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Sample records for octane liquid fuels

  1. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  2. Blending Octane Number of Toluene with Gasoline-like and PRF Fuels in HCCI Combustion Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2018-04-03

    Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency but progression towards this is limited by the phenomenon called knock. A possible solution for reaching high efficiency is Octane-on-Demand (OoD), which allows to customize the antiknock quality of a fuel through blending of high-octane fuel with a low octane fuel. Previous studies on Octane-on-Demand highlighted efficiency benefits depending on the combination of low octane fuel with high octane booster. The author recently published works with ethanol and methanol as high-octane fuels. The results of this work showed that the composition and octane number of the low octane fuel is significant for the blending octane number of both ethanol and methanol. This work focuses on toluene as the high octane fuel (RON 120). Aromatics offers anti-knock quality and with high octane number than alcohols, this work will address if toluene can provide higher octane enhancement. Our aim is to investigate the impact of three gasoline-like fuels and two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). More specifically, fuels are FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) I, FACE J, FACE A, PRF 70 and PRF 84. A CFR engine was used to conduct the experiments in HCCI mode. For this combustion mode, the engine operated at four specific conditions based on RON and MON conditions. The octane numbers corresponding to four HCCI numbers were obtained for toluene concentration of 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Results show that the blending octane number of toluene varies non-linearly and linearly with the increase in toluene concentration depending on the base fuel, experimental conditions and the concentration of toluene. As a result, the blending octane number can range from close to 150 with a small fraction of toluene to a number closer to that of toluene, 120, with larger fractions.

  3. Experimental study on the potential of higher octane number fuels for low load partially premixed combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.; van der Waart, K.; Somers, B.; de Goey, P.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal fuel for partially premixed combustion (PPC) is considered to be a gasoline boiling range fuel with an octane number around 70. Higher octane number fuels are considered problematic with low load and idle conditions. In previous studies mostly the intake air temperature did not exceed 30

  4. Relating the octane numbers of fuels to ignition delay times measured in an ignition quality tester (IQT)

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2016-09-21

    A methodology for estimating the octane index (OI), the research octane number (RON) and the motor octane number (MON) using ignition delay times from a constant volume combustion chamber with liquid fuel injection is proposed by adopting an ignition quality tester. A baseline data of ignition delay times were determined using an ignition quality tester at a charge pressure of 21.3 bar between 770 and 850 K and an equivalence ratio of 0.7 for various primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures of isooctane and n-heptane). Our methodology was developed using ignition delay times for toluene reference fuels (mixtures of toluene and n-heptane). A correlation between the OI and the ignition delay time at the initial charge temperature enabled the OI of non-PRFs to be predicted at specified temperatures. The methodology was validated using ignition delay times for toluene primary reference fuels (ternary mixtures of toluene, iso-octane, and n-heptane), fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) gasolines, and certification gasolines. Using this methodology, the RON, the MON, and the octane sensitivity were estimated in agreement with values obtained from standard test methods. A correlation between derived cetane number and RON is also provided. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lignin conversion to high-octane fuel additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Zmierczak, W.; Kadangode, S. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Chornet, E.; Johnson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Continuing previous studies on the conversion of lignin to reformulated gasoline compositions, new lignin upgrading processes were developed that allow preferential production of specific high-octane fuel additives of two distinct types: (1) C{sub 7}-C{sub 10} alkylbenzenes; and (2) aryl methyl ethers, where aryl mostly = phenyl, 2-methylphenyl, 4-methylphenyl, and dimethylphenyl. Process (1) comprises base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) and simultaneous partial ({approx} 50%) deoxygenation of lignin at 270 - 290{sup o}C, in the presence of supercritical methanol as reaction medium, followed by exhaustive hydrodeoxygenation and attendant mild hydrocracking of the BCD product with sulfided catalysts to yield C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} alkylbenzenes as main products. Process (2) involves mild BCD at 250 - 270{sup o}C with preservation of the lignin oxygen, followed by selective C-C hydrocracking with solid superacid catalysts. This method preferentially yields a mixture of alkylated phenols, which upon acid-catalyzed etherification with methanol are converted into corresponding aryl methyl ethers (see above) possessing blending octane numbers in the range of 142-166. In a recent extension of this work, a greatly advantageous procedure for performing the BCD stage of processes (1) and (2) in water as reaction medium was developed. (author)

  6. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Viollet, Yoann; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Im, Hong G.; Chang, Junseok

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have

  7. Ignition delay measurements of light naphtha: A fully blended low octane fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour; Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Badra, Jihad; Djebbi, Khalil; Beshir, Mohamed; Ji, Weiqi; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fundamental autoignition study on the reactivity of a low-octane fully blended fuel and the use of a suitably formulated multi-component surrogate to model its behavior.

  8. Low-cost high-efficiency GDCI engines for low octane fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, Christopher P.; Sellnau, Mark C.

    2018-01-09

    A GDCI engine has a piston arranged within a cylinder to provide a combustion chamber. According to one embodiment, the GDCI engine operates using a method that includes the steps of supplying a hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber with a research octane number in the range of about 30-65. The hydrocarbon fuel is injected in completely stratified, multiple fuel injections before a start of combustion and supplying a naturally aspirated air charge to the combustion chamber.

  9. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  10. Estimating fuel octane numbers from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay times

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-11-05

    Fuel octane numbers are directly related to the autoignition properties of fuel/air mixtures in spark ignition (SI) engines. This work presents a methodology to estimate the research and the motor octane numbers (RON and MON) from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay time (IDT) data calculated at various pressures and temperatures. The hypothesis under investigation is that at specific conditions of pressure and temperature (i.e., RON-like and MON-like conditions), fuels with IDT identical to that of a primary reference fuel (PRF) have the same octane rating. To test this hypothesis, IDTs with a detailed gasoline surrogate chemical kinetic model have been calculated at various temperatures and pressures. From this dataset, temperatures that best represent RON and MON have been correlated at a specified pressure. Correlations for pressures in the range of 10–50 bar were obtained. The proposed correlations were validated with toluene reference fuels (TRF), toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF), ethanol reference fuels (ERF), PRFs and TPRFs with ethanol, and multi-component gasoline surrogate mixtures. The predicted RON and MON showed satisfactory accuracy against measurements obtained by the standard ASTM methods and blending rules, demonstrating that the present methodology can be a viable tool for a first approximation. The correlations were also validated against an extensive set of experimental IDT data obtained from literature with a high degree of accuracy in RON/MON prediction. Conditions in homogeneous reactors such as shock tubes and rapid compression machines that are relevant to modern SI engines were also identified. Uncertainty analysis of the proposed correlations with linear error propagation theory is also presented.

  11. Estimating fuel octane numbers from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay times

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal; Sarathy, Mani; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Fuel octane numbers are directly related to the autoignition properties of fuel/air mixtures in spark ignition (SI) engines. This work presents a methodology to estimate the research and the motor octane numbers (RON and MON) from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay time (IDT) data calculated at various pressures and temperatures. The hypothesis under investigation is that at specific conditions of pressure and temperature (i.e., RON-like and MON-like conditions), fuels with IDT identical to that of a primary reference fuel (PRF) have the same octane rating. To test this hypothesis, IDTs with a detailed gasoline surrogate chemical kinetic model have been calculated at various temperatures and pressures. From this dataset, temperatures that best represent RON and MON have been correlated at a specified pressure. Correlations for pressures in the range of 10–50 bar were obtained. The proposed correlations were validated with toluene reference fuels (TRF), toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF), ethanol reference fuels (ERF), PRFs and TPRFs with ethanol, and multi-component gasoline surrogate mixtures. The predicted RON and MON showed satisfactory accuracy against measurements obtained by the standard ASTM methods and blending rules, demonstrating that the present methodology can be a viable tool for a first approximation. The correlations were also validated against an extensive set of experimental IDT data obtained from literature with a high degree of accuracy in RON/MON prediction. Conditions in homogeneous reactors such as shock tubes and rapid compression machines that are relevant to modern SI engines were also identified. Uncertainty analysis of the proposed correlations with linear error propagation theory is also presented.

  12. An experimental assessment on the influence of high octane fuels on biofuel based dual fuel engine performance, emission, and combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masimalai Senthilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the effect of different high octane fuels (such as eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol on engine’s performance behaviour of a biofuel based dual fuel engine. A single cylinder Diesel engine was modified and tested under dual fuel mode of operation. Initially the engine was run using neat diesel, neat mahua oil as fuels. In the second phase, the engine was operated in dual fuel mode by using a specially designed variable jet carburettor to supply the high octane fuels. Engine trials were made at 100% and 40% loads (power outputs with varying amounts of high octane fuels up-to the maximum possible limit. The performance and emission characteristics of the engine were obtained and analysed. Results indicated significant improvement in brake thermal efficiency simultaneous reduction in smoke and NO emissions in dual fuel operation with all the inducted fuels. At 100% load the brake thermal efficiency increased from 25.6% to a maximum of 32.3, 30.5, and 28.4%, respectively, with eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol as primary fuels. Smoke was reduced drastically from 78% with neat mahua oil a minimum of 41, 48, and 53%, respectively, with eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol at the maximum efficiency point. The optimal energy share for the best engine behaviour was found to be 44.6, 27.3, and 23.2%, respectively, for eucalyptus oil, ethanol, and methanol at 100% load. Among the primary fuels tested, eucalyptus oil showed the maximum brake thermal efficiency, minimum smoke and NO emissions and maximum energy replacement for the optimal operation of the engine.

  13. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have been investigated in single cylinder engine running in GCI combustion mode at part-load conditions both experimentally and numerically. The studied fuels are: Saudi Aramco light naphtha (SALN) (Research octane number (RON) = 62 and final boiling point (FBP) = 91 °C), Haltermann straight run naphtha (HSRN) (RON = 60 and FBP = 140 °C) and a primary reference fuel (PRF65) (RON = 65 and FBP = 99 °C). Injection sweeps, where the start of injection (SOI) is changed between −60 and −11 CAD aTDC, have been performed for the three fuels. Full cycle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were executed using PRFs as chemical surrogates for the naphtha fuels. Physical surrogates based on the evaporation characteristics of the naphtha streams have been developed and their properties have been implemented in the engine simulations. It was found that the three fuels have similar combustion phasings and emissions at the conditions tested in this work with minor differences at SOI earlier than −30 CAD aTDC. These trends were successfully reproduced by the CFD calculations. The chemical and physical effects were further investigated numerically. It was found that the physical characteristics of the fuel significantly affect the combustion for injections earlier than −30 CAD aTDC because of the low evaporation rates of the fuel because of the higher boiling temperature of the fuel and the colder in-cylinder air during injection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Simulating HCCI Blending Octane Number of Primary Reference Fuel with Ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan

    2017-03-28

    The blending of ethanol with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures comprising n-heptane and iso-octane is known to exhibit a non-linear octane response; however, the underlying chemistry and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood. Well-designed experiments and numerical simulations are required to understand these blending effects and the chemical kinetic phenomenon responsible for them. To this end, HCCI engine experiments were previously performed at four different conditions of intake temperature and engine speed for various PRF/ethanol mixtures. Transfer functions were developed in the HCCI engine to relate PRF mixture composition to autoignition tendency at various compression ratios. The HCCI blending octane number (BON) was determined for mixtures of 2-20 vol % ethanol with PRF70. In the present work, the experimental conditions were considered to perform zero-dimensional HCCI engine simulations with detailed chemical kinetics for ethanol/PRF blends. The simulations used the actual engine geometry and estimated intake valve closure conditions to replicate the experimentally measured start of combustion (SOC) for various PRF mixtures. The simulated HCCI heat release profiles were shown to reproduce the experimentally observed trends, specifically on the effectiveness of ethanol as a low temperature chemistry inhibitor at various concentrations. Detailed analysis of simulated heat release profiles and the evolution of important radical intermediates (e.g., OH and HO) were used to show the effect of ethanol blending on controlling reactivity. A strong coupling between the low temperature oxidation reactions of ethanol and those of n-heptane and iso-octane is shown to be responsible for the observed blending effects of ethanol/PRF mixtures.

  15. Simulating HCCI Blending Octane Number of Primary Reference Fuel with Ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan; Waqas, Muhammad; Johansson, Bengt; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    The blending of ethanol with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures comprising n-heptane and iso-octane is known to exhibit a non-linear octane response; however, the underlying chemistry and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood. Well-designed experiments and numerical simulations are required to understand these blending effects and the chemical kinetic phenomenon responsible for them. To this end, HCCI engine experiments were previously performed at four different conditions of intake temperature and engine speed for various PRF/ethanol mixtures. Transfer functions were developed in the HCCI engine to relate PRF mixture composition to autoignition tendency at various compression ratios. The HCCI blending octane number (BON) was determined for mixtures of 2-20 vol % ethanol with PRF70. In the present work, the experimental conditions were considered to perform zero-dimensional HCCI engine simulations with detailed chemical kinetics for ethanol/PRF blends. The simulations used the actual engine geometry and estimated intake valve closure conditions to replicate the experimentally measured start of combustion (SOC) for various PRF mixtures. The simulated HCCI heat release profiles were shown to reproduce the experimentally observed trends, specifically on the effectiveness of ethanol as a low temperature chemistry inhibitor at various concentrations. Detailed analysis of simulated heat release profiles and the evolution of important radical intermediates (e.g., OH and HO) were used to show the effect of ethanol blending on controlling reactivity. A strong coupling between the low temperature oxidation reactions of ethanol and those of n-heptane and iso-octane is shown to be responsible for the observed blending effects of ethanol/PRF mixtures.

  16. Ignition delay measurements of light naphtha: A fully blended low octane fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-06-15

    Light naphtha is a fully blended, low-octane (RON. = 64.5, MON. = 63.5), highly paraffinic (>. 90% paraffinic content) fuel, and is one of the first distillates obtained during the crude oil refining process. Light naphtha is an attractive low-cost fuel candidate for advanced low-temperature compression ignition engines where autoignition is the primary control mechanism. We measured ignition delay times for light naphtha in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine (RCM) over a broad range of temperatures (640-1250. K), pressures (20 and 40. bar) and equivalence ratios (0.5, 1 and 2). Ignition delay times were modeled using a two-component primary reference fuel (PRF) surrogate and a multi-component surrogate. Both surrogates adequately captured the measured ignition delay times of light naphtha under shock tube conditions. However, for low-temperature RCM conditions, simulations with the multi-component surrogate showed better agreement with experimental data. These simulated surrogate trends were confirmed by measuring the ignition delay times of the PRF and multi-component surrogates in the RCM at . P = 20. bar, . ϕ = 2. Detailed kinetic analyses were undertaken to ascertain the dependence of the surrogates\\' reactivity on their chemical composition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fundamental autoignition study on the reactivity of a low-octane fully blended fuel and the use of a suitably formulated multi-component surrogate to model its behavior.

  17. On the effects of fuel properties and injection timing in partially premixed compression ignition of low octane fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-06-29

    A better understanding on the effects of fuel properties and injection timing is required to improve the performance of advanced engines based on low temperature combustion concepts. In this work, an experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the effects of physical and chemical kinetic properties of low octane fuels and their surrogates in partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines. The main objective was to identify the relative importance of physical versus chemical kinetic properties in predicting practical fuel combustion behavior across a range of injection timings. Two fuel/surrogate pairs were chosen for comparison: light naphtha (LN) versus the primary reference fuel (PRF) with research octane number of 65 (PRF 65), and FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) I gasoline versus PRF 70. Two sets of parametric studies were conducted: the first varied the amount of injected fuel mass at different injection timings to match a fixed combustion phasing, and the second maintained the same injected fuel mass at each injection timing to assess resulting combustion phasing changes. Full-cycle computational fluid dynamic engine simulations were conducted by accounting for differences in the physical properties of the original and surrogate fuels, while employing identical chemical kinetics. The simulations were found to capture trends observed in the experiments, while providing details on spatial mixing and chemical reactivity for different fuels and injection timings. It was found that differences in physical properties become increasingly important as injection timing was progressively delayed from premixed conditions, and this was rationalized by analysis of mixture stratification patterns resulting from injection of fuels with different physical properties. The results suggest that accurate descriptions of both physical and chemical behavior of fuels are critical in predictive simulations of PPCI engines for a wide range of

  18. On the effects of fuel properties and injection timing in partially premixed compression ignition of low octane fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal; Jaasim, Mohammed; Atef, Nour; Chung, Suk-Ho; Im, Hong G.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding on the effects of fuel properties and injection timing is required to improve the performance of advanced engines based on low temperature combustion concepts. In this work, an experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the effects of physical and chemical kinetic properties of low octane fuels and their surrogates in partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines. The main objective was to identify the relative importance of physical versus chemical kinetic properties in predicting practical fuel combustion behavior across a range of injection timings. Two fuel/surrogate pairs were chosen for comparison: light naphtha (LN) versus the primary reference fuel (PRF) with research octane number of 65 (PRF 65), and FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) I gasoline versus PRF 70. Two sets of parametric studies were conducted: the first varied the amount of injected fuel mass at different injection timings to match a fixed combustion phasing, and the second maintained the same injected fuel mass at each injection timing to assess resulting combustion phasing changes. Full-cycle computational fluid dynamic engine simulations were conducted by accounting for differences in the physical properties of the original and surrogate fuels, while employing identical chemical kinetics. The simulations were found to capture trends observed in the experiments, while providing details on spatial mixing and chemical reactivity for different fuels and injection timings. It was found that differences in physical properties become increasingly important as injection timing was progressively delayed from premixed conditions, and this was rationalized by analysis of mixture stratification patterns resulting from injection of fuels with different physical properties. The results suggest that accurate descriptions of both physical and chemical behavior of fuels are critical in predictive simulations of PPCI engines for a wide range of

  19. Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Duc Cung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline compression ignition (GCI has been shown as one of the advanced combustion concepts that could potentially provide a pathway to achieve cleaner and more efficient combustion engines. Fuel and air in GCI are not fully premixed compared to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI, which is a completely kinetic-controlled combustion system. Therefore, the combustion phasing can be controlled by the time of injection, usually postinjection in a multiple-injection scheme, to mitigate combustion noise. Gasoline usually has longer ignition delay than diesel. The autoignition quality of gasoline can be indicated by research octane number (RON. Fuels with high octane tend to have more resistance to autoignition, hence more time for fuel-air mixing. In this study, three fuels, namely, aromatic, alkylate, and E30, with similar RON value of 98 but different hydrocarbon compositions were tested in a multicylinder engine under GCI combustion mode. Considerations of exhaust gas recirculating (EGR, start of injection, and boost were investigated to study the sensitivity of dilution, local stratification, and reactivity of the charge, respectively, for each fuel. Combustion phasing (location of 50% of fuel mass burned was kept constant during the experiments. This provides similar thermodynamic conditions to study the effect of fuels on emissions. Emission characteristics at different levels of EGR and lambda were revealed for all fuels with E30 having the lowest filter smoke number and was also most sensitive to the change in dilution. Reasonably low combustion noise (<90 dB and stable combustion (coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure <3% were maintained during the experiments. The second part of this article contains visualization of the combustion process obtained from endoscope imaging for each fuel at selected conditions. Soot radiation signal from GCI combustion were strong during late injection and also more intense

  20. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Junepyo

    2015-01-01

    -octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel

  1. Heat flux characteristics of spray wall impingement with ethanol, butanol, iso-octane, gasoline and E10 fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serras-Pereira, J.; Aleiferis, P.G.; Walmsley, H.L.; Davies, T.J.; Cracknell, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat flux sensors used to characterise the locations of fuel spray wall impingement. • Droplet evaporation modelling used to study the effect of fuel properties. • Behaviour of ethanol and butanol distinctively different to hydrocarbons. -- Abstract: Future fuel stocks for spark-ignition engines are expected to include a significant portion of bio-derived components with quite different chemical and physical properties to those of liquid hydrocarbons. State-of-the-art high-pressure multi-hole injectors for latest design direct-injection spark-ignition engines offer some great benefits in terms of fuel atomisation, as well as flexibility in in-cylinder fuel targeting by selection of the exact number and angle of the nozzle’s holes. However, in order to maximise such benefits for future spark-ignition engines and minimise any deteriorating effects with regards to exhaust emissions, it is important to avoid liquid fuel impingement onto the cylinder walls and take into consideration various types of biofuels. This paper presents results from the use of heat flux sensors to characterise the locations and levels of liquid fuel impingement onto the engine’s liner walls when injected from a centrally located multi-hole injector with an asymmetric pattern of spray plumes. Ethanol, butanol, iso-octane, gasoline and a blend of 10% ethanol with 90% gasoline (E10) were tested and compared. The tests were performed in the cylinder of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine at static conditions (i.e. quiescent chamber at 1.0 bar) and motoring conditions (at full load with inlet plenum pressure of 1.0 bar) with different engine temperatures in order to decouple competing effects. The collected data were analysed to extract time-resolved signals, as well as mean and standard deviation levels of peak heat flux. The results were interpreted with reference to in-cylinder spray formation characteristics, as well as fuel evaporation rates obtained by modelling

  2. Blending Octane Number of Toluene with Gasoline-like and PRF Fuels in HCCI Combustion Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Sarathy, Mani; Johansson, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency but progression towards this is limited by the phenomenon called knock. A possible solution for reaching high efficiency is Octane-on-Demand (OoD), which allows to customize the antiknock

  3. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  4. Liquid fuel concept benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.

    1996-01-01

    There are principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel listed and analyzed in the first part of the paper. One of the primary results of the analyses performed shows that the solid fuel concept, which was to certain degree advantageous in the first periods of a nuclear reactor development and operation, has guided this branch of a utilization of atomic nucleus energy to a death end. On the background of this, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the first part of the paper, too. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilize the advantages of liquid fuels, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed and currently having been under development in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, will be studied both theoretically and experimentally. There is a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-O briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project. Finally, there will be another very promising concept of a small low power ADTT system introduced which is characterized by a high level of safety and economical efficiency. In the conclusion, the overall survey of principal benefits which may be expected by introducing liquid nuclear fuel in nuclear power and research reactor systems is given and critically analyzed. 7 refs, 4 figs

  5. A comparative study of the oxidation characteristics of two gasoline fuels and an n-heptane/iso-octane surrogate mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2015-01-01

    Ignition delay times and CO, H2O, OH and CO2 time-histories were measured behind reflected shock waves for two FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines and one PRF (Primary Reference Fuel) blend. The FACE gasolines chosen for this work are primarily paraffinic and have the same octane rating (∼RON = 84) as the PRF blend, but contain varying amounts of iso- and n-paraffins. Species time-histories and ignition delay times were measured using laser absorption methods over a temperature range of 1350-1550 K and pressures near 2 atm. Measured species time-histories and ignition delay times of the PRF blend and the two FACE fuels agreed reasonably well. However, when compared to recent gasoline surrogate mechanisms, the simulations did not capture some of the kinetic trends found in the species profiles. To our knowledge, this work provides some of the first shock tube species time-history data for gasoline fuels and PRF surrogates and should enable further improvements in detailed kinetic mechanisms of gasoline fuels.

  6. General collection efficiency in liquid iso-octane and tetramethylsilane used as sensitive media in a thimble ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, B.E.; Bahar-Gogani, J.; Wickman, G.

    1999-01-01

    The general collection efficiency in the dielectric liquids iso-octane (C 8 H 18 ; 2-2-4 trimethylpentane) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH 3 ) 4 ), used as sensitive media in a thimble liquid ionization chamber (LIC) with a liquid layer thickness of 1 mm, has been studied. Measurements were made for continuous radiation at varying dose rates using 140 keV photons from the decay of 99m Tc for chamber polarizing voltages of 50, 100 and 500 V. The maximum dose rate in each measurement session was about 150 mGy min -1 . The experimental results were compared with theoretical general collection efficiencies calculated by the equation for the general collection efficiency in gases. The results show that the general collection efficiency in a thimble LIC for continuous radiation can be calculated with the equation for the general collection efficiency in gas ionization chambers, using the same chamber geometry correction factors and analogous characteristic ion recombination parameters for the dielectric liquids. (author)

  7. Fuel octane effects in the partially premixed combustion regime in compression ignition engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildingsson, L.; Kalghatgi, G.T.; Tait, N.; Johansson, B.H.; Harrison, A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has showed that it may be advantageous to use fuels of lower cetane numbers compared to today's diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. The benefits come from the longer ignition delays that these fuels have. There is more time available for the fuel and air to mix before

  8. Liquid fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breinholt, T.; Gylling, M.; Parsby, M.; Meyer Henius, U.; Sander Nielsen, B.

    1992-09-01

    Various options for Danish production of liquid motor fuels from biomass have been studied in the context of the impact of EEC new common agricultural policy on prices and production quantities of crops, processes and production economy, restraints concerning present and future markets in Denmark, environmental aspects, in particular substitution of fossil fuels in the overall production and end-use, revenue loss required to assure competition with fossil fuels and national competence in business, industry and research. The options studied are rapeseed oil and derivates, ethanol, methanol and other thermo-chemical conversion products. The study shows that the combination of fuel production and co-generation of heat and electricity carried out with energy efficiency and utilization of surplus electricity is important for the economics under Danish conditions. Considering all aspects, ethanol production seems most favorable but in the long term, pyrolyses with catalytic cracking could be an interesting option. The cheapest source of biomass in Denmark is straw, where a considerable amount of the surplus could be used. Whole crop harvested wheat on land otherwise set aside to be fallow could also be an important source for ethanol production. Most of the options contribute favorably to reductions of fossil fuel consumption, but variations are large and the substitution factor is to a great extent dependent on the individual case. (AB) (32 refs.)

  9. Laminar Burning Velocities of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Gasoline and Gasoline Surrogates with and without Ethanol Blending Associated with Octane Rating

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2016-05-04

    Laminar burning velocities of fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) C gasoline and of several blends of surrogate toluene reference fuels (TRFs) (n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene mixtures) of the same research octane number are presented. Effects of ethanol addition on laminar flame speed of FACE-C and its surrogate are addressed. Measurements were conducted using a constant volume spherical combustion vessel in the constant pressure, stable flame regime at an initial temperature of 358 K and initial pressures up to 0.6 MPa with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Comparable values in the laminar burning velocities were measured for the FACE-C gasoline and the proposed surrogate fuel (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) over the range of experimental conditions. Sensitivity of flame propagation to total stretch rate effects and thermo-diffusive instability was quantified by determining Markstein length. Two percentages of an oxygenated fuel of ethanol as an additive, namely, 60 vol% and 85 vol% were investigated. The addition of ethanol to FACE-C and its surrogate TRF-1 (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) resulted in a relatively similar increase in the laminar burning velocities. The high-pressure measured values of Markstein length for the studied fuels blended with ethanol showed minimal influence of ethanol addition on the flame’s response to stretch rate and thermo-diffusive instability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Laminar Burning Velocities of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Gasoline and Gasoline Surrogates with and without Ethanol Blending Associated with Octane Rating

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama; Mansour, Morkous S.; Roberts, William L.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Laminar burning velocities of fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) C gasoline and of several blends of surrogate toluene reference fuels (TRFs) (n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene mixtures) of the same research octane number are presented. Effects of ethanol addition on laminar flame speed of FACE-C and its surrogate are addressed. Measurements were conducted using a constant volume spherical combustion vessel in the constant pressure, stable flame regime at an initial temperature of 358 K and initial pressures up to 0.6 MPa with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Comparable values in the laminar burning velocities were measured for the FACE-C gasoline and the proposed surrogate fuel (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) over the range of experimental conditions. Sensitivity of flame propagation to total stretch rate effects and thermo-diffusive instability was quantified by determining Markstein length. Two percentages of an oxygenated fuel of ethanol as an additive, namely, 60 vol% and 85 vol% were investigated. The addition of ethanol to FACE-C and its surrogate TRF-1 (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) resulted in a relatively similar increase in the laminar burning velocities. The high-pressure measured values of Markstein length for the studied fuels blended with ethanol showed minimal influence of ethanol addition on the flame’s response to stretch rate and thermo-diffusive instability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  11. A Group Contribution Method for Estimating Cetane and Octane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, William Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group

    2016-07-28

    Much of the research on advanced biofuels is devoted to the study of novel chemical pathways for converting nonfood biomass into liquid fuels that can be blended with existing transportation fuels. Many compounds under consideration are not found in the existing fuel supplies. Often, the physical properties needed to assess the viability of a potential biofuel are not available. The only reliable information available may be the molecular structure. Group contribution methods for estimating physical properties from molecular structure have been used for more than 60 years. The most common application is estimation of thermodynamic properties. More recently, group contribution methods have been developed for estimating rate dependent properties including cetane and octane numbers. Often, published group contribution methods are limited in terms of types of function groups and range of applicability. In this study, a new, broadly-applicable group contribution method based on an artificial neural network was developed to estimate cetane number research octane number, and motor octane numbers of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The new method is more accurate over a greater range molecular weights and structural complexity than existing group contribution methods for estimating cetane and octane numbers.

  12. Production of high-octane, unleaded motor fuel by alkylation of isobutane with isoamylenes obtained by dehydrogenation of isopentane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutson, T. Jr.; Hann, P.D.

    1981-01-31

    A process combination, with inter-cooperation, for producing high-octane alkylates comprising (a) dehydrogenating isopentane to isopentenes (amylenes), (b) introducing the mixture of said amylenes and unconverted isopentane into an HF alkylation unit for reaction with fresh or recycled isobutane, (c) separating the alkylation products into high octane alkylates, isopentane (for recycling to the dehydrogenation reactor) and isobutane (for recycling to the alkylation reactor).

  13. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  14. Microorganism mediated liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, Richard

    2018-03-20

    Herein disclosed is a method for producing liquid hydrocarbon product, the method comprising disintegrating a hydrocarbon source; pretreating the disintegrated hydrocarbon source; solubilizing the disintegrated hydrocarbon source to form a slurry comprising a reactant molecule of the hydrocarbon source; admixing a biochemical liquor into the slurry, wherein the biochemical liquor comprises at least one conversion enzyme configured to facilitate bond selective photo-fragmentation of said reactant molecule of the hydrocarbon source, to form liquid hydrocarbons via enzyme assisted bond selective photo-fragmentation, wherein said conversion enzyme comprises reactive sites configured to restrict said reactant molecule such that photo-fragmentation favorably targets a preselected internal bond of said reactant molecule; separating the liquid hydrocarbons from the slurry, wherein contaminants remain in the slurry; and enriching the liquid hydrocarbons to form a liquid hydrocarbon product. Various aspects of such method/process are also discussed.

  15. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2015-11-02

    Effects of temperature, pressure and global equivalence ratio on total ignition delay time in a constant volume spray combustion chamber were investigated for diesel fuel along with the primary reference fuels (PRFs) of n-heptane and iso-octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel pump. A gradient method was adopted in determining the start of ignition in order to compensate pressure increase induced by low temperature heat release. Comparison of this method with other existing methods was discussed. Ignition delay times were measured at various equivalence ratios (0.5-1.7) with the temperatures of initial charge air in the range from 698 to 860 K and the pressures in the range of 1.5 to 2.1 MPa, pertinent to low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions. An attempt to scale the effect of pressure on total ignition delay was undertaken and the equivalence ratio exponent and activation energy in the Arrhenius expression of total ignition delay were determined. Ignition delay results indicated that there were strong correlations of pressure, temperature, and equivalence ratio under most conditions studied except at relatively low pressures. Diesel (DCN 52.5) and n-heptane (DCN 54) fuels exhibited reasonably similar ignition delay characteristics, while iso-octane showed a distinct behavior under low temperature regime having a two-stage ignition, which substantiate the adoption of the gradient method in determining ignition delay.

  16. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  17. Sulphur in liquid fuels 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Fuels Div., Oil, Gas and Energy Branch ; Sabourin, R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Environment Canada has developed new regulations for sulphur content in fuels in an effort to align with requirements recently passed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report summarizes data regarding sulphur content in liquid fuels for the year 2002. The requirements of the Sulphur in Gasoline Regulation came into effect in 2002, limiting the average sulphur content of gasoline to 150 mg/kg. In January 2005, a 30 mg/kg average limit will come into effect. Also, in July 2002, the Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulation stipulated a maximum limit of 500 mg/kg for on-road diesel fuel. The new regulation continues this limit until mid-2006 at which time a 15 mg/kg limit will come into effect for on-road diesel fuel. Nationally, the average sulphur content in gasoline in 2002 was 246 mg/kg, which was 14.3 per cent lower than in 2001. The data covers the period from January 1 to December 31, 2002 and was obtained from petroleum refineries and importing companies that are required to submit quarterly information to the regional office of Environment Canada. Failure to comply results in penalties. The report includes data for aviation turbo fuel, motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, kerosene oil, low-sulphur diesel fuel, diesel fuel, light fuel oil, and heavy fuel oil. 16 tabs., 17 figs., 7 appendices.

  18. Compressed liquid densities for the (n-heptane + n-decane) and (n-octane + n-decane) systems from T = (313 to 363) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo-Nolasco, Rodolfo; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → We built an equipment which consists of a variable volume cell and a VTD Anton Paar DMA-HPM. → Compressed liquid densities are reported for n-heptane and n-decane. → Binary (n-heptane or n-octane + n-decane) systems were studied in the whole range of composition. → Derived properties were calculated from experimental data. - Abstract: Densities (p, ρ, T, x 1 ) of two binary n-alkane systems are reported from T = (313 to 363) K in the compressed liquid phase up to 25 MPa over the whole range of composition. The binary mixtures {x 1 n-heptane + (1 - x 1 )n-decane} and {x 1 n-octane + (1 - x 1 )n-decane} were prepared at compositions of (x 1 = 0.0531, 0.2594, 0.5219, 0.777, 0.952), and (x 1 = 0.0616, 0.2801, 0.5314, 0.7736, 0.9623), respectively. A measuring system based on a vibrating tube densimeter, DMA HPM from Anton Paar with data acquisition system was developed in order to obtain experimental densities. Water and nitrogen were used as reference fluids to calibrate the densimeter. Experimental methodology was checked by comparing the n-heptane and n-decane densities against multi-parameter equations proposed in the literature. Differences between both sets of data show a maximum deviation of 0.07%. Excess molar volumes, isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansivity were computed from experimental densities.

  19. Compressed liquid densities for the (n-heptane + n-decane) and (n-octane + n-decane) systems from T = (313 to 363) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo-Nolasco, Rodolfo [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, SEPI-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Ed. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER piso, Lindavista, C.P. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Galicia-Luna, Luis A., E-mail: lgalicial@ipn.mx [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, SEPI-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Ed. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER piso, Lindavista, C.P. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Elizalde-Solis, Octavio [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Petrolera, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPALM, Edif. 8, 2o piso, Lindavista, C.P. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > We built an equipment which consists of a variable volume cell and a VTD Anton Paar DMA-HPM. > Compressed liquid densities are reported for n-heptane and n-decane. > Binary (n-heptane or n-octane + n-decane) systems were studied in the whole range of composition. > Derived properties were calculated from experimental data. - Abstract: Densities (p, {rho}, T, x{sub 1}) of two binary n-alkane systems are reported from T = (313 to 363) K in the compressed liquid phase up to 25 MPa over the whole range of composition. The binary mixtures {l_brace}x{sub 1}n-heptane + (1 - x{sub 1})n-decane{r_brace} and {l_brace}x{sub 1}n-octane + (1 - x{sub 1})n-decane{r_brace} were prepared at compositions of (x{sub 1} = 0.0531, 0.2594, 0.5219, 0.777, 0.952), and (x{sub 1} = 0.0616, 0.2801, 0.5314, 0.7736, 0.9623), respectively. A measuring system based on a vibrating tube densimeter, DMA HPM from Anton Paar with data acquisition system was developed in order to obtain experimental densities. Water and nitrogen were used as reference fluids to calibrate the densimeter. Experimental methodology was checked by comparing the n-heptane and n-decane densities against multi-parameter equations proposed in the literature. Differences between both sets of data show a maximum deviation of 0.07%. Excess molar volumes, isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansivity were computed from experimental densities.

  20. Fueling by liquid jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, C.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of steady-state burn in tokamak fusion reactors will require a reliable method for fueling them during operation. The injection of high-velocity dense-phase DT is one solution under investigation. The eventual requirements are not known precisely but the next series of experiments in tokamak devices (e.g., Doublet III, PDX) could use millimeter size particles with velocities of the order of 2000 m/s. This paper presents results on the feasibility of a high-pressure injection system to meet these objectives

  1. Numerical Investigation on Sensitivity of Liquid Jet Breakup to Physical Fuel Properties with Experimental Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dokyun; Bravo, Luis; Matusik, Katarzyna; Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Swantek, Andy; Powell, Christopher; Ham, Frank

    2016-11-01

    One of the major concerns in modern direct injection engines is the sensitivity of engine performance to fuel characteristics. Recent works have shown that even slight differences in fuel properties can cause significant changes in efficiency and emission of an engine. Since the combustion process is very sensitive to the fuel/air mixture formation resulting from disintegration of liquid jet, the precise assessment of fuel sensitivity on liquid jet atomization process is required first to study the impact of different fuels on the combustion. In the present study, the breaking process of a liquid jet from a diesel injector injecting into a quiescent gas chamber is investigated numerically and experimentally for different liquid fuels (n-dodecane, iso-octane, CAT A2 and C3). The unsplit geometric Volume-of-Fluid method is employed to capture the phase interface in Large-eddy simulations and results are compared against the radiography measurement from Argonne National Lab including jet penetration, liquid mass distribution and volume fraction. The breakup characteristics will be shown for different fuels as well as droplet PDF statistics to demonstrate the influences of the physical properties on the primary atomization of liquid jet. Supported by HPCMP FRONTIER award, US DOD, Office of the Army.

  2. Experimental Study of the Effect of Octane Number on the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed R. Jasem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments had been carried out using two stroke, single cylinder type (TD113, with compression ratio of (7.3:1 Coupled to hydraulic dynamometer type (TD115.          The results showed that there is  enhancement   of the engine  performance  with increasing octane number. This appears clearly when comparing the results of performance with fuel of 75 and 95 octane number.The torque increases 10% at speed of 2750 RPM. The break power also increases 18% when the octane number changed from 75 to 95 at 3000 RPM of engine speed. The same change in octane number will increase the thermal efficiency by 9% at 2300 RPM of engine speed. The break specific fuel consumption decreases at the same ratio of thermal efficiency 9% but at 2400 RPM. The less fuel consumption happens at 2400 RPM for octane number 95. 

  3. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  4. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  5. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; DiVita, Vincent [Jacobs Consultancy Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  6. A comparative study of the oxidation characteristics of two gasoline fuels and an n-heptane/iso-octane surrogate mixture

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour; Nasir, Ehson F.; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    Ignition delay times and CO, H2O, OH and CO2 time-histories were measured behind reflected shock waves for two FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines and one PRF (Primary Reference Fuel) blend. The FACE gasolines chosen for this work

  7. Isobaric vapour-liquid-liquid equilibrium and vapour-liquid equilibrium for the system water + ethanol + iso-octane at 101.3 kPa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Beviá, Francisco; Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Asensi Steegmann, Juan Carlos; Font Escamilla, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Poster enviado a Equifase 2002, VI Iberoamerican Conference on Phase Equilibria for Process Design, Foz de Iguazú (Brazil), October 12th to 16th, 2002. Many studies have been carried out in the heterogeneous azeotropic distillation field either by experiment or by simulation. The development of all these studies requires the use of sets of isobaric vapour–liquid–liquid equilibrium (VLLE) data. However, the number of ternary systems with experimental VLLE data is very limited, since it is d...

