relacionados, como lacrimejamento, fotofobia, sensação de corpo estranho, impacto sobre as atividades diárias e diagnóstico de conjuntivite alérgica, foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Foram obtidos questionários de 3.120 adolescentes (média de 13,3±1,1 ano. Nos últimos 12 meses, 1.592 (51% adolescentes tiveram prurido ocular. O sintoma relacionado mais frequente foi lacrimejamento (74%, seguido de fotofobia (50,1% e sensação de corpo estranho (37,1%. A prevalência de conjuntivite alérgica foi de 20,7%, afetando mais pessoas do sexo feminino do que do masculino (56,1% em comparação a 45,9%; p = 0,01. O risco de um adolescente com alergia ocular apresentar asma, rinite e eczema atópico foi (RC = 5,7; IC de 95%: 4,5 a 7,1; (RC = 3,6; IC de 95%: 3,0 a 4,3 e (RC = 2,6; IC de 95%: 2,0 a 3,5, respectivamente. Uma interferência grave nas atividades diárias foi relatada por 30,5%. CONCLUSÕES: Sintomas de alergia ocular são comuns, frequentemente relacionados a outras doenças alérgicas, e causam impacto sobre as atividades diárias de adolescentes.

  5. [Morbidity among forestry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalski, H; Bernacki, K

    1981-01-01

    The past and presently diagnosed diseases (excluding vibration disease and occupational hearing impairment) were analysed in 1105 sawers operating combustion drive mechanic saws and in 295 controls. The greatest rate, both in the sawers and controls, was that of the diseases of respiratory tract, circulatory system and osseo -- articulo -- muscular system, nervous system and sense organs. These constituted 86% of all diseases that afflicted sawers and controls. No specific general morbidity accompanying vibration disease or occupational hearing impairment was found in the sawers exposed to noise and vibration.

  6. Complications of presumed ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Issam H; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of steroid treatment on visual outcome and ocular complications in patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. Retrospective review of patients with presumptive ocular tuberculosis. The clinical diagnosis was made based on ocular findings, positive purified protein derivative (PPD) testing of more than 15 mm induration, exclusion of other causes of uveitis and positive ocular response to anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT) within 4 weeks. Group 1 included patients who had received oral prednisone or subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide prior to ATT. Group 2 included patients who did not receive corticosteroid therapy prior to administration of ATT.   Among 500 consecutive new cases of uveitis encountered in 1997-2007 there were 49 (10%) patients with presumed ocular tuberculosis. These comprised 28 (57%) male and 21 (43%) female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 12-76 years). Four (20%) patients in group 1 had initial visual acuity of 20/40 or better, in comparison to eight (28%) patients in group 2. At 1-year follow-up, six (30%) patients in group 1 had a visual acuity of 20/40 or better compared with 20 (69%) patients in group 2 (p = 0.007). Of 20 eyes (26%) in group 1 that had visual acuity of < 20/50 at 1-year follow up, 14 (70%) eyes developed severe chorioretinal lesion (p = 0.019). Early administration of corticosteroids without anti-tuberculous therapy in presumed ocular tuberculosis may lead to poor visual outcome compared with patients who did not receive corticosteroids prior to presentation. Furthermore, the severity of chorioretinitis lesion in the group of patients given corticosteroid prior to ATT may account for the poor visual outcome. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  7. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important pre...

  8. Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult life as obese. METHODS: Among 362,200 Danish young men, examined for military service between 1943 and 1977, all obese (defined as BMI≥31.0 kg/m(2, and, as controls, a random 1% sample of the others was identified. In the age range of 18-25 years, there were 1,862 obese, which encompass the men above the 99.5 percentile, and 3,476 controls. Information on morbidity was obtained via national registers. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative morbidity assessed as first incidence of disease, occurrence of disease in the year preceding death and prevalent disease at time of death. RESULTS: From age 18 through 80 years the obese had an increased risk of becoming diseased by or die from a broad range of diseases. Generally, the incidence of first event, occurrence in the year prior to death, and prevalence at time of death showed the same pattern. As an example, the relative hazard of type 2 diabetes was constant throughout life at 4.9 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.1-5.9, 5.2 (95% CI: 3.6-7.5, and 6.8 (95% CI: 4.6-10.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly support the continued need to avoid beginning adult life as obese, as obese young men experience an increased morbidity, including fatal morbidity, from many diseases throughout life.

  9. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  10. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  11. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  12. 21 CFR 882.1790 - Ocular plethysmograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1790 Ocular plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An ocular plethysmograph is a device used to measure or detect volume changes in the eye produced...

  13. Characteristics of ocular pain complaints in patients with idiopathic dry eye symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalangara, Jerry P.; Galor, Anat; Levitt, Roy C.; Covington, Derek B.; McManus, Katherine T.; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D.; Felix, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the severity and quality of ocular pain complaints in patients with dry eye symptoms. Methods Subjects with clinically-relevant dry eye symptoms (dryness, discomfort, tearing) of unknown origin seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic were administered questionnaires for dry eye symptoms and ocular pain and underwent a standardized ocular examination. Qualities and severity ratings of ocular pain in subjects with idiopathic dry eye were compared to similar measures from published data in other chronic pain populations. Results The study sample consisted of 154 subjects, of which 91% were male and ranged in age from 27 to 89 (mean age = 61). Fifty-three percent of participants reported an average ocular pain of at least moderate intensity (numerical rating scale (NRS) ≥ 4), with specific characteristics (i.e., “burning” spontaneous pain) reported at frequencies comparable to prevalent chronic neuropathic pain syndromes as reported in the literature. Significant correlations were found between ocular pain metrics and dry eye symptom severity scores (r=0.57 to 0.66). Dry eye signs, however, did not generally correlate with ocular pain severity. Conclusions A significant proportion of subjects with idiopathic dry eye symptoms reported moderate or greater ocular pain intensity, with the majority endorsing descriptors commonly used by patients with non-ocular neuropathic pain conditions. Identifying sub-groups of dry eye patients based on the presence and characteristics of ocular pain complaints may improve dry eye sub classification and better individualize treatment strategies. PMID:26925537

  14. Meibomian gland dysfunction and ocular discomfort in video display terminal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, C; Aragona, P; Cacciola, A; Spinella, R; Di Nola, C; Ferreri, F; Rania, L

    2008-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common ocular disorders encountered in clinical practice. The clinical manifestations of MGD are related to the changes in the tear film and ocular surface with symptoms of ocular discomfort. In recent years, many surveys have evaluated symptoms associated with the use of Video Display Terminals (VDT), and VDT use is recognized as a risk factor for eye discomfort. The aim of the present study was to determine if the presence of MGD contributes to the signs and symptoms of ocular discomfort during the use of VDT. In course of a routine health surveillance programme, a group of 70 subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria and responded to a questionnaire about symptoms of ocular discomfort. The following ocular tests were performed: tear break-up time, fluorescein corneal stain, and basal tear secretion test. A total of 52 subjects out of 70 (74.3%) had MGD. A statistically significant correlation between the symptoms of ocular discomfort and hours spent on VDT work was observed in the total population (r=0.358; P=0.002; 95% CI 0.13-0.54) and in the group of subjects with MGD (r=0.365; P=0.009; 95% CI 0.103-0.58). Such correlation was not shown in subjects without MGD. The high prevalence of MGD among the subjects with symptoms of ocular discomfort suggests that this diagnosis should be considered when occupational health practitioners encounter ocular complaints among VDT operators. It appears that MGD can contribute to the development of ocular discomfort in VDT operators.

  15. Ocular manifestations of systemic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Andonegui, J.

    2008-01-01

    Existe un gran número de enfermedades sistémicas que pueden presentar en algún momento de su evolución manifestaciones oculares. Estas alteraciones pueden provocar sintomatología por sí mismas, pueden ayudar a diagnosticar la enfermedad sistémica que las originó o pueden servir para monitorizar el curso evolutivo de la misma. Se destacan las principales características de una serie de enfermedades sistémicas asociadas a patología ocular que serán estudiadas en detalle a lo largo de esta monog...

  16. Method optimization of ocular patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Upreti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular patches were prepared using gelatin as the polymer. Ocular patch were prepared by solvent casting method. The patches were prepared for six formulations GP1, GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5 and GP6. Petri dishes were used for formulation of ocular patch. Gelatin was used as a polymer of choice. Glutaraldehyde used as cross linking agent and (DMSO dimethylsulfoxide used as solubility enhancer. The elasticity depends upon the concentration of gelatin. 400 mg amount of polymer i.e gelatin gave the required elasticity for the formulation.

  17. Ocular manifestations of systematic lupus erythematosus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman M.; Al-Hemidan, Amal I.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and spectrum of ocular manifestations in children with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to examine the correlation of the ocular manifestations with disease activity , other organ involvement and the presence of circulating of autoantibodies. This study was performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2002 to November 2002. It included detailed eye examination, measuring circulating autoantibodies (antinuclear,anti phospholipid antibodies) and circulation of SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). 52 consecutive children (45 females) with SLE completed the evaluation .The mean age of the patients was 11.3 years and the mean SLEDAI was 9.5 Thirty patients (57.7%) had the disease for more than 1 year. 18 patients(34.6%) had ocular manifestations.7 patients had abnormal . Schirmer's test. 5 patients had ratinal vascular lesions. 1 patient had bilateral iridocyclitis. 3 patients had unilateral optic neuropathy and 11 patients had visual field defects.Fisher extract test revealed positive correlation between optic neuropathy and central nervous system(CNS) involvement. There was no correlation among other variables; probably due to sample size. Ocular manifestations including sight threatening complications are not rare in children with SLE.Optic neuropathy had a strong prediction for CNS lupus. (author)

  18. Ocular injuries among industrial welders in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebai, B; Awoyesuku, EA

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular injuries among industrial welders and rate the use of protective eyewear at work among industrial welders in Port Harcourt. Information from this study will provide a database for effective policy formation on prevention of occupational eye injuries in Port Harcourt Rivers State. Methods A cross-sectional survey of ocular injuries and use of protective eyewear among industrial welders in the Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria, was carried out over a three-month period. Five hundred welders were selected by simple random sampling. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All welders were examined in their workshops. Results Flying metal chips were the chief source of ocular injury, as reported by 199 (68.15%) of those who gave a history of work-related eye injury, while arc rays accounted for the remaining 93 (31.85%). There was a high level of awareness of the risk of sustaining an eye injury from welding (n = 490, 98%), but only 46 (15.3%) of the welders were using protective eyewear at the time of injury. Conclusion To minimize ocular injury and promote eye health amongst industrial welders, safety intervention programs, such as awareness campaigns, setting up of targeted programs by the relevant government agencies, and encouragement of locally produced eye protectors is recommended. The involvement of occupational medical practitioners is also strongly recommended. PMID:21966197

  19. Endovascular Interventions for the Morbidly Adherent Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kaufman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly adherent placentas are a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from placental invasion of the myometrium to invasion past the myometrium and muscular layers into adjacent structures. This entity is becoming more prevalent recently with increased number of cesarean deliveries. Given the high risk of morbidity and mortality, this was traditionally treated with pre-term planned cesarean hysterectomy. However, recently, uterine preservation techniques have been implemented for those women wishing to preserve future fertility or their uterus. Early identification is crucial as studies have shown better outcomes for women treated at tertiary care facilities by a dedicated multidisciplinary team. Interventional radiologists are frequently included in the care of these patients as there are several different endovascular techniques which can be implemented to decrease morbidity in these patients both in conjunction with cesarean hysterectomy and in the setting of uterine preservation. This article will review the spectrum of morbidly adherent placentas, imaging, as well as the surgical and endovascular interventions implemented in the care of these complex patients.

  20. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  1. Estimation of morbidity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, B.

    1994-01-01

    Many researchers have related exposure to ambient air pollution to respiratory morbidity. To be included in this review and analysis, however, several criteria had to be met. First, a careful study design and a methodology that generated quantitative dose-response estimates were required. Therefore, there was a focus on time-series regression analyses relating daily incidence of morbidity to air pollution in a single city or metropolitan area. Studies that used weekly or monthly average concentrations or that involved particulate measurements in poorly characterized metropolitan areas (e.g., one monitor representing a large region) were not included in this review. Second, studies that minimized confounding ad omitted variables were included. For example, research that compared two cities or regions and characterized them as 'high' and 'low' pollution area were not included because of potential confounding by other factors in the respective areas. Third, concern for the effects of seasonality and weather had to be demonstrated. This could be accomplished by either stratifying and analyzing the data by season, by examining the independent effects of temperature and humidity, and/or by correcting the model for possible autocorrelation. A fourth criterion for study inclusion was that the study had to include a reasonably complete analysis of the data. Such analysis would include an careful exploration of the primary hypothesis as well as possible examination of te robustness and sensitivity of the results to alternative functional forms, specifications, and influential data points. When studies reported the results of these alternative analyses, the quantitative estimates that were judged as most representative of the overall findings were those that were summarized in this paper. Finally, for inclusion in the review of particulate matter, the study had to provide a measure of particle concentration that could be converted into PM10, particulate matter below 10

  2. The Relationship Between Ocular Itch, Ocular Pain, and Dry Eye Symptoms (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.

  3. Saccular impact on ocular torsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bos, J.E.; Groen, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    When someone is tilted laterally the sheer force on the maculae of the utriculus and the sacculus is described by the sine and the cosine of the angle of tilt, respectively. So both the sacculus and the utriculus are stimulated, but in the litera-ture ocular torsion is normally attributed to

  4. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  5. haematological changes accompanying prolonged ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    oral chloramphenicol provided the basis for comparison. 20 adult male rabbits were randomly but equally divided into two main groups based on the route of administration of the drug (i.e ocular or oral). In each group of ten rabbits equal number of rabbits were randomly divided into test (n=5) and control (n=5) subgroups.

  6. The ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, V J; Yannuzzi, L A; Sorenson, J A; Delrowe, D J; Cambell, E A

    1987-06-01

    In cooperation with the New York State Athletic Commission, 74 boxers applying for a new or yearly renewal license were sequentially referred over a 2-year period for a complete dilated ocular examination at the Sports Vision Institute of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. At least one ocular injury was found in 66% of boxers. Vision-threatening injuries, defined as significant damage to the angle, lens, macula, or peripheral retina occurred in 58% of boxers. Nineteen percent of boxers had angle abnormalities. Nineteen percent of boxers had pathologic cataracts, over 70% of these were posterior subcapsular. Six boxers had macular lesions. A total of 24% of boxers had retinal tears. Standardized photographs were used to distinguish pathologic cataracts from congenital opacities and pathologic retinal tears from atrophic holes. Attempts were made to identify risk factors in boxing that might be predictive for ocular injury. Variables included age, weight division, left- or right-handedness, total number of losses, and total number of bouts. Significant correlations were found between the total number of bouts and the total number of losses, and the presence of retinal tears. College varsity athletes were selected as controls. Significant differences were found between boxers and controls for the total number of injuries, total vision-threatening injuries, and the number of retinal tears. A series of recommendations are proposed to aide in the early detection and prevention of serious ocular injuries.

  7. Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration.

  8. Surfing-related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; McDonald, H R; Rubsamen, P E; Luttrull, J K; Drouilhet, J H; Frambach, D A; Boyer, D S; Lambrou, F H; Hendrick, A; Weiss, J N; Engstrom, R E; Ing, M

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the clinical characteristics of surfing-related ocular trauma to learn the nature of such injuries and propose possible preventive measures. The authors reviewed 11 cases of surfing-related eye injuries caused by direct trauma from the surfboard, studying their mechanism of injury, the associated ocular complications, and the anatomic and visual outcomes of surgical repair. Surfing-related ocular injuries occurred exclusively in young males (mean age, 24.8 years; range, 14-37 years). The mechanism of injury most frequently responsible was impact with the sharp nose of the surfboard following a fall. Serious posterior segment complications were observed in all 11 patients, with nine patients suffering ruptured globes. Despite immediate medical attention, five patients did not recover ambulatory levels of visual acuity (>5/200). Surfing-related ocular trauma presenting to the retinal specialist typically leaves the patient with a permanent visual disability. Important factors contributing to these high-velocity injuries include the sharply pointed nose of the surfboard and the leash keeping the surfer in close proximity to the board following a fall. A simple modification in surfboard design such as blunting the sharp nose of the surfboard, or appropriate protective guards fitted over the surfboard nose, should lessen the severity of such injuries.

  9. Impact of morbid obesity on medical expenditures in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterburn, D E; Maciejewski, M L; Tsevat, J

    2005-03-01

    Morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) > or =40 kg/m2) is associated with substantially increased morbidity and mortality from chronic health conditions and with poorer health-related quality of life; however, less is known about the impact of morbid obesity on healthcare expenditures. To examine the impact of morbid obesity on healthcare expenditures using a nationally representative sample of US adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 16 262 adults from the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States. Per capita healthcare expenditures were calculated for National Institutes of Health BMI categories, based on self-reported height and weight, using a two-part, multivariable model adjusted for age, gender, race, income, education level, type of health insurance, marital status, and smoking status. Odds of incurring any healthcare expenditure and per capita healthcare expenditures associated with morbid obesity in 2000. When compared with normal-weight adults, the odds of incurring any healthcare expenditure in 2000 were two-fold greater among adults with morbid obesity. Per capita healthcare expenditures for morbidly obese adults were 81% (95% confidence interval (CI): 48-121%) greater than normal-weight adults, 65% (95% CI: 37-110%) greater than overweight adults, and 47% (95% CI: 11-96%) greater than adults with class I obesity. Excess costs among morbidly obese adults resulted from greater expenditures for office-based visits, outpatient hospital care, in-patient care, and prescription drugs. Aggregate US healthcare expenditures associated with excess body weight among morbidly obese US adults exceeded $11 billion in 2000. The economic burden of morbid obesity among US adults is substantial. Further research is needed to identify interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of morbid obesity and improve the health and economic outcomes of morbidly

  10. Methotrexate for ocular inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Newcomb, Craig W; Liesegang, Teresa L; Kaçmaz, R Oktay; Jabs, Douglas A; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Foster, C Stephen; Kempen, John H

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the outcome of treatment with methotrexate for noninfectious ocular inflammation. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation managed at 4 tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to add methotrexate as a single, noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979 and 2007, inclusive. Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage, route of administration of methotrexate, and main outcome measures, were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. Control of inflammation, corticosteroid-sparing effects, and incidence of and reason for discontinuation of therapy. Among 384 patients (639 eyes) observed from the point of addition of methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen, 32.8%, 9.9%, 21.4%, 14.6%, 15.1%, and 6.3%, respectively, had anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior or panuveitis, scleritis, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, and other forms of ocular inflammation. In these groups, complete suppression of inflammation sustained for >or=28 days was achieved within 6 months in 55.6%, 47.4%, 38.6%, 56.4%, 39.5%, and 76.7%, respectively. Corticosteroid-sparing success (sustained suppression of inflammation with prednisone Methotrexate was discontinued within 1 year by 42% of patients. It was discontinued owing to ineffectiveness in 50 patients (13%); 60 patients (16%) discontinued because of side effects, which typically were reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation. Remission was seen in 43 patients, with 7.7% remitting within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that adding methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen not involving other noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs is moderately effective for management of inflammatory activity and for achieving

  11. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  12. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  13. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Daria, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prisoners are having high percentage of psychiatric disorders. Majority of studies done so far on prisoners are from Western countries and very limited studies from India. Aim: Study socio-demographic profile of prisoners of a central jail and to find out current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in them. Materials and Methods: 118 prisoners were selected by random sampling and interviewed to obtain socio-demographic data and assessed on Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS) with additional required questions to diagnose psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Results: Mean age of prisoners was 33.7 years with 97.5% males, 57.6% from rural areas and 65.3% were married. Average education in studied years was 6.6 years and 50.8% were unskilled workers. 47.4% were murderers while 20.3% of drugs related crimes. 47.5% were convicted and history of criminal behavior in family was in 32.2% prisoners. Current prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 33%. Psychotic, depressive, and anxiety disorders were seen in 6.7%, 16.1%, and 8.5% prisoners respectively. 58.8% had history of drug abuse/dependence prior to imprisonment. Conclusion: One prison of Hadoti region of Rajasthan is full of people with mental-health problems who collectively generate significant levels of unmet psychiatric treatment need. Prisons are detrimental to mental-health. Beginning of reforms is the immediate need. PMID:24459308

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its ocular complications

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    Rao Narsing

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.

  15. Ocular injuries among industrial welders in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Fiebai B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available B Fiebai, EA AwoyesukuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular injuries among industrial welders and rate the use of protective eyewear at work among industrial welders in Port Harcourt. Information from this study will provide a database for effective policy formation on prevention of occupational eye injuries in Port Harcourt Rivers State.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of ocular injuries and use of protective eyewear among industrial welders in the Port Harcourt local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria, was carried out over a three-month period. Five hundred welders were selected by simple random sampling. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All welders were examined in their workshops.Results: Flying metal chips were the chief source of ocular injury, as reported by 199 (68.15% of those who gave a history of work-related eye injury, while arc rays accounted for the remaining 93 (31.85%. There was a high level of awareness of the risk of sustaining an eye injury from welding (n = 490, 98%, but only 46 (15.3% of the welders were using protective eyewear at the time of injury.Conclusion: To minimize ocular injury and promote eye health amongst industrial welders, safety intervention programs, such as awareness campaigns, setting up of targeted programs by the relevant government agencies, and encouragement of locally produced eye protectors is recommended. The involvement of occupational medical practitioners is also strongly recommended.Keywords: industrial welders, ocular injury, Port Harcourt, preventable blindness, protective eye devices

  16. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  17. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  18. Morbidity figures from general practice: sex differences in traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine; Grosicar, Janja

    2010-08-01

    Trauma prevention starts with to find out the extent of the problem and who it affects. Insight into morbidity figures is therefore necessary. To explore sex differences in traumatology and secondary medical care utilization in primary care related to age and socio-economic status (SES). Data were obtained from an academic continuous morbidity registration project in the Netherlands in the period from 1996 to 2006, in which 13,000 patients were followed in 10 successive years. Sex differences showed a male excess from childhood to 45 years and women showing almost double trauma rates in the elderly. Low SES was associated with the greatest incidence of traumas. The largest sex difference in incidence above 65 years appeared in the high SES with more traumas in women compared with men. From this age on, female morbidity in traumatology outnumbered male morbidity regardless of SES. Considering use of referrals, we found that in the age group 15-45 years men made a greater use of secondary medical care. However, the vastest gender influence in medical care utilization was noticed in the age group over 65 years, outnumbered with women. Young men and old women are the most at risk for traumatic health problems: men presenting with traumata of the skull, the tibia and ocular trauma's and women with fractures of the femur, humerus and wrist. For both men and women the greatest incidence is in the low SES. Family physicians can play a pivotal role in prevention to focus on their patients with high risks.

  19. Co-morbidity in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    for the clinic to be able to recognize such co-morbidities. Areas covered: This is a review of studies investigating and discussing co-morbidities of psoriasis and screening. Literature was retrieved by searching on the PubMed database using individual and combined search terms related to relevant co...

  20. Severe Corticosteroid-Induced Ocular Hypertension Requiring Bilateral Trabeculectomies in a Patient with Takayasu’s Arteritis

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    Anna Maria Gruener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of severe corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension (OHT after prolonged systemic corticosteroid use in a young woman with Takayasu’s arteritis. As she did not sufficiently respond to ocular antihypertensive therapies, bilateral enhanced trabeculectomies were required to normalize her intraocular pressures. The systemic side effects of corticosteroids are well known, yet steroid-induced OHT and glaucoma remain silent causes of ocular morbidity. This case highlights the importance of IOP-monitoring in visually asymptomatic patients on systemic corticosteroids. It further emphasizes the need to raise awareness of the potential ocular side effects of steroids amongst physicians, in particular those looking after patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  1. Oxaliplatin-Related Ocular Toxicity

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    Marina Mesquida

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with advanced colorectal cancer who was treated with oxaliplatin on a FOLFOX schedule. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, she started to complain of visual loss, altered color vision and neurological symptoms. Due to the suspicion of ocular and neurological toxicity, antineoplastic treatment was stopped. Her visual field showed a concentric bilateral scotoma and the electrooculogram test revealed severe impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Visual acuity, color vision and visual field recovered completely 8 months later, although electrooculogram remained abnormal. Ocular toxicity has been reported as an infrequent adverse event of oxaliplatin. Findings in this case indicate toxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on the retinal pigment epithelium, which has not been reported before. This damage could be permanent, and it thus differs from previously described oxaliplatin-induced ocular toxicities, which are usually transient and reversible. With increasing use of oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer, we have to be aware of this possible toxicity.