  8. Ignition studies of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene blends

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-07-09

    Ignition delay times of four ternary blends of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene, referred to as Toluene Primary Reference Fuels (TPRFs), have been measured in a high-pressure shock tube and in a rapid compression machine. The TPRFs were formulated to match the research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) of two high-octane gasolines and two prospective low-octane naphtha fuels. The experiments were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (650–1250 K), at pressures of 10, 20 and 40 bar, and at equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 1.0. It was observed that the ignition delay times of these TPRFs exhibit negligible octane dependence at high temperatures (T > 1000 K), weak octane dependence at low temperatures (T < 700 K), and strong octane dependence in the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) regime. A detailed chemical kinetic model was used to simulate and interpret the measured data. It was shown that the kinetic model requires general improvements to better predict low-temperature conditions and particularly requires improvements for high sensitivity (high toluene concentration) TPRF blends. These datasets will serve as important benchmark for future gasoline surrogate mechanism development and validation. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  9. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  10. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  11. Autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted jet flames of pre-vaporized iso-octane in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.; Choi, Sang Kyu; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The stabilization characteristics of laminar non-premixed jet flames of pre-vaporized iso-octane, one of the primary reference fuels for octane rating, have been studied experimentally in heated coflow air. Non-autoignited and autoignited lifted

  12. Chemical Kinetic Insights into the Octane Number and Octane Sensitivity of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan

    2017-02-01

    Gasoline octane number is a significant empirical parameter for the optimization and development of internal combustion engines capable of resisting knock. Although extensive databases and blending rules to estimate the octane numbers of mixtures have been developed and the effects of molecular structure on autoignition properties are somewhat understood, a comprehensive theoretical chemistry-based foundation for blending effects of fuels on engine operations is still to be developed. In this study, we present models that correlate the research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) with simulated homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay times of stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures. These correlations attempt to bridge the gap between the fundamental autoignition behavior of the fuel (e.g., its chemistry and how reactivity changes with temperature and pressure) and engine properties such as its knocking behavior in a cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The study encompasses a total of 79 hydrocarbon gasoline surrogate mixtures including 11 primary reference fuels (PRF), 43 toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF), and 19 multicomponent (MC) surrogate mixtures. In addition to TPRF mixture components of iso-octane/n-heptane/toluene, MC mixtures, including n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, 1-hexene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, were blended and tested to mimic real gasoline sensitivity. ASTM testing protocols D-2699 and D-2700 were used to measure the RON and MON of the MC mixtures in a CFR engine, while the PRF and TPRF mixtures’ octane ratings were obtained from the literature. The mixtures cover a RON range of 0–100, with the majority being in the 70–100 range. A parametric simulation study across a temperature range of 650–950 K and pressure range of 15–50 bar was carried out in a constant-volume homogeneous batch reactor to calculate chemical kinetic ignition delay times. Regression tools were utilized to find the conditions at which RON and MON

  13. Relating the octane numbers of fuels to ignition delay times measured in an ignition quality tester (IQT)

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal; Yang, Seung Yeon; Kalghatgi, Gautam; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    an ignition quality tester. A baseline data of ignition delay times were determined using an ignition quality tester at a charge pressure of 21.3 bar between 770 and 850 K and an equivalence ratio of 0.7 for various primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures

  14. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  15. Autoignition of liquid-fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzutani, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the published autoignition data of liquid fuel sprays that were extensively reviewed by classifying them into the following three categories; liquid fuels injected into a stagnant hot atmosphere, liquid fuels injected into a hot air stream (vitiated or unvitiated), and droplet cluster ignited behind an incident or reflected shock. Comparison of these data with the counterparts of gaseous fuels and single droplets revealed that it was the ignition process dominated by droplet evaporation whereas it was the one dominated by chemical kinetics. It consisted, depending on the experimental condition, of the data and of the ignition process dominated by the shattering of droplets by an incident shock. In addition, theoretical works on spray autoignition were reviewed, pointing out that they were still far from universally predicting the ignition delays of liquid fuel sprays

  16. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  17. Auto-Ignition and Spray Characteristics of n-Heptane and iso-Octane Fuels in Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2018-04-04

    Numerical simulations were conducted to systematically assess the effects of different spray models on the ignition delay predictions and compared with experimental measurements obtained at the KAUST ignition quality tester (IQT) facility. The influence of physical properties and chemical kinetics over the ignition delay time is also investigated. The IQT experiments provided the pressure traces as the main observables, which are not sufficient to obtain a detailed understanding of physical (breakup, evaporation) and chemical (reactivity) processes associated with auto-ignition. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE™, was used to capture the detailed fluid/spray dynamics and chemical characteristics within the IQT configuration. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence with multi-zone chemistry sub-models was adopted with a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane. The emphasis was on the assessment of two common spray breakup models, namely the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) and linearized instability sheet atomization (LISA) models, in terms of their influence on auto-ignition predictions. Two spray models resulted in different local mixing, and their influence in the prediction of auto-ignition was investigated. The relative importance of physical ignition delay, characterized by spray evaporation and mixing processes, in the overall ignition behavior for the two different fuels were examined. The results provided an improved understanding of the essential contribution of physical and chemical processes that are critical in describing the IQT auto-ignition event at different pressure and temperature conditions, and allowed a systematic way to distinguish between the physical and chemical ignition delay times.

  18. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  19. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Sara Safari [Faculty of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Alimorad, E-mail: rashidiam@ripi.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran 14665-1998 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza [Catalysis Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Leila [Faculty of Chemistry, Kashan University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  20. Green factories for liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, G.J.; Calvin, M.

    1978-04-01

    Various plants that could be and are being used for the production of synthetic fuels are discussed. Among these are Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbia tirucalli, and Euphorbia lathyris. Advantages of fuel production from renewable plant resources are presented; cost estimates are included. (JGB)

  1. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  2. Development of high performance liquid chromatography for rapid determination of burn-up of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Karunasagar, D.; Saha, B.

    1996-01-01

    Burn-up an important parameter during evaluation of the performance of any nuclear fuel. Among the various techniques available, the preferred one for its determination is based on accurate measurement of a suitable fission product monitor and the residual heavy elements. Since isotopes of rare earth elements are generally used as burn-up monitors, conditions were standardized for rapid separation (within 15 minutes) of light rare earths using high performance liquid chromatography based on either anion exchange (Partisil 10 SAX) in methanol-nitric acid medium or by cation exchange on a reverse phase column (Spherisorb 5-ODS-2 or Supelcosil LC-18) dynamically modified with 1-octane sulfonate or camphor-10-sulfonic acid (β). Both these methods were assessed for separation of individual fission product rare earths from their mixtures. A new approach has been examined in detail for rapid assay of neodymium, which appears promising for faster and accurate measurement of burn-up. (author)

  3. Nontoxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coil, Millicent

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of propellants used in conventional propulsion systems increases not only safety risks to personnel but also costs, due to special handling required during the entire lifetime of the propellants. Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) has developed and tested novel nontoxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. In Phase I of the project, the company demonstrated the feasibility of several ionic liquid formulations that equaled the performance of conventional rocket propellant monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and also provided low volatility and low toxicity. In Phase II, ORBITEC refined the formulations, conducted material property tests, and investigated combustion behavior in droplet and microreactor experiments. The company also explored the effect of injector design on performance and demonstrated the fuels in a small-scale thruster. The ultimate goal is to replace propellants such as MMH with fuels that are simultaneously high-performance and nontoxic. The fuels will have uses in NASA's propulsion applications and also in a range of military and commercial functions.

  4. Operating a locomotive on liquid methane fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that several years ago, Burlington Northern Railroad looked into the feasibility of operating a diesel railroad locomotive to also run on compressed natural gas in a dual-fuel mode. Recognizing the large volume of on-board storage required and other limitations of CNG in the application, a program was begun to fuel a locomotive with liquefied natural gas. Because natural gas composition can vary with source and processing, it was considered desirable to use essentially pure liquid methane as the engine fuel. Initial testing results show the locomotive system achieved full diesel-rated power when operating on liquid methane and with equivalent fuel efficiency. Extended testing, including an American Association of Railroad 500-hour durability test, was undertaken to obtain information on engine life, wear rate and lubrication oil life

  5. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  6. Liquid fuels from alternative feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew, S

    1984-01-01

    The problem of fuels and feedstocks is not technological but political and financial. Methanol is discussed as the lowest cost gasoline substitute to produce. There are two possibilities included for production of methanol: from coal or lignite - either in the US or in Europe, or from natural gas. Biologically produced fuels and feedstocks have the advantage of being renewable. The use of agricultural feedstocks are discussed but only sugar, starch and cellulose are suitable. In the microbiological field, only the metabolic waste product ethanol is cheap enough for use.

  7. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2017-07-04

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  8. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  9. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  10. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  11. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  12. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol in HCCI, SI and CI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad

    2016-10-17

    The effect of ethanol blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.3, 71.8 and 83.5, respectively, were compared to PRF70 and PRF84 with the same ethanol concentrations, these being 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume. A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used to understand the blending effect of ethanol with FACE gasolines and PRFs in spark-ignited and homogeneous charge compression ignited mode. Blending octane numbers (BON) were obtained for both the modes. All the fuels were also tested in an ignition quality tester to obtain Blending Derived Cetane numbers (BDCN). It is shown that fuel composition and octane number are important characteristics of all the base fuels that have a significant impact on octane increase with ethanol. The dependency of octane number for the base fuel on the blending octane number depended on the combustion mode operated. The aromatic composition in the base fuel, effects blending octane number of the mixture, for fuels with higher aromatic content lower blending octane numbers were observed for ethanol concentration.

  13. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol in HCCI, SI and CI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad; Naser, Nimal; Sarathy, Mani; Morganti, Kai; Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ethanol blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.3, 71.8 and 83.5, respectively, were compared to PRF70 and PRF84 with the same ethanol concentrations, these being 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume. A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used to understand the blending effect of ethanol with FACE gasolines and PRFs in spark-ignited and homogeneous charge compression ignited mode. Blending octane numbers (BON) were obtained for both the modes. All the fuels were also tested in an ignition quality tester to obtain Blending Derived Cetane numbers (BDCN). It is shown that fuel composition and octane number are important characteristics of all the base fuels that have a significant impact on octane increase with ethanol. The dependency of octane number for the base fuel on the blending octane number depended on the combustion mode operated. The aromatic composition in the base fuel, effects blending octane number of the mixture, for fuels with higher aromatic content lower blending octane numbers were observed for ethanol concentration.

  14. Ignition studies of two low-octane gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2017-07-24

    Low-octane gasolines (RON ∼ 50–70 range) are prospective fuels for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) internal combustion engines. GCI technology utilizing low-octane fuels has the potential to significantly improve well-to-wheel efficiency and reduce the transportation sector\\'s environmental footprint by offsetting diesel fuel usage in compression ignition engines. In this study, ignition delay times of two low-octane FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, FACE I and FACE J, were measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine over a broad range of engine-relevant conditions (650–1200 K, 20 and 40 bar and ϕ = 0.5 and 1). The two gasolines are of similar octane ratings with anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2, of ∼ 70 and sensitivity, S = RON–MON, of ∼ 3. However, the molecular compositions of the two gasolines are notably different. Experimental ignition delay time results showed that the two gasolines exhibited similar reactivity over a wide range of test conditions. Furthermore, ignition delay times of a primary reference fuel (PRF) surrogate (n-heptane/iso-octane blend), having the same AKI as the FACE gasolines, captured the ignition behavior of these gasolines with some minor discrepancies at low temperatures (T < 700 K). Multi-component surrogates, formulated by matching the octane ratings and compositions of the two gasolines, emulated the autoignition behavior of gasolines from high to low temperatures. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine simulations were used to show that the PRF and multi-component surrogates exhibited similar combustion phasing over a wide range of engine operating conditions.

  15. Catalysts for producing high octane-blending value olefins for gasoline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bruijn, de J.N.H.

    2001-01-01

    New restrictions on gasoline components mean that oxygenates and aromatics must be replaced by other high octane components. The dimerization of linear butene to form high octane gasoline blending components is evaluated under liquid phase reaction conditions over a number of different heterogeneous

  16. Production costs of liquid fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of the full range of processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. Thermochemical conversion includes both indirect liquefaction through gasification, and direct liquefaction through pyrolysis and liquefaction in pressurized solvents. Biochemical conversion is based on a different set of feedstocks. Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis are included followed by fermentation. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons and conventional alcohol fuels of methanol and ethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. In terms of absolute fuel costs, thermochemical conversion offers the lowest cost products, with the least complex processes generally having an advantage. Biochemical routes are the least attractive. The most attractive processes from comparing production costs to product values are generally the alcohol fuels which enjoy a higher market value. (author)

  17. Metal-deactivating additives for liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boneva, M.I. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, S.K.; Kalitchin, Z.D. [SciBulCom, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Tanielyan, S.K. [Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ (United States); Terebenina, A.; Todorova, O.I. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-05-01

    The metal-deactivating and the antioxidant properties of 1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolone-5 derivatives have been investigated both in the model reaction of low temperature oxidation of ethylbenzene and in gasoline oxidation. The study of the ability of these derivatives to reduce the catalytic effect of copper naphthenate demonstrates that they are promising as metal deactivating additives for light fuels. Some of the pyrazolone compounds appear to be of special interest for the long-term storage of liquid fuels due to their action as multifunctional inhibitors.

  18. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  19. Wetted foam liquid fuel ICF target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R E; Leeper, R J; Yi, S A; Kline, J L; Zylstra, A B; Peterson, R R; Shah, R; Braun, T; Biener, J; Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Nikroo, A; Hopkins, L Berzak; Ho, D; LePape, S; Meezan, N B

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a new NIF experimental platform that employs wetted foam liquid fuel layer ICF capsules. We will use the liquid fuel layer capsules in a NIF sub-scale experimental campaign to explore the relationship between hot spot convergence ratio (CR) and the predictability of hot spot formation. DT liquid layer ICF capsules allow for flexibility in hot spot CR via the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density. Our hypothesis is that the predictive capability of hot spot formation is robust and 1D-like for a relatively low CR hot spot (CR∼15), but will become less reliable as hot spot CR is increased to CR>20. Simulations indicate that backing off on hot spot CR is an excellent way to reduce capsule instability growth and to improve robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries. In the initial experiments, we will test our hypothesis by measuring hot spot size, neutron yield, ion temperature, and burn width to infer hot spot pressure and compare to predictions for implosions with hot spot CR's in the range of 12 to 25. Larger scale experiments are also being designed, and we will advance from sub-scale to full-scale NIF experiments to determine if 1D-like behavior at low CR is retained as the scale-size is increased. The long-term objective is to develop a liquid fuel layer ICF capsule platform with robust thermonuclear burn, modest CR, and significant α-heating with burn propagation. (paper)

  20. Multiplexed electrospray scaling for liquid fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waits, C Mike; Hanrahan, Brendan; Lee, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Evaporation and space-charge requirements are evaluated to understand the effect of device scaling and fuel preheating for a liquid fuel injector using a multiplexed electrospray (MES) configuration in compact combustion applications. This work reveals the influence of the droplet diameter, droplet velocity and droplet surface temperature as well as the surrounding gas temperature on the size and performance of microfabricated MES. Measurements from MES devices are used in the model to accurately account for the droplet diameter versus flow rate relationship, the minimum droplet diameter and the relevant droplet velocities. A maximum extractor electrode to ground electrode distance of 3.1 mm required to overcome space-charge forces is found to be independent of voltage or droplet velocity for large levels of multiplexing. This maximum distance also becomes the required evaporation length scale which imposes minimum fuel pre-heating requirements for large flow densities. Required fuel preheating is therefore evaluated for both ethanol and 1-butanol with combustor parameters relevant to fuel reformation, thermoelectric conversion, thermophotovoltaic conversion and thermionic conversion

  1. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  2. Study of molecular interactions in binary liquid mixtures of 1-octanol with n-hexane, n-octane, and n-decane using volumetric, viscometric, and acoustic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Gyan P.; Sharma, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Experimental values of densities (ρ) and speeds of sound (u) at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K while the viscosities (η) at T = 298.15 K in the binary mixtures of 1-octanol with n-hexane, n-octane, and n-decane are presented over the entire composition range of the binary mixtures. Using these data, excess molar volumes (V m E ), viscosity deviation (Δη), deviation in speeds of sound (Δu), deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκ s ), excess free volume (V f E ), and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow (ΔG* E ) are calculated and presented graphically. All the computed quantities are fitted to a polynomial equation. The values of V m E have been analyzed using Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory. Furthermore, the theoretical values of speed of sound (u) and isentropic compressibility (κ s ) have also been estimated using the Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory with the van der Waals (vdW) potential energy model and the results have been compared with experimental values. The experimental and calculated quantities are used to study the nature of mixing behaviour between the mixture components

  3. Liquid fuels from biomass in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J.

    1984-03-01

    The incorporation of solar energy into plant material through photosynthesis has the advantage that the energy is stored in a fixed form which is relatively stable, but the disadvantage is that plant biomass is not immediately compatible with the use in internal combustion engines to provide motive power. However, by choice of suitable crops, conversion technologies and engine modification it is possible to produce biomassderived liquid transport fuels; either substitutes for petroleum in the form of alcohols or replacements for diesel fuel in the form of vegetable oils or their esters. Using more complex conversion technologies it is also possible to produce hydrocarbon mixtures similar to petroleum. Some of these methodologies are available on a farm or commercial scale now; some are still at the research and development or demonstration stage, whereas others remain speculative. The purpose of this paper is to consider the present state of the art in respect of the production of liquid transport fuels from biomass and to indicate how the various possibilities might fit with present and future energy needs in the European Community.

  4. Antiknock quality and ignition kinetics of 2-phenylethanol, a novel lignocellulosic octane booster

    KAUST Repository

    Shankar, Vijai; Alabbad, Mohammed; El-Rachidi, Mariam; Mohamed, Samah; Singh, Eshan; Wang, Zhandong; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    High-octane quality fuels are important for increasing spark ignition engine efficiency, but their production comes at a substantial economic and environmental cost. The possibility of producing high anti-knock quality gasoline by blending high

  5. Characterizing Dissolved Gases in Cryogenic Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian A.

    Pressure-Density-Temperature-Composition (PrhoT-x) measurements of cryogenic fuel mixtures are a historical challenge due to the difficulties of maintaining cryogenic temperatures and precision isolation of a mixture sample. For decades NASA has used helium to pressurize liquid hydrogen propellant tanks to maintain tank pressure and reduce boil off. This process causes helium gas to dissolve into liquid hydrogen creating a cryogenic mixture with thermodynamic properties that vary from pure liquid hydrogen. This can lead to inefficiencies in fuel storage and instabilities in fluid flow. As NASA plans for longer missions to Mars and beyond, small inefficiencies such as dissolved helium in liquid propellant become significant. Traditional NASA models are unable to account for dissolved helium due to a lack of fundamental property measurements necessary for the development of a mixture Equation Of State (EOS). The first PrhoT-x measurements of helium-hydrogen mixtures using a retrofitted single-sinker densimeter, magnetic suspension microbalance, and calibrated gas chromatograph are presented in this research. These measurements were used to develop the first multi-phase EOS for helium-hydrogen mixtures which was implemented into NASA's Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) to determine the significance of mixture non-idealities. It was revealed that having dissolved helium in the propellant does not have a significant effect on the tank pressurization rate but does affect the rate at which the propellant temperature rises. PrhoT-x measurements are conducted on methane-ethane mixtures with dissolved nitrogen gas to simulate the conditions of the hydrocarbon seas of Saturn's moon Titan. Titan is the only known celestial body in the solar system besides Earth with stable liquid seas accessible on the surface. The PrhoT-x measurements are used to develop solubility models to aid in the design of the Titan Submarine. NASA is currently designing the submarine

  6. 2-Methylfuran: A bio-derived octane booster for spark-ignition engines

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2018-04-02

    The efficiency of spark-ignition engines is limited by the phenomenon of knock, which is caused by auto-ignition of the fuel-air mixture ahead of the spark-initiated flame front. The resistance of a fuel to knock is quantified by its octane index; therefore, increasing the octane index of a spark-ignition engine fuel increases the efficiency of the respective engine. However, raising the octane index of gasoline increases the refining costs, as well as the energy consumption during production. The use of alternative fuels with synergistic blending effects presents an attractive option for improving octane index. In this work, the octane enhancing potential of 2-methylfuran (2-MF), a next-generation biofuel, has been examined and compared to other high-octane components (i.e., ethanol and toluene). A primary reference fuel with an octane index of 60 (PRF60) was chosen as the base fuel since it closely represents refinery naphtha streams, which are used as gasoline blend stocks. Initial screening of the fuels was done in an ignition quality tester (IQT). The PRF60/2-MF (80/20 v/v%) blend exhibited longer ignition delay times compared to PRF60/ethanol (80/20 v/v%) blend and PRF60/toluene (80/20 v/v%) blend, even though pure 2-MF is more reactive than both ethanol and toluene. The mixtures were also tested in a cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine under research octane number and motor octane number like conditions. The PRF60/2-MF blend again possesses a higher octane index than other blending components. A detailed chemical kinetic analysis was performed to understand the synergetic blending effect of 2-MF, using a well-validated PRF/2-MF kinetic model. Kinetic analysis revealed superior suppression of low-temperature chemistry with the addition of 2-MF. The results from simulations were further confirmed by homogeneous charge compression ignition engine experiments, which established its superior low-temperature heat release (LTHR) suppression compared to ethanol

  7. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  8. Predicting the Liquid Lengths of Heavy Hydrogen Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Laura L

    2003-01-01

    .... Using models formulated by previous researchers as well as the thermodynamic properties for three fuel surrogates the liquid length can be determined for diesel fuel, JP8 as well as provide a model...

  9. Unsupervised Anomaly Detection for Liquid-Fueled Rocket Prop...

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Title: Unsupervised Anomaly Detection for Liquid-Fueled Rocket Propulsion Health Monitoring. Abstract: This article describes the results of applying four...

  10. A methodology to relate octane numbers of binary and ternary n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene mixtures with simulated ignition delay times

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad A.

    2015-08-11

    Predicting octane numbers (ON) of gasoline surrogate mixtures is of significant importance to the optimization and development of internal combustion (IC) engines. Most ON predictive tools utilize blending rules wherein measured octane numbers are fitted using linear or non-linear mixture fractions on a volumetric or molar basis. In this work, the octane numbers of various binary and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene blends, referred to as toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) mixtures, are correlated with a fundamental chemical kinetic parameter, specifically, homogeneous gas-phase fuel/air ignition delay time. Ignition delay times for stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures are calculated at various constant volume conditions (835 K and 20 atm, 825 K and 25 atm, 850 K and 50 atm (research octane number RON-like) and 980 K and 45 atm (motor octane number MON-like)), and for variable volume profiles calculated from cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine pressure and temperature simulations. Compression ratio (or ON) dependent variable volume profile ignition delay times are investigated as well. The constant volume RON-like ignition delay times correlation with RON was the best amongst the other studied conditions. The variable volume ignition delay times condition correlates better with MON than the ignition delay times at the other tested conditions. The best correlation is achieved when using compression ratio dependent variable volume profiles to calculate the ignition delay times. Most of the predicted research octane numbers (RON) have uncertainties that are lower than the repeatability and reproducibility limits of the measurements. Motor octane number (MON) correlation generally has larger uncertainties than that of RON.

  11. Refining economics of U.S. gasoline: octane ratings and ethanol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld, David S; Kolb, Jeffrey A; Anderson, James E; Studzinski, William; Frusti, James

    2014-10-07

    Increasing the octane rating of the U.S. gasoline pool (currently ∼ 93 Research Octane Number (RON)) would enable higher engine efficiency for light-duty vehicles (e.g., through higher compression ratio), facilitating compliance with federal fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards. The federal Renewable Fuels Standard calls for increased renewable fuel use in U.S. gasoline, primarily ethanol, a high-octane gasoline component. Linear programming modeling of the U.S. refining sector was used to assess the effects on refining economics, CO2 emissions, and crude oil use of increasing average octane rating by increasing (i) the octane rating of refinery-produced hydrocarbon blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOBs) and (ii) the volume fraction (Exx) of ethanol in finished gasoline. The analysis indicated the refining sector could produce BOBs yielding finished E20 and E30 gasolines with higher octane ratings at modest additional refining cost, for example, ∼ 1¢/gal for 95-RON E20 or 97-RON E30, and 3-5¢/gal for 95-RON E10, 98-RON E20, or 100-RON E30. Reduced BOB volume (from displacement by ethanol) and lower BOB octane could (i) lower refinery CO2 emissions (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 10% for 100-RON E30) and (ii) reduce crude oil use (e.g., ∼ 3% for 98-RON E20, ∼ 8% for 100-RON E30).

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  13. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  14. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis

  15. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  16. Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.

    1988-01-01

    Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

  17. The JPL Direct Methanol Liquid-feed PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, there has been a breakthrough in fuel cell technology in the Energy Storage Systems Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with the develpment of a direct methanol, liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell... The methanol liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte (PEM) design has numerous system level advantages over the gas-feed design. These include:...

  18. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid

  19. An amateur chemist's high-octane idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of a state-of-the-art facility near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, which will produce the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), was discussed. The additive is considered to be an effective, safe and economical product to enhance gasoline's octane. Although expensive, (US$0.95 per US gallon) it has significant environmental benefits. It is less toxic that other additives such as benzene, xylene and toluene. MTBE reduces gasoline evaporation from tailpipes, refuelling and tank venting in hot weather. The company BioClean Fuels Inc., has patented its own multiple oxygenate manufacturing process which combines the CO 2 from fermentation with the H 2 from butane to produce methanol, a key MTBE ingredient. The new facility will consume 250 million gallons of butane and 650,000 metric tonnes of barley annually to produce 19,000 barrels of MTBE per day, mostly for the California market. 1 fig

  20. A system extinguishing a fire by insulating a liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colome, Jacques; Duchene, Alain; Regnier, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    The invention refers to a system for quickly extinguishing a liquid fuel body on fire by insulating it completely from the ambient air. It applies particularly to the case of a high temperature liquid sodium sheet flowing accidentally from a circuit belonging to a fast neutron reactor. The system in question includes a lower receptacle for collecting the liquid fuel and a top cover shutting off the receptacle. This cover has inclined channels to take the liquid fuel flow and openings to allow this liquid through at the bottom end of the channels. These openings are closed by retractable shutters moving away under the pressure of the liquid in the channels and closing automatically after the liquid has flowed into the receptacle [fr

  1. Shock Tube Measurements for Liquid Fuels Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Ronald K

    2006-01-01

    ...) fundamental studies of fuel spray evaporation rates and ignition times of low-vapor pressure fuels such as JP-8, diesel fuel and normal alkane surrogates in a new aerosol shock tube using state...

  2. A comprehensive iso-octane combustion model with improved thermochemistry and chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Atef, Nour; Kukkadapu, Goutham; Mohamed, Samah; Rashidi, Mariam Al; Banyon, Colin; Mehl, Marco; Heufer, Karl Alexander; Nasir, Ehson Fawad; Alfazazi, Adamu; Das, Apurba K.; Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.; Lu, Tianfeng; Farooq, Aamir; Sung, Chih-Jen; Curran, Henry J.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    Iso-Octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) is a primary reference fuel and an important component of gasoline fuels. Moreover, it is a key component used in surrogates to study the ignition and burning characteristics of gasoline fuels. This paper presents

  3. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  4. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in octane thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2015-12-07

    Confinement breaks the translational symmetry of materials, making all thermodynamic and kinetic quantities functions of position. Such symmetry breaking can be used to obtain configurations that are not otherwise accessible in the bulk. Here, we use computer simulations to explore the effect of substrate-liquid interactions on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies induced by a solid substrate. We consider n-octane nano-films that are in contact with substrates with varying degrees of attraction, parameterized by an interaction parameter ϵS. Complete freezing of octane nano-films is observed at low temperatures, irrespective of ϵS, while at intermediate temperatures, a frozen monolayer emerges at solid-liquid and vapor-liquid interfaces. By carefully inspecting the profiles of translational and orientational relaxation times, we confirm that the translational and orientational degrees of freedom are decoupled at these frozen monolayers. At sufficiently high temperatures, however, free interfaces and solid-liquid interfaces close to loose (low-ϵS) substrates undergo "pre-freezing," characterized by mild peaks in several thermodynamic quantities. Two distinct dynamic regimes are observed at solid-liquid interfaces. The dynamics is accelerated in the vicinity of loose substrates, while sticky (high-ϵS) substrates decelerate dynamics, sometimes by as much as two orders of magnitude. These two distinct dynamical regimes have been previously reported by Haji-Akbari and Debenedetti [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 024506 (2014)] for a model atomic glass-forming liquid. We also confirm the existence of two correlations-proposed in the above-mentioned work-in solid-liquid subsurface regions of octane thin films, i.e., a correlation between atomic density and normal stress, and between atomic translational relaxation time and lateral stress. Finally, we inspect the ability of different regions of an octane film to explore the potential energy landscape by performing inherent

  6. Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao; Vallinayagam, R; Vedharaj, S; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release. Soot mass concentration was measured and linked with the combustion stratification and the integrated red channel intensity of the high-speed images for the soot emissions. The nucleation nanoscale particle number and the particle size distribution were sampled to understand the effect of combustion mode switch.

  7. Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao

    2017-10-10

    In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release. Soot mass concentration was measured and linked with the combustion stratification and the integrated red channel intensity of the high-speed images for the soot emissions. The nucleation nanoscale particle number and the particle size distribution were sampled to understand the effect of combustion mode switch.

  8. Liquid fuels from renewable resources in Canada: systems economics studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osler, C. F

    1978-01-01

    This paper highlights the methodology and results of a six volume study completed for the Canadian government on alternatives for liquid fuel production from renewable resources after the mid-1980s...

  9. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.; Matthews, R.B.

    1991-08-01

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Electrochemical device for syngas and liquid fuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Robert J.; Becker, William L.; Penev, Michael

    2017-04-25

    The invention relates to methods for creating high value liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel, jet and alcohols using carbon dioxide and water as the starting raw materials and a system for using the same. These methods combine a novel solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) for the efficient and clean conversion of carbon dioxide and water to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, uniquely integrated with a gas-to-liquid fuels producing method.

  11. Liquid fuel production from hemicellulose. 2 Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    Hemicellulose was derived from a variety of pretreated wood substrates. A variety of different fungi was screened for the ability of their culture filtrates to hydrolyse hemicellulose to its composite sugars. Three strains of Clostridia were screened to see which could produce higher amounts of solvents from those sugars. C. acetobutylicum proved to produce highest amounts of butanol and conditions for maximum solvent production by this anaerobe were defined. Six strains of facultative anaerobes were screened for their ability to produce power solvents from hemicellulose derived sugars. Klebsiella pneumoniae could efficiently utilize all the major sugars present in wood hemicellulose with 2,3-butanediol being the major end product. The conditions for maximum diol production by K. pneumoniae grown on sugars normally found in hemicellulose hydrolysates were defined. The utilization of wood hemicellulose hydrolyzates by microorganisms for the production of liquid fuels was investigated. Pretreatment of aspen wood by steam-explosion was optimized with respect to maximizing the pentosan yields in the water-soluble fractions of steam-treated substrates. These fractions were then hydrolyzed by dilute sulphuric acid or by the xylanase enzyme(s) present in the culture filtrates of Trichoderma harzianum. The relative efficiencies of hydrolysis were compared with respect to the release of reducing sugars and monosaccharides. The hemicellulose hydrolyzates were then used as substrates for fermentation. Butanediol yields of 0.4-0.5 g per g of sugar consumed were achieved using K. pneumoniae up to 0.16 g butanol could be attained per g of hemicellulose sugar utilized. 102 refs., 50 figs., 169 tabs.

  12. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  13. A blending rule for octane numbers of PRFs and TPRFs with ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2016-04-12

    Ethanol is widely used as an octane booster in commercial gasoline fuels. Its oxygenated nature aids in reducing harmful emissions such as nitric oxides (NOx), soot and unburned hydrocarbons (HC). However, the non-linear octane response of ethanol blending with gasoline fuels is not completely understood because of the unknown intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase (synergistic) or decrease (antagonistic), and the non-linearity depends on the composition of the base gasoline. The complexity of commercial gasoline, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates blends may enable a better understanding of ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. This study presents a blending rule to predict the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol/primary reference fuel (PRF; mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane) and ethanol/toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF; mixtures of toluene, iso-octane and n-heptane) mixtures using the data available in literature and new data. The ON of ethanol blends with PRF-40, -50, and -60 were measured and compared with those from literature. Additional experimental data were collected to validate the developed model for ethanol blends of three different TPRFs having the same RON but different MON (i.e., different toluene contents). The three tested TPRF mixtures have octane ratings of RON 60.0/MON 58.0 (toluene 10.2 vol%), RON 60.0/MON 56.3 (toluene 19.8 vol%), and RON 60.0/MON 53.2 (toluene 40.2 vol%). The octane prediction model consists of linear and non-linear by mole regions. The transition point between the linear and non-linear regions is a function of the RON and MON of the base PRF and TPRF mixture. The non-linear by

  14. Two-stroke engine with gaseous and liquid fuel injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, Rene Sejer [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The need to lower emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates as well as rising oil prices have increased engine operators' interest in alternative fuels and fuel flexibility. The low speed two-stroke ME-GI and ME-LGI dual-fuel engines with diesel pilot injection from MAN Diesel and Turbo offer the opportunity of utilising fuels such as LNG, LPG, and methanol in a wide range of liquid to gaseous fuel ratios. (orig.)

  15. Fuel transfer manipulator for liquid metal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A manipulator for transferring fuel assemblies between inclined fuel chutes of a liquid metal nuclear reactor installation. Hoisting means are mounted on a mount supported by beams pivotably attached by pins to the mount and to the floor in such a manner that pivoting of the beams causes movement and tilting of a hoist tube between positions of alignment with the inclined chutes. (author)

  16. Liquid-Feed Methanol Fuel Cell With Membrane Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Vamos, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Fuel cell generates electricity from direct liquid feed stream of methanol/water solution circulated in contact with anode, plus direct gaseous feed stream of air or oxygen in contact with cathode. Advantages include relative simplicity and elimination of corrosive electrolytic solutions. Offers potential for reductions in size, weight, and complexity, and for increases in safety of fuel-cell systems.

  17. Performance of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.; Kittel, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in metallic fuels for liquid-metal fast reactors has come full circle. Metallic fuels are once again a viable alternative for fast reactors because reactor outlet temperature of interest to industry are well within the range where metallic fuels have demonstrated high burnup and reliable performance. In addition, metallic fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events of its high thermal conductivity and fuel behavior. Futhermore, metallic fuels lend themselves to compact and simplified reprocessing and refabrication technologies, a key feature in a new concept for deployment of fast reactors called the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR concept is a metallic-fueled pool reactor(s) coupled to an integral-remote reprocessing and fabrication facility. The purpose of this paper is to review recent metallic fuel performance, much of which was tested and proven during the twenty years of EBR-II operation

  18. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Divita, Vincent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  19. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  20. Convection-driven melting in an n-octane pool fire bounded by an ice wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmahini Farahani, Hamed; Alva, Ulises; Rangwala, Ali; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-11-01

    Burning of the liquid fuels adjacent to ice bodies creates a lateral cavity due to melting of the ice. The formation of lateral cavities are noticed recently and only a few experimental studies have addressed them. One study has shown lateral cavity formation with length of 12 cm for 5 minutes burning of oil. Based on the hypothesis that melting is facilitated by the convection in the liquid fuel, a series of PIV tests were conducted on burning of n-octane in a square glass tray with a 3 cm thick ice wall placed on one side of the tray. Marangoni generates a flow below the surface of the fuel and near the ice from hot to cold regions. The flow measurements by a 2D PIV system indicated the existence of different flow regimes. Before ignition, combined surface tension and buoyancy effects led to a one roll structure. After ignition the flow field began transitioning toward an unstable regime with an increase in velocity magnitude. Unfortunately, the PIV quality declined in the unstable regime, but indications of a multi-roll structure separating from a primary horizontal flow on the top driven by Marangoni convection were observed. The knowledge gained from these experiments will help determine the influential parameters in ice melting during burning of oil in ice-infested waters.

  1. A comparison of chemical structures of soot precursor nanoparticles from liquid fuel combustion in flames and engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bireswar; Datta, Amitava; Datta, Aparna; Saha, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the chemical structures of soot precursor nanoparticles from the liquid fuel flame and engine exhaust has been performed in this work to establish an association between the particles from both the sources. Different ex-situ measurement techniques have been used to characterize the nanoparticles in samples collected from the laboratory petrol/air and iso-octane/air flames, as well as from a gasoline engine. The TEM images of the sampled material along with the EDS spectra corroborate the existence of carbonaceous nanoparticles. The nature of the UV absorption and fluorescence spectra of the samples from the iso-octane flame environment further confirms the sampled materials to be soot precursor nanoparticles. The DLS size distribution of the particles shows them to be below 10 nm size. FTIR spectrum of the precursor nanoparticles collected form the non-sooting zone of the flame and that of fully grown soot particles show few similarities and dissimilarities among them. The soot particles are found to be much more aromatized as compared to its precursor nanoparticles. The presence of carbonyl functional group (C=O) at around 1,720 cm −1 has been observed in soot precursor nanoparticles, while such oxygenated functional groups are not prominent in soot structure. The absorption (UV and IR) and fluorescence spectra of the carbonaceous material collected from the gasoline engine exhaust show many resemblances with those of soot precursor nanoparticles from flames. These spectroscopic resemblances of the soot precursor nanoparticles from the flame environment and engine exhaust gives the evidence that the in-cylinder combustion is the source of these particles in the engine exhaust.

  2. 2-Methylfuran: A bio-derived octane booster for spark-ignition engines

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Shankar, Vijai; Tripathi, Rupali; Pitsch, Heinz; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of spark-ignition engines is limited by the phenomenon of knock, which is caused by auto-ignition of the fuel-air mixture ahead of the spark-initiated flame front. The resistance of a fuel to knock is quantified by its octane index

  3. Turbine Burners: Turbulent Combustion of Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sirignano, William A; Liu, Feng; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The proposed theoretical/computational and experimental study addresses the vital two-way coupling between combustion processes and fluid dynamic phenomena associated with schemes for burning liquid...

  4. Innovative nuclear system based on liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, S.; Jaskierowicz, S.; Picard, G.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Doligez, X.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the physical properties and characteristics of the innovative concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) developed by CNRS (France) and the corresponding fuel salt reprocessing proposed to clean up the fuel salt based on an analytical approach of lanthanides and actinides extraction. (author)

  5. Conservative use of liquid fuel. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, A J.E.; Westlake, D; Lewis, A [Shell Research Ltd., Chester (UK). Thornton Research Centre; Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd., London (UK))

    1979-03-01

    This 2nd part of the report deals with the opportunities of improving the combustion of heavy fuel oil. There are considered regulations about the emission of NOx and solid material as well as methods and modified furnaces resulting in reduction of emissions and in saving of fuel. The report is concluded by a number of recommendations and proposals.