  2. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE CHILD LABOUR PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY IN A POPULATION WORKING IN THE VEGETABLE AND FRUIT MARKETS OF HYDERABAD, A.P. DURING 2012-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamala Koteswaramma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Every child is a supremely important asset of the nation because future welfare of nation and society is entirely determined on how its children grow and develop. But child labour is the one which deprives the children all means. The markets are those who employ the children without any facilities. So far study was conducted to know the problems of these child labourers. METHODS & MATERIALS The present study was an analytical study done during 2012-2013, among the working children at vegetable and fruit markets of Greater Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh with sample size of 200 from such major markets of 12. Selection of markets and study subjects were done by simple random sampling method. And data was gathered with pre-designed and pilot tested tool by conducting a medical camp in a weekday, in the market premises after taking the permission from the market yard chairman and consent of the child or parent to participate in the study. We gave medical treatment and also made suitable referrals if required. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Present study shows the child labour prevalence rate as 22.79%. And it was high among male children. Gender discrimination was seen in school dropout rate and never attending school rate, which are the significant causes in female child to become a labourer. Scheduled caste, Scheduled tribes and Muslim children are more prone to child labour. Poverty was the leading cause of child labour in both the age groups (96.1% followed by illiteracy, ignorance and bad habits of the parent(s. RECOMMENDATIONS Strict implementation of the child trafficking and child labour prevention act by labour department along with external agencies’ supervision in urgent need. Along child welfare, family and female education and empowerment activities, below poverty line families’ income generation schemes can reduce child labour.

  3. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AND PERSONALITY PROFILE IN DIVORCE SEEKING COUPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Lalit; Gautam, Shiv

    1995-01-01

    To what extent psychiatric morbidity and personality factors contribute to marital disharmony and decision to divorce is still an unanswered question in Indian setting. This study was undertaken with aims to find out (1) the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in persons seeking divorce; (2) the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in persons who had good marital adjustment; (3) the nature of psychiatric morbidity observed in these subjects, and (4) the personality profile of these subjects. Fifty randomly selected divorce seeking couples (n=100) from the matrimonial court of Jaipur City and thirty couples with good marital adjustment (n=60) selected from the community were studied. Probable psychiatric cases identified by administering GHQ (Hindi version) were diagnosed according to ICD-10 and personality profile of all cases was studied by using 16 PF. High psychiatric morbidity (50%) was found among divorce seeking couples in comparison to control group (13%). There was a high prevalence of neurone disorders (22%) and mood disorders (16%) in experimental group. Schizophrenia and related disorders (10%) and substance abuse disorder (2%) were seen only in the experimental group. Specific personality factors related to divorce seeking individuals and persons with stable marriage have been identified. The implications of this study are highlighted. PMID:21743746

  4. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients...... with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...... and six patients (25%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The most frequently affected sites were the lacrimal gland (38%) and the orbit (33%). Thirteen patients (54%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma, four (17%) had stage IIE, two patients (8%) stage IIIE, and five patients (21%) had...

  5. Ocular myasthenia gravis: Side effect of urografin

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    Nitin Modi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction. Diplopia and ptosis are common symptoms at the onset of ocular myasthenia gravis. It may occur due to the antibodies developed against various drugs. We are reporting a case of ocular myasthenia gravis which was developed in a patient post angiography which may be due to antibody developed against the dye used in angiography.

  6. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fabricio Lopes da; Mazoti, Luciana; Polati, Mariza

    2014-01-01

    Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus). This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the lite...

  7. Clinical profile and visual outcome of ocular injuries in a rural area of western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Somen; Nandwani, Rupali; Gogri, Pratik; Misra, Neeta

    2013-01-01

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of visual impairment and morbidity worldwide. To identify the various type of ocular injury in a rural area, determine the presence of any associated visual damage and assess the final visual outcome after treatment. Hospital-based, prospective study conducted over a period of two years. A total of 60 patients of ocular trauma were included. Ocular injuries were more commonly seen in adult (55 per cent) patients who were associated with agricultural work (43.33 per cent). They were more common in male patients (71.67 per cent). Closed globe injury (68.33 per cent) was more common than open globe injury (31.67 per cent). Both in open and closed globe injuries, the commonest object causing injury was a wooden stick. Just 26.7 per cent of the patients had a visual acuity better than 6/60 at presentation; while after completed treatment at two months follow-up, 68.3 per cent had best corrected visual acuity better than 6/60. Agricultural trauma is an important cause of monocular blindness in rural India. The visual outcome depends upon the site and size of the injury and the extent of the ocular damage.

  8. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  9. [Tuberculosis and diabetes co-morbidity: an unresolved problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Gil, César; Moore, David A J

    2014-01-01

    Co-morbidity between tuberculosis and diabetes has been described since the early 20th century. In developed countries, where there has been a decrease of infectious diseases with an increase of non-communicable diseases, as well as those countries who still have a high prevalence of infectious diseases but an increase of non-communicable diseases, it is observed that the prevalence of co-morbidity between tuberculosis and diabetes is increasing, making clinical management and control at the public health level a new challenge for health systems. This review aims to show the current available evidence that can inform research lines being developed to understand the problem. In countries like Peru, where there is an epidemiological transition, further research could allow us to understand and describe in a better way the characteristics and impact of this co-morbidity.

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY OF OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS OF HEAD INJURY

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    Suhas Shamrao Sarawade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to record the prevalence and pattern of various ophthalmic manifestations in patients of head injury and to attempt a correlation between the ocular signs, neurological signs and final outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred and twenty patients with head injury having ocular findings, presenting from December 2014 to July 2016, were taken for study. Detailed ophthalmological examination of the patients was carried out and the results of the study are depicted in the form of percentages, graphs and charts. RESULTS The most common cause of head injury found in our study was road traffic accident. The commonest eye finding was oedema and ecchymosis of eyelids. Prime causal factors affecting visual acuity found in our study were corneal tear, globe rupture, optic nerve injury and avulsion of eyeball. CONCLUSION Head injuries with ocular manifestations occur in younger age group. Road traffic accident was the most common cause. Males have to work outside their home for their jobs more than that of females. So they are more prone to accidents. Oedema and ecchymosis of eyelids constitute the most common ocular finding. Patients with mild ocular injuries pointed towards good visual prognosis. Most of them had mild head injury and hence good prognosis in terms of survival of the patient. The patients with severe ocular injuries like corneal tear, globe rupture and optic nerve injury showed poor visual prognosis.

  11. Morbidity Pattern among the Elderly Population in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study also sought to determine the relationships between morbidity and socio-demographic and health characteristics in Nigerian elderly hospital attendees at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. A hospital based ... Nutritional status indicated a relatively high prevalence (42.6%) of malnutrition. Women ...

  12. Ocular disorders in stroke patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-06

    Aug 6, 2015 ... Abstract. Background: Stroke is a medical emergency of public health ... Aim: To determine the prevalence of ocular disorders in patients with stroke in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. ... Risk factors include old age, high blood pressure, previous .... such as cataract, refractive errors, and age‑related changes.

  13. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  14. Medicina regenerativa y superficie ocular Regenerative medicine and ocular surface

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    Taimi Cárdenas Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha producido un extraordinario avance en los conocimientos relacionados con diferentes ramas biomédicas, entre ellas, la biología celular. Esto ha dado un notable impulso a una nueva rama de la medicina denominada medicina regenerativa. Esta nueva disciplina médica se basa fundamentalmente en los nuevos conocimientos sobre las células madre y en su capacidad de convertirse en células de diferentes tejidos. Una de las estructuras que tiene más interés, desde el punto de vista de la medicina regenerativa, es la superficie ocular. Por esto, se ha logrado notables progresos en la reconstrucción de la superficie ocular mediante la aplicación de procederes regenerativos. Los cultivos de células del epitelio corneal humano están siendo utilizados en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia limbar. Esto permite disminuir la incidencia de opacidades tipo Haze tras queratectomía fotorrefractiva, acelerar la curación y evitar la aparición de leucomas en pacientes con defectos epiteliares persistentes e intentar disminuir la incidencia de opacidades corneales en pacientes sometidos a queratectomía fototerapéutica por diferentes distrofias corneales.In the last few years, an extraordinary advance has taken place in the knowledge about several biomedical branches as is the case of cellular biology, which has remarkably encouraged the development of a new medical branch called regenerative medicine. This medical discipline is fundamentally based on the new knowledge on the stem cells and their capacity to become cells for different tissues. One of the most interesting structures for the regenerative medicine is the ocular surface. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in the field of the ocular surface reconstruction with regenerative procedures. Some cell cultures of the human corneal epithelium are being used to treat limber insufficiency, to reduce the incidence of haze-type opacities after

  15. New morbidity of the young

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Biljana

    2002-01-01

    In the present phase of epidemiological transition, the most frequent causes of youth morbidity are disorders in reproductive health, mental disorders and injuries which are not life threatening. This, so-called new youth morbidity, is most often caused by their risky behavior, which in the field of sexuality often leads to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as sexually transmitted infections. Misuse of tobacco, alcohol and narcotics, which is most commonly started in adolescence, h...

  16. Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, S; Chandra, M; Gupta, S K; Vashist, P; Gogoi, M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7) Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant (P < 0.001), when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%). Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028). Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4%) were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001), and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041) and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028) of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78), between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81), and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170). Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority. PMID:18579991

  17. Epidemiological study of ocular trauma in an urban slum population in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vats S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of victims of ocular trauma in an urban slum population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted on 500 families each in three randomly selected urban slums in Delhi, collected demographic data for all members of these families, and clinical data for all those who suffered ocular trauma at any time, that required medical attention. Data was managed on SPSS 11.0. Results: Of 6704 participants interviewed, 163 episodes of ocular trauma were reported by 158 participants (prevalence = 2.4%, confidence interval = 2.0 to 2.7 Mean age at trauma was 24.2 years. The association between the age of participants and the history of ocular trauma was significant ( P < 0.001, when adjusted for sex, education and occupation. Males were significantly more affected. Blunt trauma was the commonest mode of injury (41.7%. Blindness resulted in 11.4% of injured eyes ( P = 0.028. Of 6704 participants, 1567 (23.4% were illiterate, and no association was seen between education status and trauma, when adjusted for sex and age at injury. A significant association was noted between ocular trauma and workplace (Chi-square = 43.80, P < 0.001, and between blindness and place (Chi-square = 9.98, P = 0.041 and source (Chi-square = 10.88, P = 0.028 of ocular trauma. No association was found between visual outcome and the time interval between trauma and first consultation (Chi-square = 0.50, P = 0.78, between receiving treatment and the best corrected visual acuity (Chi-square = 0.81, P = 0.81, and between the person consulted and blinding ocular trauma (Chi-square = 1.88, P = 0.170. Conclusion: A significant burden of ocular trauma in the community requires that its prevention and early management be a public health priority.

  18. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Mamta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.

  19. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  1. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-11-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  2. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  3. A review of scoring systems for ocular involvement in chronic cutaneous bullous diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendon W H; Tan, Jeremy C K; Radjenovic, Melissa; Coroneo, Minas T; Murrell, Dedee F

    2018-05-22

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) describe a group of rare chronic dermatoses characterized by cutaneous fragility and blistering. Although uncommon, significant ocular surface disease (OSD) may occur in both and require ophthalmological assessment. Disease scoring systems have a critical role in providing objective and accurate assessment of disease severity. The objectives of this report were, firstly, to document the prevalence and severity of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD. Secondly, to review and evaluate existing ocular and systemic scoring systems for EB/AIBD. Finally, to identify areas where further development of ocular specific tools in EB/AIBD could be pursued. A literature search was performed in October 2017 utilising Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases. The results were restricted by date of publication, between 01.01.1950 and 31.10.2017. The reference lists of these articles were then reviewed for additional relevant publications. Articles of all languages were included if an English translation was available. Articles were excluded if they were duplicates, had no reference to ocular involvement in EB/AIBD or described ocular involvement in other diseases. Descriptions of ocular involvement in EB/AIBD were identified in 88 peer-reviewed journal articles. Findings reported include but are not limited to: cicatrising conjunctivitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease, trichiasis, symblepharon, fornix fibrosis, keratopathy, ectropion/entropion, ankyloblepharon, corneal ulceration, visual impairment and blindness. Although scoring systems exist for assessment of OSD in mucous membrane pemphigoid, no such tools exist for the other AIBD subtypes or for EB. Several systemic scoring systems exist in the dermatological literature that are efficacious in grading overall EB/AIBD severity, but have limited inclusion of ocular features. To the best of our knowledge, there is no recognised or validated scoring systems

  4. Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetesmellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin M Nentwich; Michael W Ulbig

    2015-01-01

    In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the mostfrequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitusand the most common cause of blindness in the workingagepopulation. In the next 15 years, the number ofpatients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected toincrease significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 millionpeople in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to besuffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people withdiabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts foran increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e. , exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema.

  5. Sonographic measurements of ocular biometry of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at conducting ophthalmic sonographic examination of Nigerian indigenous dogs to provide baseline information on some major ocular parameters. Healthy eyes of eighty (80) indigenous dogs were used for the study. The dogs were adequately restrained physically and the structure of the ocular ...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1040 - Ocular esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular esthesiometer. 886.1040 Section 886.1040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED.... An ocular esthesiometer is a device, such as a single-hair brush, intended to touch the cornea to...

  7. Clinical findings and normative ocular data for free-living Anna's (Calypte anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Bret A; Maggs, David J; Kim, Soohyun; Motta, Monica J; Bandivadekar, Ruta; Tell, Lisa A; Murphy, Christopher J

    2018-02-20

    To estimate the prevalence of ocular disease and obtain normative ocular data for free-living hummingbirds. Two hundred and sixty-three free-living, adult Hummingbirds from coastal and inland central California were studied, including Anna's (Calypte anna, n = 186) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri; n = 77) hummingbirds. Slit lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy were performed on all individuals. Rebound tonometry, measurement of horizontal palpebral fissure length, and streak retinoscopy were performed on select individuals. Five conscious Anna's Hummingbirds underwent ocular imaging including fundus photography, digital slit lamp photography, and anterior segment and retinal optical coherence tomography. The prevalence of ocular disease in this population was 2.28%. Ocular imaging revealed a thin cornea, shallow anterior chamber, large lens, and a single central, deep convexiclivate fovea. Mean ± SD intraocular pressure was 11.21 ± 2.23 mm Hg. Mean ± SD eyelid length was 2.59 ± 0.19 mm. All eyes were emmetropic or mildly hyperopic with a mean (range) ± SD refractive error of +0.32 (-0.25 to +1) ± 0.33 diopters. Consistent with previous reports, these data suggest that hummingbirds have visual characteristics found in predatory and prey species, as well as a low prevalence of spontaneous ocular disease. This work provides a set of reference values and clinical findings that can be used in the future research on hummingbird vision and ocular disease. It also provides representative diagnostic images of normal birds and demonstrates that advanced ocular imaging can be performed on manually restrained hummingbirds without pharmacologic dilation. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  9. Alterações oculares na hanseníase, observadas em pacientes ambulatoriais do serviço de referência da cidade de Rio Branco, Acre - Brasil Eye lesions observed in outpatients of a leprosy reference center at Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldo Duarte Moreno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das alterações oculares em pacientes de hanseníase ativa ou inativa, acompanhados em serviço de referência. MÉTODOS: O estudo transversal constou de exame ocular e levantamento de dados demográficos e clínico-epidemiológicos, em serviço de referência da cidade de Rio Branco (Acre, no período de outubro de 2001 a abril de 2002. RESULTADOS: Foram examinados 254 pacientes, com média de idade de 41,9 anos; 70,1% do sexo masculino e 29,9% do feminino; 73,6% residentes da área urbana e 76,8% de formas multi e 23,2% de paucibacilares. Anormalidades de anexos oculares foram descritas em 49,6% (n=126 dos casos e do globo ocular em 39,4% (n=100 dos casos, sendo as mais freqüentes: hipoestesia corneana, catarata, madarose, manchas hipercrômicas, hipolacrimejamento e ceratite ponteada. As lesões oculares (74,4% tiveram freqüências desiguais (rPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of eye lesions in patients with active and non active leprosy who are being accompanied in a reference center. METHODS: The transverse study consisted of ocular examinations and the study of demographic and clinical-epidemiological data, in the reference center in the city of Rio Branco, AC (Brazil. The study was conducted between October of 2001 and April of 2002. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-four patients were examined, the average age was 41.9 years, 70.1% were males and 29.9% females; 73.6% were from the urban area, 76.8% were of the multibacillary form and 23.2% were of the paucibacillary form. Abnormalities of the ocular annexes were observed in 49.6% of the patients (n=126 and of the ocular globe in 39.4% (n=100, the most frequent being hypoesthesia of the cornea, cataract, madarosis, hiperchromic patches, hypolacrimation, and punctate keratitis. The eye lesions (74.4% had unequal frequencies (r<0.0001, being predominant among those older than 40 years (48.4%, against 26.0% in those under 40 years of age, multibacillary

  10. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  11. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  12. Colonoscopia: morbidade negligenciada Colonoscopy: neglected morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bellotti Formiga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco que determinam morbidade ao exame de colonoscopia. MÉTODOS: No período de março a junho de 2009 foram analisados prospectivamente 170 pacientes submetidos a exame colonoscópico. Fatores de risco como idade, sexo, indicação, exame ambulatorial/internado, efeitos adversos e qualidade do preparo intestinal, procedimento endoscópico, diagnóstico e intercorrência peri-procedimento foram relacionados. RESULTADOS: A média de idade da amostra foi 60,16 ± 14,69 anos, com predominância do sexo feminino. A indicação mais prevalente do exame foi seguimento pós-operatório. Três exames foram inconclusivos por mau preparo. Do restante, 36,53% foram normais e a maioria dos alterados apresentou pólipos, adenomatosos predominantemente. Quanto as comorbidades, 48,82% dos pacientes possuíam alguma comorbidade, sendo Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica a mais prevalente. Apenas 22,94% dos pacientes apresentaram algum efeito adverso ao preparo. O preparo foi limpo em 65,88% dos exames, mostrando significância quando comparado a morbidade. Outro fator de significância estatística foi a realização de procedimentos (44,7% dos exames, sendo a maioria polipectomias. A morbidade chegou a 16,47%, sendo a desidratação a mais prevalente. Não houve mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: A qualidade do preparo intestinal e a realização de procedimento endoscópico são fatores diretamente relacionados a morbidade do exame de colonoscopia.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyze risks factors of morbidity on colonoscopy. METHOD: From March to June of 2009, 170 patients were examined and analyzed prospectively. Risks factors as age, sex, indication of exam, ambulatory or hospital exam, adverse events and quality of intestinal preparation, endoscopic procedure, diagnoses and incident before, during or after procedure were analyzed. RESULTS: The average age was 60,16±14,69 years old, with majority of female. The prevalent

  13. Ocular and non-ocular manifestations of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pallavi; Tyagi, Vipin; Hashim, Adnan A

    2011-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of rare multisystemic genetic syndromes that affects ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The authors present a case of a child with ocular and dermatological signs of HED along with severe involvement of other multiple organ systems. The family history could be traced to four generations and there was an observed trend of increase in severity of signs and symptoms occurring at younger age. The purpose of this case report is to create awareness in ophthalmic community of its diagnosis and clinical manifestations. This case highlights the role of multidisciplinary approach for management of systemic disease, genetic evaluation of affected individuals and carriers and genetic counselling. PMID:22700604

  14. Componentes oculares em anisometropia The ocular components in anisometropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tayah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as correlações dos componentes oculares (comprimento axial, comprimento do segmento anterior, poder médio da córnea, profundidade da câmara vítrea e poder refrativo equivalente com o erro refrativo total do olho portador da menor e da maior ametropia em anisométropes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um "survey" analítico conduzido em população de 68 anisométropes de duas ou mais dioptrias atendida no Ambulatório da Clinica Oftalmológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dos componentes oculares medidos dos olhos portadores da menor e da maior ametropia. Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia apresentaram as mesmas correlações significantes observadas em olhos emétropes, ou seja, correlação da refração com comprimento do segmento anterior e comprimento axial, e correlação do comprimento axial com poder corneano e profundidade da câmara vítrea. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia apresentaram correlação significante da refração com o comprimento axial e do comprimento axial com a profundidade da câmara vítrea. Ainda em ambos os olhos observou-se correlação significante do poder do cristalino com a profundidade da câmara anterior. CONCLUSÃO: Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia desenvolveram as correlações mais freqüentemente observadas nos olhos emétropes. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia não desenvolveram as mesmas correlações dos emétropes.PURPOSE: To asses the correlation between ocular components (axial length, anterior segment length, corneal power, vitreous length and equivalent power of the eye and refractive error in eyes with higher and lower ametropia of subjects with anisometropia. METHODS: An analytical survey was carried out in 68 patients

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up Is Essential to Assess Outcome of Gastric Banding in Morbidly Obese Adolescents: A Retrospective Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, Givan F.; Konings, Gerdy; Bouvy, Nicole D.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; Greve, Jan Willem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent obesity is rapidly becoming more prevalent and is associated with chronic health conditions and psychosocial morbidity. Lifestyle intervention is often ineffective in morbidly obese adolescents, and bariatric surgery is gradually becoming an accepted treatment. However, little

  16. Emotion processing and regulation in women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Middendorp, H. van; Devaere, L.; Larsen, J.K.; van Ramshorst, B.; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional eating, the tendency to eat when experiencing negative affect, is prevalent in morbid obesity and may indicate that ways to deal with emotions are disturbed. Our aim was to compare emotion processing and regulation between 102 women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery and

  17. Mindfulness and eating behaviour styles in morbidly obese males and females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, M.A.; Schiffer, A.A.J.; Visser, L.I.; Raaijmakers, L.J.C.; Nyklicek, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Morbid obesity is a highly prevalent condition that is associated with a high risk of various diseases and high health care costs. Understanding determinants of eating behaviours that are characteristic of many morbidly obese persons is important for the development of new interventions

  18. Morbidity Status Of Slum Dwelling Children Of Lucknow City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Khanna

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The presen study was carried out to find out the level of morbidity among slum childreni aged 5-14 years, It was found tha t46.4% of children were ill at the lime of study. The prevalence of various illnesses hcu studied. An aiuilysis of morbidity with social variables mi not found to be significant. 19.3% children has dental disorders and 45.8% children has parasites infestation of llieG I Tract. 57.6% of children vere having one or the other be­havioural problems.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among caregivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sacrifices made by family caregivers, the adverse ... disorders seen among caregivers, depression was reported to be one of ... In a study of over 2000 families caring for a family member .... deficit/hyperactivity disorder [16.2%]; autism [6.8%]; mood disorder ... with a spectrum of disorders including depression, age-related.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among caregivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The caregivers were administered a sociodemographic questionnaire, GHQ-12, Zarit Burden interview, and the Columbia Impairment Scale. Results: Most caregivers observed in this study were females (80.5%) with mothers of the patients accounting for 78% of all the caregivers. A higher percentage of the patients were ...

  1. Orthopedic trauma surgery in the morbidly obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzio, Anthony E; Gala, Raj J; Villasenor, Mario A; Hao, Jiandon; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    The treatment of morbidly obese patients in orthopedic trauma differs in many ways compared to injured patients with normal body mass indices. This paper highlights key differences and ways to overcome obstacles. We present specific tips, as well as considerations for initial planning, positioning for surgery, intra-operative strategies, and a discussion on both anesthesia and imaging. Several treatment strategies have been shown to have better results in morbidly obese patients. Pre-operative planning is necessary for minimizing risk to the patient. The prevalence of morbid obesity has increased in the USA in the past quarter century. Treatment for orthopedic injuries in morbidly obese patients requires a multidisciplinary approach that addresses not only their orthopedic injuries, but also medical co-morbidities. A team of medicine doctors, anesthesiologists, X-ray technicians, physical and occupational therapists, respiratory therapists, and social workers is needed in addition to the orthopedic surgeon. Modifications in both pre-operative planning and intra-operative strategies may be necessary in order to accommodate the patient. This paper presents numerous technical tips that can aid in providing stable fixation for fractures, as well as addressing peri-operative issues specific to the morbidly obese.

  2. Spectrum of ocular firework injuries in children: A 5-year retrospective study during a festive season in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Deepa; Philip, Swetha Sara; Mittal, Rashmi; John, Sheeja Susan; Paul, Padma

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of acquired monocular blindness in children. Firework injuries account for 20% of ocular trauma. The purpose of our study was to document the profile of ocular firework injuries in children during the festive season of Diwali and to determine the prevalence of unilateral blindness in them. A retrospective chart analysis of ocular firework injury in children during the festival of Diwali from 2009 to 2013, conducted in a tertiary care eye center in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Children below 18 years of age with ocular firework injuries who presented to the emergency department for 3 consecutive days - the day of Diwali, 1 day before, and 1 day after Diwali - were included in this study. Eighty-four children presented with firework-related ocular injuries during the study period. Male to female ratio was 4:1 with mean age 9.48 ± 4 years. Forty-four percentage required hospitalization. The prevalence of unilateral blindness in children due to fireworks was found to be 8% (95% confidence interval - 2-13%). Vision 2020 gives high priority to avoidable blindness, especially in children. In our study, for every 12 children who presented with firecracker injury, one resulted in unilateral blindness. This is an avoidable cause of blindness. Awareness needs to be created, and changes in policy regarding sales and handling of firecrackers including mandatory use of protective eyewear should be considered.

  3. Spectrum of ocular firework injuries in children: A 5-year retrospective study during a festive season in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular trauma is a major cause of acquired monocular blindness in children. Firework injuries account for 20% of ocular trauma. The purpose of our study was to document the profile of ocular firework injuries in children during the festive season of Diwali and to determine the prevalence of unilateral blindness in them. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of ocular firework injury in children during the festival of Diwali from 2009 to 2013, conducted in a tertiary care eye center in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Children below 18 years of age with ocular firework injuries who presented to the emergency department for 3 consecutive days - the day of Diwali, 1 day before, and 1 day after Diwali - were included in this study. Results: Eighty-four children presented with firework-related ocular injuries during the study period. Male to female ratio was 4:1 with mean age 9.48 ± 4 years. Forty-four percentage required hospitalization. The prevalence of unilateral blindness in children due to fireworks was found to be 8% (95% confidence interval - 2-13%. Conclusion: Vision 2020 gives high priority to avoidable blindness, especially in children. In our study, for every 12 children who presented with firecracker injury, one resulted in unilateral blindness. This is an avoidable cause of blindness. Awareness needs to be created, and changes in policy regarding sales and handling of firecrackers including mandatory use of  protective eyewear should be considered.

  4. Republished review: Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-07-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  5. Combat ocular trauma and systemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, Eric D; Colyer, Marcus H

    2008-11-01

    To review the recent literature regarding combat ocular trauma during hostilities in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, describe the classification of combat ocular trauma, and offer strategies that may assist in the management of eye injuries. Several recent publications have highlighted features of combat ocular trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom. The most common cause of today's combat ocular injuries is unconventional fragmentary munitions causing significant blast injuries. These explosive munitions cause high rates of concomitant nonocular injuries such as traumatic brain injury, amputation, and other organ injuries. The most frequent ocular injuries include open-globe and adnexal lacerations. The extreme severity of combat-related open-globe injuries leads to high rates of primary enucleation and retained intraocular foreign bodies. Visual outcomes of intraocular foreign body injuries are similar to other series despite delayed removal, and no cases of endophthalmitis have occurred. Despite these advances, however, significant vision loss persists in cases of perforating globe injuries as well as open and closed-globe trauma involving the posterior segment. This review summarizes the recent literature describing ocular and systemic injuries sustained during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. An emphasis on classification of ocular injuries as well as a discussion of main outcome measures and complications is discussed.

  6. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  7. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in South-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Zhou, Yalan; Zeng, Jun; Shi, Meng; Chen, Baihua

    2017-09-01

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of visual loss, but little is known about its epidemiology and clinical characteristics in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ocular trauma and assess prognostic factors in Changsha, Hunan, located in South-Central China. A retrospective case series (ICD codes: S05) study of ocular trauma in patients was performed at the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. Demographic information, injury causes, ocular trauma types and initial and final visual acuity (VA) were recorded and analysed. The ocular trauma score (OTS) was calculated to assess the extent of the eye injury, prognosis and factors associated with visual impairment. All patient data were collected from the medical records system. Of the 2009 patients presenting during this 5-year period, 1695 (84.4%) were males and 314 (15.6%) were females. The average age of all patients was 37.0 ± 19.3 years (range from 1 to 87 years). The age distribution showed a peak in the ocular trauma population in the 41- to 50-year age group (24%, n = 482), followed by the 51- to 60-year age group (16.9%, n = 339). Overall, open-globe injuries had a higher frequency (70.7%, n = 1420) than closed-globe injuries (28.6%, n = 575) and thermal/chemical injuries (0.7%, n = 14). Of the open-globe injuries, corneal penetration was the most common injury (32.2%, n = 646) followed by rupture (21.5%, n = 432) and an intraocular foreign body (16.2%, n = 325). Overall, the most frequent ocular trauma setting was the workplace (39.6%, n = 795), followed by the home (28.4%, n = 570), and the most frequent activity was ironwork. Firecracker- and firework-associated ocular trauma was significantly higher during the months of January and February than during other months (50.0%, n = 112, p firework-related ocular trauma occurred during the months adjacent to the Chinese New Year

  8. Assessment of ocular toxoplasmosis patients reported at a tertiary center in the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Maryam; Moghaddas, Elham; Sharifi, Karim; Dadgar Moghaddam, Malihe; Shamsian, Seyed Aliakbar

    2018-01-15

    Ocular toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is currently the most significant cause of posterior uveitis in the world. No previous studies have described the prevalence and clinical features of ocular toxoplasmosis in the northeast of Iran. The purpose of the current study was to address this gap. In this retrospective study, the medical records of 488 uveitis patients who presented to the Khatam-al-Anbia Eye Hospital of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, a tertiary ophthalmology center in the northeast of Iran, between January 2013 and December 2015 were evaluated. The clinical features and risk factors of 99 (20%) consecutive patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were extracted. Ninety-nine including 53 (53.5%) female and 46 (46.5%) male patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were included in the analysis. Reduced vision (77%) and floaters (15.2%) were the most common presenting symptoms. The age category that was most affected by ocular toxoplasmosis was 20-40 years (range: 11-65 years) with a mean age of 27.2. All patients had retinochoroiditis, but just two had anterior uveitis. All of the extracted patients, with the exception of three patients, had unilateral involvement. None of the patients had any other medical disorders with the exception of one woman, who had diabetes. Only four recurring ocular toxoplasmosis patients were referred to the education hospital during the study. Serology data were available for just 32 patients, of which 31 (96.8%) were IgG positive, and 1 (3.2%) was IgM positive. Toxoplasma gondii was responsible for 20% of the patients of uveitis that presented to the largest ophthalmology center in the northeast of Iran. There is a high incidence of patients of ocular toxoplasmosis in the northeast of Iran, and it is a significant cause of uveitis and visual impairment in this area.

  9. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE- A HOSPITALBASED STUDY

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    Shobha Ponmudy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease affects every organ system including the eye. The aim of the study is to conduct a thorough ocular examination and to study the occurrence of various ocular manifestations exhibited by patients with chronic kidney disease and to analyse the findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 patients from Department of Nephrology, Stanley Medical College diagnosed with chronic kidney disease were examined for ocular manifestations at the Department of Ophthalmology, Stanley Medical College. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, non-interventional, hospital-based study. The period of study was from August 2010 to October 2011. RESULTS The commonest cause of CKD was hypertension in 47 pts. (52.2% followed by both diabetes and hypertension in 30 patients. Patients with only diabetes were 6 patients (6.7% and with other causes were 7 patients (7.8%.10% of patients were legally blind with visual acuity <6/60. In this study, 65 patients belonged to less than 50 years. 49.3% of the presenile patients had cataract. A reduced Schirmer’s value was noted in 54 eyes of the 200 eyes. The incidence of ocular surface disease in the study was 27%. 92 eyes out of 200 eyes studied showed hypertensive retinopathy. Higher grades of hypertensive retinopathy was more in advanced stages of CKD, i.e. 24 eyes in stage IV and 23 eyes in stage V. 51 eyes out of 40 diabetics showed diabetic retinopathy changes of which a majority of 25 eyes belonged to stage V disease. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in CKD patients is significantly more when compared to diabetic patients without CKD. CONCLUSION Study demonstrates that routine ocular evaluation is necessary in all patients with chronic kidney disease irrespective of the presence of ocular symptoms. It also highlights the occurrence of a variety of treatable ocular manifestations, which can become vision threatening if not taken care of at the earliest.

  10. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  11. Ocular toxicity of AUY922 in pigmented and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Danielle; VerHoeve, James; Schadt, Heiko; Vicart, Axel; Walker, Ursula Junker; Turner, Oliver; Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Wolford, Suzanne T.; Miller, Paul E.; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Hong; Akimov, Mikhail; Kluwe, William

    2016-01-01

    AUY922, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor is associated with ocular adverse events (AEs). To provide a better understanding of ocular AEs in patients, 4 investigative studies were performed in a step-wise approach to assess retinal structure and function in pigmented (Brown Norway) and albino (Wistar) rats. In rats administered 30 mg/kg of AUY922, the AUC 0–24 h and C max are comparable to that in patients at 70 mg/m 2 . AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was poorly tolerated by rats with morbidity or mortality generally after the third weekly treatment. Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. The ERG changes were dose dependent, consistent with an effect on the photoreceptors, and fully reversible. The ERG effects could not be minimized by decreasing the C max while maintaining AUC. Histopathological changes were seen mainly when rats were administered AUY922 at 100 mg/kg. The 2-hour infusion of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg caused disorganization of the outer segment photoreceptor morphology in male Brown Norway rats; the severity of the disorganization increased with the number of administrations, but was reversible during a 4-week posttreatment period. There was no major difference in ocular response between Brown Norway and Wistar rats. No changes in serum iron levels, and no changes in rhodopsin, PDE6α, β-transducin concentrations, or retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 expression were observed after single and multiple infusions of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg compared to vehicle-treated controls. AUY922 retinal toxicity in rats recapitulates and further characterizes that reported in patients and is shown to be reversible, while a precise molecular mechanism for the effect was not determined. - Highlights: • Ocular toxicity of AUY922 was assessed in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. • AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was generally not well tolerated by rats. • Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. • ERG changes

  12. Ocular toxicity of AUY922 in pigmented and albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.roman@novartis.com [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); VerHoeve, James [Ocular Services on Demand, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Schadt, Heiko; Vicart, Axel; Walker, Ursula Junker [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Turner, Oliver [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Richardson, Terrilyn A. [Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH (United States); Wolford, Suzanne T. [Covance Laboratories Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Miller, Paul E. [Comparative Ophthalmic Research Laboratory (CORL), University of Wisconsin, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Madison, WI (United States); Zhou, Wei [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Lu, Hong [Biologics Clinical Pharmacology, Janssen BioTherapeutics at Johnson & Johnson, Spring House, PA (United States); Akimov, Mikhail [Oncology Global Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Kluwe, William [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    AUY922, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor is associated with ocular adverse events (AEs). To provide a better understanding of ocular AEs in patients, 4 investigative studies were performed in a step-wise approach to assess retinal structure and function in pigmented (Brown Norway) and albino (Wistar) rats. In rats administered 30 mg/kg of AUY922, the AUC{sub 0–24} {sub h} and C{sub max} are comparable to that in patients at 70 mg/m{sup 2}. AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was poorly tolerated by rats with morbidity or mortality generally after the third weekly treatment. Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. The ERG changes were dose dependent, consistent with an effect on the photoreceptors, and fully reversible. The ERG effects could not be minimized by decreasing the C{sub max} while maintaining AUC. Histopathological changes were seen mainly when rats were administered AUY922 at 100 mg/kg. The 2-hour infusion of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg caused disorganization of the outer segment photoreceptor morphology in male Brown Norway rats; the severity of the disorganization increased with the number of administrations, but was reversible during a 4-week posttreatment period. There was no major difference in ocular response between Brown Norway and Wistar rats. No changes in serum iron levels, and no changes in rhodopsin, PDE6α, β-transducin concentrations, or retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 expression were observed after single and multiple infusions of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg compared to vehicle-treated controls. AUY922 retinal toxicity in rats recapitulates and further characterizes that reported in patients and is shown to be reversible, while a precise molecular mechanism for the effect was not determined. - Highlights: • Ocular toxicity of AUY922 was assessed in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. • AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was generally not well tolerated by rats. • Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30

  13. STUDY ON PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PSORIASIS

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    Shrikant B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is relatively common , chronic inflammatory and hyper - proliferative skin disease that affects 1.4% to 2.0% of the population. Presence of itching , chronic recurrent course of disease and incomplete cure may contribute to great deal of psychiatric co - morbidity in these patients. the most persuasive indications of a link between stress and psoriasis comes from patients themselves , with studies illustrating that the majority of patients believe that stress or psychological distress is a factor in the manifestations of their condition . Depression and anxiety are the most common disorders that are associated with psoriasis , but the proportion of patient also having other psychiatric co - morbid diseases which include social phobia , generalize anxiety disorder , panic disorder , psychotic diso rder , etc. Moreover , symptoms of psoriasis , especially pruritus , are related to depression. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate different psychiatric illnesses their prevalence and severity in psoriasis patients. METHODOLOGY : This was cross - sectional observational stu dy comprised of 70 consecutive patients of psoriasis attending the out - patient department of Dermatology. All the patients were subjected to detailed examinations including the elicitation of dermatological and psychiatric profile after getting written con sent for study . Data was collected using self - developed , pre tested , semi structured Pro format by interview method. RESULTS : The profile of psychiatric diagnoses obtained in the present study depressive disorder 31.4% {18.57% depression , 12.85% Depression with anxiety symptoms} , anxiety disorder 25.7% (7.14% GAD , 8.17% panic disorder , 5.71% social phobia , 4.28 specific phobia. Severity of major depressive disorder was determined with HAM - D score 53.8% had mild depression , 30.7% moderate depression and 15. 5% severe depression. Similarly when HAM - A scale was used to determined severity of generalized

  14. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  15. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

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    Fabricio Lopes da Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the literature. However, this is an infrequent association, mainly in childhood.

  16. OCULAR SYPHILIS IN A KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748

  17. Morbidity pattern and its sociodemographic determinants among elderly population of Raichur district, Karnataka, India

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    Leyanna Susan George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is an “aging nation” with 7.7% of its population being above 60 years of age. It has resulted in a rise of both physical and mental health morbidities. Aims: This study aimed to gather information regarding the morbidity pattern and its sociodemographic determinants among the elderly residing in the rural villages of Raichur, to understand the need for geriatric health-care facilities. Settings and Design: This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in six rural villages of Raichur District, of which 230 elderly were selected randomly. Subjects and Methods: The data were collected using a questionnaire, clinical history, examination, and cross-checking of medical records. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Epi Info version-3.5.3. Results: The prevalence of morbidity was 91.7% with an average of 3/person. Females (58.9% had more morbidities than men (41.1%. The 3 most common morbidities were orthopedic (50.5%, cataract (50.4%, and respiratory (31.3%. 26.6% suffered from gastrointestinal morbidities while 23.9% had dental problems. 20.9% had hypertension with equal prevalence among both sexes. Only 17.4% were diabetics with majority being women. Central nervous system morbidities were 14.2% while 9.6% suffered from hearing loss and varicose veins. 8.2% had genitourinary-urinary morbidities and incontinence (1.7% was common among both sexes. Depression (71.1% and dermatological morbidities (4.7% were prevalent among women. Only 3.5% suffered from cardiac morbidity and 0.4% from cancer. Significant association was found between age and morbidity and also between socioeconomic class and morbidity pattern. Conclusions: Geriatric care should become an integral part of primary health care. Regular screening and Information, Education, and Communication activities need to be provided early in life for ensuring healthy aging.

  18. X-linked ocular albinism in Blacks. Ocular albinism cum pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, F E; Green, W R; Fleischman, J A; Hambrick, G W

    1978-07-01

    X-linked ocular albinism can be an unsuspected cause of congenital nystagmus in blacks. In this study, eight of ten black ocular albinos from two kindreds had nonalbinotic, moderately pigmented fundi and no transillumination of the iris. We refer to this paradoxical condition as "ocular albinism cum pigmento." The only constant ophthalmoscopic feature was a foveal hypoplasia. Biopsy of clinically normal skin to demonstrate giant pigment granules is the most accurate means of diagnosis.

  19. Needs in omega 3 and ocular pathologies

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    Bretillon Lionel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Life expectancy at birth has regularly increased decade after decade, especially since the beginning of the 20th century: 15 years have been gained over the past 50 years. Changes in living and dietary habits during this time period have been associated with the development of various pathologies which represent a growing socioeconomic burden. Among age-related disorders, ocular diseases are the second most prevalent ones after 65 years. Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of visual impairment after the age of 50 years. Age is the prominent risk factor for AMD and is accompanied with both endogenous (including genetics and environmental factors, such as smoking habits and dietary factors (diet rich in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. AMD is characterized by the loss of cells at the most central area of the retina, called macula. The neural retina is a highly structured neurosensory tissue that is responsible for the transduction pathway. The transduction pathway is initiated in photoreceptors where the light stimulus is coded into an electrical signal. This signal is transmitted to neighboured neurons and transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is the cellular and metabolic interface between the neural retina and choriocapillaris through Bruch’s membrane. The close association between RPE and photoreceptors is one of the factors that promote the efficacy of RPE to, in the one hand, provide nutrients and oxygen to photoreceptors and, in the other hand, eliminate the metabolic debris originating from shedding of the outer segments. Epidemiological data suggest that dietary habits privileging the consumption of omega- 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids participate to prevent from the development of AMD (Sangiovanni et al., 2009. The mechanisms underlying the effects of omega-3 fatty acids remain unclear until now. The purpose of the present paper is to give a review on

  20. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  1. Laryngeal morbidity after tracheal intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Rasmussen, N; Kristensen, M S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation may cause vocal fold damage. The trial was designed to assess laryngeal morbidity comparing the Endoflex(®) tube with a conventional endotracheal tube with stylet. We hypothesised that laryngeal morbidity within the first 24 h after extubation would be lower...... with the Endoflex tube than with the conventional endotracheal tube with stylet because of less rigidity. METHODS: This randomised trial included 130 elective surgical patients scheduled for general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Pre- and post-operative assessment of hoarseness, vocal fold pathology......% with the Endoflex tube and 55% with the endotracheal tube with stylet at 24 h after extubation (P = 0.44). Post-operative vocal fold injury was present in 23% in the Endoflex tube group and in 36% in the endotracheal tube with stylet group (P = 0.13). The increase in shimmer, the voice analysis variable reflecting...

  2. Update on ocular toxicity of ethambutol

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    Priscilla Makunyane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to update clinicians on available literature on the ocular toxicity of ethambutol and the type of eye care to be provided to patients treated with these medications. Ethambutol is a commonly used first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. Since its first use in the 1960s, ocular toxicity is described as related to dose and duration, and it is reversible on therapy discontinuation. However, the reversibility of the toxic optic neuropathy remains controversial. The mechanism of ocular toxicity owing to ethambutol is still under investigation. Other than discontinuing the drug, no specific treatment is available for the optic neuropathy caused by ethambutol. Doctors prescribing ethambutol should be aware of the ocular toxicity, and the drug should be used with proper patient education and ophthalmic monitoring.

  3. A challenging case of ocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; Dumitru, Adrian Vasile; Pătraşcu, Oana Maria; Popa-Cherecheanu, Daniela Alina; Bădilă, Patricia; Miu, Jeni Cătălina; Procop, Alexandru; Popa, Manuela; Tampa, Mircea Ştefan; Sajin, Maria; Simionescu, Olga; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is a rare malignancy found in clinical practice. In this paper, we present a case of highly aggressive ocular melanoma, which was surgically removed at the Department of Ophthalmology and diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, using conventional histopathological techniques. Uveal melanoma, a subset of ocular melanoma, has a distinct behavior in comparison to cutaneous melanoma and has a widely divergent prognosis. Approximately half of patients with ocular melanoma will develop metastatic disease, predominantly with hepatic, pulmonary or cerebral location, over a 10 to 15 years period. No systemic therapy was associated with an evident clinical outcome for patients with advanced disease and overall survival rate remains poor.

  4. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with th...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  5. Psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit L Jagtap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women in the perimenopausal period are reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. The study sample consisted of consecutive women in perimenopause as diagnosed by a gynecologist and written informed consent for inclusion in the study. Women with a previous history of psychiatric illnesses, with a major medical illness, or who had undergone surgical menopause were excluded from the study. All women were evaluated with a brief questionnaire for collecting demographic and clinical information and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for assessing psychiatric disorders. Results: Of the 108 women in perimenopause included in the study, 31% had depressive disorder, 7% had anxiety, while 5% had depressive disorder with anxiety features. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly more in women having lesser education, from rural background, with a history of psychiatric illness in the family, a later age of menarche, and in the late stage of perimenopause. Conclusions: Women in the perimenopause affected by psychiatric morbidity were most commonly diagnosed with depression. As perimenopause is a time of vulnerability in women, attention to signs and symptoms of depression may be required so that they may lead a more productive life.

  6. Psychiatric Morbidity in HIV-infected Male Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Lee, Ming-Been; Morisky, Donald Edward; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Farabee, David; Lan, Yu-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose The seroincidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Taiwan has drastically increased since 2004, particularly among injection drug users and prisoners. The major purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected male prisoners. Methods In 2006, data were collected from all of HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 535) in seven prisons in Taiwan. This collection was performed using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire in group settings directed by our interviewers. Psychiatric morbidity was measured using the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale in 535 participants, which represented an 85% response rate. After excluding incomplete data, 479 participants were included in the analysis. Results Psychiatric morbidity was present in 46% of participants. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that correlates of the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale defined cases included the following: being a recidivist, having poor self-rated health status, and having experienced psychiatric symptoms in one’s lifetime (e.g. significant physical pain or discomfort, depression for 2 weeks or longer, serious anxiety or tension, trouble understanding, concentrating, or remembering, and serious thoughts of suicide), with a Nagelkerke R2 equal to 0.365. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is prevalent among HIV-infected male prisoners. Tailored HIV/AIDS education related to mental health is therefore suggested for inclusion as part of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS training program among incarcerated populations. PMID:20434025

  7. Prosthetic management of an ocular defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Kumar Chintal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.

  8. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh R Nayak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare genetic disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous and neurological manifestations. It occurs due to deficiency of the enzymes responsible for repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage. Persistence of un-repaired DNA results in somatic mutations, leading to neoplasia of the skin and ocular surface. As this condition is rare, only isolated case reports of XP with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN are found in literature.

  9. Ocular Problems of the Aging Military Aviator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    neuropathy 3 these ocular conditions seen in the older aviator and on Ocular trauma/angle recession 3 his flight status? Branch retinal vein occlusion 2...bifocals, Nutritional amblyopia (RPW) 1 trifocals, double segs, newer progressive lenses, contact Fuch’s heterochromic iridocyclitis 1 lenses, and...In the Surveillance Only part of the program no drug therapy is DISCUSSION: Under present FAA regulations, the used but the flight surgeon must

  10. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations.

  11. [Predictive ocular motor control in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Chen, Wei; Gan, Jing; Wang, Wen-An

    2008-02-19

    To investigate the changes of predictive ocular motor function in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to discuss its clinical value. Videonystagmography (VNG) was used to examine 24 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 15 males and 9 females, aged 61 +/- 6 (50-69), and 24 sex and age-matched healthy control subjects on random ocular saccade (with the target moving at random intervals to random positions) and predictive ocular saccade (with the 1.25-second light target moving 10 degrees right or left from the center). In the random ocular saccade program, the latency of saccade of the PD patients was 284 ms +/- 58 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (236 ms +/- 37 ms, P = 0.003). In the predictive ocular saccade pattern, the latency of saccades the PD patients was 150 ms +/- 138 ms, significantly longer than that of the healthy controls (59 ms +/- 102 ms, P = 0.002). The appearance rate of predictive saccades (with the latency of saccade <80 ms) in the PD group was 21%, significantly lower than that in the control group (31%, P = 0.003). There is dysfunction of predictive ocular motor control in the PD patients, and the cognitive function may be impaired at the early stage of PD.