  6. Liquid Bio fuels: Vegetable Oils and Bi oethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Ballesteros, I.; Oliva, J. M.; Navarro, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    The European energy policy has defined clear objectives to reduce the high dependency on fossil petroleum imports, and to increase the security of sustainable energy supply for the transport sector. Moreover, the European environmental policy is requesting clean fuels that reduce environmental risks. Liquid Bio fuels (vegetable oils and bio ethanol) appear to be in a good position to contribute to achieve these goals expressed by the established objective of European Union to reach for bio fuels a market share of 5% of motor vehicle consumption. This work presents the current state and perspectives of the production and utilisation of liquid fuels from agricultural sources by reviewing agricultural feedstocks for energy sector, conversion technologies and different ways to use bio fuels. Environmental and economical aspects are also briefly analysed. (Author) 10 refs

  7. Thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in octane thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G., E-mail: pdebene@exchange.princeton.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Confinement breaks the translational symmetry of materials, making all thermodynamic and kinetic quantities functions of position. Such symmetry breaking can be used to obtain configurations that are not otherwise accessible in the bulk. Here, we use computer simulations to explore the effect of substrate-liquid interactions on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies induced by a solid substrate. We consider n-octane nano-films that are in contact with substrates with varying degrees of attraction, parameterized by an interaction parameter ϵ{sub S}. Complete freezing of octane nano-films is observed at low temperatures, irrespective of ϵ{sub S}, while at intermediate temperatures, a frozen monolayer emerges at solid-liquid and vapor-liquid interfaces. By carefully inspecting the profiles of translational and orientational relaxation times, we confirm that the translational and orientational degrees of freedom are decoupled at these frozen monolayers. At sufficiently high temperatures, however, free interfaces and solid-liquid interfaces close to loose (low-ϵ{sub S}) substrates undergo “pre-freezing,” characterized by mild peaks in several thermodynamic quantities. Two distinct dynamic regimes are observed at solid-liquid interfaces. The dynamics is accelerated in the vicinity of loose substrates, while sticky (high-ϵ{sub S}) substrates decelerate dynamics, sometimes by as much as two orders of magnitude. These two distinct dynamical regimes have been previously reported by Haji-Akbari and Debenedetti [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 024506 (2014)] for a model atomic glass-forming liquid. We also confirm the existence of two correlations—proposed in the above-mentioned work—in solid-liquid subsurface regions of octane thin films, i.e., a correlation between atomic density and normal stress, and between atomic translational relaxation time and lateral stress. Finally, we inspect the ability of different regions of an octane film to explore the potential energy

  8. Thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in octane thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2015-01-01

    Confinement breaks the translational symmetry of materials, making all thermodynamic and kinetic quantities functions of position. Such symmetry breaking can be used to obtain configurations that are not otherwise accessible in the bulk. Here, we use computer simulations to explore the effect of substrate-liquid interactions on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies induced by a solid substrate. We consider n-octane nano-films that are in contact with substrates with varying degrees of attraction, parameterized by an interaction parameter ϵ S . Complete freezing of octane nano-films is observed at low temperatures, irrespective of ϵ S , while at intermediate temperatures, a frozen monolayer emerges at solid-liquid and vapor-liquid interfaces. By carefully inspecting the profiles of translational and orientational relaxation times, we confirm that the translational and orientational degrees of freedom are decoupled at these frozen monolayers. At sufficiently high temperatures, however, free interfaces and solid-liquid interfaces close to loose (low-ϵ S ) substrates undergo “pre-freezing,” characterized by mild peaks in several thermodynamic quantities. Two distinct dynamic regimes are observed at solid-liquid interfaces. The dynamics is accelerated in the vicinity of loose substrates, while sticky (high-ϵ S ) substrates decelerate dynamics, sometimes by as much as two orders of magnitude. These two distinct dynamical regimes have been previously reported by Haji-Akbari and Debenedetti [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 024506 (2014)] for a model atomic glass-forming liquid. We also confirm the existence of two correlations—proposed in the above-mentioned work—in solid-liquid subsurface regions of octane thin films, i.e., a correlation between atomic density and normal stress, and between atomic translational relaxation time and lateral stress. Finally, we inspect the ability of different regions of an octane film to explore the potential energy landscape by performing

  9. The development of isomerization catalysts for production of high-octane products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, A.M. Garrido; Melo, D.M.A.; Araujo, A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, M.J.B.; Silva, A.O.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    In current petroleum industry, paraffins larger than C5 are used for catalytic reform. The catalytic reform is one of the most important processes for petroleum refine in reason of all reactions they drive to production of high-octane products. Reformate has high-octane products, but they contain 60% aromatics. Isomerization of C5- C7 can improve the octane number. The octane number of n-heptane is zero and increases after isomerization. For tri branched C7, the octane number reaches 113, which is higher than that of benzene. So, isomerization of C5-C7 is suggested to be a reasonable way to replace or partly replace the catalytic reforming process. It can decrease aromatics content with enhancement of octane number. Liquid acid catalysts were widely used in chemical industry in past decades. However, they face strong environmental challenges. The heavy corrosion of the reactor system is one of the main problems. Thus, solid acid catalysts are investigated for the isomerization reactions. The aim of this work is to develop a catalysts for the production of reformate products. Isomerization is catalyzed by metal-acid bifunctional catalysts. The metal components aid in hydrogenation, while the support, such as, zirconium, clays or zeolites, is the acidic component. (author)

  10. Improving the characteristics of liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakan, T

    1983-02-04

    In order to improve the operational characteristics of a light boiler fuel (LKT) (based on analogous characteristics for a fuel for an internal combustion engine (DVS)) it is proposed to add ether and alcohol to it. The additive of ether improves the viscosity of the fuel, but reduces the heat creating capability. The addition of ether and alcohol (a 3 to 1 ratio by volume) increases the stability of the mixture. With mixing of 75 total percent of the light boiler fuel (a heat creativity of 9,500 kilocalories per liter and a viscosity of 10 centistokes per 30 degrees) with 25 total percent ether produced a fuel with a heat producing capability of 8,690 kilocalories per liter and a viscosity of 2.3 centistokes. With mixing of 70 total percent light boiler oil and 18 total percent ether and 7 total percent alcohol a fuel with a heat creativity of 8,640 kilocalories per liter and a viscosity of 2.7 centistokes was produced.

  11. Stability of liquid fuels with biogenic content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Winfried; Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Mineral-based fuels for diesel- and spark-ignition engines are always mixtures of many components with a wide distillation range. These insure, for example, a low viscosity and good cold starting properties. Therefore, the fuel system components are designed for mineral-based diesel and gasoline fuels. Biofuels like biodiesel and bioethanol, which only partially show these physical properties, are introduced into the fuel market because of political and ecological aspects. Currently common biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are investigated in uncommon high blend levels of 10 vol.-% and 30 vol.-% as well as future biofuels. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) has poor cold-flow properties concerning to the CP and CFPP. Therefore, biodiesel has the tendency to form crystalline deposits at sub-zero temperatures. For bioethanol applications, an adjustment of the materials used, for example for sealing, is necessary. It is well known that the negative implications of biofuels require an additive treatment for an optimal performance. In contrast to previous examinations, in which technical components were analyzed by their own, in the presented investigations (''GObio''-project), the complete system of sensitive fuel tank and feed system with auxiliary units like independent vehicle heaters is used to determine the influences of the biofuels. The investigations are based on hardware in the loop testing. A target of the project was to modify the application technology like the independent vehicle heater and the in-tank pumps to use the biofuels in the conventional systems. Furthermore, it was an objective to upgrade the performance of the fuels through the development and the treatment with additives. During operation with low blend levels no problems were detected so that safe operation using diesel with up to 7 vol.-% FAME according to EN 590 is ensured. At the temperature levels present in the fuel leading parts during operation

  12. Simulating Impacts of Disruptions to Liquid Fuels Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects; Corbet, Thomas F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Policy and Decision Analytics; Baker, Arnold B. [ABB Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Rourke, Julia M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-04-01

    This report presents a methodology for estimating the impacts of events that damage or disrupt liquid fuels infrastructure. The impact of a disruption depends on which components of the infrastructure are damaged, the time required for repairs, and the position of the disrupted components in the fuels supply network. Impacts are estimated for seven stressing events in regions of the United States, which were selected to represent a range of disruption types. For most of these events the analysis is carried out using the National Transportation Fuels Model (NTFM) to simulate the system-level liquid fuels sector response. Results are presented for each event, and a brief cross comparison of event simulation results is provided.

  13. An experimental study of the effect of octane number higher than engine requirement on the engine performance and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Cenk; Kilicaslan, Ibrahim; Canakci, Mustafa; Ozsezen, Necati [Kocaeli Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Education, Izmit (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the effect of using higher-octane gasoline than that of engine requirement on the performance and exhaust emissions was experimentally studied. The test engine chosen has a fuel system with carburettor because 60% of the vehicles in Turkey are equipped with the carburettor. The engine, which required 91-RON (Research Octane Number) gasoline, was tested using 95-RON and 91-RON. Results show that using octane ratings higher than the requirement of an engine not only decreases engine performance but also increases exhaust emissions. (Author)

  14. Biocidal treatment and preservation of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegert, W.

    1995-05-01

    Strict microbiological limit values are the result of damage caused by microorganisms in fuels. With MAR 71, a biocide based on methylenebisoxazolidine, a product is available which has been tested and approved by leading car manufacturers, the mineral oil industry, and NATO. Depending on the degree of microbiological contamination, different decontamination concepts are presented, and recommendations for the treatment of fuels which are contaminated when purchased are given. In order to avoid recontamination, planning principles or the new design of tanks are necessary. The possibility of convenient, economical and regular drainage is a key factor.

  15. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Ljubicic, B.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  16. Renewable liquid transport fuels from microbes and waste resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhodri

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the global requirement for transport fuel sustainably, renewable liquid biofuels must be developed. Currently, two biofuels dominate the market; bioethanol for spark ignition and biodiesel for compression ignition engines. However, both fuels exhibit technical issues such as low energy density, poor low temperature performance and poor stability. In addition, bioethanol and biodiesel sourced from first generation feedstocks use arable land in competition with food producti...

  17. Cyanoborohydride-based ionic liquids as green aerospace bipropellant fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Jiaheng; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-06-02

    In propellant systems, the most common bipropellants are composed of two chemicals, a fuel (or reducer) and an oxidizer. Currently, the choices for propellant fuels rely mainly on hydrazine and its methylated derivatives, even though they are extremely toxic, highly volatile, sensitive to adiabatic compression (risk of detonation), and, therefore, difficult to handle. With this background, the search for alternative green propellant fuels has been an urgent goal of space science. In this study, a new family of cyanoborohydride-based ionic liquids (ILs) with properties and performances comparable to hydrazine derivatives were designed and synthesized. These new ILs as bipropellant fuels, have some unique advantages including negligible vapor pressure, ultra-short ignition delay (ID) time, and reduced synthetic and storage costs, thereby showing great application potential as environmentally friendly fuels in bipropellant formulations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ionic Liquid Fuels for Chemical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    to prepare 5-(hydrazino-alkly) tetrazoles (Scheme 6). Scheme 6. Synthesis of 5-(hydrazino- propyl ) 1H tetrazole 3 and trimethylene tetrazole 6. 7...discovered a new method for preparing analytically pure borohydride salts in a mixed solvent system, liquid ammonia/methylene chloride , at low temperatures...sodium chloride and the free amine (Scheme 3). The free amine could be easily removed by washing the product with diethylether. Scheme 3

  19. Liquid waste treatment at plutonium fuels fabrication facility, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Itoh, Ichiroh; Ohuchi, Jin; Miyo, Hiroaki

    1974-01-01

    The economics in the management of the radioactive liquid waste from Plutonium Fuels Fabrication Facility with sludge-blanket type flocculators has been evaluated. (1) Cost calculation: The cost of chemicals and electricity to treat 1 cubic meter of liquid waste is about 876 yen, while the total operating cost is 250 thousand yen per cubic meter in the case of 140 m 3 /year treatment. These figures are much higher than those for ordinary wastes, due to the particular operation against plutonium. (2) Proposal of the closed system for liquid waste treatment at PFFF: In the case of a closed system using evaporator, ion exchange column and rotary-kiln calciner, the operating cost is estimated at 40 thousand yen per cubic meter of liquid waste. Final radioactivity of treated liquid is below 10 -8 micro curies/ml. (Mori, K.)

  20. Fuel production from biomass: generation of liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghergheleş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation processes mayalso be used to produce liquid fuels frombiological raw materials. An example is theethanol production from glucose, known asstandard yeast fermentation in the beer, wine andliquor industries. It has to take place in steps, suchthat the ethanol is removed (by distillation ordehydrator application whenever itsconcentration approaches a value (around 12%which would impede reproduction of the yeastculture.

  1. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Alberta, CA; Farooque, Mohammad [Danbury, CT; Yuh, Chao-Yi [New Milford, CT

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  2. Utility industry evaluation of the metal fuel facility and metal fuel performance for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; O'Boyle, D.R.; Pickens, T.A.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs

  3. Improved inherent safety in liquid fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.

    1982-01-01

    The molten salt reactor system divided into core (thermal and fast) and breeding zone (fission breeder reactor, fusion hybrid system, accelerator-spallation system) has some unique inherent safety properties: a) reduced inventory of fission products during normal operation due to on-line chemical reprocessing and in-core gas purging; b) fast removal of freshly bred fissile nuclides and fission products from the breeding zone (the so called suppressed fission system); c) pressureless fuel and primary coolant system; d) elimination of the possibility of a violent exoenergetic chemical reaction with air, water or metals; e) elimination of the possibility of gaseous hydrogen production during an accident; f) provides a non-engineered feature of dumping of fuel from the core and heat exchanger to a safe drain tank; g) presence of a large heat sink in the form of an inactive diluent salt; h) possibility of natural convection heat removal during an accident and even normal operation (by means of gas lifting); i) dissipation of the remaining decayheat by spraying water on the containment from outside, which allows to manage the worst accident; i) Even in the case of the destruction in the war by conventional or nuclear weapon the contaminated land is significantly reduced. The world-wide present activity in the field of molten salt technology is reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Intermediate Temperature Hybrid Fuel Cell System for the Conversion of Natural to Electricity and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Theodore [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-22

    This goal of this project was to develop a new hybrid fuel cell technology that operates directly on natural gas or biogas to generate electrical energy and to produce ethane or ethylene from methane, the main component of natural gas or biogas, which can be converted to a liquid fuel or high-value chemical using existing process technologies. By taking advantage of the modularity and scalability of fuel cell technology, this combined fuel cell/chemical process technology targets the recovery of stranded natural gas available at the well pad or biogas produced at waste water treatment plants and municipal landfills by converting it to a liquid fuel or chemical. By converting the stranded gas to a liquid fuel or chemical, it can be cost-effectively transported to market thus allowing the stranded natural gas or biogas to be monetized instead of flared, producing CO2, a greenhouse gas, because the volumes produced at these locations are too small to be economically recovered using current gas-to-liquids process technologies.

  5. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  6. Technological processes for obtaining high octane benzene from methanol. Tekhnologicheskie protsessy polucheniya vysokooktanovogo benzina iz metanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapustin, M A; Nefedov, B K

    1982-01-01

    The study is on one of the most promising processes for obtaining high octane components of motor fuel from methanol, with crude that has been made with a mixture of CO and H/sub 2/ gases, separated from coal, shale oil, natural and waste smoky gases, heavy oil sediments. The results of foreign scientific and technological studies over the last 5 years in synthesizing high octane benzene from methanol are systematized. Possible improvements over the next 10-15 years in these processes were examined.

  7. Experimental Study of Liquid Fuel Spray Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree

    the specific physical quantities needed in CFD validation of these types of flames. This work is a testament to that fact. The first part of this thesis is an extensive study of optical combustion diagnostics applied to complex transient sprayflames in a high temperature and pressure environment...... by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. Other supporters of the project have been MAN Diesel & Turbo A/S, DTU Mechanical Engineering, DTU Chemical Engineering, Sandia National Laboratories USA, Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU) and University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus.......The physiochemical properties and electromagnetic interactions in flames, of which various optical combustion diagnostics are based, have been reviewed. Key diagnostics have been presented with practical examples of their application which, together with a comprehensive review of fuel spray flames, form...

  8. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superina, V.; Orehovec, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  9. Liquid alternative diesel fuels with high hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancsok, Jenoe; Varga, Zoltan; Eller, Zoltan; Poelczmann, Gyoergy [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon Processing; Kasza, Tamas [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary)

    2013-06-01

    Mobility is a keystone of the sustainable development. In the operation of the vehicles as the tools of mobility internal combustion engines, so thus Diesel engines will play a remarkable role in the next decades. Beside fossil fuels - used for power these engines - liquid alternative fuels have higher and higher importance, because of their known advantages. During the presentation the categorization possibilities based on the chronology of their development and application will be presented. The importance of fuels with high hydrogen content will be reviewed. Research and development activity in the field of such kind of fuels will be presented. During this developed catalytic systems and main performance properties of the product will be presented which were obtained in case of biogasoils produced by special hydrocracking of natural triglycerides and in case of necessity followed by isomerization; furthermore in case of synthetic biogasoils obtained by the isomerization hydrocracking of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins produced from biomass based synthesis gas. Excellent combustion properties (cetane number > 65-75), good cold flow properties and reduced harmful material emission due to the high hydrogen content (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}) are highlighted. Finally production possibilities of linear and branched paraffins based on lignocelluloses are briefly reviewed. Summarizing it was concluded that liquid hydrocarbons with high isoparaffin content are the most suitable fuels regarding availability, economical and environmental aspects, namely the sustainable development. (orig.)

  10. Summary of High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Timothy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fioroni, Gina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Huff, Shean P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leiby, Paul Newsome [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of light-duty vehicles are pursuing a broad portfolio of technologies to reduce CO2 emissions and improve fuel economy. Central to this effort is higher efficiency spark ignition (SI) engines, including technologies reliant on higher compression ratios and fuels with improved anti-knock properties, such as gasoline with significantly increased octane numbers. Ethanol has an inherently high octane number and would be an ideal octane booster for lower-octane petroleum blendstocks. In fact, recently published data from Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories (Splitter and Szybist, 2014a, 2014b; Szybist, 2010; Szybist and West, 2013) and OEMs (Anderson, 2013) and discussions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggest the potential of a new high octane fuel (HOF) with 25–40 vol % of ethanol to assist in reaching Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions goals. This mid-level ethanol content fuel, with a research octane number (RON) of about 100, appears to enable efficiency improvements in a suitably calibrated and designed engine/vehicle system that are sufficient to offset its lower energy density (Jung, 2013; Thomas, et al, 2015). This efficiency improvement would offset the tank mileage (range) loss typically seen for ethanol blends in conventional gasoline and flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs). The prospects for such a fuel are additionally attractive because it can be used legally in over 18 million FFVs currently on the road. Thus the legacy FFV fleet can serve as a bridge by providing a market for the new fuel immediately, so that future vehicles will have improved efficiency as the new fuel becomes widespread. In this way, HOF can simultaneously help improve fuel economy while expanding the ethanol market in the United States via a growing market for an ethanol blend higher than E10. The DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office initiated a collaborative research program

  11. Antiknock quality and ignition kinetics of 2-phenylethanol, a novel lignocellulosic octane booster

    KAUST Repository

    Shankar, Vijai

    2016-06-28

    High-octane quality fuels are important for increasing spark ignition engine efficiency, but their production comes at a substantial economic and environmental cost. The possibility of producing high anti-knock quality gasoline by blending high-octane bio-derived components with low octane naphtha streams is attractive. 2-phenyl ethanol (2-PE), is one such potential candidate that can be derived from lignin, a biomass component made of interconnected aromatic groups. We first ascertained the blending anti-knock quality of 2-PE by studying the effect of spark advancement on knock for various blends 2-PE, toluene, and ethanol with naphtha in a cooperative fuels research engine. The blending octane quality of 2-PE indicated an anti-knock behavior similar or slightly greater than that of toluene, and ethylbenzene, which could be attributed to either chemical kinetics or charge cooling effects. To isolate chemical kinetic effects, a model for 2-PE auto-ignition was developed and validated using ignition delay times measured in a high-pressure shock tube. Simulated ignition delay times of 2-PE were also compared to those of traditional high-octane gasoline blending components to show that the gas phase reactivity of 2-PE is lower than ethanol, and comparable to toluene, and ethylbenzene at RON, and MON relevant conditions. The gas-phase reactivity of 2-PE is largely controlled by its aromatic ring, while the effect of the hydroxyl group is minimal. The higher blending octane quality of 2-PE compared to toluene, and ethylbenzene can be attributed primarily to the effect of the hydroxyl group on increasing heat of vaporization. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  12. Fiscal 2000 report of investigation. Research study on reduction of carbon dioxide discharge by increase in octane number in gasoline through use of biomass; 2000 nendo biomass wo riyoshita gasoline no octane ka kojo ni yoru nisanka tanso haishutsu sakugen ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigative research was conducted on the means of reducing fuel consumption of motor vehicles and reducing greenhouse effect gases, by making octane boosters for gasoline through the use of alcohol derived from biomass feedstock. As a result of the investigation, the following proposals were made. In present gasoline-fueled motor vehicles, an increase in the octane number by 5 will allow a higher compression by 1, thereby reducing fuel consumption by 2.5% during running. The suitable octane boosters are MTBE (methyl tertiary butylether) and ETBE (ethyl tertiary butylether) both of which can be produced from either methanol or ethanol derived from biomass feedstock. Blending regular gasoline with an octane number of 90 and either MTBE or ETBE by 18% may make gasoline having an octane number of 95, leading to a reduction of carbon dioxide emission by 4.8% and 6.8% respectively. The amount of alcohol needed for these octane boosters is 2.2 megatons of methanol per year for MTBE production and 2.7 megatons of ethanol per year for ETBE; this requires 12 plants nationwide for producing the octane boosters at 0.5 megatons per year; and, in view of the cost of transportation, alcohol producing plants are desirably located near the octane booster producing plants. (NEDO)

  13. Producing Liquid Fuels from Coal: Prospects and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    fraction of the weight of a plant. Most of the material in plants is cellulose , hemicellulose, or lignin . None of these substances is amenable to the...conventional fuel involved in producing the biomass. This is especially the case for non-food-crop biomass, such as corn stover, switchgrass, prairie...conversion of cellulosic materials, starches, or sugars to alcohols. Coal-to-Liquids Technologies 39 Unfortunately, annual variations in weather

  14. Lignin derivatives as potential octane boosters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, M.; van Haaren, R.W.G.; Reijnders, J.J.E.; Boot, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to environmental and health concerns, tetraethyl lead was gradually phased out from the early 1970's to mid-1990's in most developed countries. Advances in refining, leading to more aromatics (via reformate) and iso-paraffins such as iso-octane, along with the introduction of (bio) oxygenates

  15. Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-09-16

    Improving the octane number of gasoline offers the potential of improved engine combustion, as it permits spark timing advancement without engine knock. This study proposes the use of terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline in a spark ignited (SI) engine. Terpineol is a bio-derived oxygenated fuel obtained from pine tree resin, and has the advantage of higher calorific value than ethanol. The ignition delay time (IDT) of terpineol was first investigated in an ignition quality tester (IQT). The IQT results demonstrated a long ignition delay of 24.7 ms for terpineol and an estimated research octane number (RON) of 104, which was higher than commercial European (Euro V) gasoline. The octane boosting potential of terpineol was further investigated by blending it with a non-oxygenated gasoline (FACE F), which has a RON (94) lower than Euro V gasoline (RON = 97). The operation of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engine fueled with terpineol-blended FACE F gasoline enabled spark timing advancement and improved engine combustion. The knock intensity of FACE F + 30% terpineol was lower than FACE F gasoline at both maximum brake torque (MBT) and knock limited spark advance (KLSA) operating points. Increasing proportions of terpineol in the blend caused peak heat release rate, in-cylinder pressure, CA50, and combustion duration to be closer to those of Euro V gasoline. Furthermore, FACE F + 30% terpineol displayed improved combustion characteristics when compared to Euro V gasoline. © 2016

  16. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  17. A comprehensive iso-octane combustion model with improved thermochemistry and chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Atef, Nour

    2017-02-05

    Iso-Octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) is a primary reference fuel and an important component of gasoline fuels. Moreover, it is a key component used in surrogates to study the ignition and burning characteristics of gasoline fuels. This paper presents an updated chemical kinetic model for iso-octane combustion. Specifically, the thermodynamic data and reaction kinetics of iso-octane have been re-assessed based on new thermodynamic group values and recently evaluated rate coefficients from the literature. The adopted rate coefficients were either experimentally measured or determined by analogy to theoretically calculated values. Furthermore, new alternative isomerization pathways for peroxy-alkyl hydroperoxide (ȮOQOOH) radicals were added to the reaction mechanism. The updated kinetic model was compared against new ignition delay data measured in rapid compression machines (RCM) and a high-pressure shock tube. These experiments were conducted at pressures of 20 and 40 atm, at equivalence ratios of 0.4 and 1.0, and at temperatures in the range of 632–1060 K. The updated model was further compared against shock tube ignition delay times, jet-stirred reactor oxidation speciation data, premixed laminar flame speeds, counterflow diffusion flame ignition, and shock tube pyrolysis speciation data available in the literature. Finally, the updated model was used to investigate the importance of alternative isomerization pathways in the low temperature oxidation of highly branched alkanes. When compared to available models in the literature, the present model represents the current state-of-the-art in fundamental thermochemistry and reaction kinetics of iso-octane; and thus provides the best prediction of wide ranging experimental data and fundamental insights into iso-octane combustion chemistry.

  18. Reduced Gasoline Surrogate (Toluene/n-Heptane/iso-Octane) Chemical Kinetic Model for Compression Ignition Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2018-04-03

    Toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) (mixture of toluene, iso-octane and heptane) is a suitable surrogate to represent a wide spectrum of real fuels with varying octane sensitivity. Investigating different surrogates in engine simulations is a prerequisite to identify the best matching mixture. However, running 3D engine simulations using detailed models is currently impossible and reduction of detailed models is essential. This work presents an AramcoMech reduced kinetic model developed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for simulating complex TPRF surrogate blends. A semi-decoupling approach was used together with species and reaction lumping to obtain a reduced kinetic model. The model was widely validated against experimental data including shock tube ignition delay times and premixed laminar flame speeds. Finally, the model was utilized to simulate the combustion of a low reactivity gasoline fuel under partially premixed combustion conditions.

  19. Reduced Gasoline Surrogate (Toluene/n-Heptane/iso-Octane) Chemical Kinetic Model for Compression Ignition Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Atef, Nour; Alfazazi, Adamu; Badra, Jihad; Zhang, Yu; Tzanetakis, Tom; Pei, Yuanjiang

    2018-01-01

    Toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) (mixture of toluene, iso-octane and heptane) is a suitable surrogate to represent a wide spectrum of real fuels with varying octane sensitivity. Investigating different surrogates in engine simulations is a prerequisite to identify the best matching mixture. However, running 3D engine simulations using detailed models is currently impossible and reduction of detailed models is essential. This work presents an AramcoMech reduced kinetic model developed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for simulating complex TPRF surrogate blends. A semi-decoupling approach was used together with species and reaction lumping to obtain a reduced kinetic model. The model was widely validated against experimental data including shock tube ignition delay times and premixed laminar flame speeds. Finally, the model was utilized to simulate the combustion of a low reactivity gasoline fuel under partially premixed combustion conditions.

  20. Universal electrode interface for electrocatalytic oxidation of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hualing; Qiu, Zhipeng; Wan, Qijin; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Yi; Yang, Nianjun

    2014-10-22

    Electrocatalytic oxidations of liquid fuels from alcohols, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes were realized on a universal electrode interface. Such an interface was fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the catalyst support and palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) as the electrocatalysts. The Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite was synthesized using the ethylene glycol reduction method. It was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, voltammetry, and impedance. On the Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite coated electrode, the oxidations of those liquid fuels occur similarly in two steps: the oxidations of freshly chemisorbed species in the forward (positive-potential) scan and then, in the reverse scan (negative-potential), the oxidations of the incompletely oxidized carbonaceous species formed during the forward scan. The oxidation charges were adopted to study their oxidation mechanisms and oxidation efficiencies. The oxidation efficiency follows the order of aldehyde (formaldehyde) > carboxylic acid (formic acid) > alcohols (ethanol > methanol > glycol > propanol). Such a Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite coated electrode is thus promising to be applied as the anode for the facilitation of direct fuel cells.

  1. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 26 CFR 48.4041-7 - Dual use of taxable liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxable liquid fuel. Tax applies to all taxable liquid fuel sold for use or used as a fuel in the motor which is used to propel a diesel-powered vehicle or in the motor used to propel a motor vehicle... vehicle, motorboat, or aircraft. Thus, if the motor of a diesel-powered highway vehicle or a motorboat...

  3. Liquid films and droplet deposition in a BWR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsohn, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper part of boiling water reactors (BWR) the flow regime is dominated by a steam-water droplet flow with liquid films on the nuclear fuel rod, the so called (wispy) annular flow regime. The film thickness and liquid flow rate distribution around the fuel rod play an important role especially in regard to so called dryout, which is the main phenomenon limiting the thermal power of a fuel assembly. The deposition of droplets in the liquid film is important, because this process sustains the liquid film and delays dryout. Functional spacers with different vane shapes have been used in recent decades to enhance droplet deposition and thus create more favorable conditions for heat removal. In this thesis the behavior of liquid films and droplet deposition in the annular flow regime in BWR bundles is addressed by experiments in an adiabatic flow at nearly ambient pressure. The experimental setup consists of a vertical channel with the cross-section resembling a pair of neighboring subchannels of a fuel rod bundle. Within this double subchannel an annular flow is established with a gas-water mixture. The impact of functional spacers on the annular flow behavior is studied closely. Parameter variations comprise gas and liquid flow rates, gas density and spacer shape. The setup is instrumented with a newly developed liquid film sensor that measures the electrical conductance between electrodes flush to the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. Advanced post-processing methods are used to investigate the dynamic behavior of liquid films and droplet deposition. The topic is also assessed numerically by means of single-phase Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of the flow in the gas core. For this the commercial code STAR-CCM+ is used coupled with additional models for the liquid film distribution and droplet motion. The results of the experiments show that the liquid film is quite evenly distributed around the circumference of the fuel rods. The

  4. The use of niobium based catalysts for liquid fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reguera Frank Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of niobium based catalysts were investigated in the conversion of oleic acid to liquid fuels at atmospheric pressure and at 623 K. The catalytic tests were performed in a fixed bed and continuous flow reactor using an acid to catalyst ratio equal to 4 and N2 as carrier gas. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography and acidity measurements. NH3 temperature programmed desorption, N2 adsorption-desorption (BET method and Xray diffraction were also performed in order to determine the structural and acidic properties of the catalysts. From the catalytic tests, it was detected the formation of compounds in the range of gasoline, diesel and lubricant oils. Higher catalytic activity and selectivity for diesel fuel were observed for the catalysts NbOPO4 and H3PO4/Nb2O5 that possesses higher acidities and surface areas.

  5. Process Investigation for Conversion of MSW into Liquid Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.T.; Jafri, U.A.; Chugtai, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on pyrolysis technology to convert the municipal solid waste into liquid fuel. The investigation includes the development of the experimental setup for this process and its future prospects in Pakistan. A pyrolysis process is under consideration for many years for the production of synthetic fuel oils from organic solid waste. The system comprises of pyrolysis reactor, condenser for condensable gas, gas holder (for non- condensable gas). The feedstock used in the pyrolysis reactor is the municipal solid waste (includes kitchen waste, papers etc) in fine mesh size i.e. 2.5 - 3.0 mm. The residue obtained were mainly tar (pyrolytic oil), pyrogas (non - condensable gases) and ash, which shows that process has a potential for the treatment of the municipal solid waste and is a good technology for resource recover. (author)

  6. Liquid fuels from biomass via a hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudriaan, F.; Peferoen, D.G.R. (Koninklijke Shell, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary process studies on the conversion of various biomass types into liquid fuels have indicated that HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) is more attractive than pyrolysis or gasification. In HTU the biomass is treated at temperatures of 300-350{sup 0}C in the presence of liquid water for 5-15 min. A large proportion of the oxygen is removed as carbon dioxide. In a case study a process for the production of 3600 t/d hydrocarbons starting from wood is evaluated. Six HTU units convert wood into ''biocrude'' containing 10 %w oxygen. The biocrude is upgraded by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation in a central facility. The final products are kerosine and gas oil which may be expected to have excellent properties. The manufacturing cost is 400-450 $/t. (author).

  7. Liquid waste processing from TRIGA spent fuel storage pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchtela, Karl

    1988-01-01

    At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities and also at other facilities running TRIGA reactors, storage pits for spent fuel elements are installed. During the last revision procedure, the reactor group of the Atominstitute decided to refill the storage pits and to get rid of any contaminated storage pit water. The liquid radioactive waste had been pumped to polyethylene vessels for intermediate storage before decontamination and release. The activity concentration of the storage pit water at the Aominstitute after a storage period of several years was about 40 kBq/l, the total amount of liquid in the storage pits was about 0.25 m 3 . It was attempted to find a simple and inexpensive method to remove especially the radioactive Cesium from the waste solution. Different methods for decontamination like distillation, precipitation and ion exchange are discussed

  8. Fuel rod for liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinz, P.

    1976-01-01

    In fuel rods for nuclear reactors with liquid-metal cooling (sodium), with stainless steel tubes with a nitrated surface as canning, superheating or boiling delay should be avoided. The inner wall of the can is provided along its total length with a helical fin of stainless steel wire (diameter 0.05 to 0.5 mm) to be wetted by hot sodium. This fin is mounted under prestressing and has a distance in winding of 1/10 of the wire diameter. (UWI) [de

  9. Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

  10. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  11. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  12. Characterization and Performance of a Liquid Hydrocarbon-Fueled Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damphousse, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The first time use of a new electro-hydraulic liquid fuel injector was demonstrated to produce consistent atomization properties while allowing for varying fuel injection durations at frequencies up to 50 Hz...

  13. Liquid air fueled open–closed cycle Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiqing; Wang, Jia; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy of liquid air is divided into cryogenic energy and expansion energy. • Open–closed cycle Stirling mechanism is employed to improve efficiency. • The Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in cold space. - Abstract: An unconventional Stirling engine is proposed and its theoretical analysis is performed. The engine belongs to a “cryogenic heat engine” that is fueled by cryogenic medium. Conventional “cryogenic heat engine” employs liquid air as pressure source, but disregards its heat-absorbing ability. Therefore, its efficiency can only be improved by increasing vapor pressure, accordingly increasing the demand on pressure resistance and sealing. In the proposed engine, the added Stirling mechanism helps achieve its high efficiency and simplicity by utilizing the heat-absorbing ability of liquid air. On one hand, based on Stirling mechanism, gas in the hot space absorbs heat from atmosphere when expanding; gas in the cold space is cooled down by liquid air when compressed. Taking atmosphere as heat source and liquid air as heat sink, a closed Stirling cycle is formed. On the other hand, an exhaust port is set in the hot space. When expanding in the hot space, the vaporized gas is discharged through the exhaust port. Thus, an open cycle is established. To model and analyze the system, the Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in the cold space, and irreversible characteristic of regenerator is incorporated in the thermodynamic model. The results obtained from the model show that under the same working pressure, the efficiency of the proposed engine is potentially higher than that of conventional ones and to achieve the same efficiency, the working pressure could be lower with the new mechanism. Its efficiency could be improved by reducing temperature difference between the regenerator and the cold/hot space, increasing the swept volume ratio, decreasing the liquid–gas ratio. To keep

  14. High pressure combustion of liquid fuels. [alcohol and n-paraffin fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures for a number of alcohol and n-paraffin fuels under natural and forced convection conditions. Porous spheres ranging in size from 0.64-1.9 cm O.D. were emloyed to simulate the fuel droplets. The natural convection cold gas tests considered the combustion in air of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane droplets at pressures up to 78 atmospheres. The pressure levels of the natural convection tests were high enough so that near critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol vaporization rates and liquid surface temperature measurements were made of droplets burning in a simulated combustion chamber environment. Ambient oxygen molar concentrations included 13%, 9.5% and pure evaporation. Fuels used in the forced convection atmospheric tests included those listed above for the natural convection tests. The ambient gas temperature ranged from 600 to 1500 K and the Reynolds number varied from 30 to 300. The high pressure forced convection tests employed ethanol and n-heptane as fuels over a pressure range of one to 40 atmospheres. The ambient gas temperature was 1145 K for the two combustion cases and 1255 K for the evaporation case.

  15. Thermal bonding of light water reactor fuel using nonalkaline liquid-metal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.F.; Tulenko, J.S.; Schoessow, G.J.; Connell, R.G. Jr.; Dubecky, M.A.; Adams, T.

    1996-01-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance is limited by thermal and mechanical constraints associated with the design, fabrication, and operation of fuel in a nuclear reactor. A technique is explored that extends fuel performance by thermally bonding LWR fuel with a nonalkaline liquid-metal alloy. Current LWR fuel rod designs consist of enriched uranium oxide fuel pellets enclosed in a zirconium alloy cylindrical clad. The space between the pellets and the clad is filled by an inert gas. Because of the low thermal conductivity of the gas, the gas space thermally insulates the fuel pellets from the reactor coolant outside the fuel rod, elevating the fuel temperatures. Filling the gap between the fuel and clad with a high-conductivity liquid metal thermally bonds the fuel to the cladding and eliminates the large temperature change across the gap while preserving the expansion and pellet-loading capabilities. The application of liquid-bonding techniques to LWR fuel is explored to increase LWR fuel performance and safety. A modified version of the ESCORE fuel performance code (ESBOND) is developed to analyze the in-reactor performance of the liquid-metal-bonded fuel. An assessment of the technical feasibility of this concept for LWR fuel is presented, including the results of research into materials compatibility testing and the predicted lifetime performance of liquid-bonded LWR fuel. The results show that liquid-bonded boiling water reactor peak fuel temperatures are 400 F lower at beginning of life and 200 F lower at end of life compared with conventional fuel

  16. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  17. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qiang; Guarnieri, Michael T; Tao, Ling; Laurens, Lieve M L; Dowe, Nancy; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the

  19. Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

  20. A technical review of liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation equipment in the field of nuclear-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid/liquid extraction is generally accepted as the preferred method in nuclear-fuel reprocessing. However, although many types of liquid/liquid contactors are available, only a few meet the stringent specifications set by the nuclear industry. This report discusses the criteria for contactor selection and then reviews the most important types, namely packed columns, pulsed columns, mixer-setters and centrifugal contactors. Finally, a short section concerned with solid/liquid separations is included because of the possible deleterious effects caused by solids in liquid/liquid contactors

  1. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  2. Application of room temperature ionic liquids in advanced fuel cycles RIAR research concept program users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Alexander V.; Kormilitsyn, Michael V.; Savochkin, Yuri P.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Smolensky, Valeri V.; Shadrin, Alexander Yu.; Babain, Vladimir A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the research program on application of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) in some processes of the nuclear fuel reprocessing, particularly in the uranium-aluminum fuel reprocessing and separation of TPEs and REEs from the PUREX process liquid waste, and approaches to implementation of this program. (author)

  3. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlegel Nikita E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evaporation of liquid combustion component, ignition of the gas mixture and coke residue were defined.

  4. Consequences of metallic fuel-cladding liquid phase attack during over-temperature transient on fuel element lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahm, C.E.; Koenig, J.F.; Seidel, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic fuel elements irradiated in EBR-II at temperatures significantly higher than design, causing liquid phase attack of the cladding, were subsequently irradiated at normal operating temperatures to first breach. The fuel element lifetime was compared to that for elements not subjected to the over-temperature transient and found to be equivalent. 1 ref., 3 figs

  5. 16 CFR 309.15 - Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rating. (a) If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other... fuel. If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells electricity to consumers through an electric... vehicle fuel dispensing system, either by letter or on the delivery ticket or other paper, or by a...