  12. Epidemiological methods for research with drug misusers: review of methods for studying prevalence and morbidity Métodos: epidemiológicos para pesquisa com usuários de drogas: revisão de métodos para estudo da prevalência e morbidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dunn

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of drug misusers have until recently relied on two main forms of sampling: probability and convenience. The former has been used when the aim was simply to estimate the prevalence of the condition and the latter when in depth studies of the characteristics, profiles and behaviour of drug users were required, but each method has its limitations. Probability samples become impracticable when the prevalence of the condition is very low, less than 0.5% for example, or when the condition being studied is a clandestine activity such as illicit drug use. When stratified random samples are used, it may be difficult to obtain a truly representative sample, depending on the quality of the information used to develop the stratification strategy. The main limitation of studies using convenience samples is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population of drug users due to selection bias and a lack of information concerning the sampling frame. New methods have been developed which aim to overcome some of these difficulties, for example, social network analysis, snowball sampling, capture-recapture techniques, privileged access interviewer method and contact tracing. All these methods have been applied to the study of drug misuse. The various methods are described and examples of their use given, drawn from both the Brazilian and international drug misuse literature.São descritos e discutidos os vários métodos de amostragem, de probabilidade e conveniência para estudos epidemiológicos sobre usuários de drogas, e apresentados exemplos de seu uso, com base na literatura brasileira e internacional. Os estudos epidemiológicos sobre usuários de drogas, realizados até recentemente, têm utilizado duas formas principais de amostragem: a de probabilidade e a de conveniência. A primeira tem sido utilizada quando o objetivo é apenas estimar a prevalência da condição sendo pesquisada e a segunda (conveniência quando

  13. Sources of stress and psychological morbidity among undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J M; Feeney, C; Hussey, J; Donnellan, C

    2010-09-01

    Professional education can be a stressful experience for some individuals, and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance. Psychological morbidity and associated sources of stress have not been investigated extensively in physiotherapy students. This study explored sources of stress, psychological morbidity and possible associations between these variables in undergraduate physiotherapy students. A questionnaire-based survey. The Undergraduate Sources of Stress Questionnaire was used to identify sources of stress, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was used to rate the prevalence of psychological morbidity, using a conservative GHQ threshold of 3 to 4 to determine probable 'cases'. Uni- and multivariate tests of correlation were used to analyse the data. An Irish educational institution. One hundred and twenty-five physiotherapy undergraduate students. More than one-quarter of all students (27%) scored above the GHQ threshold, indicating probable psychological morbidity. This is higher than the level of psychological morbidity reported by the general population. Regression analysis showed that academic (beta=0.31, Pphysiotherapy students, with academic and personal issues being the greatest concern. While personal causes of stress such as stressful events and mood are more difficult to control, manipulation of curricular factors may have positive effects on academic sources of stress. Copyright 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparative Study Of Psychiatric Morbidity In Dermatological Patients

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    Sharma Neelu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric morbidity in five chronic and disfiguring diseases, namely psoriasis, chronic urticaria, leprosy, vitiligo and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC was assessed and compared using the standardized Hindi (Vernacular languages version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-H. Thirty new untreated patients of each of the above skin diseases between the age group of 18-60 years were included in the study. The overall prevalence of the psychiatric morbidity was found to be 39%, depression and anxiety were present in 13% and 10.66% of the patients and suicidal ideations and somatisation in 16% and 13% of the patients respectively. Prevalence of interpersonal conflict and suicidal attempt were 10% and 2.6% respectively. On comparative analysis of psychiatric morbidity, significant difference was observed between vitiligo and other disorders (p=0.0028, i.e., chronic urticaria (p=0.0242 and psoriasis and other disorders (p=0.0028, however no significant difference could be elicited between psoriasis and leprosy or leprosy and vitiligo. Comparative analysis of anxiety revealed statistically significant difference between the patients of LSC and vitiligo (p=0.02 or vitiligo and chronic urticaria (p=0.04 but no significant difference was observed for vitiligo and leprosy of psoriasis and leprosy. The prevalence of somatic complaints showed significant difference between the patients of LSC and Leprosy.

  15. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Banu T; Kerimoglu, Hurkan; Dikbas, Oguz; Pekel, Hamiyet; Gonen, Mustafa S

    2009-12-29

    To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus) and cup to disc ratio (C/D), mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1(st), 3(rd )and 6(th )months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 +/- 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 +/- 3.85 mu initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 +/- 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 +/- 19.49 mu initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  16. Diagnostic tools in ocular allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A; Doan, S; Fauquert, J L; Bozkurt, B; Allegri, P; Marmouz, F; Rondon, C; Jedrzejczak, M; Hellings, P; Delgado, L; Calder, V

    2017-10-01

    Ocular allergy (OA) includes a group of common and less frequent hypersensitivity disorders frequently misdiagnosed and not properly managed. The diagnosis of OA is usually based on clinical history and signs and symptoms, with the support of in vivo and in vitro tests when identification of the specific allergen is required. To date, no specific test is available for the diagnosis of the whole spectrum of the different forms of OA. The lack of recommendations on diagnosis of OA is considered a medical need not only for allergists but also for ophthalmologists. This position paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available tools for diagnosing OA to promote a common nomenclature and procedures to be used by different specialists. Questionnaires, sign and symptom grading scales, tests, and potential biomarkers for OA are reviewed. We also identified several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools to generate interest, increase understanding, and inspire further investigations. Tools, recommendations, and algorithms for the diagnosis of OA are proposed for use by both allergists and ophthalmologists. Several unmet needs in the diagnostic tools should be further improved by specific clinical research in OA. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  17. Refraction and Ocular Biometry of Preschool Children in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoli; He, Xiangui; Qu, Xiaomei; You, Xiaofang; Wang, Bingjie; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the refraction and ocular biometry characteristics and to examine the prevalence of refractive errors in preschool children aged 3 to 6 years in Shanghai, China. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jiading and Xuhui District, Shanghai, in 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens in Jiading District and 10 kindergartens in Xuhui District, with a probability proportionate to size. The children underwent comprehensive eye examinations, including cycloplegic refraction and biometric measurements. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism were defined as spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -0.50 D, SE ≥ +2.00 D, and cylindrical diopters ≤ -1.00 D. The mean SE for 3- to 6-year-old children was +1.20 D (standard deviation [SD] 1.05), and the mean axial length (AL) was 22.29 mm (SD 0.73). The overall prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was 3.7% and 18.3%, respectively. No difference in prevalence of astigmatism was found across age groups. There was a statistically significant association between lower cylindrical diopters and higher spherical diopters (Spearman's correlation: -0.21, P < 0.001). Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years in the Shanghai area were mostly mildly hyperopic, with a low prevalence of myopia. Refractive astigmatism for children may be relatively stable throughout the preschool stage. Astigmatism was significantly associated with refractive error.

  18. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory...

  19. Effects of environment pollution on the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Ji; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Tong, Louis

    2018-04-01

    The twenty-first century is fraught with dangers like climate change and pollution, which impacts human health and mortality. As levels of pollution increase, respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular ailments become more prevalent. Less understood are the eye-related complaints, which are commonly associated with increasing pollution. Affected people may complain of irritation, redness, foreign body sensation, tearing, and blurring of vision. Sources of pollution are varied, ranging from gases (such as ozone and NO 2 ) and particulate matter produced from traffic, to some other hazards associated with indoor environments. Mechanisms causing ocular surface disease involve toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Homeostatic mechanisms of the ocular surface may adapt to certain chronic changes in the environment, so affected people may not always be symptomatic. However there are many challenges associated with assessing effects of air pollution on eyes, as pollution is large scale and difficult to control. Persons with chronic allergic or atopic tendencies may have a pre-existing state of heightened mucosal immune response, hence they may have less tolerance for further environmental antigenic stimulation. It is beneficial to identify vulnerable people whose quality of life will be significantly impaired by environmental changes and provide counter measures in the form of protection or treatment. Better technologies in monitoring of pollutants and assessment of the eye will facilitate progress in this field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ocular biometric characteristics of cataract patients in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Huang, Yongzhi; Luo, Qu; Fan, Wei

    2018-04-17

    We aimed to measure ocular biometric characteristics in older cataract patients from western China. Ocular biometry records were retrospectively analyzed for 6933 patients with cataracts (6933 eyes) at least 50 years old who were treated at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Partial coherence laser interferometry gave the following population averages: axial length (AL), 24.32 ± 2.42 mm; anterior chamber depth (ACD), 3.08 ± 0.47 mm; keratometric power (K), 44.23 ± 1.66 diopters; and corneal astigmatism (CA), 1.00 ± 0.92 diopters. The percentage of individuals with AL > 26.5 mm was 13.66%, while the percentage with CA > 1.0 diopters was 35.54%. Mean AL and ACD showed a trend of decrease with increasing age (P biometric characteristics as other populations. The high prevalence of severe axial myopia warrants further investigation.

  1. Ocularity Feature Contrast Attracts Attention Exogenously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhaoping

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An eye-of-origin singleton, e.g., a bar shown to the left eye among many other bars shown to the right eye, can capture attention and gaze exogenously or reflexively, even when it appears identical to other visual input items in the scene and when the eye-of-origin feature is irrelevant to the observer’s task. Defining saliency as the strength of exogenous attraction to attention, we say that this eye-of-origin singleton, or its visual location, is salient. Defining the ocularity of a visual input item as the relative difference between its left-eye input and its right-eye input, this paper shows the general case that an ocularity singleton is also salient. For example, a binocular input item among monocular input items is salient, so is a left-eye-dominant input item (e.g., a bar with a higher input contrast to the left eye than to the right eye among right-eye-dominant items. Saliency by unique input ocularity is analogous to saliency by unique input colour (e.g., a red item among green ones, as colour is determined by the relative difference(s between visual inputs to different photoreceptor cones. Just as a smaller colour difference between a colour singleton and background items makes this singleton less salient, so does a smaller ocularity difference between an ocularity singleton and background items. While a salient colour difference is highly visible, a salient ocularity difference is often perceptually invisible in some cases and discouraging gaze shifts towards it in other cases, making its behavioural manifestation not as apparent. Saliency by ocularity contrast provides another support to the idea that the primary visual cortex creates a bottom-up saliency map to guide attention exogenously.

  2. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; Hood, C; Harrison, K

    1994-07-01

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment.

  3. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; Hood, C.; Harrison, K.

    1994-01-01

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment

  4. Jealous love and morbid jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Lundgren, Eva; Leuci, Emanuela

    2006-12-01

    Jealous love and morbid jealousy, although inextricably linked, cannot be considered the same: jealous love (trait jealousy) is the behavioral and cognitive-affective precondition of morbid jealousy (state jealousy). Love is jealous when it is devoured by the desire for the exclusive and total possession of the partner, whose unconditional and continued presence is avidly requested. This type of love, in addition, is permeated by the need to know what the other is thinking, in order to scrutinize every minimal flaw in the faithfulness of the partner even in his or her innermost thoughts and fantasies; in it, jealousy is virtually always present, even in the absence of a triggering event, because captative love, by its very nature, includes the expectation of a conflict which inevitably actually takes place in reality. Finally, jealousy emerges as an emotional event (jealous flash) in response to a more or less significant change in the behavior of the partner, and reveals to the jealous individual a dimension which was previously latent or inexistent. This intense and brief experience, leaves a more or less blurred memory behind, and tends to progressively repeat itself and take root as a feeling.

  5. Ocular changes in primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekel Hamiyet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the ocular changes related to hypothyrodism in newly diagnosed patients without orbitopathy. Findings Thirty-three patients diagnosed to have primary overt hypothyroidism were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to underwent central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements with the Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam, Oculus and cup to disc ratio (C/D, mean retinal thickness and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography (OCT in addition to ophthalmological examination preceeding the replacement therapy and at the 1st, 3rd and 6th months of treatment. The mean age of the patients included in the study were 40.58 ± 1.32 years. The thyroid hormone levels return to normal levels in all patients during the follow-up period, however the mean intraocular pressure (IOP revealed no significant change. The mean CCT was 538.05 ± 3.85 μ initially and demonstrated no statistically significant change as the anterior chamber volume, depth and angle measurements did. The mean C/D ratio was 0.29 ± 0.03 and the mean retinal thickness was 255.83 ± 19.49 μ initially and the treatment did not give rise to any significant change. The mean RNFL thickness was also stable during the control visits, so no statistically significant change was encountered. Conclusions Neither hypothyroidism, nor its replacement therapy gave rise to any change of IOP, CCT, anterior chamber parameters, RNFL, retinal thickness and C/D ratio.

  6. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  7. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E; Garcìa, Hector D; Monds, Kathryn; Cooper, Bonnie L; James, John T

    2012-07-20

    Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind's limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm), reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  8. Irritación ocular: Modelos alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiza Vega Montalvo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo puede ser dañado accidentalmente por el uso de muchos productos de uso rutinario. Para facilitar la seguridad de los consumidores es necesario estimar el potencial de irritación ocular de estas sustancias químicas. Esta estimación está basada en los resultados obtenidos en el ensayo de Draize llevado a cabo en conejos. Sin embargo, avances en el desarrollo de la toxicología in vitro han permitido el uso de algunas alternativas para la evaluación del riesgo ocular; por lo que se presenta una revisión acerca de los diferentes métodos alternativos disponibles hasta el momento que permiten evaluar de una forma u otra los efectos tóxicos a nivel ocular.The eye may be accidentally damaged by many products of daily use. To guarantee the consumers’ safety it is necessary to estimate the eye irritation potential of these chemical substances. This estimation is based on the results obtained in the Draize rabbit eye irritation test. However, the advances attained in the development of in vitro toxicology have allowed the use of some alternatives to evaluate the ocular risk. Therefore, a review is made on the different alternative methods available up to now that make possible the evaluation in one way or another of the toxic effects at the ocular level.

  9. PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PERSONS WITH HANSEN’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of psychiatric co - morbidity and its effect on quality of life in persons with Hansen’s disease. METHOD: The study was conducted on around 80 persons above 18 year age with Hansen’s disease in out - patient department dermatology and i n leprosy home. Participants were diagnosed cases of Hansen’s disease, selected randomly and were evaluated with socio demographic questionnaire, Duke’s general health questionnaire, DSM - 5 self rated level 1 cross cutting symptom measure – adult and WHO - QO L - BREF. The period of data collection was from October 2014 to March 2015. RESULTS: The assessment showed that prevalence of at least one psychiatric co morbidity was 83.75% (67/80 patients and of these 67 patients 18(26.86% have one diagnosis, 26(38.80% have two diagnoses and 23(34.32% have 3 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Among all depression was most prevalent (28.35% mental disorder; followed by anxiety disorder (23.88%. Quality of life was significantly impaired in almost all persons with Hansen’ s disease. CONCLUSION: Persons with Hansen’s disease have significantly high prevalence of mental disorders which have much impact on their quality of life which were under diagnosed and thus remained untreated

  10. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-04-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important predisposing factors. Preventive measures we suggest are better standards for manufacturers, more careful inspection of returnable bottles to detect defective ones, a separate detailed warning label on all bottles, and health education especially of school children about this and other risks of serious injury to the eyes and other parts of the body.

  11. Severe maternal morbidity for 2004-2005 in the three Dublin maternity hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Cliona M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of severe maternal morbidity in Dublin over a two year period from 2004 to 2005. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2005 was undertaken in the three large maternity hospitals in Dublin, which serve a population of 1.5 million people. All are tertiary referral centres for obstetrics and neonatology and have an annual combined delivery rate of circa 23,000 births. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified. A systems based classification was used. The primary cause of maternal morbidity and the number of events experienced per patient was recorded. RESULTS: We identified 158 women who fulfilled the definition for severe maternal morbidity, giving a rate of 3.2 per 1000 maternities. There were two maternal deaths during the time period giving mortality to morbidity ratio of 1:79. The commonest cause of severe morbidity was vascular dysfunction related to obstetric haemorrhage. Eclampsia comprised 15.4% of cases. Intensive care or coronary care admission occurred in 12% of cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity in this population is 3.2\\/1000 maternities. Obstetric haemorrhage was the main cause of severe maternal morbidity.

  12. Síndrome metabólica em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica: prevalência e marcador de morbi-mortalidade no período intra-hospitalar e após 30 dias Metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft: prevalence and a marker of morbidity/mortality during hospitalization and 30 days after hospital discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pimenta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar a morbi-mortalidade de pacientes com e sem síndrome metabólica (SM (de acordo com a I Diretriz Brasileira de Diagnóstico e Tratamento da SM submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (RM, na fase hospitalar e após 30 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 107 pacientes submetidos à RM sem procedimentos associados, no período de agosto a outubro de 2005, sendo 74 (69,2% portadores de SM. Os critérios de evolução intra-hospitalar foram: fibrilação atrial aguda (FA, ventilação mecânica prolongada (VM, necessidade de transfusão de hemoderivados, número de horas na UTI, período de internação (em dias, infecção respiratória e de ferida operatória, e óbito. Em 30 dias avaliou-se a combinação de eventos como a necessidade de re-internação, infecção de ferida operatória e óbito. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 60,6±9,7 e o grupo com SM apresentou maior índice de massa e superfície corpórea e maior prevalência de diabete. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na ocorrência dos eventos intra-hospitalares como FA (15,2% x 16,2%, VM (3,0% x 2,7%, quantidade de unidades de hemoderivados utilizados (3,2±2,7 x 2,6±2,9, tempo de permanência na UTI (53,7±27,3 x 58,9±56,5, tempo de permanência hospitalar (9,2±8,7 x 8,5±8,5, infecção respiratória (6,1% x 2,7%, infecção de ferida operatória (3,0% x 5,4% e taxa de mortalidade (3,0% x 0,0%. A ocorrência de eventos combinados em 30 dias foi semelhante nos dois grupos (12,2% x 20,3%, p = NS. CONCLUSÃO: Portadores de SM não apresentaram aumento da morbimortalidade quando submetidos à cirurgia de RM, porém apresentam tendência à maior ocorrência de infecção em ferida operatória.OBJECTIVES: To compare the morbidity and mortality of patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MS (according to the First Brazilian Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of MS undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG during

  13. Ocular Manifestations of Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, James W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Heintz, Shannon K

    2018-03-01

    Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  14. Ocular volume measured by CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Wei-Kom Chu

    1984-01-01

    Newer CT scans have greatly enhanced oculometric research and made it possible to measure ocular dimensions. With these measurements, ocular volume can be more accurately estimated to understand its relationship with age and sex. One hundred CT orbit scans with presumed normal eyes were used for the data base. The mean values and normal variations of ocular volumes at various ages in both sexes are presented. Rapid growth of the eyeball was noted during the first 24 months of age. It reached its peak between the ages of 18 and 30 years of age, after which there was a reduction. Results may be of help in recognizing eye abnormalities such as microophthalmus and macrophthalmia. (orig.)

  15. Ocular fibropapillomas of green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D E; Ginn, P E; Miller, T R; Bramson, L; Jacobson, E R

    1994-05-01

    Histologic evaluation of four eyes from three stranded juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Florida, USA revealed ocular fibropapillomas composed of an overlying hyperplastic epithelium, various amounts of a thickened, well vascularized, collagenous stroma, and a moderate-to-dense population of reactive fibroblasts. The histologic morphology of the ocular fibropapillomas varied depending on whether the eyelid, conjunctiva, limbus, or cornea was the primary site of tumor origin. Fibropapillomas arising from the limbus, conjunctiva, or eyelid tended to be polyploid or pedunculated with a high degree of arborization. They often filled the conjunctival fornices and extended externally to be ulcerated on the distal aspects. Corneal fibropapillomas were more sessile and multinodular with less arborization. Some corneal tumors consisted primarily of a broad fibrovascular stroma and mild epithelial hyperplasia, whereas others had a markedly hyperplastic epithelium supported by stalks of fibrovascular stromal tissue. In green turtles ocular fibropapillomas may be locally invasive and associated with severe blindness and systemic debilitation.

  16. Treatment options for ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Mary Lendrum Cohen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Mary Lendrum CohenSt. Bartholomew’s and Moorfields Eye Hospital, London UKAbstract: Most lymphomas that involve the ocular adnexal structure are low grade, B cell, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The treatment depends upon the grade and stage of the disease. High grade lymhoma requires treatment with systemic chemotherapy whereas the localized low grade (extranodal marginal zone lymphoma can be successfully managed with local radiotherapy. Chlamydia psittaci infection is associated with low grade ocular lymphoma; however there is wide geographic variation in the strength of this association. Blanket antibiotic therapy is not advised unless there is proof of an infective agent. The monoclonal antibody, rituximab, may be successful for CD20 positive lymphoma, although it is likely that rituximab will have better long-term results when used in combination with systemic chemotherapy.Keywords: ocular adnexal lymphoma, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, Chlamydia psittaci, rituximab, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

  17. Ocular Fundus Photography as an Educational Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Devin D; Garza, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for nonmydriatic fundus photography in nonophthalmic settings, encouraging more widespread adoption of fundus photography technology. Recent studies have also affirmed the role of fundus photography as an adjunct or alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in undergraduate medical education. In this review, the authors examine the use of ocular fundus photography as an educational tool and suggest future applications for this important technology. Novel applications of fundus photography as an educational tool have the potential to resurrect the dying art of funduscopy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Recent Advances in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Fujii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.

  19. Adolescent Obesity: its correlates and associated morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Sain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is currently one of the major public health problems, in both developed and developing countries. Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Increasing rates of childhood obesity and more sedentary lifestyles has led to an age shift in metabolic syndrome which now occurs at an earlier age. Thus, the present study was conducted to get an idea about the occurrence of obesity among adolescent school children, risk factors associated with the condition and the related morbidity among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in two higher secondary government girl schools with the help of a pre- designed and pre-tested questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 245 students 16.73% were overweight and 6.54% were obese. Among overweight students, 59.65% exercised less than 4 hours a week, 61.4% watched TV ≥ 4 hours per week, 87.72% consumed junk food ≥ 4 days per week and 45.61% skipped meals. Puberty related menstrual irregularities, hypothyroidism, acne and stria were more commonly found in overweight students CONCLUSION: The rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity accompanied by unhealthy lifestyle habits among adolescents is one of the most challenging dilemmas of public health importance.

  20. Adolescent Obesity: its correlates and associated morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Sain

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Obesity is currently one of the major public health problems, in both developed and developing countries. Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Increasing rates of childhood obesity and more sedentary lifestyles has led to an age shift in metabolic syndrome which now occurs at an earlier age. Thus, the present study was conducted to get an idea about the occurrence of obesity among adolescent school children, risk factors associated with the condition and the related morbidity among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in two higher secondary government girl schools with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 245 students 16.73% were overweight and 6.54% were obese. Among overweight students, 59.65% exercised less than 4 hours a week, 61.4% watched TV ≥ 4 hours per week, 87.72% consumed junk food ≥ 4 days per week and 45.61% skipped meals. Puberty related menstrual irregularities, hypothyroidism, acne and stria were more commonly found in overweight students CONCLUSION: The rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity accompanied by unhealthy lifestyle habits among adolescents is one of the most challenging dilemmas of public health importance.

  1. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  2. Ocular trauma: A tertiary hospital experience from Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham H Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma is a common presentation at Al-Nahdha Hospital. Although the majority of trauma cases were minor without any resultant visual disability, OGI could have been prevented with better ocular protection in the workplace.

  3. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  4. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  5. Ocular presentation of sarcoidosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, S; Trevathan, G E; Holland, J E; Kataria, Y P

    1983-12-01

    Ocular manifestations of sarcoidosis in children are the second most common occurrence after hilar adenopathy and pulmonary abnormalities. We present the case history of a 14-year-old black boy who presented with redness of the left eye, blurred vision, and decreased visual acuity. He was subsequently diagnosed as having sarcoidosis. All patients with uveitis or ocular findings suggestive of sarcoidosis should have a through medical examination and a chest x-ray. Those suspected of or proven to have sarcoidosis should have a complete ophthalmological examination. Sarcoidosis in children appears to be more frequent than previously estimated.

  6. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  7. Clinical Profile and Visual Outcome of Ocular Bartonellosis in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Chai Lee; Fhun, Lai Chan; Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Abdul Gani, Nor Hasnida; Muhammed, Julieana; Tuan Jaafar, Tengku Norina; Ahmad Tajudin, Liza Sharmini; Wan Hitam, Wan-Hazabbah

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, support...