  6. Review of the direct thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchun JIANG,Junming XU,Zhanqian SONG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased demand for liquid transportation fuels, environmental concerns and depletion of petroleum resources requires the development of efficient conversion technologies for production of second-generation biofuels from non-food resources. Thermochemical approaches hold great potential for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels. Direct thermochemical processes convert biomass into liquid fuels in one step using heat and catalysts and have many advantages over indirect and biological processes, such as greater feedstock flexibility, integrated conversion of whole biomass, and lower operation costs. Several direct thermochemical processes are employed in the production of liquid biofuels depending on the nature of the feedstock properties: such as fast pyrolysis/liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass for bio-oil, including upgrading methods, such as catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. Owing to the substantial amount of liquid fuels consumed by vehicular transport, converting biomass into drop-in liquid fuels may reduce the dependence of the fuel market on petroleum-based fuel products. In this review, we also summarize recent progress in technologies for large-scale equipment for direct thermochemical conversion. We focus on the technical aspects critical to commercialization of the technologies for production of liquid fuels from biomass, including feedstock type, cracking catalysts, catalytic cracking mechanisms, catalytic reactors, and biofuel properties. We also discuss future prospects for direct thermochemical conversion in biorefineries for the production of high grade biofuels.

  7. Thermal performance of fresh mixed-oxide fuel in a fast flux LMR [liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, J.L.; Baker, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A test was designed and irradiated to provide power-to-melt (heat generation rate necessary to initiate centerline fuel melting) data for fresh mixed-oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel irradiated in a fast neutron flux under prototypic liquid metal reactor (LMR) conditions. The fuel pin parameters were selected to envelope allowable fabrication ranges and address mass production of LMR fuel using sintered-to-size techniques. The test included fuel pins with variations in fabrication technique, pellet density, fuel-to-cladding gap, Pu concentration, and fuel oxygen-to-metal ratios. The resulting data base has reestablished the expected power-to-melt in mixed-oxide fuels during initial reactor startup when the fuel temperatures are expected to be the highest. Calibration of heat transfer models of fuel pin performance codes with these data are providing more accurate capability for predicting steady-state thermal behavior of current and future mixed-oxide LMR fuels

  8. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  9. Conversion of Mixed Plastic Wastes (High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene) into Liquid Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaw Su Su Hmwe; Tint Tint Kywe; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2010-12-01

    In this study, mixed plastic wastes were converted into liquid fuels. Mixed plastic wastes used were high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). The pyrolysis of mixed plastic waste to liquid fuel was carried out with and without prepared zeolite catalyst.The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This catalyst was pre-treated for activation. The experiments were carried out at temperature range of 350-410C.Physical properties (density, kinematic, viscosity,refractive index)of prepared liquid fuel samples were measured. From this study, yields of liquid fuel and gas fuel were found to be 41-64% and 15-35% respectively. As for by products, char was obtained as the yield percentages from 9 to 14% and wax (yield% - 1 to 14) was formed during pyrolysis.

  10. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, D.J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO{sub 2} brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  11. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO 2 brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  12. Performance and emissions of gasoline blended with terpineol as an octane booster

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-11-10

    This study investigates the effect of using terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline fuel. Unlike ethanol, terpineol is a high energy density biofuel that is unlikely to result in increased volumetric fuel consumption when used in engines. In this study, terpineol is added to non-oxygenated FACE F gasoline (Research Octane Number = 94.5) in volumetric proportions of 10%, 20% and 30% and tested in a single cylinder spark ignited engine. The performance of terpineol blended fuels are compared against a standard oxygenated EURO V (ethanol blended) gasoline. It was determined that the addition of terpineol to FACE F gasoline enhanced the octane number of the blend, resulting in improved brake thermal efficiency and total fuel consumption. For FACE F + 30% terpineol, break thermal efficiency was improved by 12.1% over FACE F gasoline at full load for maximum brake torque operating point, and similar performance as EURO V gasoline was achieved. Due to its high energy density, total fuel consumption was reduced by 6.2% and 9.7% with 30% terpineol in the blend when compared to FACE F gasoline at low and full load conditions, respectively. Gaseous emissions such as total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission were reduced by 36.8% and 22.7% for FACE F + 30% terpineol compared to FACE F gasoline at full load condition. On the other hand, nitrogen oxide and soot emissions are increased for terpineol blended FACE F gasoline when compared to FACE F and EURO V gasoline. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Relative Sustainability of Natural Gas Assisted High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Production from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yi Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-11-01

    Biomass-derived hydrocarbon fuel technologies are being developed and pursued for better economy, environment, and society benefits underpinning the sustainability of transportation energy. Increasing availability and affordability of natural gas (NG) in the US can play an important role in assisting renewable fuel technology development, primarily in terms of economic feasibility. When a biorefinery is co-processing NG with biomass, the current low cost of NG coupled with the higher NG carbon conversion efficiency potentially allow for cost competitiveness of the fuel while achieving a minimum GHG emission reduction of 50 percent or higher compared to petroleum fuel. This study evaluates the relative sustainability of the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of biomass (and with NG co-feed) through methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. The sustainability metrics considered in this study include minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), carbon conversion efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions, life cycle water consumption, fossil energy return on investment (EROI), GHG emission avoidance cost, and job creation. Co-processing NG can evidently improve the MFSP. Evaluation of the relative sustainability can shed light on the biomass-NG synergistic impacts and sustainability trade-offs associated with the IDL as high-octane gasoline blendstock production.

  14. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design is performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey is completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins is designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicts that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors

  15. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    The conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design has been performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey was completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins were designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicted that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  16. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (hydrodeoxygenation is proposed which can achieve liquid fuel yield of 215 ege/ton consuming 0.11 kg hydrogen per liter of oil. Due to the lower hydrogen consumption of the H2Bioil process, synergistically integrated transition pathways are feasible where hot syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to

  17. Development of Combustion Tube for Gaseous, Liquid, and Solid Fuels to Study Flame Acceleration and DDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Tyler J.

    An experimental combustion tube of 20 ft. in length and 10.25 in. in internal diameter was designed and fabricated in order to perform combustion tests to study deflagration rates, flame acceleration, and the possibility of DDT. The experiment was designed to allow gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels, or any combination of the three to produce a homogenous fuel/air mixture within the tube. Combustion tests were initiated with a hydrogen/oxygen torch igniter and the resulting flame behavior was measured with high frequency ion probes and pressure transducers. Tests were performed with a variety of gaseous and liquid fuels in an unobstructed tube with a closed ignition end and open muzzle. The flame performance with the gaseous fuels is loosely correlated with the expansion ratio, while there is a stronger correlation with the laminar flame speed. The strongest correlation to flame performance is the run-up distance scaling factor. This trend was not observed with the liquid fuels. The reason for this is likely due to incomplete evaporation of the liquid fuel droplets resulting in a partially unburned mixture, effectively altering the intended equivalence ratio. Results suggest that the simple theory for run-up distance and flame acceleration must be modified to more accurately predict the behavior of gaseous fuels. Also, it is likely that more complex spray combustion modeling is required to accurately predict the flame behavior for liquid fuels.

  18. Concept of a subcritical transmutation system with fast neutron spectrum and liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittelbach, S.

    2002-11-01

    The annual amount of nearly 9500 t of spent fuel from worldwide industrial nuclear energy utilization has to be disposed as high level waste. The retention of nuclear waste from the biosphere has to be assured until the radiological risk decreases to tolerable levels. The long-term radiological risk of spent fuel is dominated by actinide elements, i.e. plutonium, americium and curium. It is intended to reduce this amount of high level waste by Partitioning and Transmutation, so that the radiotoxicity of the disposed waste falls short of the reference value of fresh fuel decaying naturally after about thousand years. For this time period the retention of high level waste can be assured by technical means. The scope of this work is the design of a subcritical fast transmutation system with liquid metal cooling and liquid metal fuel. The lead bismuth eutectic has been choosen as the liquid metal coolant and fuel carrier. To dissolve at least 3 at% of transuran elements, a minimum fuel temperature of 600 C is required. The calculations were carried out with a fuel composition, which results from two plutonium recycling steps in a thorium fuel cycle. Two homogeneous and two heterogeneous blankets have been designed and evaluated leading to one preferred heterogeneous blanket design, which has been investigated in more detail. This blanket design merges the positive properties of a solid fuel system (better control of fuel and reactivity because of smaller and closed fuel volumina) and a liquid fuel system (continous charge and discharge or extraction of fission products). The blanket design is based on the core design of fast breeder liquid metal reactors. It consists of hexagonal fuel elements housing up to six annular shaped fuel cylinders. The hexagonal shape of the fuel elements leads to three fuel zones positioned concentrically around the central spallation target. There is a strong heterogeneous distribution of power and heat flux in this blanket design. Besides

  19. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  20. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.; Qaisi, R.M.; Logan, B.E.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using

  1. Fiber Optic Mass Flow Gauge for Liquid Cryogenic Fuel Facilities Monitoring and Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a fiber optic mass flow gauge that will aid in managing liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuel storage and transport. The increasing...

  2. Hazard categorization of 100 K West fuel canister gas and liquid sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the determination that the activities associated with the 100 K West fuel canister gas and liquid sampling are classified as Hazard Category Other (consequences are below criteria for Category 3)

  3. Experimental and Detailed Numerical Studies of Fundamental Flame Properties of Gaseous and Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egolfopoulos, Fokion N

    2006-01-01

    .... The experimental data are important for a number of reasons. First, they constitute a basis for partially validating the combustion chemistry of a large number of fuels ranging from hydrogen to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and alcohols...

  4. Quantifying liquid boundary and vapor distributions in a fuel spray by rainbow schlieren deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber Wanstall, C; Agrawal, Ajay K; Bittle, Joshua A

    2017-10-20

    The rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD) technique is used to determine the liquid boundary and the fuel volume fraction distributions in the vapor region of a high-pressure fuel spray. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure flow vessel, whereby a customized single-hole common-rail diesel injector is used to introduce n-heptane fuel into a coflow of low-speed ambient air at two different test conditions. Only the quasi-steady period of the fuel spray is considered, and multiple injections are performed to acquire statistically significant data at an image acquisition rate of 20 kHz. An algorithm to identify the liquid boundary using intensity recorded by the RSD images is presented. The results are compared against measurements obtained by the Mie scattering technique. Results demonstrate that the RSD can be a powerful optical diagnostics technique to simultaneously quantify both the vapor and liquid regions in the high-pressure fuel sprays.

  5. Method and system for purification of gas/liquid streams for fuel cells or electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and/or providing at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode of the fuel cell or electrolysis cell; and - purifying the gas....../liquid streams towards the first and second electrode; wherein the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the first electrode and/or the at least one scrubber in the gas/liquid stream at the inlet side of the second electrode comprises a material suitable as an electrolyte material...... with the at least one scrubber, with the proviso that the fuel cell or electrolysis cell is not a solid oxide cell....

  6. The Direct Methanol Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Until the early 1990's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

  7. Study on Calculation of Liquid Level And Storage of Tanks for LNG-fueled Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Guoqing; Liu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    As the ongoing development of the application of LNG as a clean energy in waterborne transport industry, the fleet scale of LNG-fueled vessels enlarged and the safety operation has attracted more attention in the industry. Especially the accurate detection of liquid level of LNG tanks is regarded as an important issue to ensure a safe and stable operation of LNG-fueled ships and a key parameter to keep the proper functioning of marine fuel storage system, supply system and safety control system. At present, detection of LNG tank liquid level mainly adopts differential pressure detection method. Liquid level condition could be found from the liquid level reference tables. However in practice, since LNG-fueled vessels are generally not in a stationary state, liquid state within the LNG tanks will constantly change, the detection of storage of tanks only by reference to the tables will cause deviation to some extent. By analyzing the temperature under different pressure, the effects of temperature change on density and volume integration calculation, a method of calculating the liquid level and storage of LNG tanks is put forward making the calculation of liquid level and actual storage of LNG tanks more accurately and providing a more reliable basis for the calculation of energy consumption level and operation economy for LNG-fueled vessels.

  8. Quantities of Interest in Jet Stirred Reactor Oxidation of a High-Octane Gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Bingjie

    2017-03-28

    This work examines the oxidation of a well-characterized, high-octane-number FACE (fuel for advanced combustion engines) F gasoline. Oxidation experiments were performed in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) for FACE F gasoline under the following conditions: pressure, 10 bar; temperature, 530-1250 K; residence time, 0.7s; equivalence ratios, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Detailed species profiles were achieved by identification and quantification from gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Four surrogates, with physical and chemical properties that mimic the real fuel properties, were used for simulations, with a detailed gasoline surrogate kinetic model. Fuel and species profiles were well-captured and-predicted by comparisons between experimental results and surrogate simulations. Further analysis was performed using a quantities of interest (QoI) approach to show the differences between experimental and simulation results and to evaluate the gasoline surrogate kinetic model. Analysis of the multicomponent surrogate kinetic model indicated that iso-octane and alkyl aromatic oxidation reactions had impact on species profiles in the high-temperature region;. however, the main production and consumption channels were related to smaller molecule reactions. The results presented here offer new insights into the oxidation chemistry of complex gasoline fuels and provide suggestions for the future development of surrogate kinetic models.

  9. Thermal performance of a meso-scale liquid-fuel combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Demonstrated successful combustion of liquid fuel-air mixtures in a novel meso-scale combustor. → Flame quenching was eliminated using heat recirculation in a swiss roll type combustor that also extended the flammability limits. → Liquid fuel was rapidly vaporized with the use of hot narrow channel walls that eliminated the need of a fuel atomizer. → Maximum power density of the combustor was estimated to be about 8.5 GW/m3 and heat load in the range of 50-280W. → Overall efficiency of the combustor was estimated in the range of 12 to 20%. - Abstract: Combustion in small scale devices poses significant challenges due to the quenching of reactions from wall heat losses as well as the significantly reduced time available for mixing and combustion. In the case of liquid fuels there are additional challenges related to atomization, vaporization and mixing with the oxidant in the very short time-scale liquid-fuel combustor. The liquid fuel employed here is methanol with air as the oxidizer. The combustor was designed based on the heat recirculating concept wherein the incoming reactants are preheated by the combustion products through heat exchange occurring via combustor walls. The combustor was fabricated from Zirconium phosphate, a ceramic with very low thermal conductivity (0.8 W m -1 K -1 ). The combustor had rectangular shaped double spiral geometry with combustion chamber in the center of the spiral formed by inlet and exhaust channels. Methanol and air were introduced immediately upstream at inlet of the combustor. The preheated walls of the inlet channel also act as a pre-vaporizer for liquid fuel which vaporizes the liquid fuel and then mixes with air prior to the fuel-air mixture reaching the combustion chamber. Rapid pre-vaporization of the liquid fuel by the hot narrow channel walls eliminated the necessity for a fuel atomizer. Self-sustained combustion of methanol-air was achieved in a chamber volume as small as 32.6 mm 3

  10. Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae to high-quality liquid bio-fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babych, Igor V.; van der Hulst, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Moulijn, J.A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; O'Connor, P.

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor in presence of a catalyst (Na2CO3) has been studied. Thermal decomposition studies of the algae samples were performed using TGA coupled with MS. Liquid oil samples were collected from pyrolysis experiments in a fixed-bed reactor

  11. Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P

    2016-02-08

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.

  12. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Morganti, Kai; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode, with some non-linearity observed under HCCI operating conditions (i.e. BON RON or MON of pure ethanol). This suggests that the well-established blending rules for SI operating conditions may not always be relevant to other combustion modes that operate with globally lean or diluted air-fuel mixtures. This has implications for the design of future fuel specifications.

  13. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2017-10-08

    The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode, with some non-linearity observed under HCCI operating conditions (i.e. BON RON or MON of pure ethanol). This suggests that the well-established blending rules for SI operating conditions may not always be relevant to other combustion modes that operate with globally lean or diluted air-fuel mixtures. This has implications for the design of future fuel specifications.

  14. Future developments and technological and economic assessment of methods for producing synthetic liquid fuel from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlikhter, E B; Khor' kov, A V; Zhorov, Yu M

    1980-11-01

    Promising methods for obtaining synthetic liquid fuel from coal are surveyed and described: thermal dissolution of coal by means of a hydrogen donor solution: hydrogenation; gasification with subsequent synthesis and pyrolysis. A technological and economic assessment of the above processes is given. Emphasis is placed on methods employing catalytic conversion of methanol into hydrocarbon fuels. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations of the process for obtaining high-calorific liquid fuel from methanol the possibility of obtaining diesel fractions as well as gasoline is demonstrated. (12 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100 K West fuel canister gas and liquid sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation for the gas and liquid sampling activities associated with the fuel characterization program at the 100 K West (KW) fuel storage basin. The scope of this safety evaluation is limited to the movement of canisters between the main storage basin, weasel pit, and south loadout pit transfer channel (also known as the decapping station); gas and liquid sampling of fuel canisters in the weasel pit; mobile laboratory preliminary sample analysis in or near the 105 KW basin building; and the placement of sample containers in an approved shipping container. It was concluded that the activities and potential accident consequences associated with the gas and liquid sampling of 100 KW fuel canisters are bounded by the current safety basis documents and do not constitute an Unreviewed Safety Question

  16. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and safety characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Dalin; Liu, Minghao; Liu, Limin; Xu, Rongshuan; Gong, Cheng; Su, Guanghui [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering

    2016-05-15

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) as one candidate of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems is attracted more attention in China due to its top ranked fuel cycle and thorium utilization. The MSRs are characterized by using liquid-fuel, which offers complicated coupling problem of neutronics and thermal hydraulics. In this paper, the fundamental model and numerical method are established to calculate and analyze the safety characteristics for liquid-fuel MSRs. The theories and methodologies are applied to the MOSART concept. The liquid-fuel flow effects on neutronics, reactivity coefficients and three operation parameters' influences at steady state are obtained, which provide the basic information for safety analysis. The unprotected loss of flow transient is calculated, the results of which shows the inherent safety characteristics of MOSART due to its strong negative reactivity feedbacks.

  17. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  18. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and safety characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Dalin; Liu, Minghao; Liu, Limin; Xu, Rongshuan; Gong, Cheng; Su, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) as one candidate of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems is attracted more attention in China due to its top ranked fuel cycle and thorium utilization. The MSRs are characterized by using liquid-fuel, which offers complicated coupling problem of neutronics and thermal hydraulics. In this paper, the fundamental model and numerical method are established to calculate and analyze the safety characteristics for liquid-fuel MSRs. The theories and methodologies are applied to the MOSART concept. The liquid-fuel flow effects on neutronics, reactivity coefficients and three operation parameters' influences at steady state are obtained, which provide the basic information for safety analysis. The unprotected loss of flow transient is calculated, the results of which shows the inherent safety characteristics of MOSART due to its strong negative reactivity feedbacks.

  19. Platinum catalyst formed on carbon nanotube by the in-liquid plasma method for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Show, Yoshiyuki; Hirai, Akira; Almowarai, Anas; Ueno, Yutaro

    2015-12-01

    In-liquid plasma was generated in the carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersion fluid using platinum electrodes. The generated plasma spattered the surface of the platinum electrodes and dispersed platinum particles into the CNT dispersion. Therefore, the platinum nanoparticles were successfully formed on the CNT surface in the dispersion. The platinum nanoparticles were applied to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as a catalyst. The electrical power of 108 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed from the fuel cell which was assembled with the platinum catalyst formed on the CNT by the in-liquid plasma method. - Highlights: • The platinum catalyst was successfully formed on the CNT surface in the dispersion by the in-liquid plasma method. • The electrical power of 108 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed from the fuel cell which was assembled with the platinum catalyst formed on the CNT by the in-liquid plasma method.

  20. Stationary liquid fuel fast reactor SLFFR – Part I: Core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Yang, G.; Jung, Y.S.; Yang, W.S., E-mail: yang494@purdue.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • An innovative fast reactor concept SLFFR based on liquid metal fuel is proposed for TRU burning. • A compact core design of 1000 MWt SLFFR is developed to achieve a zero conversion ratio and passive safety. • The core size and the control requirement are significantly reduced compared to the conventional solid fuel reactor with same conversion ratio. - Abstract: For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named the stationary liquid fuel fast reactor (SLFFR) has been proposed based on a stationary molten metallic fuel. A compact core design of a 1000 MWt SLFFR has been developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches have been adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses have been performed to evaluate the steady-state performance characteristics. The analysis results indicate that the SLFFR of a zero TRU conversion ratio is feasible while satisfying the conservatively imposed thermal design constraints. A theoretical maximum TRU consumption rate of 1.01 kg/day is achieved with uranium-free fuel. Compared to the solid fuel reactors with the same TRU conversion ratio, the core size and the reactivity control requirement are reduced significantly. The primary and secondary control systems provide sufficient shutdown margins, and the calculated reactivity feedback coefficients show that the prompt fuel expansion coefficient is sufficiently negative.

  1. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases

  2. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  3. Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible DI diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, J. E.; Espey, C.

    1993-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

  4. Water storage of liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general overview of a concept proposed for receiving and storing liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) spent fuel. This work was done as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The CFRP has as its major objective the development of technology for reprocessing advanced nuclear reactor fuels. The program plans that research and development will be carried through to a sufficient scale, using irradiated spent fuel under plant operating conditions, to establish a basis for confident projection of reprocessing capability to support a breeder industry

  5. Comparative sodium void effects for different advanced liquid metal reactor fuel and core designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Gedeon, S.R.; Omberg, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of metal-, oxide-, and nitride-fueled advanced liquid metal reactor cores was performed to investigate the calculated differences in sodium void reactivity, and to determine the relationship between sodium void reactivity and burnup reactivity swing using the three fuel types. The results of this analysis indicate that nitride fuel has the least positive sodium void reactivity for any given burnup reactivity swing. Thus, it appears that a good design compromise between transient overpower and loss of flow response is obtained using nitride fuel. Additional studies were made to understand these and other nitride advantages. (author)

  6. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytkov Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  7. Failed fuel identification techniques for liquid-metal cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Gross, K.C.; Mikaili, R.; Frank, S.M.; Cutforth, D.C.; Angelo, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), located in Idaho and operated for the US Department of Energy by Argonne National Laboratory, has been used as an irradiation testbed for LMR fuels and components for thirty years. During this time many endurance tests have been carried out with experimental LMR metal, oxide, carbide and nitride fuel elements, in which cladding failures were intentionally allowed to occur. This paper describes methods that have been developed for the detection, identification and verification of fuel failures

  8. Potentiel des moteurs à mélange pauvre face aux moteurs actuels à réglage stoechiométrique : consommation, émissions, exigence en octane The Challenge to Modern Stoichiometric Engines by the Potential Lean-Burn Engine: Consumption, Emissions, Fuel Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A. M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le moteur à allumage commandé pour application automobile aux États-Unis est généralement dépollué par catalyse trifonctionnelle qui impose un contrôle stoechiométrique du mélange air-carburant. Le contexte européen de 1990 pour la qualité de l'air stimule l'industrie automobile dans ses recherches de solutions techniques performantes. Le moteur à mélange pauvre, performant en consommation, est une solution potentielle si l'émission de NOx peut être maîtrisée par la combustion. Cet objectif nécessite une conception du moteur contrôlant la turbulence et l'hétérogénéité du mélange air + carburant + résiduels pendant la combustion. La longévité de l'adaptation optimale moteur-carburant nécessitera un contrôle électronique de l'allumage et l'utilisation d'additifs détergents. Pour satisfaire les réglementations les plus sévères, les émissions de CO et HC pourront être contrôlées par un simple pot catalytique d'oxydation. Des oxydes de métaux non précieux introduits dans la formule catalytique en addition aux métaux précieux maintiennent la fonction oxydante pendant les transitoires en mélange riche tout en réduisant partiellement les NOx. Une vue d'ensemble de ce concept basé sur des simulations numériques et des résultats expérimentaux de consommation, d'émission, d'exigence en octane, etc. est présentée. Spark-ignition engines for automotive applications in the United States are currently depolluted by a 3-way catalyst that requires air-fuel control at stoichiometry. The 1990 European context for air pollution control is stimulating the automotive industry to search for improved technical solutions. The lean-burn engine is a potential fuel-efficient answer if its combustion can be optimized for low NOx emissions. Achieving this challenging approach requires engine design to control the turbulence and heterogeneity of the air + fuel + residual mixture during combustion. Electronic ignition

  9. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  10. Ionic liquid propellants: future fuels for space propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2013-11-11

    Use of green propellants is a trend for future space propulsion. Hypergolic ionic liquid propellants, which are environmentally-benign while exhibiting energetic performances comparable to hydrazine, have shown great potential to meet the requirements of developing nontoxic high-performance propellant formulations for space propulsion applications. This Concept article presents a review of recent advances in the field of ionic liquid propellants. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    fuels produced with coal-, gas- and biomass-to-liquid (xTL) technologies. However, a number of articles use the term beyond this definition. Results for the term electrofuel gave a similar outcome, as it was not clear which processes were used for the fuel production. In some cases, both synthetic...... of this article is to identify and review these terms to avoid any potential misuse. An integrative review of terminology has been made. This review did not differentiate the articles in terms of the methodologies applied, but had the main objective to identify the terminology used and its definition. The results...... confirm that the term synthetic fuel is used generically in the majority of articles, without providing information about the production process of the fuel or differentiating between fossil-based and renewable-based synthetic fuels. The majority of the articles use the term synthetic fuel to describe...

  12. Modeling efficiency and water balance in PEM fuel cell systems with liquid fuel processing and hydrogen membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Joshua B.; Bhargav, Atul; Shields, Eric B.; Jackson, Gregory S.; Hearn, Patrick L.

    Integrating PEM fuel cells effectively with liquid hydrocarbon reforming requires careful system analysis to assess trade-offs associated with H 2 production, purification, and overall water balance. To this end, a model of a PEM fuel cell system integrated with an autothermal reformer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (modeled as C 12H 23) and with H 2 purification in a water-gas-shift/membrane reactor is developed to do iterative calculations for mass, species, and energy balances at a component and system level. The model evaluates system efficiency with parasitic loads (from compressors, pumps, and cooling fans), system water balance, and component operating temperatures/pressures. Model results for a 5-kW fuel cell generator show that with state-of-the-art PEM fuel cell polarization curves, thermal efficiencies >30% can be achieved when power densities are low enough for operating voltages >0.72 V per cell. Efficiency can be increased by operating the reformer at steam-to-carbon ratios as high as constraints related to stable reactor temperatures allow. Decreasing ambient temperature improves system water balance and increases efficiency through parasitic load reduction. The baseline configuration studied herein sustained water balance for ambient temperatures ≤35 °C at full power and ≤44 °C at half power with efficiencies approaching ∼27 and ∼30%, respectively.

  13. Reprocessing technology of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.; Broothaerts, J.; Heylen, P.R.; Eschrich, H.; Geel, J. van

    1974-11-01

    All the important aspects of LMFBR fuel reprocessing are critically reviewed in this report. Storage and transportation techniques using sodium, inert gas, lead, molten salts and organic coolants are comparatively discussed in connection with cooling time and de-activation techniques. Decladding and fuel disaggregation of UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel are reviewed according to the present state of R and D in the main nuclear powers. Strong emphasis is put on on voloxidation, mechanical pulverization and molten salt disaggregation in connection with volatilization of gaseous fission products. Release of fission gases and the resulting off-gas treatment are discussed in connection with cooling time, burn up and dissagregation techniques. The review is limited to tritium, iodine xenon-krypton and radioactive airborne particulates. Dissolution, solvent extraction and plutonium purification problems specifically connected to LMFBR fuel are reviewed with emphasis on the differences between LWR and fast fuel reprocessing. Finally the categories of wastes produced by reprocessing are analysed according to their origin in the plant and their alpha emitters content. The suitable waste treatment techniques are discussed in connection with the nature of the wastes and the ultimate disposal technique. (author)

  14. Numerical study on heat transfer characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2017-01-01

    To pursue sustainability and safety enhancement of nuclear energy, molten salt reactor is regarded as a promising candidate among various types of gen-IV reactors. Besides, pyroprocessing, which treats molten salt containing fission products, should consider safety related to decay heat from fuel material. For design of molten salt-related nuclear system, it is required to consider both thermal-hydraulic characteristics and neutronic behaviors for demonstration. However, fundamental heat transfer study of molten salt in operation condition is not easy to be experimentally studied due to its large scale, high temperature condition as well as difficulties of treating fuel material. >From that reason, numerical study can have benefit to investigate behaviors of liquid-fueled molten salt in real condition. In this study, open source CFD package OpenFOAM was used to analyze liquid-fueled molten salt loop having internal heat source as a first step of research. Among various molten salts considered as a candidate of liquid fueled molten salt reactors, in this study, FLiBe was chosen as liquid salt. For simulating heat generation from fuel material within fluid flow, volumetric heat source was set for fluid domain and OpenFOAM solver was modified as fvOptions as customized. To investigate thermal-hydraulic behavior of molten salt, CFD model was developed and validated by comparing experimental results in terms of heat transfer and pressure drop. As preliminary stage, 2D cavity simulations were performed to validate the modeling capacity of modified solver of OpenFOAM by comparison with those of ANSYS-CFX. In addition, cases of external heat flux and internal heat source were compared to configure the effect of heat source setting in various operation condition. As a result, modified solver of OpenFOAM considering internal heat source have sufficient modeling capacity to simulate liquid-fueled molten salt systems including heat generation cases. (author)

  15. Power generation in fuel cells using liquid methanol and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is directed to an encapsulated fuel cell including a methanol source that feeds liquid methanol (CH.sub.3 OH) to an anode. The anode is electrical communication with a load that provides electrical power. The fuel cell also includes a hydrogen peroxide source that feeds liquid hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2 O.sub.2) to the cathode. The cathode is also in communication with the electrical load. The anode and cathode are in contact with and separated by a proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  17. BNFL Sellafield assessment of public radiation exposure due to liquid effluents from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Individual (critical group) doses resulting from liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works have been derived in a form normalised to unit radionuclide discharge rates. This has been done for the purpose of providing a basis for predicting doses in the event of nuclear fuel from a future Sizewell 'B' power station being reprocessed. These doses would have to be reviewed in the light of prevailing circumstances at the time when the actual discharges are known. (author)

  18. Data compilation report: Gas and liquid samples from K West Basin fuel storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Forty-one gas and liquid samples were taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin during a March 1995 sampling campaign. (Spent fuel from the N Reactor is stored in sealed canisters at the bottom of the K West Basin.) A description of the sampling process, gamma energy analysis data, and quantitative gas mass spectroscopy data are documented. This documentation does not include data analysis

  19. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  20. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  1. Electrochemical applications of room temperature ionic liquids in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have invaded all branches of science. They are also receiving an upsurge, in recent years, for possible applications in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle. Ionic liquids are compounds composed entirely of ions existing in liquid state and RTILs are ionic liquids molten at temperatures lower than 373 K. RTILs are generally made up of an organic cation and an inorganic or an organic anion. Room temperature ionic liquids have several fascinating properties, which are unique to a particular combination of cation and anion. The properties such as insignificant vapor pressure, amazing ability to dissolve organic and inorganic compounds, wide electrochemical window are the specific advantages when dealing with application of RTILs for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The ionic liquids are regarded as designer or tailor-made solvents as their properties can be tuned for desired application by appropriate cation-anion combinations. An excellent review by Wilkes describes about the historical perspectives of room temperature ionic liquids, pioneers in that area, events and the products delivered till 2001. Furthermore, several comprehensive reviews have been made on room temperature ionic liquids by various authors

  2. A review on laser diagnostics on atomization and evaporation of liquid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyin; Li, Shiyan; Lin, Baiyang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Jian; Xu, Bin

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the atomization and evaporation processes of liquid fuel, there are several laser diagnostics available in present. In this paper, the recent progress in laser diagnostics for atomization and evaporation will be introduced, as two categories: atomization and evaporation. The diagnostics for the former includes the primary breakup from liquid jet to ligaments or droplets and the secondary atomization from a bigger droplet to a smaller one, and the latter includes the droplet evaporation and the vapor distributions in a spray.

  3. Comparison of the renewable transportation fuels, liquid hydrogen and methanol, with gasoline - energetic and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, M.; Staiss, F.; Bandi, A.; Weimer, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the renewable energy vectors liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) and methanol generated from atmospheric CO 2 are compared with the conventional crude oil-gasoline system. Both renewable concepts, liquid hydrogen and methanol, lead to a drastic CO 2 reduction compared to the fossil-based system. The comparison between the LH 2 and methanol vector for the transport sector shows nearly the same fuel cost and energy efficiency but strong infrastructure advantages for methanol. (author)

  4. Sulfur and octane trade off in FCC naphta conventional hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badra, C. [INTEVEP S.A. Research and Technological Support Center of Petroleos de Venzuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Refinacion; Perez, J.A. [INTEVEP S.A. Research and Technological Support Center of Petroleos de Venzuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Refinacion; Salazar, J.A. [INTEVEP S.A. Research and Technological Support Center of Petroleos de Venzuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Refinacion; Cabrera, L. [INTEVEP S.A. Research and Technological Support Center of Petroleos de Venzuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Refinacion; Gracia, W. [INTEVEP S.A. Research and Technological Support Center of Petroleos de Venzuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Refinacion

    1997-06-01

    A model to predict the change of octane numbers expected in an FCC naphtha hydrotreating process as a function of the hydroprocessing severity (degree of sulfur removal) and the type of naphtha (expressed as the sulfur content and bromine number in the feedstock) is presented. When considering hydrotreating as an option for processing their catalytic naphthas, refiners search for the proper balance between the desired reduction of sulfur and olefins and the resulting undesired reduction of octane (RON and MON). In doing so, refiners should study the possibility of performing the hydrotreating at mild severities and/or the possibility of fractionating FCC naphthas to just treat a specific cut. This paper provides simple tools to study and analyze these study cases and to assess the sulfur-octane trade offs. (orig.)

  5. Irradiation performance of U-Pu-Zr metal fuels for liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H.; Cohen, A.B.; Billone, M.C.; Neimark, L.A.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses a fuel system utilizing metallic U-Pu-Zr alloys which has been developed for advanced liquid metal-cooled reactors (LMRs). Result's from extensive irradiation testing conducted in EBR-II show a design having the following key features can achieve both high reliability and high burnup capability: a cast nominally U-20wt %Pu-10wt %Zr slug with the diameter sized to yield a fuel smear density of ∼75% theoretical density, low-swelling tempered martensitic stainless steel cladding, sodium bond filling the initial fuel/cladding gap, and an as-built plenum/fuel volume ratio of ∼1.5. The robust performance capability of this design stems primarily from the negligible loading on the cladding from either fuel/cladding mechanical interaction or fission-gas pressure during the irradiation. The effects of these individual design parameters, e.g., fuel smear density, zirconium content in fuel, plenum volume, and cladding types, on fuel element performance were investigated in a systematic irradiation experiment in EBR-II. The results show that, at the discharge burnup of ∼11 at. %, variations on zirconium content or plenum volume in the ranges tested have no substantial effects on performance. Fuel smear density, on the other hand, has pronounced but countervailing effects: increased density results in greater cladding strain, but lesser cladding wastage from fuel/cladding chemical interaction

  6. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    channel with liquid wall in the microporous media under the ultrasound cavitations has shown the following: · The action of the ultrasound field in the...microporous liquid which has a very large ratio of the plasma-liquid contact surface to the plasma volume. As is known the ultrasonic (US) cavitation is a very...2) and it ran over a flat dielectric surface of the magnetostrictive transmitter (5) which produced ultrasonic (US) cavitations , so the discharge

  7. 49 CFR 393.67 - Liquid fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a front tire in a straight ahead position. In determining whether a fuel tank on a truck or truck... this section. The specified tests are a measure of performance only. Alternative procedures which assure that equipment meets the required performance standards may be used. . (1) Safety venting system...

  8. Algae as a Biofuel: Renewable Source for Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kant Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels produced by algae may provide a feasible alternative to fossil fuels like petroleum sourced fuels. However, looking to limited fossil fuel associated with problems, intensive efforts have been given to search for alternative biofuels like biodiesel. Algae are ubiquitous on earth, have potential to produce biofuel. However, technology of biofuel from algae facing a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly organized. Different challenges include strain identification and improvement of algal biomass, both in terms of biofuel productivity and the production of other products to improve the economics of the entire system. Algal biofuels could be made more cost effective by extracting other valuable products from algae and algal strains. Algal oil can be prepared by culture of algae on municipal and industrial wastewaters. Photobioreactors methods provide a controlled environment that can be tailored to the specific demands of high production of algae to attain a consistently good yield of biofuel. The algal biomass has been reported to yield high oil contents and have good amount of the biodiesel production capacity. In this article, it has been attempted to review to elucidate the approaches for making algal biodiesel economically competitive with respect to petrodiesel. Consequently, R & D work has been carried out for the growth, harvesting, oil extraction and conversion to biodiesel from algal sources.

  9. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A; Leppaemaeki, E; Koponen, P; Levander, J; Tapola, E [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1998-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  10. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  11. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  12. Terpineol as a novel octane booster for extending the knock limit of gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Naser, Nimal; Roberts, William L.; Dibble, Robert W.; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Improving the octane number of gasoline offers the potential of improved engine combustion, as it permits spark timing advancement without engine knock. This study proposes the use of terpineol as an octane booster for gasoline in a spark ignited

  13. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the ongoing development of high temperature PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer the possibility of using...... methanol is converted to a hydrogen rich gas with CO2 trace amounts of CO, the increased operating temperatures allow the fuel cell to tolerate much higher CO concentrations than Nafion-based membranes. The increased tolerance to CO also enables the use of reformer systems with less hydrogen cleaning steps...... liquid fuels such as methanol, due to the increased robustness of operating at higher temperatures (160-180oC). Using liquid fuels such as methanol removes the high volume demands of compressed hydrogen storages, simplifies refueling, and enables the use of existing fuel distribution systems. The liquid...

  14. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S.

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs

  15. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs.

  16. High-temperature reactors for underground liquid-fuels production with direct carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The world faces two major challenges: (1) reducing dependence on oil from unstable parts of the world and (2) minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Oil provides 39% of the energy needs of the United States, and oil refineries consume over 7% of the total energy. The world is running out of light crude oil and is increasingly using heavier fossil feedstocks such as heavy oils, tar sands, oil shale, and coal for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel). With heavier feedstocks, more energy is needed to convert the feedstocks into liquid fuels. In the extreme case of coal liquefaction, the energy consumed in the liquefaction process is almost twice the energy value of the liquid fuel. This trend implies large increases in carbon dioxide releases per liter of liquid transport fuel that is produced. It is proposed that high-temperature nuclear heat be used to refine hydrocarbon feedstocks (heavy oil, tar sands, oil shale, and coal) 'in situ ', i.e., underground. Using these resources for liquid fuel production would potentially enable the United States to become an exporter of oil while sequestering carbon from the refining process underground as carbon. This option has become potentially viable because of three technical developments: precision drilling, underground isolation of geological formations with freeze walls, and the understanding that the slow heating of heavy hydrocarbons (versus fast heating) increases the yield of light oils while producing a high-carbon solid residue. Required peak reactor temperatures are near 700 deg. C-temperatures within the current capabilities of high-temperature reactors. (authors)

  17. New Technique Of Determination Of Biogenic Fraction In Liquid Fuels By The 14C Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Baresic, J.; Horvatincic, N.; Kristof, R.; Kozar Logar, J.

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU Directive 2009/28/EC all (liquid) fuels have to contain at least 10 percent of bio-fuel, i.e., blend of biogenic origin, by 2020. 14C method is the most reliable method of determination of the biogenic fraction in fuels and various measurement techniques can be applied. A technique of direct measurement of the 14C content in liquid fuel is simple and fast but has main disadvantage: different liquid colours cause different quenching and changes in the measurement efficiency. Here we have described a new technique that uses liquids of different colours to construct modern and background calibration curves, MCC and BCC, respectively, by measuring count rates and SQP values of various modern and fossil liquids. Several types of fossil fuel, pure benzine and benzene (used as 14C-free background for 14C dating) were used for BCC, and various brands of domestic oil (vegetable, sunflower, olive, pumpkin), bioethanol and benzene prepared from modern samples were used MCC construction. The procedure for the unknown sample consists of: 1) measurement of the count rate and the SQP value, 2) calculation of background and modern count rates corresponding to the measured SQP value based on the BCC and MCC curves, respectively, and 3) the ratio of net count rates of the unknown sample and the modern net count rate at the same SQP represents the fraction of the biogenic component in the liquid. All samples should be measured under the same conditions. In our case these are: UltimaGold F scintillator, the ratio sample:scintillator (10 mL:10 mL), low-potassium glass vials of 20 mL volume, spectra recorded by LSC Quantulus and evaluated in the window 124 - 570. Lowest detectable biogenic fraction is 0.5 %. The technique depends neither on the fossil matrix or the biogenic additive types. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by different evaluation technique. (author).

  18. Interfacial tensions of binary mixtures of ethanol with octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Andres; Cartes, Marcela; Segura, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Experimental interfacial tensions in binary mixtures with aneotropic behavior. → Experimental interfacial tensions for ethanol + hydrocarbon mixtures. → Aneotropic displacement in ethanol mixtures. - Abstract: This contribution is devoted to the experimental characterization of interfacial tensions of a representative group of binary mixtures pertaining to the (ethanol + linear hydrocarbon) series (i.e. octane, decane, dodecane, and tetradecane). Experimental measurements were isothermically performed using a maximum differential bubble pressure technique, which was applied over the whole mole fraction range and over the temperature range 298.15 K < T/K < 318.15 K. Experimental results show that the interfacial tensions of (ethanol + octane or decane) negatively deviate from the linear behavior and that sharp minimum points on concentration, or aneotropes, are observed for each isotherm. The interfacial tensions of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane), in turn, are characterized by combined deviations from the linear behavior, and inflecting behavior observed on concentration for each isotherm. The experimental evidence also shows that these latter mixtures are close to exhibit aneotropy. For the case of (ethanol + octane or decane) mixtures, aneotropy was clearly induced by the similarity of the interfacial tension values of the constituents. The inflecting behavior of the interfacial tensions of (ethanol + dodecane or tetradecane), in turn, was observed in the vicinity of the coordinates of the critical point of these mixtures, thus pointing to the fact that the quasi-aneotropic singularity that affects these mixtures was provoked by the proximity of an immiscibility gap of the liquid phase. Finally, the experimental data of interfacial tensions were smoothed with the Scott-Myers expansion, from which it is possible to conclude that the observed aneotropic concentrations weakly depend on temperature for all the analyzed mixtures.

  19. Fabrication of Cr-doped UO2 Fuel Pellet using Liquid Phase Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Oh, Jang Soo; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    An enhancement of the thermal conductivity of a pellet can be obtained by the addition of a higher thermal conductive material in the pellet. In addition, the resistance to the PCI can be increased through a plasticity increase of the pellet. Thermal conductivity of ceramic materials is generally lower than that of metallic materials. The thermal conductivity of uranium oxide which is a typical ceramic material is low as well. The steep temperature gradient in the fuel pellet results from the low thermal conductivity. Therefore, the thermal conductivity improvement of a nuclear fuel pellet can enhance the fuel performance in various aspects. The lower centerline temperature of a fuel pellet affects the enhancement of fuel safety as well as fuel pellet integrity during nuclear reactor operation. Besides, the nuclear reactor power can be uprated due to the higher safety margin. So, many researches to enhance the thermal conductivity of nuclear fuel pellet have been performed in various ways. To improve the thermal conductivity of UO 2 pellet, an appropriate arrangement of the high thermal conductive material in UO 2 matrix is one of the various methods. We intended to control a placement of chromium as the high thermal conductive material. The metallic chromium and chromium oxide were arranged in a grain boundary of UO 2 using a liquid phase sintering method. The liquid phase sintering of Cr-doped UO 2 pellet could be adjusted using a control of an oxygen potential in sintering atmosphere

  20. Conventional OTSG development for heavy liquid fuel firing in thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setchfield, W.P. [Mitchell Engineers Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Roset, J.N. [Total S.A., Paris (France); Schaffer, M. [Total E and P Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); O' Connor, D. [MEG Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kense, K. [TIW Western Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    The demand for natural gas is expected to increase as a result of future expansion in Canadian extra heavy oil in-situ thermal production, such as steam assisted gravity drainage or SAGD projects. Natural gas is the current predominant fuel utilized for the associated steam generation. Potential natural gas shortages and related price volatility require that operators consider alternative fuels for the projected growth of in-situ thermal production in Alberta. This paper targeted the use of bitumen from upstream sites and derivative residues from upgrading activities as the most convenient alternative fuel sources for thermal operators of established horizontal type gas fired once through steam generators (OTSGs). The paper presented the methodology, the issues associated with bitumen or residue burning and the related technical solutions in developing a multi-fuel OTSG product. The paper provided background information on conventional OTSG design development, conventional OTSG existing deign, and general description of conventional OTSG. The paper also described the configuration of a radiant furnace, convection module, and theories and definitions such as heavy liquid fuels. A description and application of the equipment and processes as well as a presentation of the data and results was then offered. The multi fuel OTSG design is considered to be a practical and workable product capable of firing heavy liquid fuels. However, the design changes have had a significant impact when compared with conventional OTSG boilers. 11 figs.

  1. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  2. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  3. Acoustic Excitation of Liquid Fuel Droplets and Coaxial Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    would also like to acknowledge the support of the NASA Microgravity Combustion program which made possible the completion of this research and Maj...fuels exposed to different acoustic excitation conditions in a laboratory environment and during free-fall (microgravity) conditions in a NASA drop tower...then sent to two amplifiers, one for each piezo-siren. The amplifiers were a Krohn-Hite (model 7500) and a Trek (model PZD2000A), which amplified the

  4. A liquid organic carrier of hydrogen as a fuel for automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Taube, P.

    1979-09-01

    A system of storing energy in a hydrogen containing fuel for the motor car is discussed. The recyclable liquid chemical carrier is: (Methylcyclohexane (liquid)) dehydrogenation (Toluene (liquid)) + (hydrogen (gas)). The reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of toluene, occurs in a regional plant connected to a source of hydrogen (electrolysis of water) with a significant by-product being heat at 200 0 C for district heating. The system is able to store hydrogen in liquid form under ambient temperature and pressure even in a small motor car. The concentration of hydrogen is 6.1 % by weight. The release of gaseous hydrogen from the liquid methylcyclohexane needs a chemical catalytic reactor having a temperature of 300 0 C and a pressure of some bars. This reaction has been well studied. The thermal energy for the dehydrogenation is taken from the exhaust gases at 780 0 C. A layout of the most important processes of the system is given. (Auth.)

  5. A review on the electrochemical applications of room temperature ionic liquids in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    A mini review on the electrochemical applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) in nuclear fuel cycle is presented. It is shown that how the fascinating properties of RTIL can be tuned to deliver desirable application in aqueous and non-aqueous reprocessing and in nuclear waste management. (author)

  6. ROAD TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS SUBSTANCE WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON LIQUID FUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Salomon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of the transport of dangerous goods by road transport. It contains issues relating to the legal aspects, the risk to traffic and transport requirements for participants in force in the European Union and Poland. Particular emphasis has been placed on issues related to the carriage of liquid fuels.

  7. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1982-10-01

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  8. Bifunctional catalysts for the direct production of liquid fuels from syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of catalyst formulations that maximize the direct production of liquid fuels by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), hydrocarbon cracking, and isomerization into one single catalyst particle (bifunctional FTS catalyst) have been investigated in this thesis. To achieve

  9. Combustion of Liquid Bio-Fuels in an Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccio, F.; Kalisz, S.; Baxter, D.; Svoboda, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 143, 1-3 (2008), s. 172-179 ISSN 1385-8947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : internal circulating fluidized bed * liquid fuel * combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008

  10. Calculating analysis of firing different composition artificial coal liquid fuels (ACLF) in the cyclone primary furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsepenok, A. [Novosibirsk State Technological Univ. (Russian Federation); Joint Stock company ' ' ZiO-COTES' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, Yu. [Novosibirsk State Technological Univ. (Russian Federation); Serant, F. [Joint Stock company ' ' ZiO-COTES' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This chapter describes the preparation technologies, results of computer simulation of combustion processes in a cyclone primary furnace during firing of artificial coal liquid fuels prepared from different coal grades and results of live testing. As a result the values of unburned carbon, NO{sub x} emissions and other concentrations in the outlet section primary furnace were estimated.

  11. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  12. Quantitative liquid and vapor distribution measurements in evaporating fuel sprays using laser-induced exciplex fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fansler, Todd D; Drake, Michael C; Gajdeczko, Boguslaw; Düwel, Isabell; Koban, Wieland; Zimmermann, Frank P; Schulz, Christof

    2009-01-01

    Fully quantitative two-dimensional measurements of liquid- and vapor-phase fuel distributions (mass per unit volume) from high-pressure direct-injection gasoline injectors are reported for conditions of both slow and rapid vaporization in a heated, high-pressure spray chamber. The measurements employ the coevaporative gasoline-like fluorobenzene (FB)/diethylmethylamine (DEMA)/hexane exciplex tracer/fuel system. In contrast to most previous laser-induced exciplex-fluorescence (LIEF) experiments, the quantitative results here include regions in which liquid and vapor fuel coexist (e.g. near the injector exit). A unique aspect is evaluation of both vapor- and liquid-phase distributions at varying temperature and pressure using only in situ vapor-phase fluorescence calibration measurements at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This approach draws on recent extensive measurements of the temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of the FB–DEMA exciplex system, in particular on knowledge of the quantum efficiencies of the vapor-phase and liquid-phase (exciplex) fluorescence. In addition to procedures necessary for quantitative measurements, we discuss corrections for liquid–vapor crosstalk (liquid fluorescence that overlaps the vapor-fluorescence bandpass), the unknown local temperature due to vaporization-induced cooling, and laser-sheet attenuation by scattering and absorption

  13. Effects of Heat of Vaporization and Octane Sensitivity on Knock-Limited Spark Ignition Engine Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burton, Jonathan L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sindler, Petr [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Earl D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fouts, Lisa A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Knock-limited loads for a set of surrogate gasolines all having nominal 100 research octane number (RON), approximately 11 octane sensitivity (S), and a heat of vaporization (HOV) range of 390 to 595 kJ/kg at 25 degrees C were investigated. A single-cylinder spark-ignition engine derived from a General Motors Ecotec direct injection (DI) engine was used to perform load sweeps at a fixed intake air temperature (IAT) of 50 degrees C, as well as knock-limited load measurements across a range of IATs up to 90 degrees C. Both DI and pre-vaporized fuel (supplied by a fuel injector mounted far upstream of the intake valves and heated intake runner walls) experiments were performed to separate the chemical and thermal effects of the fuels' knock resistance. The DI load sweeps at 50 degrees C intake air temperature showed no effect of HOV on the knock-limited performance. The data suggest that HOV acts as a thermal contributor to S under the conditions studied. Measurement of knock-limited loads from the IAT sweeps for DI at late combustion phasing showed that a 40 vol% ethanol (E40) blend provided additional knock resistance at the highest temperatures, compared to a 20 vol% ethanol blend and hydrocarbon fuel with similar RON and S. Using the pre-vaporized fuel system, all the high S fuels produced nearly identical knock-limited loads at each temperature across the range of IATs studied. For these fuels RON ranged from 99.2 to 101.1 and S ranged from 9.4 to 12.2, with E40 having the lowest RON and highest S. The higher knock-limited loads for E40 at the highest IATs examined were consistent with the slightly higher S for this fuel, and the lower engine operating condition K values arising from use of this fuel. The study highlights how fuel HOV can affect the temperature at intake valve closing, and consequently the pressure-temperature history of the end gas leading to more negative values of K, thereby enhancing the effect of S on knock resistance.

  14. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  15. Characterization of fueling NSTX H-mode plasmas diverted to a liquid lithium divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R., E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kugel, H.W.; Abrams, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jaworski, M.A., E-mail: mjaworsk@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); and others

    2013-07-15

    Deuterium fueling experiments were conducted with the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). Lithium evaporation recoated the LLD surface to approximate flowing liquid Li to sustain D retention. In the first experiment with the diverted outer strike point on the LLD, the difference between the applied D gas input and the plasma D content reached very high values without disrupting the plasma, as would normally occur in the absence of Li pumping, and there was also little change in plasma D content. In the second experiment, constant fueling was applied, as the LLD temperature was varied to change the surface from solid to liquid. The D retention was relatively constant, and about the same as that for solid Li coatings on graphite, or twice that achieved without Li PFC coatings. Contamination of the LLD surface was also possible due to compound formation and erosion and redeposition from carbon PFCs.

  16. Investigation of the ignition of liquid hydrocarbon fuels with nanoadditives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, V. N.; Velikodnyi, V. Yu.; Levin, Yu. K.; Popov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    During our experimental studies we showed a high efficiency of the influence of nanoparticle additives on the stability of the ignition of hydrocarbon fuels and the stabilization of their combustion in a highfrequency high-voltage discharge. We detected the effects of a jet deceleration, an increase in the volume of the combustible mixture, and a reduction in the inflammation delay time. These effects have been estimated quantitatively by digitally processing the video frames of the ignition of a bubbled kerosene jet with 0.5% graphene nanoparticle additives and without these additives. This effect has been explained by the influence of electrodynamic processes.

  17. Components of Particle Emissions from Light-Duty Spark-Ignition Vehicles with Varying Aromatic Content and Octane Rating in Gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel Z; Vu, Diep; Durbin, Thomas D; Karavalakis, Georgios; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2015-09-01

    Typical gasoline consists of varying concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and octane ratings. However, their impacts on particulate matter (PM) such as black carbon (BC) and water-soluble and insoluble particle compositions are not well-defined. This study tests seven 2012 model year vehicles, which include one port fuel injection (PFI) configured hybrid vehicle, one PFI vehicle, and six gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles. Each vehicle was driven on the Unified transient testing cycle (UC) using four different fuels. Three fuels had a constant octane rating of 87 with varied aromatic concentrations at 15%, 25%, and 35%. A fourth fuel with higher octane rating, 91, contained 35% aromatics. BC, PM mass, surface tension, and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) fractions were measured. The water-insoluble mass (WIM) fraction of the vehicle emissions was estimated. Increasing fuel aromatic content increases BC emission factors (EFs) of transient cycles. BC concentrations were higher for the GDI vehicles than the PFI and hybrid vehicles, suggesting a potential climate impact for increased GDI vehicle production. Vehicle steady-state testing showed that the hygroscopicity of PM emissions at high speeds (70 mph; κ > 1) are much larger than emissions at low speeds (30 mph; κ < 0.1). Iso-paraffin content in the fuels was correlated to the decrease in WSOM emissions. Both aromatic content and vehicle speed increase the amount of hygroscopic material found in particle emissions.

  18. Dimerisation of n-butenes for high octane gasoline components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bruijn, J.

    2000-01-01

    Dimerization of linear olefins represents an attractive route for the production of high octane number blending components. The oligomerization needs not only to be high conversion and to produce mainly dimers but also to be selective within the dimer range, as only certain isomers have advantageous

  19. Review of market for octane enhancers: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. Sinor Consultants, Inc.

    2000-06-20

    Crude oil is easily separated into its principal products by simple distillation. However, neither the amounts nor the quality of these natural products matches demand. Today, octane requirements must be achieved by changing the chemical composition of the straight-run gasoline fraction.

  20. Ignition studies of two low-octane gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Lovisotto, Leonardo; Issayev, Gani; Badra, Jihad; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    , were measured in a shock tube and a rapid compression machine over a broad range of engine-relevant conditions (650–1200 K, 20 and 40 bar and ϕ = 0.5 and 1). The two gasolines are of similar octane ratings with anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2

  1. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed [Department of Research and Development, Natural State Research Inc, Stamford, (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS.

  2. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS

  3. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  4. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  5. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoteit A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CLC is a new promising combustion process for CO2 capture with less or even no energy penalty compared to other processes. Up to now, most of the work performed on CLC was conducted with gaseous or solid fuels, using methane and coal and/or pet coke. Liquid fuels such as heavy fuels resulting from oil distillation or conversion may also be interesting feedstocks to consider. However, liquid fuels are challenging feedstock to deal with in fluidized beds. The objective of the present work is therefore to investigate the feasibility of liquid feed injection and contact with oxygen carrier in CLC conditions in order to conduct partial or complete combustion of hydrocarbons. A batch experimental fluidized bed set-up was developed to contact alternatively oxygen carrier with liquid fuels or air. The 20 mm i.d. fluidized bed reactor was filled up with 45 g of NiAl0.44O1.67 and pulses of 1-2 g of liquid were injected in the bed at high temperatures up to 950˚C. Different feedstocks have been injected, from dodecane to heavy fuel oils No.2. Results show that, during the reduction period, it is possible to convert all the fuel injected and there is no coke remaining on particles at the end of the reduction step. Depending upon oxygen available in the bed, either full combustion or partial combustion can be achieved. Similar results were found with different liquid feeds, despite their different composition and properties. Le CLC est un nouveau concept prometteur appliqué à la combustion qui permet le captage de CO en minimisant la pénalité énergétique liée au captage. Jusqu’à présent, l’essentiel des travaux de recherche dans le domaine du CLC concerne les charges gazeuses (méthane et solides (charbon et coke. Les charges liquides, et particulièrement les résidus pétroliers, sont des charges également intéressantes à considérer a priori. La mise en oeuvre de ces charges en lit fluidisé est cependant délicate. L’objet de ce

  6. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  7. Production of liquid fuels and chemicals from pyrolysis of Bangladeshi bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M. Rofiqul; Tushar, M.S.H.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Tire wastes in the form of used bicycle/rickshaw tires available in Bangladesh were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and feed size on the product yields and liquid product composition. Final temperature range studied was between 375 and 575 C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 475 C. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtain liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from bicycle/rickshaw tire wastes if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly. (author)

  8. Determination of proton conductivity of ionic liquids for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallnofer, E.; Baumgartner, W.R.; Hacker, V. [Graz Univ. of Technology, Graz (Austria). Inst. for Chemistry and Technology of Inorganic Material

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells operating at temperatures of between 100 and 200 degrees C allow the catalyst to tolerate higher levels of carbon monoxide (CO) impurities. However, the number of possible materials for high temperature fuel cell electrolytes or membranes is limited. This study examined the relevant electrochemical properties of different ion liquids with specific reference to neutralized imidazole derivates with a dominant Grotthuss mechanism of proton conduction. The electrochemical stability of the ionic liquids was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) under nitrogen. Proton conductivity was measured under hydrogen by CV within the electrochemical limits. Hydrogen was dissolved at the anode, transported through the ionic liquid, and recombined at the cathode, so that the detected current could indicate the amount of transported hydrogen. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to measure the frequency dependent behaviour of the ionic liquids. All measurements were conducted at 50, 100, and 150 degrees C. Results of the study showed that proton conductivity increased with higher temperatures. It was concluded that neutralized imidazole derivates with optimized side chains of the cation may prove to be a viable alternative to conventional fuel cell electrolytes. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgwater, A V; Double, J M [Aston Univ. Birmingham (GB). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels.

  10. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels

  11. Modeling of Heating and Evaporation of FACE I Gasoline Fuel and its Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2016-04-05

    The US Department of Energy has formulated different gasoline fuels called \\'\\'Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)\\'\\' to standardize their compositions. FACE I is a low octane number gasoline fuel with research octane number (RON) of approximately 70. The detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of FACE I shows that it contains 33 components. This large number of components cannot be handled in fuel spray simulation where thousands of droplets are directly injected in combustion chamber. These droplets are to be heated, broken-up, collided and evaporated simultaneously. Heating and evaporation of single droplet FACE I fuel was investigated. The heating and evaporation model accounts for the effects of finite thermal conductivity, finite liquid diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplet, referred to as the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model. The temporal variations of the liquid mass fractions of the droplet components were used to characterize the evaporation process. Components with similar evaporation characteristics were merged together. A representative component was initially chosen based on the highest initial mass fraction. Three 6 components surrogates, Surrogate 1-3, that match evaporation characteristics of FACE I have been formulated without keeping same mass fractions of different hydrocarbon types. Another two surrogates (Surrogate 4 and 5) were considered keeping same hydrocarbon type concentrations. A distillation based surrogate that matches measured distillation profile was proposed. The calculated molar mass, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio and RON of Surrogate 4 and distillation based one are close to those of FACE I.

  12. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  13. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  14. Stationary liquid fuel fast reactor SLFFR — Part II: Safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Jung, Y.S.; Yang, W.S., E-mail: yang494@purdue.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA is developed for SLFFR transient analyses. • MUSA is verified against the SYS4A/SASSYS-1 code by simulating the ULOF accident for the advanced burner test reactor. • It is shown that SLFFR has a passive shutdown capability for double-fault, beyond-design-basis accidents UTOP, ULOHS and ULOF. - Abstract: Safety characteristics have been evaluated for the stationary liquid fuel fast reactor (SLFFR) proposed for effective burning of hazardous TRU elements of used nuclear fuel. In order to model the geometrical configuration and reactivity feedback mechanisms unique to SLFFR, a multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA was developed. MUSA solves the time-dependent coupled neutronics and thermal-fluidic problems. The thermal-fluidic behavior of the core is described by representing the core with one-dimensional parallel channels. The primary heat transport system is modeled by connecting compressible volumes by liquid segments. A point kinetics model with six delayed neutron groups is used to represent the fission power transients. The reactivity feedback is estimated by combining the temperature and density variations of liquid fuel, structural material and sodium coolant with the corresponding axial distributions of reactivity worth in each individual thermal-fluidic channel. Preliminary verification tests with a conventional solid fuel reactor agreed well with the reference solutions obtained with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code. Transient analyses of SLFFR were performed for unprotected transient over-power (UTOP), unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accidents. The results showed that the thermal expansion of liquid fuel provides sufficiently large negative feedback reactivity for passive shutdown of UTOP and ULOHS. The ULOF transient is also terminated passively with the negative reactivity introduced by the gas expansion modules installed at the core periphery

  15. Analysis of metallic fuel pin behaviors under transient conditions of liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Cheol; Kwon, Hyoung Mun; Hwang, Woan

    1999-02-01

    Transient behavior of metallic fuel pins in liquid metal reactor is quite different to that in steady state conditions. Even in transient conditions, the fuel may behave differently depending on its accident situation and/or accident sequence. This report describes and identifies the possible and hypothetical transient events at the aspects of fuel pin behavior. Furthermore, the transient experiments on HT9 clad metallic fuel have been analyzed, and then failure assessments are performed based on accident classes. As a result, the failure mechanism of coolant-related accidents, such as LOF, is mainly due to plenum pressure and cladding thinning caused by eutectic penetration. In the reactivity-related accidents, such as TOP, the reason to cladding failure is believed to be the fuel swelling as well as plenum pressure. The probabilistic Weibull analysis is performed to evaluate the failure behavior of HT9 clad-metallic fuel pin on coolant related accidents.The Weibull failure function is derived as a function of cladding CDF. Using the function, a sample calculation for the ULOF accident of EBR-II fuel is performed, and the results indicate that failure probability is less the 0.3%. Further discussion on failure criteria of accident condition is provided. Finally, it is introduced the state-of-arts for developing computer codes of reactivity-related fuel pin behavior. The development efforts for a simple model to predict transient fuel swelling is described, and the preliminary calculation results compared to hot pressing test results in literature.This model is currently under development, and it is recommended in the future that the transient swelling model will be combined with the cladding model and the additional development for post-failure behavior of fuel pin is required. (Author). 36 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  16. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate

  17. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  18. Recent Advances in the Characterization of Gaseous and Liquid Fuels by Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kiefer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial gaseous and liquid fuels are mixtures of multiple chemical compounds. In recent years, these mixtures became even more complicated when the suppliers started to admix biofuels into the petrochemical basic fuels. As the properties of such mixtures can vary with composition, there is a need for reliable analytical technologies in order to ensure stable operation of devices such as internal combustion engines and gas turbines. Vibrational spectroscopic methods have proved their suitability for fuel characterization. Moreover, they have the potential to overcome existing limitations of established technologies, because they are fast and accurate, and they do not require sampling; hence they can be deployed as inline sensors. This article reviews the recent advances of vibrational spectroscopy in terms of infrared absorption (IR and Raman spectroscopy in the context of fuel characterization. The focus of the paper lies on gaseous and liquid fuels, which are dominant in the transportation sector and in the distributed generation of power. On top of an introduction to the physical principles and review of the literature, the techniques are critically discussed and compared with each other.

  19. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  20. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 5, July 1-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) Establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression. (2) Modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode. (3) Change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction. (4) Optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density. (5) Scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Substantial progress has been made on the problem of methane suppression through the use of sulfide addition and the identification of bromoethane-sulfonic acid as a specific inhibitor of methanogenesis. A conceptual design of a continuously fed fixed packed bed fermenter is presented. Experimental results show that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels already have a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential.

  1. Technology development program for safe shipment of spent fuel from liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, J.M.; Humphreys, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    A comprehensive plan to develop shipping cask technology is described. Technical programs in the disciplines of heat transfer, structures and containment, spent fuel characterization, hot laboratory verification, shielding, and hazards analysis are discussed. Both short- and long-term goals in each discipline are delineated and how the disciplines interrelate is shown. The technologies developed will be used in the design, fabrication, and testing of truck-mounted and rail-car casks. These casks will be used for safely transporting short-cooled, high-burnup Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) spent fuel from reactors to reprocessing plants

  2. Liquid Water Transport in the Reactant Channels of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak

    Water management has been identified as a critical issue in the development of PEM fuel cells for automotive applications. Water is present inside the PEM fuel cell in three phases, i.e. liquid phase, vapor phase and mist phase. Liquid water in the reactant channels causes flooding of the cell and blocks the transport of reactants to the reaction sites at the catalyst layer. Understanding the behavior of liquid water in the reactant channels would allow us to devise improved strategies for removing liquid water from the reactant channels. In situ fuel cell tests have been performed to identify and diagnose operating conditions which result in the flooding of the fuel cell. A relationship has been identified between the liquid water present in the reactant channels and the cell performance. A novel diagnostic technique has been established which utilizes the pressure drop multiplier in the reactant channels to predict the flooding of the cell or the drying-out of the membrane. An ex-situ study has been undertaken to quantify the liquid water present in the reactant channels. A new parameter, the Area Coverage Ratio (ACR), has been defined to identify the interfacial area of the reactant channel which is blocked for reactant transport by the presence of liquid water. A parametric study has been conducted to study the effect of changing temperature and the inlet relative humidity on the ACR. The ACR decreases with increase in current density as the gas flow rates increase, removing water more efficiently. With increase in temperature, the ACR decreases rapidly, such that by 60°C, there is no significant ACR to be reported. Inlet relative humidity of the gases does change the saturation of the gases in the channel, but did not show any significant effect on the ACR. Automotive powertrains, which is the target for this work, are continuously faced with transient changes. Water management under transient operating conditions is significantly more challenging and has not

  3. Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E.; Hershey, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System

  4. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Salgansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas.

  5. Resolution 127/012. It approve the fuel quality 50-S Oil Gas characteristics within the framework of Technical Quality Specifications Rules for liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This resolution approves the initiative of Ancap fuel quality 50-S Oil Gas characteristics within the framework of Technical Quality Specifications Rules for liquid fuel. This resolution is according to the opinion of the National Energy Regulatory Unit and the Energy and Water Services in relation with the requirements of the current rule.

  6. Synergistic routes to liquid fuel for a petroleum-deprived future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-15

    When compared with biomass gasification/Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO)-based processes have a potential to achieve high biomass carbon conversion to liquid fuel with much lower amounts of supplementary H{sub 2}. On the basis of this observation, we suggest a Hydrogen Bio-oil (H{sub 2}Bioil) process using fast hydropyrolysis/HDO that has a potential to produce nearly double the amount of liquid fuel when compared with the existing biofuel processes while requiring only modest quantities of supplementary H{sub 2}. The optimal operating mode for the H{sub 2}Bioil process is suggested to be in an entrained bed mode in presence of H{sub 2} with gas phase HDO of hydropyrolyzed vapors. A remarkable result due to reduced need for the supplementary H{sub 2} is that it provides synergistic integration of the H(2)Bioil process with a coal gasification power plant or a small scale steam natural gas (NG) reformer leading to a dramatic increase in the liquid fuel production from biomass and coal or NG. Here, hot synthesis gas (T>500{sup o}C) from a coal gasifier or methane reformer supplies H{sub 2}/CO for hydropyrolysis and deoxygenation as well as heat for the process. This result is exciting, because it presents us with an option to build integrated H{sub 2}Bioil processes sooner rather than later when the cost effective H{sub 2}, becomes available from a carbon-free energy source such as solar or nuclear. The H{sub 2}Bioil process and its integrated version with a small scale NG reformer have strong potential to be attractive on a small scale while being more efficient than any current biomass to liquid fuel process in operation.

  7. Method of dry distillation of solid and liquid fuels. [below 500/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michot-Dupont, G F

    1932-07-29

    A method of manufacture is given of liquid fuels with a low boiling temperature by means of dry distillation of coals, lignites, peat, and similar materials at temperatures below 500/sup 0/C in the presence of fatty acids (such as acetates). It is characterized by carrying out the distillation after adding at least one more basic reacting salt in such quantity that the reaction takes place under highly basic conditions.

  8. Experimental study of the form of "hot" steel particles on the ignition characteristics of liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharevich, Arkadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of laws governing the ignition of liquid propellants (kerosene, diesel fuel and petroleum residue) by the single spherical steel particle heated to high temperatures are presented. Is carried out the comparison of the ignition delay times of the investigated flammable substances by the particles in the sphere and disk forms. It is established that the particle shape does not exert a substantial influence on the ignition process characteristics.

  9. Combustion Enhancement of Liquid Fuels via Nanoparticle Additions: Screening, Dispersion, and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-04

    burning rates of nitromethane (a monopropellant) solutions with both n-Al and fumed silica 8 and functionalized graphene 9 in a liquid propellant...These include but are not limited to aluminum, boron, boron carbide (B4C), carbon ( graphene ), titanium, and tungsten nano-sized particles. When... paint at one corner. To dilute the particle number density to an appropriate level for imaging, the particle/fuel mixes were agitated using a

  10. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  11. Experimental Assessment of the Mass of Ash Residue During the Burning of Droplets of a Composite Liquid Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Zakharevich, A. V.; Strizhak, P. A.; Syrodoi, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    An experimental study has been made of the regularities of burning of single droplets of typical compositions of a composite liquid fuel during the heating by an air flow with a varied temperature (600-900 K). As the basic components of the compositions of the composite liquid fuel, use was made of the: waste of processing (filter cakes) of bituminous coals of ranks K, C, and T, waste motor, turbine, and transformer oils, process mixture of mazut and oil, heavy crude, and plasticizer. The weight fraction of a liquid combustible component (petroleum) product) ranged within 0-15%. Consideration has been given to droplets of a composite liquid fuel with dimensions (radius) of 0.5 to 2 mm. Conditions of low-temperature initiation of combustion to ensure a minimum possible mass of solid incombustible residue have been determined. Petroleum products have been singled out whose addition to the composition of the composite liquid fuel tends to increase the ash mass (compared to the corresponding composition without a liquid combustible component). Approximation dependences have been obtained which permit predicting the influence of the concentration of the liquid petroleum product as part of the composite liquid fuel on the ash-residue mass.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.

    2012-05-01

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure HO due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80°C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  13. Characterization of Liquid Fuel Evaporation of a Lifted Methanol Spray Flame in a Vitiated Coflow Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra, Ricardo; Dibble, Robert W.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation of lifted spray flames in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases is presented. The vitiated coflow burner is a spray flame that issues into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean, premixed H2/Air flame. The spray flame in a vitiated coflow emulates the combustion that occurs in many advanced combustors without the detailed fluid mechanics. Two commercially available laser diagnostic systems are used to characterize the spray flame and to demonstrate the vitiated coflow burner's amenability to optical investigation. The Ensemble Particle Concentration and Size (EPCS) system is used to measure the path-average droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction at several axial locations while an extractive probe instrument named the Real-time Fuel-air Analyzer (RFA) is used to measure the air to fuel ratio downstream of the spray nozzle with high temporal and spatial resolution. The effect of coflow conditions (stoichiometry) and dilution of the fuel with water was studied with the EPCS optical system. As expected, results show that water retards the evaporation and combustion of fuels. Measurements obtained by the RFA extractive probe show that while the Delavan manufactured nozzle does distribute the fuel over the manufacturer specified spray angle, it unfortunately does not distribute the fuel uniformly, providing conditions that may result in the production of unwanted NOx. Despite some limitations due to the inherent nature of the experimental techniques, the two diagnostics can be readily applied to spray flames in the vitiated coflow environment.

  14. Liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel rod performance and modeling at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, P.; Toebbe, H.; Hoppe, N.; Steinmetz, B.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel rod modeling codes IAMBUS and COMETHE were used in the analysis and interpretation of postirradiation examination results of mixed-oxide fuel pins. These codes were developed in the framework of the SNR-300 research and development (R and D) program at Interatom and Belgonucleaire, respectively. SNR-300 is a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor demonstration plant designed and presently constructed in consortial cooperation by Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. RAPSODIE I, the two-bundle irradiation experiment, was irradiated in the French test FBR RAPSODIE FORTISSIMO and is one of the key irradiation experiments within the SNR-300 R and D program. The comparison of code predictions with postirradiation examination results concentrates on clad diameter expansions, clad total axial elongations, fuel differential and total axial elongations, fuel restructuring, and fission gas release. Fuel rod modeling was considered in the light of benchmarking of the codes, and there was consideration of fuel rod design for operation at low and high burnup

  15. Experimental observations on electrorefining spent nuclear fuel in molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T. A.; Laug, D. V.; Li, S. X.; Sofu, T.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently performing a demonstration program for the Department of Energy (DOE) which processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). One of the key steps in this demonstration program is electrorefining of the spent fuel in a molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system using a pilot scale electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER). This article summarizes experimental observations and engineering aspects for electrorefining spent fuel in the molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system. It was found that the liquid cadmium pool acted as an intermediate electrode during the electrorefining process in the ER. The cadmium level was gradually decreased due to its high vapor pressure and vaporization rate at the ER operational temperature. The low cadmium level caused the anode assembly momentarily to touch the ER vessel hardware, which generated a periodic current change at the salt/cathode interface and improved uranium recovery efficiency for the process. The primary current distributions calculated by numerical simulations were used in interpreting the experimental results

  16. Development of thermohydraulic codes for modeling liquid metal boiling in LMR fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, G.A.; Avdeev, E.F.; Zhukov, A.V.; Bogoslovskaya, G.P.; Sorokin, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation into the reactor core accident cooling, which are associated with the power grow up or switch off circulation pumps in the event of the protective equipment comes into action, results in the problem of liquid metal boiling heat transfer. Considerable study has been given over the last 30 years to alkaline metal boiling including researches of heat transfer, boiling patterns, hydraulic resistance, crisis of heat transfer, initial heating up, boiling onset and instability of boiling. The results of these investigations have shown that the process of liquid metal boiling has substantial features in comparison with water boiling. Mathematical modeling of two phase flows in fast reactor fuel subassemblies have been developed intensively. Significant success has been achieved in formulation of two phase flow through the pin bundle and in their numerical realization. Currently a set of codes for thermohydraulic analysis of two phase flows in fast reactor subassembly have been developed with 3D macrotransfer governing equations. These codes are used for analysis of boiling onset and liquid metals boiling in fuel subassemblies during loss-of-coolant accidents, of warming up of reactor core, of blockage of some part of flow cross section in fuel subassembly. (author)

  17. Predicting octane number using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and artificial neural networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2018-04-17

    Machine learning algorithms are attracting significant interest for predicting complex chemical phenomenon. In this work, a model to predict research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) of pure hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon-ethanol blends and gasoline-ethanol blends has been developed using artificial neural networks (ANN) and molecular parameters from 1H nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. RON and MON of 128 pure hydrocarbons, 123 hydrocarbon-ethanol blends of known composition and 30 FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasoline-ethanol blends were utilized as a dataset to develop the ANN model. The effect of weight % of seven functional groups including paraffinic CH3 groups, paraffinic CH2 groups, paraffinic CH groups, olefinic -CH=CH2 groups, naphthenic CH-CH2 groups, aromatic C-CH groups and ethanolic OH groups on RON and MON was studied. The effect of branching (i.e., methyl substitution), denoted by a parameter termed as branching index (BI), and molecular weight (MW) were included as inputs along with the seven functional groups to predict RON and MON. The topology of the developed ANN models for RON (9-540-314-1) and MON (9-340-603-1) have two hidden layers and a large number of nodes, and was validated against experimentally measured RON and MON of pure hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon-ethanol and gasoline-ethanol blends; a good correlation (R2=0.99) between the predicted and the experimental data was obtained. The average error of prediction for both RON and MON was found to be 1.2 which is close to the range of experimental uncertainty. This shows that the functional groups in a molecule or fuel can be used to predict its ON, and the complex relationship between them can be captured by tools like ANN.

  18. Predicting octane number using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and artificial neural networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani; Oudenhoven, Vincent Van; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are attracting significant interest for predicting complex chemical phenomenon. In this work, a model to predict research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) of pure hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon-ethanol blends and gasoline-ethanol blends has been developed using artificial neural networks (ANN) and molecular parameters from 1H nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. RON and MON of 128 pure hydrocarbons, 123 hydrocarbon-ethanol blends of known composition and 30 FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasoline-ethanol blends were utilized as a dataset to develop the ANN model. The effect of weight % of seven functional groups including paraffinic CH3 groups, paraffinic CH2 groups, paraffinic CH groups, olefinic -CH=CH2 groups, naphthenic CH-CH2 groups, aromatic C-CH groups and ethanolic OH groups on RON and MON was studied. The effect of branching (i.e., methyl substitution), denoted by a parameter termed as branching index (BI), and molecular weight (MW) were included as inputs along with the seven functional groups to predict RON and MON. The topology of the developed ANN models for RON (9-540-314-1) and MON (9-340-603-1) have two hidden layers and a large number of nodes, and was validated against experimentally measured RON and MON of pure hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon-ethanol and gasoline-ethanol blends; a good correlation (R2=0.99) between the predicted and the experimental data was obtained. The average error of prediction for both RON and MON was found to be 1.2 which is close to the range of experimental uncertainty. This shows that the functional groups in a molecule or fuel can be used to predict its ON, and the complex relationship between them can be captured by tools like ANN.

  19. An experimental study on the effect of using gas-to-liquid (GTL fuel on diesel engine performance and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bassiony

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas to Liquid (GTL fuel is considered one of the most propitious clean alternative fuels for the diesel engines. The aim of this study was to experimentally compare the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled by GTL fuel, diesel, and a blend of GTL and diesel fuels with a mixing ratio of 1:1 by volume (G50 at various engine load and speed conditions. Although using the GTL and G50 fuels decreased slightly the engine maximum power compared to the diesel fuel, both the engine brake thermal efficiency and engine brake specific fuel consumption were improved. In addition, using the GTL and G50 fuels as alternatives to the diesel resulted in a significant decrease in engine CO, NOx, and SO2 emissions.

  20. Performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.; Wigeland, R.; Friedel, G.; Kussmaul, G.; Royl, P.; Moreau, J.; Perks, M.