  8. Selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, bony orbit anatomy, and ocular histology in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Gomes Junior, Deusdete C; Oliveira, Alberto Vinícius D; Curvelo, Victor P; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Pinna, Melissa H; Meneses, Íris D S; Filho, Emanoel F M; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for diagnostic ophthalmic tests in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) as well as to describe the most relevant features of the bony orbital anatomy and ocular histology. Twenty healthy animals, free living in a forest reserve, that were captured for clinical evaluation as part of a health survey were evaluated. Schirmer tear test-1 (STT1), conjunctival microbiota, intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctival cytology, anatomy of the bony orbit, and ocular histology were studied. Mean ± SD STT1 and IOP values were 18.8 ± 4.7 mm and 11.4 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively. IOP was significantly higher in adult (4-8 years) animals (P = 0.04). Bacterial growth was present in 100% of the samples, with a prevalence for Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. The conjunctival cytology revealed predominance of columnar epithelial cells with mild pigmentation. The sambar deer orbit is completely encompassed by bone. The ocular histology was very similar to most mammalians. The findings in this study will be useful in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in Rusa unicolor. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduction or increase in ocular volume may indicate ocular pathology. Unfortunately the reference values utilized for ocular volume had been that of non-Africans. It is therefore pertinent to have a reference value of normal for Africans. Objective: To document the computer tomography (CT) scan measured ...

  10. Therapeutic targets of renin-angiotensin system in ocular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Choudhary

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The RAS components are present in the extrarenal tissues including ocular tissue and have an imperative role in the ocular pathophysiology. The clinical studies are needed to show the role of therapeutic modalities targeting RAS in the treatment of different ocular disorders.

  11. Computed Tomography: Ocular Manifestations In Acute Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Methods: We reviewed 98 brain computed tomographic results retrospectively. ... was also performed to compare the difference of the ocular findings and sexes. ... Ocular findings were more in males and the severity of the ocular findings was .... Male. Female. Indications. Acute mild closed head injury. 12(15.0). 1(5.6).

  12. Pattern of Ocular Diseases among Computer users in Enugu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 subjects (1.3%) had monocular blindness with VA<3/60. 37 (3.3%) subjects had low vision with VA < 6/18-3/60. Conclusion: Most of the subjects were young people. Ocular disorders were encountered in computer users. Ocular health status of computer users can be improved through periodic ocular examination and ...

  13. Morbidity among Israeli paediatric travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Shira; Schwartz, Eli

    2017-09-01

    International travel, particularly to developing countries, is becoming increasingly common among the Israeli population, including an increase in the number of travelling children. Since children are a distinct travellers' population, data about their post-travel morbidity are needed. A retrospective study which examined all children (0-19 years old) who presented to our centre after international travel from 1999 to 2015. About 314 children were seen. The mean age was 10 years (SD ± 5.8). Most of the patients (80.6%) were tourists, and the rest were expatriates. The main destinations visited were South-Asia (46.5%), Sub-Saharan Africa (33.4%), Latin-America (7%) and Europe (6.4%). Overall, the most common diagnoses were gastrointestinal (GI) (mainly chronic) disorders (30.6%), followed by febrile diseases (26.4%), among which 18.1% of patients were diagnosed with dengue fever and 12% with malaria. Dermatologic conditions accounted for 25.2%. Additional diagnoses were schistosomiasis (6.4%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (2.2%). A substantial part, 10.8%, had eosinophilia, either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Travellers to Asia, compared to travellers to Africa, presented more commonly with GI illness (OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.61), and dermatologic conditions (OR 1.94, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.61). Morbidity was associated with a variety of transmission modes, such as food-borne illnesses (30.9%), bite and sting wounds (10.2%), mosquito-borne infections (8%), freshwater contact (6.7%) and tick-borne infections (2.2%). The main conditions seen in paediatric returning travellers were GI, febrile and dermatologic illnesses, some may be rare in their country of origin. Targeting care for the suspected pathogens based on updated knowledge of epidemiology and thorough travel history is essential. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Ocular pulsation correlates with ocular tension: the choroid as piston for an aqueous pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C I; Tsukahara, S; Hosaka, O; Adams, W

    1992-01-01

    In 26 random out-patients, including 13 treated glaucoma patients and ocular hypertensives, the higher the ocular tension, the greater the pulse amplitude, by Alcon pneumotonometry, at a statistically significant level. In a single untreated hypertensive, when 2-hourly pneumotonometry was done for 24 h, the correlation was similar and significant. The higher the diastolic blood pressure, the higher the ocular pulsation, also significantly. Pulsation is suggested to be a pump, the choroid being the piston, contributing (1) to an increase in the outflow of aqueous humour and (2) to a homeostatic mechanism contributing to normalization of the intra-ocular pressure, wherein pulsation increases or decreases, as the intraocular pressure increases or decreases, respectively.

  15. Ocular malignant lymphoma. A clinical pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda A

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  16. Candidate genes in ocular dominance plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, M.L.; Sommeijer, J.-P.; Levelt, C.N.; Heimel, J.A.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Pennartz, C.M.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the identification of genes involved in experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. To discover new candidate genes, we have reexamined data from one such study on ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in recombinant inbred BXD mouse strains. We have correlated

  17. Ocular findings in the chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to evaluate the ocular signs in chronic renal failure (CRF in diabetes and hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty eight cases were enrolled in the study from the nephrology unit of College Of Medical Science, Bharatpur, Nepal and examined in the department of Ophthalmology. The study duration was carried out over 2 years from January 2011 to December 2012. RESULT The number of cases in each grade of CRF were mild 80 (26.67%, moderate 84 (28%, severe 75 (25%, end stage renal disease 61 (20.33%. In all the groups the commonest cause of CRF were Hypertension (HTN 123 out of 300(41% and diabetes 98(32.67%. The commonest ocular symptoms in CRF was blurring of vision 68%. CONCLUSION Many important ocular findings like vitreous haemorrage, retinal detachment, neovascular glaucoma and cataract are the presentation in chronic renal failure, which can cause marked vision loss. Hence proper awareness should be provided to the people in time to prevent these ocular complications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12949 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 18-26

  18. Pattern of Ocular Injuries in Owo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oluwole Omolase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the pattern of ocular injuries in patients presenting to the eye clinic and the accident and emergency department of Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and December 2009. Federal Medical Center, Owo is the only tertiary hospital in Ondo State, Nigeria. The eye center located at this medical center was the only eye care facility in the community at the time of this study. All patients were interviewed with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a detailed ocular examination. Results: Of 132 patients included in the study, most (84.1% sustained blunt eye injury while (12.1% had penetrating eye injury. A considerable proportion of patients (37.9% presented within 24 hours of injury. Vegetative materials were the most common (42.4% offending agent, a minority of patients (22% was admitted and none of the patients had used eye protection at the time of injury. Conclusion: In the current series, blunt eye injury was the most common type of ocular trauma. The community should be educated and informed about the importance of preventive measures including protective eye devices during high risk activities. Patients should be encouraged to present early following ocular injury.

  19. Ocular firework injuries at New Year's eve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacu, Stefan; Ségur-Eltz, Nikolaus; Stenng, Karin; Zehetmayer, Martin

    2002-01-01

    To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. During this period (8 years) we identified 116 eyes of 102 patients. 67/102 (66%) of all injuries were caused by class II and III fireworks. Patients ranged between 4 and 83 years. Ocular injuries occurred more frequently in males (69, 68%) and affected the right eye in 53 patients (52.5%). Ocular firework injuries to minors (under the age of 18 years) occurred in 48 (49%). The most common types of injury were skin and corneal erosions and abrasions (32/116, 28%). 11/116 eyes (10%) had severe injuries. 8 of 11 severe injuries (72%) occurred in minors (<18 years). 2 patients (1.7%) developed permanent blindness. In 32/116 patients (28%), the ocular trauma resulted in visual impairment, mainly due to corneal scars or retinal pathologies. In all patients, the severity index was 1.4 +/- 0.8. In minors the severity index was 1.6 +/- 1.0, in adults 1.2 +/- 0.5 (p = 0.013). Injuries in minors were significantly more severe than those in adults. Possible preventive measures include legislation, education of minors and eye protection. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Systematic analysis of ocular trauma by a new proposed ocular trauma classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhartendu Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current classification of ocular trauma does not incorporate adnexal trauma, injuries that are attributable to a nonmechanical cause and destructive globe injuries. This study proposes a new classification system of ocular trauma which is broader-based to allow for the classification of a wider range of ocular injuries not covered by the current classification. Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional study to validate the proposed classification. We analyzed 535 cases of ocular injury from January 1, 2012 to February 28, 2012 over a 4-year period in an eye hospital in central India using our proposed classification system and compared it with conventional classification. Results: The new classification system allowed for classification of all 535 cases of ocular injury. The conventional classification was only able to classify 364 of the 535 trauma cases. Injuries involving the adnexa, nonmechanical injuries and destructive globe injuries could not be classified by the conventional classification, thus missing about 33% of cases. Conclusions: Our classification system shows an improvement over existing ocular trauma classification as it allows for the classification of all type of ocular injuries and will allow for better and specific prognostication. This system has the potential to aid communication between physicians and result in better patient care. It can also provide a more authentic, wide spectrum of ocular injuries in correlation with etiology. By including adnexal injuries and nonmechanical injuries, we have been able to classify all 535 cases of trauma. Otherwise, about 30% of cases would have been excluded from the study.

  1. Hyphema as a Complication of Blunt Ocular Trauma and Additional Ocular Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Giray Ersöz; Seda Adıyeke; Gamze Türe; Ekrem Talay; Hakkı Özgür Konya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency of angle recession, commotio retinae, and other ocular findings in patients with hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 66 patients hospitalized between July 2010 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema were retrospectively reviewed. The age, gender, period between injury and the first examination, visual acuity at presentation, intraocular pressure (IOP), time of disappearance of hyphem...

  2. Laparoscopic surgery for morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallerbäck, B; Glise, H; Johansson, B; Johnson, E

    1998-01-01

    Morbid obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI), i.e. weight (kg)/height (m2) over 36 for males and 38 for females, is a common condition and a threat for health, life and individual well being. Hitherto, surgery is the only effective treatment for weight reduction. Surgical methods can be malabsorptive, reducing the patients ability to absorb nutrients, or restrictive, reducing the capacity of food intake. Exclusively malabsorptive methods have been abandoned due to severe side effects. Restrictive methods, gastroplasties, reduces the compliance capacity of the stomach. Two types are performed laparoscopically, the vertical banded gastroplasty and the adjustable gastric banding. The proximal gastric by pass is also performed laparoscopically and is a combination of a restrictive proximal gastroplasty and a malabsorptive Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunal anastomosis. With laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding mean BMI was reduced from 41 kg/m2 to 33 kg/m2 (n = 43) after one year. Two years after surgery mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (n = 16). The different operative techniques are further discussed in this paper.

  3. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

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    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  4. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  5. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  6. Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Warninghoff, Jan C; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta; Straube, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear whether the different vertigo syndromes (e.g. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD), vestibular migraine and phobic vertigo (PPV)) have also different spectrums of co-morbidities. Methods All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co-morbidities hypertension, diabetes ...

  7. Multi-Morbidity in Hospitalised Older Patients: Who Are the Complex Elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milagros; Bottle, Alex; Long, Susannah; Aylin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    No formal definition for the "complex elderly" exists; moreover, these older patients with high levels of multi-morbidity are not readily identified as such at point of hospitalisation, thus missing a valuable opportunity to manage the older patient appropriately within the hospital setting. To empirically identify the complex elderly patient based on degree of multi-morbidity. Retrospective observational study using administrative data. English hospitals during the financial year 2012-13. All admitted patients aged 65 years and over. By using exploratory analysis (correspondence analysis) we identify multi-morbidity groups based on 20 target conditions whose hospital prevalence was ≥ 1%. We examined a total of 2788900 hospital admissions. Multi-morbidity was highly prevalent, 62.8% had 2 or more of the targeted conditions while 4.7% had six or more. Multi-morbidity increased with age from 56% (65-69yr age-groups) up to 67% (80-84yr age-group). The average multi-morbidity was 3.2±1.2 (SD). Correspondence analysis revealed 3 distinct groups of older patients. Group 1 (multi-morbidity ≤2), associated with cancer and/or metastasis; Group 2 (multi-morbidity of 3, 4 or 5), associated with chronic pulmonary disease, lung disease, rheumatism and osteoporosis; finally Group 3 with the highest level of multi-morbidity (≥6) and associated with heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, diabetes, hypertension and myocardial infarction. By using widely available hospital administrative data, we propose patients in Groups 2 and 3 to be identified as the complex elderly. Identification of multi-morbidity patterns can help to predict the needs of the older patient and improve resource provision.

  8. Multi-Morbidity in Hospitalised Older Patients: Who Are the Complex Elderly?

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    Milagros Ruiz

    Full Text Available No formal definition for the "complex elderly" exists; moreover, these older patients with high levels of multi-morbidity are not readily identified as such at point of hospitalisation, thus missing a valuable opportunity to manage the older patient appropriately within the hospital setting.To empirically identify the complex elderly patient based on degree of multi-morbidity.Retrospective observational study using administrative data.English hospitals during the financial year 2012-13.All admitted patients aged 65 years and over.By using exploratory analysis (correspondence analysis we identify multi-morbidity groups based on 20 target conditions whose hospital prevalence was ≥ 1%.We examined a total of 2788900 hospital admissions. Multi-morbidity was highly prevalent, 62.8% had 2 or more of the targeted conditions while 4.7% had six or more. Multi-morbidity increased with age from 56% (65-69yr age-groups up to 67% (80-84yr age-group. The average multi-morbidity was 3.2±1.2 (SD. Correspondence analysis revealed 3 distinct groups of older patients. Group 1 (multi-morbidity ≤2, associated with cancer and/or metastasis; Group 2 (multi-morbidity of 3, 4 or 5, associated with chronic pulmonary disease, lung disease, rheumatism and osteoporosis; finally Group 3 with the highest level of multi-morbidity (≥6 and associated with heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, diabetes, hypertension and myocardial infarction.By using widely available hospital administrative data, we propose patients in Groups 2 and 3 to be identified as the complex elderly. Identification of multi-morbidity patterns can help to predict the needs of the older patient and improve resource provision.

  9. Epidemiological aspects of ocular superglue injuries

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    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent to undergo thorough eye examination. RESULTS: Over the course of three months, 105 patients with ocular superglue injuries enrolled in the study, including 56(53.3% men and 49(46.7% women with the mean age of 24.7±11.6 (range, 2 to 53y. The right eye, left eye and both eyes were involved in 52%, 42% and 6% of the patients, respectively. Most of injuries had occurred at home (72.4% and at night (55%. More than half of patients (52.4% did not take any primary aids following the ocular injury. Patient carelessness (78.1%, childhood curiosity and lack of parental supervision (11.4%, storing superglue in inappropriate places and inadvertently using superglue as eye drops due to poor vision (2.9%, inadequate awareness of superglue applications [used to stick on artificial nails (3.8%, artificial eyelashes (1.9% and broken tooth (1%] and being assaulted with glue (1% were common risk factors. CONCLUSION: The frequency of ocular superglue injuries in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively high. This finding underlines the importance of public education and awareness about superglue injuries to the eye and taking protective measures and safety strategies in order to prevent these injures.

  10. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

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    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  11. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

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    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  12. Morbidity and GH deficiency: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, K.; Laursen, T.; Green, A.

    2008-01-01

    identified in the National Patient Registry. Lag time until first admission was used as a measure of morbidity. Patients were divided into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cut-off of 18 years at onset of GHD. Method: Sex- and cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) in CO and AO......Objective: To estimate morbidity in Denmark in all patients with GH deficiency (GHD). Design: Morbidity was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in the GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Diagnoses and dates of admissions were...

  13. [Ocular and visual alterations in computer workers contact lens wearers: scoping review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauste Francés, Ana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Seguí Crespo, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    The high number of computer workers wearing contact lenses raises the question whether the sum of these two risk factors for eye health may cause a worsening of Computer Vision Syndrome. The aim of this review is to synthesize the knowledge about ocular and visual alterations related with computer use in contact lens wearers. International review of scientific papers (2003-2013) in Spanish and English, using Scoping Review method, in Medline through PubMed and in Scopus. The initial search provided 114 references, after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria six of them were included. All of them reveal that symptoms when using computer are more prevalent in contact lens wearers, with values of symptoms presentation prevalence ranging from 95.0% to 16.9% in wearers and from 57.5% to 9.9% in non-wearers, and four times more likely to develop dry eye [OR: 4.07 (95% CI: 3.52 to 4.71)]. Computer workers suffer more ocular and visual disturbances if they also are contact lens users, but studies are few and non conclusive. Likewise, further research regarding contact lens type and their conditions of use, both in symptoms and tear quality and ocular surface are needed. Silicone hydrogel lenses are associated with more comfort.

  14. [Prevalence of neurological disorders among children with Down syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Beatriz; Mellado, Cecilia; Hernández, Marta

    2012-02-01

    Neurological disturbances are common problems in children with Down Syndrome (DS). To determine the prevalence of neurological disorders affecting children with Down Syndrome. Review of medical records of 253 children aged from 1 day to 23 years affected with DS, attended at a public hospital and a University clinic. The overall prevalence of neurological disorders was 38.7%. The most common problems were ocular motor disorders in 26% of cases and epilepsy in 12%. Neurological disorders are more common in children with DS than in the general population. Motor ocular disorders and epilepsy are the predominant disturbances detected.

  15. Ocular hemodynamics and glaucoma: the role of mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alon; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Arciero, Julia C; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie A; Siesky, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the role of mathematical modeling in studying ocular hemodynamics, with a focus on glaucoma. We reviewed recent literature on glaucoma, ocular blood flow, autoregulation, the optic nerve head, and the use of mathematical modeling in ocular circulation. Many studies suggest that alterations in ocular hemodynamics play a significant role in the development, progression, and incidence of glaucoma. Although there is currently a limited number of studies involving mathematical modeling of ocular blood flow, regulation, and diseases (such as glaucoma), preliminary modeling work shows the potential of mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute most significantly to glaucoma progression. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool when used synergistically with clinical and laboratory data in the study of ocular blood flow and glaucoma. The development of models to investigate the relationship between ocular hemodynamic alterations and glaucoma progression will provide a unique and useful method for studying the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

  16. New morbidity of the young

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    Stanković Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present phase of epidemiological transition, the most frequent causes of youth morbidity are disorders in reproductive health, mental disorders and injuries which are not life threatening. This, so-called new youth morbidity, is most often caused by their risky behavior, which in the field of sexuality often leads to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as sexually transmitted infections. Misuse of tobacco, alcohol and narcotics, which is most commonly started in adolescence, has an unfavorable short-term and long-term influence on the psycho-physical health of the young. All research, in the world and in our country, indicate gradual yet constant growth of sexual activity of the youth and the age decrease of its starting point, especially when girls are in question. Due to insufficient maturity and inadequate knowledge and consciousness on the necessity of protecting reproductive health, sexual behavior of young people can often be characterized as insufficiently responsible and not supplemented with the usage of adequate protective measures. The result is frequently abortion, which terminates 90% of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies in this age. This creates health and psychosocial risks, as well as giving birth in adolescence which is contrary to the modern health concepts that giving birth should not be performed too early, while the young are still developing. A significant increase in the frequency of sexually transmitted diseases is also present, to which the youth are especially susceptible due to the specific development period in which they are in. A serious medical and sociopathological problem of contemporary society represents the greater and greater misuse of psychoactive substances among the young people, with a tendency of decreasing the average age they are consumed for the first time, as well as the use of drugs and alcohol. With the increase of the anti-smoking campaign and restrictive measures in highly

  17. Ocular consequences of blunt trauma in two species of nocturnal raptors (Athene noctua and Otus scops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruca, Cristina; Molina-López, Rafael; Peña, Teresa; Leiva, Marta

    2012-07-01

      To determine the type, prevalence, and prognosis of ocular and periocular lesions in free-living little owls (LO) and scops owls (SO), injured by blunt trauma.   Medical records from LO and SO with ocular or periocular lesions secondary to blunt trauma were reviewed. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in all birds. Short protocol electroretinography (ERG) and ocular ultrasound were performed as dictated by the case.   During the study period, a total of 158 LO and 99 SO with blunt trauma were admitted. Among these, 43 LO (27.8%) and 27 SO (27.3%) had ocular or periocular lesions. Bilateral injuries (72.1% LO and 81.5% SO) were more common than unilateral. Common findings in both species were: corneal erosions/superficial ulcers, anterior and posterior uveitis, cataracts, hyphema, posterior synechia, vitreal hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. Electroretinography was performed in 32 LO and eight SO, which had posterior segment lesions or opacity of the transparent media. Normal to nonrecordable b-wave amplitudes were observed. Follow-up was available in 13 LO and 11 SO. Among these, nine LO (14 eyes) and 10 SO (17 eyes) had resolution of the clinical signs following medical treatment.   Ocular lesions are common in LO and SO injured by blunt trauma. Electroretinography is a valuable diagnostic tool to assess the severity of retinal dysfunction secondary to blunt trauma and to determine the response to medical treatment. A complete ophthalmic examination is a determining factor in the early management of trauma in these species. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Alergia ocular: un reto diagnóstico Ocular allergy: a diagnostic challenge

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    Ricardo Cardona Villa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo es uno de los órganos más sensibles y está permanentemente expuesto a diversos agentes ambientales. Dado que la conjuntiva es un tejido inmunológicamente activo, no es sorprendente que sea un sitio común de respuestas alérgicas. Las alergias oculares son un grupo de enfermedades que afectan la superficie conjuntival y están asociadas usualmente a reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo 1. Pueden ser divididas en varias categorías: conjuntivitis alérgica estacional, conjuntivitis alérgica perenne, queratoconjuntivitis vernal y queratoconjuntivitis atópica. La inflamación de la superficie ocular produce prurito, lagrimeo, edema conjuntival y fotofobia. Como en otras enfermedades alérgicas, se puede desarrollar una condición crónica, acompañada de remodelación de los tejidos oculares. Las estrategias para el tratamiento de la alergia ocular han aumentado exponencialmente y los clínicos disponen de un inventario cada vez mayor de agentes dirigidos a la protección del ojo contra la inflamación. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión sobre las principales formas de alergia ocular, haciendo énfasis en el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y las nuevas opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. The eye, one of the most sensitive organs, is permanently exposed to different environmental agents. Since the conjunctiva is an immunologically active tissue, it is not surprising for it to be a common site for allergic responses. Ocular allergies constitute a group of diseases affecting the conjunctival surface; they are usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. This disorder can be divided into several categories: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocular surface inflammation results in itching, tearing, conjunctival edema, and photophobia. As is the case with other allergic diseases, a chronic situation can also

  19. Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Morbidly Obese Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Meredith C; Farrell, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has mirrored the increase in obesity, and GERD is now recognized as an obesity-related comorbidity. There is growing evidence that obesity, specifically central obesity, is associated with the complications of chronic reflux, including erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. While fundoplication is effective in creating a competent gastroesophageal junction and controlling reflux in most patients, it is less effective in morbidly obese patients. In these patients a bariatric operation has the ability to correct both the obesity and the abnormal reflux. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred procedure.

  20. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

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    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  1. Ocular disorders in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, A Taylan; Berk, A Tulin; Yaman, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    To document common ocular abnormalities in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) and to find out whether any correlation exists between their occurance and etiologic factors. Totally 194 patients with the diagnosis of spastic type CP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed. Demographic data and neuroradiological findings were documented. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Pearson Chi-square tests and Student's t tests were used in the statistical analysis. The mean age was 64.7±44.2 months on the first ophthalmic examination. Prevalences of diplegia (47.4%) and tetraplegia (36.1%) were found to be higher than the frequency of hemiplegia (16.5%) in our study population. Etiologic factor was asphyxia in 60.8% of the patients. Abnormal ocular findings were present in 78.9% of the patients. Statistically significant poor vision was detected in tetraplegia group among all the spastic ubtypes of CP (P=0.000). Anisometropia and significant refractive error were found in 14.4% and 70.1% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six children (18.6%) had nystagmus and 107 children (55.2%) had strabismus. Lower gestational age and birth weight were statistically higher in patients with esotropia than exotropia (P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively). Abnormal morphology of the optic disc was present in 152 eyes (39.2%). Severe periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) was found in 48 patients and statistically significant poor vision was detected in the presence of PVL (P=0.000). Spastic diplegic or tetraplegic CP patients with positive neuroradiological symptoms, younger gestational age and lower birth weight ought to have detailed ophthalmic examinations as early as possible to provide best visual rehabilitation.