    1990-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among European and US analysts, an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large (3500 MWt), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) was performed. The study focused on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP), and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Emphasis was placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to upset conditions, and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than oxide-fueled reactors of the same design. 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. Burn-up measurements on nuclear reactor fuels using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, N.; Subramaniam, S.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Burn-up measurements on thermal as well as fast reactor fuels were carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A column chromatographic technique using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) coated column was employed for the isolation of lanthanides from uranium, plutonium and other fission products. Ion-pair HPLC was used for the separation of individual lanthanides. The atom percent fissions were calculated from the concentrations of the lanthanide (neodymium in the case of thermal reactor and lanthanum for the fast reactor fuels) and from uranium and plutonium contents of the dissolver solutions. The HPLC method was also used for determining the fractional fissions from uranium and plutonium for the thermal reactor fuel. (author)

  2. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  4. Osmotic and activity coefficients of triorganophosphates in n-octane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagert, N.H.; Lau, D.W.P.

    1982-01-01

    Vapour pressure osmometry was used to measure osmotic coefficients for tributylphosphate (TBP), tricresylphosphate (TCP), and triethylhexylphosphate (THEP) in n-octane at 30, 40, 50, and 60 0 C and at molalities up to 0.3 mol/kg. Activity coefficients and excess thermodynamic properties (unsymmetrical definition) were calculated from these osmotic coefficients. At 30 0 C, the excess Gibbs free energies for 0.1 mol of solute in 1.0 kg n-octane were -42 J, -66 J, and -20 J for TBP, TCP, and TEHP, respectively. The more ideal behavior of the TEHP-octane system is attributed to the increasing importance of hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon interactions as the chain length is increased. The excess enthalpies for 0.1 mol of solute in 1.0 kg of solvent were -100 J, and -300 J, and -150 J for TBP, TCP, and TEHP, respectively. Thus, association of these solutes arises primarily from entropic effects. Our data could generally be accommodated adequately by postulating association of monomers into dimmers. The exception was TCP at lower temperatures, where more complex models were required

  5. Aromatization of n-octane over Pd/C catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Mengchen; Natelson, Robert H.; Campos, Andrew A.; Kolar, Praveen; Roberts, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase aromatization of n-octane was investigated using Pd/C catalyst. The objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of temperature (400-600 °C), weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) (0.8-∞), and hydrogen to hydrocarbon molar ratio (MR) (0-6) on conversion, selectivity, and yield (2) compare the activity of Pd/C with Pt/C and Pt/KL catalysts and (3) test the suitability of Pd/C for aromatization of different alkanes including n-hexane, n-heptane, and n-octane. Pd/C exhibited the best aromatization performance, including 54.4% conversion and 31.5% aromatics yield at 500 °C, WHSV = 2 h-1, and a MR of 2. The Pd/C catalyst had higher selectivity towards the preferred aromatics including ethylbenzene and xylenes, whereas Pt/KL had higher selectivity towards benzene and toluene. The results were somewhat consistent with adsorbed n-octane cyclization proceeding mainly through the six-membered ring closure mechanism. In addition, Pd/C was also capable of catalyzing aromatization of n-hexane and n-heptane. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae to high-quality liquid bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, I.V.; Hulst, M. van der; Lefferts, L.; Moulijn, J.A.; O'Connor, P.; Seshan, K.

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor in presence of a catalyst (Na 2 CO 3 ) has been studied. Thermal decomposition studies of the algae samples were performed using TGA coupled with MS. Liquid oil samples were collected from pyrolysis experiments in a fixed-bed reactor and characterized for water content and heating value. The oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Pretreatment of chlorella with Na 2 CO 3 influences the primary conversion of chlorella by shifting the decomposition temperature to a lower value. In the presence of Na 2 CO 3 , gas yield increased and liquid yield decreased when compared with non-catalytic pyrolysis at the same temperatures. However, pyrolysis oil from catalytic runs carries higher heating value and lower acidity. Lower content of acids in the bio-oil, higher aromatics, combined with higher heating value show promise for production of high-quality bio-oil from algae via catalytic pyrolysis, resulting in energy recovery in bio-oil of 40%. -- Highlights: → The pyrolytic catalytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor. → Na 2 CO 3 as a catalyst for the primary conversion of chlorella. → Pyrolysis oil from catalytic runs carries higher heating value and lower acidity. → High-quality bio-oil from algae via catalytic pyrolysis with energy recovery in bio-oil of 40%.

  7. The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.

    1987-01-01

    The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of fuel for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble fission product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions

  8. Transient heating and evaporation of moving mono-component liquid fuel droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2016-01-01

    of which the flow and energy transport equations are numerically solved using the finite volume method. The computer code for the model is developed in a generic 3D framework and verified in different ways (e.g., by comparison against analytical solutions for simplified cases, and against experimental......This paper presents a complete description of a model for transient heating and evaporation of moving mono-component liquid fuel droplets. The model mainly consists of gas phase heat and mass transfer analysis, liquid phase analysis, and droplet dynamics analysis, which address the interaction...... between the moving droplets and free-stream flow, the flow and heat and mass transfer within the droplets, and the droplet dynamics and size, respectively. For the liquid phase analysis, the droplets are discretized into a number of control volumes along the radial, polar and azimuthal directions, on each...

  9. Handling and storage of high-level liquid wastes from reprocessing of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.

    1982-01-01

    The high level liquid wastes arise from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels, which are dissolved in aqueous acid solution, and the plutonium and unburned uranium removed in the chemical separation plant. The remaining solution, containing more than 99% of the dissolved fission products, together with impurities from cladding materials, corrosion products, traces of unseparated plutonium and uranium and most of the transuranic elements, constitutes the high-level waste. At present, these liquid wastes are usually concentrated by evaporation and stored as an aqueous nitric acid solution in high-integrity stainless-steel tanks. There is now world-wide agreement that, for the long term, these liquid wastes should be converted to solid form and much work is in progress to develop techniques for the solidification of these wastes. This paper considers the design requirements for such facilities and the experience gained during nearly 30 years of operation. (orig./RW)

  10. Heaters to simulate fuel pins for heat transfer tests in single-phase liquid-metal-flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.; Graf, E.; Hartmann, W.

    1976-09-01

    The development of heaters for thermal simulation of the fuel elements of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (SNR) is reported. Beginning with the experimental demands various heating methods are discussed for thermodynamic investigations of the heat transfer in liquid metals. Then a preferred heater rod is derived to simulate the fuel pins of a SNR. Finally it is reported on the fabrication and the operation practice. (orig.) [de

  11. Catalysis engineering of bifunctional solids for the one-step synthesis of liquid fuels from syngas: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sartipi, S.; Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of acidic zeolites and Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts for one-step production of liquid fuels from syngas is critically reviewed. Bifunctional systems are classified by the proximity between FTS and acid functionalities on three levels: reactor, catalyst particle, and active phase. A thorough analysis of the published literature on this topic reveals that efficiency in the production of liquid fuels correlates well with the proximity of FTS and acid sites. Moreover,...

  12. Chemical Kinetic Insights into the Octane Number and Octane Sensitivity of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan; Badra, Jihad; Mehl, Marco; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    the fundamental autoignition behavior of the fuel (e.g., its chemistry and how reactivity changes with temperature and pressure) and engine properties such as its knocking behavior in a cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The study encompasses a total of 79

  13. Extension of the heat flux method to liquid (bio-)fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuwissen, R.

    2009-01-15

    The adiabatic burning velocity S{sub L} of a fuel/oxidizer mixture is a key parameter governing many properties of combustion, such as the shape and stabilization of the flame. It can be applied as an input parameter for many combustion models. Furthermore, kinetic schemes can be validated by the use of this parameter. A great extend of research has been performed on determining the adiabatic burning velocities of gaseous fuels. Liquid fuels however, have been examined far less extensive. Literature available shows eminent scatter amongst the data of independent groups and distinctive techniques. The methods used for measuring burning velocities need certain corrections for flame properties which cause additional uncertainties and make the scattering of data not completely unexpected. The heat flux burner used in this work, previously developed at the TU/e, creates a flat flame coherently no corrections for stretch are necessary. Instead, the heat exchange with the burner is considered; by measuring the temperature distribution over the burner plate, the net heat flux of the flame to the burner can be determined. By tuning the unburnt gas velocity until there is no net heat flux, the adiabatic burning velocity is found by interpolation. An extension to the original design, using a vaporized fluid in a carrier gas flow, enables to measure burning velocities of liquid fuels. In the present research, burning velocity measurements have been performed on vaporized ethanol/air flames in order to validate the setup. Similarities with the latest experimental research have been evaluated and good agreement has been found. Furthermore, temperature dependencies have been elucidated and compared to power law correlations stated by this external research. Again, good resemblance can be claimed, although the expanding of certain input parameters on mixture composition could give more solid confirmation. Subsequently, comparison with numerically performed calculations has been

  14. Autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted jet flames of pre-vaporized iso-octane in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Alnoman, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The stabilization characteristics of laminar non-premixed jet flames of pre-vaporized iso-octane, one of the primary reference fuels for octane rating, have been studied experimentally in heated coflow air. Non-autoignited and autoignited lifted flames were analyzed. With the coflow air at relatively low initial temperatures below 940 K, an external ignition source was required to stabilize the flame. These lifted flames had tribrachial edge structures and their liftoff heights correlated well with the jet velocity scaled by stoichiometric laminar burning velocity, indicating the importance of the edge propagation speed on flame stabilization. At high initial temperatures over 940 K, the autoignited flames were stabilized without requiring an external ignition source. These autoignited lifted flames exhibited either tribrachial edge structures or mild combustion behaviors depending on the level of fuel dilution. Two distinct transition behaviors were observed in the autoignition regime from a nozzle-attached flame to a lifted tribrachial-edge flame and then to lifted mild combustion as the jet velocity increased at a certain fuel dilution level. The liftoff data of the autoignited flames with tribrachial edges were analyzed based on calculated ignition delay times. Analysis of the experimental data suggested that ignition delay time may be much less sensitive to initial temperature under atmospheric pressure conditions as compared with predictions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-liquid fuels - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Buesser, S.; Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This study elaborates a life cycle assessment of using of BTL-fuels (biomass-to-liquid). This type of fuel is produced in synthesis process from e.g. wood, straw or other biomass. The life cycle inventory data of the fuel provision with different types of conversion concepts are based on the detailed life cycle assessment compiled and published within a European research project. The inventory of the fuel use emissions is based on information published by automobile manufacturers on reductions due to the use of BTL-fuels. Passenger cars fulfilling the EURO3 emission standards are the basis for the comparison. The life cycle inventories of the use of BTL-fuels for driving in passenger cars are investigated from cradle to grave. The full life cycle is investigated with the transportation of one person over one kilometre (pkm) as a functional unit. This includes all stages of the life cycle of a fuel (biomass and fuel production, distribution, combustion) and the necessary infrastructure (e.g. tractors, conversion plant, cars and streets). The use of biofuels is mainly promoted for the reason of reducing the climate change impact and the use of scarce non-renewable resources e.g. crude oil. The possible implementation of BTL-fuel production processes would potentially help to achieve this goal. The emissions of greenhouse gases due to transport services could be reduced by 28% to 69% with the BTL-processes using straw, forest wood or short-rotation wood as a biomass input. The reduction potential concerning non-renewable energy resources varies between 37% und 61%. A previous study showed that many biofuels cause higher environmental impacts than fossil fuels if several types of ecological problems are considered. The study uses two single score impact assessment methods for the evaluation of the overall environmental impacts, namely the Eco-indicator 99 (H,A) and the Swiss ecological scarcity 2006 method. The transportation with the best BTL-fuel from short

  16. Polystyrene Plastic Waste Conversion into Liquid Fuel with Catalytic Cracking Process Using Al2O3 as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kholidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption and an increase in the plastic waste generation are two major problems that arise along with economic growth and the increase in population. Styrofoam is one type of polystyrene plastic waste that can be processed into liquid fuels by cracking process. In this study, the cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel carried by the catalytic cracking process using Al2O3 as a catalyst. This study aimed to determine the effect of the catalyst weight, length of cracking time and range of temperature in the catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel toward the mass and characteristics of liquid fuels produced and to determine the composition of liquid fuels produced. The catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste with catalyst was done in the fixed bed type reactor by heating the reactor with a heater, where the process took place at temperature of 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C and the length of the process was varied into 20, 40, and 60 minutes and the catalyst weight was also varied, which were 4%, 6% and 8%, while the styrofoam weight was 250 grams. From the research, the highest mass of liquid fuel derived from polystyrene catalytic cracking process was in the amount of 48.8 grams and liquid yield percentage of 19.5% at temperature of  250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 8% catalyst, while the characteristics of liquid fuel that were approaching the characteristics of gasoline was at temperatures of 250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 6% catalyst, in which each value of density of 0.763 g/ml, specific gravity of 0.778 and oAPI gravity of 50.2. While other liquid fuels obtained from the cracking of polystyrene were still within the tolerance range characteristic properties of gasoline. Liquid fuels produced from the catalytic cracking process was analyzed using a GC-MS, in which the analysis results indicated that liquid

  17. Investigation of an Alternative Fuel Form for the Liquid Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, William A. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the recent studies investigating the use of liquid salts as reactor coolants have utilized a core configuration of graphite prismatic fuel block assemblies with TRISO particles embedded into cylindrical fuel compacts arranged in a triangular pitch lattice. Although many calculations have been performed for this fuel form in gas cooled reactors, it would be instructive to investigate whether an alternative fuel form may yield improved performance for the liquid salt-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This study investigates how variations in the fuel form will impact the performance of the LS-VHTR during normal and accident conditions and compares the results with a similar analysis that was recently completed for a LS-VHTR core made up of prismatic block fuel. (author)

  18. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options for incinerators, cement kilns... Technology (MACT) Standards § 270.235 Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns... incinerator, cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric...

  19. Combustion performance of an aluminum melting furnace operating with liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieckele, Angela Ourivio; Naccache, Monica Feijo; Gomes, Marcos Sebastiao de P. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mails: nieckele@puc-rio.br, naccache@puc-rio.br, mspgomes@puc-rio.br

    2010-10-15

    The characteristics associated with the delivery of the fuel to be used as the energy source in any industrial combustion equipment are of extreme importance, as for example, in improving the performance of the combustion process and in the preservation of the equipment. A clean and efficient combustion may be achieved by carefully selecting the fuel and oxidant, as well as the operational conditions of the delivery system for both. In the present work, numerical simulations were carried out using the commercial code FLUENT for analyzing some of the relevant operational conditions inside an aluminum reverb furnace employing liquid fuel and air as the oxidant. Different fuel droplets sizes as well as inlet droplet stream configurations were examined. These characteristics, associated with the burner geometry and the fuel dispersion and delivery system may affect the flame shape, and consequently the temperature and the heat flux distribution within the furnace. Among the results obtained in the simulations, it was shown the possible damages to the equipment, which may occur as a result of the combustion process, if the flame is too long or too intense and concentrated. (author)

  20. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.

    2014-03-07

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using readily available fuel sources. Here, we present a pragmatic step toward advancing MFC applications through the fabrication of a uniquely mobile and inexpensive micro-sized device that can be fueled with human saliva. The 25-ll MFC was fabricated with graphene, a two-dimensional atomic crystal-structured material, as an anode for efficient current generation and with an air cathode for enabling the use of the oxygen present in air, making its operation completely mobile and free of the need for laboratory chemicals. With saliva as a fuel, the device produced higher current densities (1190 Am-3) than any previous aircathode micro-sized MFCs. The use of the graphene anode generated 40 times more power than that possible using a carbon cloth anode. Additional tests were performed using acetate, a conventional organic material, at high organic loadings that were comparable to those in saliva, and the results demonstrated a linear relationship between the organic loading and current. These findings open the door to saliva-powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnostic devices. 2014 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1884-4057/14.

  1. Numerical simulation of non-conventional liquid fuels feeding in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Milica R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of mathematical models for detailed simulation of lateral jet penetration into the fluidized bed (FB, primarily from the aspect of feeding of gaseous and liquid fuels into FB furnaces. For that purpose a series of comparisons has been performed between the results of in-house developed procedure- fluid-porous medium numerical simulation of gaseous jet penetration into the fluidized bed, Fluent’s two-fluid Euler-Euler FB simulation model, and experimental results (from the literature of gaseous jet penetration into the 2D FB. The calculation results, using both models, and experimental data are in good agreement. The developed simulation procedures of jet penetration into the FB are applied to the analysis of the effects, which are registered during the experiments on a fluidized pilot furnace with feeding of liquid waste fuels into the bed, and brief description of the experiments is also presented in the paper. Registered effect suggests that the water in the fuel improved mixing of fuel and oxidizer in the FB furnace, by increasing jet penetration into the FB due to sudden evaporation of water at the entry into the furnace. In order to clarify this effect, numerical simulations of jet penetration into the FB with three-phase systems: gas (fuel, oxidizer, and water vapour, bed particles and water, have been carried out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33042: Improvement of the industrial fluidized bed facility, in scope of technology for energy efficient and environmentally feasible combustion of various waste materials in the fluidized bed

  2. Liquid fuel resources and prospects for ligno-cellulosic ethanol: An Egyptian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia R. Tewfik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal presently represent about 90% of the world’s total commercial primary energy demand. Yet, they are depletable sources of energy. Growth in the production of easily accessible oil, the main source of high energy liquid transportation fuels, will not match the projected rate of demand growth, especially in developing countries. In the transport sector, today, the only alternative to non-sustainable fossil fuels is biofuels that are produced from biomass, a stored environmentally neutral solar energy. These fuels are compatible with current vehicles and blendable with conventional fuels. Moreover, they share the long-established distribution infrastructure with little, if any, modification of equipment. The main biofuels presently in commercial production are bioethanol and biodiesel. Industrial countries started production of the 1st generation bioethanol and biodiesel from food products (grains and edible oil since a few decades and these fuels are currently available at petrol stations. Second generation bioethanol from ligno-cellulosic materials is on the research, pilot and/or demonstration stage. This paper discusses the current situation regarding liquid fuels in Egypt which are experiencing imbalance between total production and demand for gasoline and diesel fuels. The quantified need for nonconventional sources is presented. Based on a thorough assessment of current and prospective generated agriculture residues as distributed over the political areas, mapping of the number and capacity of plants to be installed for production of bioethanol from available residues namely rice straw, sugar cane residues and cotton stalks has been developed. Annual capacities of 3000, 10,000 and 20,000 tons ethanol/year until year 2021 have been proposed. Capital and operating requirements and economic indicators have been estimated. It has been concluded that at current price of ethanol of about $0.6/kg, the

  3. Excess molar volume along with viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity for binary mixtures of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene with four octane isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Lei; Qin, Xiaomei; Wu, Xi; Xu, Li; Guo, Yongsheng; Fang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary mixtures of JP-10 with octane isomers are studied as model hydrocarbon fuels. • Density, viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity are determined. • Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations are calculated and correlated. - Abstract: The fundamental physical properties including density, viscosity, refractive index and relative permittivity, have been measured for binary mixtures of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (JP-10) with four octane isomers (n-octane, 3-methylheptane, 2,4-dimethylhexane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) over the whole composition range at temperatures T = (293.15 to 313.15) K and pressure p = 0.1 MPa. The values of excess molar volume (V m E ), viscosity deviation (Δη), refractive index deviation (Δn D ) and relative permittivity deviation (Δε r ) are then calculated. All of the values of V m E and Δη are observed to be negative, while those of Δn D and Δε r are close to zero. The effects of temperature and composition on the variation of V m E values are discussed. The negative values of V m E and Δη are conductive to high-density and low-resistance of fuels, which is favorable for the design and preparation of advanced hydrocarbon fuels

  4. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 8, April 1-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Barnard, G.W.; Wise, D.L.

    1979-07-23

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The accompishments in this program for the first year of work are as follows: a coenzyme M anologue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates; a tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter; a solvent extracter system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter; although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential; the liquid-liquid extractor system is operating in line with 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; the other components of an integrated continuous system, the continuous feed device and the Kolbe electrolysis cell are operating satisfactorily out of line on a scale compatible with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; and an economic analysis for a 1000 ton per day plant has been performed and has been improved and updated based on additional experimental results.

  5. Pyrolysis of plastic waste for liquid fuel production as prospective energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuddin, S. D. A.; Abnisa, F.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Aroua, M. K.

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide plastic generation expanded over years because of the variety applications of plastics in numerous sectors that caused the accumulation of plastic waste in the landfill. The growing of plastics demand definitely affected the petroleum resources availability as non-renewable fossil fuel since plastics were the petroleum-based material. A few options that have been considered for plastic waste management were recycling and energy recovery technique. Nevertheless, several obstacles of recycling technique such as the needs of sorting process that was labour intensive and water pollution that lessened the process sustainability. As a result, the plastic waste conversion into energy was developed through innovation advancement and extensive research. Since plastics were part of petroleum, the oil produced through the pyrolysis process was said to have high calorific value that could be used as an alternative fuel. This paper reviewed the thermal and catalytic degradation of plastics through pyrolysis process and the key factors that affected the final end product, for instance, oil, gaseous and char. Additionally, the liquid fuel properties and a discussion on several perspectives regarding the optimization of the liquid oil yield for every plastic were also included in this paper.

  6. Toward protic ionic liquid and organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Usman Ali; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Pringle, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that can operate above 120 °C, without humidification, would be much more commercially viable. ► Protic ionic liquids and organic ionic plastic crystals are showing increasing promise as anhydrous proton conductors in fuel cells. ► Here we review the recent progress in these two areas. - Abstract: There is increasing demand for the development of anhydrous proton conducting electrolytes, most notably to allow the development of fuel cells that can operate at temperatures above 120 °C, without the need for constant and controlled humidification. The emerging field of protic ionic liquids (PILs) represents a promising new direction for this research and the development of these materials has made significant progress in recent years. In a related but as yet little-explored avenue, proton conducting organic ionic plastic crystals offer the potential advantage of providing a solid state matrix for anhydrous proton conductivity. Here we discuss the recent progress in these areas and identify the key challenges for future research.

  7. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Pozo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU−1 and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10−4 and 16.5 × 10−4 RIU.

  8. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  9. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  10. A method for express estimation of the octane number of gasoline using a portable spectroimpedance meter and statistical analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamykin A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a method for determination of the electro-physical characteristics of electrical insulating liquids on the example of different types of gasoline. The method is based on the spectral impedance measurements of a capacitor electrochemical cell filled with the liquid under study. The application of sinusoidal test voltage in the frequency range of 0,1—10 Hz provides more accurate measurements in comparison with known traditional methods. A portable device for measuring total electrical resistance (impedance of dielectric liquids was designed and constructed. An approach for express estimation of octane number of automobile gasoline using spectroimpedance measurements and statistical multi variation methods of data analysis has been proposed and tested.

  11. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring ways of producing better fuels for propulsion of a spacecraft on the Mars sample return mission, a researcher at Johnson Space Center (JSC) devised a way of blending fuel by combining methane or natural gas with a second fuel to produce a fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at ambient temperature and under moderate pressure. The use of such a blended fuel would be a departure for both spacecraft engines and terrestrial internal combustion engines. For spacecraft, it would enable reduction of weights on long flights. For the automotive industry on Earth, such a fuel could be easily distributed and could be a less expensive, more efficient, and cleaner-burning alternative to conventional fossil fuels. The concept of blending fuels is not new: for example, the production of gasoline includes the addition of liquid octane enhancers. For the future, it has been commonly suggested to substitute methane or compressed natural gas for octane-enhanced gasoline as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Unfortunately, methane or natural gas must be stored either as a compressed gas (if kept at ambient temperature) or as a cryogenic liquid. The ranges of automobiles would be reduced from their present values because of limitations on the capacities for storage of these fuels. Moreover, technical challenges are posed by the need to develop equipment to handle these fuels and, especially, to fill tanks acceptably rapidly. The JSC alternative to provide a blended fuel that can be maintained in liquid form at moderate pressure at ambient temperature has not been previously tried. A blended automotive fuel according to this approach would be made by dissolving natural gas in gasoline. The autogenous pressure of this fuel would eliminate the need for a vehicle fuel pump, but a pressure and/or flow regulator would be needed to moderate the effects of temperature and to respond to changing engine power demands. Because the fuel would flash as it entered engine

  12. In situ liquid water visualization in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with high resolution synchrotron x-ray radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, S.; Banerjee, R.; Lee, J.; Ge, N.; Lee, C.; Bazylak, A., E-mail: abazylak@mie.utoronto.ca [Dept. of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wysokinski, T. W.; Belev, G.; Webb, A.; Miller, D.; Zhu, N. [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Tabuchi, Y.; Kotaka, T. [EV System Laboratory, Research Division 2, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    In this work, we investigated the dominating properties of the porous materials that impact water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Visualizations of liquid water in an operating PEMFC were performed at the Canadian Light Source. A miniature fuel cell was specifically designed for X-ray imaging investigations, and an in-house image processing algorithm based on the Beer-Lambert law was developed to extract quantities of liquid water thicknesses (cm) from raw X-ray radiographs. The X-ray attenuation coefficient of water at 24 keV was measured with a calibration device to ensure accurate measurements of the liquid water thicknesses. From this experiment, the through plane distribution of the liquid water in the fuel cell was obtained.

  13. In situ liquid water visualization in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with high resolution synchrotron x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, S.; Banerjee, R.; Lee, J.; Ge, N.; Lee, C.; Bazylak, A.; Wysokinski, T. W.; Belev, G.; Webb, A.; Miller, D.; Zhu, N.; Tabuchi, Y.; Kotaka, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the dominating properties of the porous materials that impact water dynamics in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Visualizations of liquid water in an operating PEMFC were performed at the Canadian Light Source. A miniature fuel cell was specifically designed for X-ray imaging investigations, and an in-house image processing algorithm based on the Beer-Lambert law was developed to extract quantities of liquid water thicknesses (cm) from raw X-ray radiographs. The X-ray attenuation coefficient of water at 24 keV was measured with a calibration device to ensure accurate measurements of the liquid water thicknesses. From this experiment, the through plane distribution of the liquid water in the fuel cell was obtained.

  14. Steam generators and fuel engineering utilizing solid, liquid, gaseous and special fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, G

    1983-01-01

    Provided were technological specifications and details in the design of brown coal fired steam generators, produced in the German Democratic Republic. These steam generators range in their capacity between 1.6 and more than 1,000 t/h. The appropriate coal feeding systems, water supply and cleaning equipment, coal pulverizers and ash removal units are also manufactured. Various schemes show the design of a 25 to 64 t/h, a 320 t/h and an 815 t/h brown coal steam generator. Specifications are given for series of fuel pulverizers available, for the water circulation system and steam evaporators. The VEB Dampferzeugerbau Berlin also offers steam generators for saliniferous brown coal with a steam capacity up to 125 t/h, steam generators for pulverized black coal with a capacity up to 350 t/h and oil and gas fired generators up to 250 t/h. The company has experience in combustion of biomass (sugar cane waste) with oil in steam generators of more than 100 t/h capacity, and in projecting firing systems for other biofuels including rice, peanut and coconut hulls, wood and bark. Multi-biofuel firing in combination with coal for steam generation is also regarded as possible. (In English)

  15. Simulation methods of rocket fuel refrigerating with liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Denisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature preparation of liquid propellant components (LPC before fueling the tanks of rocket and space technology is the one of the operations performed by ground technological complexes on cosmodromes. Refrigeration of high-boiling LPC is needed to increase its density and to create cold reserve for compensation of heat flows existing during fueling and prelaunch operations of space rockets.The method and results of simulation of LPC refrigeration in the recuperative heat exchangers with heat carrier which is refrigerated by-turn with liquid nitrogen sparging. The refrigerating system consists of two tanks (for the chilled coolant and LPC, LPC and heat carrier circulation loops with heat exchanger and system of heat carrier refrigeration in its tank with bubbler. Application of intermediate heat carrier between LPC and liquid nitrogen allows to avoid LPC crystallization on cold surfaces of the heat exchanger.Simulation of such systems performance is necessary to determine its basic design and functional parameters ensuring effective refrigerating of liquid propellant components, time and the amount of liquid nitrogen spent on refrigeration operation. Creating a simulator is quite complicated because of the need to take into consideration many different heat exchange processes occurring in the system. Also, to determine the influence of various parameters on occurring processes it is necessary to take into consideration the dependence of all heat exchange parameters on each other: heat emission coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, heat flow amounts, etc.The paper offers an overview of 10 references to foreign and Russian publications on separate issues and processes occurring in liquids refrigerating, including LPC refrigeration with liquid nitrogen. Concluded the need to define the LPC refrigerating conditions to minimize cost of liquid nitrogen. The experimental data presented in these publications is conformed with the application of

  16. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  17. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  18. Liquid water breakthrough location distances on a gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Froning, Dieter; Reimer, Uwe; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-06-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to simulate the three dimensional dynamic process of liquid water breaking through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. 22 micro-structures of Toray GDL are built based on a stochastic geometry model. It is found that more than one breakthrough locations are formed randomly on the GDL surface. Breakthrough location distance (BLD) are analyzed statistically in two ways. The distribution is evaluated statistically by the Lilliefors test. It is concluded that the BLD can be described by the normal distribution with certain statistic characteristics. Information of the shortest neighbor breakthrough location distance can be the input modeling setups on the cell-scale simulations in the field of fuel cell simulation.

  19. Ionic liquids in proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Efficient systems for energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Janine C.; Basso, Juliana; da Trindade, Leticia G.; Martini, Emilse M.A.; de Souza, Michele O.; de Souza, Roberto F. [Institute of Chemistry, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, P.O. Box 15003 (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are used in portable devices to generate electrical energy; however, the efficiency of the PEMFC is currently only 40%. This study demonstrates that the efficiency of a PEMFC can be increased to 61% when 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF{sub 4}) ionic liquid (IL) is used together with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The results for ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMI.Cl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF{sub 4}) in aqueous solutions are better than those obtained with pure water. The current and the power densities with IL are at least 50 times higher than those obtained for the PEMFC wetted with pure water. This increase in PEMFC performance can greatly facilitate the use of renewable energy sources. (author)

  20. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

  2. Research priorities in bioconversion of municipal solid waste to produce chemicals, liquid and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [BABA Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    1988-09-01

    Areas for future research on the bioconversion of municipal solid wastes are highlighted in order to optimise the potential use of this resource to make chemical, liquid and gaseous fuels. Despite widespread research, a biological understanding of bioconversion technologies, including landfill gas, composting and anaerobic digestion, has yet to be established. Specifically, work on the development and growth of microorganisms in uncontrolled systems and the detailed biochemistry of purified strains needs to be undertaken. The microbial breakdown of xenobiotics to clean up polluted sites, and as an alternative to incineration of toxic organic wastes, is viewed as a desirable outcome of such an understanding. (UK)

  3. Sorption and chromatographic techniques for processing liquid waste of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelis, V.M.; Milyutin, V.V.; Chuveleva, E.A.; Maslova, G.B.; Kudryavtseva, S.P.; Firsova, L.A.; Kozlitin, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the spent nuclear fuel processing procedures the significant quantity of high level liquid waste containing long-lived high toxic radionuclides of cesium, strontium, promethium, americium, curium, etc. is generated. Separation of those radionuclides from the waste not merely simplifies the further safe waste handling but also reduces the waste processing operation costs due to the market value of certain individual radionuclide preparations. Recovery and separation of high grade pure long-lived radionuclide preparations is frequently performed by means of chromatographic techniques. (authors)

  4. Emission of hazardous materials from consumed liquid fuels in Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Armenski, Slave

    1999-01-01

    It is shown the energy consumption picture of the Republic of Macedonia. It is determined the ratio of different kind of primary energy in meeting the needs of the state. It is used a common method for determination of air pollution during liquid fuels incineration. The results of this investigation should be analysed additionally, to ensure receiving of relevant conclusions for further activities in the field of environmental protection. Suggestions and means for instant activities, without financial support are given. There are not analysed means and methods for environmental protections which are connected with big financial investments. (Author)

  5. Design of a Helium Vapor Shroud for Liquid Hydrogen Fueling of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, K.; Evans, C.; Haney, J.; Leachman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Filling a vehicular liquid hydrogen fuel tank presents the potential for flammable mixtures due to oxygen concentration from liquid air condensation. Current liquid hydrogen tank designs utilize insulating paradigms such as aerogel/fiberglass materials, vacuum jackets, or inert gas purge systems to keep the outer surface from reaching the condensation temperature of air. This work examines the heat transfer at the refuelling connection of the tank to identify potential areas of condensation, as well as the surface temperature gradient. A shrouded inert gas purge was designed to minimize vehicle weight and refuelling time. The design of a shrouded inert gas purge system is presented to displace air preventing air condensation. The design investigates 3D printed materials for an inert gas shroud, as well as low-temperature sealing designs. Shroud designs and temperature profiles were measured and tested by running liquid nitrogen through the filling manifold. Materials for the inert gas shroud are discussed and experimental results are compared to analytical model predictions. Suggestions for future design improvements are made.

  6. Experimental verification of the thermodynamic properties for a jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciasalcedo, Carmen M.; Brabbs, Theodore A.; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties for a Jet-A fuel were determined by Shell Development Company in 1970 under a contract for NASA Lewis Research Center. The polynomial fit necessary to include Jet-A fuel (liquid and gaseous phases) in the library of thermodynamic properties of the NASA Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program is calculated. To verify the thermodynamic data, the temperatures of mixtures of liquid Jet-A injected into a hot nitrogen stream were experimentally measured and compared to those calculated by the program. Iso-octane, a fuel for which the thermodynamic properties are well known, was used as a standard to calibrate the apparatus. The measured temperatures for the iso-octane/nitrogen mixtures reproduced the calculated temperatures except for a small loss due to the non-adiabatic behavior of the apparatus. The measurements for Jet-A were corrected for this heat loss and showed excellent agreement with the calculated temperatures. These experiments show that this process can be adequately described by the thermodynamic properties fitted for the Chemical Equilibrium Program.

  7. Fiber-Optic Determination of N2, O2, and Fuel Vapor in the Ullage of Liquid-Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2008-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system has been developed that can remotely measure the concentration of molecular oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), hydrocarbon vapor, and other gases (CO2, CO, H2O, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.) in the ullage of a liquid-fuel tank. The system provides an accurate and quantitative identification of the above gases with an accuracy of better than 1 percent by volume (for O2 or N2) in real-time (5 seconds). In an effort to prevent aircraft fuel tank fires or explosions similar to the tragic TWA Flight 800 explosion in 1996, OBIGGS are currently being developed for large commercial aircraft to prevent dangerous conditions from forming inside fuel tanks by providing an inerting gas blanket that is low in oxygen, thus preventing the ignition of the fuel/air mixture in the ullage. OBIGGS have been used in military aircraft for many years and are now standard equipment on some newer large commercial aircraft (such as the Boeing 787). Currently, OBIGGS are being developed for retrofitting to existing commercial aircraft fleets in response to pending mandates from the FAA. Most OBIGGS use an air separation module (ASM) that separates O2 from N2 to make nitrogen-enriched air from compressed air flow diverted from the engine (bleed air). Current OBIGGS systems do not have a closed-loop feedback control, in part, due to the lack of suitable process sensors that can reliably measure N2 or O2 and at the same time, do not constitute an inherent source of ignition. Thus, current OBIGGS operate with a high factor-of-safety dictated by process protocol to ensure adequate fuel-tank inerting. This approach is inherently inefficient as it consumes more engine bleed air than is necessary compared to a closed-loop controlled approach. The reduction of bleed air usage is important as it reduces fuel consumption, which translates to both increased flight range and lower operational costs. Numerous approaches to developing OBIGGS feedback-control sensors have been under

  8. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  9. Kinetically based NMR method of measuring blending octane number of olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Bruijn, J.; Morley, C.

    1995-01-01

    Olefins are highly nonlinear octane blenders so that standard GC analyses are poor predictors of blend quality. Engine rating is the only way of measuring olefin octane number nonlinearity. It is thus not possible to rapidly assess the quality of the product obtained from an olefin-producing

  10. Synthesis of Highly Functionalised Enantiopure Bicyclo[3.2.1]- octane Systems from Carvone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vera

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercially available monoterpene carvone has been efficiently convertedinto the tricyclo[3.2.1.02.7]octane and bicyclo[3.2.1]octane systems characteristic of somebiologically active compounds. The sequence used for this transformation involves as keyfeatures an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a 5-vinyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene and acyclopropane ring opening.

  11. Treatment of Mineral Oil Refinery Wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Ionic Liquid Based Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Addi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are an environmentally friendly technology that can recover electricity directly from several wastes at ambient temperatures. This work explores the use of mineral oil refinery wastewater as feedstock in single-chamber air-cathode MFC devices. A polymer inclusion membrane based on the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride, [MTOA+][Cl−], at a concentration of 70% w/w, was used as separator, showing a good efficiency in power production and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The power and the chemical oxygen demand removal reached values of 45 mW/m3 and over 80%, respectively. The evolution of other parameters of the wastewater including nitrites, phosphates and sulphates were also studied. Kjeldahl nitrogen and sulphates were significantly reduced during MFC operation. The results show that mineral oil refinery wastewater can be used as feedstock in air breathing cathode-microbial fuel cells based on polymer ionic liquid inclusion membranes. This configuration could represent a good alternative for wastewater depuration while producing energy during the process.

  12. Separation of lanthanum from nuclear fuel solutions by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, G. C.; Petre, M.; Androne, G.; Benga, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the separation of uranium, praseodymium and lanthanum from nuclear fuel solutions by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The aim of this study is to establish a minimum concentration of lanthanum which can be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, and also to study the effect of uranium concentration on the separation of praseodymium and lanthanum. Optimum gradient mode was established for mixture standard stoc solutions with uranium in a concentration of 1 mg/ml, praseodymium and lanthanum in a concentration range of 1-5 μg/ml from each element. These conditions were applied for the separation of lanthanum from a nuclear fuel solution in which praseodymium and lanthanum were added in a concentration of 3 μg/ml from each element. The elution behavior of lanthanum as a function of the pH and the concentration of the mobile phase, using a mixture of 1-octanesulfonic acid sodium salt with a-hidroxyisobutiric acid is presented. (authors)

  13. Evaporation studies of liquid oxide fuel at very high temperatures using laser beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, M.; Breitung, W.; Karow, H.U.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-11-01

    Evaporation experiments with oxide fuel are carried out based laser beam heating of the fuel specimen surface. The measuring quantities are the recoil momentum of the target, the evaporation area, the evaporation time and the mass and momentum of the supersonic vapor jet expanding into vacuum, and the thermal radiation density of the evaporating surface. From the mechanical measuring quantities we derive the vapor pressure of the target material and, in a first approach, also the evaporation temperature by applying a gas dynamic evaluation model. In a second approach, after having measured the spectral emissivity of liquid UO 2 at 633 nm, we determine the evaporation temperature at the liquid surface also from its thermal radiation. For the determination of the vapor pressure from the measured quantities a gas dynamic evaluation model has been developed. An application limit of the measuring technique is given by onset of plasma interaction of the vapor plume with the incident laser beam at temperatures above 4500 K. Experimental values for the saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 are presented, determined from three series of laser evaporation measurements obtained at temperatures around 3500 K, 3950 K, and 4200 K. The average vapor pressures found are 0.6 bar, 3 bar, and 7 bar, respectively. Laser vapor pressure measurements performed by other authors and theoretical extrapolations of the UO 2 vapor pressure curve known from literature show fairly good agreement within their confidence interval with the vapor pressure measurements reported here. (orig./HR) [de

  14. Development of a Liquid Scintillator-Based Active Interrogation System for LEU Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Plenteda, Romano; Mascahrenas, Nicholas; Cronholm, L. Marie; Aspinall, Michael; Joyce, Malcolm; Tomanin, Alice; Peerani, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA, in collaboration with the Joint Research Center (Ispra, IT) and Hybrid Instruments (Lancaster, UK), has developed a full scale, liquid scintillator-based active interrogation system to determine uranium (U) mass in fresh fuel assemblies. The system implements an array of moderate volume (∼1000 ml) liquid scintillator detectors, a multichannel pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system, and a high-speed data acquisition and signal processing system to assess the U content of fresh fuel assemblies. Extensive MCNPX-PoliMi modelling has been carried out to refine the system design and optimize the detector performance. These measurements, traditionally performed with 3 He-based assay systems (e.g., Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar [UNCL], Active Well Coincidence Collar [AWCC]), can now be performed with higher precision in a fraction of the acquisition time. The system uses a high-flash point, non-hazardous scintillating fluid (EJ309) enabling their use in commercial nuclear facilities and achieves significantly enhanced performance and capabilities through the combination of extremely short gate times, adjustable energy detection threshold, real-time PSD electronics, and high-speed, FPGA-based data acquisition. Given the possible applications, this technology is also an excellent candidate for the replacement of select 3 He-based systems. Comparisons to existing 3 He-based active interrogation systems are presented where possible to provide a baseline performance reference. This paper will describe the laboratory experiments and associated modelling activities undertaken to develop and initially test the prototype detection system. (authors)

  15. Bench-scale production of liquid fuel from woody biomass via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Liu, Yanyong; Matsunaga, Kotetsu; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Hirata, Satoshi; Sakanishi, Kinya [Biomass Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Suehiro 2-2-2, Hiro, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The bench-scale production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel was achieved from woody biomass via gasification. The daily production capacity of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) plant used in this study was 7.8 L of hydrocarbon liquid from 48 kg of woody biomass (on a dry basis), corresponding to 0.05 barrels. The BTL process involved the following steps: oxygen-enriched air gasification of the woody biomass, wet and dry gas cleaning, gas compression, carbon dioxide removal, and the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reaction. In the gasification step, oxygen-enriched air gasification was carried out using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier. The content of oxygen, which acts as the gasifying agent, was increased from 21.0 to 56.7 vol%; maximum values of the conversion to gas on a carbon basis and cold gas efficiency-approximately 96 C-mol% and 87.8%, respectively-were obtained at an oxygen content of around 30 vol%. With the increased oxygen content, the concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} increased from 22.8 to 36.5 vol%, from 16.8 to 28.1 vol%, and from 9.8 to 14.8 vol%, respectively, while that of N{sub 2} decreased from 48.8 to 16.0 vol%. The feed gas for the FT synthesis reaction was obtained by passing the product gas from the gasification step through a scrubber, carbon dioxide removal tower, and desulfurization tower; its composition was 30.8 vol% CO, 25.2 vol% H{sub 2}, 0.9 vol% CO{sub 2}, 2.5 vol% CH{sub 4}, 40.6 vol% N{sub 2}, < 5 ppb H{sub 2}S, and < 5 ppb COS. The hydrocarbon fuel was synthesized in a slurry bed reactor using hexadecane as the solvent and a Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. For hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths of more than 5 carbon atoms (collectively referred to as C{sub 5+}) in the liquid fuel, a selectivity of 87.5% was obtained along with a chain growth probability of 0.84 under the following conditions: 4 MPa, 280 to 340 C, and a ratio of catalyst weight to feed gas rate (W/F) of 9.3 g.h/mol. (author)

  16. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  17. Numerical simulation of combustion and soot under partially premixed combustion of low-octane gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao

    2017-09-23

    In-cylinder combustion visualization and engine-out soot particle emissions were investigated in an optical diesel engine fueled with low octane gasoline. Single injection strategy with an early injection timing (−30 CAD aTDC) was employed to achieve partially premixed combustion (PPC) condition. A high-speed color camera was used to record the combustion images for 150 cycles. The regulated emission of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and soot mass concentration were measured experimentally. Full cycle engine simulations were performed using CONVERGE™ and the simulation results matched with the experimental results. The in-cylinder soot particle evolution was performed by coupling a reduced toluene reference fuel mechanism including the PAHs formation/oxidation reactions with particulate size mimic model. The results showed that PPC presents typical stratified combustion characteristics, which is significantly different from the conventional diesel spray-driven combustion. The in-cylinder temperature and equivalence ratio overlaid with soot-NO formation regime revealed that PPC operating condition under study mostly avoided the main sooting conditions throughout the entire combustion. The evaluation of temperature distribution showed formaldehyde could be regarded as an indicator for low temperature reactions, while hydroxyl group represents the high temperature reactions. Soot evolution happened during the combustion process, hydroxyl radicals promoted the soot oxidation.

  18. Numerical simulation of combustion and soot under partially premixed combustion of low-octane gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao; Jaasim, Mohammed; Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Im, Hong G.; Johansson, Bengt.

    2017-01-01

    In-cylinder combustion visualization and engine-out soot particle emissions were investigated in an optical diesel engine fueled with low octane gasoline. Single injection strategy with an early injection timing (−30 CAD aTDC) was employed to achieve partially premixed combustion (PPC) condition. A high-speed color camera was used to record the combustion images for 150 cycles. The regulated emission of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and soot mass concentration were measured experimentally. Full cycle engine simulations were performed using CONVERGE™ and the simulation results matched with the experimental results. The in-cylinder soot particle evolution was performed by coupling a reduced toluene reference fuel mechanism including the PAHs formation/oxidation reactions with particulate size mimic model. The results showed that PPC presents typical stratified combustion characteristics, which is significantly different from the conventional diesel spray-driven combustion. The in-cylinder temperature and equivalence ratio overlaid with soot-NO formation regime revealed that PPC operating condition under study mostly avoided the main sooting conditions throughout the entire combustion. The evaluation of temperature distribution showed formaldehyde could be regarded as an indicator for low temperature reactions, while hydroxyl group represents the high temperature reactions. Soot evolution happened during the combustion process, hydroxyl radicals promoted the soot oxidation.

  19. Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.

    1982-05-15

    The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

  20. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  1. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  2. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO 2 emissions produced during the conversion process

  3. Physical and mathematical modeling of diesel fuel liquid and vapor movement in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.; Kreamer, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional physical modeling of diesel fuel leaks was conducted in sand tanks to determine liquid and vapor migration characteristics. Mathematical modeling provided estimation of vapor concentrations at discrete times and distances from the vapor source and was compared to the physical experiment. The mathematical gaseous diffusion model was analogous to the Theis equation for ground-water flow, accounted for sorptive effects of the media, and was calibrated using measured concentrations from the sand tank. Mathematically different positions of the vapor source were tested to better relate observed liquid flow rates and media configuration to gaseous concentrations. The calculated diffusion parameters were then used to estimate theoretical, three-dimensional vapor transport from a hypothetical liquid leak of 2.0 1/hr for 30 days. The associated three-dimensional vapor plume, which would be reasonably detectable by commercially available vadose zone monitors, was estimated to have a diameter of 8 m with a vapor concentration of 50 ppm at the outside edge of the vapor plume. A careful application of the method and values can be used to give a first approximation to the number of vapor monitors required at a field site as well as the optimal locations for the monitors

  4. Enhanced Endosomal Escape by Light-Fueled Liquid-Metal Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Lin, Yiliang; Chen, Zhaowei; Hu, Quanyin; Liu, Yang; Yu, Shuangjiang; Gao, Wei; Dickey, Michael D; Gu, Zhen

    2017-04-12

    Effective endosomal escape remains as the "holy grail" for endocytosis-based intracellular drug delivery. To date, most of the endosomal escape strategies rely on small molecules, cationic polymers, or pore-forming proteins, which are often limited by the systemic toxicity and lack of specificity. We describe here a light-fueled liquid-metal transformer for effective endosomal escape-facilitated cargo delivery via a chemical-mechanical process. The nanoscale transformer can be prepared by a simple approach of sonicating a low-toxicity liquid-metal. When coated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs), the resulting nanospheres demonstrate the ability to absorb and convert photoenergy to drive the simultaneous phase separation and morphological transformation of the inner liquid-metal core. The morphological transformation from nanospheres to hollow nanorods with a remarkable change of aspect ratio can physically disrupt the endosomal membrane to promote endosomal escape of payloads. This metal-based nanotransformer equipped with GQDs provides a new strategy for facilitating effective endosomal escape to achieve spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery with enhanced efficacy.

  5. Effects of In-Cylinder Mixing on Low Octane Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir; Sim, Jaeheon; Viollet, Yoann; Im, Hong G.; Chang, Junseok

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. Low octane gasoline fuel has been identified as a viable option for the GCI engine applications due to its longer ignition delay characteristics compared to diesel and in the volatility range of gasoline fuels. In this study, we have investigated the effect of different injection timings at part-load conditions using light naphtha stream in single cylinder engine experiments in the GCI combustion mode with injection pressure of 130 bar. A toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) was used as a surrogate for the light naphtha in the engine simulations performed here. A physical surrogate based on the evaporation characteristics of the light naphtha has been developed and its properties have been implemented in the engine simulations. Full cycle GCI computational fluid dynamics (CFD) engine simulations have been successfully performed while changing the start of injection (SOI) timing from -50° to -11 ° CAD aTDC. The effect of SOI on mixing and combustion phasing was investigated using detailed equivalence ratio-temperature maps and ignition delay times. Both experimental and computational results consistently showed that an SOI of -30° CAD aTDC has the most advanced combustion phasing (CA50), with the highest NOx emission. The effects of the SOI on the fuel containment in the bowl of the piston, the ignition delay time, combustion rate and emissions have been carefully examined through the CFD calculations. It was found that the competition between the equivalence ratio and temperature is the controlling parameter in determining the combustion phasings.

  6. Effects of In-Cylinder Mixing on Low Octane Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2016-04-05

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. Low octane gasoline fuel has been identified as a viable option for the GCI engine applications due to its longer ignition delay characteristics compared to diesel and in the volatility range of gasoline fuels. In this study, we have investigated the effect of different injection timings at part-load conditions using light naphtha stream in single cylinder engine experiments in the GCI combustion mode with injection pressure of 130 bar. A toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) was used as a surrogate for the light naphtha in the engine simulations performed here. A physical surrogate based on the evaporation characteristics of the light naphtha has been developed and its properties have been implemented in the engine simulations. Full cycle GCI computational fluid dynamics (CFD) engine simulations have been successfully performed while changing the start of injection (SOI) timing from -50° to -11 ° CAD aTDC. The effect of SOI on mixing and combustion phasing was investigated using detailed equivalence ratio-temperature maps and ignition delay times. Both experimental and computational results consistently showed that an SOI of -30° CAD aTDC has the most advanced combustion phasing (CA50), with the highest NOx emission. The effects of the SOI on the fuel containment in the bowl of the piston, the ignition delay time, combustion rate and emissions have been carefully examined through the CFD calculations. It was found that the competition between the equivalence ratio and temperature is the controlling parameter in determining the combustion phasings.

  7. The Assessment of Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Generated From The Fuel Reprocessing Plant Using Chemical Coagulation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncoro Arief, H; M Birmano, Dj

    1998-01-01

    Reprocessing of nuclear spent fuel produced 8 lot of radioactive liquid waste still bearing uranium and transuranium. The assessment of the radioactive liquid waste treatment with FeCI 3 as coagulant has been done. Decontamination factor and separation efficiency can be calculated from known activities of initial and post-treatment wastes. It can be concluded that some factors i.e. pH of treatment process, quantity of coagulant, mixing rate, and mixing time have influenced the treatment product

  8. Investigation of Real-Time Two-Dimensional Visualization of Fuel Spray Liquid/Vapor Distribution via Exciplex Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-30

    EXCIPLEX FLUORESCENCE ~N 0FINAL REPORT 00 JAMES F. VERDIECK AND ARTHUR A. ROTUNNO UNITED TECHNOLOGIES RESEARCH CENTER 0 AND LYNN A. MELTON D I UNIVERSITY...DOCUMENTATION. "NWA 0. INVESTIGATION OF REAL-TINE TWO-DIMENSIONAL VISUALIZATION OF FUEL SPRAY LIQUID/VAPOR DISTRIBUTION VIA EXCIPLEX FLUORESCENCE FINAL...Spray Liquid/Vapor Distribution Via Exciplex Fluorescen , - 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) J. F. Yeardierk. A- A. Rnriiunn-l L_ A. Millo - 13a TYPE OF REPORT

  9. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  10. Development of Methodology and Field Deployable Sampling Tools for Spent Nuclear Fuel Interrogation in Liquid Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-01-01

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  12. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  13. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass. Annual report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pye, E.K.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper were studied. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The process is aimed at achieving total raw material utilization and maximization of high value by-product recovery. Specific goals of the investigation are the demonstration of the process technical feasibility and economic practicality and its optimization for maximum economic yield and efficiency. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150g samples of lignocellulosic feeds has been completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  14. A Methodology Proposal to Calculate the Externalisation of Liquid Bio fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalisation associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalisation from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalisation are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalisation is also presented. The report also reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExtemE and ExternE-Transport projects related the externalisation of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs

  15. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  16. A Methodology Proposal to Calculate the Externalisation of Liquid Bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalisation associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalisation from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalisation are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalisation is also presented. The report also reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExtemE and ExternE-Transport projects related the externalisation of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs.

  17. Study of thermodynamic and transport properties of binary liquid mixtures of n-decane with hexan-2-ol, heptan-2-ol and octan-2-ol at T = 298.15 K. Experimental results and application of the Prigogine–Flory–Patterson theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Aravind R.; Mirgane, Sunil R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The large positive V m E values are obtained for the binary mixtures at 298.15 K. • Excess isentropic compressibilities for the binary mixtures are positive over the whole composition range. • The values of G ∗E for all binary mixtures are negative over entire mole fraction. • Viscosities measured for the binary mixtures were correlated with values calculated by various viscosity models. • PEP theory, Bloomfield and Dewan model and Jouyban–Acree model are also used to correlate the experimental data. -- Abstract: Densities and viscosities of binary mixtures of n-decane with hexan-2-ol, heptan-2-ol and octan-2-ol have been measured over the entire range of composition at T = 298.15 K and at atmospheric pressure. From the experimental values of density and viscosity, the excess molar volumes (V m E ) and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (G ∗E ) have been calculated. These results were fitted to Redlich–Kister polynomial equations to estimate the binary coefficients and standard errors. Jouyban–Acree model is used to correlate the experimental values of density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity at T = 298.15 K. The results of the viscosity-composition are discussed in the light of various viscosity semi-empirical equations. The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory. The values of Δln η have also been analysed using Bloomfield and Dewan model. The experimental and calculated quantities are used to study the nature of mixing behaviour between the mixtures

  18. A feasibility study of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for multi-production of solid fuel and liquid fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnang, S.; Prawisudha, P.; Pasek, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Energy use has increased steadily over the last century due to population and industry increase. With the growing of GHG, biomass becomes an essential contributor to the world energy need. Indonesia is the third rice producer in the world. Rice straw has been converted to solid fuel by Hydrothermal Treatment (HT) for electricity generation. HT is a boiling solid organic or inorganic substance in water at high pressure and temperature within a holding time. HT converts high moisture content biomass into dried, uniform, pulverized, and higher energy density solid fuels. HT can effectively transport nutrient components in biomass into a liquid product known as fertilizer. This paper deals with an evaluation of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for solid fuel and liquid fertilizer. An investigation of rice straw characteristics were completed for Bandung rice straw with various condition of temperature, biomass-water ratio, and holding time in the purpose to find the changes of calorific value for solid product and (N, P, K, and pH) for liquid product. The results showed that solid product at 225 °C and 90 min consists in a heating value 13.8 MJ/kg equal to lignite B. Liquid product at 225 °C and 90 min had the NPK content similar to that of micronutrients compound liquid fertilizer. The dried solid product should be useful for Coal Fire Power Plant, and the liquid product is suitable for plants. This research proves that hydrothermal process can be applied to rice straw to produce solid fuel and liquid fertilizer with adequate quality.

  19. Thermodynamic characterization of bio-fuels: Excess functions for binary mixtures containing ETBE and hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, Jose J.; Villamanan, Rosa M.; Martin, M. Carmen; Chamorro, Cesar R.; Villamanan, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    European energy policy is promoting the use of bio-fuels for transportation. Bioethers and bioalcohols are used as blending agents for enhancing the octane number. They make gasoline work harder, help the engine last longer and reduce air pollution. They also cause changes in the fuel properties. Development of renewable fuels needs both knowledge of new thermodynamic data and improvement of clean energy technologies. In this context, the use of ethanol of vegetable origin in its manufacture process, increases the interest of ETBE or bio-ETBE as an oxygenated additive. A complete study of the behaviour of ETBE + hydrocarbons mixtures is presented. Some experimental data concerning vapor-liquid equilibria and heats of mixing were determined in our laboratory. All the techniques have a high accuracy. The data were reduced by well-known models, such as NRTL and used to model the thermodynamic properties.

  20. Research on the combustion, energy and emission parameters of diesel fuel and a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuel blend in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimkus, Alfredas; Žaglinskis, Justas; Rapalis, Paulius; Skačkauskas, Paulius

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Researched physical–chemical and performance properties of diesel fuel and BTL blend (85/15 V/V). • BTL additive reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, improved engine efficiency. • Simpler BTL molecular chains and lower C/H ratio reduced CO_2 emission and smokiness. • Higher cetane number of BTL reduced heat release in beginning of combustion and NO_x emission. • Advanced start of fuel injection caused reduced fuel consumption and smokiness, increased NO_x emission. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparable research results of the physical–chemical and direct injection (DI) diesel engine properties of diesel fuel and BTL (biomass-to-liquid) blend (85/15 V/V). The energy, ecological and in-cylinder parameters were analysed under medium engine speed and brake torque load regimes; the start of fuel injection was also adjusted. After analysis of the engine bench tests and simulation with AVL BOOST software, it was observed that the BTL additive shortened the fuel ignition delay phase, reduced the heat release in the pre-mixed intensive combustion phase, reduced the nitrogen oxide (NO_x) concentration in the engine exhaust gases and reduced the thermal and mechanical load of the crankshaft mechanism. BTL additive reduced the rates of carbon dioxide (CO_2), incompletely burned hydrocarbons (HC) emission and smokiness due to its chemical composition and combustion features. BTL also reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, g/kW h) and improved engine efficiency (η_e); however, the volumetric fuel consumption changed due to the lower density of BTL. The start of fuel injection was adjusted for maximum engine efficiency; concomitantly, reductions in the CO_2 concentration, HC concentration and smokiness were achieved. However, the NO_x and thermo-mechanical engine load increased.

  1. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  2. Dynamic behavior of liquid water transport in a tapered channel of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhtar, N.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathode with a tapered channel design has been developed in order to examine the dynamic behavior of liquid water transport. Three-dimensional, transient simulations employing the level-set method (available in COMSOL 3.5a, a

  3. Predicting liquid water saturation through differently structured cathode gas diffusion media of a proton exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhtar, N.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of gas diffusion media with differently structured properties have been examined with emphasis on the liquid water saturation within the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The cathode electrode consists of a gas diffusion layer (GDL), a micro-porous layer and a

  4. Catalysis engineering of bifunctional solids for the one-step synthesis of liquid fuels from syngas : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.; Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of acidic zeolites and Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts for one-step production of liquid fuels from syngas is critically reviewed. Bifunctional systems are classified by the proximity between FTS and acid functionalities on three levels: reactor, catalyst particle, and

  5. Liquid air fueled open-closed cycle Stirling engine and its exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Xu, Weiqing; Ding, Shuiting; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin; Rehman, Ali

    2015-01-01

    An unconventional Stirling engine is proposed and its theoretical analysis is performed. The engine belongs to a “cryogenic heat engine” that is fueled by cryogenic medium. Conventional “cryogenic heat engine” employs liquid air as a pressure source, but disregards its heat-absorbing ability. Therefore, its efficiency can only be improved by increasing vapor pressure, accordingly increasing the demand on pressure resistance and sealing. In the proposed engine, a closed cycle structure of Stirling engine is added to combine with the open cycle structure of a conventional cryogenic heat engine to achieve high efficiency and simplicity by utilizing the heat-absorbing ability of liquid air. Besides, the theoretical analysis of the proposed engine is performed. The Schmidt theory is modified to model temperature variation in the cold space of the engine, and irreversible characteristic of regenerator is incorporated in the thermodynamic model. The modeling results show that under the same working pressure, the efficiency of the proposed engine is potentially higher than that of conventional ones and to achieve the same efficiency, the working pressure could be lower with the new mechanism. Composition of exergy loss in the proposed engine is analyzed. - Highlights: • Cryogenic energy is better exploited by the open-closed cycle Stirling mechanism. • The Schmidt theory is modified to model temperature variation. • Irreversible characteristics are incorporated in the thermodynamic model. • Composition of exergy loss in proposed engine is analyzed.

  6. Nitrato-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids as Attractive Hypergolic Rocket Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Shi; Zhang, Wenquan; Liu, Tianlin; Qi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-09-12

    Hypergolic ionic liquids (HILs) as potential replacements for hydrazine derivatives have attracted increasing interest over the last decade. Previous studies on HILs have mostly concentrated on the anionic innovations of ionic liquids to shorten the ignition delay (ID) time, but little attention has been paid to cationic modifications and their structure-property relationships. In this work, we present a new strategy of cationic functionalization by introducing the energetic nitrato group into the cationic units of HILs. Interestingly, the introduction of oxygen-rich nitrato groups into the cationic structure significantly improved the combustion performance of HILs with larger flame diameters and duration times. The density-specific impulse (ρI sp ) of these novel HILs are all above 279.0 s g cm -3 , much higher than that of UDMH (215.7 s g cm -3 ). In addition, the densities of these HILs are in the range of 1.22-1.39 g cm -3 , which is much higher than that of UDMH (0.79 g cm -3 ), showing their higher loading capacity than hydrazine-derived fuels in a propellant tank. This promising strategy of introducing nitrato groups into the cationic structures has provided a new platform for developing high-performing HILs with improved combustion properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The influence of temperature on the formation of liquid fuel from Polypropylene plastic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynis, M.; Mulyazmi; Praputri, E.; Witri, R.; Putri, N.

    2018-03-01

    The current trend of municipal waste management in urban areas is caused by rapid changes in social, economic, political and cultural life. As a non-biodegradable polymers that have become essential materials, plastic wastes have created a very serious environmental challenge because of the huge quantities and their disposal problems. Recycling of plastics is seen as one method for reducing environmental and resource depletion. The most attractive technique of plastics recycling is pyrolysis involving the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating in the absence of oxygen. This study investigated the characteristics of pyrolysis liquid fuel (PLF) produced from polypropylene plastic wastes with temperature variations. Pyrolisis was carried out on 200 grams of polypropylene waste plastics at the operating temperature of 200°C, 250°C, 300 °C and 350 °C for 45 minutes. The liquid products were found to have carbon chain length in the range of C8-C9, similar with gasoline. The maximum density, volume and calorific value of the oil obtained were 0.8 g/cm3, 61 ml and 1307 cal/gr, respectively.

  8. Engine performance, combustion, and emissions study of biomass to liquid fuel in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable biomass to liquid (BTL) fuel was tested in a direct injection diesel engine. • Engine performance, in-cylinder pressure, and exhaust emissions were measured. • BTL fuel reduces pollutant emission for most conditions compared with diesel and biodiesel. • BTL fuel leads to high thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption compared with diesel and biodiesel. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of diesel, biodiesel and biomass to liquid (BTL) fuels are investigated in a single-cylinder diesel engine at a fixed speed (2000 rpm) and three engine loads corresponding to 0 bar, 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The engine performance, in-cylinder combustion, and exhaust emissions were measured. Results show an increase in indicated work for BTL and biodiesel at 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP when compared to diesel but a decrease at 0 bar. Lower mechanical efficiency was observed for BTL and biodiesel at 1.26 bar BMEP but all three fuels had roughly the same mechanical efficiency at 3.77 bar BMEP. BTL was found to have the lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and the highest brake thermal efficiency (BTE) among the three fuels tested. Combustion profiles for the three fuels were observed to vary depending on the engine load. Biodiesel was seen to have the shortest ignition delay among the three fuels regardless of engine loads. Diesel had the longest ignition delay at 0 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP but had the same ignition delay as BTL at 1.26 bar BMEP. At 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP, BTL had the lowest HC emissions but highest HC emissions at no load conditions when compared to biodiesel and diesel. When compared to diesel and biodiesel BTL had lower CO and CO 2 emissions. At 0 bar and 1.26 bar BMEP, BTL had higher NOx emissions than diesel fuel but lower NOx than biodiesel at no load conditions. At the highest engine load tested, NOx emissions were observed to be highest for diesel fuel but lowest for BTL. At 1

  9. Parametric study on catalytic cracking of LDPE to liquid fuel over ZSM-5 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.L.; Tuan Abdullah, T.A.; Ngadi, N.; Ahmad, A.; Inuwa, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalytic cracking of low density polyethylene in fixed bed reactor was studied. • Full factorial design involving five parameters and two responses was used. • Regression models were developed for LDPE conversion and liquid product yield. • Liquid product at optimized run contained C4–C8 aliphatic compounds. • Alkyl radicals combine with minor amount of benzenes during cracking. - Abstract: Pyrolysis or cracking of plastic waste is considered as a potential solution to the environmental problems brought about by plastic waste, with the production of hydrocarbon fuel as a value added benefit. In order to explore the potentials of such process, parametric study have been conducted on the catalytic cracking of LDPE dissolved in benzene in a fixed bed reactor. The five factors studied were temperature (A), catalyst mass (B), feed flow rate (C), carrier gas flow rate (D), as well as concentration of LDPE solution (E), while the responses were LDPE conversion (Y_1) and liquid yield (Y_2). The parametric study showed that four out of five factors (A, B, C and D) have significant effects on Y_1 and Y_2. The optimum conditions that produced maximum responses for Y_1 and Y_2 simultaneously are 600 °C (A), 0.10 g catalyst (B), 1 ml/s LDPE solution (C), 80 ml/min N_2 flow (D). The numerical values for Y_1 and Y_2 were 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Analysis on products composition indicated that catalytic cracking of LDPE in fixed bed reaction generally produced high amount of aliphatic branched-chain compounds, together with moderate amount of cyclic compounds. Aromatization of LDPE cracking products is less due to the short retention time of the compounds on the catalysts bed.

  10. Modeling of liquid ceramic precursor droplets in a high velocity oxy-fuel flame jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Saptarshi; Cetegen, Baki M.

    2008-01-01

    Production of coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) flame jet processing of liquid precursor droplets can be an attractive alternative method to plasma processing. This article concerns modeling of the thermophysical processes in liquid ceramic precursor droplets injected into an HVOF flame jet. The model consists of several sub-models that include aerodynamic droplet break-up, heat and mass transfer within individual droplets exposed to the HVOF environment and precipitation of ceramic precursors. A parametric study is presented for the initial droplet size, concentration of the dissolved salts and the external temperature and velocity field of the HVOF jet to explore processing conditions and injection parameters that lead to different precipitate morphologies. It is found that the high velocity of the jet induces shear break-up into several μm diameter droplets. This leads to better entrainment and rapid heat-up in the HVOF jet. Upon processing, small droplets (<5 μm) are predicted to undergo volumetric precipitation and form solid particles prior to impact at the deposit location. Droplets larger than 5 μm are predicted to form hollow or precursor containing shells similar to those processed in a DC arc plasma. However, it is found that the lower temperature of the HVOF jet compared to plasma results in slower vaporization and solute mass diffusion time inside the droplet, leading to comparatively thicker shells. These shell-type morphologies may further experience internal pressurization, resulting in possibly shattering and secondary atomization of the trapped liquid. The consequences of these different particle states on the coating microstructure are also discussed in this article

  11. Advanced control of liquid water region in diffusion media of polymer electrolyte fuel cells through a dimensionless number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, a three-dimension (3-D) model of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is employed to investigate the complex, non-isothermal, two-phase flow in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Phase change in gas flow channels is explained, and a simplified approach accounting for phase change is incorporated into the fuel cell model. It is found that the liquid water contours in the GDL are similar along flow channels when the channels are subject to two-phase flow. Analysis is performed on a dimensionless parameter Da0 introduced in our previous paper [Y. Wang and K. S. Chen, Chemical Engineering Science 66 (2011) 3557-3567] and the parameter is further evaluated in a realistic fuel cell. We found that the GDL's liquid water (or liquid-free) region is determined by the Da0 number which lumps several parameters, including the thermal conductivity and operating temperature. By adjusting these factors, a liquid-free GDL zone can be created even though the channel stream is two-phase flow. Such a liquid-free zone is adjacent to the two-phase region, benefiting local water management, namely avoiding both severe flooding and dryness.

  12. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. James [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  13. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELING OF ISO-OCTANE SI-HCCI TRANSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havstad, M A; Aceves, S M; McNenly, M J; Piggott, W T; Edwards, K D; Wagner, R M; Daw, C S; Finney, C A

    2009-10-12

    The authors describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (ST) combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study they assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scneario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. They find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR ({approx} 0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR ({approx} 0.75). Remaining differences between the predicted and experimental instability patterns indicate that there is further room for model improvement.

  14. The Liquid Sustainer Build-up Time Impact on the Emptying Spacecraft Fuel Tank in Free Orbiting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sapozhnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trouble-free operation of liquid rocket engines (LRE depends, among other factors, on the nonstop supply of liquid rocket fuel components in the fuel tank feed line with continuous flow.This condition becomes especially relevant for the aerial vehicles (AV in orbital (suborbital environment. With a little filled fuel tanks discontinuity of flow may occur because of pressurizing gas blow-by in the feed line as a result of the funnel generation (with or without vortex formation and so-called phenomenon of dynamic failure of the interface "liquid-gas”.The paper presents a mathematical model of the process of emptying tank initially a little filled and having a reduced level of the gravity acceleration. Using the developed mathematical model a parametric study has been conducted to find how stabilization rate of liquid flow effects on the volume of drained liquid. The computational experiment defines gas blow-by points in the feed line and propellant residuals, depending on the flow rate, physical properties of the fuel components, residual value of the acceleration, and diameter of the feed line.As a result, an effect is discovered that previously has been never mentioned in publications on research of the emptying processes of the aircraft fuel tanks, namely: with abrupt bootstrap of the flow rate a blow-by of gas occurs at the initial stage of emptying tank. In this case, to ensure LRE trouble-free operation there is a need in a special inner-tank device to prevent premature blow-by of pressurizing gas in the tank feed line.

  15. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Broadview Heights, OH; Belieres, Jean-Philippe [Chandler, AZ; Yoshizawa, Masahiro [Tokyo, JP

    2011-01-11

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  16. Jojoba methyl ester as a diesel fuel substitute: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.S.; Ismail, M.A.; Elfeky, S.M.S.; Abu-Elyazeed, O.S.M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, University of Helwan, Masakin Elhelmia, Mattaria, Cairo 11718 (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of the present work is to prepare jojoba methyl ester (JME) as a diesel fuel substitute. This was carried out experimentally and its chemical and physical properties were determined. Esterification method is used to produce methyl ester from raw jojoba oil. This method is optimized to produce the highest amount of fuel using a minimum amount of methyl alcohol. To achieve the above aim, a test rig for fuel production was developed. To measure the JME burning velocity a constant volume bomb was developed. The bomb was fully instrumented with a piezoelectric pressure transducer, charge amplifier, digital storage oscilloscope, A/D converter and a personal computer. Several grades of fuel were produced but, two grades only were selected and tested as an economical alternative fuel. The chemical and physical properties of these grades of fuel are measured as well as the laminar burning velocity. It is found that JME liquid fuel exhibited lower burning velocities than iso-octane. The new fuel is found to be suitable for compression ignition engine particularly in the indirect-injection ones, while for direct-injection, and high-speed engines fuel modifications are required. The new fuel is safe, has no sulphur content and reduces the engine wear as well as lengthens the lifetime of lubricating oil. (author)

  17. Base catalyzed synthesis of bicyclo[3.2.1]octane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Régis; Geoffroy, Philippe; Miesch, Michel

    2015-07-07

    The base-catalyzed reaction of achiral 1,3-cyclopentanediones tethered to activated olefins afforded in high yields bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6,8-dione or bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate derivatives bearing respectively three or five stereogenic centers. The course of the reaction is closely related to the reaction time and to the base involved in the reaction.

  18. Phase equilibria of microemulsion forming system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Heike; Quitzsch, Konrad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    of multicomponent system is the coexistence of a highly structural liquid phase enriched with amphiphilic compounds and an excess water or an excess oil phase or both of them. The phase behaviour was studied experimentally by use of turbidity titration and HPLC measurements and theoretically by application...... of the UNIQUAC-equation and the UNIFAC-method. The UNIFAC-method is able to describe the phase behaviour in the quaternary system qualitatively, without fitting parameters. However, by applying the UNIQUAC-method, with adjustable parameters, it was only possible to model the ternary subsystems. The modelling......A systematic investigation of the phase behaviour involving microemulsions is presented with respect to experimental and calculated data for the four-component system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol and its corresponding ternaries at 25°C. The main feature of this kind...

  19. Application of a room temperature ionic liquid for nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: speciation of trivalent europium and solvatation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutiers, G.; Mekki, S.; Billard, I.

    2007-01-01

    One of the solutions proposed for the optimization of the long term storage and conditioning of spent nuclear fuel is to separate actinide and lanthanide both from each other and from other less radioactive metallic species. The industrial proposed processes, based on liquid liquid extraction steps, involve solvents with non negligible vapour pressure and may generate contaminated liquid wastes that will have to be reprocessed. During the last decade, some room-temperature ionic liquids have been studied and integrated into industrial processes. The interest on this class of solvent came out from their 'green' properties (non volatile, non flammable, recyclable, etc...), but also from the variability of their physico-chemical properties (stability, hydrophobicity, viscosity) as a function of the RTIL chemical composition. Indeed, it has been shown that classical chemical industrial processes could be transferred into those media, even more improved, while a certain number of difficulties arising from using traditional solvent can be avoided. In this respect, it could be promising to investigate the ability to use room temperature ionic liquid into the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing field. The aim of this this study is to test the ability of the specific ionic liquid bumimTf 2 N to allow trivalent europium extraction. The choice of this metal is based on the chemical analogy with trivalent minor actinides Curium and Americium which are contributing the greatest part of the long-lived high level radioactive wastes. Handling these elements needs to be very cautious for the safety and radioprotection aspect. Moreover, europium is a very sensitive luminescent probe to its environment even at the microscopic scale. The report is structured with four parts. In a first chapter, we present the main physico-chemical properties of an imidazolium-based ionic liquid family, and then we choose the ionic liquid bumimTf 2 N for the whole thesis and start with the electrochemical

  20. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01

    Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

  1. High performance liquid chromatographic hydrocarbon group-type analyses of mid-distillates employing fuel-derived fractions as standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.

  2. A reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet; Charry Prada, Iran David; Amer, Ahmad Amer; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to develop a reaction mechanism for gasoline surrogate fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene) with an emphasis on the formation of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Starting from an existing base mechanism for gasoline

  3. Sensitivities of Internal Combustion Automotive Engines to Variations in Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    An assessment of the sensitivity of the automotive gasoline and diesel engines to variations in fuel properties has been made. The variables studied include H/C ratio, distillation range, aromatic content, ignition quality as determined by the octane...

  4. Experimental study on the combustion characteristics of liquid fuel in the straight tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fei; Li, JunWei; Zhou, ZhaoQiu; Zhang, Xin; Wang, NingFei [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China). School of Aerospace Engineering

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates combustion characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon fuel (n-heptane, c7h16) under different operating conditions. In the paper we designed a burner consisting of a stainless steel capillary which is used to dump the fuel and a larger stainless steel tube (or quartz tube) used as a combustion chamber. The inner diameter (ID) of the capillary is 0.24 mm, the inner and external diameter of the larger tube is 4 and 6 mm, respectively. According to the experimental results, the combustion process reaches a stable status after about 100 s. Wall temperature distribution and combustion products are analyzed under conditions with different equivalence ratios, gas flow velocities and materials. As equivalence ratio (ER) whose range is in 0.56-1.08 increases, the wall temperature declines, and wall temperature gradient increases slightly. The range of gas flow velocity is in 0.6-1 m/s, the overall trend of wall temperature distribution is the second point from left boundary as a line, the wall temperature distribution of the four points in the right side increases with the flow velocity increasing, but the left point is rapidly declining. When the burner made of stainless steel, the wall temperature distribution varies slightly due to the larger thermal conductivity of stainless steel than that of quartz, which makes the heat transfer in stainless steel faster and the temperature distribution is more uniform. The thermodynamic calculation software is also used to study the compositions of combustion products. In a word, this structure of the burner shows poor combustion characteristics, we should change the structure and the experimental conditions to achieve better combustion characteristics in the future.

  5. Fuel research for subcritical and critical GEN-IV systems cooled by heavy liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, V.; Verwerft, M.

    2009-01-01

    The participation of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the worldwide GEN-IV research can be considered as an opportunity. Today's GEN-IV research at SCK-CEN is mainly driven by the interests of the project MYRRHA (Multipurpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications). The main goal of this project is to build at SCK-CEN in Mol a new generation fast spectrum, subcritical, research and materials testing reactor MYRRHA driven by a high-energy proton accelerator. This GEN-IV MTR is cooled by heavy liquid metal (Pb-Bi) and will be used for the ADS concept demonstration, testing and qualification of new fuels, transmutation targets and innovative materials. On the European scale, MYRRHA is integrated in the Euratom FP6 Integrated Project (IP) EUROTRANS (EUROpean research programme for TRANSmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system), as the small-scale experimental machine for transmutation demonstration called XT-ADS. Last but not least, this experimental facility will also demonstrate the technological feasibility of the LFR (Lead-cooled Fast Reactor) GEN-IV concept; in EU the LFR design studies are performed in the framework of the Euratom FP6 ELSY (European Lead-cooled SYstem) project, where SCK-CEN is a partner. Among the research needed to ensure a safe and reliable operation of the MYRRHA/XT ADS reactor, the development and qualification of fuel and cladding materials have been recognized as one of the main key issues to be addressed

  6. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Delgass, W. N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ribeiro, F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H2Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H2) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H2 is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H2Bioilprocess for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on

  7. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo S; Silva, Luiz A J; Sousa, Raquel M F; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L(-1) HClO4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermochemical production of liquid fuels from biomass: Thermo-economic modeling, process design and process integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tock, Laurence; Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2010-01-01

    A detailed thermo-economic model combining thermodynamics with economic analysis and considering different technological alternatives for the thermochemical production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. Energetic and economic models for the production of Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT), methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) by means of biomass drying with steam or flue gas, directly or indirectly heated fluidized bed or entrained flow gasification, hot or cold gas cleaning, fuel synthesis and upgrading are reviewed and developed. The process is integrated and the optimal utility system is computed. The competitiveness of the different process options is compared systematically with regard to energetic, economic and environmental considerations. At several examples, it is highlighted that process integration is a key element that allows for considerably increasing the performance by optimal utility integration and energy conversion. The performance computations of some exemplary technology scenarios of integrated plants yield overall energy efficiencies of 59.8% (crude FT-fuel), 52.5% (MeOH) and 53.5% (DME), and production costs of 89, 128 and 113 Euro MWh -1 on fuel basis. The applied process design approach allows to evaluate the economic competitiveness compared to fossil fuels, to study the influence of the biomass and electricity price and to project for different plant capacities. Process integration reveals in particular potential energy savings and waste heat valorization. Based on this work, the most promising options for the polygeneration of fuel, power and heat will be determined in a future thermo-economic optimization.