  2. Ocular disorders in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yaman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To document common ocular abnormalities in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy (CP and to find out whether any correlation exists between their occurance and etiologic factors. METHODS: Totally 194 patients with the diagnosis of spastic type CP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed. Demographic data and neuroradiological findings were documented. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Pearson Chi-square tests and Student’s t tests were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 64.7±44.2 months on the first ophthalmic examination. Prevalences of diplegia (47.4% and tetraplegia (36.1% were found to be higher than the frequency of hemiplegia (16.5% in our study population. Etiologic factor was asphyxia in 60.8% of the patients. Abnormal ocular findings were present in 78.9% of the patients. Statistically significant poor vision was detected in tetraplegia group among all the spastic ubtypes of CP (P=0.000. Anisometropia and significant refractive error were found in 14.4% and 70.1% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six children (18.6% had nystagmus and 107 children (55.2% had strabismus. Lower gestational age and birth weight were statistically higher in patients with esotropia than exotropia (P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively. Abnormal morphology of the optic disc was present in 152 eyes (39.2%. Severe periventricular leukomalacia (PVL was found in 48 patients and statistically significant poor vision was detected in the presence of PVL (P=0.000. CONCLUSION: Spastic diplegic or tetraplegic CP patients with positive neuroradiological symptoms, younger gestational age and lower birth weight ought to have detailed ophthalmic examinations as early as possible to provide best visual rehabilitation.

  3. Epidemiological investigation of ocular injuries related to military training and operations in Chinese army

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    Jian-he XIAO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the epidemiological characters of ocular injuries related to military training and operations in Chinese army.Methods The data of servicemen with ocular injuries,hospitalized in 11 military evacuation hospitals from 2005-01-01 to 2009-12-31,were entered into a registration table.The data included the time and place when the injury happened,type and cause of injury,examination records,treatment,rehabilitation level,etc.All data were input into the database for statistical analysis.Results Of all the cases of ocular injuries,189(45.5% were related to military training and operations.The mean age of the 189 cases was 23.4±5.4 years,all of them were men,and soldiers accounted for 91.0% and officers accounted for 9.0%.The incidence declined in 2006 compared with that in 2005,and then rose gradually thereafter year by year.Eight patients(4.2% were complicated with bodily injuries,and 4.2% of patients had the history of eye surgery or eye disease before the ocular injury.Of the 189 cases,in 172(91.0% one eye was injured while in 17(9.0% both eyes were injured.After injury,in 35.0% of patients sight restoration to grade 1,in 20.6% to grade 2,in 13.6% to grade 3,in 25.7% to grade 4,and in 4.4% to grade 5.In 87.3% of patients injuries were due to mechanical forces and in 12.7% ocular injuries were not mechanical.Most patients with eye injury occurring in military training and operations were sent to evacuation hospital and treated timely,and good results were obtained.Conclusions Military training and operations related ocular injury is a prevalent ocular injury occurring in Chinese armed forces,and should be paid more attention in prevention.One important measure is to improve the prevention awareness of Chinese servicemen,and a detailed prevention measures should be further studied.

  4. Expanding the scope beyond mortality: burden and missed opportunities in maternal morbidity in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, Vitri; Khotijah; Balgis

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia still faces challenges in maternal health. Specifically, the lack of information on community-level maternal morbidity. The relatively high maternal healthcare non-utilization in Indonesia intensifies this problem. To describe the burden of community-level maternal morbidity in Indonesia. Additionally, to evaluate the extent and determinants of missed opportunities in women with maternal morbidity. We used three cross-sectional surveys (Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey, IDHS 2002, 2007 and 2012). Crude and adjusted proportions of maternal morbidity burden were estimated from 43,782 women. We analyzed missed opportunities in women who experienced maternal morbidity during their last birth (n = 19,556). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to evaluate the determinants of non-utilization in IDHS 2012 (n = 6762). There were significant increases in the crude and adjusted proportion of maternal morbidity from IDHS 2002 to IDHS 2012 (p Indonesia. The prevalence of maternal morbidity in Indonesia is relatively high, especially during labor. This condition is amplified by the concerning missed opportunities in maternal healthcare. Efforts are needed to identify risk factors for maternal morbidity, as well as increasing healthcare coverage for the vulnerable population.

  5. A study of psychiatric morbidity in patients of peptic ulcer diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Singh Klair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients of peptic ulcer disease and to study the patients of peptic ulcer disease with psychiatric morbidity in comparison to patients of peptic ulcer disease without psychiatric morbidity on following variables: sociodemographic variables and attributes/risk factors of peptic ulcer disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of clinically proven acid peptic diseases and 30 cases of the control group were screened in department of General Medicine, outdoor as well as indoor patients. Instruments applied for the purpose of the study were Personal Bio-data Performa (Appendix-I, (SCL- 80 (Appendix-II, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety and depression, (P.S.L.E.; clinical diagnosis of psychiatric disorders was made as per ICD- 10 criteria. Data collected shall be subjected to statistical analysis. Results and Findings: The psychiatric morbidity was significantly (P10 years, compared to 23.80% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Lastly, 48.27% of patients with psychiatric morbidity had significantly (P<0.01 stronger family history of acid peptic disease compared to 9.52% in patients without psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the peptic ulcer disease and the various psychiatric morbidity factors as illustrated from the findings of this study.

  6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and severe maternal morbidity: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Carina R; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Parpinelli, Mary A; Silveira, Carla; Andreucci, Carla B; Ferreira, Elton C; Santos, Juliana P; Zanardi, Dulce M; Souza, Renato T; Cecatti, Jose G

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among women experiencing a severe maternal morbidity event and associated factors in comparison with those without maternal morbidity. In a retrospective cohort study, 803 women with or without severe maternal morbidity were evaluated at 6 months to 5 years postpartum for the presence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Interviews were conducted by telephone and electronic data was stored. Data analysis was carried out by using χ2, Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression analysis. There was no significant change in the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder related to a previous severe maternal morbidity experience. There were also no differences in diagnostic criteria for severe maternal morbidity (hypertensive syndromes, hemorrhage, surgical intervention or intensive care unit admission required, among other management criteria). Low parity (2.5-fold risk) and increasing age were factors associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A severe maternal morbidity episode is not associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms within five years of the severe maternal morbidity event and birth. However, a more advanced maternal age and primiparity increased the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This does not imply that women who had experienced a severe maternal morbidity event did not suffer or need differentiated care.

  7. Co-morbidity in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, P; Srinath, S; Girimaji, S; Seshadri, S; Sagar, J V

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities. The tools used included the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS), Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Vineland Social Maturity Scale, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. All except 1 subject had neurodevelopmental and / or psychiatric disorder co-morbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 66.7% had both neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Specific learning disability was the most common co-existing neurodevelopmental disorder and oppositional defiant disorder was the most common psychiatric co-morbidity. The mean baseline ADHD-RS scores were significantly higher in the group with psychiatric co-morbidities, especially in the group with oppositional defiant disorder. Co-morbidity is present at a very high frequency in clinic-referred children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric co-morbidity, specifically oppositional defiant disorder, has an impact on the severity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Co-morbidity needs to be explicitly looked for during evaluation and managed appropriately.

  8. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menopause represents the end of women reproductive career and it is at this time they begin to manifest morbidities such as urinary incontinence. Aim: To document proximate determinants of sexual activity and urological morbidities of menopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a community survey ...

  9. Intubation of the morbidly obese patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydemann, Mogens; Rovsing, Marie Louise; Lindekaer, A L

    2012-01-01

    Several potential problems can arise from airway management in morbidly obese patients, including difficult mask ventilation and difficult intubation. We hypothesised that endotracheal intubation of morbidly obese patients would be more rapid using the GlideScope(®) (GS) (Verathon Inc Corporate H...... Headquarters, Bothell, WA, USA) than with the Fastrach™ (FT) (The Laryngeal Mask Company Ltd, Le Rocher, Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles)....

  10. Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult...... life as obese....

  11. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  12. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadani, Fabio N; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Miranda, Rafaela Morais; Cunha, Patricia Lt; M Kanadani, Tereza Cristina; Dorairaj, Syril

    2015-01-01

    Glaucomatous neuropathy can be a consequence of insufficient blood supply, increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), or other risk factors that diminish the ocular blood flow. To determine the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in normal and systemic hypertensive patients. One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study and underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including slit lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, stereoscopic fundus examination, and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) measurements. The OPP was calculated as being the medium systemic arterial pressure (MAP) less the IOP. Only right eye values were considered for calculations using Student's t-test. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 years (36-78), and 68.5% were women. There was a statistically significant difference in the OPP of the normal and systemic hypertensive patients (p cite this article: Kanadani FN, Figueiredo CR, Miranda RM, Cunha PLT, Kanadani TCM, Dorairaj S. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):16-19.

  13. Psychological Co-morbidity in Children with Specific Learning Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Manoj K; Biswas, Haritha; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Children under 19 years of age constitute over 40% of India's population and information about their mental health needs is a national imperative. Children with specific learning disorders (SLDs) exhibit academic difficulties disproportionate to their intellectual capacities. Prevalence of SLD ranges from 2% to 10%. Dyslexia (developmental reading disorder) is the most common type, affecting 80% of all SLD. About 30% of learning disabled children have behavioral and emotional problems, which range from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (most common) to depression, anxiety, suicide etc., to substance abuse (least common). Co-occurrence of such problems with SLD further adds to the academic difficulty. In such instances, diagnosis is difficult and tricky; improvement in academics demands comprehensive holistic treatment approach. SLD remains a large public health problem because of under-recognition, inadequate treatment and therefore merits greater effort to understand the co-morbidities, especially in the Indian population. As the literature is scarce regarding co-morbid conditions in learning disability in Indian scenario, the present study has tried to focus on Indian population. The educational concessions (recent most) given to such children by Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi are referred to. The issues to be addressed by the family physicians are: Low level of awareness among families and teachers, improper dissemination of accurate information about psychological problems, available help seeking avenues, need to develop service delivery models in rural and urban areas and focus on the integration of mental health and primary care keeping such co-morbidity in mind.

  14. Outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis in Coimbatore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Manikandan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world′s population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food that is contaminated with oocysts. We report an outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis, which is an acute acquired type rather than reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our preliminary investigation points to municipal water contamination. This outbreak only proves the need of an effective public health system and health education in curtailing any outbreak.

  15. Ocular manifestations of injection drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rubin W; Juzych, Mark S; Eliott, Dean

    2002-09-01

    Injection drug use can result in a variety of severe ocular conditions. Hematogenous dissemination of various fungi and bacteria may produce endophthalmitis with resultant severe visual loss. Retinal arterial occlusive disease may result from talc and other particulate emboli. Most commonly, life-threatening systemic diseases such as endocarditis and HIV infection secondarily affect the eye. Because many of these conditions may result in blindness if untreated, accurate diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential.

  16. Preparation and ocular pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yan; Tu, Jiasheng

    2007-01-01

    Ophthalmic liposomes of ganciclovir (GCV) were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, and their ocular pharmacokinetics in albino rabbits were compared with those obtained after dosing with GCV solution. The in vitro transcorneal permeability of GCV liposomes was found to be 3.9-fold higher than that of the solution. After in vivo instillation in albino rabbits, no difference was found in the precorneal elimination rate of GCV from liposome vs solution dosing. The aqueous humor con...

  17. [Larva migrans syndrome or ocular toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, D R; Maffrand, R A; De Lisa, I S; Pizzi, H L; Plaza Ontiveros, R G

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen cases of ocular toxocariasis attended in the Oftalmology Service of the Pediatric Hospital "Niño Jesús", from Córdoba; and in the Parasitology and Micology Cathedra of the Medicine Collegue of the University of Córdoba were studied from July 1993 till July 1995. The authors determine the needs of taking into account this parasitosis; above all in children and with the antecedent of contact with pets.

  18. Gender specific issues in hereditary ocular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragavarapu, Saradha; Gorin, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current knowledge from basic science and clinical medical literature cited within PubMed that pertain to gender-related factors and affect those individuals with hereditary ocular disorders. We consider gender-related biological factors that (a) affect disease onset and progression, (b) gender differences for major X-linked ocular disorders, (c) gender-specific conditions, (d) medications that may influence genetic eye disorders, and finally, (e) gender-related issues that influence the management and quality of life of these patients. Several studies have demonstrated the manner in which sex-related hormones in animal models are capable of influencing cell pathway and survival that are likely to affect hereditary eye disorders. There are very few clinical studies that provide compelling evidence for gender differences in human ocular conditions, other than for a number of X-linked disorders. Disease expression for X-linked disorders may be impacted by genetic mechanisms such as lyonization or uniparental disomy. Clinical evidence regarding the impact of gender-related medical conditions and therapies on eye conditions is extremely limited and primarily based on anecdotal evidence. Gender-specific factors may play a major role in the underlying biological pathways that influence the onset, rate of progression, and clinical findings associated with ocular genetic conditions. Clinicians need to be aware of the variable phenotypes observed in female carriers of X-linked disorders of gender specific issues, many of which are inadequately addressed in the current literature. Clinicians need to be sensitive to gender differences in social, cultural, and religious systems and they should also be aware of how their own gender biases may influence how they counsel patients. Finally, it is clear that the lack of effective clinical studies in this area creates an opportunity for future research that will have real benefits for these

  19. Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gasparin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

  20. Miastenia grave y miastenia grave ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Naranjo Fernández

    Full Text Available La miastenia grave es una enfermedad caracterizada por debilidad y fatiga de los músculos voluntarios debido a una trasmisión anómala a nivel de la unión neuromuscular. La prevalencia es aproximadamente de 5 casos/100 000 personas. La miastenia grave puede ser bulbar, ocular o generalizada.Existen formas clínicas en la infancia como son la miastenia neonatal transitoria, la miastenia congénita y la miastenia juvenil. Los músculos oculares, faciales y bulbares son los más frecuentes afectados por la enfermedad. Cuando los síntomas se limitan a la musculatura cercana al ojo se denomina miastenia grave ocular. Una vez el oftalmólogo diagnostica o sospecha la miastenia grave, un neurólogo generalmente dirige la comprobación y tratamiento. El papel del oftalmólogo continúa siendo importante, además de chequear la motilidad y disfunción palpebral y proporcionar el alivio sintomático para estos desórdenes, debe estar alerta a la posibilidad de ambliopía.

  1. Choroidal osteoma secondary to ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rua Martinez, Raul; Perez Garcia, Diley; Alemanny Rubio, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult females. It presents unknown etiology, but it is associated to different factors as inflammatory processes, congenital malformations, hormonal alterations and ocular traumas among others. The patient was a 54 year-old woman with a personal history of rheumatic fibromyalgia (osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis) and hypertension. Her ophthalmological antecedent showed myopia and arteriolosclerotic retinopathy. At the beginning of the year, she suffered a traffic accident and was injured in her limbs and periocular region. After this, she began feeling blurred vision of the right eye and she went to our service 6 months later. She was performed an ophthalmologic exam. It was found that the right eye had visual acuity of 0.4, and after correction it reached 1.0. Funduscopy revealed vascular thinness, incomplete posterior vitreous detachment, and a white-orange lesion of 3 papillary diameters that involved inferior temporary arcade with well-defined borders. An angiography was performed, which showed sustained hyperfluorescence and non neovascularization; and the optic coherence tomography revealed a halo of serous retinal detachment. Additionally, the ocular ultrasound yielded a high reflectivity echogenic image that involves choroids with posterior acoustic shadow. It is for this reason that we affirm the traumatic etiology of the lesion. This is a rare pathology that should be diagnosed by imaging techniques. Notably, it is secondary to an ocular trauma

  2. Preparation and ocular pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Tu, Jiasheng

    2007-12-07

    Ophthalmic liposomes of ganciclovir (GCV) were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, and their ocular pharmacokinetics in albino rabbits were compared with those obtained after dosing with GCV solution. The in vitro transcorneal permeability of GCV liposomes was found to be 3.9-fold higher than that of the solution. After in vivo instillation in albino rabbits, no difference was found in the precorneal elimination rate of GCV from liposome vs solution dosing. The aqueous humor concentration-time profiles of both liposomes and solution were well described by 2-compartmental pharmacokinetics with first-order absorption. The area under the curve of the aqueous humor concentration-time profiles of GCV liposomes was found to be 1.7-fold higher than that of GCV solution. Ocular tissue distribution of GCV from liposomes was 2 to 10 times higher in the sclera, cornea, iris, lens, and vitreous humor when compared with those observed after solution dosing. These results suggested that liposomes may hold some promise in ocular GCV delivery.

  3. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula mimicking ocular myasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Satti, Sudhakar Reddy

    2017-10-19

    71-year-old woman with progressive left-sided, monocular diplopia and ptosis. Her symptoms mimicked ocular myasthenia, but she had an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). She was diagnosed with monocular myasthenia gravis (negative acetylcholinesterase antibody) after a positive ice test and started on Mestinon and underwent a thymectomy complicated by a brachial plexus injury. Months later, she developed left-sided proptosis and ocular bruit. She was urgently referred to neuro-interventional surgery and was diagnosed with an indirect high-flow left CCF, which was treated with Onyx liquid and platinum coil embolisation. Mestinon was discontinued. Her ophthalmic symptoms resolved. However, she was left with a residual left arm and hand hemiparesis and dysmetria secondary to a brachial plexus injury. Indirect CCF usually can present with subtle and progressive symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. It is important for ophthalmologists to consider this differential in a patient with progressive ocular symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. PAEDIATRIC OCULAR TRAUMA IN KUCHING, SARAWAK, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INTAN G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demography, aetiology, type and outcome of paediatric ocular trauma in tertiary centre in Malaysia. Method: We retrospectively studied 118 eyes from 117 patients over a period of 36 months (January 2006 to December 2008. All ocular injuries in patients aged 12 and below seen in the Ophthalmology Department for the first time were included in thisstudy. Results: Mean age of patients was 6.1±3.0 years. 68 cases (58.2% occurred in pre-school children, whereas 49 (41.9% in school-aged children. Boys accounted for 65.8% of cases. There was no predilection for either right or the left eye. 47% of cases (56 patients occurred in Malay. Most of the injuries took place at home when the children were alone (p<0.05. Sharp objects were the commonest cause (45 cases, 38.1%. The majority of cases (103, 87.3% were considered preventable. The frequency of open and closed globe injury was similar. Hyphema was more common in closed globe injury compared to open globe injury (p<0.05. Other associated injuries such as cataract, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal hemorrhage are similar between the two groups. Visual outcome is generally poor with only 34 eyes (28.8% had no visual impairment. Conclusion: Ocular trauma in children is an important cause of visual loss. Most cases occurred at home and were preventable. Prevention through education is the best approach.

  5. Oculomotricidade e seus fundamentos Ocular motility: foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Partindo-se de um circuito esquemático relacionando os sistemas sensorial (visual binocular e oculomotor, cujos defeitos em vias aferentes ou eferentes, ou de suas interações, explicam o aparecimento dos estrabismos e suas conseqüências, são examinados os fundamentos e referenciais da movimentação ocular. Apresentam-se os conceitos de eixos e planos, centro de massa e de rotação, definem-se os movimentos monoculares de translação e de rotação e os binoculares de versões e vergências. É também referida a função dos centros de comando para movimentos voluntários e reflexos, a dos núcleos oculomotores e a respectiva inervação aos músculos oculares externos. Numa segunda parte (fisiologia da musculatura ocular extrínseca são comentadas as atividades de contração e relaxamento e a importância da lei de Sherrington. Voltando-se ao conceito de posição primária do olhar e dos referenciais das rotações, menciona-se a diversidade de vários sistemas de medidas. Em seguida, são analisadas as ações musculares rotacionais com bases no plano de ação muscular e na distribuição anatômica dos músculos, levando a resultados em posição primária do olhar e nas outras. Os efeitos de fáscias e membranas intermusculares são também comentados, terminando-se com a concepção moderna sobre as ações musculares (ação simultânea de todos os músculos em quaisquer das posições oculares. Com os condicionantes da lei de Hering, desenvolve-se o conceito de posições diagnósticas (das disfunções oculomotoras, diferentemente do clássico: os músculos são considerados em pares, de acordo às suas ações predominantes ___ horizontais (retos horizontais, verticais (retos verticais ou torcionais (oblíquos. Em cada qual devem ser comparadas as ações em condições diametralmente opostas de fixação ocular e posições do olhar (por exemplo, supradextroversão na fixação com o olho direito e infralevoversão na fixa

  6. Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Vitamin D in ocular and systemic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solani D. Mathebula

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.

  8. Maternal morbid obesity and obstetric outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to review pregnancy outcomes in morbidly obese women who delivered a baby weighing 500 g or more in a large tertiary referral university hospital in Europe. METHODS: Morbid obesity was defined as a BMI > or =40.0 kg\\/m2 (WHO). Only women whose BMI was calculated at their first antenatal visit were included. The obstetric out-comes were obtained from the hospital\\'s computerised database. RESULTS: The incidence of morbid obesity was 0.6% in 5,824 women. Morbidly obese women were older and were more likely to be multigravidas than women with a normal BMI. The pregnancy was complicated by hypertension in 35.8% and diabetes mellitus in 20.0% of women. Obstetric interventions were high, with an induction rate of 42.1% and a caesarean section rate of 45.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that maternal morbid obesity is associated with an alarmingly high incidence of medical complications and an increased level of obstetric interventions. Consideration should be given to developing specialised antenatal services for morbidly obese women. The results also highlight the need to evaluate the effectiveness of prepregnancy interventions in morbidly obese women.

  9. Importância da ultra-sonografia ocular na avaliação pré-operatória de pacientes com catarata total The importance of ocular ultrasonography in the preoperative evaluation of patients with mature cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Pedroso de Carvalho Lupinacci

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com os avanços da cirurgia para catarata, o prognóstico da recuperação da visão aumentou drasticamente, tornando-se necessário prever resultados indesejados para a acuidade visual no pós-operatório. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a importância da ultra-sonografia ocular na avaliação pré-operatória do segmento posterior em pacientes com catarata madura, e relacionar possíveis doenças que possam comprometer os resultados cirúrgicos, sua prevalência e seus principais fatores de risco. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo do prontuário de 262 pacientes em que houve a necessidade de ultra-sonografia ocular devido à presença de catarata madura, impedindo assim a avaliação fundoscópica do segmento posterior. Também foi avaliada a relação entre a presença dessas alterações e o sexo, idade, raça, história de trauma ocular, doenças sistêmicas e oculares e presença de catarata no olho contralateral. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se alterações ecográficas em 24,8% dos exames realizados entre 1996 e 2001, dos quais o descolamento de retina (9,9% e as condensações vítreas (9,9% foram as mais comuns. CONCLUSÕES: Dentre os fatores de risco levantados como predisponentes para achados de ultra-sonografia ocular, a uveíte foi o único elemento estatisticamente significante. Não foi possível, pelos dados obtidos, correlacionar positivamente o trauma ocu-lar às patologias de segmento posterior descritas.With the new techniques of cataract surgery visual success has increased and it became necessary to foresee undesirable postoperative results regarding visual acuity. PURPOSE: To verify the role of ocular ultrasonography in the preoperative evaluation of patients with mature cataract searching for pos terior segment pathologies that may affect surgical results, their prevalence and the main associated risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed analyzing records of 262 patients indicated for ocular ultrasonography

  10. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.

  11. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; M, Vimalin Jeyalatha; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2017-06-29

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment.

  12. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Jeyalatha M, Vimalin; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment. PMID:28661456

  13. Anterior segment and external ocular disorders associated with HIV infections in the era of HAART in Chiang Mai University Hospital, a prospective descriptive cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singalavanija, Tassapol; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Tangmonkongvoragul, Chulaluck

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes impairment to the human immune system which leads to immunocompromised conditions, including ocular complications. Several important HIV-associated disorders may involve the anterior segment, ocular surface, and adnexae organ such as dry eye, blepharitis which reduce quality of life of patients. In present, potent antiretroviral therapies HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has improved the length and quality of life which may lead to an increased prevalence of anterior segment ocular disorders. Hence, this study has been undertaken to identify the prevalence and associated factors of anterior segment and external ocular disorder in HIV infected patients in the era of HAART. A prospective descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in HIV positive patients conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Chiang Mai University Hospital, from February 2014 to October 2015. Detail history and ocular examination was carried out to examine for anterior segment and external ocular disorders. A total number of 363 patients were included for this prospective cross-sectional study. From the total of 363 patients, 123 patients had an anterior segment and external ocular disorder which account as the prevalence of 33.9%. The most common anterior segment manifestations was dry eye seen in 36 patients (9.9%), followed by posterior blepharitis (Meibomian gland dysfunction) seen in 23 patients (6.3%) and anterior blepharitis seen in 12 patients (3.3%). Other ocular complications included microvasculopathy, immune recovery uveitis, conjunctivitis, papilloma, anterior uveitis, corneal ulcer, nevus, trichiasis, molluscum contangiosum, Kaposi sarcoma, interstitial keratitis, conjunctival lymphangiectasia, dacryocystitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and eyelid penicilosis. In this study, the prevalance of anterior segment disorders was higher than in the preHAART era. Dry eye, blepharitis and uveitis were the top three most common

  14. Anterior segment and external ocular disorders associated with HIV infections in the era of HAART in Chiang Mai University Hospital, a prospective descriptive cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassapol Singalavanija

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV causes impairment to the human immune system which leads to immunocompromised conditions, including ocular complications. Several important HIV-associated disorders may involve the anterior segment, ocular surface, and adnexae organ such as dry eye, blepharitis which reduce quality of life of patients. In present, potent antiretroviral therapies HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life which may lead to an increased prevalence of anterior segment ocular disorders. Hence, this study has been undertaken to identify the prevalence and associated factors of anterior segment and external ocular disorder in HIV infected patients in the era of HAART. A prospective descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in HIV positive patients conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Chiang Mai University Hospital, from February 2014 to October 2015. Detail history and ocular examination was carried out to examine for anterior segment and external ocular disorders. A total number of 363 patients were included for this prospective cross-sectional study. From the total of 363 patients, 123 patients had an anterior segment and external ocular disorder which account as the prevalence of 33.9%. The most common anterior segment manifestations was dry eye seen in 36 patients (9.9%, followed by posterior blepharitis (Meibomian gland dysfunction seen in 23 patients (6.3% and anterior blepharitis seen in 12 patients (3.3%. Other ocular complications included microvasculopathy, immune recovery uveitis, conjunctivitis, papilloma, anterior uveitis, corneal ulcer, nevus, trichiasis, molluscum contangiosum, Kaposi sarcoma, interstitial keratitis, conjunctival lymphangiectasia, dacryocystitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and eyelid penicilosis. In this study, the prevalance of anterior segment disorders was higher than in the preHAART era. Dry eye, blepharitis and uveitis were the top

  15. Interactions of Bacteria and Amoebae with Ocular Biomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    John, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The use of biomaterials in periocular and intraocular sites has resulted in some ocular inflammations and infections which can result in vision-threatening ocular disease. This review addresses bacterial interactions with, and adherence to ocular biomaterials such as soft contact lenses, surgical suture materials, and intraocular lenses. In addition, adherence of Acanthamoeba to soft contact lenses is described, and the role of these lenses in the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis is disc...

  16. Quality of life in purely ocular myasthenia in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Since there has been no conclusive evidence regarding the treatment of ocular myasthenia, treatment guidelines were recently issued by the European Federation of Neurological Societies/European Neurological Society (EFNS/ENS). However, the therapeutic outcomes concerning the quality-of-life (QOL) of patients with ocular myasthenia are not yet fully understood. Methods We investigated the therapeutic outcomes of patients with purely ocular myasthenia in a multicenter cross-sectional survey in Japan. To evaluate the severity of ocular symptoms, we used the ocular-quantitative MG (QMG) score advocated by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. We used the Japanese translated version of the MG-QOL15, a self-appraised scoring system. Results Of 607 myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with an observation-duration of illness ≥ 2 years, the cases of 123 patients (20%) were limited to ocular muscles (purely ocular myasthenia). During the entire clinical course, 81 patients experienced both ptosis and diplopia, 36 had ptosis alone, and six had diplopia alone. Acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors and prednisolone were used in 98 and 52 patients, respectively. Treatment improved ocular symptoms, with the mean reduction in ocular-QMG score of 2.3 ± 1.8 points. However, 47 patients (38%) failed to gain minimal manifestation or a better status. Patients with unfavorable outcomes also self-reported severe QOL impairment. Multivariate analyses showed that the pretreatment ocular-QMG score was associated with unfavorable outcomes, but not associated with the patient’s QOL. Conclusion A treatment strategy designed in accord with a patient's ocular presentation must be considered in order to improve ocular symptoms and the patient's QOL. PMID:24996227

  17. Associations between vascular co-morbidities and depression in insulin-naive diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, B; Pouwer, F; de Bie, Rob A

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in insulin-naive diabetes patients and to investigate the associations between different forms of vascular co-morbidity and depression. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were used from a primary-care sample of 1......,269 insulin-naive (i.e. not using insulin therapy) diabetes patients participating in the DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study. Demographics, vascular co-morbidities, clinical and lifestyle characteristics, and psychosocial factors were assessed. Depression symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Depression.......2% vs 10.0%). Single vascular co-morbidities were not associated with increased rates of depression. The final model predicting depression included: having multiple vascular co-morbidities compared with none; having less social support; having experienced a recent stressful life event; female sex...

  18. [Somatic and mental morbidity of young female physicians. Does emotional exhaustion constitute the missing link?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrffy, Zsuzsa; Adám, Szilvia

    2013-01-06

    The high prevalence of morbidity among female physicians in Hungary is well documented, however, little is known about the prevalence of that in certain age groups. To assess the prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity in two age cohorts (Cohort 1: age 24-43 and Cohort 2: age 44-76) of female physicians and to explore the relationship between morbidity and potential risk factors including work-related stressors. Representative, cross-sectional, quantitative survey among representative samples of female physicians (N = 408). Physicians in Cohort 1 reported more frequent night shift rotation, less leisure time, and fewer days off compared to physicians in Cohort 2. Physicians in Cohort 1 were less satisfied with their work, workplace, reported less support from their colleagues, and received lower salary compared to physicians in Cohort 2. Physicians in Cohort 1 scored significantly higher on the emotional exhaustion and the personal accomplishment scales MBI as compared to Cohort 2 physicians. In Cohort 1 emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment were associated with high depression scores and frequent suicidal ideation. The role of emotional exhaustion is decisive of young physicians' well-being. Future research should focus on understanding the psycho-social, individual, organizational, and societal correlates of the high prevalence of morbidity among young female physicians in Hungary.

  19. Plasticity of the human otolith-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Smith, T. R.; Furman, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The eye movement response to earth vertical axis rotation in the dark, a semicircular canal stimulus, can be altered by prior exposure to combined visual-vestibular stimuli. Such plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex has not been described for earth horizontal axis rotation, a dynamic otolith stimulus. Twenty normal human subjects underwent one of two types of adaptation paradigms designed either to attenuate or enhance the gain of the semicircular canal-ocular reflex prior to undergoing otolith-ocular reflex testing with horizontal axis rotation. The adaptation paradigm paired a 0.2 Hz sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis with a 0.2 Hz optokinetic stripe pattern that was deliberately mismatched in peak velocity. Pre- and post-adaptation horizontal axis rotations were at 60 degrees/s in the dark and produced a modulation in the slow component velocity of nystagmus having a frequency of 0.17 Hz due to putative stimulation of the otolith organs. Results showed that the magnitude of this modulation component response was altered in a manner similar to the alteration in semicircular canal-ocular responses. These results suggest that physiologic alteration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex using deliberately mismatched visual and semicircular canal stimuli induces changes in both canal-ocular and otolith-ocular responses. We postulate, therefore, that central nervous system pathways responsible for controlling the gains of canal-ocular and otolith-ocular reflexes are shared.

  20. Albinism: particular attention to the ocular motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function.

  1. Accelerated physical deterioration of in vitro ocular prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez González, Linda N; Barceló Santana, Federico H; Jiménez Castillo, René; Benavides Ríos, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    La prótesis ocular es una modalidad de prótesis facial que va a reparar aloplásticamente las pérdidas parciales o totales y deformaciones diversas del globo ocular. Está claro que la mejor rehabilitación protésica se ha logrado con las prótesis oculares de resina acrílica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la absorción acuosa y solubilidad así como el grado de deterioro físico acelerado determinado como cambio de color de prótesis oculares caracterizadas y sin caracterizar. Se fabric...

  2. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  3. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  4. Morbidity And Mortality Following Emergency Obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morbidity And Mortality Following Emergency Obstetric Hysterectomy In Calabar, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... in 15 (33.3%) of the case and hysterectomy for puerperal sepsis was an indication in 3 (6.7%) of the cases

  5. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...

  6. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF CORNEAL BLINDNESS IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ramadevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corneal disease is responsible for less than 2% of blindness in children in industrialised countries. In poor countries of the world, corneal scarring occurs due to vitamin A deficiency, measles and ophthalmia neonatorum. Thus, corneal disease is an important cause of blindness among children living in developing nations, which already carry a major burden of blindness. The aim of the study is to study the1. Prevalence of corneal blindness in the paediatric age group. 2. Causes of corneal blindness in the paediatric age group. 3. Morbidity of corneal blindness in the paediatric age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was cross-sectional observational study. Study Period- December 2014 to August 2016. Study Done- Government General Hospital, Kakinada. Sample Size- 50 patients. Inclusion Criteria- Children of age group 6 to 12 years with corneal blindness who have attended the outpatient department during the study period. Exclusion Criteria- Children with childhood blindness other than corneal pathology. Study Tools- Predesigned, semi-structured questionnaire regarding age, sex and age of onset of visual loss, laterality, history of ocular injury, vitamin A immunisation, family history of consanguinity and place of residence and socioeconomic status was taken. Visual acuity was measured using an E optotype and Landolt broken C chart with best corrected vision. Visual loss was classified according to the WHO categories of visual impairment. Ophthalmic examination was done by slit lamp and B scan. RESULTS Ocular trauma and corneal ulcers are most common cause of corneal blindness. 84% of corneal blindness cases were preventable and curable. CONCLUSION Trauma was the commonest cause of corneal blindness followed by infectious keratitis. 84% of corneal blindness was preventable and curable. Most causes of corneal blindness were avoidable.

  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as morbid jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, A.; Carney, M. W.; Denman, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus and presenting with morbid jealousy is described. There was evidence of cerebral lupus. Her physical and mental symptoms responded to a combination of chlorpromazine and steroids. The morbid mental process was probably caused by her physical condition while the content of her disordered thought and behaviour was determined by her introverted premorbid personality, religiosity, unhappy childhood experiences and frustrated desire for children. PMID:7413541

  8. Environmental Pollution: Causing High Morbidity and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    , E. Laho; , G. Koduzi; , D. Osmanlli; , F. Aliu

    2016-01-01

    The environmental pollution which is increasing, it is a concerning issue for the community, and when it comes to big cities like Elbasan this is a hot spot. The relevant experience has shown that the more industrial and urban pollution an area has, the higher the pulmonary morbidity is and more cases of mortality from tumoral diseases are. To investigate and show the morbidity and mortality rate from respiratory diseases, cancer etc In our investigation which is a retrospective statistical r...

  9. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection under the SAFE strategy in Amhara, Ethiopia, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Scott D; Stewart, Aisha E P; Zerihun, Mulat; Sata, Eshetu; Gessese, Demelash; Melaku, Berhanu; Endeshaw, Tekola; Chanyalew, Melsew; Chernet, Ambahun; Bayissasse, Belay; Moncada, Jeanne; Lietman, Thomas M; Emerson, Paul M; King, Jonathan D; Tadesse, Zerihun; Callahan, E Kelly

    2018-05-05

    WHO recommendations for starting and stopping mass antibiotic distributions are based on a clinical sign of trachoma, which is indirectly related to actual infection with the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. This study aimed to understand the effect of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement) interventions on ocular chlamydia in Amhara, Ethiopia by describing the infection prevalence in a population-based sample of children ages 1-5 years. Population-based trachoma surveys were conducted in all districts of Amhara, from 2011 to 2015 following approximately 5 years of SAFE. Ocular swabs were collected from randomly selected children whose households were included in the surveys to estimate the zonal prevalence of chlamydial infection. The Abbott Realtime PCR assay was used to detect C. trachomatis DNA using the m2000 system. A total of 15,632 samples were collected across the 10 zones of Amhara. The prevalence of chlamydial infection in children ages 1-5 years was 5.7% (95% Confidence Interval: 4.2-7.3), zonal range 1.0% to 18.5%. Chlamydial infection and trachomatous-inflammation intense (TI) among children ages 1-9 were highly correlated at the zonal level, Spearman correlation(r)= 0.93; P<0.001, while chlamydial infection and trachomatous-inflammation follicular (TF) among children ages 1-9 years were moderately correlated, r= 0.57; P=0.084. After 5 years of SAFE there is appreciable ocular chlamydial infection in children ages 1-5 years, indicating that transmission has not been interrupted, and that interventions should continue. The sign TI was highly correlated with chlamydial infection and can be used as a proxy indicator of infection.

  10. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  11. The prevalence, types and effects of traditional eye medicine use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of Traditional Medicines (TM) is common practice world over. Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use may be associated with various ocular complications including blindness. A study on the prevalence of TEM use was carried out at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit (SKHEU) in Harare, with emphasis on ...

  12. Isolation and identification of the microorganisms most prevalent in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections of the external eye account for a significant percentage of ocular inflammations, some of which lead to visual losses as result of corneal involvement. This study purely isolated and identified the microorganisms most prevalent in external eye infections in Owerri urban (as seen Mercy Eye clinic). With the aid of ...

  13. Co-morbid substance use behaviors among youth: any impact of school environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mary Jean E; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid; Church, Dana L; Cunningham, John A

    2012-03-01

    Substance use is common among youth; however, our understanding of co-morbid tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use remains limited. The school-environment may play an important role in the likelihood a student engages in high risk substance use behaviors, including co-morbid use. This study aims to: (i) describe the prevalence of co-morbid substance use behaviors among youth; (ii) identify and compare the characteristics of youth who currently use a single substance, any two substances, and all three substances; (iii) examine if the likelihood of co-morbid use varies by school and; (iv) examine what factors are associated with co-morbid use. This study used nationally representative data collected from students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 41,886) as part of the 2006-2007 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Demographic and behavioral data were collected including, current cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use. Results. 6.5% (n = 107,000) reported current use of all three substances and 20.3% (n = 333,000) of any two substances. Multi-level analysis revealed significant between school variability in the odds a student used all three substances and any two substances; accounting for 16.9% and 13.5% of the variability, respectively. Co-morbid use was associated with sex, grade, amount of available spending money and perceived academic performance. Co-morbid substance use is high among youth; however, not all schools share the same prevalence. Knowing the school characteristics that place particular schools at risk for student substance use is important for tailoring drug and alcohol education programs. Interventions that target the prevention of co-morbid substance use are required.

  14. Tobacco use and self-reported morbidity among rural Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-09-01

    Aim To measure the prevalence of self-reported morbidity and its associated factors among adults (aged ⩾15 years) in a select rural Indian population. Self-reporting of smoking has been validated as population-based surveys using self-reported data provide reasonably consistent estimates of smoking prevalence, and are generally considered to be sufficiently accurate for tracking the general pattern of morbidity associated with tobacco use in populations. However, to gauge the true disease burden using self-reported morbidity data requires cautious interpretation. During 2010-2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted under the banner of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Birbhum, an initiative of the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, India. With over 93.6% response rate from the population living in 12 300 households, this study uses the responses from 16 354 individuals: 8012 smokers, and 8333 smokeless tobacco users. Smokers and smokeless tobacco users were asked whether they have developed any morbidity symptoms due to smoking, or smokeless tobacco use. Bivariate, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed to attain the study objective. Findings Over 20% of smokers and over 9% of smokeless tobacco users reported any morbidity. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated using logistic regression shows that women are less likely to report any morbidity attributable to smoking (OR: 0.69; CI: 0.54-0.87), and more likely to report any morbidity due to smokeless tobacco use (OR: 1.68; CI: 1.36-2.09). Non-Hindus have higher odds, whereas the wealthiest respondents have lower odds of reporting any morbidity. With a culturally appropriate intervention to change behaviour, youth (both men and women) could be targeted with comprehensive tobacco cessation assistance programmes. A focussed intervention could be designed for unprocessed tobacco users to curb hazardous effects of

  15. Radiation-induced ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in patients with pituitary tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaphiades, Michael S; Spencer, Sharon A; Riley, Kristen; Francis, Courtney; Deitz, Luke; Kline, Lanning B

    2011-09-01

    Radiation therapy is often used in the treatment of pituitary tumor. Diplopia due to radiation damage to the ocular motor cranial nerves has been infrequently reported as a complication in this clinical setting. Retrospective case series of 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) with pituitary adenoma, all of whom developed diplopia following transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma with subsequent radiation therapy. None had evidence of tumor involvement of the cavernous sinus. Five patients developed sixth nerve palsies, 3 unilateral and 2 bilateral, and in 1 patient, a sixth nerve palsy was preceded by a fourth cranial nerve palsy. One patient developed third nerve palsy. Five of the 6 patients had a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor with acromegaly. Following transsphenoidal surgery in all 6 patients (2 had 2 surgeries), 4 had 2 radiation treatments consisting of either radiosurgery (2 patients) or external beam radiation followed by radiosurgery (2 patients). Patients with pituitary tumors treated multiple times with various forms of radiation therapy are at risk to sustain ocular motor cranial nerve injury. The prevalence of acromegalic patients in this study reflects an aggressive attempt to salvage patients with recalcitrant growth hormone elevation and may place the patient at a greater risk for ocular motor cranial nerve damage.

  16. Ocular disease in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus): a survey of 1000 animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Sullivan, Ann

    2010-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that guinea pigs have a high prevalence of ocular lesions. Here we undertook a survey of 1000 guinea pigs from populations of animals kept as laboratory animals, breeding show cavies, animals kept as pets and those from rescue and rehoming centers. Each animal was examined to assess for ocular abnormalities. A full ophthalmic examination was performed on each animal with direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and with slit lamp biomicroscopy. Measurement of tear production using the Schirmer tear test 1 and intraocular pressure using the Tonopen applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia was undertaken in selected animals. Forty-five percent of animals examined had some ocular abnormality. The majority were lens lesions including 17% with cataract and 21% with subclinical lens abnormalities such as nuclear sclerosis. Other abnormalities included conjunctivitis in 4.7% and keratitis in 3.6%. Lipid deposition in conjunctiva was observed in 2.3% of guinea pigs and ciliary body heterotopic bone formation in 0.8% of animals. This study shows a high proportion of eyes with some degree of abnormality in animals otherwise considered healthy. Information on diseases of the guinea pig eye is important given the use of the species as a laboratory rodent and also the number kept as pets and show animals.

  17. [A pilot study of ocular diseases screening for neonates in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wen-ying; Wu, Han-rong; Qi, Yi-sheng; Zhang, Min; Hou, Qian; Yang, Hai-xia; Gong, Lu-xia; Dong, Yan-ru; Guo, Yu-luan; Shi, Jin-na; Yin, Su-ying; Li, Ping-yu

    2008-06-01

    To explore the clinical strategies for the screening of newborn eye diseases and obtain information concerning the incidence of newborn ocular diseases. Newborns in a baby-friendly nursery were evaluated for mass screening of eye diseases 2 to 7 days after birth (including reaction to light stimulation, external ocular examination and test for pupil red reflex) and those with abnormalities were subjected to diagnostic examination (external ocular examination with a hand-held slit-lamp, pupil red reflex and mydriatic examination). Newborns in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were subjected to screening 5 to 14 days after birth and then, together with those with high risk factors, received a comprehensive examination for screening and diagnostic purposes. The suspected cases were referred to department of ophthalmology for definite diagnosis. Among the 15,398 (91.65%) newborns who were enrolled the screening program, 12 different eye diseases (involving 1266 cases) were detected, with a prevalence of 8.22%. Of these eye diseases, 7 were congenital ocular diseases, involving 809 cases (5. 254%) and including congenital ptosis in 2 cases (0.013%), congenital corneal opacity in 6 cases (0.039%), persistent pupillary membrane in 724 cases (4.702%), congenital cataract in 15 cases (0.097%), persistent hyaloid artery in 54 cases (0.351%), obstruction of nasolacrimal duct in 7 cases (0.046%) and lacrimal gland prolapse in 1 cases (0.007%). Five different diseases (457 cases, 2. 968%) detected were acquired in nature, including neonatal conjunctivitis in 391 case (2.539%), vitreous hemorrhage in 6 cases (0.039%), retinal hemorrhage in 34 cases (0.221%), and neonatal dacryocystitis in 23 cases (0.149%). Of 27 premature babies with body weight lower than 1500 g, 3 had retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, 6 eyes involved). Early intervention is of great importance for the prevention and treatment of neonatal ocular diseases. The screening of newborn ocular diseases is not only

  18. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rehabilitación en pacientes con trauma ocular Rehabilitation of ocular trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ariel Ramos Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La rehabilitación en oftalmología tiene como función fundamental lograr el máximo aprovechamiento posible del resto visual. El traumatismo ocular es considerado una de las entidades nosológicas frecuentes que conllevan a una rehabilitación visual. Las causas que provocan este tipo de trauma son variadas y dentro de estas, las agresiones con intención de provocar daños con secuelas son muy frecuentes. Es objetivo de esta revisión puntualizar la importancia de la rehabilitación en pacientes con traumatismo ocular e incentivar el buen accionar de todos los oftalmólogos en cuanto a su atención.The main goal of rehabilitation in ophthalmology is to use as much as possible the residual vision. Ocular trauma is considered one of the common diseases that imply visual rehabilitation. The causes of eye injuries are varied; among them assaults with intent to cause damage are the most common. The objective of this article was to point out the importance of rehabilitation in patients with ocular trauma and to encourage all the ophthalmologists to act accordingly.

  20. The impact of combined oral contraceptives on ocular tissues: a review of ocular effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita M. Moschos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this manuscript is to review the action and adverse effects of combined oral contraceptives (COCs on ocular tissues. The percentage of unwanted pregnancies and the subsequent abortions make contraception crucial worldwide. Over 100 million women around the world use common contraceptive methods, including intrauterine devices, combined estrogen and progestin oral contraceptives, as well as progestin only preparations (oral contraceptives, implants or injections. COCs are widely used for contraception, but they are also indicated in menorrhagia, endometriosis, acne and hirsutism, fibroid uterus and premenstrual syndrome. However, they have been associated with high rates of cardiovascular events, venous thromboembolic disease, ischemic strokes and breast cancer. The incidence of COCs-related ocular complications is estimated to be 1 in 230 000, including dry eye symptoms, corneal edema, lens opacities and retinal neuro-ophthalmologic or vascular complications. We may infer that the serious ocular complications of COCs can be prevented by eliminating the estrogen dosage and choosing third-generation progestins. In any case, doctors should take into consideration the systemic and ocular history of the patients before selecting any method of contraception.

  1. Estimation of ocular volume from axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Logan, Nicola S

    2014-12-01

    To determine which biometric parameters provide optimum predictive power for ocular volume. Sixty-seven adult subjects were scanned with a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. Mean spherical error (MSE) (D) was measured with a Shin-Nippon autorefractor and a Zeiss IOLMaster used to measure (mm) axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal radius (CR). Total ocular volume (TOV) was calculated from T2-weighted MRIs (voxel size 1.0 mm(3)) using an automatic voxel counting and shading algorithm. Each MR slice was subsequently edited manually in the axial, sagittal and coronal plane, the latter enabling location of the posterior pole of the crystalline lens and partitioning of TOV into anterior (AV) and posterior volume (PV) regions. Mean values (±SD) for MSE (D), AL (mm), ACD (mm) and CR (mm) were -2.62±3.83, 24.51±1.47, 3.55±0.34 and 7.75±0.28, respectively. Mean values (±SD) for TOV, AV and PV (mm(3)) were 8168.21±1141.86, 1099.40±139.24 and 7068.82±1134.05, respectively. TOV showed significant correlation with MSE, AL, PV (all p<0.001), CR (p=0.043) and ACD (p=0.024). Bar CR, the correlations were shown to be wholly attributable to variation in PV. Multiple linear regression indicated that the combination of AL and CR provided optimum R(2) values of 79.4% for TOV. Clinically useful estimations of ocular volume can be obtained from measurement of AL and CR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Ocular safety of Viagra, (sildenafil citrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, A M; Fraunfelder, F T

    1999-01-01

    To date, sildenafil citrate (Viagra) gives every evidence of being a safe drug for the eye despite a series of expressed concerns. A review of how its ocular safety profile has been identified offers insights into the strengths and weaknesses of present systems and resources for judging the ocular safety of Viagra or, for that matter, of any new drug. Such insights include: The great value of careful, informed assessment of preclinical information gleaned from laboratory experiments. By and large, such assessments point the way toward appropriate clinical evaluation. For Viagra, early in its development it was noted that besides exerting a major inhibitory effect on the intended target, the vascular-associated enzyme phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the drug also exerts a lesser but definite inhibitory effect on the closely related PDE6, located in the retina. For this reason, preclinical evaluation of the drug included electroretinography plus postmortem histology. In addition, an extended eye examination was incorporated into clinical protocols. The often chaotic but invaluable information stream that becomes available once marketing approval has been gained and large populations begin to use a drug. False alarms, misattribution, and erroneous information are the order of the day. Nevertheless, as information accumulates, patterns of response clarify and the true nature of special susceptibility for subpopulations, if any, becomes apparent. A role for the astute clinician remains: Subtle changes or unusual risks for subpopulations can be missed entirely for long periods of time. A manifest need for improvement in evaluation of postmarketing side-effects. This need has led to the establishment of a new discipline: pharmacoepidemiology. In ophthalmology, the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects maintains a constant and invaluable surveillance. Examples are supplied to illustrate each of these major points: Our presentation will include data gleaned from

  3. Silk film biomaterials for ocular surface repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brian David

    Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the

  4. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  5. Pain Catastrophizing in Borderline Morbidly Obese and Morbidly Obese Individuals with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J Somers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is limited information about how morbidly obese osteoarthritis (OA patients cope with the pain they experience. Pain catastrophizing is an important predictor of pain and adjustment in persons with persistent pain. This may be particularly relevant in the morbidly obese (body mass index [BMI] of 40 kg/m2 or greater OA population at risk for increased pain. The present study first examined whether borderline morbidly obese and morbidly obese OA patients report higher levels of pain catastrophizing than a sample of OA patients in the overweight and obese category (BMI between 25 kg/m2 and 34 kg/m2. Next, it examined how pain catastrophizing is related to important indexes of pain and adjustment in borderline morbidly obese and morbidly obese OA patients.

  6. Hyphema as a Complication of Blunt Ocular Trauma and Additional Ocular Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Giray Ersöz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the frequency of angle recession, commotio retinae, and other ocular findings in patients with hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 66 patients hospitalized between July 2010 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema were retrospectively reviewed. The age, gender, period between injury and the first examination, visual acuity at presentation, intraocular pressure (IOP, time of disappearance of hyphema, cause of blunt injury, additional ocular findings, medical and/or surgical treatment, follow-up time, and visual outcome were noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.8±19.2 years. Males constituted the 83.3% of the whole group. Game-related injury (43.9% and work-related injury (22.7% were the most common causes of blunt trauma. The bead gun was the most common tool involved in injury. Angle recession was detected in 36 patients (54.5%. Development of secondary glaucoma was higher in the patients with angle recession (chi-square test, p<0.05. Commotio retinae was observed in 47% of patients. The mean visual acuity at presentation was 0.4±0.3, while at the last visit, it was 0.8±0.3. There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and final visual acuity (paired-samples t-test, p<0.001. Conclusion: Hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma is observed mostly in young men and children. The most common blunt ocular injuries are game-and work-related. Angle recession and commotio retinae are the main complications of blunt ocular trauma causing hyphema. In cases with blunt ocular trauma, the presence of hyphema makes it difficult to examine the anterior chamber angle and the fundus. It is important to perform these investigations at the earliest stage to manage the complications since commotio retinae and angle recession accompany many cases with hyphema. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 19-22

  7. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  8. Radiotherapy for the primary ocular adnexal lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dahai; Sun Sanyuan; Zhuo Shichao; Wang Haiwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological and clinical characteristics of primary lymphoma of ocular adnexae, analyze the treatment results and discuss the methods to prevent radiation complications. Methods: From Feb. 1995 to Feb. 2004, 25 patients with primary ocular adnexal lymphoma were treated in the second hospital and the forth hospital of Xuzhou, including 11 males and 14 females. The diagnosis was confirmed pathologically by biopsy in 19 patients and lumpectomy in 6 patients, including 22 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and 3 non-MALT lymphoma. According to the Ann Arbor Staging System, there were 21 patients with tumor in stage I E, 3 in stage II E and 1 in stage III E. The primary tumor was found in the eyelid or conjunctiva in 19 eyes and orbit in 9 eyes. Radiotherapy were given to 22 patients (25 eyes) by deep X-rays, 60 Co γ-rays or mixed beams. The total irradiation dose ranged from 30.0 to 57.6 Gy. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rate and Logrank test was used to detect the difference between the different groups. Results: The 5-, 10-year accumulated survival rates (SR) of the whole group were 90% and 82%. The 10-year SR of patients with primary, eyelid or conjunctiva tumor and orbit tumor were 100% and 58% (P=0.032). The local control rates of the radiotherapy group and non-radiotherapy group were 92% and 33 % (P=0.006). The 10-year SR of patients with tumor completely removed and those with residues were 83% and 82% (P=0.907). The 10-year SR of MALT lymphoma and non-MALT lymphoma were 90.0% and 33.3% (P=0.009). After radiotherapy, 8 eyes (36%) had cataract formation and 7 eyes (28%) had xerophalmic symptoms. Conclusions: The results of radiothera- py for the primary ocular adnexal lymphoma are satisactory. The prognosis of patients with primary, eyelid or conjunctiva tumor is better than those with orbit tumor. The vast majority of the primary ocular adnexal lymphomas are MALT lymphomas. The survival rate of

  9. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Smitha; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; John, Sheeja S; Horo, Saban; Sepah, Yasir J; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2017-01-26

    Ocular infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea, and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids to anti-parasitic therapy versus anti-parasitic therapy alone for ocular toxoplasmosis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register (2016; Issue 11)), MEDLINE Ovid, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Ovid Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS (January 1982 to December 2016)), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 December 2016. We had planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Eligible trials would have enrolled participants of any age who were immunocompetent and were diagnosed with acute ocular toxoplasmosis. Included trials would have compared anti-parasitic therapy plus corticosteroids versus anti-parasitic therapy alone, different doses or times of initiation of corticosteroids. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved through the electronic searches. We retrieved full-text reports of studies categorized as 'unsure' or 'include' after we reviewed the abstracts. Two authors independently reviewed each full-text report for eligibility. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion. We identified no completed or ongoing trial that was eligible for this Cochrane review. Although research has identified a wide

  10. Penetrating ocular trauma from trampoline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, David; Siddiqui, Salina; Vize, Colin

    2010-02-01

    The case is presented of a 12-year old boy who sustained severe penetrating ocular trauma while playing on a domestic trampoline. A main spring broke under tension and the hook had struck the eye at high velocity and penetrated the sclera. Primary repair was undertaken but on review it became apparent the eye could not be salvaged. Evisceration was carried out and an orbital implant was placed. Post-operative cosmesis is acceptable. This type of injury has not been reported before. Adult supervision of children on trampolines is recommended to minimise the chance of serious injury.

  11. Current trends in the management of ocular symptoms in Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad R Zakka

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fouad R Zakka,1 Peter Y Chang,1 Gian P Giuliari,1 C Stephen Foster1,21Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery institution (MERSI, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USAAbstract: Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease (ABD is a multisystemic vasculitic disease. It is most prevalent in the Eastern Mediterranean countries and the Eastern region of Asia. Its effect on the eye can range from mild to debilitating, resulting in total blindness. A necrotizing and obliterative vasculitis affects both arteries and veins of organs. Recurrent attacks of uveitis, oral aphthous ulcers, skin lesions, and genital ulcers are common. Topical and systemic corticosteroids have been the mainstay in the treatment of ocular inflammation for many years; however, due to the several known side effects of corticosteroids and thanks to scientific advances, more novel approaches to ABD treatment have been emerging. Antimetabolites such as methotrexate and azathioprine have been utilized with the latter showing positive results. Chlorambucil has been utilized effectively for ocular manifestations of ABD. Interferon alpha has shown encouraging results in the management of refractory ocular inflammation associated with ABD, either alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. Surgical interventions to deal with complications from ABD can be safely done if adequate control of inflammation is achieved peri-operatively. Early detection and aggressive treatment, when needed, have proven to be essential in the management of this relentlessly explosive disease.Keywords: Adamantiades-Behçet’s disease, Behçet’s disease, ocular inflammation, uveitis, immunomodulatory therapy, immunosuppressive therapy

  12. Maternal morbidities affect tens of millions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1994-02-01

    Various separate studies indicate maternal morbidity is more common than had been believed. A Safe Motherhood Survey was conducted in 1993 in the Philippines among 9000 women, as part of efforts to study women's language and perceptions about pregnancy and symptoms of morbidity. In El Salvador, interviews were conducted among 2000 women on morbidity issues. Preliminary results from a Family Health International (FHI) five-country survey of 16,000 women revealed that 7 out of every 10 women reported a health problem related to maternity or chronic conditions stemming from pregnancy or childbirth. Conditions ranged from obstructed labor, complications from unsafe abortions, and bacterial infections, to anemia, hemorrhage, and eclampsia. The quality of care determines whether the health problems are life threatening. Less serious morbidity cases involve fatigue or back pain, which is exacerbated by poor nutrition and hard physical labor. Other reproductive morbidities are sexually transmitted diseases, side effects from contraceptives, and general gynecological problems. The FHI results from Ghana, Indonesia, and Egypt showed 240-300 morbidities for every maternal death; maternal mortality worldwide is estimated at 500,000 annually. A study of fistula (an injury during labor to the vagina and bladder that results in urinary or fecal incontinence) found that Nigerian community norms and limited access to emergency health care were factors. The women reported costs, poor roads, and transportation problems. A study in Ethiopia found that, in an Addis Ababa hospital between 1983-88, 600 fistulas were repaired every year, of which almost 66% occurred at first delivery. A study in Cairo in 1988 found that nearly 6 out of every 10 women reported a prolapsed uterus. Women in the studies were able to talk openly and willingly about their problems, when concepts and language were appropriate and interviewers were trained. A small study in India confirmed the correlation between

  13. Seasonal and diurnal variations of ocular pressure in ocular hypertensive subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, I A; Xiao, R X; Yang, B H; Zhang, J; Xiang, D W; Hui, J L

    1999-05-01

    Studies have been shown that intraocular pressure (IOP) shows a diurnal variation in ocular hypertensive subjects, but the amount of change differs from study to study. In recent years it has been noted that intraocular pressure is a dynamic function and is subjected to many influences both acutely and over the long term. The variability in the results may be due to negligence of factors that can affect IOP. Moreover, seasonal variations in the ocular hypertensive subjects have never been described. After placing control on those factors that can affect IOP, this study investigated seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects. IOP was measured each month over the course of 12 months with the Goldmann applanation tonometer in 91 ocular hypertensive male subjects. To see the diurnal changes, subjects were asked to stay in the hospital for 24 hours. The average IOP in the winter months was higher than those in spring, summer, and autumn. The IOP difference between winter and summer was (mean +/- sem) 2.9 +/- 0.9 mmHg (p < 0.001). The peak of mean IOP in diurnal variation curve (25.7 +/- 1.2 mmHg) appeared in the morning when the subjects had just awaken. The mean diurnal variation was found to be 4.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg (p < 0.001). This study confirms that seasons influence IOP and it shows diurnal variations. As compared to other nations, diurnal variations in ocular hypertensive subjects seem to be somewhat less in Pakistan. Knowledge of the seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP may help glaucoma screeners.

  14. Temporal dynamics of ocular position dependence of the initial human vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Benjamin T; Tian, Junru; Demer, Joseph L

    2006-04-01

    While an ideal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates ocular rotations compensatory for head motion, during visually guided movements, Listing's Law (LL) constrains the eye to rotational axes lying in Listing's Plane (LP). The present study was conducted to explore the recent proposal that the VOR's rotational axis is not collinear with the head's, but rather follows a time-dependent strategy intermediate between LL and an ideal VOR. Binocular LPs were defined during visual fixation in eight normal humans. The VOR was evoked by a highly repeatable transient whole-body yaw rotation in darkness at a peak acceleration of 2800 deg/s2. Immediately before rotation, subjects regarded targets 15 or 500 cm distant located at eye level, 20 degrees up, or 20 degrees down. Eye and head responses were compared with LL predictions in the position and velocity domains. LP orientation varied both among subjects and between individual subject's eyes, and rotated temporally with convergence by 5 +/- 5 degrees (+/-SEM). In the position domain, the eye compensated for head displacement even when the head rotated out of LP. Even within the first 20 ms from onset of head rotation, the ocular velocity axis tilted relative to the head axis by 30% +/- 8% of vertical gaze position. Saccades increased this tilt. Regardless of vertical gaze position, the ocular rotation axis tilted backward 4 degrees farther in abduction than in adduction. There was also a binocular vertical eye velocity transient and lateral tilt of the ocular axis. These disconjugate, short-latency axis perturbations appear intrinsic to the VOR and may have neural or mechanical origins.

  15. Clinical application of ocular trauma score for mechanical ocular injury in armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the predictive value of ocular trauma score(OTS in mechanical ocular injuries occurring in military forces,and compare the difference of OTS application between ocular injury caused by military training and non-military training.Methods The data of 633 inpatients from armed forces suffering from injury of 665 eyes were retrospectively reviewed.Of the 665 injured eyes,326 were injured during military training and 339 during non-military training.The likelihood of final visual acuity(VA calculated with the OTS score was compared with that by the present OTS study,and the correlation between the score and final VA was then analyzed.Results Compared with the distribution of final VA in standard OTS score,the ratio in category 1 was statistically different in present study(P 0.05.There were significant differences in ratio of category 3 between eyes injured by military and non-military training(P < 0.05,and both ratios in category 1 were significantly different compared with those in standard OTS(P < 0.01,e.g.the ratio of NLP was lower(50% vs 73%,P < 0.01;43% vs 73%,P < 0.01;and the ratio in category 2 was significantly different between the eyes injured by non-military training and standard OTS(P < 0.05.However,the OTS showed positive correlation with final VA in present study(P < 0.0001.Conclusion OTS calculated at initial examination may primarily provide a piece of prognostic information of mechanical ocular injuries,and is of special benefit for deciding a prompt management or for evacuation decision for severe ocular injuries caused by military training.

  16. SERO-PREVALENCE OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR VIRUS IN SHEEP AND GOATS IN PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. KHAN, M. SIDDIQUE, M. J. ARSHAD1, Q. M. KHAN2 AND S. U. REHMAN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an acute febrile viral disease of sheep and goats characterized by mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharge, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. The disease is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses due to high rates of mortality and morbidity in infected sheep and goats. In the present study, 660 serum samples of sheep and goat were collected from 24 districts of Punjab Province of Pakistan. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (cELISA was used to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Findings suggested that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in sheep than in goats (51.29 versus 39.02%; P=0.002. The overall sero-prevalence of PPRV in small ruminants was 43.33%. Highest prevalence (35.71-100% was observed in Southern districts, while no antibodies were found in serum from some of Northern and Eastern districts of the Punjab Province.

  17. Motorcycle related ocular injuries in Irrua Specialist Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a prospective study of all cases of motorcycle related accidents with involvement of the eyes seen at the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2005. The study was conducted to assess the severity of ocular trauma, ocular structures mostly affected and initial effect on visual acuity in such ...

  18. Orbital Roof Fractures as an Indicator for Concomitant Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-12

    Longoria 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 210-292-7141 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional ...risk for ocular and periocular injury. Laryngoscope. 2016 Feb;126 Suppl 4:S5·11. 3. Cook T. Ocular and periocular Injuries from orbital fractures

  19. Ocular melanoma: Detection using iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, S.H.; Leonard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of iodine-123-iodoamphetamine has been demonstrated in malignant melanoma using planar imaging techniques and has been used to detect an ocular melanoma at 12 hr postinjection. Using SPECT technique, an ocular melanoma is identified in a 64-yr-old male at 1 hr postinjection

  20. Measurement of normal ocular volume by the use of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-03

    Sep 3, 2012 ... ocular axial length measurements from which ocular volume can be calculated. ... The CT scans were performed in axial planes at a thickness of 3 mm and a .... dimension assessing capability, it gives anatomic details .... have larger skeletal size and bone mass than females, despite comparable body size.

  1. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injuries to the face and ocular structures could occur at the war front not only to the enemies, but also to unsuspecting friends of the security agents. We report here a case of ocular injury involving an air force personnel (lance corporal) who was mistakenly hit on the face by the back blast of a rocket‑propelled grenade shot ...

  2. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a rare case of noninvasive OSSN involving the entire cornea in a human immunodeficiency virus‑negative patient. The patient was successfully treated with no recurrence, after intact surgical removal, mitomycin C treatment, and cryotherapy. Keywords: Noninvasive ocular surface squamous neoplasia, ocular ...

  3. Hutchinson's sign as a marker of ocular involvement in HIVpositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A positive Hutchinsonfs sign indicates an increased risk of ocular involvement in herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). We examined the sensitivity of Hutchinsonfs sign as an indicator of ocular involvement in a consecutive series of patients presenting with HZO. Methods. We conducted a descriptive ...

  4. Long term ocular and neurological involvement in severe congenital toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenken, C.; Assies, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O.; Holwerda-van der Maat, W. G.; van Schooneveld, M. J.; Delleman, W. J.; Kinds, G.; Rothova, A.

    1995-01-01

    This study was set up to determine the long term ocular and systemic sequelae in patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. Cross sectional and retrospective study of 17 patients with severe congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition to chorioretinitis (100%), the most common abnormal ocular features

  5. An Unusual Ocular Injury Following Facial Trauma: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report a case of an unusual ocular injury following a road traffic accident. Materials and Methods: A case report of a sixty – year – old female patient seen by the authors. The literature on ocular injures following facial trauma is reviewed. Results: An eye globe initially confirmed missing from its socket on clinical ...

  6. Prevalence, Incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittchen, H.U.; Becker, E.S.; Lieb, R.; Krause, P.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Despite an abundance of clinical research on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. few epidemiological data provide estimates of the prevalence, incidence, co-morbidity, stability and correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in the community. Aims. To describe the prevalence,

  7. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: luisarabelo88@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  8. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  9. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  10. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.

  11. Ocular toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, G.N.; O'Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease

  12. Morbidity in extreme low birth weight newborns hospitalized in a high risk public maternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derijulie Siqueira Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the prevalence of the most common morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU and to evaluate the influence of these morbidities through the length of in-hospital stay. Methods: observational, longitudinal, prospective and analytical study in a high risk reference maternity NICU from Sergipe, realized with 158 ELBW infants admitted between March 2014 and April 2015. The analysis of the hospitalization time was realized through the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: the average weight of premature was 785,2g ± 138,2g. The gestational age vary from 22 to 35 weeks and the average was 26,8 weeks. Of those admitted at NICU, sixty three (39,9% were discharged and 95 (60,1% died. The time of hospitalization was influenced for morbidities as: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication (157 - 99,4%. The incidence of persistent arterial duct, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, hypothermia, hypoglycemia and retinopathy of prematurity was 39,2%, 17,1%, 32,3%,50,3%, 52,3% e 16,6% respectively. Conclusions: the morbidities from respiratory tract, cardiac, neurological and infectious were the most prevalent, whilst PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis were the morbidities that significantly influenced the time of hospitalization.

  13. Explaining excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Birkelund, Jesper Fels

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This article analyses excess morbidity amongst homeless shelter users compared to the general Danish population. The study provides an extensive control for confounding and investigates to what extent excess morbidity is explained by homelessness or other risk factors. METHODS: Data set...... includes administrative micro-data for 4,068,926 Danes who were 23 years or older on 1 January 2007. Nationwide data on shelter use identified 14,730 individuals as shelter users from 2002 to 2006. Somatic diseases were measured from 2007 to 2011 through diagnosis data from hospital discharges. The risk...... of somatic diseases amongst shelter users was analysed through a multivariate model that decomposed the total effect into a direct effect and indirect effects mediated by other risk factors. RESULTS: The excess morbidity associated with shelter use is substantially lower than in studies that did not include...

  14. Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Objective: Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. Method: During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska. All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. Results: All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2% upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004, 196 (66% out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34% was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%. Conclusion: War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  15. Arteriovenous Malformation in Temporal Lobe Presenting as Contralateral Ocular Symptoms Mimicking Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral orbital symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula. Method. Interventional case report. Results. A 31-year-old Malay gentleman presented with 2-month history of painful progressive exophthalmos of his left eye associated with recurrent headache, diplopia, and reduced vision. Ocular examination revealed congestive nonpulsating 7 mm exophthalmos of the left eye with no restriction of movements in all direction. There was diplopia in left lateral gaze. Left IOP was elevated at 29 mmHg. Left eye retinal vessels were slightly dilated and tortuous. CT scan was performed and showed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with a nidus of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm with right middle cerebral artery as feeding artery. There was dilated left superior ophthalmic vein of 0.9 mm in diameter with enlarged left cavernous sinus. MRA and carotid angiogram confirmed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with no carotid-cavernous fistula. Most of the intracranial drainage was via left cavernous sinus. His signs and symptoms dramatically improved following successful embolisation, completely resolved after one year. Conclusion. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation is rarely presented with primary ocular presentation. Early intervention would salvage the eyes and prevent patients from more disaster morbidity or fatality commonly due to intracranial haemorrhage.

  16. [Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukosavljević, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska). All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB) were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2%) upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004), 196 (66%) out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34%) was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%). War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  17. Thromboxane production in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Francesca; Biasucci, Luigi M; Cialdella, Pio; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Giubilato, Simona; Della Bona, Roberta; Pulcinelli, Fabio M; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Mingrone, Geltrude; Crea, Filippo

    2011-06-01

    Postmortem studies have demonstrated that morbidly obese subjects, surprisingly, have less coronary atherosclerosis than obese subjects. However, the reasons for this apparent protection from atherosclerosis are not yet clear. Thromboxane A2, a marker of platelet activation, is greater in obese subjects than in lean subjects, and this might be a clue to their increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects are lacking; therefore, we hypothesized that lower levels of thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects might play a role in their lower atherothrombotic burden. We measured the serum levels of thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leptin in 17 lean subjects (body mass index [BMI] 22.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), 25 obese subjects (BMI 32.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)), and 23 morbidly obese subjects (BMI 48.6 ± 7.1 kg/m(2)), without insulin resistance, diabetes, or overt cardiovascular disease. The serum TxB2 levels were lower in the lean subjects than in the obese subjects (p = 0.046) and in the morbidly obese subjects than in the lean and obese subjects (p = 0.015 and p lean subjects (hs-CRP, p lean subjects (p lean subjects, suggesting that reduced platelet activation could play a role in the paradoxical protection of morbidly obese subjects from atherosclerosis, despite the greater levels of leptin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coloboma ocular: alterações oculares e sistêmicas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzelikis Patrick Frensel de Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar com a literatura o perfil dos pacientes portadores de colobomas oculares, bem como verificar a acuidade visual, alterações oculares associadas e alterações sistêmicas apresentadas pelos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 18 pacientes com diagnóstico de coloboma ocular matriculados no serviço de Visão Subnormal do Hospital São Geraldo da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HSG - HCUFMG. Foram avaliados: sexo, idade, raça, história familiar de anomalias oculares, história gestacional, tipo de coloboma, localização, bilateralidade, presença de microftalmia ou anoftalmia, alterações oculares concomitantes, e associação com doenças sistêmicas e acuidade visual. RESULTADO: Dez (55,6% pacientes eram do sexo feminino, 15 (83,3% eram leucodérmicos. A idade variou de 4 a 57 anos, com média de 9,5 anos. Apenas 3 (16,7% apresentavam história familiar para col