  9. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  10. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita; Bowden, Mark; Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie; Huang, Zhenguo; Autrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H 2 storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH) 3 ) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH 4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11 B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH) 4 . When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11 B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB 3 H 8 , can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB 3 H 8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH) 3 and releases >8 eq of H 2 . By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B 3 O 3 (OH) 5 2− , B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 2− , B 3 O 3 (OH) 4 − , B 5 O 6 (OH) 4 − and B(OH) 3 , can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB 3 H 8 can provide a 40% increase in H 2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate

  11. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This proceedings summarizes recent work concerning stability and handling of fuels. Jet fuels, gasolines, heavy oils, and distillate fuels were considered. Fuel issues relevant to environmental mandates were discussed. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Numerical Studies on Heat Release Rate in Room Fire on Liquid Fuel under Different Ventilation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat release rate (HRR of the design fire is the most important parameter in assessing building fire hazards. However, HRR in room fire was only studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD in most of the projects determining fire safety provisions by performance-based design. In contrast to ten years ago, officers in the Far East are now having better knowledge of CFD. Two common questions are raised on CFD-predicted results on describing free boundaries; and on computing grid size. In this work, predicting HRR by the CFD model was justified with experimental room pool fire data reported earlier. The software fire dynamics simulator (FDS version 5 was selected as the CFD simulation tool. Prescribed input heating rate based on the experimental results was used with the liquid fuel model in FDS. Five different free boundary conditions were investigated to predict HRR. Grid sensitivity study was carried out using one stretched mesh and multiple uniform meshes with different grid sizes. As it is difficult to have the entire set of CFD predicted results agreed with experiments, macroscopic flow parameters on the mass flow rate through door opening predicted by CFD were also justified by another four conditions with different ventilation factors.

  13. Flash pyrolysis of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, C. [Department of Chemical Technology, Bilecik Higher Vocational School, GueluembeCampus, Anadolu University, 11030 Bilecik (Turkey); Kockar, O.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, iki Eyluel Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    Flash pyrolysis experiments of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) were performed in a tubular transport reactor at atmospheric pressure under nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the yields of products were investigated with the sweep gas flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3} min{sup -1}. The temperature of pyrolysis and particle size were varied in the ranges 400-700 C and 0.6 mm < D{sub p} < 1.25 mm, 1.25 mm < D{sub p} < 1.8 mm, D{sub p} > 1.8 mm, respectively. The maximum oil yield of 68.8% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 C, and the particle size of D{sub p} > 1.8 mm. The char and liquid product were analyzed to determine their elemental composition and calorific value. In particular, the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques ({sup 1}H NMR, IR, column chromatography and GC). The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from linseed can be used as a renewable fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  14. Neutronics Phenomena Important in Modeling and Simulation of Liquid-Fuel Molten Salt Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, David J.

    2018-11-11

    This paper discusses liquid-fuel molten salt reactors, how they will operate under normal, transient, and accident conditions, and the results of an expert elicitation to determine the corresponding neutronic phenomena important to understanding their behavior. Identifying these phenomena will enable the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop or identify modeling functionalities and tools required to carry out confirmatory analyses that examine the validity and accuracy of applicants’ calculations and help determine the margin of safety in plant design. NRC frequently does an expert elicitation using a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) to identify and evaluate the state of knowledge of important modeling phenomena. However, few details about the design of these reactors and the sequence of events during accidents are known, so the process used was considered a preliminary PIRT. A panel met to define phenomena that would need to be modeled and considered the impact/importance of each phenomenon with respect to specific figures-of-merit (FoMs) (e.g., power distribution, fluence, kinetics parameters and reactivity). Each FoM reflected a potential impact on radionuclide release or loss of a barrier to release. The panel considered what the path forward might be with respect to being able to model the phenomenon in a simulation code. Results are explained for both thermal and fast spectrum designs.

  15. Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena Important in Modeling and Simulation of Liquid-Fuel Molten Salt Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajorek, Stephen; Diamond, David J.

    2018-11-11

    This paper discusses liquid-fuel molten salt reactors, how they will operate under normal, transient, and accident conditions, and the results of an expert elicitation to determine the corresponding thermalhydraulic phenomena important to understanding their behavior. Identifying these phenomena will enable the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop or identify modeling functionalities and tools required to carry out confirmatory analyses that examine the validity and accuracy of an applicant’s calculations and help determine the margin of safety in plant design. NRC frequently does an expert elicitation using a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) to identify and evaluate the state of knowledge of important modeling phenomena. However, few details about the design of these reactors and the sequence of events during accidents are known, so the process used was considered a preliminary PIRT. A panel met to define phenomena that would need to be modeled and considered the impact/importance of each phenomenon with respect to specific figures-of-merit (FoMs) (e.g., salt temperature, velocity, and composition). Each FoM reflected a potential impact on radionuclide release or loss of a barrier to release. The panel considered what the path forward might be with respect to being able to model the phenomenon in a simulation code. Results are explained for both thermal and fast spectrum designs.

  16. Catalytic Hydrotreatment of Light Distillates Obtained from Bio-Oil for Use in Oxygenated Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil can be fractionated into three parts according to their boiling points. This research reported that light distillates could be converted into oxygenated liquid fuels through a two-stage hydrotreatment approach, using a Pd/C catalyst. The main goal of the first hydrotreatment stage was to stabilize the high active components, which contained carbon–carbon double bonds and aldehyde groups. The second hydrotreatment stage aimed to saturate the components with benzene rings and keto groups, resulting in saturated oxygenated compounds. The H/Ceff ratio was improved greatly after the two-stage hydrotreatment, increasing from 0.51 (in the reactant to 1.67 (in the final products. The high heating value of the final products was 31.63 MJ/kg. After the two-stage hydrotreatment, the main products were C5–C9 alcohols, which were tested via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The products could be blended with gasoline directly. Based on the experiments regarding the hydrogenated model compounds, a reaction schematic for the two-stage hydrotreatment was created. Moreover, the bio-oil hydrotreatment kinetics were investigated. The order of the hydrotreatment reaction was 2.0, and the apparent activation energy (Ea was 57.29 KJ/mol.

  17. ASI: Dunaliella marine microalgae to drop-in replacement liquid transportation fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Allen, Elle H.; Campos, Andrew A.; Cade, Rushyannah Killens; Dean, Lisa L.; Dvora, Mia; Immer, Jeremy G.; Mixson, Stephanie M.; Srirangan, Soundarya; Sauer, Marie Laure; Schreck, Steven D.; Sun, Keyi; Thapaliya, Nirajan; Wilson, Cameron W.; Burkholder, Joann M M; Grunden, Amy M.; Lamb, Henry Henry; Winter, Heike Winter; Stikeleather, Larry F.; Roberts, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biofuels feedstock, theoretically yielding concentrations of triacylglycerides (TAGs) per unit area that are far higher than traditional feedstocks due to their rapid growth. Dunaliella is particularly advantageous as a feedstock because it is currently commercially mass cultured, thrives in salt water, and has no cell wall. Fourteen strains of Dunaliella have been investigated for growth rates and lipid production in mass culture and tested for enhanced lipid production under a range of environmental stressors including salinity, pH, nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, and light regime. The nuclear genome has been sequenced for four of these strains, with the objective of increasing carbon flux through genetic engineering. Electroflocculation followed by osmotic membrane rupturing may be a very energy and cost efficient means of harvesting the lipid bodies from Dunaliella. A technically feasible and scalable thermo-catalytic process to convert the lipids into replacements for liquid transportation fuels has been developed. The lipids were converted into long-chain alkanes through continuous thermal hydrolysis followed by fed-batch thermo-catalytic decarboxylation. These alkanes can be reformed into renewable diesel via conventional catalytic hydrocarbon isomerization reactions to improve cold flow properties, if desired. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 916-925, 2013 Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.

  18. ASI: Dunaliella marine microalgae to drop-in replacement liquid transportation fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-09-11

    Microalgae are a promising biofuels feedstock, theoretically yielding concentrations of triacylglycerides (TAGs) per unit area that are far higher than traditional feedstocks due to their rapid growth. Dunaliella is particularly advantageous as a feedstock because it is currently commercially mass cultured, thrives in salt water, and has no cell wall. Fourteen strains of Dunaliella have been investigated for growth rates and lipid production in mass culture and tested for enhanced lipid production under a range of environmental stressors including salinity, pH, nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, and light regime. The nuclear genome has been sequenced for four of these strains, with the objective of increasing carbon flux through genetic engineering. Electroflocculation followed by osmotic membrane rupturing may be a very energy and cost efficient means of harvesting the lipid bodies from Dunaliella. A technically feasible and scalable thermo-catalytic process to convert the lipids into replacements for liquid transportation fuels has been developed. The lipids were converted into long-chain alkanes through continuous thermal hydrolysis followed by fed-batch thermo-catalytic decarboxylation. These alkanes can be reformed into renewable diesel via conventional catalytic hydrocarbon isomerization reactions to improve cold flow properties, if desired. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 916-925, 2013 Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.

  19. CooLN2Car: An Experimental Car Which Uses Liquid Nitrogen as Its Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M. E.; Plummer, M. C.; Ordonez, C. A.

    1997-10-01

    A ``cryogenic" heat engine which operates using the atmosphere as a heat source and a cryogenic medium as a heat sink has been incorporated as the power system for an automobile. A 1973 Volkswagen Beetle has been converted and uses liquid nitrogen as its ``fuel." A Dewar was mounted in the car and provides nitrogen under pressure to two heat exchangers connected in parallel which use atmospheric heat to heat the nitrogen. The heat exchangers deliver compressed nitrogen gas to a vane-type pneumatic motor mounted in place of the original gasoline engine. Pressure in the tank is maintained internally at 1.2 MPa and is reduced to 0.7 MPa before the motor by a pressure regulator. A throttle, composed of a butterfly valve, is mounted between the regulator and the motor and is connected to the driver's accelerator peddle. The vehicle has good acceleration, a maximum range of 15 miles, and a maximum speed of 25 mph. A demonstration with the vehicle is planned.

  20. Liquid waste handling facilities for a conceptual LWR spent fuel reprocessing complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D.C.; Bradley, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    The waste evaporator systems and the methods for evaporating the liquid wastes of various radioactivity levels are discussed. After the liquid wastes are evaporated and nitric acid is recovered the high-level liquid waste is incorporated into borosilicate glass and the intermediate-level liquid waste into concrete for final disposal

  1. Antiknock additives for engine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Nambered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Obtaining gasoline with necessary quality and quantity is an actual problem. To increase fuel resources in the development are involved heavy oil, shale gas with further obtaining synthetic oil. Here is presented an analysis of processing technologies of natural and synthetic oil obtained in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, wherein focus is on octane number of gasoline fraction. Due to the low octane number, resolution of questions related to improving the detonation resistance, does not lose its relevance to the present day. Represented a quantum-chemical studies of some antiknock agents in the purpose by quantum chemistry methods to identify trends to increase the octane number of compounds and gasoline when they are added. (orig.)

  2. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  3. System dynamics of the competition of municipal solid waste to landfill, electricity, and liquid fuel in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-03-01

    A quantitative system dynamics model was created to evaluate the economic and environmental tradeoffs between biomass to electricity and to liquid fuel using MSW biomass in the state of California as a case study. From an environmental perspective, landfilling represents the worst use of MSW over time, generating more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to converting MSW to liquid fuel or to electricity. MSW to ethanol results in the greatest displacement of GHG emissions per dollar spent compared to MSW to electricity. MSW to ethanol could save the state of California approximately $60 billion in energy costs by 2050 compared to landfilling, while also reducing GHG emissions state-wide by approximately 140 million metric tons during that timeframe. MSW conversion to electricity creates a significant cost within the state's electricity sector, although some conversion technologies are cost competitive with existing renewable generation.

  4. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  5. The sphinx project: experimental verification of design inputs for a transmuter with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Uhlir, J.; Vanicek, J.

    2002-01-01

    The current proposals for high-active long-lived (more then 10 4 years) waste from spent nuclear fuel disposal calls forth an increasing societal mistrust towards nuclear power. These problems are highly topical in the Czech Republic, a country which is operating nuclear power and accumulating spent fuel from PWRs and is further located on an inland and heavily populous Central European region. The proposed project, known under the acronym SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incineration by Neutron flux) deals with a solution to some of the principle problems through a very promising means of radioactive waste treatment. In particular, high-level wastes from spent nuclear fuel could be treated using this method, which is based on the transmutation of radionuclides through the use of a nuclear reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides (Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor - MSTR) which might be a subcritical system driven by a suitable neutron source. Its superiority also lies in the fact that it makes possible to utilize actinides contained, by others, in spent nuclear fuel and so to reach a positive energy effect. After the first three-year stage of Research and Development which has been focused mostly on computer analyses of neutronics and corresponding physical characteristics, the next three-year stage of this programme will be devoted to experimental verification of inputs for the design of a demonstration transmuter using molten fluoride fuel. The Research and Development part of the SPHINX project in the area of fuel cycle of the MSTR is focused in the first place on the development of suitable technology for the preparation of an introductory liquid fluoride fuel for MSTR and subsequently on the development of suitable fluoride pyrometallurgical technology for the separation of the transmuted elements from the non-transmuted ones. The idea of the introductory fuel preparation is based on the reprocessing of PWR spent fuel using the Fluoride Volatility Method

  6. Development and application of a system analysis code for liquid fueled molten salt reactors based on RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chengbin; Cheng, Maosong; Liu, Guimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New point kinetics and thermo-hydraulics models as well as a numerical method are added into RELAP5 code to be suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactor. • The extended REALP5 code is verified by the experimental benchmarks of MSRE. • The different transient scenarios of the MSBR are simulated to evaluate performance during the transients. - Abstract: The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the six advanced reactor concepts declared by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), which can be characterized by attractive attributes as inherent safety, economical efficiency, natural resource protection, sustainable development and nuclear non-proliferation. It is important to make system safety analysis for nuclear power plant of MSR. In this paper, in order to developing a system analysis code suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactors, the point kinetics and thermo-hydraulic models as well as the numerical method in thermal–hydraulic transient code Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are extended and verified by Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) experimental benchmarks. And then, four transient scenarios including the load demand change, the primary flow transient, the secondary flow transient and the reactivity transient of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) are modeled and simulated so as to evaluate the performance of the reactor during the anticipated transient events using the extended RELAP5 code. The results indicate the extended RELAP5 code is effective and well suited to the liquid fueled molten salt reactor, and the MSBR has strong inherent safety characteristics because of its large negative reactivity coefficient. In the future, the extended RELAP5 code will be used to perform transient safety analysis for a liquid fueled thorium molten salt reactor named TMSR-LF developed by the Center

  7. Formation of Platinum Catalyst on Carbon Black Using an In‐Liquid Plasma Method for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum (Pt catalyst was formed on the surface of carbon black using an in‐liquid plasma method. The formed Pt catalyst showed the average particle size of 4.1 nm. This Pt catalyst was applied to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The PEMFC showed an open voltage of 0.85 V and a maximum output power density of 216 mW/cm2.

  8. Development and application of a system analysis code for liquid fueled molten salt reactors based on RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chengbin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Maosong, E-mail: mscheng@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Liu, Guimin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • New point kinetics and thermo-hydraulics models as well as a numerical method are added into RELAP5 code to be suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactor. • The extended REALP5 code is verified by the experimental benchmarks of MSRE. • The different transient scenarios of the MSBR are simulated to evaluate performance during the transients. - Abstract: The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the six advanced reactor concepts declared by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), which can be characterized by attractive attributes as inherent safety, economical efficiency, natural resource protection, sustainable development and nuclear non-proliferation. It is important to make system safety analysis for nuclear power plant of MSR. In this paper, in order to developing a system analysis code suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactors, the point kinetics and thermo-hydraulic models as well as the numerical method in thermal–hydraulic transient code Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are extended and verified by Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) experimental benchmarks. And then, four transient scenarios including the load demand change, the primary flow transient, the secondary flow transient and the reactivity transient of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) are modeled and simulated so as to evaluate the performance of the reactor during the anticipated transient events using the extended RELAP5 code. The results indicate the extended RELAP5 code is effective and well suited to the liquid fueled molten salt reactor, and the MSBR has strong inherent safety characteristics because of its large negative reactivity coefficient. In the future, the extended RELAP5 code will be used to perform transient safety analysis for a liquid fueled thorium molten salt reactor named TMSR-LF developed by the Center

  9. Experimental study of the form of “hot” steel particles on the ignition characteristics of liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharevich Arkadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental study of laws governing the ignition of liquid propellants (kerosene, diesel fuel and petroleum residue by the single spherical steel particle heated to high temperatures are presented. Is carried out the comparison of the ignition delay times of the investigated flammable substances by the particles in the sphere and disk forms. It is established that the particle shape does not exert a substantial influence on the ignition process characteristics.

  10. Experimental investigation on the morphology of soot aggregates from the burning of typical solid and liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Dongmei, E-mail: 20021567@163.com; Guo, Chenning [China Jiliang University, College of Quality and Safety Engineering (China); Shi, Long [RMIT University, Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Soot particles from the burning of typical fuels are one of the critical sources causing environmental problems and human disease. To understand the soot formation of these typical fuels, the size and morphology of soot aggregates produced from the burning of typical solid and liquid fuels, including diesel, kerosene, natural rubber (NR) latex foam, and wood crib, were studied by both extractive sampling and subsequent image analysis. The 2D and 3D fractal dimensions together with the diameter distribution of agglomerate and primary particles were analyzed for these four typical fuels. The average diameters of the primary particles were within 45–85 nm when sampling from different heights above the fire sources. Irregular sheet structures and flake-like masses were observed from the burning of NR latex foam and wood cribs. Superaggregates with a mean maximum length scale of over 100 μm were also found from the burning of all these four tested fuels. The fractal dimension of a single aggregate was 3 for all the tested fuels.

  11. Production of jet fuel range paraffins by low temperature polymerization of gaseous light olefins using ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Peiwen; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhu, Lijuan; Jin, Feng; Liu, Junxu; Xia, Tongyan; Wang, Tiejun; Li, Quanxin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel catalytic transformation of light olefins into jet fuel range iso-paraffins by the low-temperature olefin polymerizations under atmospheric conditions. - Highlights: • A novel transformation of light olefins to jet fuel range paraffins was demonstrated. • The synthetic fuels can be produced by atmospheric olefin polymerizations. • C 8 –C 15 iso-paraffins from light olefins was achieved with a selectivity of 80.6%. - Abstract: This work demonstrated a novel catalytic transformation of gaseous olefins into jet fuel range iso-paraffins by the low-temperature olefin polymerizations under atmospheric conditions. The production of the desired C 8 –C 15 iso-paraffins with the selectivity of 80.6 C mol% was achieved by the room-temperature polymerizations of gaseous light olefins using the [BMIM] Al 2 Cl 7 ionic liquid. The influences of the reaction conditions on the olefinic polymerizations were investigated in detail. The properties of hydrocarbons in the synthetic fuels were determined by the GC–MS analyses combined with 1 H NMR, and 13 C NMR analyses. The formation of C 8 –C 15 hydrocarbons from gaseous light olefins was illustrated by the identified products and the functional groups. This transformation potentially provides a useful avenue for the production of the most important components of iso-paraffins required in jet fuels.

  12. Novel composite membranes based on PBI and dicationic ionic liquids for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooshyari, Khadijeh; Javanbakht, Mehran; Adibi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Two types of innovative composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) containing dicationic ionic liquid 1,3-di(3-methylimidazolium) propane bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (PDC 3 ) and monocationic ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PMC 6 ) are prepared as electrolyte for high temperature fuel cells applications under anhydrous conditions. The analyses of results display promising characteristics such as high proton conductivity and thermal stability. Moreover the fuel cell performance of PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes is enhanced in comparison with PA doped PMC 6 and PA doped PBI membranes at high temperatures. Dicationic ionic liquid with high number of charge carriers provides well-developed ionic channels which form facile pathways and considerably develop the anhydrous proton conductivity. The highest proton conductivity of 81 mS/cm is achieved for PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes with PBI/IL mole ratio: 4 at 180 °C. A power density of 0.44 W/cm 2 is obtained at 0.5 V and 180 °C for PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes, which proves that these developed composite membranes can be considered as most promising candidates for high temperature fuel cell applications with enhanced proton conductivity.

  13. Effect of high surface area activated carbon on thermal degradation of jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergova, K.; Eser, S.; Arumugam, R.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Different solid carbons added to jet fuel during thermal stressing cause substantial changes in pyrolytic degradation reactions. Activated carbons, especially high surface area activated carbons were found to be very effective in suppressing solid deposition on metal reactor walls during stressing at high temperatures (425 and 450{degrees}C). The high surface area activated carbon PX-21 prevented solid deposition on reactor walls even after 5h at 450{degrees}C. The differences seen in the liquid product composition when activated carbon is added indicated that the carbon surfaces affect the degradation reactions. Thermal stressing experiments were carried out on commercial petroleum-derived JPTS jet fuel. We also used n-octane and n-dodecane as model compounds in order to simplify the study of the chemical changes which take place upon activated carbon addition. In separate experiments, the presence of a hydrogen donor, decalin, together with PX-21 was also studied.

  14. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M.; Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E.; Munoz, Rodrigo A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L −1 HClO 4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  15. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil); Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science and the Environment, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester, M1 5GD, England (United Kingdom); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A., E-mail: raamunoz@iqufu.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil)

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HClO{sub 4} (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  16. The turbulent liquid fuel industry in Zimbabwe: options for resolving the crisis and improving supply to the poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashange, Krispen

    2002-01-01

    Towards the end of the last decade, supplies in petroleum fuel have been erratic to the extent that Zimbabwe has at times operated with as low as 40% of normal supplies. These shortages were attributed mainly to foreign exchange shortages and alleged mismanagement and corruption at the National Oil Company of Zimbabwe (NOCZIM). As shortages intensified, problems of product shortage began to unfold, which adversely impacted on the urban poor. The public began to question the industry's policies on the sustainability of the liquid fuel sector policies in Zimbabwe. Of particular concern was policies regarding regulatory mechanisms, pricing, distribution, utilisation of storage facilities, supply routes and NOCZIM management. This paper evaluates the challenges facing the Zimbabwean petroleum sector and presents recommendations that could assist in ensuring a robust and functional national fuel sector. (Author)

  17. Direct conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels with high selectivity over a bifunctional catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Shenggang; Bu, Xianni; Dang, Shanshan; Liu, Ziyu; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Liangshu; Qiu, Minghuang; Yang, Chengguang; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation to various C1 chemicals, it is still a great challenge to synthesize value-added products with two or more carbons, such as gasoline, directly from CO2 because of the extreme inertness of CO2 and a high C-C coupling barrier. Here we present a bifunctional catalyst composed of reducible indium oxides (In2O3) and zeolites that yields a high selectivity to gasoline-range hydrocarbons (78.6%) with a very low methane selectivity (1%). The oxygen vacancies on the In2O3 surfaces activate CO2 and hydrogen to form methanol, and C-C coupling subsequently occurs inside zeolite pores to produce gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a high octane number. The proximity of these two components plays a crucial role in suppressing the undesired reverse water gas shift reaction and giving a high selectivity for gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Moreover, the pellet catalyst exhibits a much better performance during an industry-relevant test, which suggests promising prospects for industrial applications.

  18. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yajuan, E-mail: yajuan.zhong@gmail.com [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Zhang, Junpeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lin, Jun, E-mail: linjun@sinap.ac.cn [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xu, Liujun [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Guo, Quangui [CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} (α{sub ∥}) and 6.15 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} (α{sub ⊥}) at the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  19. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yajuan; Zhang, Junpeng; Lin, Jun; Xu, Liujun; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong; Guo, Quangui

    2017-01-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10 −6 K −1 (α ∥ ) and 6.15 × 10 −6 K −1 (α ⊥ ) at the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  20. Mechanistic Model for Atomization of Superheated Liquid Jet Fuel, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As air-breathing combustion applications advance, increased use of fuel for cooling, combined with cycle advancements, leads to a situation where the fuel can become...

  1. Mechanistic Model for Atomization of Superheated Liquid Jet Fuel, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As air-breathing combustion applications advance, increased use of fuel for cooling, combined with cycle advancements, leads to a situation where the fuel can become...

  2. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    loads, diesel fuel surpasses the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions for both the surrogate and the GTL fuel. No significant variation in CO and CO2 emissions for MI-5, GTL diesel and conventional diesel is observed. Analysis of combustion as well as emission behavior of the fuels helps to understand...

  3. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contain 42 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Fuel blending and compatibility; Middle distillates; Microbiology; Alternative fuels; General topics (analytical methods, tank remediation, fuel additives, storage stability); and Poster presentations (analysis methods, oxidation kinetics, health problems).

  4. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Demonstration of CO2 Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. M. Dowson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO2 utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO2 in nitrogen similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO2, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO2 to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO2 to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so-called hydrogen

  6. Demonstration of CO{sub 2} Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowson, George R. M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Styring, Peter, E-mail: p.styring@sheffield.ac.uk [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemistry, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-12

    A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO{sub 2} utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO{sub 2} in nitrogen) similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO{sub 2}, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO{sub 2} to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO{sub 2} to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so

  7. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  8. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    In conventional nuclear fuel rods for light-water reactors, a helium-filled as-fabricated gap between the fuel and the cladding inner surface accommodates fuel swelling and cladding creep down. Because helium exhibits a very low thermal conductivity, it results in a large temperature rise in the gap. Liquid metal (LM; 1/3 weight portion each of lead, tin, and bismuth) has been proposed to be a gap filler because of its high thermal conductivity (∼100 times that of He), low melting point (∼100 °C), and lack of chemical reactivity with UO2 and water. With the presence of LM, the temperature drop across the gap is virtually eliminated and the fuel is operated at a lower temperature at the same power output, resulting in safer fuel, delayed fission gas release and prevention of massive secondary hydriding. During normal reactor operation, should an LM-bonded fuel rod failure occurs resulting in a discharge of liquid metal into the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel, it should not corrode stainless steel. An experiment was conducted to confirm that at 315 °C, LM in contact with 304 stainless steel in the PWR water chemistry environment for up to 30 days resulted in no observable corrosion. Moreover, during a hypothetical core-melt accident assuming that the liquid metal with elevated temperature between 1000 and 1600 °C is spread on a high-density concrete basement of the power plant, a small-scale experiment was performed to demonstrate that the LM-concrete interaction at 1000 °C for as long as 12 h resulted in no penetration. At 1200 °C for 5 h, the LM penetrated a distance of ∼1.3 cm, but the penetration appeared to stop. At 1400 °C the penetration rate was ∼0.7 cm/h. At 1600 °C, the penetration rate was ∼17 cm/h. No corrosion based on chemical reactions with high-density concrete occurred, and, hence, the only physical interaction between high-temperature LM and high-density concrete was from tiny cracks generated from thermal stress. Moreover

  9. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  10. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig

  11. Multi-component vapor-liquid equilibrium model for LES of high-pressure fuel injection and application to ECN Spray A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheis, Jan; Hickel, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present and evaluate a two-phase model for Eulerian large-eddy simulations (LES) of liquid-fuel injection and mixing at high pressure. The model is based on cubic equations of state and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations and can represent the coexistence of supercritical states and

  12. Modeling and techno-economic analysis of shale-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid fuels processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu; Xiao, Honghua; Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Gao, Li

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the conflict between oil supply and demand, Chinese government has accelerated exploration and exploitation of alternative oil productions. STL (Shale-to-liquid) processes and CTL (coal-to-liquid) processes are promising choices to supply oil. However, few analyses have been made on their energy efficiency and economic performance. This paper conducts a detailed analysis of a STL process and a CTL process based on mathematical modeling and simulation. Analysis shows that low efficiency of the STL process is due to low oil yield of the Fushun-type retorting technology. For the CTL process, the utility system provides near to 34% energy consumption of the total. This is because that CTL technologies are in early development and no heat integration between units is implemented. Economic analysis reveals that the total capital investment of the CTL process is higher than that of the STL process. The production cost of the CTL process is right on the same level as that of the STL process. For better techno-economic performance, it is suggested to develop a new retorting technology of high oil yield for the STL process. The remaining retorting gas should be converted to hydrogen and then used for shale oil hydrogenation. For the CTL process, developing an appropriate heat network is an efficient way to apply heat integration. In addition, the CTL process is intended to be integrated with hydrogen rich gas to adjust H_2/CO for better resource utilization. - Highlights: • Aspen Plus software is used for modeling and simulation of a shale-to-liquid (STL) and a coal-to-liquid (CTL) processes. • Techno-economic analysis of STL and CTL processes is conducted. • Suggestions are given for improving energy efficiency and economic performance of STL and CTL processes.

  13. Compression ignition of low-octane gasoline: Life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Liu, Feiqi; Liu, Zongwei; Zhao, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A process-based, well-to-wheel conceptualized life cycle assessment model is established. • The impacts of using low-octane gasoline on compression ignition engines are examined. • Life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions reductions are 24.6% and 21.6%. • Significant technical and market barriers are still to be overcome. - Abstract: The use of low-octane gasoline on Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines is considered as a competitive alternative to the conventional vehicle propulsion technologies. In this study, a process-based, well-to-wheel conceptualized life cycle assessment model is established to estimate the life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the conventional gasoline-Spark Ignition (SI) and low-octane gasoline-GCI pathways. It is found that compared with the conventional pathway, the low-octane gasoline-GCI pathway leads to a 24.6% reduction in energy consumption and a 22.8% reduction in GHG emissions. The removal of the isomerization and catalytic reforming units in the refinery and the higher energy efficiency in the vehicle use phase are the substantial drivers behind the reductions. The results indicate that by promoting the use of low-octane gasoline coupled with the deployment of GCI vehicles, considerable reductions of energy consumption and GHG emissions in the transport sector can be achieved. However, significant technical and market barriers are still to be overcome. The inherent problems of NO_x and PM exhaust emissions associated with GCI engines need to be further addressed with advanced combustion techniques. Besides, the yield of low-octane gasoline needs to be improved through adjusting the refinery configurations.

  14. Pressure-dependent kinetics of initial reactions in iso-octane pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, HongBo; Gong, ChunMing; Li, ZeRong; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-05-07

    This study focuses on the studies of the main pressure-dependent reaction types of iso-octane (iso-C8H18) pyrolysis, including initial C-C bond fission of iso-octane, isomerization, and β-scission reactions of the alkyl radicals produced by the C-C bond fission of iso-octane. For the C-C bond fission of iso-octane, the minimum energy potentials are calculated at the CASPT2(2e,2o)/6-31+G(d,p)//CAS(2e,2o)/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. For the isomerization and the β-scission reactions of the alkyl radicals, the optimization of the geometries and the vibrational frequencies of the reactants, transition states, and products are performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level, and their single point energies are calculated by using the composite CBS-QB3 method. Variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) is used for the high-pressure limit rate constant calculation and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus/master equation (RRKM/ME) is used to calculate the pressure-dependent rate constants of these channels with pressure varying from 0.01-100 atm. The rate constants obtained in this work are in good agreement with those available from literatures. We have updated the rate constants and thermodynamic parameters for species involved in these reactions into a current chemical kinetic mechanism and also have improved the concentration profiles of main products such as C3H6 and C4H6 in the shock tube pyrolysis of iso-octane. The results of this study provide insight into the pyrolysis of iso-octane and will be helpful in the future development of branched paraffin kinetic mechanisms.

  15. Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research ? Autoignition Metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoberg, Carl Magnus Goran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vuilleumier, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Improved engine efficiency is required to comply with future fuel economy standards. Alternative fuels have the potential to enable more efficient engines while addressing concerns about energy security. This project contributes to the science base needed by industry to develop highly efficient direct injection spark igniton (DISI) engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Here, the emphasis is on quantifying autoignition behavior for a range of spark-ignited engine conditions, including directly injected boosted conditions. The efficiency of stoichiometrically operated spark ignition engines is often limited by fuel-oxidizer end-gas autoignition, which can result in engine knock. A fuel’s knock resistance is assessed empirically by the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) tests. By clarifying how these two tests relate to the autoignition behavior of conventional and alternative fuel formulations, fuel design guidelines for enhanced engine efficiency can be developed.

  16. Liquid and Gaseous Fuel from Waste Plastics by Sequential Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Processes over Indonesian Natural Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syamsiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of several differently treated natural zeolites in a sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming of plastic materials i.e. polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS were investigated. The experiments were carried out on two stage reactor using semi-batch system. The samples were degraded at 500°C in the pyrolysis reactor and then reformed at 450°C in the catalytic reformer. The results show that the mordenite-type natural zeolites could be used as efficient catalysts for the conversion of PP and PS into liquid and gaseous fuel. The treatment of natural zeolites in HCl solution showed an increase of the surface area and the Si/Al ratio while nickel impregnation increased the activity of catalyst. As a result, liquid product was reduced while gaseous product was increased. For PP, the fraction of gasoline (C5-C12 increased in the presence of catalysts. Natural zeolite catalysts could also be used to decrease the heavy oil fraction (>C20. The gaseous products were found that propene was dominated in all conditions. For PS, propane and propene were the main components of gases in the presence of nickel impregnated natural zeolite catalyst. Propene was dominated in pyrolysis over natural zeolite catalyst. The high quality of gaseous product can be used as a fuel either for driving gas engines or for dual-fuel diesel engine.

  17. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be safely...

  18. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  19. Assesment of the energy quality of the synthesis gas produced from biomass derived fuels conversion: Part I: Liquid Fuels, Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga Perez, Luis E; Casas, Yannay; Peralta, Luis M; Granda, Daikenel; Prieto, Julio O

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels plays an important role to increase the efficiency and energetic safety of the energy processes in the world. The main goal of the present research is to study from the thermodynamics and kinetics the effect of the operational variables on the thermo-conversion processes of biomass derived fuels focused on ethanol reforming. Several models are developed to assess the technological proposals. The minimization of Gibbs free energy is the criterion applied to evaluate the performance of the different alternatives considering the equilibrium constraints. All the models where validated on an experimental data base. The gas composition, HHV and the ratio H2/CO are used as measures for the process efficiency. The operational parameters are studied in a wide range (reactants molar ratio, temperature and oxygen/fuel ratio). (author)

  20. Ignition of Liquid Fuel Spray and Simulated Solid Rocket Fuel by Photoignition of Carbon Nanotube Utilizing a Camera Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    10,11 There has been a recent report on the photoignition of graphene oxide for fuel ignition applications.12 In this report, we will describe the...slide Aluminum foil Glass petri dish Xe flash Camera Sample Black spray paint Figure 2- Schematic and photographs of the experimental setup...Gilje, Sergey Dubin, Alireza Badakhshan, Jabari Farrar, Stephen. A. Danczyk, Richard B. Kaner, “Photothermal Deoxygenation of Graphene Oxide for

  1. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  2. Combustion modelling of a fuel oil flame; Modelisation de la combustion d`une flamme de fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flour, I.; Mechitouan, N.

    1996-10-01

    The combustion modelling of a fuel oil flame has been realised in the scope of the R and D `Combustion Turbines`. This report presents the results of the 2D simulation of a fuel oil flame (n-octane), at atmospherical pressure, without swirl, realised using the Eulerian two-phase flow software Melodif. This calculation has been defined in collaboration with IFP, using experimental data from the IFRP. The hollow cone spray of liquid fuel is injected in the middle of the combustion chamber, with a co-flowing annular air. The furnace diameter is 2 meter and its length is 6,25 meter. A large recirculation zone is induced by the air flow, and leads to take into account the whole furnace, in order to avoid some problems with the limit conditions at the outlet. This calculation deals with droplets evaporation, gaseous phase combustion and radiation heat transfer. Predictions concerning gaseous axial mean velocity and mean temperature gradient in the flame, are in good agreement with measurements. However the temperature is too low in the peripheral zone of the flow. This is probably due to the fact that heat exchanges at the wall furnace are not correctly represented, because of a lack of detailed limit conditions for the walls. The mean radial velocity is not so well predicted, but this measurement is also quite difficult in a strongly longitudinal flow. The results concerning the dispersed phase will not be compared, because no measurements on the liquid fuel were available. As it has been experimentally observed, the simulation shows that the fuel oil spray quickly evaporates as it enters the combustion chamber. This result allows to propose to use an homogeneous approach (hypothesis of no-slipping between the two phases) in an Eulerian one-phase flow code, in case of a 3D simulation of liquid fuel turbine. (authors)

  3. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-15

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology.

  4. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-01

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology

  5. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contains 34 papers divided into the following sessions: Deposit and insolubles measurement (5 papers); Gasolines (4 papers); Heavy oils and refinery processing (3 papers); Middle distillate fuels (7 papers); New fuels and environmental mandates (5 papers); and a Poster session (10 papers). Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R; Guillén-Flores, J; Martínez, J D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model M1D) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection. Results showed, on the one hand, an increase in carbonyl emissions with the biodiesel fraction in the fuel. On the other hand, the addition of TPL to diesel also increased carbonyl emissions. These trends were occasionally different if the emissions were studied after the DOC, as it seems to be selectivity during the oxidation process. The specific reactivity was also studied, finding a decrease with the oxygen content within the fuel molecule, although the equivalent ozone emissions slightly increased with the oxygen content. Finally, the emissions toxicity was also studied, comparing them to different parameters defined by different organizations. Depending on the point of study, emissions were above or below the established limits, although acrolein exceeded them as it has the least permissive values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1313-94 - Fuel specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and have a minimum sensitivity of 7.5 octane numbers, where sensitivity is defined as the Research... submitted evidence to the Administrator demonstrating to the Administrator's satisfaction that this fuel... contracts from customers indicating the intent to purchase and use “Type 1-D” grade diesel fuel as the...

  8. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  9. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong

    2009-10-28

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  10. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Duan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30% were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL/V(Oil /V(H2O2 = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 °C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  11. Octane-Assisted Reverse Micellar Dyeing of Cotton with Reactive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yiu-lun Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the computer colour matching (CCM of cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dye using the octane-assisted reverse micellar approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour quality and compare the accuracy between CCM forecasting and simulated dyeing produced by conventional water-based dyeing and octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing. First, the calibration of dyeing databases for both dyeing methods was established. Standard samples were dyed with known dye concentrations. Computer colour matching was conducted by using the colour difference formula of International Commission on Illumination (CIE L*a*b*. Experimental results revealed that the predicted concentrations were nearly the same as the expected known concentrations for both dyeing methods. This indicates that octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system can achieve colour matching as good as the conventional water-based dyeing system. In addition, when comparing the colour produced by the conventional water-based dyeing system and the octane-assisted reverse micellar dyeing system, the colour difference (ΔE is ≤1, which indicates that the reverse micellar dyeing system could be applied for industrial dyeing with CCM.

  12. Conversion of the Iridoid Glucoside Antirrhinoside into 3-Azabicyclo[3.3.0]-octane Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Frederiksen, Signe Maria; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2000-01-01

    The iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside (1) was transformed into polysubstituted 3-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octanes 3, 12 and 13 in 4-5 steps. Ozonolysis of the diacetonide of 1 and of its 7-deoxy-derivative 8 afforded cyclopentanoids 2 and 10, respectively. Conditions for the selective conversion of 2 and 10...

  13. Effects of convective motion in n-octane pool fires in an ice cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Harried Farmahini; Jomaas, Grunde; Rangwala, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of convective flows in n-octane pool fires in an ice cavity were investigated and it was found that a new set of parameters to the classical problem of bounded pool fires arises under these unique conditions. To systematically understand these parameters, two sets of experiments were...

  14. Low-temperature carbonization of bituminous coal for the production of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-01-01

    Properties and uses of low-temperature coke for producing ferrosilicon, CaC/sub 2/ generator gas and water gas, as a fuel for boilers and household use and as a diluent for coking coal, and the properties and uses of low-temperature tar, gasoline, gas, and liquefied gas are described. By using a circulating gas, it is possible to obtain in low-temperature carbonization of bituminous coal a fuel oil for the navy. Aging-test data of such an oil are given. Several plants in Upper Silesia, using the Lurgi circulation process are producing a fuel oil that meets specification.

  15. Recent Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed. The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow