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Sample records for ocotea catharinensis lauraceae

  1. Neolignans and sesquiterpenes from leaves and embryogenic cultures of Ocotea Catharinensis (Lauraceae)

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    Funasaki, Mariko; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lordello, Ana Luisa L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Viana, Ana Maria [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Botanica; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Floh, Eny I.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The extracts from leaves of Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae) were found to contain fourteen neolignans and two sesquiterpenes: nine benzofuran types (including three new compounds 1e, 2f and 4b), one new seco-benzofuran type (3b), two bicyclo[3.2.1]octane types (including the new compound 5c), two new dimers of bicyclo[3.2.1]octane type (7a and 7b) and two sesquiterpenes (including a new humulanol 9). In addition, seven neolignans were also showed to occur in somatic embryos of O. catharinensis including one new bicyclo[3.2.1]octane type (4a). (author)

  2. Neolignans and sesquiterpenes from leaves and embryogenic cultures of Ocotea Catharinensis (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaki, Mariko; Kato, Massuo J.

    2009-01-01

    The extracts from leaves of Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae) were found to contain fourteen neolignans and two sesquiterpenes: nine benzofuran types (including three new compounds 1e, 2f and 4b), one new seco-benzofuran type (3b), two bicyclo[3.2.1]octane types (including the new compound 5c), two new dimers of bicyclo[3.2.1]octane type (7a and 7b) and two sesquiterpenes (including a new humulanol 9). In addition, seven neolignans were also showed to occur in somatic embryos of O. catharinensis including one new bicyclo[3.2.1]octane type (4a). (author)

  3. Primeiro registro de Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Pyralidae, Epipaschiinae em frutos de Ocotea catharinensis Mez-Lauraceae. First record of Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce 1902 (Pyralidae, Epipaschiinae feed on fruits of Ocotea catharinensis Mez-Lauraceae.

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    Édson Possidônio TEIXEIRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, atacando frutos de Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae, canela-preta, desde o início do desenvolvimento até a sua dispersão, no Parque Estadual da Cantareira (23º22’S e 46º36’W, localizado nos municípios de Caieiras, Guarulhos, Mairiporã e São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.It is registered for the first time the occurrence of Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae attacking fruits of Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae, canela-preta, since the beginning of development until its dispersion, at Parque Estadual da Cantareira (23º22’S and 46º36’W, located in the Caieiras, Guarulhos, Mairiporã and São Paulo counties, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  4. Sesquiterpenes of Ocotea lancifolia (Lauraceae); Sesquiterpenos de Ocotea lancifolia (Lauraceae)

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    Camargo, Maria Jose de; Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Kagamida, Camila Miyuki; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica

    2013-10-01

    Six new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-9-en-12-oic acid (1), (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-1(10)-en-12-oic acid (2), (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-1(10)-en-2-oxo-12-oic acid (3), (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-9-en-12,8{alpha}-olide (4), (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-9-en-12,8{beta}-olide (5) and (rel)-4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-9{alpha},10{alpha}-epoxy-12-oic acid (6), were isolated from the leaves of a specimen of Ocotea lancifolia (Lauraceae). Two other known sesquiterpenes, 4{beta},5{beta},7{beta}-eremophil-11-en- 10{alpha}-ol (7) reported for the first time in the genus Ocotea, and the aromadendrene sesquiterpene, spathulenol (8), were also isolated. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, UV and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparisons with the literature. (author)

  5. Estabelecimento in vitro de Ocotea odorifera, O. catharinensis e O. porosa In vitro Establishment of Ocotea odorifera, O. catharinensis and O. porosa

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    Aline Moritz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Várias espécies da família Lauraceae encontram-se em risco de extinção, devido ao alto valor comercial de suas madeiras e a consequente exploração das reservas naturais. Dentre elas, Ocotea porosa (imbuia, O. odorifera (canela-sassafras e O. catharinensis (canela-preta são de grande importância no Sul do Brasil, de onde são originárias. Estas espécies apresentam sementes recalcitrantes, o que dificulta sua regeneração natural. Alem disso, a propagação por meio de estaquia e enxertia apresenta limitações. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a germinação e multiplicação in vitro das canelas preta e sassafrás na presença de BAP e carvão ativado e a germinação e multiplicação in vitro de imbuia sob diferentes concentrações de sacarose no meio de cultura. Para as canelas preta e sassafrás foram avaliadas duas concentrações de NaClO na desinfestação de embriões (0,1 % e 0,5 %. Na fase de multiplicação, foi avaliado o efeito de BAP e carvão ativado. Para a imbuia, foi avaliada a influência da concentração de sacarose (30, 60, 90 ou 120 g.L-1 na introdução e multiplicação in vitro. A porcentagem de germinação foi superior a 85 % para as três espécies. Para a canela sassafrás, as melhores taxas de multiplicação foram obtidas na presença de 5 μmol.L-1 de BAP. Para a imbuia, a concentração de 60 g.L-1 de sacarose no meio proporcionou as maiores taxas de multiplicação. Apesar de o estabelecimento da canela preta ter sido satisfatório, após algumas semanas no meio de multiplicação os explantes não apresentavam aparência normal e oxidaram.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.59.37

    Several species of the Lauraceae family are endangered, due to the high value of their woods,
    and the consequent exploitation of natural populations. Among them, Ocotea porosa, O. odorifera and O.
    catharinensis, native from South Brazil, have recalcitrant seeds, what makes even more dificult their

  6. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

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    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  7. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

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    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique, E-mail: lcpabonb@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  8. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae

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    Ludy Cristina Pabon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae were isolated and characterized as (S-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1, (S-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2, (S-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3 and (S-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4; alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well.

  9. Aporphine alkaloids in Ocotea species (Lauraceae); Alcaloides aporfinoides do genero Ocotea (Lauraceae)

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    Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Lordello, Ana Luisa Lacava [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: lordello@quimica.ufpr.br

    2007-01-15

    During the last decades several aporphinoid alkaloids of the Ocotea species have been isolated. This review describes the occurrence of the fifty four aporphinoids in seventeen different species of Ocotea: thirty nine (39) aporphine sensu stricto, four (4) oxoaporphine, five (5) 6a,7-dehydroaporphine, one (1) didehydroaporphine, one (1) C-3-O-aporphine, one (1) C-4-O-aporphine, two (2) phenanthrene, one (1) proaporphine and their {sup 13}C NMR spectral data. (author)

  10. Essential oil of trees of the genus Ocotea (Lauraceae in Costa Rica. I. Ocotea brenesii

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    Carlos Chaverri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and wood of Ocotea brenesii Standl. growing wild in Costa Rica was determined by capillary GC/FID and GC/MS. From the leaves, 4 compounds were identified, corresponding to 85.9% of the oil, and from the wood 57 compounds were identified corresponding to 69.0% of the oil. The major constituents identified in the leaf oil were α -copaene (21.1%, δ -cadinene (9.2%, spathulenol (7.3%, globulol (5.6% and β -caryophyllene (5.2%. The major constituents of the wood oil were α -copaene (6.6%, caryophyllene oxide (6.3%, β -caryophyllene (6.1% and humulene epoxide (4.6%. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 431-436. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Se determinó la composición química de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas y de la madera del árbol Ocotea brenesii Standl., perteneciente a la familia Lauraceae, que crece en forma silvestre en Costa Rica. Para el estudio se utilizaron técnicas de cromatografía de gases capilar con detector de ionización de flama (GC/FID y cromatografía de gases capilar acoplada a un detector de espectrometría de masas (GC/MS. Del aceite volátil de las hojas fueron identificados 64 constituyentes, que correspondieron a un 85.9% del aceite. Del aceite de la madera se identificaron 57 compuestos que correspondieron a un 69.0% del aceite. Los constituyentes mayoritarios que se identificaron en el aceite de las hojas fueron α -copaeno (21.1%, δ -cadineno (9.2%, espatulenol (7.3%, globulol (5.6% y β -cariofileno (5.2%. Los constituyentes mayoritarios del aceite de la madera fueron α -copaeno (6.6%, σxido de cariofileno (6.3%, β -cariofileno (6.1% y el epσxido del humuleno (4.6%. La composiciσn de los aceites es de naturaleza terpιnica y no presentaron compuestos del tipo fenilpropanoide o bencenoide que son constituyentes característicos de la mayoría de los aceites de plantas del género Ocotea investigados anteriormente.

  11. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Ocotea gardneri (Meisn. Mez (Lauraceae-Lauroideae

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    Denise F. Coutinho

    Full Text Available Ocotea gardneri (Meisn. Mez é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no nordeste brasileiro, principalmente nos estados da Paraíba e Pernambuco, conhecida por "louro-branco" e "louro-babão". Neste trabalho realizou-se morfodiagnoses (macroscópica e microscópica de folhas de O. gardneri, com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios à sua caracterização e identificação. Para a morfologia externa, analisaram-se amostras frescas e conservadas em álcool (70º, com auxílio de estereomicroscópio, e observações de campo. Realizaram-se secções transversais em lâminas foliares e pecíolos, e seções paradérmicas nas duas faces de lâminas foliares. Ocotea gardneri possui folhas elípticas a oval-elípticas, margem inteira, levemente ondeada, ápice agudo e base arredondada. A lâmina foliar é hipoestomática com estômatos do tipo paracítico; a epiderme é uniestratificada, com células de paredes retas e espessadas; o mesofilo é isobilateral, aqui referido pela primeira vez para uma espécie de Lauraceae, com células e ductos secretores evidentes e feixes vasculares colaterais envolvidos pela bainha esclerenquimática. Este conjunto de caracteres aliado à morfologia foliar, permitiram o estabelecimento de parâmetros que possibilitarão a caracterização de folhas de Ocotea gardneri em testes de autenticidade, bem como auxiliarão em estudos da taxonomia da espécie estudada.

  12. Volatile constituents of Ocotea sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (Lauraceae) of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Lorena; Ciccio, Jose F.; Chaverri, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition was determined of the essential oils extracted from twigs, bark and leaves of the tree Ocotea sinuata (Mez) Rohwer (Lauraceae), which grows in wild form in Costa Rica. The analyses were effected by means of the technology of gas chromatography in capillary column, using detectors of ionization at flame (FID) and spectrometry of masses (GC/MS). Eighty eight (88) compounds were identified. The oils were found to be of nature terpenic. The major constituents of the twigs were β-caryophyllene (18,4%), viridiflorol (11,3%), caryophyllene oxide (8,7%), germacrene D (7,7%), camphene (4,5%), and α-pinene (4,4%). The main constituents from bark oil were germacrene D (14.8%), β- caryophyllene(10,5%), camphene (10,3%), α-pinene (10,1%), viridiflorol (8,7%), β-pinene (4,7%) and α-copaene (4,6%). The main constituents from leaf oil were germacrene D (30,6%), β- caryophyllene (30,1%) and viridiflorol (8,9%). (author) [es

  13. Seedlings Of Ocotea puberula (Lauraceae): identification and monitoring of aporphinoid alkaloids; Mudas de Ocotea puberula (Lauraceae): identificacao e monitoramento de alcaloides aporfinoides

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    Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Montrucchio, Deise Prehs; Costa, Camila Klocker; Lagos, Jesse Boquett [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Lordello, Ana Luisa Lacava, E-mail: lordello@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-10-26

    This work describes the occurrence and contents of aporphinoids alkaloids in seedlings of Ocotea puberula from germination until 12 months old and in leaves from adult plants. Seedling leaves showed an alkaloids profile similar to leaves of adult plant. However, leaves in seedlings showed higher contents of the alkaloids boldine, dicentrine, leucoxine and isodomesticine when compared to adult plants. The alkaloids concentration in stems and leaves increased during the development of the seedlings, followed by a remarkable decrease of these compounds in roots. Cultivation in a seedling-nursery method is also described. (author)

  14. Demography of the endangered tree species Ocotea porosa (Lauraceae along a gradient of forest disturbance in southern Brazil

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    Cibele Amato Munhoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa (Ness Barroso (Lauraceae, a typical tree of the southern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, was heavily exploited for timber in the last century. With the aim of examining the status of the remaining populations, we surveyed five forest fragments in the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil, and evaluated whether disturbances caused by selective logging and fragmentation were related to population structure of O. porosa. We assessed demographic aspects related to tree density, size hierarchy and individual allometry, correlating those parameters with fragment structure variables (fragment size, isolation and logging level. We found that, although all populations occurred in low densities (60-440 individuals ha−¹, the number of adults was significantly lower in the smaller and most disturbed fragments (13 and 35 individuals ha−¹, respectively. We did not detect changes in allometric relationships among individuals in the five populations studied. However, we found that populations in more heavily disturbed areas presented lower size hierarchy (i.e., less dominance of larger trees than did those in undisturbed areas, suggesting that selective logging affects the population structure of O. porosa, possibly affecting the rates of reproduction and fecundity, which may ultimately increase the probability of local extinction.

  15. Germination of Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez (Lauraceae seeds in laboratory and natural restinga environment conditions

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    LA. Pires

    Full Text Available The germination response of Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The laboratory assays were carried out in germination chambers and thermal-gradient apparatus, whereas the field assays were performed in environments with distinct light, temperature and soil moisture conditions within a permanent parcel of Restinga forest of the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia, São Paulo. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O. pulchella seeds tested in the laboratory. Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. pulchella seeds in the natural environment of Restinga. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 ºC, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 ºC and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 ºC. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. pulchella seeds in the understorey, both in wet and dry soil, was higher than in gaps. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils. Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor.

  16. Germination of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) seeds in laboratory and natural restinga environment conditions.

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    Pires, L A; Cardoso, V J M; Joly, C A; Rodrigues, R R

    2009-08-01

    The germination response of Ocotea pulchella (Nees) Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The laboratory assays were carried out in germination chambers and thermal-gradient apparatus, whereas the field assays were performed in environments with distinct light, temperature and soil moisture conditions within a permanent parcel of Restinga forest of the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, Cananéia, São Paulo. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O. pulchella seeds tested in the laboratory. Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. pulchella seeds in the natural environment of Restinga. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 degrees C, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 degrees C and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 degrees C. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. pulchella seeds in the understorey, both in wet and dry soil, was higher than in gaps. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils. Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor.

  17. Aporphine alkaloids with antitubercular activity isolated from Ocotea discolor Kunth (Lauraceae

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    Monica Constanza Avila Murillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis disease causes thousands of deaths worldwide and, currently, the used drugs are either not enough or obsolete for its treatment. Therefore, new compounds that combat this disease are been seek. Thus, the antituberculosis activity of the alkaloids ocoxilonine (1, ocoteine (2, dicentrine (3 and 1,2-methylenedioxy-3,10,11-trimethoxyaporphine (4, isolated from Ocotea discolor wood was evaluated. Their structures were identified by analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data (NMR 1D – 1H, 13C, 2D – COSY, HSQC and HMBC, mass spectra, and comparison with literature data. All the isolated compounds demonstrated antituberculosis activity, with ocoteine (2 being the most active compound, with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 140 μM against the virulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All the isolated compounds showed antituberculosis activity, with a variation range in the minimum inhibitory concentration between 140 to 310 μM, being ocoteine (2 the most active compound against the virulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

  18. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae; Boraginales to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae, and the identity of the species of Firensia

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    Christian Feuillet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae.

  19. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia. The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocotea (Lauraceae).

  20. Composition of the volatile fraction of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) calyces by GC-MS and NMR fingerprinting and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

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    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Moreno Rueda, Gabriela; Medici, Alessandro; Besco, Elena; Bruni, Renato

    2006-10-04

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the floral calyces of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) was studied by means of GC, GC-MS, and 1H, 13C, and bidimensional NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC). Twenty-five constituents were identified, and estragole (48.7%), alpha-phellandrene (19.6%) and sabinene (10.4%) were found to be the major components. Antimicrobial activity against six aerobic bacteria and five yeasts and antioxidant activity performed by photochemiluminescence (PCL), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and beta-carotene bleaching assays are reported. The oil showed fair inhibiting properties against bacteria and a good inhibition against most yeasts. Its radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant properties were comparable to or better than those provided by synthetic controls. Particular emphasis has been given to the use of NMR as a fast and reliable tool to discriminate O. bofo essential oil from other commercial anethole- and estragole-rich oils, namely, Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Artemisia dracunculus.

  1. BIOECOLOGIA DE Oncideres cervina (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE EM CANELA-GUAICÁ (Ocotea puberula: Lauraceae NA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL

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    Leopoldo Witeck Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe insect fauna knowledge of forest ecosystems have their importance in relation to damage caused bytheir different segments. The bioecology of theOncideres cervina(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae inOcoteapuberula(Lauraceae was studied in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. In 49 cut twigswere analyzed the cutoff frequency, the diameter of cut twigs and sections, twig length, posture incisionsfrequency, adult emergence, exit orifice size, length and volume of the larvae gallery of this species. Thecut twigs period extends from February to March and this species is fit as thick cutter twigs. The incisionsposture number is variable, but the highest concentration is found on sections 20 to 40 cm from the cut, withan average value of 11 incisions. Two hundred adults emerged from 27 twigs, with the most emergent onthe first half of December. In order to complete its development, this species requires less wood volume ifcompared to other twig girdlers species.

  2. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

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    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  3. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  4. Lauraceae endémicas del Perú

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    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lauraceae, a characteristic family of Peru’s eastern montane forests are represented in Peru by 16 genera and 247 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Ulloa Ulloa et al., 2004. Here we recognize 55 endemic species included in 11 genera. Nectandra and Ocotea are the genera with the largest number of endemic species. These endemic taxa, mostly trees and shrubs, are found mainly in the Humid Lowland Amazonian Forest and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 125 and 3100 m elevation. Nine of these species have been recorded to date in the Peruvian protected areas system.

  5. Antimycobacterial and nitric oxide production inhibitory activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian restinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100 µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively.

  6. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE Ocotea puberula EN UN BOSQUE SECUNDARIO Y PRIMARIO DE LA SELVA MIXTA MISIONERA

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    Silvana Lucia Caldato

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la estructura de la población de Ocotea puberula (Nees et Mart. Nees (Lauraceae, en bosques de sucesión secundaria y primaria en el Nordeste de Misiones en Argentina, a 26º 15´S y 54º 15´W. Dos parcelas permanentes de muestreo de 3 hectáreas cada una fueron instaladas en el bosque secundario y primario, respectivamente. Cada parcela fue dividida en 75 subparcelas de 20 x 20 m, donde todos los individuos de Ocotea puberula de tamaño igual o superior a 20 centímetros de altura fueron registrados. Se estudió la estructura de tamaño y la distribución espacial. Ocotea puberula mostró ser una especie secundaria con un número abundante de individuos en la fase de regeneración natural en el bosque secundario, y solamente árboles adultos en el bosque primario. La especie presentó en ambos bosques un patrón agrupado de distribución espacial.

  7. Antimycobacterial and Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian Restinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B.; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100 µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25789338

  8. Antiherpetic activity of a flavonoid fraction from Ocotea notata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garrett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation of a flavonoid fraction from leaves of Ocotea notata (Nees & Mart. Mez, Lauraceae, the identification of six major compounds (an A-type proanthocyanidin trimer [3], isoquercitrin [4], reynoutrin [5], miquelianin [6], quercitrin [7], afzelin [8] and four minor compounds (catechin [1], epicatechin [2], quercetin [9], kaempferol [10] present in the fraction and its activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% effective concentrations values (EC50 calculated from the dose-response curve and the selectivity indices (SI against the virus were: EC50 35.8 µg/mL and SI 5.5 to HSV-1 and EC50 23.5 µg/mL and SI 8.5 to HSV-2. The flavonoid fraction was more active against HSV-2 than HSV-1. The mechanisms of antiviral action of the flavonoid fraction against the virus were also evaluated. The percentage inhibition (PI obtained for HSV-2 was higher than 90% in the following assays: virucidal, pre-treatment of cells, treatment of cells after viral adsorption and treatment of cells after viral penetration. For HSV-1, the flavonoid fraction had no effect in pre-treatment of cells and showed 60% of inhibition in virucidal assay.

  9. Antiherpetic activity of a flavonoid fraction from Ocotea notata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garrett

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the isolation of a flavonoid fraction from leaves of Ocotea notata (Nees & Mart. Mez, Lauraceae, the identification of six major compounds (an A-type proanthocyanidin trimer [3], isoquercitrin [4], reynoutrin [5], miquelianin [6], quercitrin [7], afzelin [8] and four minor compounds (catechin [1], epicatechin [2], quercetin [9], kaempferol [10] present in the fraction and its activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% effective concentrations values (EC50 calculated from the dose-response curve and the selectivity indices (SI against the virus were: EC50 35.8 µg/mL and SI 5.5 to HSV-1 and EC50 23.5 µg/mL and SI 8.5 to HSV-2. The flavonoid fraction was more active against HSV-2 than HSV-1. The mechanisms of antiviral action of the flavonoid fraction against the virus were also evaluated. The percentage inhibition (PI obtained for HSV-2 was higher than 90% in the following assays: virucidal, pre-treatment of cells, treatment of cells after viral adsorption and treatment of cells after viral penetration. For HSV-1, the flavonoid fraction had no effect in pre-treatment of cells and showed 60% of inhibition in virucidal assay.

  10. Phytochemical Analysis by HPLC–HRESI-MS and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ivan Marques

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae has been popularly used by folk medicine because of its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antiophidic properties. This study aims to analyze the flavonoids composition of the hydroethanolic extract and of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc and butanol (BuOH fractions of T. catharinensis leaves, as well as to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity using in vivo models. The phytochemical profile, determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC–HRESI-MS, showed the presence of flavonoids mainly having an isorhamnetin nucleus. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw edema (pre- and post-treatment with oral administration of a T. catharinensis hydroethanolic extract (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg and of organic fractions (50 mg/kg. The extract and fractions showed antiedematogenic activity by decreasing myeloperoxidase (MPO production. In the zymosan-air-pouch model, the extract and fractions inhibited leukocyte migration and significantly decreased the levels of various proteins, such as MPO, interleukin (IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, which revealed no cytotoxicity of the extract and the fractions. These results suggest that the hydroethanolic extract and organic fractions of T. catharinensis leaves have sufficient anti-inflammatory activity to support the popular use of this plant in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  11. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (Ocotea sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Escobar, Jorge A; Castro Restrepo, Dagoberto; Osorio Vega, Walter

    2009-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (>Ocotea sp.). In order to do this, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments in a factorial array of 3 x 2 and five repetitions. The treatments involved a combination of three Phosphorus (P) levels in soil solution (0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 mg L-1) and two levels of mycorrhizal inoculation, either inoculated or non-inoculated with Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith. The leaf P content as a function of time was used as an output variable. Shoot dry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, and mycorrhizal dependence were measured at harvest. The results indicated that the leaf P content increased significantly when using the mycorrhizal inoculation in laurel at P level 0.2 mg L -1, but not in the other P levels, on some of the sampling days. Shoot dry weight and total plant P content did not increase at all levels of soil available P. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel reached 28%, which allows this species to be classified as moderately dependent on mycorrhiza.

  12. Capacidad antioxidante y contenido de fenoles totales de Hyptis spp., P. Heptaphyllum, T. Panamensis, T. Rhoifolia, y Ocotea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Tafurt García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la posible correlación entre las actividades antioxidantes, el contenido de fenoles totales (CFT y la composición química de Lamiaceae (H. conferta, H. dilatata, H. mutabilis, H. suaveolens, Burseraceae (P. heptaphyllum, T. rhoifoila, T. panamensis y Lauraceae (Ocotea sp.. Para los extractos etanólicos obtenidos por maceración en frio y evaporación a sequedad, la Capacidad Antioxidante Equivalente al Trolox o la Actividad Antioxidante Total (AAT, fueron determinadas mediante un ensayo colorimétrico con el catión radical ABTS, la Concentración Efectiva (EC50 fue evaluada con el radical DPPH, y el Contenido de Fenoles Totales (CFT, fue establecido mediante el método de Folin-Ciocalteu. Tanto la AAT como la EC50 estuvieron altamente correlacionados con el CFT. Las cortezas de T. rhoifolia y T. panamensis mostraron las capacidades antioxidantes más altas. Las Burseraceae spp. mostraron los TPC más altos y las Lamiaceae (Hyptis spp. mostraron los TPC más bajos.

  13. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

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    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germination and that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol of regeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculated on WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D (22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture medium containing NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction (8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein and the development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promoted in WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. During the maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages. The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histological studies.

  14. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

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    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812343Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germinationand that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol ofregeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculatedon WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein orglutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D(22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed caseinor glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture mediumcontaining NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction(8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein andthe development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promotedin WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containinghydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. Duringthe maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages.The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histologicalstudies.

  15. Floral structure and ontogeny of Syndiclis (Lauraceae.

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    Gang Zeng

    Full Text Available Generic delimitation in the Beilschmiedia group of the Lauraceae remains ambiguous because flowering specimens of a few genera with confined distribution are poorly represented in herbaria, and a few floral characters important for taxonomy are still poorly known. Syndiclis is sporadically distributed in southwestern China, and is represented in the herbaria by only a few flowering specimens. We conducted field investigations to collect floral materials of four species and observed structures and ontogeny of the tiny flowers using both light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that the genus Syndiclis possesses flowers with huge variation in both merosity and organ number. Flowers of the genus are dimerous, trimerous, or tetramerous, or have mixed merosity with monomerous and dimerous, or dimerous and trimerous, or trimerous and tetramerous whorls. The number of staminodes ranges from two to eight, depending on floral merosity, and on how many stamens of the third androecial whorl are reduced to staminodes. The staminodes of the fourth androecial whorl are comparable to the staminodes in Potameia, but the staminodes of the third androecial whorl of Syndiclis are relatively larger than the staminodes in Potameia. They are erect or curved inwards, covering the ovary. The anthers are usually two-locular, but rarely one-locular or three-locular. Each stamen of the third androecial whorl bears two conspicuous and enlarged glands at the base. The lability of floral merosity and organ number of Syndiclis may have been caused by changes of pollination system and loss of special selective pressures that are present in most Lauraceous plants with fixed floral organ number. This study furthers our understanding of variation and evolution of a few important characters of the Beilschmiedia group and provides essential data for a revised generic classification of the group.

  16. A revision of Beilschmiedia (Lauraceae) of Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de R.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    A revision of the Peninsular Malaysian species of Beilschmiedia (Lauraceae) is presented with a summary of the taxonomic history of the group, key, full descriptions, distribution maps, conservation assessments, ecological information, ethno-botanical notes and a discussion of morphology. In this

  17. Essential Oil Compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae: A Mini Review

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    Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Salleh, Farediah Ahmad * , Khong Heng Yen, Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been largely employed for human need due to their antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities. At present, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important. Essential oils or some of their components are used in perfumes and make-up products, sanitary products, dentistry, agriculture, as food preservers and additives, and as natural remedies. The essential oil compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae family have been investigated for many years. In the recent years, studies on the essential oils of the species have been progressing and many of them have reported interesting pharmacological activities. In this article, we summarized and updated the chemical compositions and biological activities of Malaysian Lauraceae. Throughout our literature review, only four genera which are Lindera, Beilschmiedia, Litsea, and Cinnamomum have been studied for their essential oil compositions in Malaysia. They were found to contain mainly safrole, eugenol, linalool, camphor, benzyl benzoate or cinnamaldehyde as major components. There were significant priorities to find out the details of the chemical compositions of the essential oils from Malaysian Lauraceae. Therefore, more clinical studies on the toxicity of the essential oil of the species are also crucial to ensure their safety and to assess their eligibility to be used as the sources of modern medicines.

  18. GC-MS analysis and cardiovascular activity of the essential oil of Ocotea duckei

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    José M. Barbosa-Filho

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by steam distillation from the roots, stems, leaves and fruits of Ocotea duckei had their composition analyzed by GC-MS. The pharmacological activity of these oils was also evaluated showing significant cardiovascular effects. Forty-nine substances were identified, consisting of a complex mixture of monoterpenes (45% and sesquiterpenes (55%. The fruits yielded (1.9% more essential oil than the stems (1.0%, roots (0.8% and leaves (0.7%. The main component in the oil of the leaves was trans-caryophyllene (60.54%, in the stem bark beta-eudesmol (27.51% and in the fruits, dl-limonene (30.12%. The predominant essential oil component in the roots was elemol (24.31%. In non-anaesthetized normotensive rats, the essential oils from different parts of Ocotea duckei (leaves, fruits, stem and roots induced significant (p < 0.05 hypotension followed by bradycardia.

  19. Alelopatia de extratos aquosos de canela-sassafrás (Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rohwer Allelopathy of Brazilian sassafras (Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rohwer aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria da Silva Carmo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de alelopatia investigam os efeitos positivos e negativos que metabólitos secundários de plantas, microrganismos ou fungos exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de indivíduos vizinhos. Nesse trabalho foram investigados os efeitos de extratos aquosos de folhas, cascas de tronco e cascas de raízes de canela-sassafrás (Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rowher sobre a germinabilidade das sementes, desenvolvimento do sistema radicular e da parte aérea, teor de clorofila da parte aérea e respiração das células radiculares de plântulas de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cv. Embrapa BR 303. Os extratos foram preparados adicionando o material vegetal seco e moído oriundo de cada órgão à água destilada e deionizada na proporção 1:10 (p/v. Após agitação constante por 24 h, as soluções foram decantadas e filtradas através de papel de filtro sob vácuo, constituindo os extratos testados. Os extratos aquosos de cascas de tronco e de raízes causaram inibição do desenvolvimento do sistema radicular das plântulas de sorgo e a sua parte aérea teve o crescimento estimulado pelo extrato de cascas de raízes. Os extratos de folhas e de cascas de tronco induziram aumento da biomassa fresca do sistema radicular e diminuição significativa do teor de clorofila. Todos os extratos causaram efeitos negativos sobre a respiração radicular das plântulas de sorgo. Concluiu-se que metabólitos secundários da canela-sassafrás causaram alterações metabólicas e morfológicas nas plantas de sorgo e que, portanto, a presença de canela-sassafrás no ambiente pode desencadear efeitos similares sobre outras espécies vegetais na sua vizinhança.Allelopathic studies investigate the positive and negative effects of secondary metabolites of plants, microorganisms and fungi on the development of neighboring individuals. In this work, the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves, bark and root bark of Brazilian sassafras (Ocotea odorifera (Vell

  20. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of coronaridine from Tabernaemontana catharinensis A.DC in a human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (Hep-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Walace Fraga; Ferreira, Luis Eduardo; Colnaghi, Vanessa; Martins, Juliana Simões; Franchi, Leonardo Pereira; Takahashi, Catarina Satie; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Pereira, Paulo Sérgio; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide and the number of deaths due to this disease is increasing almost exponentially. In the constant search for new treatments, natural products of plant origin have provided a variety of new compounds to be explored as antitumor agents. Tabernaemontana catharinensis is a medicinal plant that produces alkaloids with expressive antitumor activity, such as heyneanine, coronaridine and voacangine. The aim of present study was firstly to screen the cytotoxic activity of the indole alkaloids heyneanine, coronaridine and voacangine against HeLa (human cervix tumor), 3T3 (normal mouse embryo fibroblasts), Hep-2 (human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma) and B-16 (murine skin) cell lines by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide); and secondly to analyze the apoptotic activity, cell membrane damage and genotoxicity of the compound that showed the best cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell lines tested. Coronaridine was the one that exhibited greater cytotoxic activity in the laryngeal carcinoma cell line Hep-2 (IC50 = 54.47 μg/mL) than the other alkaloids tested (voacangine IC50 = 159.33 g/mL, and heyneanine IC50 = 689.45 μg/mL). Coronaridine induced apoptosis in cell lines 3T3 and Hep-2, even at high concentrations. The evaluation of genotoxicity by comet assay showed further that coronaridine caused minimal DNA damage in the Hep-2 tumor cell line, and the LDH test showed that it did not affect the plasma membrane. These results suggest that further investigation of coronaridine as an antitumor agent has merit. PMID:23569415

  1. The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora and its comparison with related Lauraceae species

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    Caihui Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum camphora, a member of the Lauraceae family, is a valuable aromatic and timber tree that is indigenous to the south of China and Japan. All parts of Cinnamomum camphora have secretory cells containing different volatile chemical compounds that are utilized as herbal medicines and essential oils. Here, we reported the complete sequencing of the chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora using illumina technology. The chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum camphora is 152,570 bp in length and characterized by a relatively conserved quadripartite structure containing a large single copy region of 93,705 bp, a small single copy region of 19,093 bp and two inverted repeat (IR regions of 19,886 bp. Overall, the genome contained 123 coding regions, of which 15 were repeated in the IR regions. An analysis of chloroplast sequence divergence revealed that the small single copy region was highly variable among the different genera in the Lauraceae family. A total of 40 repeat structures and 83 simple sequence repeats were detected in both the coding and non-coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that Calycanthus is most closely related to Lauraceae, both being members of Laurales, which forms a sister group to Magnoliids. The complete sequence of the chloroplast of Cinnamomum camphora will aid in in-depth taxonomical studies of the Lauraceae family in the future. The genetic sequence information will also have valuable applications for chloroplast genetic engineering.

  2. Problem in the generic delimitation between Alseodaphne, Dehaasia and Nothaphoebe (Lauraceae) in Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julia, S.; Soepadmo, E.; Yahud, W.

    2009-01-01

    Alseodaphne, Dehaasia and Nothaphoebe are, morphologically, three closely related genera belonging to the Persea subgroup of the Lauraceae. A total of 214 binomials of the three genera have been published by various authors (International Plant Names Index, March 2007), of which 44 have been

  3. Growth and intraspecific competitive abilities of the dioecious Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) in varied flooding regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Nathan M. Schiff; Theodor D. Leininger; Emile S Gardiner; Margaret S. Devall; Paul B. Hamel; A. Dan Wilson; Kristina F. Connor

    2009-01-01

    Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Stoneville, MS 38776). Growth and intraspecific competitive abilities of the dioecious Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) in varied flooding regimes. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 91–101. 2009.—The contribution of sexual dimorphism to malebiased colony ratios observed in field populations of the federally...

  4. The Chemistry of Brazilian Lauraceae LXXI. Styrylpyrones of Aniba panurensis and A. permollis

    OpenAIRE

    Motidome, Mário; Gottlieb, Otto R.; Kubitzki, Klaus

    1982-01-01

    RESUMO Amostras das madeiras de Aniba panuransis (Meissn.) Mez e de A. permollis (Nees) Mez (família Lauraceae) contém 6-estiril -2-pironas, as quais são respectivamente, o composto não substituído e seu derivado metoxilado na posição 4.

  5. First report of the effect of Ocotea elegans essential oil on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Amanda; Nascimento, Leonor M; Lopes, Louyse G; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Albuquerque, Ricardo D D G; Santos, Marcelo G; Falcão, Deborah Q; Nogueira, Jeane A P; Rocha, Leandro; Chagas, Ana Carolina S

    2018-03-15

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for reducing animal welfare, causing a drop in productive performance and transmitting hemoparasites. The main strategy of tick control is application of synthetic acaricides. However, parasite resistance to these compounds is a major concern. Therefore, the acaricidal and repellent in vitro effect of the Ocotea elegans essential oil on larvae and adult females of R. (B.) microplus were evaluated. The larval packet test (LPT), larval repellency test (RT) and adult immersion test (AIT) were performed. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and the structure of the oil's major constituent (92.2% sesquirosefuran) was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance. In the AIT, efficacy higher than 90% was detected from the concentration 25 mg/mL upward. In both LPTs performed after 48 h, only the 100 mg/mL concentration resulted in mortalities above 70%. On the other hand, the essential oil caused an average of 95.8% repellency from 0.78 to 100 mg/mL. The LC 50 in the two LPT (48 h) tests were 59.68 and 25.59 mg/mL, respectively. The LC 50 and LC 90 in the AIT were 4.96 and 17.37 mg/mL, and in the RT they were 0.04 and 1.24 mg/mL respectively. We conclude that the essential oil of O. elegans leaves has a significant acaricidal effect on engorged females and on larval repellency of R. (B.) microplus ticks, and can be a promising alternative for the control of this ectoparasite. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The typification of Cordia flavescens Aubl., the transfer of Firensia Scop. from Cordia L. (Cordiaceae; Boraginales) to the synonymy of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), and the identity of the species of Firensia

    OpenAIRE

    Feuillet,Christian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Firensia Scop. was based on Cordia flavescens Aubl., a species described and illustrated from a mixed collection that Scopoli never transferred to Firensia . The genus included three additional species formally named by Rafinesque. Currently the four species are placed in three different families and none retained the epithet accepted by Scopoli or given by Rafinesque for reason of priority. A lectotype is designated for Cordia flavescens that places Firensia in the synonymy of Ocote...

  7. Organização estrutural da casca de Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae Structural organization of Persea major Kopp bark (Lauraceae

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    Leila Teresinha Maranho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de contribuir ao conhecimento da estrutura da casca de Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae, espécie nativa da América do Sul. No Brasil, é conhecida, popularmente, como "pau de andrade" e utilizada na cultura tradicional na cicatrização dos ferimentos. A análise da casca foi feita usando microscopia de óptica. A casca se distingue, principalmente, pelo tipo e distribuição dos tecidos esclerenquimáticos e a presença de células oleíferas e mucilaginosas. As características encontradas na estrutura da casca desta espécie mostram grande importância para a identificação e servem como parâmetros no controle de qualidade. Estas células oleíferas e mucilaginosas com uma distribuição restrita nas dicotiledôneas constituem uma característica taxonômica e diagnóstica particularmente valiosa.The study was undertaken to increase our knowledge of bark structure of Persea major Kopp (Lauraceae, a native specie from South America. In Brazil, it is known as "pau de andrade" and is used by traditional cultures to heal injuries. This analysis was done by light microscopy. The bark is distinguished mainly by the type and distribution of sclerenchymatic tissues, and the presence of oil and mucilage cells. The characteristics found in the bark anatomy of this species are of great importance for identification purposes and as parameters in quality control. These oil and mucilage cells have a restricted distribution in the dicotyledons and constitute a particularly valuable taxonomic and diagnostic feature.

  8. The chemistry of Brazilian Lauraceae. LXV. 5, 7, 8, 3', 4', 5' - Hexamethoxyflavone from an Aniba species

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Sergio de H.; Rocha, Arnaldo I. da; Yoshida, Massayoshi; Gottlieb, Otto R.

    1982-01-01

    Abstract Aniba species (Lauraceae) are characterized by the presence of neolignans or of 6-aryl (or 6-styryl-) 2-pyrones. Flavonoids occur either together with pyrones or, in rare cases, as predominant micromolecular type. The branch wood of an Aniba species from Marapi, Parú do Oeste River, near Tiriós (Para State), constitutes such a case. It contains 5,7,8,3'.4',5'-hexam-thoxyflavone, obtained for the first time from a natural source. Espécies de Aniba (Lauraceae) são caracterizadas pel...

  9. A new species of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) from the Bladen Nature Reserve, southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Steven W; Stott, Gail L

    2017-01-01

    A new species in the Lauraceae, Cinnamomum bladenense S.W. Brewer & G.L. Stott, is described from the Bladen Nature Reserve in southern Belize. The new species is similar to Cinnamomum brenesii (Standl.) Kosterm., from which it differs by its much smaller, narrowly-campanulate flowers, its inner tepals glabrous abaxially, its shorter petioles, its minutely sericeous younger twigs, and its abaxial leaf surfaces not glaucous and with prominent secondary venation. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, and photographs of the species as well as a key to and notes on the Cinnamomum of Belize are provided.

  10. Neolignans from Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae Display in vitro Cytotoxic Activity and Induce Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells

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    Vitor Ponci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez. (Lauraceae is a well-known Brazilian medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine to treat several diseases. In continuation of our ongoing efforts to discover new bioactive natural products from the Brazilian flora, this study describes the identification of cytotoxic compounds from the MeOH extract of N. megapotamica (Lauraceae leaves using bioactivity-guided fractionation. This approach resulted in the isolation and characterization of eight tetrahydrofuran neolignans: calopeptin (1, machilin-G (2, machilin-I (3, aristolignin (4, nectandrin A (5, veraguensin (6, ganschisandrin (7, and galgravin (8. Different assays were conducted to evaluate their cytotoxic activities and to determine the possible mechanism(s related to the activity displayed against human leukemia cells. The most active compounds 4, 5 and 8 gave IC50 values of 14.2 ± 0.7, 16.9 ± 0.8 and 16.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL, respectively, against human leukemia (HL-60 tumor cells. Moreover, these compounds induced specific apoptotic hallmarks, such as plasma membrane bleb formation, nuclear DNA condensation, specific chromatin fragmentation, phosphatidyl-serine exposure on the external leaflet of the plasma membrane, cleavage of PARP as well as mitochondrial damage, which as a whole could be related to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  11. Influence of gamma radiation on mechanical and thermal properties of Cedrella fissilis and Ocotea porosa used in works of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiano, Lucio C.; Bardi, Marcelo A.G.; Machado, Luci D.B.; Lahr, Francisco A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Woods, as other materials, are susceptible to alterations in their internal structure because of physical, chemical or biological agents. Wood can be considered a natural composite with high strength capacity provided by cellulose and hemicellulose agglutinated by lignin, substances with very distinct structures. In several applications, the use of radiation can be interesting, once it turns wood more resistant to biological demand. The application of gamma radiation in work of arts and archaeological artifacts preservation began in 1970, in France. By other side, no changes in wood properties and no remaining radioactive waste were desirable. Gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source usually is applied as a tool to the decontamination of insects and microorganisms, as well as to provide resins cure in impregnated wood. In this way, the aim of this paper is to evaluate gamma radiation effects on some physical, thermal and resistance mechanical of Brazilian wood species used in carving, as Cedro Rosa (Cedrella fissilis) and Imbuia (Ocotea porosa). Gamma radiation process considered different doses (25 kGy, 50 kGy and 100 kGy). Results showed that no gamma radiation influences were detected in the studied wood properties in the dose range applied. This is a relevant conclusion that will improve safety on arts conservation around the world. (author)

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on mechanical and thermal properties of Cedrella fissilis and Ocotea porosa used in works of art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severiano, Lucio C.; Bardi, Marcelo A.G.; Machado, Luci D.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: lucioseveriano@usp.br; Lahr, Francisco A.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia de Estruturas de Madeira

    2009-07-01

    Woods, as other materials, are susceptible to alterations in their internal structure because of physical, chemical or biological agents. Wood can be considered a natural composite with high strength capacity provided by cellulose and hemicellulose agglutinated by lignin, substances with very distinct structures. In several applications, the use of radiation can be interesting, once it turns wood more resistant to biological demand. The application of gamma radiation in work of arts and archaeological artifacts preservation began in 1970, in France. By other side, no changes in wood properties and no remaining radioactive waste were desirable. Gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source usually is applied as a tool to the decontamination of insects and microorganisms, as well as to provide resins cure in impregnated wood. In this way, the aim of this paper is to evaluate gamma radiation effects on some physical, thermal and resistance mechanical of Brazilian wood species used in carving, as Cedro Rosa (Cedrella fissilis) and Imbuia (Ocotea porosa). Gamma radiation process considered different doses (25 kGy, 50 kGy and 100 kGy). Results showed that no gamma radiation influences were detected in the studied wood properties in the dose range applied. This is a relevant conclusion that will improve safety on arts conservation around the world. (author)

  13. Identification of Endophytic Fungi of Medicinal Herbs of Lauraceae and Rutaceae with Antimicrobial Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yuan Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine taxonomical features and antimicrobial activities of 156 isolates of endophytic fungi collected from twigs of medicinal plants of Lauraceae (67 isolates and Rutaceae (89 isolates in central and northern Taiwan. The 156 isolates of fungi were classified into 35 genera in 19 families based on morphological characteristics of mycelia and asexual/sexual spores, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. The most common endophytes were in the taxa of Colletotrichum, Guignardia, Hypoxylon, Nigrospora, Phomopsis and Xylaria, and the most common hosts were Citrus and Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae and Cinnamomum of Lauraceae. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that xylariaceous isolates could be separated into Xylaria and Hypoxylon groups based on rDNA of LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. Four isolates of endophytic fungi including Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10, Ophioceras tenuisporum isolate CI02, Xylaria cubensis isolate LA04 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 were tested for antimicrobial activities using a dual culture method and Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 showed better antimicrobial activity against 12 plant pathogens including 9 fungi and 3 bacteria. Spraying Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa plants with culture filtrates of the endophytic fungus Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 significantly reduced severity of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum under greenhouse conditions. This study suggests that the Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 may be of potential for management of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage.

  14. Análise dos padrões espaciais de Ocotea odorifera (vell. rohwer na floresta nacional de Irati (PR / Spatial patterns analysis of Ocotea odorifera (vell. rohwer in araucarian forest of Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilmar Antônio Dalmaso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar algumas ferramentas de Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG utilizadas para analisar os padrões espaciais da espécie Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rohwer na Floresta Nacional de Irati (PR. Foram utilizados três conjuntos de dados com um total de 5549 pares de coordenadas (indivíduos de canela-sassafrás com altura maior que 30 cm, provenientes de três hectares amostrais. O SIG implementado com a integração dos softwares TerraView e SPRING mostrou-se eficaz para análises da distribuição espacial, conversão de dados e na representação cartográfica dos indivíduos da espécie. Os resultados obtidos para as categorias regeneração e árvores adultas de O. odorifera são apresentados. Sentiu-se necessidade de métodos e ferramentas que permitam análises bivariadas dos padrões espaciais e opções de correção de borda na análise espacial com a função L. A espécie apresentou padrão espacial agregado para a regeneração natural em todas as escalas analisadas, indicando um padrão característico da espécie nas fases iniciais. Os indivíduos adultos de canela-sassafrás apresentaram em geral um padrão espacial aleatório.AbstractThe objective of this paper is to present some of the Geographic Information System (GIS tools used to analyse spatial patterns of Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rohwer in the National Forest of Irati (PR. It was used three data sets with a total of 5549 pairs of coordinates (canela-sassafrás trees with height above than 30 cm, from three sampled hectares. The implemented GIS with integration of TerraView and SPRING softwares showed to be effective for analysis of spatial distribution, data conversion and cartographic representation of each tree of studied species. The results for the categories regeneration and adult trees of O. odorifera are shown. The need of methods and tools that allow bivariate analysis of spatial patters were detected as also options of edge

  15. Plastome Evolution in the Sole Hemiparasitic Genus Laurel Dodder (Cassytha) and Insights into the Plastid Phylogenomics of Lauraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Wang, Ting-Jen; Wu, Chia-Wen; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2017-10-01

    To date, little is known about the evolution of plastid genomes (plastomes) in Lauraceae. As one of the top five largest families in tropical forests, the Lauraceae contain many species that are important ecologically and economically. Lauraceous species also provide wonderful materials to study the evolutionary trajectory in response to parasitism because they contain both nonparasitic and parasitic species. This study compared the plastomes of nine Lauraceous species, including the sole hemiparasitic and herbaceous genus Cassytha (laurel dodder; here represented by Cassytha filiformis). We found differential contractions of the canonical inverted repeat (IR), resulting in two IR types present in Lauraceae. These two IR types reinforce Cryptocaryeae and Neocinnamomum-Perseeae-Laureae as two separate clades. Our data reveal several traits unique to Cas. filiformis, including loss of IRs, loss or pseudogenization of 11 ndh and rpl23 genes, richness of repeats, and accelerated rates of nucleotide substitutions in protein-coding genes. Although Cas. filiformis is low in chlorophyll content, our analysis based on dN/dS ratios suggests that both its plastid house-keeping and photosynthetic genes are under strong selective constraints. Hence, we propose that short generation time and herbaceous lifestyle rather than reduced photosynthetic ability drive the accelerated rates of nucleotide substitutions in Cas. filiformis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Chemical Compositions and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf Essential Oils of Four Lauraceae Tree Species from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Maria C. Palazzo; Brittany R. Agius; Brenda S. Wright; William A. Haber; Debra M. Moriarity; William N. Setzer

    2009-01-01

    The leaf essential oils of four members of the Lauraceae Licaria excelsa, Licaria triandra, Perseaschiedeana, and Rhodostemonodaphne kunthiana, from Monteverde, Costa Rica, were obtained byhydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The leaf oil of L. excelsawas dominated by the monoterpenes a-pinene (42.9%), b-pinene (22.0%) and myrcene (17.2%), while L.triandra was also rich in pinenes (40.9% and 28.5%, respectively). Persea schiedeana had considerableamo...

  17. INFLUÊNCIA DA TEMPERATURA NA GERMINAÇÃO DE DIÁSPOROS DE Ocotea odorifera (Vellozo Rohwer (CANELA-SASSAFRÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Sementes Florestais do Departamento de Ciências Florestais – UFPR, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência das temperaturas de 20, 25 e 30º C e da remoção do envoltório (endocarpo e tegumento na germinação de diásporos de Ocotea odorífera. O material coletado no Município de Fazenda Rio Grande-PR, em um trecho de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Primária Alterada, foi analisado estatisticamente por meio de delineamento inteiramente casualisado. Concluiu-se que os diásporos sem envoltório apresentaram maior velocidade e porcentagem de germinação nas temperaturas de 25 e 30 º C.

  18. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Niogret

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae. The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees.

  19. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D; Schnell, Raymond J; Boza, Edward J; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's) determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees.

  20. DETERMINAÇÃO DA ÉPOCA DE DESBASTE PELA ANÁLISE DENDROCRONOLÓGICA E MORFOMÉTRICA DE Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso EM POVOAMENTO NÃO MANEJADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Taborda dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plantations of Ocotea porosa available for studying are scarce and therefore should be used as a source of information to establish the potential for management of the species in plantations, even if these evaluations were not been held along the stand development. The recovery of the historical growth of these stands to optimize the management plans is possible by dendrochronology and by the analysis of morphometric and dendrometric data. The aim of this study was to use stand analysis tools, combined with the dendrochronological studies, to recover and to systematize the development of unmanaged stands. The study was conducted in an unmanaged stand of Ocotea porosa , with with 44 years of age in Rio Negro, PR state, in a UFPR research station. Growth inferences recovered by dendrochronology and the competition by the application of methodologies such as rate of coverage and crown cover rate showed consistent results in the analysis of population, indicating the need for a first thinning near 12 years old. Due to the small number of sampled trees, the results do not allow any definitive generalization. However, they are consistent to establish an analysis protocol for unmanaged stands of Ocotea porosa or other species.

  1. Chemical Compositions and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf Essential Oils of Four Lauraceae Tree Species from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Palazzo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf essential oils of four members of the Lauraceae Licaria excelsa, Licaria triandra, Perseaschiedeana, and Rhodostemonodaphne kunthiana, from Monteverde, Costa Rica, were obtained byhydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The leaf oil of L. excelsawas dominated by the monoterpenes a-pinene (42.9%, b-pinene (22.0% and myrcene (17.2%, while L.triandra was also rich in pinenes (40.9% and 28.5%, respectively. Persea schiedeana had considerableamounts of the sesquiterpenes d-cadinene (18.5%, a-copaene (15.1%, and (E-caryophyllene (13.3%.Rhodostemonodaphne kunthiana leaf oil had germacrene D (64.4% and bicyclogermacrene (17.6% as themajor components. The leaf essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231and Hs 578T human tumor cells. R. kunthiana leaf oil showed notable activity against MDA-MB-231.

  2. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  3. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  4. Crescimento de canela-lageana, Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart. ex Nees, na Depressão Central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Scheeren Weber

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives the study of the growth in DBH, commercial volume (CV, current annual increment in percentage of the commercial volume (CAI and the determination of the commercial form factor (f for Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart. ex Nees, in the Central Depression of the Rio Grande do Sul State. The growth data were tested with three mathematical equations, for the adjustment of diameter and commercial volume without bark. The quadratic equation resulted as a more efficient model, for the CV and DBH estimate, adjusted in function of the age of the trees. The Backman equation was selected for the CAI and for the f estimate. The values were determined in function of the DBH to facilitate practical application. The commercial form factor varied from 0,40 for a DBH of 5 cm to a maximum value of 0,85 for a DBH from 22 to 32 cm, decreasing up to 0,78 at 51 cm of DBH, between the ages of 10 and 100 years. The average annual increment in percentage of the commercial volume varied from 17,48% for 10 years to 1,33% for 100 years of age. The species presented a good growth potential, that associated with management practices can increase its productivity.

  5. Description of a new species, Setaleyrodes machili Dubey, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Machilus odoratissima Nees (Lauraceae) in Western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anil Kumar

    2017-12-10

    A new species of whitefly, Setaleyrodes machili Dubey sp. nov. found infesting Machilus odoratissima Nees (Lauraceae) is described from Kufri in Himachal Pradesh and Dhanaulti and Nainital in Uttarakhand, India. The diagnostic characteristics of puparia and habitus, are illustrated with line drawings and scanning electron microphotographs. Sexual dimorphism and variation in pigmentation during the transformation of instars are noted. An identification key to puparia of Setaleyrodes species so far described is presented.

  6. Evaluation of the Volatile Oil Composition and Antiproliferative Activity of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae on Breast Cancer Cell Line Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abu-Dahab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oil composition and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae fruits and leaves grown in Jordan were investigated. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of the fruits resulted in the identification of 45 components representing 99.7 % of the total oil content, while the leaf essential oil yielded 37 compounds representing 93.7% of the total oil content. Oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the main component in the fruit and leaf oils. Using sulphorhodamine B assay; the crude ethanol fraction, among other solvent extracts, showed strong antiproliferative activity for both leaves and fruits, nevertheless, the fruits were more potent against both breast cancer cell models (MCF7 and T47D. At IC 50 values ; the mechanism of apoptosis was nevertheless different: where L. nobilis fruit proapoptotic efficacy was not regulated by either p53 or p21, L. nobilis leaf extract components enhanced the p53 levels substantially. In both extracts, apoptosis was not caspase-8 or Fas Ligand and sFas (Fas/APO-1 dependent. Our studies highlight L. nobilis as a potential natural agent for breast cancer therapy. Compared with non induced basal cells, both L. nobilis fruits and leaves induced a significant enrichment in the cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes after assumed induction of programmed MCF7 cell death.

  7. ANÁLISE DENDROECOLÓGICA DE Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart. ex Nees (CANELA LAGEANA NA SERRA GERAL DE SANTA MARIA, RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spathelf

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as relações entre variáveis climáticas e o incremento em diâmetro do tronco de cinco árvores de Ocotea pulchella localizadas às margens de uma barragem no município de Itaára, RS. Os dados de crescimento, em diâmetro, foram obtidos mediante análise de tronco, utilizando-se seções transversais retiradas na altura de 1,3 m (DAP, sendo os incrementos radiais determinados por meio da média de quatro raios, diametralmente, opostos. As seqüências médias dos incrementos foram estandartizadas para salientar a variação a curto prazo. Os dados climáticos são oriundos da estação meteorológica do município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram calculadas grandezas climáticas compostas, como a evapotranspiração e o balanço hídrico, para melhor descrever as condições hídricas de crescimento das árvores. Foram determinados anéis de crescimento característicos e sensitividades das seqüências de crescimento. Possíveis mudanças no estado de competição das árvores e seu efeito no crescimento foram estudados. Além disso, foram relacionados o incremento radial e as variáveis climáticas selecionadas por intermédio de análise de correlação. Não foi possível identificar nenhuma variável climática que, coerentemente, tenha influenciado no incremento durante o período observado. Os resultados mostram que o excesso de água influencia no crescimento diamétrico das árvores.

  8. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as “Medang payung” by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its

  9. Methanol leaf extract of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis (Lauraceae) enhances gastric defense against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanita; Nordin, Noraziah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohd Hashim, Najihah; Mohd Ali, Hapipah

    2017-01-01

    Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), also known as "Medang payung" by the Malay people, belongs to the Lauraceae family. In this study, methanol leaf extract of A. sesquipedalis was investigated for their acute toxicity and gastroprotective effects to reduce ulcers in rat stomachs induced by ethanol. The rats were assigned to one of five groups: normal group (group 1), ulcer group (group 2), control positive drug group (group 3) and two experimental groups treated with 150 mg/kg (group 4) and 300 mg/kg (group 5) of leaf extract. The rats were sacrificed an hour after pretreatment with extracts, and their stomach homogenates and tissues were collected for further evaluation. Macroscopic and histological analyses showed that gastric ulcers in rats pretreated with the extract were significantly reduced to an extent that it allowed leukocytes penetration of the gastric walls compared with the ulcer group. In addition, an ulcer inhibition rate of >70% was detected in rats treated with both doses of A. sesquipedalis extract, showing a notable protection of gastric layer. Severe destruction of gastric mucosa was prevented with a high production of mucus and pH gastric contents in both omeprazole-treated and extract-treated groups. Meanwhile, an increase in glycoprotein uptake was observed in pretreated rats through accumulation of magenta color in Periodic Acid Schiff staining assay. Analysis of gastric homogenate from pretreated rats showed a reduction of malondialdehyde and elevation of nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and protein concentration levels in comparison with group 2. Suppression of apoptosis in gastric tissues by upregulation of Hsp70 protein and downregulation of Bax protein was also observed in rats pretreated with extract. Consistent results of a reduction of gastric ulcer and the protection of gastric wall were obtained for rats pretreated with A. sesquipedalis extract, which showed its prominent

  10. Comparative Chemical Analysis of the Essential Oil Constituents in the Bark, Heartwood and Fruits of Cryptocarya massoy (Oken Kosterm. (Lauraceae from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Leach

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the bark, heartwood and fruits of Cryptocarya massoy (Lauraceae afforded pale yellow-coloured oils in 0.7, 1.2 and 1.0 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical evaluation of these distillates using GC/MS revealed the major components in the bark and the heartwood oils to be the C-10 (5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one and C-12 (5,6-dihydro-6-heptyl-2H-pyran-2-one massoia lactones, while the major fruit oil constituent was benzyl benzoate (68.3 %. The heartwood also contained trace amounts of the C-14 (5,6-dihydro-6-nonyl-2H-pyran-2-one massoia lactone (1.4 % and the saturated C-10 derivative d-decalactone (2.5 %.

  11. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Persea group (Lauraceae) and its biogeographic implications on the evolution of tropical and subtropical Amphi-Pacific disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lang; Li, Jie; Rohwer, Jens G; van der Werff, Henk; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Li, Hsi-Wen

    2011-09-01

    The Persea group (Lauraceae) has a tropical and subtropical amphi-pacific disjunct distribution with most of its members, and it includes two Macaronesian species. The relationships within the group are still controversial, and its intercontinental disjunction has not been investigated with extensive sampling and precise time dating. • ITS and LEAFY intron II sequences of 78 Persea group species and nine other Lauraceae species were analyzed with maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Divergence time estimation employed Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method under a relaxed clock. • Several traditional genera or subgenera within the Persea group form well-supported monophyletic groups except Alseodaphne and Dehaasia. The divergence time of the Persea group is estimated as ∼55.3 (95% higher posterior densities [HPD] 41.4-69.9) million years ago (mya). Two major divergences within the Persea group are estimated as ∼51.9 (95% HPD 38.9-63.9) mya and ∼48.5 (95% HPD 35.9-59.9) mya. • Persea can be retained as a genus by the inclusion of Apollonias barbujana and exclusion a few species that do not fit into the established subgenera. A major revision is recommended for the delimitation between Alseodaphne, Dehaasia, and Nothaphoebe. We suggest that the Persea group originated from the Perseeae-Laureae radiation in early Eocene Laurasia. Its amphi-pacific disjunction results from the disruption of boreotropical flora by climatic cooling during the mid- to late Eocene. The American-Macaronesian disjunction may be explained by the long-distance dispersal.

  12. Estructura poblacional y relaciones ambientales del árbol tropical Nectandra rudis (Lauraceae, una especie rara en el occidente de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cuevas Guzmán

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Nectandra rudis es una especie rara en el occidente de México. Analizamos la población y la comunidad donde se desarrolla, en la Sierra de Manantlan, Jalisco, México. Establecimos cuatro parcelas de 60x48 m con diferencias altitudinales de 100 m entre sí. En cada una seleccionamos aleatoriamente diez círculos de 100 m² cada uno, en los cuales medimos los diámetros normales y las alturas de las especies leñosas con diámetro 2.5 cm. Para cada especie y por parcela determinamos el área basal, la densidad, la frecuencia, la riqueza de especies y los valores de importancia. Establecimos la estructura vertical y diamétrica de N. rudis. Hicimos una ordenación directa con la matriz de especies y las variables edáficas y ambientales. El registro de N. rudis en la Sierra de Manantlán representa el primer registro para el occidente de México y el más septentrional del taxon. La población se estructura en cinco categorías diamétricas y genera una curva en forma de "J" invertida. La riqueza de especies en las parcelas donde se encuentra N. rudis, varía de 27 a 39, y los mayores valores de importancia son para Urera verrucosa, N. rudis y Ficus sp. La ordenación directa permite postular a la presencia de árboles caídos, la cobertura, la profundidad del horizonte superficial y el magnesio soluble, como los factores ambientales de mayor influencia en la distribución y abundancia de N. rudis.Population structure and environmental relationships of the tropical tree Nectandra rudis (Lauraceae, a rare species in western Mexico. The tree N. rudis is a rare species from western Mexico of which community and population features are unknown. We studied a population in an altitudinal gradient, from 550-1 850 m above sea level in the Sierra de Manantlan, Jalisco, Mexico. We established four 60x48 m sample sites at vertical distances of 100 m along this altitudinal gradient. Within each plot, ten 100 m² circular sub-sampling units were randomly

  13. Micropropagation of Ocotea porosa (Nees & Martius) Barroso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... Manual irrigation was ... In vitro establishment. shoots tip (approximately 2 cm in length), ... and the effect of the activated charcoal on the elongation of the ... vessels and planted into plastic tubes (53 cm3) containing the.

  14. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae).; Uso da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60, para controlar a broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) e seus efeitos na qualidade do fruto de Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  15. Short- and long-term modulation of the lutein epoxide and violaxanthin cycles in two species of the Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, R; Jiménez, M S; Morales, D; Jiménez, E T; Hormaetxe, K; Becerril, J M; Osmond, B; García-Plazaola, J I

    2008-05-01

    Short- and long-term responses of the violaxanthin (V) and lutein epoxide (Lx) cycles were studied in two species of Lauraceae: sweet bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and avocado (Persea americana L.). The Lx content exceeded the V content in shade leaves of both species. Both Lx and V were de-epoxidised on illumination, but only V was fully restored by epoxidation in low light. Violaxanthin was preferentially de-epoxidised in low light in L. nobilis. This suggests that Lx accumulates with leaf ageing, partly because its conversion to lutein is limited in shade. After exposure to strong light, shade leaves of avocado readjusted the total pools of alpha- and beta-xanthophyll cycles by de novo synthesis of antheraxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. This occurred in parallel with a sustained depression of F(v)/F(m). In Persea indica, a closely related but low Lx species, F(v)/F(m) recovered faster after a similar light treatment, suggesting the involvement of the Lx cycle in sustained energy dissipation. Furthermore, the seasonal correlation between non-reversible Lx and V photoconversions and pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) in sun leaves of sweet bay supported the conclusion that the Lx cycle is involved in a slowly reversible downregulation of photosynthesis analogous to the V cycle.

  16. Effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ["Avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLCPK1) and distal tubules (MDBK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, M; Kamadyaapa, D R; Tufts, M A; Chuturgoon, A A; Ojewole, J A O; Musabayane, C T

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ("Avocado") have been traditionally used to treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, we studied the hypoglycaemic and renal function effects of P. americana leaf ethanolic extracts (PAE) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance responses to various doses of PAE were monitored in fasted rats following a glucose load. Rats treated with deionized water or standard hypoglycaemic drugs acted as untreated and treated positive controls, respectively. Acute renal effects of PAE were investigated in anesthetized rats challenged with 0.077 M NaCl after a 3.5-h equilibration for 4 h comprising 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. PAE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Hepatic glycogen concentration was measured after 6 weeks of daily treatment with PAE. PAE induced dose-dependent hypoglycaemic responses in STZ-induced diabetic rats while subchronic PAE treatment additionally increased hepatic glycogen concentrations. Acute PAE infusion decreased urine flow and electrolyte excretion rates, whilst subchronic treatment reduced plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. These results indicate not only the basis of the ethnomedicinal use of P. americana leaf extract in diabetes management, but also of need for further studies to identify and evaluate the safety of PAE's bioactive compounds. (c) 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  17. Clasificación de extractos etanólicos de especies de la familia Lauraceae por cromatografía en capa fina bidimensional y análisis estadísticos multivariado CCD-2D/ PCA-cluster

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Delgado; Luis E. Cuca S.

    2016-01-01

    Se caracterizaron los extractos etanólicos de hojas y cortezas de 13 especies de la familia Lauraceae mediante cromatografía en capa fina de dos dimensiones (2D-CCD).  Los datos posteriores se analizaron mediante técnicas de análisis estadístico multivariado (cluster y análisis de componentes principales (PCA)). Lo anterior permitió hacer una distinción entre los extractos obtenidos de diferentes partes de la planta (hojas y cortezas). Se observó, además, que la metodología usada es capaz de ...

  18. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  19. Komponen kimia daun Cinnamomum macrophyllum Miq Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Agusta

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis on the chemical constituents of Cinnnamomum macrophyllum Miq leaves from Halmahera island using combination techniques GCMS was conducted. Total numbers of the constituents which can be detected were 59 consisted of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol derivates, alkanes, oxygenated hydrocarbon, alcohols, aldehydes, caboxilix acid and alkaloid aong with eight unidentified compounds (1-8. Leaves of C. macrophyllum contained bioactive compound such as limonene, isoeugenol, methyleugenon, safrole, vitamin E, furfuraldehyde, 2-furan-carboxaldehyde and 7-methyl xanthine.

  20. Genetic diversity in Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. (Lauraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, unweighed pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis showed up to 89% genetic variation among these accessions, which is further supported by principle co-ordinate analysis (PCA). Key words: Genetic diversity, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, RAPD markers, DNA polymorphism.

  1. Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... a key species in the evolutionary transition from section Camphora to section Cinnamomum. Our results ... hypotheses. Many differing classification schemes were ... growth environment or growth stage of the plant. Furthermore, PCR ..... while C. subavenium flowers in August and September of each year.

  2. Genetic diversity in Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. (Lauraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... The cinnamons of the market are the inner barks ob- ... zeylanicum which is acrid, bitter, sweet and aromatic is reported to ... drinks, tobacco flavors, dental and pharmaceutical prepa- ..... optimizing sampling strategies and for conserving tree ... plants of conservation concern from Deccan Ecoregion of India.

  3. HPLC mapping of second generation ethanol production with lignocelluloses wastes and diluted sulfuric hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo José Horst

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood wastes are potential material for second generation ethanol production within the concept of residual forest bio-refinery. Current paper reports on ethanol production employing an HPLC method for monitoring the chemical content dispersed in the hydrolysate liquor after fermented. The proton-exchange technique was the analytical method employed. Twelve types of wood chips were used as biomass, including Hymenolobium petraeum, Tabebuia cassinoides, Myroxylon peruiferum, Nectandra lanceolata, Ocotea catharinensis, Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Cedrela fissilis Vell, Ocotea porosa, Laurus nobilis, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Pinus Elliotti and Brosimum spp. The influence of diluted sulfuric hydrolysis on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the fermentation assay was also investigated. Standard compounds mapped in the analysis comprised fructose, lactic acid, acetic acid, glycerol, glucose and ethanol. The yeast showed ethanol productivity between 0.75 and 1.91 g L-1 h-1, respectively, without the addition of supplementary nutrients or detoxification. The use of these materials for the bioconversion of cellulose into ethanol has been proved. Current analysis contributes towards the production of biofuels by wastes recovery and by process monitoring and optimization.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Beilschmiedia roxburghiana (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Although there are as many as 250 species in the genus Beilschmiedia, their genetic diversity has been poorly investigated. Our objective was to develop microsatellite markers for B. roxburghiana to study its genetic diversity for the sustainable management of this species. Methods and Results: Using the microsatellite-enriched library and PCR-based screening method, 22 microsatellite markers were developed and 10 showed high polymorphism in a population. The number of alleles per locus for these 10 microsatellites ranged from five to 19. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.298 to 1.000 and from 0.314 to 0.878, respectively. Conclusions: Our results from the 10 highly polymorphic microsatellites indicate that the principal reproductive mode of B. roxburghiana is clonal in the studied population. These microsatellites will facilitate further studies on genetic diversity and structure in B. roxburghiana.

  5. Optimization of controlled pollination in avocado (persea americana Mill., Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Arco, María Librada; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Avocado has a singular synchronous protogynous dichogamy breeding system that promotes outcrossing. In this work different steps have been optimized to improve controlled pollinations in avocado in order to perform basic studies of reproductive biology and directed crosses in breeding programs. The results show that, in order to achieve successful fruit set, male flowers should be collected when all the anthers have dehisced and the pollen transferred by direct contact of the anthers with the...

  6. A importância das plantações de eucalipto na conservação da biodiversidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner de Araujo Gabriel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas a expansão de plantações de Eucalyptus sp. foi notável no Brasil, destacando-se no cenário mundial. Diversos estudos revelam que tais plantações, especialmente aquelas respaldadas por instrumentos de certificação, podem trazer benefícios de cunho social e ambiental. Este trabalho apresenta dados coletados no período de 2002 a 2011 sobre a riqueza de plantas, aves e mamíferos em fazendas de plantação de eucalipto no Brasil. Discute-se sobre a importância dessas fazendas na conservação da biodiversidade, em que já foram registradas diversas espécies de plantas arbustivo-arbóreas, aves e mamíferos de médio e grande porte, respectivamente. Foi registrada a ocorrência de regeneração de plantas ameaçadas de extinção nos talhões de eucalipto: Araucaria angustifolia, Couratari asterotricha, Buchenavia hoehneana, Dalbergia nigra, Ocotea catharinensis e Ocotea porosa. Quanto às espécies da fauna ameaçadas de extinção, a águia-cinzenta (Urubitinga coronata, o chauá (Amazona rhodochorytha, o lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus, o tamanduá (Myrmecophaga tridactyla e a anta (Tapirus terrestris já foram observados. Plantações florestais e fragmentos compostos por vegetação secundária figurarão entre os principais elementos das paisagens tropicais futuras. Desta forma, não se pode negligenciar a contribuição das plantações de eucalipto na conservação da biodiversidade.

  7. Adult nest attendance and diet of nestling Resplendent Quetzals (Pharomachrus mocinno) in the Talamanca Mountains of southern Cosa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Resplendent Quetzals (Pharomachrus mocinno) inhabit mid to high elevation forests from southern Mexico to Panama. Lipid rich fruits from the Lauraceae family have been found to account for a large proportion of adult diet across their annual life cycle. To better understand the relationship between quetzals and Lauraceae during the breeding season, we studied food deliveries to nestlings in the Talamanca Mountains at San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica in the Rio Savegre watershed. Our study had four primary objectives: 1) determine parental contribution of males and females feeding nestling quetzals, 2) determine type of food delivered to nestling quetzals, 3) determine if deliveries of fruit items were related to their abundance and/or nutritional content and 4) determine if Lauraceae fruits made up a large proportion of nestling diets based on the high preference quetzals have displayed for fruits from this plant family. Hourly delivery rates were similar for the male and female (1.24 ± 0.68 and 1.44 ± 0.84). During the first 6 days, the largest proportion of the diet was animal prey; primarily lizards and beetles. After day 6, fruit rapidly became the dominant food item delivered to nestlings until fledging. The dominant number of fruits delivered to nestling quetzals were fruits from the Lauraceae family and included Ocotea holdrigeiana, Necatandra cufodontisii, and Aiouea costaricensis. All three had some of the highest protein and lipid content of all fruits delivered to nestlings. O. holdrigeiana had the highest protein and lipid content of all fruits delivered, had the lowest relative abundance, and was delivered more frequently than all other fruits. Conservation strategies for this species should take into account not just increasing available habitat, but also increasing habitat quality by focusing on species composition to provide abundant food plants for the Resplendent Quetzal to forage.

  8. Trypanocidal activity of Brazilian plants against epimastigote forms from Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tomé Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the main public health problems in Latin America. Since the available treatments for this disease are not effective in providing cure, the screening of potential antiprotozoal agents is essential, mainly of those obtained from natural sources. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of the trypanocidal activity of 92 ethanol extracts from species belonging to the families Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Verbenaceae against the Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Additionally, cytotoxic activity on LLCMK2 fibroblasts was evaluated. Both the trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated using the MTT method, in the following concentrations: 500, 350, 250, and 100 µg/mL. Benznidazole was used for positive control. The best results among the 92 samples evaluated were obtained with ethanol extracts of Ocotea paranapiacabensis (Am93 and Aegiphila lhotzkiana (Am160. Am93 showed trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms of the Bolivia strain and was moderately toxic to LLCMK2 cells, its Selectivity Index (SI being 14.56, while Am160 showed moderate trypanocidal activity against the Bolivia strain and moderate toxicicity, its SI being equal to 1.15. The screening of Brazilian plants has indicated the potential effect of ethanol extracts obtained from Ocotea paranapiacabensis and Aegiphila lhotzkiana against Chagas disease.

  9. Litsea glutinosa (Lauraceae: Evaluation of its Foliar Phytochemical Constituents for Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutyala Naidu LAGUDU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Litsea glutinosa revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile compounds, amino acids and carbohiydrates. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibition concentration values were determined for these phytochemical constituents as crude extracts using the agar well diffusion and two-fold serial dilution methods. The results indicated that Bacillus subtilis was the most susceptible bacterium with high inhibition zones for the methanol and chloroform extracts of 31 mm and 26 mm, respectively. The MIC values indicated that extracts possess good antimicrobial activity with significant MIC value against Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus pneumoniae at 31.2 µg/ml concentrations. The extracts showed marked antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Among the bacterial strains, gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than the gram-negative. All the 13 microorganisms tested showed dose dependent susceptibility towards the phytochemicals present in the foliar extracts. The study suggests that Litsea glutinosa leaves possess potent antimicrobial activity and can be a good source for the development of new antibiotics.

  10. Pondberry (Lindera   melissifolia, Lauraceae) seed and seedling dispersers and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreza M. Martins; Fernanda M. Abilio; Plinio Gonçalves de Oliveira; Raquel Partelli Feltrin; Fernanda Scheffer Alves de Lima; Priscilla de O. Antonelli; Daniela Teixeira Vilela; Carl G. Smith III; Collin Tidwell; Paul Hamel; Margaret Devall; Kristina Connor; Theodor Leininger; Nathan Schiff; A. Dan Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia(Walter) Blume) is an endangered dioecious, clonal shrub that grows in periodically flooded forests of the southeastern United States. The probability of survival of dispersed pondberry seeds and new germinants is unknown, but few seedlings are noted in the forest. This study was undertaken to: (1) identify herbivores...

  11. Isolation and characterization of 20 microsatellite loci for laurel species (Laurus, Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Juan M; Rigueiro, Cristina; Rodríguez, Rocío; Hampe, Arndt; Valido, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; Jordano, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for the evergreen tree Laurus to investigate population genetic structure and patterns of gene flow via animal-dispersed pollen and seeds. Twenty polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers were developed using CA, GA, AAC, and ATG n-enriched genomic libraries. Given the tetraploidy of the sampled populations, we analyzed our data both as dominant loci and as codominant genotypic data to calculate allele frequencies and genetic diversity. A total of 196 and 222 alleles were found in 37 Mediterranean (L. nobilis) and 26 Macaronesian islands (L. azorica) individuals, respectively. Levels of polymorphism of the reported markers are adequate for studies of diversity and parentage in natural populations of this Tertiary relict tree.

  12. Revision of the Lauraceae V. A monograph of the genera: Anaueria, Beilschmiedia (American species) and Aniba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1938-01-01

    Anaueria Kosterm. in Chronica Botanica IV, 1 (1938), p. 14. Arbores brasilienses foliis sub-oppositis. Flores hermaphroditi ex-involucrati paniculati; tepalis sex tribus exterioribus minoribus. Stamina novem quorum sex exteriora fertilia filamentis in annulum ovarium cingentem connatis antheris

  13. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F., E-mail: valdirveiga@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 {mu}g/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  14. Persea schiedeana (Lauraceae), nuevo hospedero de Heilipus lauri Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda-Vildózola, Alvaro; Del Ángel-Coronel, Oscar A; Cruz-Castillo, Juan G; Váldez-Carrasco, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Se reporta por primera vez la presencia del Molytinae Heilipus lauri Boheman atacando frutos de Persea schiedeana, comúnmente conocidos como "chinene" in Hustusco y Zongolica, Veracruz, México. The presence of the Molytinae Heilipus lauri Boheman is reported for the first time attacking fruits of Persea schiedeana, commonly called "chinene" in Huatusco and Zongolica, state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  15. [Persea schiedeana (Lauraceae), a new host of Heilipus lauri Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Vildózola, Alvaro; Del Angel-Coronel, Oscar A; Cruz-Castillo, Juan G; Váldez-Carrasco, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The presence of the Molytinae Heilipus lauri Boheman is reported for the first time attacking fruits of Persea schiedeana, commonly called 'chinene' in Huatusco and Zongolica, state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  16. Biological activities of essential oils of Endlicheria citriodora, a methyl geranate-rich lauraceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Klenicy K.L.; Veiga-Junior, Valdir F.; Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho de; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils of branches and leaves of Endlicheria citiodora were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using GC-FID, GC-MS and both NMR 13 C and 1 H, resulting in the identification of methyl geranate as major constituent (93%) in both oils. Cytotoxicity, tyrosinase-inhibition and antioxidant activities were studied and characterized. High antioxidant potential (15.52 and 13.53 μg/mL), low cytotoxicity and tyrosinase inhibition (53.85%) were observed. This is the first paper reporting the biological activities and composition of the essential oils of this species. (author)

  17. Essential oils of Persea povedae W.C. Burguer (Lauraceae) of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Lorena; Ciccio, Jose F.; Chaverri, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The tree Persea povedae W. C. Burguer, grows in wild form in Costa Rica. The analyses to determine the composition of the essential oils that are extracted from the branches and leaves of the tree were effected by means of gas chromatography technique in capillary column, using Flame Ionization Detector (FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Hundred and ten (110) compounds were identified. The major constituents of the branches are: α-pinene (7,7%), linalool (7,6%), espathulenol (5,1%), α-copaene (4,8), dodecanal (4,4%), Ε-9-dodecenal (4,1%), β -pinene (3,2%), γ-muurolene (3,1%) and α-cadinene (3,0%). The main constituents of the leaves are: Ε-nerolidol (14,6%), pentadecanoic acid (ca. 14%), longipinanol (5,1%), linalool (4,5%), γ-muurolene (3,8%) y espathulenol (3,8%). (author) [es

  18. Studies in South American Malpighiaceae, Lauraceae and Hernandiaceae, especially of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostermans, A.J.G.H.

    1936-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out in the “Botanisch Museum en Herbarium” of the University of Utrecht. I wish to render to Dr. A. Pulle, the Director of the Institute, my most sincere thanks for the facilities afforded to me and for the interest in the progress of this work. I am also

  19. Approaches to control diseases vectored by ambrosia beetles in avocado and other American Lauraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive ambrosia beetles and the plant pathogenic fungi they vector represent a significant challenge to North American agriculture, native and landscape trees. Ambrosia beetles encompass a range of insect species and they vector a diverse set of plant pathogenic fungi. Our lab has taken several bi...

  20. Transcriptional signatures of ancient floral developmental genetics in avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanderbali, André S; Albert, Victor A; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2009-06-02

    The debate on the origin and evolution of flowers has recently entered the field of developmental genetics, with focus on the design of the ancestral floral regulatory program. Flowers can differ dramatically among angiosperm lineages, but in general, male and female reproductive organs surrounded by a sterile perianth of sepals and petals constitute the basic floral structure. However, the basal angiosperm lineages exhibit spectacular diversity in the number, arrangement, and structure of floral organs, whereas the evolutionarily derived monocot and eudicot lineages share a far more uniform floral ground plan. Here we show that broadly overlapping transcriptional programs characterize the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm Persea americana (avocado), whereas floral gene expression domains are considerably more organ specific in the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Our findings therefore support the "fading borders" model for organ identity determination in basal angiosperm flowers and extend it from the action of regulatory genes to downstream transcriptional programs. Furthermore, the declining expression of components of the staminal transcriptome in central and peripheral regions of Persea flowers concurs with elements of a previous hypothesis for developmental regulation in a gymnosperm "floral progenitor." Accordingly, in contrast to the canalized organ-specific regulatory apparatus of Arabidopsis, floral development may have been originally regulated by overlapping transcriptional cascades with fading gradients of influence from focal to bordering organs.

  1. Physicochemical parameters of avocado Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass (Lauraceae grown in Antioquia (Colombia for export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodriguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hass avocado is transported maintaining an unbroken cold chain and in the destination market, it is ripened under controlled conditions. Fruit quality depends on preharvest, factors, harvest time and postharvest treatments. Colombia has poor information on quality parameters despite the current growing and fruit export boom. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine some important fruit quality parameters. For that, Hass avocado fruits were harvested considering three maturity indexes form exporting orchards in Antioquia, where fruits were stored and ripened. Temperature, relative humidity and shipment times to the European market were simulated. Dry matter content was used as harvest index. Soluble solids, pH, and titratable acidity were analyzed as quality parameters. Fruit origin, harvest index and storage time had a significant effect on quality parameters of avocado (p≤0.05. There was an increase in Brix degrees (5.07 to 7.26 and pH (6.58 to 7.14 throughout the storage time until the fourth week, where these decreased. In contrast, acidity dropped (19.47 to 9.24% with storage time. These quality parameters can be considered quality indicators; however, more studies are required.

  2. Physicochemical parameters of avocado Persea americana Mill. cv. Hass (Lauraceae) grown in Antioquia (Colombia) for export

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Rodriguez; Camilo Astudillo

    2018-01-01

    Hass avocado is transported maintaining an unbroken cold chain and in the destination market, it is ripened under controlled conditions. Fruit quality depends on preharvest, factors, harvest time and postharvest treatments. Colombia has poor information on quality parameters despite the current growing and fruit export boom. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine some important fruit quality parameters. For that, Hass avocado fruits were harvested considering three maturity indexes...

  3. DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araujo, Angela Regina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Silva, Marcelo Rogerio da

    2004-01-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactive iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-Δ 8' -3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neolignan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time. (author)

  4. Avaliação da atividade antibiótica de extratos de lauraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Rita de C. S. B. C.; Giesbrecht, Astréa M.; Barbosa Filho, José M.; Yoshida, Massayoshi; Gottlieb, Otto R.

    1988-01-01

    Os extratos hexânicas, clarofórmicos e hidroalcoólicos da cálices e dos frutos de quatro espécies de lauráceaes da Amazônia, Licaria armeniaca, Licaria chrysophylla, Aniba riparia e Aniba sp (No provisório 62), foram avaliados quanto à sua atividade antibiótica. Para os ensaios foram utilizadas bactérias Gram-Positivas, bactérias Gram-negativas e leveduras. Os extratos hexânicos e clorofórmicos das duas espécies de Aniba mostraram atividade contra diversos microorganismos. Hexane, chlorofo...

  5. Floristica da restinga de Camburi, Vitória, ES The flora of Camburi restinga, Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberdan José Pereira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento florístico e classificação da vegetação de restinga em Camburi, Vitória, ES. Foram realizadas coletas mensais na área de estudo, que totalizaram 211 espécies distribuídas em 70 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 e Lauraceae (7 as mais importantes quanto ao número de espécies. A região apresenta remanescentes das comunidades mata seca, aberta de Ericaceae e brejo herbáceo, além de áreas degradadas com espécies pioneiras. A maioria das espécies possui ampla distribuição pela costa brasileira, no entanto, outros padrões foram encontrados. Erythroxylum tênue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia plantaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade e Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. são citadas pela primeira vez para as restingas do Espírito Santo.The flora of the Camburi restinga in the municipality of Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, was surveyed and vegetation types were classified. Monthly visits to the area resulted in a list of 211 species from 70 plant families of which the most important, according to species richness, were Fabaceae (19, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 and Lauraceae (7. This coastal plain still supports remnant patches of dry restinga forest, open Ericaceae scrub and sedge marsh, as well as disturbed areas dominated by pioneer species. Most of the species are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast other patterns, however, being found. Erythmxylum tenue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia pilntaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade and Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. are reported for the first time in the restingas of Espírito Santo.

  6. Structure and floristic composition of five caiva area in north plateau of Santa Catarina State, Brazil Estrutura e composição florística de cinco áreas de caíva no planalto norte de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Hanisch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Caivas are remnants areas of Mixed Ombrophylous Forest, whose inferior stratum is composed of native pastures used for animal consume. The aim of this work was to evaluate the structure and floristic  composition of five caivas areas. Plots of one hectare were used. Every individual with DBH ≥ 5 cm were measured and identified. The parameters of density, frequency, dominance, Importance Value (IV were calculated. These results showed 24 families and 52 species. The families with the higher number of species were Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Aquifoliaceae and Sapindaceae and with the higher number of individuals were Myrtaceae, Araucariaceae, Aquifoliaceae and Lauraceae. The Shannon diversity index value showed high floristic diversity in the caivas and the Sorensen index showed floristic similarity among the five caivas areas. Araucaria angustifolia, Myrcia sp. Ocotea porosa, Cinnamodendron dinisii and Ilex paraguariensis were the five most important species based on Importance Value. The results confirmed that the caivas areas represent an important reservoir of native tree species, although they were being management for a long time.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.64.303

    Caívas são remanescentes de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, com diferentes densidades arbóreas, cujo estrato herbáceo é formado por pastagens nativas ou  naturalizadas utilizadas para pastejo animal. Este trabalho avaliou a composição florística e a estrutura arbórea de cinco caívas bem estabelecidas. Foram utilizadas parcelas de um hectare em cada caíva, onde foram medidos e identificados todos os indivíduos com DAP ≥ 5 cm e calculados os parâmetros fitossociológicos de densidade, frequência, dominância e valor de importância. Verificou-se a ocorrência de 24 famílias e 52 espécies. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, Aquifoliaceae e Sapindaceae; e as famílias com maior n

  7. Caracterización florística de ambientes de la cuenca baja del Río Cucurital, afluente del Río Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Guayana Venezolana Floristic charaterization of enviroments of the lower Cucurital river basin, affluent of Caroní river, Bolívar State, Venezuelan Guayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyda Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Como una contribución al conocimiento florístico de la cuenca del Río Caroní se realizaron colecciones botánicas en varios ambientes de la cuenca baja del Río Cucurital, que incluyen formaciones boscosas, tanto en penillanura como ribereñas, morichales, sabanas, arbustales y ambientes perturbados; en los bosques se hicieron colecciones en parcelas de 0,1 ha y fuera de ellas. De manera general, las familias con mayor cantidad de especies fueron Melastomataceae (46, Rubiaceae (33, Euphorbiaceae (23, Cyperaceae (19, Myrtaceae (18, Fabaceae (18, Clusiaceae (15, Arecaceae (15, Caesalpiniaceae (14, Chrysobalanaceae (14, Lauraceae (14, Poaceae (13 y Burseraceae (12, siendo las más representativas de la cuenca baja. Los géneros con mayor cantidad de especies fueron Miconia (17, Psychotria (13, Ocotea (10, Myrcia (8, Protium (7, Licania (7 y Rhynchospora (7. Melastomataceae y Rubiaceae predominaron en todos los ambientes con excepción de la sabana; Lauraceae, Burseraceae, Arecaceae, Chrysobalanaceae y Euphorbiaceae fueron las de mayor importancia en los bosques, y Myrtaceae y Cyperaceae en los bosques ribereños, esta última junto con las Poaceae predominaron en morichal y sabana. Se encontraron 19 especies restringidas a la Guayana venezolana, de las cuales 12 se conocen sólo del estado Bolívar, evidenciando que las condiciones ecológicas, topográficas y edáficas determinan la presencia de elementos florísticos particulares. Las actividades humanas son escasas, lo que se ha reflejado en poca alteración de las comunidades vegetales y en el mantenimiento del carácter prístino de los ambientes. Los escasos ambientes intervenidos han sido colonizados por especies herbáceas y arbustivas típicas de la región.As a contribution to the floristic knowledge of the Caroní river basin, botanical collections were made in several environments of the lower Cucurital river basin, including forests, riverine forests, palm swamp forests (morichal

  8. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolson, Mônica; Smidt, Eric de Camargo; Brotto, Marcelo Leandro; Silva-Pereira, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL) and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL). The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  9. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Bolson

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL. The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  10. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification and their market value and price evolution since the colonization time of the remnants of the Brazilian Semi-Evergreen Forest (Floresta Estacional Decidual do Rio Uruguai for potential timber production was assessed through 41 questionnaires, applied to timbermen and settlers from the surrounding region. The diversity of species for timber production commonly known by the people reached 63. From the 15 predominant species is relevant to mention Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana and Peltophorum dubium. The species with the highest commercial value were: Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Data from the interviews suggest that several species from the Lauraceae family and Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum had an increment in use and commercial value during the last 15 years. Changing in the commercial value of a species was pointed out as due not only to the timber quality but also to the amount of the timber availability. Overall, it was detected that the species values changed across time and that the timber industry found several ways to adapt to the demands of forest products.

  11. Genetic diversity in rosewood saplings (Aniba rosaeodora ducke, Lauraceae: an ecological approach Diversidade genética em plantas jovens de Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae: uma abordagem ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pereira Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an ecological approach to the genetic diversity of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke in a central Amazonian terra firme forest north of Manaus. Planted Rosewood setting, under partial shaded canopy, were assessed in terms of fruiting production, frugivory, and seed dispersal. Using RAPD molecular analysis procedures, the influence of the spatial distribution of adult trees on the genetic diversity (polymorphism of saplings was assessed with genetic samples from 34 reproductive trees and 60 saplings. The density and distribution patterns the reproductive trees did not modify the sapling"s diversity (1.86%, AMOVA. Two types of adult tree dispersion were identified; i clumped and ii more widely dispersed. Polymorphism (77.5% and gene flow were high between these. Although more sapling genetic variability in areas with a higher density of mature plants was not as high as expected, density did not affect the genetic diversity of samplings, indicating a high incidence of gene flow amongst trees. In planted Rosewood population (surrounded by low disturbed forest, fruiting trees experienced a high level of removal of seeds by toucans (Rhamphastidae, about of 50%. The high gene flow found among native trees suggested that toucans, promoting seed rain at short and long distances from maternal trees, actively contribute to the maintenance of genetic diversity within wild rosewood populations.Dados genéticos e ecológicos foram obtidos do Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke em uma floresta de terra firme localizada ao norte de Manaus. Em um sistema de plantio composto de plantas sob sombreamento parcial, foram analisados dados de frugivoria, produção de frutos e dispersão. Numa população natural, com 34 plantas adultas e 60 jovens, foi analisada a influência da distribuição espacial das plantas adultas na diversidade genética (polimorfismo das jovens utilizando o marcador molecular RAPD. O modelo de distribuição e densidade das plantas adultas não alterou a diversidade genética da progênie (1,86%; AMOVA. Tanto o polimorfismo (77,5% quanto o fluxo gênico entre os dois subgrupos de plantas (dispersas e agrupadas foram altos. Embora se esperasse que a diversidade genética fosse maior na progênie oriunda do grupo com maior densidade de plantas, isso não foi observado, indicando um alto fluxo gênico entre as adultas. No plantio, as árvores com frutos tiveram uma alta taxa de remoção de sementes por tucanos (Rhamphastidae, em torno de 50%. Estes resultados indicam que estes pássaros também têm um papel fundamental na dispersão de sementes em população naturais. De fato o alto fluxo gênico encontrado entre as plantas adultas em populações naturais sugere que estes animais promovem chuva de sementes a curtas e longas distâncias entre árvores reprodutivas, o que contribui com a manutenção da diversidade genética da população.

  12. Seed predation by mammals in forest fragments in Monteverde, Costa Rica

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    Federico A Chinchilla

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae, Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha. However the smaller fragment (20 ha, had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 865-877. Epub 2009 September 30.Pocos estudios han evaluado la depredación de semillas en ambientes fragmentados, en éstos la menor diversidad de especies debe estar modificando las interacciones ecológicas. Se investigó la remoción de semillas por mamíferos en un bosque continuo y dos fragmentos en Monteverde

  13. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C; Teixeira, B; Batista, I; Matos, O; Serrano, C; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Nunes, M L; Marques, A

    2012-01-01

    Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay laurel EO were eucalyptol (27.2%), α-terpinenyl acetate (10.2%), linalool (8.4%), methyleugenol (5.4%), sabinene (4.0%) and carvacrol (3.2%). The EO exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested foodborne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, whereas this activity was less pronounced or even nonexistent in the EE and AE. In contrast, EO exhibited low antioxidant activity compared to extracts (EX), and among the EX, the hot AE revealed the highest antioxidant ability. The results show that bay laurel EO and its EX have potential as natural alternatives to synthetic food preservatives, in order to enhance food safety and increase food shelf life.

  14. BIOLOGÍA DE OLIGONYCHUS YOTHERSI (MCGREGOR (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE SOBRE AGUACATE PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. CV. LORENA (LAURACEAE

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    Reyes Julian C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biología del ácaro rojo Oligonychus yothersi en condiciones controladas(26 ± 3°C 56 ± 3% HR, sobre hojas maduras de aguacate, Persea americana Mill. cv.Lorena. Las observaciones se realizaron durante una generación del ácaro. La duraciónde todos los estados, a excepción del adulto, fueron los siguientes: huevo 119.06 horas±13.77 (4.96 días; larva 54.09 horas ± 18.48 (2.25 días, protocrisálida 18.22 ± 9.53(0.76 días, protoninfa 50.62 horas ± 13.29 (2.11 días, deutocrisalida 21.66 horas ±7.78 (0.90 días, deutoninfa 62.54 horas ± 12.85 (2.61 días y teliocrisalida 30.79 horas± 13.28 (1.28 días. La duración total de huevo a emergencia de adulto fue estimadaen 344.21 horas (14.34 días. La relación de sexos encontrada fue de 4.8 hembras: 1macho. Los parámetros poblacionales, i.e., longevidad, fecundidad, tasa intrínsecade crecimiento (r m , tiempo de duplicación y tiempo generacional, sugieren un altopotencial reproductivo y de desarrollo del ácaro sobre aguacate cv. Lorena.

  15. The effect of highly variable topography on the spatial distribution of Aniba perutilis (Lauraceae in the Colombian Andes

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    José C. Fagua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Topography is a factor that can significantly affect the diversity and the distribution of trees species in tropical forests. Aniba perutilis, a timber species listed as vulnerable to extinction, is widely distributed in Andean forest fragments, especially in those with highly variable topography. Based on field surveys and logistic regression analyses, we studied the population structure and the effect of highly variable topography on the spatial distribution of this tree in three protected forest fragments in the central Andes of Colombia. Individuals of A. perutilis were mainly found on mountain ridges and hills with gentle slopes; no individuals were found in valleys. Using a species distribution model with presence/absence data, we showed that the available habitat for A. perutilis is significantly smaller than the extension of the fragments and much smaller than the extension of the currently protected areas. Our results have important implications for the conservation of A. perutilis and likely for other threatened Andean tree species, which can also have locally restricted distributions due to highly variable local topography.

  16. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Kendra; Wayne S. Montgomery; Jerome Niogret; Grechen E. Pruett; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Mark A. Deyrup; Gary R. Bauchan; Randy C. Ploetz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has...

  18. The effect of highly variable topography on the spatial distribution of Aniba perutilis (Lauraceae in the Colombian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Fagua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Topography is a factor that can significantly affect the diversity and the distribution of trees species in tropical forests. Aniba perutilis, a timber species listed as vulnerable to extinction, is widely distributed in Andean forest fragments, especially in those with highly variable topography. Based on field surveys and logistic regression analyses, we studied the population structure and the effect of highly variable topography on the spatial distribution of this tree in three protected forest fragments in the central Andes of Colombia. Individuals of A. perutilis were mainly found on mountain ridges and hills with gentle slopes; no individuals were found in valleys. Using a species distribution model with presence/absence data, we showed that the available habitat for A. perutilis is significantly smaller than the extension of the fragments and much smaller than the extension of the currently protected areas. Our results have important implications for the conservation of A. perutilis and likely for other threatened Andean tree species, which can also have locally restricted distributions due to highly variable local topography.La topografía es un factor que puede afectar considerablemente la diversidad y la distribución de las especies de árboles tropicales. Aniba perutilis, una especie de árbol maderable vulnerable a la extinción, está ampliamente distribuida en fragmentos de bosques andinos, especialmente en aquellos con topografía altamente variable. A partir de trabajo de campo y análisis de regresión logística, estudiamos la estructura de la población y los efectos de la topografía sobre la distribución espacial de este árbol en tres fragmentos de bosque en la cordillera central de Colombia que actualmente se encuentran protegidos. Los individuos de A. perutilis se encontraron principalmente en los filos de montaña y colinas con gradientes topográficos suaves; no se encontraron individuos en los valles. A partir de un modelo de distribución de especies usando datos de presencia/ausencia, mostramos que el hábitat disponible para A. perutilis es considerablemente más pequeño que la extensión de los fragmentos y mucho más reducido que la extensión actual de las áreas protegidas. Nuestros resultados tienen implicaciones importantes para la conservación de A. perutilis y probablemente otras especies de árboles andinos amenazados, los cuales pueden estar restringidos de forma similar debido a la variabilidad topográfica local.

  19. North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid Emissions, Relative Attraction and Boring Preferences of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kendra, Paul E.; Montgomery, Wayne S.; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ploetz, Randy C.; Epsky, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are mem...

  20. Hepatoprotective properties of aqueous leaf extract of Persea Americana, Mill (Lauraceae) 'avocado' against CCL4-induced damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Bartholomew I C; Adisa, Rahmat A; Odetola, Adebimpe A

    2014-01-01

    Natural products from plants have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidants and hepatoprotective activities. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Persea americana (AEPA) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats was investigated. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 and olive oil [3 ml/kg, subcutaneously (sc)] after pre-treatment for 7 days with AEPA. Hepatoprotective effects of AEPA was evaluated by estimating the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total bilirubin (TBL). The effects of AEPA on biomarkers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) and antioxidant enzymes namely, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured in liver post mitochondrial fraction. AEPA and Reducdyn® showed significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotective activity by decreasing the activities of ALT, AST, ALP and reducing the levels of TBL. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls were also decreased dose-dependently in the AEPA-treated rats. Pre-treatment with AEPA also decreased the serum levels of glutathione significantly. These data revealed that AEPA possesses significant hepatoprotective effects against CCl4-induced toxicity attributable to its constituent phytochemicals. The mechanism of hepatoprotection seems to be through modulation of antioxidant enzyme system.

  1. Integrating gene flow, crop biology, and farm management in on-farm conservation of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Kenneth; Desalle, Rob; Peters, Charles M; Benfey, Philip N

    2003-11-01

    Maintaining crop diversity on farms where cultivars can evolve is a conservation goal, but few tools are available to assess the long-term maintenance of genetic diversity on farms. One important issue for on-farm conservation is gene flow from crops with a narrow genetic base into related populations that are genetically diverse. In a case study of avocado (Persea americana var. americana) in one of its centers of diversity (San Jerónimo, Costa Rica), we used 10 DNA microsatellite markers in a parentage analysis to estimate gene flow from commercialized varieties into a traditional crop population. Five commercialized genotypes comprised nearly 40% of orchard trees, but they contributed only about 14.5% of the gametes to the youngest cohort of trees. Although commercialized varieties and the diverse population were often planted on the same farm, planting patterns appeared to keep the two types of trees separated on small scales, possibly explaining the limited gene flow. In a simulation that combined gene flow estimates, crop biology, and graft tree management, loss of allelic diversity was less than 10% over 150 yr, and selection was effective in retaining desirable alleles in the diverse subpopulation. Simulations also showed that, in addition to gene flow, managing the genetic makeup and life history traits of the invasive commercialized varieties could have a significant impact on genetic diversity in the target population. The results support the feasibility of on-farm crop conservation, but simulations also showed that higher levels of gene flow could lead to severe losses of genetic diversity even if farmers continue to plant diverse varieties.

  2. Incremento anual do Pau-rosa (Aniba duckei Kostermans) Lauraceae, em floresta tropical úmida primária. ()

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar, Jurandyr da Cruz; Araujo, Vivaldo Campbell de

    1981-01-01

    Resumo Os autores analisam o incremento periódico anual do diâmetro (D.A.P.) de vinte árvores de "Pau-rosa" (Aniba duckei Kostermans) durante o período de 12,5 anos em floresta tropical primária na Reserva Ducke, na Amazônia Central. O incremento periódico anual variou de 0,16 cm a 0.74 cm/ano sendo a média 0.38 cm/ano. O incremento periódico médio, para as árvores tomadas em conjunto, cresce a partir de janeiro, época de chuvas, atinge o máximo em julho e decresce durante a estação seca. Tes...

  3. ombrófila mista montana no período entre 1979 e 2000

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    Luciano Budant Schaaf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The floristic and structure alterations were studied in an Ombrophyllous Mixed Forest located in São João do Triunfo (Paraná State - Brazil. Nine plots of 1ha, first evaluated in 1979, were recovered and, measured in 2000. In 1979, all the trees with dbh ≥ 20 cm were identified and tagged, and they had their commercial height and diameter measured. In 2000, based on the same criteria described before, the trees which had not been counted in 1979 were considered as ingrowth, and the missing ones were considered mortality. In 1979, 2133 individuals, 51 species and 29 families were found and in the 2000 survey, 2202 individuals, 55 species and 31 families ware journal. In both surveys, the families Araucariaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae and Canellaceae were the most represented in terms of quantity of individuals. Although in both times more than 50 species were counted, in 1979 only 7 species (Araucaria angustifolia, Ilex dumosa, Matayba elaeagnoides, Ocotea porous, Capsicodendron dinisii, Nectandra grandiflora and Campomanesia xanthocarpa represented 80.4% of the individuals and, in 2000, the same 7 species plus Ocotea corymbosa covered 80.9% of the total number of individuals. Hovenia dulcis, exotic specie, based on the number of adult and regeneration individuals, became to be seen as a threat to the autocnons species. All the structural indicators which were analyzed showed that the community has become more mature during the studied period and that the Araucaria angustifolia increased its dominance. There was a sensible increase of the occupancy grade, indicated by the absolutely dominance that changes from 23.52 m2/ha in 1979, to 28.53 m2/ha, in 2000, an increase of 21.3%. These results indicate that this community is still in development, and has not yet found its equilibrium. It also demonstrates that the Araucaria dominance increased in this period, suggesting that this profile can even increase future in the

  4. Germinação in vitro de eixos embrionários zigóticos de imbuia (ocotea porosa (NEES EX MARTIUS Liberato Barroso In vitro germination of zygotic embryonic axes of imbuia (Ocotea porosa (NEES EX MARTIUS liberato barroso

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    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A imbuia apresenta sementes recalcitrantes, com forte dormência tegumentar, irregularidade e baixa germinação, dificultando sua propagação natural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação in vitro de eixos embrionários de imbuia, testando o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sacarose, de carvão ativado e de formulações salinas para acelerar a produção de mudas. Eixos embrionários zigóticos foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS/2 contendo diferentes concentrações de sacarose (15, 30, 60 ou 90 g L-1, de carvão ativado (0, 1, 2 ou 3 g L-1 e diferentes formulações salinas (MS, WPM, MS/2 ou WPM/2. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de 15 g L-1 de sacarose foi insuficiente para promover a germinação dos eixos embrionários e as demais concentrações promoveram entre 45,5 e 59,4% de germinação. Com relação às formulações salinas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os meios de cultura MS e MS/2 obtendo-se 67,7 e 74,2% de germinação, respectivamente. A adição de carvão ativado favoreceu a germinação in vitro dos eixos embrionários, enquanto que na ausência de carvão ativado não ocorreu germinação e houve elevada porcentagem de oxidação. A germinação in vitro de imbuia é viável e pode ser obtida com eixos embrionários zigóticos maduros com a formulação salina MS/2, suplementada com 30 g L-1 de sacarose e 1g L-1 de carvão ativado.Imbuia has recalcitrant seeds with strong tegumental dormancy, irregular and low germination, which impair natural propagation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro germination of imbuia embryonic axes by testing the effect of different concentrations of sucrose, activated charcoal and salt formulations in order to accelerate the production of plants. Zygotic embryonic axes were inoculated in MS/2 culture medium with different concentrations of sucrose (15, 30, 60 or 90 g L-1, of activated charcoal (0, 1, 2 or 3 gL-1 and in different salt formulations (MS, WPM, MS/2 or WPM/2. The results indicated that the addition of 15 g L-1 sucrose was not enough to promote germination of embryonic axes and the other concentrations promoted between 45.5 and 59.4% germination. The best results were observed with MS and MS/2 salt formulations obtained 67.7 and 74.2% of germination respectively. The addition of activated charcoal to the media favored the in vitro germination of zygotic embryonic axes, while oxidation of the embryo tissues occurred in media without activated charcoal and germination did not happen. The in vitro germination of imbuia can be achieved with the MS/2 salt formulation supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and 1 g L-1 of activated charcoal.

  5. SIDOL – Sistema de Identificação Dendrológica On-line / SIDOL - On-line Dendrologic Identification System

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    Daniel Saueressig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoApresenta-se um sistema informatizado, com uso via Internet, objetivando facilitar e agilizar o processo de identificação das espécies arbóreas e principais arbustos encontrados no Campus Universitário de Irati (UNICENTRO, que tem como base a combinação de características macromorfológicas informadas pelo usuário. O sistema de consulta, apresentado em modo formulário, é dinâmico. Os passos do usuário são guiados e as ações informadas, facilitando o entendimento e a interação com o sistema. Após a entrada das informações, o sistema consulta as tabelas do banco de dados em busca de resultados. Os resultados da busca, caso haja registro, são exibidas ao usuário, que não precisa ter conhecimento técnico para operar o sistema. Associado à criação do sistema foi realizado o estudo florístico do Campus, que mostrou a presença de 127 espécies pertencentes a 92 gêneros e 46 famílias. As famílias Myrtaceae (19 espécies, Fabaceae (15, Lauraceae (9, Asteraceae (7, Salicaceae (6 e Aquifoliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rosaceae e Solanaceae (5, apresentaram uma maior riqueza florística e juntas representam 59,84% das espécies catalogadas. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Ilex (5 espécies, Eugenia e Casearia (4 e Cinnamomum, Zanthoxylum, Ocotea e Myrcia (3.AbstractA virtual system supported by Internet is presented in order to facilitate and accelerate identification of trees and shrubs growing at the University Campus in Irati, Paraná State, Brazil (UNICENTRO - Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. The system key is the combination of macromorphological characteristics informed by the user. The search system is dynamic and is presented in a chart format. User steps are guided and actions are informed in order to facilitate understanding and interaction with the system. After the information input, the system searches results in the data bank. When the input matches an existing record, the system displays the stored

  6. Diversidade arbórea das florestas alto montanas no Sul da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil Tree diversity of high montane forests in Southern Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

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    Francisco Haroldo Feitosa do Nascimento

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A região do extremo Sul da Chapada Diamantina abriga as maiores altitudes do Nordeste brasileiro. Situam-se nessas serras as maiores elevações da região Nordeste, entre elas, o Pico do Barbado (2.033 m.s.n.m.. Dois dos rios mais importantes da Bahia nascem nestas serras: o Rio de Contas e o Rio Paramirim. A região é bem conhecida botanicamente, porém, este foi o primeiro inventário quantitativo realizado enfocando as formações florestais. Comparou-se a composição florística de 12 fragmentos de floresta montana, entre 1.350 e 1.750 m.s.n.m., tendo sido amostrados os indivíduos com PAP> 8 cm. Registrou-se a presença de 116 espécies em 84 gêneros de 48 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae (N=20 e Lauraceae (N=10. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Ocotea (N=7, Myrcia (N=5, Eugenia (N=4 e Miconia (N=4. A maioria das espécies apresentou padrão de distribuição amplo, mas foram encontradas espécies comuns a formações florestais de altitude do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil, como Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae e Weinmannia paulliniifolia Pohl (Cunnoniacae. A flora dos fragmentos estudados compartilha baixo número de espécies com as formações estacionais deciduais do entorno da Chapada Diamantina, indicando que estas florestas são únicas e merecem atenção especial, para sua conservação.The southernmost region of Chapada Diamantina, nearest to Rio de Contas harbours the highest peaks of the Brazilian northeastern region, including Pico do Barbado (2,033 m.a.s.l. and the source of the two important rivers in Bahia state (Rio de Contas and Rio Paramirim. The region is well known botanically. This was the first quantitative study to survey the floristic composition of 12 fragments of montane forests (1,350 m.a.s.l. to 1750 m.a.s.l. including trees > 8 cbh. A total of 117 species, 84 genera and 48 families were found. The richest families were Myrtaceae (N=20 and Lauraceae (N

  7. Composição florística e a conservação de floresta secundárias na serra da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic composition and conservation of old secondary Forest in the serra Cantareira in São Paulo, South-Eastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Alexandre Roccia Dal Pozzo ARZOLLA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Florestas secundárias estão seriamente ameaçadas pela expansão urbana na região metropolitana. Alguns remanescentes são protegidos, principalmente em parques estaduais e municipais, mas a maioria dessas florestas está sob risco de supressão pela contínua expansão de áreas urbanas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a composição florística do componente arbóreo de trecho de floresta, em estágio médio a avançado de regeneração no Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo (SP. Foram realizadas caminhadas nos traçados antigo e novo da Linha de Transmissão Guarulhos–Anhanguera, num total aproximado de 11 km de extensão. A amostragem foi realizada no período de 2006 a 2010. No levantamento florístico, foram identificadas 179 espécies, pertencentes a 54 famílias e 127 gêneros. As famílias com maior riqueza de espécies foram Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (18, Lauraceae (16 e Rubiaceae (15 e os gêneros mais ricos, Ocotea e Myrcia (6, Eugenia (5 e Maytenus, Mollinedia e Nectandra com quatro espécies cada. Foram registradas dez espécies consideradas ameaçadas de extinção, sendo quatro espécies na lista de São Paulo e seis na lista da IUCN. Uma delas, Mollinedia oligotricha, é considerada presumivelmente extinta. A similaridade florística encontrada com outros remanescentes florestais da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo e arredores variou entre 11% a 38%. Florestas secundárias apresentam uma considerável riqueza de espécies, incluindo espécies ameaçadas de extinção. Foram discutidas as pressões incidentes sobre esses remanescentes florestais, bem como possíveis estratégias para a sua conservação.Secondary forests are seriously threatened by urban expansion in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Some remnants are protected, mainly in state or municipal parks, but most of these forests are in immanent danger of being destroyed by the continual expansion of urban areas. The aim of this

  8. Arqueobotânica de um sambaqui sul-brasileiro: integrando indícios sobre o paleoambiente e o uso de recursos florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ferreira de Melo Júnior

    Full Text Available Resumo Madeiras in natura são testemunhos raros em sítios arqueológicos de tipologia sambaqui. A partir da evidência de estacas encharcadas de madeira na base do sítio, objetivou-se conhecer as espécies vegetais e a sua funcionalidade no contexto arqueológico do sambaqui Cubatão I, localizado na região norte de Joinville, Santa Catarina, e com base datada de 3480 ± 60 AP. A caracterização da madeira foi realizada por meio de preparações histológicas e seguiu a terminologia proposta pela International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA. A determinação dos táxons deu-se mediante comparação em coleção de referência. Foram reconhecidas diferentes espécies madeiráveis de ocorrência natural nos ambientes de manguezal, floresta de terras baixas e restinga. Destacaram-se os seguintes táxons: Andira sp. (Fabaceae, Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae, Bauhinia sp. (Fabaceae, Buchenavia sp. (Combretaceae, Handroanthus sp. (Bignoniaceae, Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae, Schinus sp. (Anacardiaceae e Xylopia (Annonaceae. Entre as propriedades físicas que conferem qualidade às madeiras identificadas, destaca-se a densidade básica, com valores médios a altos em sua maioria, indicando seu uso potencial em elementos com função estrutural. Dentre as possíveis interpretações, os resultados evidenciam o uso de madeiras para a construção de uma plataforma projetada para dar sustentação ao sítio, possivelmente em função das características plásticas dos solos de manguezal.

  9. Structure and floristic composition of the sub-Andean coastal subbasin of Yumbillo, Yumbo (Valle del Cauca

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    Carlos Gustavo Chaves Campo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and floristic composition of riparian forest in the sub-Andean basin of the river Yumbillo in the municipality of Yumbo, Valle del Cauca, eastern slope of the western cordillera of the Andes, Colombia were analyzed. By 20 plots of 100 m2, in the altitude range between 1500 to 2235 m., Data was recorded in individuals with a diameter of a breast height (DBH > 10 cm, floristic composition and vertical and horizontal structure by calculation of abundance, frequency, dominance and importance value index (IVI. The floristic composition consisted of 825 individuals in 93 species, 71 genera and 50 botanical families, the dominant families were Myrtaceae,  Lauraceae,  Melastomataceae,  Moraceae,  Euphorbiaceae,  Fagaceae,  and  Tiliaceae  acanthaceae. The species were heavier ecological Truco (Hyeronima  sp and the most frequent were Truco (Hyeronima scabrida, Roble (Quercus humboldtii and the “Higueron de nacimiento” (Ficus  Apollinaris. The highest values corresponded to species of importance such as Truco (Hyeronima  scabrida Arrayan (Myrcia  sp, Nacedero (Trichanthera, Otobo (Dialyanthera  lehemannii and Naranjuelo (Lacistema  aggregatum. Vertical structure was categorized into three strata, 508 individuals in the I (3 and 16 m, 270 in the II (17 and 23 m and 47 in the Emerging (heights above 24 m. It was concluded that the riparian forest has high and typical pioneer species of forest recovery, highlighted the presence of Medio comino (Ocotea sp threatened timber species that can be part of ecological restoration actions and floristic enrichment in areas of riparian forest and watershed protection.

  10. Evolução do uso e valorização das espécies madeiráveis da Floresta Estacional Decidual do Alto-Uruguai, SC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Roberto Ruschel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Com base nas informações coletadas em 41 entrevistas feitas junto a madeireiros, ex-madeireiros e colonizadores, determinou-se quais as espécies potencialmente madeiráveis, o valor de uso e a valorização econômica das espécies madeiráveis para os remanescentes da Floresta Estacional Decidual na região do Alto--Uruguai, SC, desde o início da colonização daquela região. A diversidade de espécies florestais de uso madeirável conhecida popularmente na região foi de 63 espécies. Contudo, em termos de dominância esse grupo reduz-se a 15 espécies. A maior dominância foi observada para as espécies Apuleia leiocarpa, Parapiptadenia rigida, Balfourodendron riedelianum, Nectandra megapotamica, Patagonula americana, Luehea divaricata, Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Holocalyx balansae, Myrocarpus frondosus, Cabralea canjerana e Peltophorum dubium. As espécies de maior valor comercial foram Cordia trichotoma, Cedrela fissilis, Myrocarpus frondosus e Balfourodendron riedelianum. Já Schefflera morototoni, Aralia warmingiana, Machaerium stipitatum, Chrysophyllum marginatum e várias espécies da família Lauraceae apresentaram, no decorrer do tempo, incremento no uso e na comercialização. O valor de uma espécie é condicionado tanto pela qualidade quanto pela quantidade ofertada. Em geral, verificou-se uma evolução no valor das espécies bem como na indústria madeireira que utilizou várias maneiras para se adaptar às demandas desses produtos florestais.

  11. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) (Lauraceae) in the Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Manhães,Adriana Pellegrini; Veiga-Júnior,Valdir Florêncio da; Wiedemann,Larissa Silveira Moreira; Fernandes,Karenn Silveira; Sampaio,Paulo de Tarso Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the re...

  12. Produção e predação de frutos em Aniba rosaeodora Ducke var. amazonica Ducke (Lauraceae em sistema de plantio sob floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Central Harvesting and fruit predation of a Aniba rosaeodora Ducke var. amazonica Ducke (Lauraceae ex situ tree population in a central Amazonian upland forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Spironello

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora vem sendo usado desde o século passado para extração de linalol, produto usado como fixador de perfumes. Por causa do extrativismo houve redução drástica em suas populações naturais. Somando a este fato, esta espécie possui padrão irregular de frutificação e, quando frutifica, os seus frutos são consumidos por animais. Estes aspectos foram estudados utilizando uma população de plantio sob sombra parcial de floresta primária. A produtividade das árvores variou de 40 a 1.600 frutos (n = 21 árvores. No geral, cerca de 42,5% foram removidos por frugívoros (6.770 frutos, n = 10 árvores. Dos frutos não removidos, 0,5% foram predados por vertebrados, 81,5% continham larvas de insetos, variando de 36-96% entre indivíduos. Uma espécie de Coleoptera ataca os frutos em estádio imaturo, enquanto outra (Heilipus sp. e uma espécie de Lepidoptera atacam os frutos em estádio final de desenvolvimento. Os resultados projetam perda de 59,5% dos frutos (54,5% por insetos passíveis de coleta. Considerando a importância econômica do pau-rosa faz-se necessário aumentar a disponibilidade de sementes para planos de manejo da espécie. Para se atingir tais objetivos são necessárias algumas medidas: 1 coleta prematura de frutos para maturação em laboratório; 2 utilização de métodos de controle de insetos adultos (em plantios e larvas (em frutos atacados; e 3 estudos de seleção genética para identificar plantas com maior resistência natural a pragas e doenças.The rosewood tree (Aniba rosaeodora has been exploited for linalol, a product used as a fixative by the perfume industry. As a result, its population has decreased to the point that it is at risk of extinction in some Amazonian areas. In addition, the species has an irregular phenological pattern and its fruits are a food source for animals. This study focused on the use an ex situ population planted under partial forest shade. The fruit set varied from 40-1600 fruits (n = 21 trees. Overall, 42.5% of fruits (6,770, n = 10 trees were removed by frugivores. Of the remaining fruits, 0.5% were predated by vertebrates, 81.5% were attacked by insect larvae. Of fruit attacked by insects, 38% were still capable of germination. One Coleoptera (Curculionidae attacks the fruits during this intermediate phase of development, and another one (Heilipus sp. and one Lepidoptera attack during the final phase of maturation. This results in a loss of 59.5% (54.5% by insects of the fruit set not removed. Therefore, it is necessary to increase fruit/seed availability as part of species management. To achieve this, three considerations need to be taken into account: 1 premature fruits should be collected for laboratory maturation; 2 insect control on adult trees (in plantations and larva control on attacked fruits are recommended; and 3 genetic studies should be an alternative to identify plants with greater natural resistance to predators and diseases.

  13. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 2

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    A.J.G.H KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.   Durio  cupreus Ridley is considered to  represent a  distinct  species.2.   Durio wyatt-smithii Kosterm. is reported from Borneo.3.   Machilus nervosa Merr. represents Meliosma bontoeensis Merr.4.   Beilschmiedia brassii Allen represents Vavaea brassii (Allen Kosterm.5.   The author of the generic name Heritiera is Aiton.6.   Heritiera macrophylla (non Wall. Merr. is conspecific with H. ungus-tata Pierre.7.   Some specimens from N. Celebes, attributed formerly to H. sylvatica Merr., belong to H. arafurensis Kosterm.8.   Additional note on Heritiera littoralis Ait. and H. macrophylla Wall, ex Kurz.9.   Heritiera   montana   Kosterm.,   nov.   spec,   from   New   Guinea   and H. khidii Kosterm., nov. spec, from Northern Siam.10.   Additional note on Heritiera, novoguineensis Kosterm. and H. pereo-riacea Kosterm. and an undescribed species.11.   Heritiera acuminata Wall, ex Kurz represents a distinct species.12.   Heritiera  solomonensis  Kosterm.,  nov.  spec,  from the  Solomon  Isl.13.   A note on Firmiana bracteata A. DC.14.   Firmiana fulgens (Wall, ex King  Corner is based on a mixtum com-positum and has been the source of constant confusion. For the element, which occurs in Malaysia a new name is coined: F. malayana Kosterm. It does not occur in Tenasserim.15.   A revised bibliography of Firmiana colorata R. Br., F. pallens Stearn and F. malayana Kosterm. is presented.16.   Additional note on Firmiana hainanensis Kosterm.17.   Firmiana kerrii (Craib Kosterm., comb, nov., based on Sterculia kerrii Craib.18.   Additional specimens of Firmiana papuana Mildbr.19.   Cryptocarya hintonii Allen is referred to Primus as Primus hintonii (Allen  Kosterm.20.   Beilschmiedia wallichiana (G. Don   Kosterm., based on Sideroxylon wallichianum, G. Don, is described. Formerly it was relegated to Litsea by Kurz.21.   New species in Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia aborensis Kosterm., B

  14. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. (Lauraceae in the Central Amazon Produção de biomassa e rendimento de óleo essencial de folhas, galhos finos e rebrotas utilizando poda da copa de Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. (Lauraceae na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pellegrini Manhães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the remaining crown and the resprouts were collected, in the dry season. The results showed that the essential oil yield and chemical composition differed among the stems, leaves and resprouts. The stems' essential oil production differed between the seasons and had a higher production in the resprouting stems than the old stems of the remaining crown. The production of essential oil and leaf biomass of resprouts were differently related to the canopy openness, indicating that light increases the production of the essential oil and decreases the biomass of resprouting leaves. This study revealed that plant organs differ in their essential oil production and that the canopy openness must be taken into account when pruning the A. canelilla tree crown in order to achieve higher oil productivity.Aniba canelilla (H.B.K. Mez. é uma espécie arbórea da Amazônia que produz óleo essencial. A extração do óleo de suas folhas e galhos pode ser uma forma alternativa de evitar a derrubada do tronco para sua produção de óleo essencial. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os fatores que podem influenciar a produção de óleo essencial e sua biomassa da rebrota após a poda de folhas e galhos das árvores de A. canelilla. As copas das árvores foram podadas na estação chuvosa e, após nove meses, as folhas e os galhos da copa remanescente e da rebrota foram coletadas na estação seca. Os resultados mostraram que o rendimento e a composição química de óleo essencial diferiram entre os galhos finos, as folhas e as rebrotas. A produção de óleo essencial de galhos diferiu entre as estações e teve maior produção nos galhos da rebrota do que nos galhos velhos da copa remanescente. A produção de óleo essencial e de biomassa das folhas da rebrota foram diferentemente relacionadas com a abertura de dossel, indicando que a luz aumenta a produção de óleo essencial e diminui a de biomassa nas folhas da rebrota. Este estudo revelou que as diferenças entre os órgãos da planta na produção de óleo essencial e a abertura de dossel devem ser levadas em consideração para podar a copa da árvore da A. canelilla e alcançar maior produtividade de óleo.

  15. Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Kátia Emidio da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La región amazónica es una de las más diversas áreas del mundo. Los estudios sobre la gran diversidad de bosques tropicales generan contribuciones relevantes en la comprensión de los mecanismos que originan y apoyan tal diversidad. En el presente estudio se describe la composición de las especies y la diversidad de 15 parcelas de una hectárea en el bosque denso amazónico terra firme en Brasil, y compara la similitud florística de estas parcelas con otras nueve parcelas de una hectárea. Las 15 parcelas estudiadas fueron seleccionadas al azar, en el 2005, de parcelas permanentes en el sitio experimental de Embrapa, Estado de Amazonas. La diversidad fue analizada utilizando la riqueza de especies y el índice de Shannon, así como el índice de Similitud de Sorensen; y como método de agrupación se utilizó el promedio no ponderado por grupo (UPGMA. La prueba de Mantel se llevó a cabo para estudiar si las diferencias en la composición de especies entre los sitios podrían ser explicadas por la distancia geográfica entre ellos. En general, se identificaron 8 771 individuos, 264 especies y 51 familias de plantas. La mayoría de las especies se concentraron en pocas familias y pocas tenían un gran número de individuos. Las familias que presentaron la mayor riqueza de especies fueron: Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp, Mimosoideae: 22spp, Sapotaceae: 22spp, Lecythidaceae: 15 y Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae tuvo el mayor número de individuos con un 11.8% del total. Las diez especies más abundantes fueron: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuos, Eschweilera coriacea (471, Licania oblongifolia (310, Pouteria minima (293, Ocotea cernua (258, Scleronema micranthum (197, Eschweilera collina (176, Licania apelata (172, Naucleopsis caloneura (170 y Psidium araca (152, que representó un 36.5% de todos los individuos. Aproximadamente en el 49% de las especies se encontraron hasta diez individuos, mientras que el 13% de las especies apareció sólo una vez

  16. Basidiomicetes de Costa Rica: nuevas especies de Exobasidium (Exobasidiaceae y registros de Cryptobasidiales

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    Luis D. Gómez P

    1998-12-01

    centroamericanos.Six new species in the genus Exobasidium are described: E. aequatorianum n. sp., parasitic on Vaccinium crenatum (Don Sleumer from Ecuador where it is widely distributed; E. arctostaphyli Harkn., found on Arctostaphylos arbutoides (Lindl. Hemsl., and on Comarostaphylos costaricensis Small in Costa Rica is redescribed; E. jamaicense n. sp., on Lyonia jamaicensis (Swartz D.Don from Jamaica and possibly throughout the Caribbean range of the host genus; E. disterigmicola n.sp., on Disterigma humboldtii (Kl. Nied., from the Talamanca Range, Costa Rica and possibly, throughout the range of its host, E. sphyrospermii n. sp.,on Sphyrospermum cordifolium Bentham in Costa Rica, E. poasanum n. sp., on Cavendishia bracteata (R. & P. ex J. St.-Hil. Hoer., from the Poás massif in Costa Rica. Exobasidium escalloniae Gómez & Kisimova, described from Costa Rica, is now known to occur in Ecuador on the same host, Escallonia myrtilloides L.f. Exobasidium vaccinii (Fkl. Wor. is here reported from Vaccinium floribundum H.B.K. from various Ecuadorean localities, and E. pernettyae n. sp. is described as a parasite of Pernettya prostrata (Cav. DC in Costa Rica. With the exception of Escallonia, of saxifragaceous affinities, all hosts belong in the Ericaceae. Exobasidium arctostaphyli is a first record for the neotropical region. With the exception of E. jamaicense, not seen in the wild by us, all others have been found associated with small slugs (Mollusca: Limacidae which are suspected to be one of the vectors of the parasite. Some biogeographical considerations are presented. The Cryptobasidiaceae Clinoconidium bullatum Syd., not collected since first described in 1925, and Clinoconidium farinosum (P. Henn. Pat., are both parasites of Lauraceae, Cinnamomum sp. and Ocotea monteverdensis Burger, respectively, and were found in the Monteverde Reserve, Costa Rica. Drepanoconis larviformis (Speg. Speg. is reported as a parasite of Aiouea costaricensis (Mez Kosterm. from the cloud forests

  17. (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Taiwan based on analysis of leaf morphology and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) molecular markers.

  18. Antioxidant activities of the selected plants from the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... Extraction of nine plants selected from the family Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae and. Balsaminaceae ... Total phenolic contents were determined with Folin- ... levels of antioxidant activity in vitro may be of value in the.

  19. Host conservatism or host specialization? Patterns of fungal diversification are influenced by host specificity in Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae) are perithecial fungi that occur as endophytes, pathogens, and latent saprobes on leaf and stem tissue of plants in the Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Sapindaceae. In this study host plant patte...

  20. Drug: D06712 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [TAX:119260] ... Same as: E00084 E00567 Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamon bark (dried) Major component: Cinnamaldehyde [CPD:C00903] ... PubChem: 47208363 ...

  1. First report of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and laurel wilt in Louisiana, USA: The disease continues westward on sassafras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; C. Wood Johnson; Roger D. Menard; Thomas C. Harrington; Rabiu Olatinwo; G. Susan Best

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), has spread rapidly through the coastal plains forests of the southeastern United States (USA) with devastating effects on redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng.; Laurales: Lauraceae) populations (Fraedrich et...

  2. Environ: E00650 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ame as: D06713 Lauraceae (laurel family) Cinnamomum cassia the dried leaves, twigs, and bark Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Cinnamaldehyde [CPD:C00903] CAS: 8007-80-5

  3. Contribución al conocimiento de la morfología de la semilla, la germinación y el desarrollo de las plántulas de Beilschmiedia sulcata (R. et P. Kostem y Nectandra globosa (Aublet Mez. (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Pinedo Guerrero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Beilschmiediasulcata (R. et P Kosterm is an ovoidellipsoid berry and the elipsoidseed has a papiraceous seedcoat and a broad, straight embryo.The seedling is criptocotylar andgermination hypogeus. The fruit of Nectandra globosa(Aublet Mez. is a drupe in form of a globe,sphere seed has a coriaceus seed coat and a broad, straight embryo. The seedling iscriptocotilar and germination is hypogeus. The percentage of germination for B. sulcatais 95%and for N. globosais 6%. The seedlig develops 5 – 6 squamous protophylls before it produceseophylls; it has a well developed radical system lacking root hairs.

  4. Biodiversity and human activities in the Udzungwa Mountain forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was established that local communities around the forest highly depend on the natural forests for forest products. Most human uses were for traditional medicine, fuelwood and building materials. Quality hardwoods Khaya anthotheca, Afzelia quanzensis, Milicia excelsa and Ocotea usambarensis were noted. To reduce ...

  5. Actividad biológica (farmacológica y/o etnomédica; y compuestos fitoquímicos aislados de algunas especies de los géneros: Persea, laurus, lindera, aniba, phoebe, nectandra, cassytha, cinnamon, licaria, ravensara, pleurothyrium, dehaasia, apollonias, y ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Enrique Macías Villamizar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Resumen La familia Lauraceae esta compuesta por 52 géneros y por más 3000 especies; entre árboles o arbustos con ciertas características morfológicas como son: poseer hojas alternas, inflorescencia cimosas, estambres libres y fruto tipo baya o drupa. El uso de las Lauraceae en medicina folclórica se remite, entre otros, a tratamientos, carminativo, emenagogo y contra la artritis. Dentro de su actividad biológica y/o farmacológica se encuentran: actividad citotóxica, actividad contra el cáncer de mama, antiinflamatoria, antifúngico, antinociceptiva y antitumoral. Las referencias bibliográficas muestran la importancia de la familia Lauraceae en el área de la salud por las múltiples aplicaciones no sólo en contextos de la etnomedicina; sino también en el farmacológico; soportado en los diferentes bioensayos; es decir, su conocimiento se convierte en una alternativa con soporte científico para el desarrollo de nuevos productos farmacéuticos. (DUAZARY 2010, 130 - 151AbstractThe family Lauraceae is composed of 52 genera and over 3000 species are trees or shrubs with some morphological characteristics such as: having leaves alternate, cimosas inflorescence, free stamens, and berry or drupe fruit type. The use of the Lauraceae in folk medicine refers, among others, carminative, emanogogo and treating arthritis. Within its biological activity and / or pharmacological include cytotoxic activity, activity against breast cancer, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antinociceptive and antitumoral. The references show the importance of the family Lauraceae in the health field for many applications not only in the context of ethnomedicine, but also supported the drug in different bioassays, that is an alternative scientific support for the development of new pharmaceutical products.Keywords: Lauraceae; Phytochemistry; biological activity and / or pharmacology; ethnomedicine.

  6. Aedes aegypti: modelo experimental de atividade biológica de fitoprodutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Teixeira Serdeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 é reconhecido como transmissor de várias arboviroses de importância na saúde pública, como a dengue, zika, chikungunya e febre amarela urbana. O principal método de prevenir a transmissão desses vírus ainda é o controle do mosquito vetor. Produtos naturais de origem vegetal vêm sendo investigados, como mais uma ferramenta no controle de vetores, e compostos menos impactantes ao meio ambiente e a saúde humana. Devido à importância deste culicídeo, buscou-se extrato e frações de C. catharinensis com atividade larvicida sobre Ae. aegypti. O extrato bruto metanólico (EBM e sua fração (EBM 1 obtidos da embaúba foram aplicados no meio de criação das larvas (L3 nas concentrações de 10, 30 e 50 μg/mL. O tratamento com C. cahtarinensis resultou na alteração do período de desenvolvimento larval, pupal e de L3-adulto do mosquito. A mortalidade pupal (25% foi obtida pela fração EBM1. Este estudo demonstrou a eficácia de C. catharinensis sobre o período de desenvolvimento de Ae. aegypti.

  7. Produção de mudas de espécies forrageiras no sistema hidropônico de leito flutuante (floating com solução nutritiva à base de biofertilizante ou adubo solúvel = Production of seedlings of forage species in floating hydroponics system with biofertilizer or soluble fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Probst

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a sobrevivência das estacas e a produção de matéria seca na fase de cultivo de mudas das espécies forrageiras missioneira gigante (Axonopus catharinensis, amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi e maku (Lotus uliginosus cv. Maku. No sistema hidropônico de leito flutuante com solução nutritiva à base de biofertilizante ou adubo solúvel. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três espécies forrageiras e duas soluções nutritivas. As espécies não apresentaram diferença quanto à sobrevivência (p = 0,225, independentemente do tipo de fertilizante (p = 0,92. No entanto, quando se quantificou a produção de MS planta-1 proporcionada por cada uma dessas espécies, o maku (p = 0,001 obteve as maiores quantidades (47,18 g, enquanto o amendoim forrageiro (19,90 g e a missioneira gigante (16,81 g foram semelhantes entre si (p = 0,227, tendo o mesmo ocorrido entre os fertilizantes (p = 0,559. Deste modo, as três espécies possuem condições semelhantes de sobrevivência, independentemente da concentração de nutrientes da solução nutritiva, com o maku proporcionando a maior produção de MS planta-1.The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and dry matter production during the seedling culture phase of three forage species: Axonopus catharinensis, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, and greater lotus (Lotus uliginosus cv. Maku, in a floating hydroponic system using biofertilizer or soluble fertilizer. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with three forage species and two fertilizers. There was no difference between species with regard to survival (p = 0.225, regardless of the fertilizer used (p = 0.92. However, when dry matter production was considered, Maku (P=0,001 showed greater weight (47.18 g, while there was no difference (p = 0.227 in weight between Arachis pintoi (19.90 g and Axonopus

  8. Produção de mudas de espécies forrageiras no sistema hidropônico de leito flutuante (floating com solução nutritiva à base de biofertilizante ou adubo solúvel - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.4290 Production of seedlings of forage species in floating hydroponics system with biofertilizer or soluble fertilizer - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.7459

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Graeff Erpen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a sobrevivência das estacas e a produção de matéria seca na fase de cultivo de mudas das espécies forrageiras missioneira gigante (Axonopus catharinensis, amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi e maku (Lotus uliginosus cv. Maku. No sistema hidropônico de leito flutuante com solução nutritiva à base de biofertilizante ou adubo solúvel. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três espécies forrageiras e duas soluções nutritivas. As espécies não apresentaram diferença quanto à sobrevivência (p = 0,225, independentemente do tipo de fertilizante (p = 0,92. No entanto, quando se quantificou a produção de MS planta-1 proporcionada por cada uma dessas espécies, o maku (p = 0,001 obteve as maiores quantidades (47,18 g, enquanto o amendoim forrageiro (19,90 g e a missioneira gigante (16,81 g foram semelhantes entre si (p = 0,227, tendo o mesmo ocorrido entre os fertilizantes (p = 0,559. Deste modo, as três espécies possuem condições semelhantes de sobrevivência, independentemente da concentração de nutrientes da solução nutritiva, com o maku proporcionando a maior produção de MS planta-1.Production of seedlings of forage species in floating hydroponics system with biofertilizer or soluble fertilizer. The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and dry matter production during the seedling culture phase of three forage species: Axonopus catharinensis, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, and greater lotus (Lotus uliginosus cv. Maku, in a floating hydroponic system using biofertilizer or soluble fertilizer. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with three forage species and two fertilizers. There was no difference between species with regard to survival (p = 0.225, regardless of the fertilizer used (p = 0.92. However, when dry matter production was considered, Maku (p = 0,001 showed greater

  9. A comparison of dung beetle assemblage structure (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae between an Atlantic forest fragment and adjacent abandoned pasture in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Mata dos Godoy State Park in Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. Baited pitfall traps were installed in the forest, in adjacent abandoned pasture land, and on the borders between these two environments. Every two weeks, from June 1999 to May 2000, the traps were placed for 24 hours and the material was collected every 12 hours. The 4687 specimens of Scarabaeinae collected belong to 13 genera and 27 species. The most frequent species were Onthophagus catharinensis (Paulian, 1936 (22.1%, Onthophagus hirculus (Mannerhein, 1829 (20.1%, Dichotomius mormon (Ljungh, 1799 (13.1%, Sulcophanaeus menelas (Laporte, 1840 (12.8%, and Eurystemus parallelus (Dalman, 1824 (10.6%. The other species collected amounted to less than 4.7%. The difference in numbers of specimens collected in the three environments was not significant (K(2.72 = 0.63, p = 0.729. The distribution patterns of species composition for the different environments (ANOSIM R = 0.29, p < 0.01 and activity periods (ANOSIM R = 0.18, p < 0.01 were different. Sulcophanaeus menelas, Canthidium aff. trinodosum, O. hirculus, and E. parallelus were the most abundant species, being predominantly diurnal; the first three species were more active on abandoned pasture. Most of the Dichothomius assifer (Eschscholtz, 1822 and D. mormon specimens were captured at night. The latter species was the most abundant in edges, whereas D. assifer, Scybalochantum aff. zischkai, and O. catharinensis can be considered bioindicators because they were either exclusively or highly predominant in the best preserved areas. A larger number of individuals was observed from December 1999 through March 2000, which is the time of the year when adults of Scarabaeinae normally emerge and fly, in the studied region. The highest diversity (88.89% was observed in February.

  10. Genetic variation in native populations of the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola , in Taiwan and Japan and the introduced population in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline E. Wuest; Thomas C. Harrington; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Hye-Young Yun; Sheng-Shan Lu

    2017-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola, a mycangial symbiont of an ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. The fungus and vector are native to Asia but were apparently introduced to the Savannah, GA, area 15 or more years ago. Laurel wilt has caused widespread mortality on redbay (Persea borbonia) and other members of the Lauraceae in the...

  11. Modern pollen rain in Canary Island ecosystems and its implications for the interpretation of fossil records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nascimento, Lea; Nogué, Sandra; Fernández-Lugo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    -represented (.Pinus, Morella and Ericaceae trees, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae, Rumex and Urticaceae herbs and shrubs) or under-represented (Lauraceae trees, Fabaceae and Euphorbia shrubs). Results indicate that pollen composition is a good reflection of vegetation in Canarian ecosystems and can be used effectively...

  12. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  13. First report of laurel wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola on pondspice in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; A.E. Mayfield III; M.C. Minno; K. Shin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a fungal vascular disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other plants in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (1). The disease is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T. C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, which is vectored by the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  14. Ambrosia beetle communities in forest and agriculture ecosystems with laurel wilt disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Redbay ambro...

  15. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Philip G. Cannon; Steve Oak; Scott Horn; Jaesoon Hwang; Paul E. Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S.A.Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont could be transported to the western U....

  16. First report of Laurel Wilt caused by Rafffaelea lauricola on sassafras in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; S.W. Fraedrich; T.C. Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich and is lethal to redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.), sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees), and other species in the Lauraceae (1). The fungus is carried by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichh.), which is native to Asia.

  17. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on Sassafras ( Sassafras albidum ) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; C. Barton; Stephen Fraedrich; W. Johnson; J. Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich, is a lethal disease that affects members of the laurel family (Lauraceae) including avocado (Persea americana Mill), redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng., Nees), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum [Nutt.]). The fungus is a symbiont of an exotic ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  18. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on redbay (Persea borbonia) in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. D. Menard; S. R. Clarke; Stephen Fraedrich; T. C. Harrington

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C.Harr., Aghayeva, & Fraedrich, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff), is responsible for extensive mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other Lauraceae native to the United States (Fraedrich et al. 2008). The beetle and fungus were introduced into the United...

  19. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on spicebush ( Lindera benzoin ) in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Fraedrich; T. C. Harrington; B. A. McDaniel; G. S. Best

    2016-01-01

    Most members of the laurel family (Lauraceae) indigenous to the United States appear to be highly susceptible to laurel wilt, a disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Aghayeva & Fraedrich, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) (Fraedrich et al. 2008; Harrington et al. 2008). The beetle and fungus were...

  20. Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; R. Chapin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is an aggressive, non-native vascular wilt disease of redbay trees (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other plants within the Lauraceae family. The laurel wilt pathogen, (Raffaelea lauricola), is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), which...

  1. Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: scolytinae), the vector of Laurel Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Brian Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a native of Southeast Asia recently established in coastal forests of Georgia, SC and Florida It vectors a wilt fungus, Raffaeka sp., lethal to redbay trees, Persea borbonia L. Spreng, and certain other Lauraceae. No practical monitoring system exists for this beetle so we...

  2. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay Ambrosia beetle and granulate Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert E. Mayfield; James L. Hanula

    2012-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps...

  3. Phytochemical, Toxicological, Biochemical and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avocado tree belongs to the family lauraceae and is classified as Persea americana. The analysis of the fruits extract revealed the presence of considerable amounts of vitamins A, B2, C, K, folic acid, lutein, zeaxanthin, coenzyme Q10 and beta-carotene. When administered to wistar rats for acute toxicity studies, the ...

  4. Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic activities of the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana (Lauraceae) have been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illness and some of these uses have been proven scientifically. The aim of this present study is to screen for the phytochemical content, determine the proximate parameter and determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of ...

  5. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngozi, Anaka Ogochukwu. Vol 10, No 3 (2013) - Articles Analgesic effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea Americana Mill (Lauraceae) Abstract. ISSN: 1596-8499. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  7. Analgesic effect of the aqueous seed extract of Persea Americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana, Mill (Lauraceae) is one of the medicinal plants used in Nigeria for pain relief. Based on its ethnomedicinal use in pain management, the seed of the plant was extracted with distilled water and screened for analgesic activity. The analgesic screening was done in mice using four models: acetic ...

  8. Acute and sub-acute toxicological assessment of the aqueous seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine ...

  9. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QWToF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and 'avouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as ‘cinnamon’. ‘True cinnamon’ refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other ‘cinnamon’ species, C....

  10. Parasitism of host trees by the Loranthaceae in the region of Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infested host trees belong to 16 species gathered into 12 genus and 10 families. The most parasitized host family is Sterculiaceae. The most sensitive host species to the parasitism of Loranthaceae is P. americana (21.51%), followed by C. nitida (17.27%) and Terminalia mantaly (13.65%). Lauraceae is infested by 7 ...

  11. JMBR VOLUME 16 Number 1 June 2017.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... Central America, and it belongs to the. Lauraceae family and genus parseal. It is rich in protein, vitamins, and ... Unripe fruits of Persea americana was purchased from New Benin market and was authenticated in the .... International Journal of. Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical. Technology 3(1):15-22. 5.

  12. Hermit Thrush is the First Observed Dispersal Agent for Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl G. Smith; Paul B. Hamel; Margaret S. Devall; Natan M. Schiff

    2004-01-01

    We investigated dispersal opportunities for the endangered pondberry, Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae). In 199 hours of observation at 5 fruiting colonies in the Delta National Forest, Sharkey County, Mississippi, we recorded 82 bird species in the vicinity of a colony. Of these, 12 were observed on pondberry plants, and two consumed ripe pondberry...

  13. No rest for the laurels: symbiotic invaders cause unprecedented damage to southern USA forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Hughes; J. J. Riggins; F. H. Koch; A. I. Cognato; C. Anderson; J. P. Formby; T. J. Dreaden; R. C. Ploetz; J. A. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Laurel wilt is an extraordinarily destructive exotic tree disease in the southeastern United States that involves new-encounter hosts in the Lauraceae, an introduced vector (Xyleborus glabratus) and pathogen symbiont (Raffaelea lauricola). USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data were used to estimate that over 300 million trees of redbay (Persea borbonia...

  14. Outplanting of the Endangered Pondberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Nathan M. Schiff; Stephanie A. Skojac

    2004-01-01

    Pondberry [Lindera melissifolia (Walt) Blume, Lauraceae] is an endangered shrub that occurs in seasonally flooded wetlands in the Southeastern United States. We established new pondberry populations as an aid in conserving the species, whose distribution and abundance have been affected by habitat destruction and alteration. We dug equal numbers of...

  15. Evaluation of lure combinations containing essential oils and volatile spiroketals for detection of host-seeking Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a disease responsible for widespread mortality of trees in the Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S. Early detection of in...

  16. Susceptibility to Laurel Wilt and disease incidence in two rare plant species, Pondberry and Pondspice Plant Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Fraedrich; T Harrington; C Bates; J Johnson; L. Reid; Glenda Susan Best; T Leininger; Tracy Hawkins

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, has been responsible for extensive losses of redbay (Persea borbonia) in South Carolina and Georgia since 2003. Symptoms of the disease have been noted in other species of the Lauraceae such as the federally endangered pondberry (Lindera melissifolia) and the threatened pondspice (Litsea aestivalis). Pondberry and pondspice...

  17. Laurel wilt: A global threat to avocado production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

  18. Recovery plan for laurel wilt of avocado, caused by Raffaelea lauricola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana), an important commercial fruit crop. The disease threatens commercial production in the US and other countries, and currently impacts the avocado industry in Florida. As laurel wilt spreads, the N...

  19. Recovery Plan for Laurel Wilt of Avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). The disease threatens commercial avocado production in Florida, as well as the National Germplasm Repository for avocado in Miami (USDA-ARS). Elsewhere in the US, major (California) and minor comm...

  20. Laurel wilt in avocado: Review of an emerging disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    aurel wilt, caused by the vascular fungus Raffaelea lauricola, is transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, and affects many plants in the family Lauraceae. It was introduced into the United States around 2002 through infested packing material arriving in Georgia. In Florida, t...

  1. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  2. Vertical distribution and daily flight periodicity of ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt affected avocado orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado (Persea americana Mill.; Lauraceae) due to their association with fungal pathogens, in particular, the causal agent of laurel wilt disease, Raffaelea lauricola. The objective of this study was to provide insights into the intera...

  3. Detection and management of Xyleborus glabratus and other vectors of laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redabay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, carries a phytopathogenic symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of some Lauraceae species. Both X. glabratus and R. lauricola are natives of Asia that recently invaded much of the coastal plain of the sout...

  4. Essential oils of Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. : a new report from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhury, S.N.; Ghosh, A.C.; Choudhury, M.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers. (Lauraceae) is a "muga" silk worm fodder tree in Northeast India, with the local name "sualu." The oils of this species, obtained by steam distillation of the fresh fruits, flowers and bark, were examined by high resolution GC and GC/MS for the first time. From the

  5. (Vellozo Rohwer (Canela-sassafrás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cetnarski Filho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was developed at the Seed Laboratory of Forestry Sciences Department of Federal University of Paraná – UFPR, in order to determinate the effect of the temperature: 20, 25 and 30o C, and the remotion of the outer coat (endocarp and tegument on seeds germination the Ocotea odorifera (Vel. Rohwer. The diaspores were collected at Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná State, in a remaining Ombrophylous Mixed Forest. It was adopted the entirely randomized statistical model, The diaspores without outer coat presented a higher germination percentage and germination speed.

  6. Identification of Four Wood Species by an Electronic Nose and by LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Cordeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two complementary methods capable of identifying four wood species (Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea porosa, Hymenolobium petraeum, and Aspidosperma subincanum both by their volatile organic compounds and by the presence of 10 chemical elements: Al, B, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Na, and Si. The volatile compounds were detected by an electronic nose formed by an array of three different conductive polymer gas sensors. The elemental determination was made by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS. The emissions measured were treated by principal component analysis (PCA. Leave-one-out analysis showed a rate of hits of 100%.

  7. Nitrogen Cycling and GHG Emissions of Natural and Managed Tropical Ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutlein, A.; Ralf, K.; Gerschlauer, F.; Dannenmann, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Diaz-Pines, E.

    2016-12-01

    In a rapidly changing world understanding of natural ecosystems response to human perturbations such as land use and climate changes as well as habitat destruction is crucial with respect to sustainability of ecosystem services. This is particularily true for tropical forest ecosystems which have significant effects on the major biogeochemical cycles and global climate. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of nitrogen cycling and GHG emissions of natural and managed ecosystems along land use and climate gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania including different forest ecosystems, homegardens, and coffee plantations. Soil N turnover rates were highest in the Ocotea forest and progressively decreased with decreasing annual rainfall and increasing land use intensity. Nitrogen production and immobilization rates positively correlated with soil organic C and total N concentrations as well as substrate availability of dissolved organic C and N, but correlated less with soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations. By using indicators of N retention and characteristics of soil nutrient status, we observed a grouping of faster, but tighter N cycling in the (semi-) natural savanna, Helychrysum and Ocotea forest. This contrasted with a more open N cycle in managed systems (homegarden and coffee plantation) where N was more prone to leaching or gaseous losses due to high nitrate production rates. The partly disturbed lower montane forest ranged in between these two groups. These finding could be supported by differences in natural 15N abundance of litter and soil across all sites. Comparing GHG emissions at the land use gradient showed, that with increasing intensification (lower montane forest - homegarden - coffee plantation) N2O emissions increased but at the same time the soil sink for atmospheric CH4 decreased. GHG emission measurements at the climate gradient (savanna, lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forest, Helychrysum) revealed that differences in soil moisture

  8. Avaliação das propriedades de painéis aglomerados produzidos com resíduos de serrarias de nove espécies de madeiras tropicais da Amazônia Evaluation of the properties of particleboard made from sawmill waste of nine tropical wood species of Amazon

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis aglomerados produzidos com resíduos de processamento em serraria de nove espécies de madeiras tropicais da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Scleronema micranthum Ducke (Cardeiro, Ecclinusa guianensis Eyma (Caucho, Scleronema sp. (Castanha-de-paca, Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Copaíba, Ocotea sp. (Louro, Ocotea guianensis Aubl (Louro-espinho, Caryocar villosum Pers. (Piquiarana, Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & R. Knuth (Tauari e Virola surinamensis Rol. Warb (Virola. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,75 g.cm-3, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído na proporção de 8% de sólidos - base peso seco das partículas. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 4,0 MPa, temperatura de 160 ºC e tempo de prensagem de oito minutos. As avaliações dos resultados de ensaios obtidos nesta pesquisa indicam a viabilidade técnica de utilização das nove espécies provenientes de florestas tropicais da Amazônia na produção de painéis de madeira aglomerada, com destaque para Ecclinusa guianensis Eyma (Caucho que, de uma forma geral, apresentou melhores resultados de propriedades físico-mecânicas.This research was developed to evaluate the quality of particleboards manufactured from sawmill waste of nine tropical wood species of Amazônia. The following species were studied: Scleronema micranthum Ducke (Cardeiro, Ecclinusa guianensis Eyma (Caucho, Scleronema sp. (Castanha-de-paca, Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Copaíba, Ocotea sp. (Louro, Ocotea guianensis Aubl (Louro-espinho, Caryocar villosum Pers. (Piquiarana, Couratari oblongifolia (Tauari e Virola surinamensis Rol. Warb (Virola. The experimental boards were manufactured with the nominal density of 0.75 g.cm-3, using the urea-formaldehyde resin in the proportion of 8% of solid content based on oven dried wood particles. The boards were pressed at the specific pressure of 40 kgf

  9. The alternative choices of masticatory customs by local people in Wasur National Park, Merauke, Papua

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    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The flora diversity and the interesting customs in East Indonesia, particularly in Papua, have not been explored intensively. This study encountered the relationship between traditional customs and usage of plant species by the local people in Wasur National Park Area, Merauke sub-district, Merauke district. One of them was masticatory. It has been well known by Indonesians in most parts of Indonesia, including societies in Wasur National Park. The major societies live in Wasur National Park are Kanum, Morori and Marind. Besides gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxburgh and sirih (Piper betle L., the young fruit of betel nut (Areca catechu L. is usually consumed it as masticatory materials, by man and women. Several plant species, usually used alternative choices by Kanum, Morori and Marind were openg (Exocarpus latifolius R.Br.; Santalaceae, tawal (Celastraceae, sambiwal (Erythroxylum ecarinatum Burck; Erythroxylaceae, ntuo (Cryptocaria nitida R.A.Philippi; Lauraceae and agya (Endiandra montana C.T. White; Lauraceae.

  10. Growth, photosynthesis and stress indicators in young rosewood plants (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) under different light intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José Francisco de Carvalho; Barreto, Denize Caranhas de Sousa; Santos Junior, Ulysses Moreira dos; Fernandes, Andreia Varmes; Sampaio, Paulo de Tarso Barbosa; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2005-01-01

    Aniba rosaeodora is an Amazonian tree species that belongs to the family Lauraceae. Due to intense exploitation for extraction of essential oils (mainly linalol), A. rosaeodora is now considered an endangered species. On the other hand, there is little information about its ecophysiology which would be useful to support future forest planting programs. Hence, the effect of different light intensities on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of young plants of A. rosaeodora was studied...

  11. Insect antifeedant ryanodane diterpenes from Persea indica

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Terrero, David; Perales, Áurea; Escoubas, Pierre; Fraga, Braulio M.

    1996-01-01

    The new ryanodane diterpenes cinnzeylanone, ryanodol 14-monoacetate, and epi-cinnzeylanol have been isolated from Persea indica(Lauraceae). The structure of cinnzeylanone has been determined by X-ray analysis. These compounds proveds to be antifeedants against Spodoptera litura. Cinnzeylanol and ryanodol were the most active antifeedants of this plant, with a range of activity close to that of ryanodine. THis is the first report on the antifeedant effects of this class of diterpenes. Their st...

  12. Selection of Avocado Plants Based on Fruit Characters, Fat Content, and Continual Harvest along The Year in West Java-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Reni Lestari; Lazarus Agus Sukamto; Popi Aprilianti; Sri Wahyuni; Winda Utami Putri

    2016-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) belongs to Lauraceae family, is originated from lowland and highland tropical America region. Avocado plant was introduced to Indonesia in 1750 by Spanish. Fruit of avocado contains high unsaturated ( healthy) fat, protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and energy. Fruit of avocado can be eaten freshly, used as an additional ingredient cooking and material for cosmetics. Avocado fruits are available along the year in market cities of Indonesia but their fruits fl...

  13. A Química de Lauráceas Brasileiras. LXX. Estirilpironas de Aniba kappleri

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Margarida M. dos; Mesquita, Antônio A. L.; Gottlieb, Otto R.

    1982-01-01

    Summary The trunk wood of Aniba kappleri Mez (family Lauraceae) contains besides sitosterol, octacosanoic acid and rhamnocitrin (7-O-methylkaempferol), three esters, namely benzyl benzoate, benzyl 2-hydroxybenzoate and benzyl 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, and two α-pyrones, namely 4-methoxy-6- (E) -(3',4'-methy!enedioxystyryl)-2-pyrone and 4-methoxy-6-{E)-(3',4'-dimethoxystyryl]-2pyrone. A dimer of the latter compound, which was obtained additionally, is considered to be an artifact.

  14. Composition of the volatile compounds from Aniba canelilla (H. B. K. Mez. extracted by CO2 in the supercritical state

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    Janete H. Y. Vilegas

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds obtained by SFE-CO2 (supercritical fluid extraction utilizing CO2 from the barks of Aniba canelilla (H. B. K. Mez. (Lauraceae were analyzed by HRGC-FID (high resolution gas chromatography - flame ionization detector and HRGC-MS (high resolution gas chromatography -mass spectrometry. Phenylpropanoids and lower amounts of sesquiterpenoids, representing ca. 97% of the total oil, were identified. The main compound, 2-phenylnitroethane, corresponds to 71,12% of the total oil.

  15. Revisión del género PerezIa (compositae

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    Liliana Katinas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Perezia Lag. (Compositae se compone de 30 especies de hierbas perennes distribuidas principalmente en la región andino-patagónica, desde Colombia hasta el sur de Argentina y Chile, con algunas especies en el este de Brasil y de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Sus corolas bilabiadas, anteras sagitadas, estilos truncados con una coronita apical de pelos colectores y su estructura polínica ubican al género en la tribu Nassauvieae, subfamilia Mutisioideae. Se propone en este trabajo: a la rehabilitación de Perezia atacamensis, P. burkartii y P. capito; b la transferencia de P. ciliosa var. dentata a la categoría de especie [P. dentata (Cabrera comb. nov.]; c la inclusión de Perezia catharinensis Cabrera, P. eryngioides (Cabrera Crisci y P. volcanensis Cabrera, descritas o transferidas posteriormente a la primer revisión del género en 1969; d la eliminación de subespecies en P. lactucoides; e el establecimiento de la sinonimia entre P. pinnatifida, P. pygmaea y P. coerulescens; f el establecimiento de la sinonimia entre P. pungens, P. ciliaris, P. mandonii, P. purpurata, P. carduncelloides y P. sublyrata; g la rehabilitación de Perezia recurvata subsp. recurvata, subsp. beckii y subsp. triceps. Se designaron dos lectotipos y cinco neotipos, y se excluyeron 86 nombres del género.Revision of the genus Perezia (Compositae. The genus Perezia Lag. (Compositae, with 30 species, is distributed in the Andean-Patagonian region from Colombia to southern Argentina and Chile, and in eastern Brasil and Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. It belongs to the tribe Nassauvieae, subfamily Mutisioideae by its bilabiate corollas, caudate anthers, truncate style branches with a crown of collector hairs, and a particular pollen structure. It is proposed in this paper: a the rehabilitation of Perezia atacamensis, P. burkartii, and P. capito; b the change of P. ciliosa var. dentata to the species category [P. dentata (Cabrera comb. nov.]; c the

  16. Phytosociology of a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, Municipality of Pelotas, RS, Brazil

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    Tiago Schuch Lemos Venzke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Floristic composition and structure of the tree component were analyzed in a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, located in the southern region of Lagoa dos Patos (31º43’39”S e 52º12’04”W. The phytosociological sampling was conducted on a sample area of 0.1 ha. All trees with DBH ≥ 4.8 cm were included. The species richness found was equivalent to 23 species distributed in 20 genera and 15 families. Two endangered species were sampled. The total tree density estimated for one hectare was equivalent to 3,480 trees. The most important species in the forest structure were Ocotea sp., Myrcia multiflora, Psidium cattleyanum, Ocotea pulchella, Myrsine lorentziana, Citharexyllum myrianthum, Ilex dumosa, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Guapira opposita and Sebastiania brasiliensis. The species diversity estimated by the Shannon index was 2,174 nats.ind.-1 and evenness (J was 0.684. The forest structure, number of taxa and diversity are similar to other surveys carried out in swamp forests of southern and southeastern Brazil. These parameters must be considered in the environmental licensing and ecological restoration projects of this forest type.

  17. Regeneration of five commercially-valuable tree species after experimental logging in an Amazonian forest

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    Lima Albertina Pimentel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the regeneration variation of five commercially valuable tree species in relation to different intensities of felling in fourteen 4-ha plots in an area under experimental forest management. This experiment was carried out in a typical Amazonian tropical forest sample on "terra-firme," in Manaus (AM. Plots were logged 7 and 8 years (1987 and 1988, or 3 years (1993 before the study. All trees with height greater than 2 m, and diameter at breast height (DBH smaller than 10 cm were measured. Only Aniba hostmanniana, Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, Eschweilera coriacea and Goupia glabra were sufficiently common for individual analyses. These species have high timber values in the local market. Eight years after logging, the species responded differently to logging intensities. The numbers of individuals of Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana were positively related to the intensity of logging, while Ocotea aciphylla, Licaria pachycarpa, and Eschweilera coriacea showed no statistically significant response. In the most recently (1993 logged areas, Goupia glabra and Aniba hostmanniana had higher numbers of individuals than the control plots.

  18. Landscape's influence on assemblages of the Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in an agricultural environment in the south of Santa Catarina

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    Mariana Mrotskoski Niero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Legal reserves aim to conserve native forests and ecological processes, and are able to form heterogeneous mosaics in the landscape. This study aimed to describe and compare assemblages of coprophagous dung beetles to better understand the distribution of species within the landscape. Sampling was conducted in the municipality of Içara (SC in 2014, within environments of native forests, plantations of eucalyptus and corn, and pastures. We used 10 traps to capture live insects at each site, collected after 48 hours. A total of 704 individuals were collected, including 16 Scarabaeinae species, where the most abundant were: Onthophagus catharinensis (n=213, Canthon smaragdulus (n=128 and Canthidium aff. trinodosum (n=112. Bray-Curtis similarity grouped the assemblages of forest environments with each other (78% similarity but not with those from areas with eucalyptus plantations or from open areas. Species with a high individual indicator value were found for forest environments and open areas. The connection area between forests was very important in connecting native forest areas and aiding in the conservation of species. As expected, the results confirm that more preserved environments conserve a greater biodiversity; however, other landscape components contribute to regional diversity.

  19. Investigations on Avocado Leaf Oil

    OpenAIRE

    ŞARER, Engin; KÖKDİL, Gamze

    1990-01-01

    Persea americana Mill.(P.gratissima Gârtn.) (Lauraceae) "Avoca - d o " is a small tree native to tropical America and cultivated in southern Turkey. In this study, the volatile oil from the leaves of P.americana has been analyzed by LSC, GLC and GC-MS methods. A light yellow volatile oil with a spicy odour has been obtained with a proportion of 3.0% (v /w) from leaves of P.americana by hydrodistillation. 11 monoterpene hydrocarbon compounds and 9 oxygen containing monoterpenes and s...

  20. Effect of Massoia (Massoia aromatica Becc.) Bark on the Phagocytic Activity of Wistar Rat Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Triana Hertiani; Agustinus Yuswanto; Sylvia Utami Tunjung Pratiwi; Harlyanti Muthma’innah Mashar

    2018-01-01

    The essential oil of Massoia (Massoia aromatica Becc., Lauraceae) bark is a potential immunomodulator in vitro. This study evaluated the potential immunomodulatory effects of Massoia bark infusion on the nonspecific immune response (phagocytosis) of Wistar rats. For the in vitro assay, macrophages were treated with the freeze-dried infusion at the concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 µg/mL media. For the in vivo assay, two-month-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. The...

  1. Differences in the fragrances of pollen and different floral parts of male and female flowers of Laurus nobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2002-07-31

    The headspace analyses of pollen, whole living female and male flowers, and staminoids have been performed on Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) from Italy to determine whether there are differences in the volatiles emitted in order to give a contribution to the roles of the different flower parts in the pollination ecology of dioecious plants. Also, the essential oils obtained from male and female plants have been studied to evaluate a possible correlation between the spontaneously emitted volatiles and the constituents stored in the glandular tissues. Furthermore, the headspace sampling technique has been improved, with respect to previously employed methods, by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME).

  2. Aproveitamento dos subprodutos da extra??o do ?leo do pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke) para a obten??o de bioprodutos

    OpenAIRE

    Cust?dio, Dayana Lacerda

    2013-01-01

    A fam?lia Lauraceae destaca-se por apresentar esp?cies com grande import?ncia econ?mica, dentre elas Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, utilizada na extra??o de ?leo essencial. Seu ?leo essencial ? formado majoritariamente por linalol, utilizado como fixador na perfumaria. Os subprodutos da extra??o do pau-rosa s?o geralmente empregados como fonte de energia para o aquecimento das caldeiras nas pr?prias usinas. Estes subprodutos cont?m subst?ncias com grande potencial de aproveitamento como biopro...

  3. A newly recognised Australian endemic species of Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson 1998 (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Po; Ding, Zheng Yee; Gullan, Penny J; Cook, Lyn G

    2017-05-26

    Austrolecanium cryptocaryae Lin & Cook sp. n. is described based on adult female morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This Australian endemic species was found on the underside of leaves of Cryptocarya microneura (Lauraceae) in Queensland. All phylogenetic analyses of four independent DNA loci and a concatenated dataset show that A. cryptocaryae is monophyletic and closely related to A. sassafras Gullan & Hodgson, the type species of Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson. The adult female of A. cryptocaryae is described and illustrated and a table is provided of the characters that differ among adult females of the three species of Austrolecanium currently recognised (A. cappari (Froggatt), A. cryptocaryae sp. n. and A. sassafras).

  4. Diet composition of nestlings and adults of the threatened Bolivian Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris boliviana (Aves: Passeriformes: Cotingidae in Bolivia

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    Verónica del Rosario Avalos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of the nestling and adult diet of the threatened Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris boliviana was studied through the analysis of fecal samples.  Nestling diet consisted of 62% fruit and 38% insects but varied according to the nestling age. The diet of adults was made up of 89% fruit and 11% insects.  The fruit eaten came primarily from the trees Schefflera morototoni, Hyeronima moritziana and Ocotea cuprea.  Most insects in the fecal samples were winged-species of the orders Hymenoptera and Coleoptera.  This species relied mostly on fruiting trees from semi-humid forest fragments and isolated trees on mountain savannas.  Thus, management plans for this bird should consider the conservation of these habitats. 

  5. Digging up food: excavation stone tool use by wild capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Siqueira, José O; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2017-07-24

    Capuchin monkeys at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) usually forage on the ground for roots and fossorial arthropods, digging primarily with their hands but also using stone tools to loosen the soil and aid the digging process. Here we describe the stone tools used for digging by two groups of capuchins on SCNP. Both groups used tools while digging three main food resources: Thiloa glaucocarpa tubers, Ocotea sp roots, and trapdoor spiders. One explanation for the occurrence of tool use in primates is the "necessity hypothesis", which states that the main function of tool use is to obtain fallback food. We tested for this, but only found a positive correlation between plant food availability and the frequency of stone tools' use. Thus, our data do not support the fallback food hypothesis for the use of tools to access burrowed resources.

  6. Vegetation structure in the mountain forest in the Turquino National Park, province of Granma

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    José Luis Rodríguez Sosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the Jeringa site of the Turquino National Park in order to characterize the vegetation of a mountain forest fragment with Juglans jamaicensis. Floristic composition, vegetation structure, and the index value of importance were evaluated. Diameter at 1.30 m above the ground and height of all trees greater than 5 cm in diameter was measured. Data were analyzed using canonical correspondence analysis. 776 individuals of 43 species and 41 genera belonging to 30 families, reporting the Rubiaceae family as the richest in species, followed by Amigdalaceae, Araliaceae, Cyatheaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Sapindaceae and Poaceae. The tree species with more IVI were the Pseudolmedia spuria, Oxandra laurifolia, Trophis racemosa, Ocotea leucoxylon, Guarea guara, Dendropanax arboreus and Juglans jamaicensis, mainly due to its abundance in the vegetation, but it was found that the main contributor to the organic weight parameter species was the relative frequency.

  7. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) of twelve ecosystems of Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Holger; Gerschlauer, Friederike; Kiese, Ralf; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the metabolic quotient qCO2 - as sensitive and important parameters for soil fertility and C turnover - are strongly affected by land-use changes all over the world. These effects are particularly distinct upon conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems due to very fast carbon (C) and nutrient cycles and high vulnerability, especially in the tropics. In this study, we used an elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to investigate the effects of land-use change and elevation on Corg, MBC and qCO2. Down to a soil depth of 18 cm we compared 4 natural (Helichrysum, Erica forest, Podocarpus forest, Ocotea forest), 5 seminatural (disturbed Podocarpus forest, disturbed Ocotea forest, lower montane forest, grassland, savannah), 1 sustainably used (homegarden) and 2 intensively used ecosystems (coffee plantation, maize field) on an elevation gradient from 950 to 3880 m a.s.l.. Using an incubation device, soil CO2-efflux of 18 cm deep soil cores was measured under field moist conditions and mean annual temperature. MBC to Corg ratios varied between 0.7 and 2.3%. qCO2 increased with magnitude of the disturbance, albeit this effect decreased with elevation. Following the annual precipitation of the ecosystems, both, Corg and MBC showed a hum-shaped distribution with elevation, whereas their maxima were between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l.. Additionaly, Corg and MBC contents were significantly reduced in intensively used agricultural systems. We conclude that the soil microbial biomass and its activity in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems are strongly altered by land-use. This effect is more distinct in lower than in higher elevated ecosystems and strongly dependent on the magnitude of disturbance.

  8. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

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    Ruben Dario Patiño Uribe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  9. Phyllosphere Metaproteomes of Trees from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Show High Levels of Functional Redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambais, M R; Barrera, S E; Santos, E C; Crowley, D E; Jumpponen, A

    2017-01-01

    The phyllosphere of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been estimated to contain several million bacterial species that are associated with approximately 20000 plant species. Despite the high bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere, the function of these microorganisms and the mechanisms driving their community assembly are largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the bacterial communities in the phyllospheres of four tree species of the Atlantic Forest (Mollinedia schottiana, Ocotea dispersa, Ocotea teleiandra, and Tabebuia serratifolia) and their metaproteomes to examine the basic protein functional groups expressed in the phyllosphere. Bacterial community analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed prior observations that plant species harbor distinct bacterial communities and that plants of the same taxon have more similar communities than more distantly related taxa. Using LC-ESI-Q-TOF, we identified 216 nonredundant proteins, based on 3503 peptide mass spectra. Most protein families were shared among the phyllosphere communities, suggesting functional redundancy despite differences in the species compositions of the bacterial communities. Proteins involved in glycolysis and anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism, solute transport, protein metabolism, cell motility, stress and antioxidant responses, nitrogen metabolism, and iron homeostasis were among the most frequently detected. In contrast to prior studies on crop plants and Arabidopsis, a low abundance of OTUs related to Methylobacterium and no proteins associated with the metabolism of one-carbon molecules were detected in the phyllospheres of the tree species studied here. Our data suggest that even though the phyllosphere bacterial communities of different tree species are phylogenetically diverse, their metaproteomes are functionally convergent with respect to traits required for survival on leaf surfaces.

  10. Plantas lenhosas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Parque Municipal das Araucárias – Guarapuava (PR / Woody plants of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest the Araucaria Municipal Park - Guarapuava (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cordeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das espécies lenhosas da uma área de 41 ha de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM do Parque Municipal das Araucárias, localizado em Guarapuava (PR com coordenadas geográficas 25º 20’ 44” e 25º 21’ 35” de latitude Sul e 51º 27’ 31” e 51º 28’ 16” de longitude Oeste. O patamar altimétrico do Parque fica em torno dos 1070 m.s.n.m., o predomínio é relevo suave ondulado e solo do tipo Latossolo Bruno Ácrico Húmico. O levantamento foi realizado de mar/04 a out/08 com média de uma visita a cada vinte dias. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 77 gêneros e 41 famílias botânicas, distribuídos nas formas biológicas de microfanerófitos (n=44, mesofanerófitos (n=39, nanofanerófitos (n=15, lianas (n=8 e megafanerófito (n=1. As famílias que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: Solanaceae com 12 espécies, Myrtaceae com nove, Fabaceae com oito, Bignoniaceae com seis, Asteraceae com cinco. Estas famílias agruparam 37,4% das espécies, enquanto que as outras 38 famílias responderam por 62,6% da diversidade. Aproximadamente 60,5% das famílias são representadas por apenas uma espécie cada. Considerando o critério a frequência Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss & Cambess. Hieron. ex Niederl., Casearia decandra Jacq., Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke, Jacaranda puberula Cham., Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso, Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees, Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng. H. Rob. e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. podem ser consideradas espécies companheiras da Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze na florística da FOM. Os dados quanto ao total de espécies da FOM ainda são incompletos. Faz-se necessário que levantamentos sejam direcionados aos escassos remanescentes que restam e que o critério amostral estenda-se sobre todas as formas biol

  11. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial potential of Actinodaphne macrophylla leaves oils from East Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. S.; Purba, F. F.; Kusuma, I. W.; Kuspradini, H.

    2018-04-01

    Essential oils producing plants comprises about 160-200 species, one of which belongs to Lauraceae family. Actinodaphne macrophylla is a plant of the Lauraceae family and widely spread on Kalimantan island. For humans, essential oils are used in cosmetics industry, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry. This research aimed to analyze the characteristics of essential oil and potential of antimicrobial activity from A. macrophylla leaves oils. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation method. Antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar diffusion method which compared with two synthetic standards including chlorhexidine and chloramphenicol. Four microorganisms were used in this study were Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus. The obtained oil was determined for its characteristics including the yield, refractive index, and chemical components. The attained components were analyzed using GC-MS. The results of this study showed that essential oils of A. macrophylla leaves contained 0.1051% of yield, clearless, and refractive index was 1.425. Based on GC-MS analysis result, it showed chemical components including spathulenol, 2-monopalmitin, (+)-sabinene, copaen, camphene, and β-pinene. This plant potentially can inhibit the growth of S. aureus, C. albicans, S. sobrinus, and S. mutans with inhibition zones of 17.22, 20.89, 22.34 and 22.89 mm, respectively.

  12. Woody Floristic Composition, Size Class Distribution and spatial Pattern of a Subtropical Lowland Rainforest at Nanjen Lake, Southernmost Taiwan

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    Su-Wei Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A permanent 2.21 ha plot of lowland subtropical rainforest was established at Nanjen Lake of the Nanjenshan Nature Reserve in southern Taiwan. All free-standing woody plants in the plot with DBH  1 cm were identified, measured, tagged, and mapped. A total of 120 tree species (21,592 stems, belonging to 44 families and 83 genera, was recorded. The community structure was characterized by a relative dominance of Castanopsis carlesii in the canopy, Illicium arborescens in the subcanopy, and Psychotria rubra in the understory. The dominant families were Fagaceae, Illiciaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae and Theaceae. However, typical species of lowland area in Taiwan, such as members of Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae, were relatively rare. Thus, floristic composition of this area was comparable with that found in some of the subtropical rain forests or even warm-temperate rain forests of the Central Range in Taiwan. The analysis of size-class distributions of individual species showed good recruitment patterns with a rich sapling bank for each species. TWINSPAN analysis revealed four distinct groups of samples, with the ridge top and northwest streamside plant communities representing two opposite extremes of the gradient. The dominant families of the ridge group were Fagaceae, Illiciaceae, Theaceae, Aquifoliaceae and Lauraceae, whereas those dominating the streamside group were Rubiaceae, Araliceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, and Staphyleaceae. Most species had a patchy distribution and many were distributed randomly. Among those with a patchy distribution, Cyclobalanopsis championii and Rhododendron simsii only occurred on the ridge top, while Drypetes karapinensis and Ficus fistulosa occurred along the streamside. Illicium arborescens and Ilex cochinchinensis were commonly distributed on the intermediate slope. Species that appeared to be randomly or near-randomly distributed over the plot included Schefflera octophylla and Daphniphyllum glaucescens ssp

  13. Dinâmica da estrutura da comunidade de lauráceas no período 1995-2004 em uma floresta de araucária no sul do estado do Paraná, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geise de Góes Canalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies da família Lauraceae estão entre as mais comuns na Floresta de Araucária. Elas possuem bom potencial silvicultural e econômico, mas são pouco estudadas. Este trabalho trata das mudanças estruturais no período 1995-2004 de oito espécies da família Lauraceae ocorrentes em um fragmento florestal localizado no centro-sul do estado do Paraná. As espécies foram analisadas pelos indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos: IVI, abundância, área basal, volume, distribuição diamétrica, distribuição espacial, recrutamento, mortalidade e incrementos. Os resultados demonstraram que, em 10 anos de dinâmica estrutural, a família Lauraceae, de maneira geral, manteve inalterada sua posição de importância na comunidade. Observou-se que as Lauráceas passam por aumento de densidade, porque o recrutamento está sendo maior que a mortalidade. Já o crescimento das Lauráceas tem sido muito baixo, tanto em diâmetro como em área basal e volume. Embora a maior parte das Lauráceas apresente um padrão dinâmico lento, algumas espécies passam por um intenso processo de mudanças, como é o caso da canela-amarela (Nectandra grandiflora Nees & Mart. ex Nees, que aumentou a maioria dos seus indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos, constituindo-se na espécie de maior destaque entre as analisadas. Essa espécie apresenta recrutamento muito superior à mortalidade, distribuição diamétrica decrescente e ampla distribuição espacial. Esses elementos estão tornando essa espécie em uma das três mais importantes em toda a comunidade, juntamente com a araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze e a erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.. Concluiu-se que, em 10 anos, já é possível distinguir processos ecológicos importantes que podem servir como indicativos em Planos de Manejo para Florestas semelhantes de Araucária.

  14. Mercado de madeiras tropicais: substituição na demanda de exportação Tropical sawnwood market: substitution export demand

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    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi abordado o grau de substituição de seis espécies da Amazônia no mercado internacional de madeira serrada. Utilizou-se como base metodológica o modelo de elasticidade de substituição. Os dados usados no modelo são mensais e foram coletados na Secretaria de Comércio Exterior do Brasil (SECEX para o período de janeiro de 1996 a setembro de 2007. As espécies analisadas foram: mogno (Swietenia macrophylla, cedro (Cedrela spp., virola (Virola surinamensis, louro (Nectandra spp. e Ocotea spp., angico (Anadenanthera spp. e ipê (Tabebuia spp.. As elasticidades estimadas indicaram que todas as espécies são boas substitutas ao mogno. Para as espécies que possuem características físicas diferentes, pode-se inferir que fatores de mercado relacionados à garantia de fornecimento do mogno influenciaram os resultados encontrados. Em geral, os resultados sugeriram uma semelhança entre as espécies consideradas nobres (mogno, ipê e cedro para o mercado internacional, indicando-as como boas substitutas entre si.This work analyzed the level of substitution of six Amazonian species on the international sawnwood market, by employing the substitution elasticity model. Data supplied by the Brazilian Department of Foreign Trade (SECEX was collected monthly from January/1996 to September/2007. The species analyzed were: mogno (Swietenia macrophylla, cedro (Cedrela spp., virola (Virola surinamensis, louro (Nectandra spp. e Ocotea spp., angico (Anadenanthera spp. e ipê (Tabebuia spp.. The elasticities indicated that all of the species as substitutes for mogno. For the species which possess different physical characteristics, market factors probably related to the supply guarantee of mogno have influenced these results. In general, the results suggested a similarity among the species considered noble (mogno, ipê and cedro on the international market indicating them as good substitutes among themselves.

  15. Análise estrutural e considerações sobre a dinâmica sucessional de dois fragmentos florestais semideciduais do Jardim Botânico Municipal de Bauru, SP, Brasil Structural analysis and considerations on the successional dynamic of two semideciduous forest fragments at the Municipal Botanical Garden of Bauru, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Ongaro Pinheiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Parâmetros fitossociológicos, como freqüência de classes de altura e de diâmetro, são muito utilizados em inferências sobre sucessão secundária em fitocenoses. Indivíduos abustivo-arbóreos com no mínimo 1,5 m de altura e fuste a 1,3 m, foram amostrados em 2.600 m² de floresta estacional semidecidual do Jardim Botânico Municipal de Bauru (JBMB. Informações sobre as freqüências de classes de diâmetro das cinco espécies com maior índice de valor de importância (Ocotea pulchella, Protium heptaphyllum, Copaifera langsdorffii, Platypodium elegans e Trichilia pallida e a classificação sucessional das populações mais numerosas também foram analisadas para inferências sobre as características sucessionais da comunidade estudada. As freqüências de classes de diâmetro de Vochysia tucanorum, espécie típica de savana, também foi estudada. As informações obtidas permitiram considerar que a floresta do JBMB encontra-se em estádio sucessional intermediário, e que, embora tenha sofrido com a ação do fogo no passado, algumas dessas populações estão conseguindo renovar-se.Phytosociological parameters, as the frequency of height and diameter classes, are commonly used to make inferences about secondary succession in given phytocenoses. Shrub and tree individuals higher than 1.5 m and with a bole length of at least 1.3 m were sampled in 2,600 m2 of semideciduous seasonal forest in the Municipal Botanical Garden of Bauru (JBMB. Information on the diameter class frequencies of five species with the highest Importance Value Index (Ocotea pulchella, Protium heptaphyllum, Copaifera langsdorffii, Platypodium elegans and Trichilia pallida and the more numerous species' successional classification were analyzed to make inferences about the successional features of the studied community. The diameter class frequencies of savannic species Vochysia tucanorum were also studied. The information obtained allowed to consider that the

  16. Physicochemical characterization by AFM, FT-IR and DSC and biological assays of a promising antileishmania delivery system loaded with a natural Brazilian product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Torres, Elina Cassia; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Hori, Juliana I; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2016-05-10

    The control and treatment of Leishmaniasis, a neglected and infectious disease affecting approximately 12 million people worldwide, are challenging. Leishmania parasites multiply intracellularly within macrophages located in deep skin and in visceral tissues, and the currently employed treatments for this disease are subject to significant drawbacks, such as resistance and toxicity. Thus, the search for new Leishmaniasis treatments is compulsory, and Ocotea duckei Vattimo, a plant-derived product from the biodiverse Brazilian flora, may be a promising new treatment for this disease. In this regard, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize a delivery system based on solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) that contain the liposoluble lignan fraction (LF) of Ocotea duckei Vattimo, which targets the Leishmania phagolysosome of infected macrophages. LF-loaded SLNs were obtained via the hot microemulsion method, and their physical and chemical properties were comprehensively assessed using PCS, AFM, SEM, FT-IR, DSC, HPLC, kinetic drug release studies, and biological assays. The size of the developed delivery system was 218.85±14.2 nm, its zeta potential was -30 mV and its entrapment efficiency (EE%) was high (the EEs% of YAN [yangambin] and EPI-YAN [epi-yangambin] markers were 94.21±0.40% and 94.20±0.00%, respectively). Microscopy, FT-IR and DSC assays confirmed that the delivery system was nanosized and indicated a core-shell encapsulation model, which corroborated the measured kinetics of drug release. The total in vitro release rates of YAN and EPI-YAN in buffer (with sink conditions attained) were 29.6±8.3% and 34.3±8.9%, respectively, via diffusion through the cellulose acetate membrane of the SLN over a period of 4 h. After 24 h, the release rates of both markers reached approximately 45%, suggesting a sustained pattern of release. Mathematical modeling indicated that both markers, YAN and EPI-YAN, followed matrix diffusion-based release kinetics (Higuchi

  17. Phenyl propanoids and other bioactive constituents from Nectandra megapotamica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Miguita, Carlos Henrique

    2009-01-01

    From the trunk bark of Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae) four phenylpropanoids, elemicin, isoelemicin, (±)-erythro-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol and (±)-threo-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol have been isolated, in addition to 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, (-)-epicatechin and trans-1(10)-epoxy-4(15)-caryophyllene. The diastereoisomeric erythro- and threo- phenylpropanoids are being reported for the first time in a plant taxon as well as the occurrence of the other compounds in Nectandra. The structures of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. Their in vitro antifungal activities against standard strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans and antioxidant properties were also evaluated in this work. (author)

  18. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Sub-Andean forest at Cuchilla El Fara (Santander-Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Ruth; Reina, Miriam; Herrera, Edna; Avila, Fabio Andres; Chaparro, Omar; Cortes B, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest of the Cuchilla El Fara is present ed. El Fara is located at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor, in the municipalities of Charala, Gambita, and Suaita (Santander-Colombia). Information on habit, local altitudinal range, and collection number is recorded for each species. A total of 409 species of vascular plants included in 226 genera, and 105 families were recorded. The families with the highest number of genera were Rubiaceae (18), Asteraceae (10), Melastomataceae (10), Orchidaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (8), Arecaceae (7) and Fabaceae (7). At specific level, the best represented families were Rubiaceae (33), Melastomataceae (28), Lauraceae (21), Asteraceae (17), Araceae (17), Orchidaceae (17) and Gesneriaceae (15). The affinities of the flora with other Neotropical sub-Andean forests are discussed. Finally, species of all IUCN threat categories are highlighted so that the information presented here can make a contribution to restoration and conservation programs.

  19. Phenyl propanoids and other bioactive constituents from Nectandra megapotamica; Fenilpropanoides e outros constituintes bioativos de Nectandra megapotamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Miguita, Carlos Henrique [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: frgarcez@nin.ufms.br

    2009-07-01

    From the trunk bark of Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae) four phenylpropanoids, elemicin, isoelemicin, ({+-})-erythro-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol and ({+-})-threo-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-propanediol have been isolated, in addition to 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, (-)-epicatechin and trans-1(10)-epoxy-4(15)-caryophyllene. The diastereoisomeric erythro- and threo- phenylpropanoids are being reported for the first time in a plant taxon as well as the occurrence of the other compounds in Nectandra. The structures of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. Their in vitro antifungal activities against standard strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans and antioxidant properties were also evaluated in this work. (author)

  20. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides M. Leite

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward Artemia salina with CL50 values between 9.59 and 253.43 μL/mL. Essential oils from E. uniflora, M. piperita, O. vulgare and R. officinalis showed embryotoxicity on Aedes aegypti larvae with a viability inhibition between 40 and 100%. These results show the bioactivity of the assayed essential oils and phytochemicals and, partially, justify their insertion in further evaluation in order to establish a safe exploitation of their biological potentiality.

  1. Cinnamon and Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Mitra; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family and is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. It contains a lot of manganese, iron, dietary fiber, and calcium. Cinnamon contains derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamate, and numerous other components such as polyphenols and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer effects. Several reports have dealt with the numerous properties of cinnamon in the forms of bark, essential oils, bark powder, and phenolic compounds, and each of these properties can play a key role in human health. Recently, many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, arthritis, and arteriosclerosis, but still we need further investigations to provide additional clinical evidence for this spice against cancer and inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neurological disorders.

  2. Composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma floresta tropical semidecídua submontana em Marcelândia - MT

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Júnior,Elbert Viana; Soares,Thelma Shirlen; Costa,Marcus Filipe Fernandes da; Moraes e Silva,Versides Sebastião

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma área de floresta estacional semidecidual localizada no município de Marcelândia-MT, em área de tensão ecológica, na região de contato floresta ombrófila/floresta estacional. Foram amostrados 4008 indivíduos, pertencentes a 33 famílias e 92 espécies, em 74 parcelas de 10 m x 250 m. As famílias que apresentaram maior valor percentual de árvores foram: Lauraceae (15,99%), Melastomataceae (12,97%), Sapo...

  3. Floristic study in an oak grove of the flora and fauna sanctuary of Iguaque (Boyaca, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Corba, Cesar A; Betancur, Julio

    1997-01-01

    The floristic diversity of an oak Andean forest was studied at the national reserve Santuario de flora y fauna de Iguaque (Boyaca, Colombia). All individuals with DAP > 2 .5 were measured and registered in ten 50 x 2 m transects for a total of 0.1 ha. There were found 384 individuals, 53 species, 27 families and 34 genera; the most species-rich were Ericaceae (7), Lauraceae (5) and Myrsinaceae (5). The results show a forest with low diversity in which a few species predominate; the species with higher important value index (ivi) were quercus humboldtii (34 %), Weinmannia tomentosa (21.2 %), Clusia inesiana (4.8 %), Viburnum tinoides (4.7 %) and Ternstroemia meridionalis (4.6 %)

  4. Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included α-pinene (Ocotea sp.), β-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), α-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and α-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250 µg mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators.

  5. CONSTITUYENTES QUÍMICOS, ACTIVIDAD INSECTICIDA Y ANTIFÚNGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó la composición química de los aceites esenciales de hojas de Ocotea longifolia y O. macrophylla obtenidos mediante destilación por arrastre con vapor, y se evaluó la actividad antifúngica e insecticida de los aceites esenciales para estimar su uso como posibles plaguicidas. El rendimiento del aceite esencial de O. longifolia fue superior al 0,2%, mientras que el rendimiento del aceite esencial de O. macrophylla fue inferior al 0,1%. El análisis de los aceites por CG/EM permitió la identificación de -terpinoleno (80,91% y -felandreno (4,74% como componentes principales del aceite O. longifolia, y espatulenol (15,91%, -muuroleno (15,4% y biciclogermacreno (14,58% como los principales componentes de O. macrophylla. El aceite esencial de O. longifolia mostró actividad fumigante significativa contra Sitophilus zeamais (CL50 280,5 L/L aire. Adicionalmente se evaluó la actividad antifúngica de los aceites esenciales, encontrándose un bajo efecto inhibidor en el crecimiento de los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi y Botrytis cinerea.

  6. Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Bezerra dos Santos

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%. During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage ofRhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armatashowed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus andSenna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida was effective at a 5% concentration.

  7. Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botsaris Alexandros S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The archives of Flora Medicinal, an ancient pharmaceutical laboratory that supported ethnomedical research in Brazil for more than 30 years, were searched for plants with antimalarial use. Forty plant species indicated to treat malaria were described by Dr. J. Monteiro da Silva (Flora Medicinal leader and his co-workers. Eight species, Bathysa cuspidata, Cosmos sulphureus, Cecropia hololeuca, Erisma calcaratum, Gomphrena arborescens, Musa paradisiaca, Ocotea odorifera, and Pradosia lactescens, are related as antimalarial for the first time in ethnobotanical studies. Some species, including Mikania glomerata, Melampodium divaricatum, Galipea multiflora, Aspidosperma polyneuron, and Coutarea hexandra, were reported to have activity in malaria patients under clinical observation. In the information obtained, also, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant. For example, some plants are indicated to increase others' potency. There are also plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompany malaria, such as weakness, renal failure or cerebral malaria. Many plants that have been considered to lack activity against malaria due to absence of in vitro activity against Plasmodium can have other mechanisms of action. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of antimalarial drugs.

  8. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften

    1996-08-01

    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  9. Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, G Coelho; Haas, A P S; von Poser, G L; Schapoval, E E S; Elisabetsky, E

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the species most commonly used in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. A four-stage process of documentation and evaluation was conducted: (a). review of RS ethnobotanical studies; (b). analysis of traditional uses; (c). literature survey on phytochemical and pharmacological data; (d). microbiological screening of selected plants. From the 149 species initially identified, 49 were cited as being used for microbial associated conditions in at least two other regions in RS, and 18 were further selected for screening. The crude methanol extract of these 18 plants were evaluated against seven microorganisms using the diffusion agar test. Extracts from Chaptalia nutans, Cordia monosperma, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Eugenia uniflora, Leonurus sibiricus, Luehea divaricata, Malva sylvestris, Ocotea odorifera, Parapiptadenia rigida, Pluchea sagittalis, Psidium cattleyanum and Senna neglecta were active against at least one microorganism. Although preliminary, these results are useful for rationalizing the use of medicinal plants in established systems of traditional medicine in primary health care.

  10. STRUCTURE OF MAIN ARBOREAL SPECIES IN CRUCE CABALLERO PARK AND ITS FLORISTIC SIMILARITY WITH AREAS FROM ARGENTINE AND BRAZIL

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    Román Carlos Ríos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m. In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze prevail at higher stratum and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C.Burger, Lanj. & Boer, Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart., Ocotea lancifolia Mez and Apuleia leiocarpa J.F.Macbr. follow it. In Ustorthent araucaria is absent and Gymnanthes concolor Müll.Arg., Trichilia claussenii C.DC., Apuleia leiocarpa, Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem. and Sorocea bonplandii prevail. Aracuaria is scarce in Udorthent where Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan, Alchornea triplinervia Müll.Arg., Luehea divaricata Mart., Erythrina falcata Benth. and Myrsine gardneriana A.DC. prevail. A comparative analysis shown Cruce Caballero more similar to seasonal forests than mixed araucaria forest from Brazil.

  11. Coanatomical, developing and comparative analysis of 40 wood species belonging to two associations in colombian Andes highland forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco Tapia Cesar; Grande Pulido Diana Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we conducted a relationship of the timber found with ecological aspects arising from an earlier study of the characterization, structure and floral composition practiced in the Carpatos Forest Reserve, bordering the site from which wood samples were obtained. This comparison shows a strong link between the microscopic anatomical characteristics of vegetal species with the type of association to which they belong. For example, characters such as the grouping form, the type of perforated and intervessel pits, height, number of cells wide, stratification and type of cells that make up the radio and type fiber, show a greater degree of change in the exclusive species of Ocotea callophylla-Weinmannietum pinnatae (OW) association, while the same characters show minor changes in the exclusive species of Clusia multiflorae - Weinmannietum balbisianae(CW) association. The evolution of the timber was identified through an index that suggests the research based on references like Carlquist (2001) and Leon (2001), and its relationship with the plant associations found in the study area is argued.

  12. Atividade inseticida de extratos etanólicos de plantas sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith (Leptopdera noctuidae

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    Sérgio Roberto Rodrigues

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda é uma importante praga na cultura do milho, e o estudo de plantas com propriedades inseticidas para auxílio no controle desta praga tem aumentado devido aos benefícios que pode proporcionar. Desta forma, desenvolveu-se o trabalho com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de extratos etanólicos de Ocotea minarum, Nectandra megapotamica, Mascagnia pubiflora, Terminalia argentea e Tabebuia aurea, sobre S. frugiperda. Folhas de milho foram imersas nos extratos a 1% (peso/volume e, depois de evaporado o excesso de água, fornecidas à lagartas de primeiro ínstar. Para o estudo de biologia, lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantidas em tubos de vidro, enquanto que nos testes de preferência alimentar foram acondicionadas em placas de Petri. Os efeitos na biologia de S. frugiperda foram observados para os extratos de O. minarum, N. megapotamica, M. pubiflora e T. argentea. Tabebuia aurea promoveu maior mortalidade larval. Na fase pupal O. lancifolia, T. aurea e T. argentea promoveram redução do peso pupal. Folhas de milho tratadas com extratos de M. pubiflora, T. argentea e N. megapotamica não foram preferidos para alimentação. Todas as espécies vegetais apresentaram efeito inseticida.

  13. Floristic aspects and diversity of regenerated arboreal species under a stand of Anadenanthera peregrina Speg.

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    Gutenberg de Almeida Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the campus of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais state, in an area of 7.56ha which in earlier times was planted with Anadenanthera peregrina. It aimed to describe the floristic composition of the site so asto provide a theoretical basis to assist future local management interventions. A total of 81 plots, each measuring 10x10m, wereallocated and arranged in such way as to cover as much apparent variation in the physiognomic gradient of the vegetation as possible.All individuals with DBH (diameter at breast height > 5.0 cm were recorded. Each individual had their DBH and height recorded.Diversity was assessed using Shannon, Pielou and Jentsen indices and compared to adjacent areas and to other areas with similarhistory of land use. The sampling procedure recorded 1,180 individuals, distributed among 25 families and 66 species. The familypresenting the largest number of recorded species was Fabaceae, with 16 species (24.24%. The genera presenting the greatest floristicrichness were Casearia, with four species, Machaerium and Rollinia, each with three species, and Anadenanthera, Tapirira, Cordia,Protium, Inga, Ocotea, Miconia, Cedrela and Myrcia, each with two species. The Shannon diversity index (H was 1.47 nats.ind-1,indicating that the local community has low species diversity.

  14. Do variations in the composition and structure of vegetation allow floristic groups to be detected in a subtropical moist forest in southern Brazil?

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    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in vegetation based on topographic location have become an interest of researchers. However, few studies have verified floristic associations related to the topographic position of a slope. In this work, we analyzed if variations in vegetation allow floristic groups to be detected in a subtropical moist forest. The vegetation was sampled in 25 plots of 400 m² distributed systematically, where individuals with a DBH ≥ 5.0 cm were measured. We sampled 1,727 individuals and 144 species. The NMDS ordination segregated three groups based on the topographic position of the slope (Monte Carlo, P ≥ 0.05; ANOSIM, P < 0.001. Euterpe edulis and Sloanea guianensis were notable in the lower and middle sections of the slope, whereas Ocotea aciphylla and Alchornea triplinervia were notable in the upper section. Some species were indicators of the analyzed sectors, such as Actinostemon concolor and Alsophila setosa in the lower section, Cyathea corcovadensis and Rudgea recurva in the middle section, and Myrcia pulchra and Podocarpus sellowii in the upper section. Our results indicate that the floristic and structural variations observed by Veloso and Klein (1959 and Klein (1980; 1984 for Vale do Itajaí in Santa Catarina are statistically valid today, because we verified the formation of different groups according to the topographic position of the slope.

  15. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN TREE COMPONENT OF FOREST FRAGMENTS IN SÃO FRANCISCO DE PAULA - RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Daniele Guarienti Rorato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the influence of the soil and topography in the tree component of the fragments, in around the Divisa Reservoir, in the region of the Campos de Cima da Serra, Southern Brazil. The vegetation survey was conducted in four fragments, with each plot (10 x 20 m performed the identification and measurement of the circumference at breast height (CAP of subjects with CAP ≥ 30 cm. The vegetation data were subjected to cluster analysis. In addition, environmental variables were obtained as an average slope of plots and soil samples at 0-20 cm depth. The correlation between vegetation data and environmental data was performed by means of Canonical Correspondence Analysis. The soil physical characteristics showed no influence on the groups formed and species. In the geldings, the constant presence of cattle influenced negatively the structure of the understory, as well as the chemical characteristics of the soil. Aluminium and aluminum saturation have higher influenced on the predominant species of riparian vegetation as influenced copper and sulfur species present in geldings. Species such as Araucaria angustifolia, Eugenia uruguayensis, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Calyptranthes concinna, Lithraea brasiliensis, Myrsine coriacea, Ocotea pulchella and Sebastiania commersoniana are adapted to riparian and can be used in the recovery and enrichment of these environments.

  16. FITOSSOCIOLOGIA DO COMPONENTE ARBORESCENTE-ARBÓREO DE UMA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL NO VALE DO RIO URUGUAI, SUL DO BRASIL

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    Daniel Grasel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation status of the forests in western Santa Catarina state reflects in a reduced number of conserved areas that enable studies on forest communities diversity and structure in order to create strategies for ecosystems preservation, management and restoration. The objective of this study was to describe the diversity and structure of a forest remnant of Seasonal Submontane Deciduous Forest located in the municipality of São João do Oeste, Santa Catarina state. For the inventory, we demarcated 102 sampling units of 10 × 10 m, continuously arranged in a grid of 6 × 17 plots, in which all plants of the arborescent-arboreal sinusiae with perimeter at breast height (PBH ≥ 15 cm were sampled. We surveyed 1441.18 living trees and 93.14 standing dead plants per ha. The 79 species found belong to 61 genera and 33 families. Sorocea bonplandii , Nectandra megapotamica , Inga marginata , Ocotea diospyrifolia and Trichilia claussenii presented the highest importance value indexes. The Shannon diversity index (H’ was 3.21 and the Pielou equability (J’ was 0.735. The vertical structure of the vegetation sampled was divided into treelets (2-11 m, canopy (12-17 m and emerging trees (18-25 m. The studied forest fragment is an important reference ecosystem for the implementation of strategies for preservation, management and restoration of seasonal forests.

  17. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2007-11-01

    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed.

  18. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    Lenise de Lima Silva

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  19. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro

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    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and

  20. Sucessão vegetal em uma encosta reflorestada com leguminosas arbóreas em Angra dos Reis, RJ Natural succession under a nitrogen-fixing legume trees stand in a hillside at Angra dos Reis - RJ, Brazil

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    Sylvia de Souza Chada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma encosta reflorestada há sete anos com leguminosas arbóreas (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora em Angra dos Reis, RJ, foi avaliada a composição florística e fitossociológica da regeneração natural, comparando-as com as de um fragmento de Mata Secundária situado a 200 m de distância. Foram considerados os três terços da encosta, com declividades decrescentes. Em 12 parcelas de 200 m², quatro em cada terço da encosta, foram amostrados 699 indivíduos vegetais a partir de 40 cm de altura, distribuídos em 25 famílias e 50 espécies. As famílias com maior nº de indivíduos foram Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 e Lauraceae (41. Já as famílias com maior nº de espécies foram Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 e Myrtaceae (5. As leguminosas plantadas não estavam regenerando na própria área. A evolução da sucessão natural apresentou um gradiente de desenvolvimento em razão da menor declividade e menor distância dos remanescentes florestais, com maior densidade de indivíduos e maior riqueza de espécies na área de menor declividade.The floristic composition and natural regeneration under a 7-year-old legume tree plantation (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora was investigated in comparing with a secondary forest 200 m away at Angra dos Reis, RJ. The hillside was divided in 3 parts following the slope. The lower part of the hillside was the nearest to the natural forest remnant. In 12 plots with 200 m² each, 4 of them in each section of the hillside, 699 plants larger then 40 cm height were observed, distributed in 25 families and 50 species. The families with the most individuals were Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 and Lauraceae (41. The families with the most species were Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 and Myrtaceae (5. None of the legume species introduced in the area had produced natural regeneration. The evolution of natural succession

  1. Composição florística do componente arbustivo-arbóreo em dois trechos de floresta estacional semidecidual na Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG

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    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available É grande a demanda por estudos ecológicos em florestas que possam embasar trabalhos de recuperação e conservação da biodiversidade. Entre esses estudos, primordialmente está o levantamento da flora. Nesse sentido, realizou-se o estudo das variações florísticas do componente arbustivo-arbóreo em dois trechos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, floresta inicial e floresta madura, situados na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. As espécies arbóreo-arbustivas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, 10 parcelas em cada trecho de floresta, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP  4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostradas 55 espécies pertencentes a 47 gêneros e 27 famílias. A família com maior riqueza florística foi Fabaceae, com 10 espécies (18%, seguida de Euphorbiaceae (cinco espécies; 9%, Annonaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae e Salicaceae (três espécies; 6%. Na floresta madura foram amostradas 78 espécies distribuídas em 62 gêneros e 31 famílias. A família com maior riqueza florística foi Fabaceae, com 13 espécies (17%, seguida de Lauraceae e Myrtaceae (seis espécies; 8%, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae e Salicaceae (cinco espécies; 6%, Annonaceae e Meliaceae (quatro espécies, 5%, Rubiaceae e Moraceae (três espécies; 4%. O grupo ecológico que mais se destacou nos dois trechos de floresta foi o das secundárias iniciais, seguido pelas secundárias tardias na floresta madura e pelas pioneiras na floresta inicial. A variabilidade na composição florística e na proporção de espécies em cada grupo ecológico foi resultante das variações na intensidade da ação antrópica nestas florestas e do tempo de regeneração florestal.

  2. LA VEGETACIÓN TERRESTRE DEL BOSQUE MONTANO DE LANCHURÁN (PIURA, PERÚ

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    Rasal Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los meses de febrero y marzo de 2008 se realizaron inventarios que permitieronconocer el estado actual de la composición florística y la estructura de la vegetacióndel bosque montano neotropical de Lanchurán (4o38'S, 79o42'W, provinciade Ayabaca, región Piura, Perú. Se siguió el método propuesto por Gentry paramuestreo de plantas leñosas en dos sitios, Los Molinos y La Antena, para un totalde 0.5 ha; éstos fueron escogidos por sus características fisiográficas y florísticas.En ambos sitios el análisis de suelo reveló niveles bajos de materia orgánica,nitrógeno y potasio y niveles medios de fósforo asimilable. Se registraron, en elsitio Los Molinos, 399 individuos/0.25 ha con diámetro a la altura del pecho ≥ 2.5cm, correspondientes a 41 especies, 33 géneros y 25 familias, a lo que se suma unavegetación herbácea conformada por 82 especies, 75 géneros y 48 familias; y enel sitio La Antena, 86 especies, 67 géneros y 41 familias. Las familias presentescon mayor valor ecológico son comunes a la mayoría de los bosques montanos delnorte y noroeste del Perú, entre ellas Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Melastomataceae,Rubiaceae y Solanaceae. Para el sitio Los Molinos el Área Basal fue 89.23 m2,destacando la Lauraceae con la mayores valores de cobertura relativa, Índice deValor de Importancia y Valor de Importancia para la Familia con 38.9, 73.1 y 70.8,respectivamente. Se destaca la acción antrópica sobre la diversidad florística enambos sitios de estudio.

  3. Avaliação rebrota da copa das árvores de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke em sistema de podas sucessivas Evaluation of resprouting of rosewood tree (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke crowns in sucessive prunings

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    Paulo de Tarso B. Sampaio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido em um plantio de pau-rosa com 36 anos, localizado na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus-AM, Brasil, latitude 03º00' 00 "e 03º08'00" S e longitude 59º52'40 "e 59º58'00" W. Foi determinada a biomassa da rebrota da copa das árvores de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae, podadas duas vezes (em 2000 e 2002 e das árvores podadas três vezes (em 1987, 2000 e 20002. Os resultados não indicaram diferenças significativas entre o DAP, altura total, número de brotos/fuste, comprimento e diâmetro dos brotos e peso verde da copa das árvores podadas duas ou três vezes. Os coeficientes de regressão e de correlação de Pearson indicaram que a biomassa da copa das árvores podadas pela terceira vez está fortemente correlacionada com a radiação PAR direta, PAR difusa, PAR total e o índice de área foliar. O elevado número de brotos/fuste revelou boa capacidade da rebrota da copa após sucessivas podas, fato que possibilita o manejo da biomassa das árvores através de podas.This study was carried out in a rosewood plantation (36 years-old located in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, latitude 03º00' 00 " to 03º08'00" S and longitude 59º52'40 " to 59º58'00" W. The biomass of sprouts was determined from twice pruned (2000 and 2002 rosewood ( Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae tree crowns, and from those harvested three times (1987, 2000 and 2002. The results show that there are no significant differences in biomass productions between trees harvested two or tree times for the following parameters: DBH, total height, number of sprouts per bole, sprout length and diameter, and fresh canopy fresh weight. The regression and Pearson correlation coefficients showed that crown biomass from the third pruning was strongly correlated with direct PAR, diffuse PAR and total PAR and LAI (leaf area index. The high number of sprouts per bole reveals the crown's resprouting capacity after successive

  4. Composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma floresta tropical semidecídua submontana em Marcelândia - MT Floristic composition, diversity and similarity of a submontane semideciduous tropical forest in Marcelândia - MT

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    Elbert Viana Ferreira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma área de floresta estacional semidecidual localizada no município de Marcelândia-MT, em área de tensão ecológica, na região de contato floresta ombrófila/floresta estacional. Foram amostrados 4008 indivíduos, pertencentes a 33 famílias e 92 espécies, em 74 parcelas de 10 m x 250 m. As famílias que apresentaram maior valor percentual de árvores foram: Lauraceae (15,99%, Melastomataceae (12,97%, Sapotaceae (12,50%, Fabaceae - Mimosoideae (9,91%, Burseraceae (9,13% e Moraceae (7,29%. Os valores obtidos para os índices de diversidade Shannon-Weaver, de concentração de Simpson e de equitabilidade de Pielou indicaram que a área apresenta diversidade relativamente alta e baixa concentração de espécies com alta uniformidade nas proporções indivíduos/espécies dentro da comunidade vegetal. Os padrões de similaridade florística evidenciaram baixa similaridade entre as áreas avaliadas evidenciando existência de padrões fitogeográficos baseados na distribuição das espécies.The objective of this study was to analyze the floristic composition, diversity and similarity of a submontane, semideciduous tropical forest in Marcelândia-MT, in an ecological tension area in the forest contact region. The 33 families and 92 species specimens were found in 4008 individuals, in 74 plots of 10m x 250 m. The families that contributed most frequently to the floristic composition were Lauraceae (15.99%, Melastomataceae (12.97%, Sapotaceae (12.50%, Fabaceae - Mimosoideae (9.91%, Burseraceae (9.13% and Moraceae (7.29%. The Shannon-Weaver diversity, Simpson concentration and Pielou evenness indexes indicated that the area presents relatively high diversity and low concentration of species with high uniformity in the ratios of individuals per species. The floristic similarity standards had low similarity among the evaluated areas evidencing the

  5. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em hospedeiros alternativos, sob diferentes temperaturas Fertility life table of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in alternative hosts, under different temperatures

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    Hugo Bolsoni Zago

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A espécie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae foi recentemente coletada em plantios de abacate, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, e pode representar uma alternativa no controle biológico de lepidópteros pragas dessa cultura. Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o desempenho de T. pratissolii criado em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae,sob diferentes temperaturas utilizando tabelas de vida de fertilidade. A criação de A. kuehniella foi mantida com dieta à base de farinha de trigo integral, milho e levedura de cerveja, enquanto para C. cephalonica foi utilizada dieta à base de farelo de arroz, levedura de cerveja e açúcar. T. pratissolii foi criado nos hospedeiros, utilizando-se a técnica de colagem de ovos em cartolina azul. Foram determinadas a duração média da geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal de aumento (r m e razão infinita de aumento (λ para as temperaturas de 15; 21; 24; 27; 30 e 33 ±1ºC, com 70±10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. A melhor condição térmica para desenvolvimento de T. pratissolii em A. kuehniella e C. cephalonica foi a 27ºC, enquanto o melhor hospedeiro nessa temperatura é C. cephalonica.The specie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was recently collected in avocado plantations, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, and therefore might be an alternative biological control agent for lepidopteran pests in this crop. Thus, this work evaluated the performance of T. pratissolii parasitizing eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, under different temperature regimes through fertility life table method. The host A. kuehniella was reared using diet constituted of whole wheat meal, corn meal and yeast, while C. cephalonica was

  6. Conhecimento e utilização da floresta pelos índios Waimiri-Atroari do Rio Camanau - Amazonas

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    Robert P Miller

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Os índios Waimiri Atroari têm hábitos e costumes bastantes intactos e retiram da floresta, roça e rio os materiais necessários para a alimentação, utensílios e moradia. Este trabalho objetivou fazer um levantamento preliminar do conheciamento e utilização da floresta pelos índios. Foram inventariados todas as árvores com DAP > 6cm em cinco parcelas de 10 x 20m, localizadas 0,5km da aldeia, ao longo de um transecto abrangendo um gradiente de terra firme - baixio. Foram coletadas amostras para herbário e anotadas informações sobre uso e nome indígena. Em 0.1 hectare foram encontradas 135 árvores de 60 espécies, sendo as famílias mais comuns: Lecythidaceae, Leguminosae sensu latu, Burseraceae, Bombacaceae e Lauraceae. Noventa e cinco por cento dessas espécies eram identificadas com um nome específico na língua Waimiri Atroari e as demais receberam um nome genérico ("wiwe ' que quer dizer árvore. De uma amostra de 34 espécies sessenta e cinco por cento tinham algum uso específico. Estes dados demonstram um alto grau de conhecimento e utilização da floresta pelos Waimiri Atroari.The Waimiri Atroari retain much of their original culture and take from the forest, river, and plantations their food and most of the materials necessary fpr construction, craft, and medicines. This study attempted to quantify their knowledge and use of forest. Five quadrats of 10 x 20m (total = 0,1 hectare were located along a transition from "terra firme" (upland to "baixio" (stream valley. Herbarium specimens were collected from trees above 6cm DBH, and Indian names and uses were recorded. In 0,1 hectare, 135 trees belonging to 60 species were found. Lecythidaceae, Leguminosae (sensu latu, Burseraceae, Lauraceae and Bombacaceae were the commonest families. Ninety-five percent of the species received a Waimiri Atroari name, and in a smller sample (n = 34, sixty-five percent of the species had some specific use. These results show a high degree of

  7. Dendrochronology of species from Brazilian Araucaria Forest, Candoi, PR Dendrocronologia de espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Município de Candói, PR

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the dendrochronological potential of six species of the Araucaria Forest is analyzed. The trunks of 20 trees were collected in Candoi, State of Parana, Brazil, from an area that belongs to
    ELEJOR, Centrais Elétricas do Rio Jordão, for the following species: Araucaria angustifolia, Clethra scabra, Cedrela lilloi, Ocotea porosa, Podocarpus lambertii and Sebastiania commersoniana (3 to 6, from each species. The trunks were sawed, and at breast height a sample was taken from the center of the board, from bark to bark, crossing the pith, for macroscopic analysis. These samples were dried and polished, making possible the recognition and measurement of growth rings The historical climatic data series were provided by SIMEPAR, the State weather institute. The trees presented diameter at breast height (DBH, varying from 14 cm to 40 cm, with age of 60 years, annual diameter increment of 0.6 cm, in average. Although the number of trees was small, it was possible to observe that the site was not limiting for the species, as the growth rings showed very low sensitivity.
    However, the very extreme growth condition of 1999 and 2000, when  occurred a very low precipitation period followed by a very severe winter, was registered in the growth ring series of most of the disks analyzedFoi analisado o potencial dendrocronológico de seis espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM.
    Foram coletados troncos em Candói, PR, em uma área pertencente a ELEJOR, Centrais Elétricas do Rio Jordão,
    sendo três a seis indivíduos das espécies: Araucaria angustifolia, Clethra scabra, Cedrela lilloi, Ocotea
    porosa, Podocarpus lambertii e Sebastiania commersoniana. Os troncos foram serrados, sendo retiradas amostras à altura do peito, da prancha central, de casca a casca, cruzando a medula, para análise macroscópica. Essas amostras foram secas e lixadas, possibilitando o reconhecimento e medição dos anéis de crescimento. A

  8. Composição florística da vegetação arbórea de um trecho de floresta estacional semidecídua em Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e espécies de maior ocorrência na região Floristic composition of trees in a seasonal semidecious forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, and species of greater ocurrence in the region

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    Walnir Gomes Ferreira Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available É grande a demanda por estudos ecológicos em florestas que possam embasar trabalhos de recuperação, conservação da biodiversidade e apoio à legislação ambiental. Entre esses estudos, primordialmente está o levantamento da flora. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a composição florística de um trecho da Reserva da Biologia, em Viçosa, MG, em regeneração natural há 80 anos, bem como realizar uma análise comparativa com outros trabalhos conduzidos na região, fornecendo, assim, informações que poderão embasar estudos sobre recuperação e conservação da biodiversidade dos fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Os dados florísticos foram obtidos mediante a amostragem fitossociológica em 1 ha, pelo método de parcelas contíguas, em que todos os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência de tronco >15 cm a 1,30 m do solo foram amostrados. Registraram-se 130 espécies, distribuídas em 94 gêneros, pertencentes a 38 famílias botânicas. A análise desses dados conjuntamente com de outros levantamentos realizados em trechos distintos da Reserva da Biologia, no campus da UFV, denota a marcante influência de variáveis ambientais locais (topografia, declividade, face de exposição solar e disponibilidade hídrica na distribuição da riqueza florística desse fragmento. Casearia decandra, Guapira opposita, Apuleia leiocarpa, Dalbergia nigra, Jacaranda macratha, Matayba elaeagnoides, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Bathysa nicholsonii, Carpotroche brasiliensis, Luehea grandiflora, Mabea fistulifera, Ocotea odorifera, Sorocea bonplandii e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium foram as espécies de maior ocorrência nos fragmentos estudados na região de Viçosa e adjacências, apresentando potencial para uso na recuperação florestal de áreas degradadas.There is a great demand for ecological studies on forests focusing on biodiversity conservation and establishment of environmental laws. The major need, however, is

  9. Natural regeneration in a quaternary coastal plain in southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest

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    Cleber Ibraim Salimon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Composition, structure and dynamics of an eight year old secondary forest was studied at Reserva Volta Velha (26°04'S; 48°38'W, southern Brazil. A 0.72ha plot was divided into 36 subplots of 20X10m, where all trees/shrubs greater than 1m tall were identified, measured (height/diameter and evaluated (successional status. The results were: (1 95 species collected within 68 genera and 44 families; the most species rich families were Myrtaceae and Asteraceae with 8 species each; (2 the most important species (considering biomass and density were Psidium cattleianum, Eupatorium casarettoi, Ocotea pulchella and Ternstroemia brasiliensis; (3 the most similar area was a fallow abandoned 35 years ago; (4 the higher species diversity were found in border subplots, indicating that most of the species do not tolerate extreme conditions in the center of the opening, and are colonizing the area through the borders.A maior parte das áreas florestais no domínio da Floresta Atlântica se encontra degradada devido a diferentes pressões antrópicas. No intuito de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre relictos de florestas nativas intactas, e também de áreas abandonadas para se obter dados sobre os processos naturais de regeneração, foi realizado um estudo da composição florística, estrutura e dinâmica de uma comunidade vegetal em estágio seral inicial de 8 anos. em Floresta Ombrófila Densa das Terras Baixas, na Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoa-SC, Brasil. Foram utilizados os métodos usuais de coleta, herborização e identificação das espécies encontradas, e a análise estrutural foi feita utilizando-se 36 parcelas retangulares de 20 X 10m, sendo incluídas todas as plantas arbustivo/arbóreas com no mínimo 1 metro de altura. Os resultados obtidos foram os seguintes: 1- Foram encontradas 96 espécies, dentro de 68 gêneros e 44 famílias; as famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae e Asteraceae com 8 espécies cada, e o gênero mais

  10. Padrões de interações mutualísticas entre espécies arbóreas e aves frugívoras em uma comunidade de Restinga no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, RS, Brasil Patterns of mutualistic interactions between tree species and frugivorous birds in a restinga community at Itapuã State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Adriano Scherer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Padrões de interação entre aves frugívoras e espécies arbóreas, com suas variações sazonais, foram determinados em uma mata de Restinga. Foram feitas observações visuais e capturas da avifauna, ao longo de um ano, estimando-se a conectância do sistema mutualístico e o índice de importância das espécies. Também foi elaborada a rede de interações do sistema e feita a análise da variação das interações entre as estações do ano. Foram registradas 18 espécies animais e 11 vegetais interagindo, com uma conectância de 25,3%. Turdus amaurochalinus e T. rufiventris apresentaram maior número de visitas, interagiram com a maioria das espécies arbóreas e tiveram o maior índice de importância, sendo caracterizadas como as principais dispersoras em potencial. Ocotea pulchella e Myrsine spp. foram registradas com os maiores números de eventos de consumo de frutos pelas aves. No entanto, Ficus organesis interagiu com mais espécies dispersoras, além de ter a maior importância na dieta das aves. Observaram-se variações na quantidade de eventos de frugivoria ao longo do ano, com um aumento significativo na primavera. Além disso, verificou-se um aumento nas espécies frugívoras durante a primavera e verão, bem como no número de espécies arbóreas visitadas nessas estações.Interaction patterns between frugivorous birds and tree species, with seasonal variations, were determined in a restinga forest. Visual observations and bird captures were performed throughout a year, estimating the connectance of the mutualistic system and the importance index of species. The interaction network of the system was also worked out and seasonal variation in these interactions was analyzed. Eighteen animal species and 11 tree species were recorded as interacting, with a connectance of 25.3%. Turdus amaurochalinus and T. rufiventris had the highest number of visits, interacted with most tree species and had the highest importance index

  11. Estrutura arbórea da Floresta Ombrófila Densa Altomontana de serras do Sul do Brasil Tree component structure of tropical upper montane rain forests in Southern Brazil

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    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve os objetivos de agrupar informações sobre a estrutura arbórea da floresta altomontana da Serra do Mar paranaense e de compará-las com as de florestas altomontanas de outras serras do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizados levantamentos fitossociológicos em diversas montanhas de quatro importantes serras (ou subserras do Paraná. Nas quatro subserras foram amostrados 2294 indivíduos (PAP > 10 cm pertencentes a 28 famílias, 43 gêneros e 78 espécies. Foi observada maior riqueza de espécies na amostragem da Serra Gigante (41 espécies, seguida pelas serras da Prata (37, da Igreja (34 e do Ibitiraquire (26. A altura média obtida para os indivíduos foi de 4,8 m, o PAP médio de 22,9 cm, a densidade média de 4779 ind/ha, a área basal média de 33,5 m²/ha e o índice de diversidade de Shannon total de 2,68 nat/ind. Agrupando informações de estudos realizados em outras subserras paranaenses, totalizando 11 levantamentos e 204 parcelas (10200 m², obteve-se uma matriz com 75 espécies determinadas, onde as cinco com maior porcentagem de importância estrutural foram Ilex microdonta, Siphoneugena reitzii, Drimys angustifolia, Ocotea porosa e Ilex chamaedrifolia. Os trechos amostrados na Serra do Mar do Paraná, apresentaram menor riqueza e diversidade que os da Serra da Mantiqueira (MG e maior que os dos Aparados da Serra Geral (SC. Tais diferenças, possivelmente, estão relacionadas às influências antrópicas, das distâncias geográficas, dos diferentes centros de endemismo, dos entornos tropicais ou subtropicais dominantes, das feições geomorfológicas, entre outros fatores.The aims of this study were: (1 to group information about the tree structure of the upper montane rain forest of Serra do Mar in the state of Paraná (PR, Southern Brazil; and (2 to compare this information with available data from other mountain ranges in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. In the four mountain ranges studied, 2294

  12. Análise fitossociológica de um remanescente de vegetação na microbacia do Córrego Criminoso (Bacia do Rio Taquari, Coxim, MS, Brasil: subsídios para a recomposição da vegetação Phytosociological analysis of a vegetation remnant in the Córrego Criminoso Basin (Taquari River Basin, Coxim District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: data for vegetation recovery studies

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    Adriana Maria Güntzel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise florística e fitossociológica preliminar em um remanescente de vegetação na área de entorno do Córrego Criminoso, visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recomposição da vegetação. A área total do remanescente foi determinada com o auxílio de GPS e dos programas Pathfinder e Autocad. Amostragens de indivíduos com CAP maior ou igual a 20 cm foram realizadas em 20 parcelas de 300 m² distribuídas na área. Foram encontradas 26 famílias botânicas contendo 36 gêneros e 49 espécies. A família Leguminosae foi a mais rica em espécies, seguida da família Annonaceae. A espécie Xylopia aromatica foi a mais freqüente, apresentando valores de IVI e IVC de 99,77 e 85,73, respectivamente. Observou-se que mais de 50% das espécies presentes na área são pioneiras ou secundárias, sendo cinco consideradas típicas de matas ciliares: Tapirira guianenses, Cecropia pachystachya, Terminalia argentea, Ocotea pulchellae e Luehea grandiflora. O remanescente de vegetação do entorno do Córrego Criminoso encontra-se fortemente degradado, necessitando de ações de manejo específicos nos fragmentos vegetados e nas áreas destituídas de vegetação, cujas recomendações são propostas.The aim of this study was to complete a preliminary, floristic, phytosociological analyses of a vegetation remnant in the Criminoso Stream Basin, in order to provide data for future projects focusing on vegetation recovery. The total area of the remnant was determined using a GPS and the software Pathfinder and Autocad. Samples of individuals larger or equal to 20 cm CBH were made in 20 quadrats that were 300 m². Thirty-six genera and 49 species, within 26 botanical families, were found. The family Leguminosae was the richest in species, followed by the Annonaceae. Xylopia aromatica was the most frequent species, presenting values of IVI and IVC of 99.77 and 85.73, respectively. More than 50% of the species present

  13. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl. Cylindrosympodioides gen. nov.) on Brabejum stellatifolium, Sclerostagonospora ericae (on Erica sp.), Setophoma cyperi (on Cyperus sphaerocephala), and Phaeosphaeria breonadiae (on Breonadia microcephala). Novelties described from Robben Island (South Africa) include Wojnowiciella cissampeli and Diaporthe cissampeli (both on Cissampelos capensis), Phaeotheca salicorniae (on Salicornia meyeriana), Paracylindrocarpon aloicola (incl. Paracylindrocarpon gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Libertasomyces myopori (incl. Libertasomyces gen. nov.) on Myoporum serratum. Several novelties are recorded from La Réunion (France), namely Phaeosphaeriopsis agapanthi (on Agapanthus sp.), Roussoella solani (on Solanum mauritianum), Vermiculariopsiella acaciae (on Acacia heterophylla), Dothiorella acacicola (on Acacia mearnsii), Chalara clidemiae (on Clidemia hirta), Cytospora tibouchinae (on Tibouchina semidecandra), Diaporthe ocoteae (on Ocotea obtusata), Castanediella eucalypticola, Phaeophleospora eucalypticola and Fusicladium eucalypticola (on Eucalyptus robusta), Lareunionomyces syzygii (incl. Lareunionomyces gen. nov.) and Parawiesneriomyces syzygii (incl. Parawiesneriomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium jambos. Novel taxa from the USA include Meristemomyces arctostaphylos (on Arctostaphylos patula

  14. Composição florística de dois trechos em diferentes etapas serais de uma floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Floristic composition of two sites different seral stages of semideciduous seasonal montane forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

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    Rogério Ferreira Ribas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em dois trechos de floresta semidecídua, com diferentes estádios de sucessão secundária, localizada no município de Viçosa-MG, objetivando verificar variações qualitativas na composição florística. Foram demarcadas, em cada trecho, dez parcelas de 10 x 20 m, nas quais foram inventariados todos os indivíduos lenhosos com circunferência à altura de 130 cm do solo maior ou igual a 5 cm. A similaridade florística entre as parcelas foi avaliada por meio de análise de agrupamentos, utilizando o índice de Sørensen. Foram amostradas 67 espécies no trecho com 15 anos e 69 no trecho com 30 anos. Dentre as espécies exclusivas, 38 foram para o trecho com 15 anos e 40 para o trecho com 30 anos. As famílias Annonaceae, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae e Sapindaceae, com cinco, quatro e quatro espécies cada, respectivamente, e o gênero Nectandra, com duas espécies, foram os taxa mais bem representados no trecho com 15 anos. Por outro lado, as famílias Flacourtiaceae, Meliaceae e Myrtaceae, com quatro, três e quatro espécies, respectivamente, e o gênero Ocotea, com três espécies, foram mais bem representados no trecho com 30 anos. A similaridade florística entre parcelas de um mesmo trecho foi considerada alta, tendo sido relacionada à proximidade espacial, o que implica históricos de perturbação e regeneração semelhantes, resultando, conseqüentemente, em composições florísticas mais similares e mesmo estádio de sucessão secundária.This study was carried out in two sites of a semideciduous forest, under different stages of secondary succession in Viçosa, MG to verify qualitative variations in floristic composition. In each site, ten plots of 10 m x 20 m were delimited, with all woody individuals with circumference at 130 cm height from the soil larger than or equal to 5 cm being listed. Floristic similarity among parcels was evaluated through clustering analysis, using the S

  15. Fitossociologia de uma área de floresta estacional perenifólia na fazenda Amoreiras, Querência, MT Seasonal perennial forest site phytossociology in the amareiras farm, Querência, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

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    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As florestas do sul da Amazônia, onde se encontra a Floresta Estacional Perenifólia, têm grande influência sobre a manutenção do equilíbrio físico regional e são as que mais estão ameaçadas pela ação antrópica, além de serem pouco conhecidas em relação à sua estrutura. Diante disso, objetivou-se estudar a estrutura fitossociológica de um trecho de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia na Bacia do Rio das Pacas em Querência, MT. A amostragem da vegetação consistiu na distribuição de 200 pontos quadrantes, sendo amostrados os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura de 1,30 m do solo (DAP ? 10 cm. A densidade total da área amostrada foi de 736 ind./ha, distribuídos em 58 espécies, 45 gêneros e 31 famílias. As espécies de maior Valor de Importância (VI, Ocotea leucoxylon (Sw. Laness., Trattinickia glaziovii Swart, Ouratea discophora Ducke, Xylopia amazonica R.E. Fr. e Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. corresponderam a 28,45% do VI total e também ocorreram em outros trechos de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia em Gaúcha do Norte, MT, porém não com a mesma representatividade. O índice de Shannon (3,51 pode ser considerado baixo por se tratar de Floresta Amazônica, mas a equabilidade de Pielou (0,86 evidenciou que a comunidade arbórea apresentava alta heterogeneidade florística.The Southern Amazon forests, where the Seasonal Perennial Forest occurs, has great influence on the maintenance of the regional physical equilibrium and they are among forests most threatened by anthropic action and are little known in relation to their structure. In this context, the objective of this work was to study phytosociological structure of a Seasonal Perennial Forest area in the Rio das Pacas Basin at Querência, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The vegetation sampling was composed of the distribution of 200 center quarter points, all individuals with DAP (diameter to height breast equal or superior to 10 cm were considered. The total density of

  16. Aspectos florísticos e fitossociológicos de um trecho de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia na Fazenda Trairão, Bacia do rio das Pacas, Querência-MT Floristic and phytosociological aspects of a Seasonal Evergreen Forest area in the Trairão Farm, rio das Pacas Basin, Querência-MT

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    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A borda sul da região amazônica apresenta um tipo peculiar de floresta, denominada de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia, que atualmente vem sofrendo severos impactos ambientais devido à expansão da fronteira agrícola no Norte do Estado de Mato Grosso. Diante da falta de estudos neste tipo florestal, objetivou-se identificar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um trecho florestal na Fazenda Trairão em Querência-MT. A amostragem da vegetação consistiu na distribuição de 200 pontos-quadrantes, sendo considerados os quatro indivíduos mais próximos de cada ponto que tivessem DAP (diâmetro à altura do peito igual ou superior a 10 cm. A densidade total foi de 728 ind./ha, distribuídos em 49 espécies, 39 gêneros e 24 famílias. A família que apresentou maior riqueza foi Fabaceae (cinco espécies, seguida por Burseraceae e Euphorbiaceae, cada uma com quatro espécies, consideradas também as mais ricas em trechos de Floresta Amazônica. As espécies de maior Valor de Importância (VI foram Ocotea leucoxylon (Sw. Laness., Xylopia amazonica R.E. Fr., Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC., Chaetocarpus echinocarpus (Baill. Ducke e Protium pilosissimum Engl., mas não tiveram a mesma representatividade em outros trechos de Floresta Estacional Perenifólia, evidenciando diferenças estruturais desta unidade fitogeográfica. A comunidade avaliada possui porte fino, pois a maioria dos indivíduos concentra-se nas classes de diâmetro entre 10 e 14,9 cm e altura entre 10,6 e 16,5 m. O índice de Shannon (3,17 é considerado baixo por se tratar de floresta amazônica, na qual a diversidade é superior a 4,0.The southern border of the Amazon region presents a peculiar type of forest called Seasonal Evergreen Forest, which has currently undergone several environmental impacts due to the agriculture frontier expansion from the Northern state of Mato Grosso. Due to the lack of studies on this type of forest

  17. Biodiversidad florística del Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali

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    Víctor Araujo Abanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue la clasificación taxonómica y descripciones botánicas de 36 especies (23 familias y 33 géneros, árboles, arbustos, lianas y hierbas en el Jardín Botánico y Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali. De las 36 especies, 6 son ornamentales: Sanchezia tigrina, Crinum augustum, Sansevieria trifasciata, Dracaena fragans, Costus guanaiensis y Vitex cymosa; Rhynchosia phaseoloides cuyas semillas son cotizadas como artesanal; 7 podrían tener uso ornamental: Tabernaemontana heteropylla, Sparattosperma leucanthum, Cayaponia ophthalmica, Gurania eriantha, Gurania spinulosa, Stigmaphyllon florosum y Capirona decorticans; 3 son medicinales: Euphorbia umbellata (tratamiento del cáncer y otros males, Uncaria guianensis (refuerza el sistema inmunológico y Pilocarpus peruvianus contiene Pilocarpina de uso oftalmológico; Pourouma guianensis tiene fuerte olor a mentol; 3 con frutos alimenticios Tamarindus indica, Bunchosia armeniaca y Physalis angulata, conteniendo este último alto contenido en pro vitamina A; 10 son maderables: Dipteryx odorata, Vitex cymosa, Tectona grandis, Ocotea bofo, Perebea xanthochyma, Virola pavonis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Capirona decorticans, Guazuma ulmifolia y Bambusa arundinacea; Pueraria phaseoloides usado como forraje, en el Jardín Botánico está como maleza al igual que Davilla nítida y Urena lobata, que podría servir como ornamental, su corteza tiene propiedades similares al yute verdadero; Cecropia membranácea, C. concolor, C. sciadophylla y Gouania lupuloides que pueden servir como alimento de la fauna silvestre.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2010-04-12

    The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of

  19. Paula, RS, Brasil

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is part of studies and researches developed at Long Duration Ecological Project - PELD/CNPq, located in São Francisco de Paula’s National Forest (FLONA, RS. The objective of this paper was to identify and to characterize the different stages of succession in mixed rainy forest remains. The work had been accomplished in ten permanent conglomerates of 100m x 100m (10.000m2, which were divided into ten strips of 10m x 100m (1.000m2 and these ones subdivided into ten subunits of 10m x 10m (100m2. In this research, a strip of 10m x 100m was selected for each conglomerate, totaling 100 subunits (stands, where it had been installed, at DBH height, dendrometric bands in all trees with CBH ≥ 30cm, for annual diameters measurement. The cluster analysis was accomplished through the Twinspan program, using a data matrix with ninety-nine stands (one of those was unconsidered by the absence of individuals with CBH ≥ 30cm having as variable the annual increment in diameter (obtained in two years of observations of sixty nine species. Three floristic groups was obtained, indicating stages of succession in the forest: a group separated a less developed stage of succession denominated secondary forest, being Nectandra megapotamica and Cryptocaria aschersoniana the indicative species; a second group indicated an intermediate stage of succession in the forest, being Sebastiania commersoniana and Ocotea pulchella the indicative species; and a third group of primary forest, whose indicative species was Araucaria angustifolia.

  20. ASPECTOS FITOSSOCIOLÓGICOS DE FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL, SANTA MARIA, RS

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo da vegetação em fragmento de floresta estacional decidual em processo de sucessão, em área da Associação Tabor (29o43'S; 53o47'W, no município de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil. Utilizaram-se dezesseis unidades amostrais de 10 x 20 m distribuídas de forma sistemática para avaliação (medição e identificação dos indivíduos com Circunferência à Altura do Peito (CAP igual ou maior de 30 cm e subunidades circulares com raios de 1,78 m para identificação e contagem da regeneração (indivíduos menores de 30 cm. Observou-se a ocorrência de 64 espécies arbóreas e arbustivas de 54 gêneros e 31 famílias. As espécies com maior valor de importância foram Myrocarpus frondosus, Cupania vernalis, Ocotea puberula, Patagonula americana, Casearia sylvestris, Luehea divaricata, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Helietta apiculata. Na regeneração, as espécies com maior densidade de indivíduos foram Trichilia elegans, Nectandra megapotamica, Actinostemon concolor, Piper gaudichaudianum, Cupania vernalis, Hybanthus bigibbosus, Aiouea saligna e Parapiptadenia rigida. Constatou-se o contínuo processo de sucessão por meio da substituição de espécies nos estratos da floresta e algumas bem-representadas desde a regeneração até o estrato superior.

  1. INFLUÊNCIA DOS FATORES EDÁFICOS NA VARIAÇÃO FLORÍSTICA DE FLORESTA ESTACIONAL SEMIDECIDUAL, EM VIÇOSA, MG

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    Antonio Jorge Tourinho Braga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a possível correlação dos fatores edáficos na distribuição dos indivíduos de espécies arbóreas e a similaridade florística entre as populações, em dois trechos distintos de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, em Viçosa, MG (20°46' S e 42°52' W. No trabalho, foram amostrados os indivíduos arbóreos superiores ou iguais a 15 cm (CAP, presentes em 20 parcelas de 25×10 m, estando metade dessas alocadas (10 em cada trecho de floresta. Na área das parcelas, foram coletadas amostras de solo (0-10 cm e submetidas às análises química e física. Os resultados dos atributos físicos e químicos do solo indicaram variações conforme as mudanças na topografia do terreno. A análise de correspondência canônica (CCA indicou correlação significativa entre a distribuição das espécies arbóreas avaliadas no perfil topográfico e a fertilidade do solo, enquanto a comparação entre as espécies pertencentes às florestas inicial e avançada apontou baixa similaridade florística. Verificou-se ainda que espécies como Casearia arborea, Ocotea laxa, Myrcia fallax, Siparuna guianensis, Apuleia leiocarpa, Matayba elaeagnoides e Sparattosperma leucanthum estão associadas a solos argilosos mais ácidos, de encostas e com maior teor de alumínio, permitindo o uso delas em programas de recuperação ambiental.

  2. FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DO COMPONENTE ARBÓREO E ANÁLISE AMBIENTAL DE UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA ALTO-MONTANA NO MUNICÍPIO DE PAINEL, SC

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The highland Araucaria Forest is a little-studied forest formation, occurring in altitudes above 1,000 m. The objectives of this study were to understand the structural and floristic patterns of the tree component of a remaining of this forest in the southern plateau region of Santa Catarina State and to determine the environmental variables that influence these patterns. The tree component survey and the environmental data collection were conducted in 50 plots of 200 m2. Within these plots, all living trees with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 15,7 cm were measured (CBH and height and identified. In each plot, environmental variables related to soils physical and chemical traits, topography and canopy cover were collected. Phytosociological parameters and the diameter structure (whole tree community and tree populations with the importance value above 5 % were calculated. The floristic-structural similarities among plots were analyzed by NMDS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling and vectors of environmental variables (p < 0.05 were plotted a posteriori. A total of 50 tree species were identified, distributed in 33 genera and 20 families. The species with the highest VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze (17.32 %, Myrceugenia euosma (O. Berg D. Legrand (15.24 % and Acca sellowiana (O. Berg Burret (7.84 % . The diameter structure of the whole community and of the study populations (except Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. showed a distribution close to the “inverted J”. The NMDS analysis showed a higher percentage of clay in the plots with the highest density of Acca sellowiana and lowest percentage in the plots with high density of Dicksonia sellowiana, Inga lentiscifolia Benth. and Ocotea pulchella Mart. Plots with higher declivity had a higher density of Drimys brasiliensis Miers and those of lower declivity, higher elevation and greater canopy closure, had a higher occurrence of Drimys angustifolia Miers, Prunus myrtifolia (L

  3. Deposição de nutrientes pela serapilheira em um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual no Rio Grande do Sul

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    Joseane Savian Marafiga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do aporte de nutrientes das espécies que compõem a Floresta Estacional Decidual é ainda incipiente. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar a deposição de nutrientes pela serapilheira de diferentes espécies, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual, no município de Itaara, RS. Para a coleta de serapilheira, foram demarcadas seis parcelas de 25,0 m x 17,0 m cada, sendo distribuídos cinco coletores em cada parcela. As coletas de serapilheira foram realizadas mensalmente, no período de janeiro de 2006 a dezembro de 2007. A serapilheira foi separada em folhas, galhos finos (diâmetro < 0,5 cm e miscelânea (flores, frutos, sementes e restos vegetais não identificáveis. As folhas foram separadas de acordo com as espécies mais representativas da floresta. O material foi analisado quanto aos teores de macro e micronutrientes. A concentração de nutrientes diferiu entre as espécies. A maior transferência de nutrientes ocorreu por meio da fração folhas, seguido pelos galhos finos e miscelânea. Dentre as espécies avaliadas, a espécie Parapiptadenia rigida apresentou a maior transferência de nutrientes, com exceção do Mn, o qual foi mais transferido pela espécie Matayba elaeagnoides, juntamente com a espécie Ocotea pulchella.

  4. Dinâmica de crescimento de espécies de um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista em Colombo, PR

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    Aline Canetti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos visando o uso adequado dos recursos da floresta são indispensáveis para o manejo e conservação de remanescentes florestais, como os da Floresta Ombrófila Mista. Tendo em vista a necessidade de se aprimorar conhecimentos sobre o crescimento de espécies em regiões subtropicais, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo monitorar o crescimento diamétrico intra-anual de espécies arbóreas em Colombo, Paraná. Em novembro de 2009 foram instaladas faixas dendrométricas em árvores adultas (de 15 a 25 indivíduos de 9 espécies dentre as mais frequentes em um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista. As medições de incremento diamétrico foram feitas mensalmente, até junho de 2011. Ocotea bicolor se diferenciou das outras espécies, apresentando crescimento superior e constante. Isto pode ser atribuído ao menor recobrimento da copa das árvores, favorecendo o acesso à luz pela espécie e consequentemente o seu crescimento. O maior crescimento de todas as espécies estudadas ocorreu no outono de 2011, estação antecedida por um inverno de baixa precipitação (inverno de 2010, em que a luminosidade esteve mais disponível para a produção fotossintética.

  5. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-01-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:26157114

  6. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST FRAGMENT IN IBITURUNA COUNTY, MG

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    Vagner Fernandes da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey describing the physiognomic structure and the species composition and diversityof the tree community was carried out in a fragment of tropical semideciduous forest. The forestfragment, with an area of 57ha, is situated at 21 °09’S of latitude and 44 °50’W of longitude, in Ibiturunacounty, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The surveys were carried out in two sectors of the fragment,Slope and Valley, where 26 (20 ×20m plots were located. All trees with diameter at breast height dbh ≥ 5 cm were identified and measured (diameter and height. The survey registered 1008 tree,distributed in 191 species, 128 genera and 54 families; 20 species were added to this total andregistered during incursions outside the plots. The Fabaceae (Leguminosae family stood out for itsrichness of species (30 and genera (18, representing 15,7% of the total species registered. In secondplace, the Myrtaceae family presented 20 species and 9 genera, followed by the Lauraceae family,with 17 species and 7 genera. Other families that contributed with an expressive number of specieswere: Meliaceae, with 11; Euphorbiaceae, with 8; Malvaceae and Rubiaceae, both with 7 species.This floristic profile may be considered typical of the semideciduous forests of the region.

  7. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  8. PLANTAS MEDICINALES USADAS POR LOS COGUI EN EL RÍO PALOMINO, SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA (COLOMBIA

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    EDUINO CARBONÓ-DELAHOZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de registrar conocimientos tradicionales sobre plantas medicinales entre los Cogui o Kággaba en la cuenca del río Palomino, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia, se evaluó el uso de la flora con la aplicación de una técnica etnobotánica cuantitativa. Mediante entrevistas a mamos o sacerdotes-jefes, durante recorridos en áreas silvestres, cultivadas y huertos caseros en diferentes zonas climáticas de la cuenca, se obtuvo información de 189 especies utilizadas, incluidas en 162 géneros y 77 familias, así como el modo de uso y la forma de preparación para el tratamiento de enfermedades comunes. Las familias Asteraceae y Leguminosae registraron el mayor número de especies útiles. La evaluación con el índice de importancia relativa (IR permitió establecer que Ladenbergia moritziana (Rubiaceae, Stevia lucida (Asteraceae, Aniba sp. (Lauraceae, Erechtites hieracifolia (Asteraceae y Carex sp. (Cyperaceae son las especies con mayores valores de importancia. El 89 % de las plantas utilizadas es obtenido de espacios silvestres, lo que sugiere un conocimiento amplio de la diversidad vegetal local y el ejercicio de una práctica etnomédica.

  9. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose.

  10. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS.

  11. Ex situ Conservation Effort through the Inventory of Plant Diversity in Mount Seblat, Bengkulu

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    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Seblat, as part a of Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP, is a pristine and natural mountain, particularly from disturbances and destructions by human activities. Nevertheless, the richness of biological resources especially plant diversity.in this area has not been more explored. The purpose of this study was to conduct an inventory of plant diversity and to determine the plant species composition. The inventory activities were conducted by plants collection along the ascent route. The results were then be maintained through ex situ conservation method in Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG. The study was conducted by exploratory method, from Seblat Ulu Village (641 m asl up to altitude of 1,037 m asl. There were 18 points of plant sample observation with an area of 5 x 5 square meters per point. Plant collection obtained 380 specimens. Five groups of most collected plants were Lauraceae (18 species, Rubiaceae (8 species, Anacardiaceae (6 species, Annonaceae (5 species, and Fagaceae (4 species. In order to enrich the plants collection as well as conduct the ex situ conservation effort, plants from Orchidaceae were also collected which resulted in 33 species. These results were an important initial inventory of plant diversity of Mount Seblat, considering that there was no record as well as very limited current information. When the environment disturbance tends to increase, this information may act as a reference and an initial database to develop plants conservation effort and strategy in the future.

  12. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

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    Man-Gang Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan’s endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract’s free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done.

  13. Spectral and computational features of the binding between riparins and human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Cintia Ramos; Caruso, Ícaro Putinhon; Gutierrez, Stanley Juan Chavez; Fossey, Marcelo Andres; Filho, José Maria Barbosa; Cornélio, Marinônio Lopes

    2018-02-01

    The green Brazilian bay leaf, a spice much prized in local cuisine (Aniba riparia, Lauraceae), contains chemical compounds presenting benzoyl-derivatives named riparins, which have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anxiolytic properties. However, it is unclear what kind of interaction riparins perform with any molecular target. As a profitable target, human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the principal extracellular proteins, with an exceptional capacity to interact with several molecules, and it also plays a crucial role in the transport, distribution, and metabolism of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. To outline the HSA-riparin interaction mechanism, spectroscopy and computational methods were synergistically applied. An evaluation through fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the emission, attributed to Trp 214, at 346 nm decreased with titrations of riparins. A static quenching mechanism was observed in the binding of riparins to HSA. Fluorescence experiments performed at 298, 308 and 318 K made it possible to conduct thermodynamic analysis indicating a spontaneous reaction in the complex formation (ΔG modulating the interaction between riparins and HSA. Site marker competitive experiments indicated Site I as being the most suitable, and the molecular modeling tools reinforced the experimental results detailing the participation of residues.

  14. Ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation in rain forests of low altitude on complex metamorphic

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    Gonzalo Cantos Cevallos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation of the low altitude rain forest on a metamorphic complex, Quibiján-Naranjal del Toa sector, a floristic inventory was carried out, 36 sample plots of 20 x 25 m in the forest in both sides of Toa's riverside. Tree species with d1,3 e» 5 cm were measured, a total of 1507 individuals represented in 52 species belonging to 49 genera and 24 families were identified and evaluated. Both forests were statistically compared in terms of richness, composition, structure, diversity and abundance, with a high alpha and beta diversity. The species with the highest value index of ecological importance were determined. The families Fabaceae, Moraceae, Lauraceae and Meliaceae are the most representative in terms of species and genera. The most important species are Hibiscus elatus, Calophyllum utile, Carapa guianensis, Buhenavia capitata, y Guarea guara, among others, which stand out as the most abundant. Economic occupation was adequate in a few plots and incomplete in most of the sampling units. Taking into account the results obtained, we propose silvicultural actions aimed at sustainable forest management through the application of improvement shorts and the method of enrichment in dense spaced-groups for the rehabilitation and the achievement of the expected multiethane forest.

  15. Improving Indonesian cinnamon (c. burmannii (Nees & t. nees) Blume) value chains for Greater Farmers Incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menggala, S. R.; Damme, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    Genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) regroups some species whose stem bark are harvested, conditioned and traded as cinnamon in an international market. Over the centuries, the species have been domesticated so that now at least six different ones are grown in Southeast Asia countries. One of the species is Cinnamomum burmannii, also known as Korintje Cinnamon, which generates income for most smallholder farmers in Kerinci district, Jambi, Indonesia. Most cinnamon consumed in the world originates from this Korintje Cinnamon products. It is recognized for its unparalleled quality that comes with its sharp and sweet flavor, with a slightly bitter edge. However, international market requirements for product certification and quality standards make it difficult for a farmer to comply. Our research will address issues related to (improvement of) productivity, sustainability and value chains faced by cinnamon producers in Kerinci, to strengthen their product’s value chains. Smallholder farmers are very vulnerable to climate change impacts, and thus empowering the value chains of agricultural products will increase farmers resilience to climate change. The research will analyze the development of agricultural value chains, certification & standards on trade mechanism to help farmers earn a better income and future prospects.

  16. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae

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    Donald Davis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae. Phyllocnistis hyperpersea, new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L. Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea, new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia, new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  17. ETHNOBOTANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FOREST ESSENCES WITH MEDICINAL PROPERTIES USED BY THE XIPAYA ETHNICITY IN THE CITY OF ALTAMIRA-PA

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    Joielan Xipaia dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out an ethnobotanical characterization of forest essences with medicinal properties used by the Xipaya ethnicity from Tukamã village in PA. For this, traditional methods for ethnobotanical surveys were used, such as the application of descriptive and qualitative questionnaires, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indexes, and Pielou’s evenness and agreement of main use (AMU indexes. The most cited botanical families were Fabaceae, Moraceae, Lecythidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Lauraceae. It was observed that the preparation methods weredifferent, and the parts of the plant that were used were also different. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.24. The Pielou’s evenness index was 0.97, and the Simpson diversity index was 0.04. All were considered significant. The species with precious bark (Aniba canelilla, red cedar (Cedrela odorata, Genipa (Genipa Americana, Pink Ipê (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu, Quassia (Quassia amara, and dragon's blood (Croton urucurana were unanimous regarding AMU. Therefore, we observed that the Xipaya community, from the Tukamã village, still hold enough information on medicinal forest essences, the women being the main key holders of these practices and thus contributing to the education, culture, and lifestyle of this community. Keywords: Indigenous women, biodiversity of species, medicinal plants.

  18. MORPHOANATOMICAL LEAF ANALYSIS IN HORTICULTURAL GROUPS OF AVOCADO (Persea americana PLACED AT INIA-CENIAP’S COLLECTION, VENEZUELA

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    H. Ferrer Pereira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The avocado (Persea americana Mill. is the most important species of Lauraceae in America due to its exploitation as food for pre-Columbian and modern cultures. It is a very important seasonal crop in Venezuela based on a perennial fruit tree management. From a selection of 76 accessions (45 cultivars of avocados cultivated at the Germplasm Bank of INIA-CENIAP, a morphoanatomical analysis was performed to identify attributes of taxonomic resolution (diagnostic characters which allow to characterize sets and / or culta. Morphological study was carried out from each accession herborized sample. Information was obtained by freehand transverse leaf sections (epidermis, mesophyll and midvein as well as paradermic preparations, and observed data was recorded in DELTA System. New morphoanatomical characters and discriminating attributes between cultivars were identified and described, especially to discriminate the Mexican group, and a close relationship within West Indian and Guatemalan cultivars was observed due to the variability identified from the latter group. Indument- related attributes were highly informative to discriminate among cultivars, along with the outline, apical angle and projections at the base of the leaf blades, stem cross section and presence of anise odor, progress and joining of the secondary nerve branches, tertiary venation pattern, abaxial contour and thickness of the sclerenchymatous sheath and compaction of the phloem in the vascular bundle, adaxial contour of the median nerve, and thickness, outline and uniformity of the anticlinal walls of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells.

  19. Nectandra grandiflora By-Products Obtained by Alternative Extraction Methods as a Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties

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    Daniela Thomas da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies and underlines the potential of natural products from Nectandra grandiflora that can add value to the forest exploitation. This study shows the effect of three different extraction methods: conventional (CE, ultrasound-assisted (UAE and microwave-assisted (MAE on Nectandra grandiflora leaf extracts (NGLE chemical yields, phenolic and flavonoid composition, physical characteristics as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties. Results indicate that CE achieves the highest extraction phytochemical yield (22.16%, but with similar chemical composition to that obtained by UAE and MAE. Moreover, CE also provided a superior thermal stability of NGLE. The phenolic composition of NGLE was confirmed firstly, by colorimetric assays and infrared spectra and then by chromatographic analysis, in which quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was detected as the major compound (57.75–65.14%. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of the NGLE was not altered by the extraction methods, finding a high radical inhibition in all NGLE (>80% at 2 mg/mL. Regarding the antifungal activity, there was observed that NGLE possess effective bioactive compounds, which inhibit the Aspergillus niger growth.

  20. 5 Floristics and structure of a Mixed Rain Forest remnant on the Catarinense Plateau

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    Carine Klauberg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the floristics and the structure of tree species in the Parque Municipal Natural of Lages, SC, a remnant of mixed rain forest located in southern Brazil. For this, we allocated four plots (40 x 40m and each plot was divided into 16 sub-plots of 10 x 10m. Trees with dbh ≥ 5cm and height ≥ 1.3m were mapped, tagged and measured. The individuals were identified and voucher material was deposited in the herbarium. A total of 46 species were sampled, distributed in 39 genera and 27 families. The richest families in number of species were Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Salicaceae and Sapindaceae. Seven species represented more than 60% of the total of individuals. The specific diversity was H’ = 3.05 nats.ind-1 (J’ = 0.81. The similarity among plots was 32 at 44%, indicating low similarity among plots. The spatial distribution of most of the species is classified as clumped, according to the Morisita index. This forest remains with a considerable richness and diversity with some endangered tree species such as Araucaria angustifolia and Dicksonia sellowiana. Due to its ecological importance for the local flora and fauna and the fragmentation process in the region, this remnant should be considered as a priority area for conservation.

  1. Structural characterization of the gallery forest of the Guisa Agroforestry Experimental Station

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    José Luis Rodríguez Sosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in the gallery forest of the Cupaynicú stream, belonging to the Guisa Agroforestry Experimental Station, with the objective of characterizing its structure. Eight parcels of 500 m2 were randomly raised, in them the species were identified, their height and diameter were measured. The flora was analyzed through the origin of the species and the frequency histogram. The structure of the forest was analyzed through the diametric structure and the Value Index of Ecological Importance, the vertical structure was described taking into consideration the forest strata as well as the preparation of the canopy diagram. A descriptive analysis of the parameters diameter, height and basal area was made to study the parametric structure. The richness of the riparian forest was evidenced by the registry of 25 families, 40 genera and 43 species, as well as the predominance of the Meliaceae family followed by Lauraceae, Mimosaceae and Sapindaceae, which reflects the high timber value, melliferous and ecological of the same. The species Roystonea regia, Sterculiaapetala, Dendropanaxarboreus, Andirainermis and Mangifera indica, determine the physiognomy of the gallery Forest. The trees reach 33 cm in diameter and 18.27 m in height on average, although the presence of trees with 30 m is the most frequent, which denotes the irregular structure of the forest.

  2. Nuevas evidencias de la presencia del Oso Andino (Tremarctos ornatus en las Yungas de Puno, el registro más austral de Perú

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    Gisella Márquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El oso de anteojos Tremarctos ornatus es el único representante de la familia Ursidae en Suramérica. La población más grande y de distribución continua del oso andino en el Perú, se localiza en la ladera oriental de la cordillera oriental, incluyendo al departamento de Puno, donde casi todos los registros de esta especie provienen solamente de encuestas. Se describe aquí dos registros indirectos de la presencia del oso en el departamento de Puno, obtenidos en agosto del año 2009. El primer registro corresponde a una feca, con semillas perteneciente a la familia Lauraceae, encontrada en Yanacocha; y el segundo registro corresponde a unas marcas de garras del oso hallado en Challohuma. Este último representa el registro más austral con- firmado para la distribución del oso de anteojos en el Perú. Nuestros registros evidencian una continuidad en la distribución de esta especie en la vertiente oriental de la cordillera andina, desde el sur del Perú hasta el noroeste de Bolivia. Estos registros se hallan también muy próximos al Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (PNBS, uno de los corredores de conservación más importantes en el mundo, y muestran la importancia de establecer estrategias de conservación tanto dentro como fuera de la zona de amortiguamiento del PNBS.

  3. Plastome Sequencing of Ten Nonmodel Crop Species Uncovers a Large Insertion of Mitochondrial DNA in Cashew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Samar O; Lee, Chaehee; Hajrah, Nahid H; Makki, Rania M; Alharby, Hesham F; Alhebshi, Alawiah M; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K; Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2017-11-01

    In plant evolution, intracellular gene transfer (IGT) is a prevalent, ongoing process. While nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are known to integrate foreign DNA via IGT and horizontal gene transfer (HGT), plastid genomes (plastomes) have resisted foreign DNA incorporation and only recently has IGT been uncovered in the plastomes of a few land plants. In this study, we completed plastome sequences for l0 crop species and describe a number of structural features including variation in gene and intron content, inversions, and expansion and contraction of the inverted repeat (IR). We identified a putative in cinnamon ( J. Presl) and other sequenced Lauraceae and an apparent functional transfer of to the nucleus of quinoa ( Willd.). In the orchard tree cashew ( L.), we report the insertion of an ∼6.7-kb fragment of mitochondrial DNA into the plastome IR. BLASTn analyses returned high identity hits to mitogenome sequences including an intact open reading frame. Using three plastome markers for five species of , we generated a phylogeny to investigate the distribution and timing of the insertion. Four species share the insertion, suggesting that this event occurred <20 million yr ago in a single clade in the genus. Our study extends the observation of mitochondrial to plastome IGT to include long-lived tree species. While previous studies have suggested possible mechanisms facilitating IGT to the plastome, more examples of this phenomenon, along with more complete mitogenome sequences, will be required before a common, or variable, mechanism can be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  4. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS Y BIOQUÍMICAS DE FRUTOS DE CHINENE (Persea schiedeana Nees.

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    J. G. Cruz-Castillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El chinene es un árbol frutal nativo de Mesoamérica y forma parte de la familia Lauraceae. Su consumo, como buena fuente nutricional es reconocido en regiones tropicales de México y Centroamérica. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre su contenido nutrimental. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo análisis de ácidos grasos en pulpa de chinene por dos años consecutivos utilizando cromatografía de gases. Se obtuvieron concentraciones de ácido oleico, y palmitico parecidas a las encontradas en aguacate. Las concentraciones de ácido oleico fueron comparables con las del aguacate 'Hass'. En otro estudio, se midieron morfológicamente frutos de chinene provenientes de varias comunidades de la región central de Veracruz, México. Resultó una gran variación en tamaño, peso, y contenido de pulpa. Asimismo, el patrón de crecimiento de los frutos fue caracterizado por una curva simple sigmoide con un acumulado de 1635.11 unidades calor arriba de 6 oC, desde el amarre de fruto hasta la cosecha.

  5. Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation

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    Putri Narrima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill, which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl. Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM. PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.

  6. Priming effects of leaves of Laurus nobilis L. and 1,8-cineole on carbon mineralization

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    Burak Kocak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary compounds can have stimulating effect on C cycling and change its rate in soils. We examined how leaves of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.; Lauraceae and 1,8-cineole (CIN, one of its constituents, affect soil C mineralization and its rate. Leaves and soil samples of bay laurel were taken from Cukurova University Campus (Adana, Turkey growing naturally under Mediterranean climate conditions. Leaves and CIN were considered as the two forms of organic C sources. After determining the level of 1,8-cineole in leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, soils were mixed with powdered leaves and 1,8-cineole based on their C contents at same and half doses of soil organic C level. Carbon mineralization of all soils was determined over 54 d (28 °C, 80% field capacity. While 1,8-cineole was found as a major constituent of leaves (65% of essential oil, all doses of leaves and CIN increased soil microbial activity. There were significant differences for C mineralization rate between control and all applications (P < 0.05. High C levels of all treatments decreased C mineralization rate compared to control soils. In summary, all treatments stimulated C mineralization and it is possible to conclude that soil microorganisms adapted to use CIN as an energy source.

  7. Structure and floristic composition of the vegetation of the biological corridor between national parks Purace and cave Guacharos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez O, Yitsully; Coca, Ana; Cantillo, Edgar Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    The floristic composition and structure of disturbed and non disturbed vegetation at the biological corridor located among the National Natural Parks Purace, Cueva de los Guacharos was studied based on 16 plots in three localities of the Huila Department, Colombia, between 1950 and 2450 m. A total of 1.5 ha was sampled. The Cyatheo - Cecropion angustifoliae alliance was defined. It includes the associations Ladenbergio macrocarpae - Elaeagietum myrianthae and Guettardo hirsutae - Hedyosmetum translucidi. At the less disturbed areas the communities Helicostylis tovarensis - Alfaroa williamsii, Quercus humboldtii - Wettinia fascicularis and Weinmannia pubescens - Clusia dixonii were found. The community Baccharis nitida and Saurauia pulchra was found in the most disturbed areas. The basal area value per species was similar for all the associations. The community Quercus humboldtii and Wettinia fascicularis showed the highest basal area value, 7.3 and 4.6 m2. Regarding forest tall, an average of 11 m was found in the associations, with values from 10 to 15 m. An average of 13 m was found in the communities, with variations from 7 to 17 m. The dominant stratum in both cases was the arboreal inferior. The importance indexes show an equal representativeness of the species inside each unit, with the exception of the Quercus humboldtii and Wettinia fascicularis community. The best represented families regarding their species number are Lauraceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataceae

  8. Gall-inducing insects of deciduous and semideciduous forests in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Ana Paula M. Goetz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls are specific changes induced by insects on plant organs mainly through increases in plant cell number and/or size. Gall diversity is easy to recognize in the field because gallers are mostly species-specific, and thus each gall morphotype can be a proxy for a galling species. Insect galls are virtually unknown in Seasonal Deciduous and Semi-Deciduous forests of southern Brazil. Here, galls and host plants were surveyed between 2015 and 2017 in four forest fragments of Rio Grande do Sul State in these two vegetation types, in secondary-growth and areas under restoration. We recorded 89 gall morphotypes, with gallers belonging to Lepidoptera and Diptera, with the latter represented mainly by Cecidomyiidae. Galls were associated to 46 plant species in 27 families. Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Lauraceae were the richest families in terms of galls, whilst Piper aduncum and Mikania glomerata were superhosts. Most galls occurred in leaves and shoots. The most common shapes were fusiform, globoid and lenticular. Forty-eight gall morphotype records are new for both Rio Grande do Sul and Brazil, an expressive number considering only two seasonal forest types sampled and few sampling points, showing how important surveys still are for these little know fauna both in taxonomic and ecological terms.

  9. Tree diversity and community characteristics in Talle Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya, India

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    Gyati Yam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a temperate forest for enumeration of floristic diversity and community characteristics analysis of the Talle Wildlife Sanctuary. A random sampling approach was adopted. Altogether, 63 species were recorded from the sampled area (0.2 ha. Family dominance results showed that Lauraceae was the most dominant followed by Fagaceae. Seventy percent of species showed low frequency distribution and species having higher frequency classes were almost absent or represented by only a few species. Dominance distribution of species resulted in a log normal distribution pattern which further signifies that the forest community was heterogeneous in nature. Species Prediction and Diversity Estimation analysis categorized 80% of the species as a rare species group and 20% as abundant species group. Estimation of coefficient of variation showed that rare species have equal detection possibilities in the sampled area. Distribution of basal cover in different girth classes indicates a reverse trend to that of stand density. The results of this study show that the forest community composition is highly clustered and loosely colonized in nature.

  10. Genetic variation within native populations of endemic silkmoth Antheraea assamensis (Helfer from Northeast India indicates need for in situ conservation.

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    Y Tunginba Singh

    Full Text Available A. assamensis is a phytophagous Lepidoptera from Northeast India reared on host trees of Lauraceae family for its characteristic cocoon silk. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. The need to reduce dependence on wild populations for cocoons necessitates assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated and wild populations. Molecular markers based on PCR of Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR and simple sequence repeats (SSR were used with four populations of wild insects and eleven populations of cultivated insects. Wild populations had high genetic diversity estimates (H(i = 0.25; H(S = 0.28; H(E = 0.42 and at least one population contained private alleles. Both marker systems indicated that genetic variability within populations examined was significantly high. Among cultivated populations, insects of the Upper Assam region (H(i = 0.19; H(S = 0.18; H(E = 0 were genetically distinct (F(ST = 0.38 with both marker systems from insects of Lower Assam (H(i =0.24; H(S =0.25; H(E = 0.3. Sequencing of polymorphic amplicons suggested transposition as a mechanism for maintaining genomic diversity. Implications for conservation of native populations in the wild and preserving in-farm diversity are discussed.

  11. Análise florística e estrutural de um fragmento de floresta ombrófila mista montana, situado em Criúva, RS – Brasil

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    Rubens Neto Marques Rondon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to know and analyze the floristic composition and describe the structure of the arboreous component of a fragment of Montane Mixed Ombrophylous Forest in Cri úva – State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Were inventoried 673 individuous with DBH ³ 5 cm eight 10 x 100 m plots, distributed into 37 species, 32 genera and 22 families. The Shannon diversity index was 2,768. The families which presented the largest number of individuous were: Araucariaceae, Myrsinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae and Rutaceae. The forest canopy is dominated by Araucaria angustifolia and the understory, by species of the families Lauraceae and Myrtaceae. The total density found was 841,25 individuous/ha, the mean DBH was 24,01 cm and the highest VI values, in descending order, were: Araucaria angustifolia, Sebastiania commersoniana , Lithraea brasiliensis, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium and Myrcia sp.. The fragment presents a considerable floristic diversity of species, in spite of the suffered disturbances in the past. For the vegetation to reach the floristic and structural characteristics close to the one of the original vegetation it is necessary to avoid the presence of bovine and equine in the area and explorations of the forest.

  12. New methods reveal oldest known fossil epiphyllous moss: Bryiidites utahensis gen. et sp. nov. (Bryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Richard S; McElwain, Jennifer C; Duckett, Jeffrey G; van Es, Maarten H; Mostaert, Anika S; Pressel, Silvia; Sageman, Bradley B

    2013-12-01

    Epiphyllous bryophytes are a highly characteristic feature of many humid tropical forest ecosystems. In contrast to the extensive fossil record for the leaves of their host plants, the record is virtually nonexistent for the epiphylls themselves, despite a fossil record for mosses that begins in the Middle Carboniferous Period, 330 million years ago. Epifluorescence optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to investigate an intimate association between a newly discovered epiphyllous moss and a Lauraceae plant host from the middle Cretaceous. We describe the oldest fossil specimen of an epiphyllous moss, Bryiidites utahensis gen. et sp. nov., identified from an individual specimen only 450 µm long, situated on an approximately one millimeter square fossil leaf fragment. The moss epiphyll is exquisitely preserved as germinating spores and short-celled protonemata with transverse and oblique cross-walls closely matching those of extant epiphyllous mosses on the surface of the plant-leaf hosts. The extension of the epiphyll record back to the middle Cretaceous provides fossil evidence for the appearance of epiphyllous mosses during the diversification of flowering plants, at least 95 million years ago. It also provides substantive evidence for a tropical maritime climate in central North America during the middle Cretaceous.

  13. Floristic and structural analysis of premontane humid forests in Amalfi (Antioquia, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza Cortes, William; Toro Murillo, Juan Lazaro; Lores Medina, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    The floristic composition and the structure of a humid hill forest were determined. The forest is located in the northernmost area of the Colombian Central Mountain Range. The methodology proposed by ISA-JAUM was employed in this study, from a 0.1 ha sample. Moreover, plant material was collected from clear spots, stubbles and grasslands. A total of 421 vascular plants species were found. Two hundred and thirty eight of these come from the 0.1 ha sample and only 150 had DBH> 2.5 cm, which highlights the benefits of the sample method employed, since it was possible to record a large number of epiphytic and herbaceous elements in the forest. In general, the composition matches what was previously reported in similar areas. The families Melastomataceae (32), Lauraceae (31), Rubiaceae (29) and Araceae (15) were the ones holding the largest number of species. New chorological records for the state of Antioquia were reported in this study; for instance, Colombobalanus excelsa (Fagaceae). High density of individuals (388) was found at structural level. The patterns of height and diametrical classes followed the typical distribution of disetaneous tropical forests, in which the largest amount of individuals occur in the lowest classes and few species with individuals having the greatest diameters and heights account for the major ecological weight in the forest. Despite the great diversity documented, these forests are currently subject to an intensive process of fragmentation and loss of coverage.

  14. Arthropods associated with fungal galls: do large galls support more abundant and diverse inhabitants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Daichi; Sugiura, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Fungus-induced galls can attract spore-feeding arthropods as well as gall-feeding ones, resulting in diverse communities. Do large fungal galls support more abundant and diverse arthropod communities than small fungal galls? To address this question, we investigated the structure of the arthropod community associated with bud galls induced by the fungus Melanopsichium onumae on the tree species Cinnamomum yabunikkei (Lauraceae) in central Japan. Thirteen species of arthropods were associated with M. onumae galls. Dominant arthropod species were represented by the larvae of a salpingid beetle (a spore feeder), a nitidulid beetle (a spore feeder), a cosmopterigid moth (a spore feeder), an unidentified moth (a gall tissue feeder), and a drosophilid species (a gall tissue feeder). Arthropod abundance and species richness were positively correlated with gall diameter. The majority of the most abundant species were more frequently found in large galls than in small ones, indicating that large fungal galls, which have more food and/or space for arthropods, could support a more abundant and diverse arthropod community.

  15. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2018-04-05

    Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA

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    Ratih Damayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae; Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae; Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae; Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae. Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.

  17. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P < 0.003). The extent of xylem colonization was recorded as the percentage of lumena that were colonized by the pathogen. More xylem was colonized in avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P < 0.03) but colonization in swamp bay (0.4%) did not differ significantly from either host. Although there were significant correlations between xylem colonization and laurel wilt severity in avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  18. Laurel Wilt in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems: Understanding the Drivers and Scales of Complex Pathosystems

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    Randy C. Ploetz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt kills members of the Lauraceae plant family in the southeastern United States. It is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva, a nutritional fungal symbiont of an invasive Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, which was detected in Port Wentworth, Georgia, in 2002. The beetle is the primary vector of R. lauricola in forests along the southeastern coastal plain of the United States, but other ambrosia beetle species that obtained the pathogen after the initial introduction may play a role in the avocado (Persea americana Miller pathosystem. Susceptible taxa are naïve (new-encounter hosts that originated outside Asia. In the southeastern United States, over 300 million trees of redbay (P. borbonia (L. Spreng. have been lost, and other North American endemics, non-Asian ornamentals and avocado—an important crop that originated in MesoAmerica—are also affected. However, there are no reports of laurel wilt on the significant number of lauraceous endemics that occur in the Asian homeland of R. lauricola and X. glabratus; coevolved resistance to the disease in the region has been hypothesized. The rapid spread of laurel wilt in the United States is due to an efficient vector, X. glabratus, and the movement of wood infested with the insect and pathogen. These factors, the absence of fully resistant genotypes, and the paucity of effective control measures severely constrain the disease’s management in forest ecosystems and avocado production areas.

  19. Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Deepti; Shegog, Rachel M; Ziegler, Gregory R; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    The pulp of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) has been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular health effects. Avocado oil is used for dermatological applications and its unsaponifiable portion is reported to have beneficial effects against osteoarthritis. Although the seed represents a considerable percentage of the total fruit, scientific research on the phytochemistry and biological effects of avocado seeds is in the nascent stages,. Currently, the seed represents an under-utilized resource and a waste issue for avocado processors. There is ethno-pharmacological information on the use of seeds for the treatment of health-related conditions, especially in South American countries where avocados are endemic and currently grown on a large scale. Current research has shown that avocado seeds may improve hypercholesterolemia, and be useful in the treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions and diabetes. Seeds have also been found to possess insecticidal, fungicidal, and anti-microbial activities. The avocado seeds and rich in phenolic compounds, and these may play a role in the putative health effects. Historically, extracts of avocado seeds were also used as ink for writing and research in our laboratory has explored the potential colorant properties of a polyphenol oxidase-produced colored avocado seed extract. Here, we review the currently-available data on the bioactivity and other functional properties of avocado seeds. We discuss the strength of the available data, the putative active compounds, and potential directions for future studies.

  20. Subcellular Lipid Droplets in Vanilla Leaf Epidermis and Avocado Mesocarp Are Coated with Oleosins of Distinct Phylogenic Lineages1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular lipid droplets (LDs) in diverse plant cells and species are coated with stabilizing oleosins of at least five phylogenic lineages and perform different functions. We examined two types of inadequately studied LDs for coated oleosins and their characteristics. The epidermis but not mesophyll of leaves of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) and most other Asparagales species contained solitary and clustered LDs (avocado (Persea americana) and other Lauraceae species possessed large LDs, which likely function in attracting animals for seed dispersal. They contained transcripts of oleosin of a novel M phylogenic lineage. Each avocado mesocarp fatty cell possessed one to several large LDs (5 to 20 μm) and at their periphery, numerous small LDs (<0.5 μm). Immuno-confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that oleosin was present mostly on the small LDs. LDs in isolated fractions coalesced rapidly, and the fraction contained oleosin and several other proteins and triacylglycerols as the main lipids. These two new types of oleosin-LDs exemplify the evolutionary plasticity of oleosins-LDs in generating novel functions in diverse cell types and species. PMID:27208281

  1. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus.

  2. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-11-05

    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia.

  3. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R; Wagner, David L

    2011-05-11

    Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  4. Antimicrobial agents from Licaria puchuri-major and their synergistic effect with polygodial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himejima, M; Kubo, I

    1992-05-01

    The resistance of the seeds of Licaria puchuri-major (Lauraceae) to decomposition in nature seems to be due largely to chemical defense, since its n-hexane extract contains antimicrobial principles in quantity, with a broad antimicrobial spectrum. In order to identify the active principles, the n-hexane extract was steam-distilled to yield a distillate and a residue. Subsequent bioassay indicated that the distillate retained the original broad antimicrobial activity, while the residue exhibited almost no activity. Gc-ms analysis showed that the distillate contained four phenolic compounds, seven monoterpenes, and one sesquiterpene. In contrast, the residue contained, almost exclusively, lauric acid. In the detailed antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds identified, most of them showed broad, but moderate, antimicrobial activity. Some of the components identified in the distillate were combined with polygodial [1] in order to enhance their antifungal activity. Unexpectedly, while polygodial did not synergize the antifungal activity of any of the compounds tested, the antifungal activity of polygodial was significantly increased when combined with aromatic substances such as anethole, safrole, or methyleugenol.

  5. In vitro antiviral activity of Brazilian plants (Maytenus ilicifolia and Aniba rosaeodora) against bovine herpesvirus type 5 and avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, L K; Queiroga, C L; Martini, M C; Barata, L E; Porto, P S S; Souza, L; Arns, C W

    2012-10-01

    Medicinal plants are well known for their use in traditional folk medicine as treatments for many diseases including infectious diseases. Six Brazilian medicinal plant species were subjected to an antiviral screening bioassay to investigate and evaluate their biological activities against five viruses: bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), murine hepatitis virus type 3, porcine parvovirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The antiviral activity was determined by a titration technique that depends on the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 or 2.5 µg/mL) to inhibit the viral induced cytopathic effect and the extracts' inhibition percentage (IP). Two medicinal plant species showed potential antiviral activity. The Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (Lauraceae) extract had the best results, with 90% inhibition of viral growth at 2.5 µg/mL when the extract was added during the replication period of the aMPV infection cycle. The Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad.) Planch. (Celastraceae) extracts at a concentration of 2.5 µg/mL exhibited antiviral activity during the attachment phase of BHV-5 (IP = 100%). The biomonitored fractionation of the active extracts from M. ilicifolia and A. rosaeodora could be a potential tool for identifying their active compounds and determining the exact mechanism of action.

  6. Estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa na mata sul de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil

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    Roberto Felix Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe physiognomy and structure of a Dense Ombrophyllous Forest fragment located in Catende, Pernambuco. All trees with DAP (breast height diameter ≥ 4.77 cm were measured in 40 10 x 25 m plots, systematically installed in five transects. A total of 1049 individuals were observed, distributed in 91 species, 64 genera and 37 botanical families. Mimosaceae and Lauraceae were the families with higher species number, while Anacardiaceae and Moraceae had the highest individuals numbers. Shannon index (H´ was 3.83 nats/ind. Total basal area, height and diameter (average and maximum were 23.59 m²/ha, 13.57 m (± 7.13, 45 m, 13.20 cm (± 10.60 and 127.32 cm, respectively. The species with higher importance values were Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith, Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl. Rusby, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth., Plathymenia foliolosa Benth., Brosimum discolor Schott, Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp., Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers and Cecropia palmata Willd. Diametric distribution had an inverted-J-like curve, predicted for a forest unequal in ages in a secondary succession stage.

  7. Effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, D J; Smith, J A; Ploetz, R; Hulcr, J; Stelinski, L L

    2013-10-01

    Significant mortality ofredbay trees (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) in the southeastern United States has been caused by Raffaelea lauricola, T.C. Harr., Fraedrich, & Aghayeva (Harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, Eichhoff (Fraedrich et al. 2008). This pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. R. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species of Lauraceae and cultivated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the southeastern United States. In this study, we examined the survival of X. glabratus and R. lauricola in wood chips made from infested trees by using a standard tree chipper over a 10-wk period. After 2 wk, 14 X. glabratus were recovered from wood chips, whereas 339 X. glabratus emerged from nonchipped bolts. R. lauricola was not found 2 d postchipping from wood chips, indicating that the pathogen is not likely to survive for long inside wood chips. In contrast, R. lauricola persisted in dead, standing redbay trees for 14 mo. With large volumes of wood, the potential for infested logs to be moved between states or across U.S. borders is significant. Results demonstrated that chipping wood from laurel wilt-killed trees can significantly reduce the number of X. glabratus and limit the persistence of R. lauricola, which is important for sanitation strategies aimed at limiting the spread of this disease.

  8. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Guatemalan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew B; Cates, Rex G; Lawrence, Michael; Soria, J Alfonso Fuentes; Espinoza, Luis V; Martinez, Jose Vicente; Arbizú, Dany A

    2015-04-01

    Essential oils are prevalent in many medicinal plants used for oral hygiene and treatment of diseases. Medicinal plant species were extracted to determine the essential oil content. Those producing sufficient oil were screened for activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans. Plant samples were collected, frozen, and essential oils were extracted by steam distillation. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using a tube dilution assay for those species yielding sufficient oil. Fifty-nine of the 141 plant species produced sufficient oil for collection and 12 species not previously reported to produce essential oils were identified. Essential oil extracts from 32 species exhibited activity against one or more microbes. Oils from eight species were highly inhibitory to S. mutans, four species were highly inhibitory to C. albicans, and 19 species yielded MIC values less than the reference drugs. RESULTS suggest that 11 species were highly inhibitory to the microbes tested and merit further investigation. Oils from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae), Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae), and Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) yielded highly significant or moderate activity against all microbes and have potential as antimicrobial agents. Teas prepared by decoction or infusion are known methods for extracting essential oils. Oils from 11 species were highly active against the microbes tested and merit investigation as to their potential for addressing health-related issues and in oral hygiene.

  9. CLASSIFICAÇÃO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE ESTÁGIOS SUCESSIONAIS EM REMANESCENTES DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA NA FLONA DE SÃO FRANCISCO DE PAULA, RS, BRASIL

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    Artur José Soligo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho integra o conjunto de estudos e pesquisas previstas no Projeto Ecológico de Longa Duração – PELD/CNPq, instalado FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, RS. Teve como objetivo identificar e caracterizar os diferentes estágios sucessionais de remanescentes de Floresta Ombrófila Mista. O trabalho foi realizado em dez conglomerados permanentes de 100m x 100m (10.000m2, os quais foram divididos em dez faixas de 10m x 100m (1.000m2 e estas subdivididas em dez subunidades de 10m x 10m (100m2. Para a presente pesquisa, foi sorteada uma faixa de 10m x 100m para cada conglomerado, totalizando cem subunidades amostrais (parcelas onde foram instaladas, na altura do DAP, bandas (cintas dendrométricas em todas as árvores com CAP  30cm, para medição anual dos diâmetros. A análise de agrupamento foi realizada por meio do programa Twinspan, utilizando uma matriz de dados com 99 parcelas (uma foi desconsiderada por não apresentar indivíduos com CAP  30cm tendo como variável o incremento anual em diâmetro (obtido de 2 anos de observação de 69 espécies. Obtiveram-se três grupos florísticos que indicaram estágios sucessionais na floresta: um grupo separou um estágio sucessional menos evoluído denominado de mata secundária, tendo Nectandra megapotamica e Cryptocarya aschersoniana como espécies indicadoras; um segundo grupo indicando um estágio sucessional intermediário da floresta, com Sebastiania commersoniana e Ocotea pulchella como espécies indicadoras; e um terceiro grupo constituído da floresta primária cuja espécie indicadora foi Araucaria angustifolia.

  10. Classificação e caracterização de estágios sucessionais em remanescentes de Floresta Ombrófila Mista na Flona de São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil.

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    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho integra o conjunto de estudos e pesquisas previstas no Projeto Ecológico de Longa Duração - PELD/CNPq, instalado FLONA de São Francisco de Paula, RS. Teve como objetivo identificar e caracterizar os diferentes estágios sucessionais de remanescentes de Floresta Ombrófila Mista. O trabalho foi realizado em dez conglomerados permanentes de 100m x 100m (10.000m2, os quais foram divididos em dez faixas de 10m x 100m (1.000m2 e estas subdivididas em dez subunidades de 10m x 10m (100m2. Para a presente pesquisa, foi sorteada uma faixa de 10m x 100m para cada conglomerado, totalizando cem subunidades amostrais (parcelas onde foram instaladas, na altura do DAP, bandas (cintas dendrométricas em todas as árvores com CAP > 30cm, para medição anual dos diâmetros. A análise de agrupamento foi realizada por meio do programa Twinspan, utilizando uma matriz de dados com 99 parcelas (uma foi desconsiderada por não apresentar indivíduos com CAP > 30cm tendo como variável o incremento anual em diâmetro (obtido de 2 anos de observação de 69 espécies. Obtiveram-se três grupos florísticos que indicaram estágios sucessionais na floresta: um grupo separou um estágio sucessional menos evoluído denominado de mata secundária, tendo Nectandra megapotamica e Cryptocarya aschersoniana como espécies indicadoras; um segundo grupo indicando um estágio sucessional intermediário da floresta, com Sebastiania commersoniana e Ocotea pulchella como espécies indicadoras; e um terceiro grupo constituído da floresta primária cuja espécie indicadora foi Araucaria angustifolia.

  11. VARIAÇÃO DA ESTRUTURA DA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL NO ESTADO DE SANTA CATARINA E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A ALTITUDE E CLIMA

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    André Luís de Gasper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify structural similarities between the remnants of seasonal deciduous forest (SDF in Santa Catarina state and check the influence of environmental factors that leads the formation of these groups. Associated with this primary objective, it was also sought to identify the areas of contact between this forest type and Araucaria forest (mixed ombrophilous forest – MOF. We analyzed data from 78 sample units (AU installed in the remnants of SDF between 2008 and 2009 by professional team of Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project (IFFSC. The data were processed through the Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA, using a matrix of species density associated with a environmental variables matrix, that consisted of altitude and climate parameters. The proportion of variance explained by the first three axes of DCA was low, accounting for approximately 21% of the information contained in the original data set. This result provides low power of interpretation of the results. However, when DCA was applied to the data of mean density of species in each river basin, the results pointed to better explanatory eigenvectors (three first eigenvectors explain 58.1% of total variance. The first ordination axis of DCA grouped the eastern watersheds SUs at one end, and the western watersheds SUs at the other end of this axis. At the right end of the first axis are arranged the watersheds of the river Canoas, Pelotas and Peixe, which are characterized by the presence of species such as Ocotea pulchella, Zanthoxylum fagara, Lithrea brasiliensis, Matayba elaeagnoides, Cinnamodendron dinisii commonly associated with Mixed Ombrophilous Forest (Araucaria forest. At the left end, the grouped SUs are mainly those of western watersheds, a group that includes the basins of the Jacutinga, Irani, Chapecó, Antas and Peperi-guaçu rivers. Among the species that most strongly influence the

  12. Teores de Carbono Orgânico de Seis Espécies Naturais do Ecossistema da Floresta Ombrófi la Mista / Organic Carbon Contents in Six Native Species in the Araucaria Forest Ecosystem

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    Karla Simone Weber

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Muitas vezes o estoque de carbono de uma floresta é estimado com a aplicação de equações matemáticas que utilizam os teores de carbono para um determinado grupo de espécies. No entanto, isto só é possível se não houver diferenças significativas entre os teores de carbono destas espécies. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa analisar estatisticamente os teores de carbono de seis espécies nativas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, na região sul do estado do Paraná. Foram feitas análises de variância entre os teores de carbono das espécies Myrsine ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav. Spreng. (capororoca, Ocotea porosa (Nees L. Barroso (imbuia, Mimosa scabrella Benth. (bracatinga, Styrax leprosus Hook & Arn. (carne-de-vaca, Symplocos unifl ora (Pohl Benth. (mariamole e Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (erva-mate para verificar se existe variação estatisticamente significativa entre espécies, entre as mesmas partes (casca, fuste, folhagem, galho vivo, galho morto e miscelânea de diferentes espécies e entre diferentes partes da mesma espécie. Os resultados revelam que a folhagem de Styrax leprosus foi à única que se diferenciou das demais, pois possui um baixo teor de carbono. Em todas as outras partes não houve diferenças em função da espécie. A análise entre partes da mesma espécie, revelou que existem padrões diferentes para cada espécie, mas que a porção folhagem sempre concentra os maiores teores de carbono. Desconsiderando a separação em diferentes partes, não houve diferença estatística entre os teores de carbono quando comparados os valores médios de cada espécie.

  13. Variações na composição e estrutura da vegetação permitem detectar agrupamentos florísticos em uma Floresta Subtropical Atlântica no Sul do Brasil?

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    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n4p43 As variações da vegetação em função da posição topográfica têm despertado o interesse dos pesquisadores. Entretanto, poucos estudos verificaram as associações florísticas formadas pela posição topográfica de uma encosta. Neste trabalho, analisamos se as variações na vegetação permitem detectar agrupamentos florísticos em uma Floresta Pluvial Subtropical. A vegetação foi amostrada em 25 parcelas de 400 m² distribuídas sistematicamente, onde foram medidos os indivíduos com DAP ≥ 5,0 cm. Amostramos 1.727 indivíduos e 144 espécies. A ordenação NMDS segregou três grupos em função da posição topográfica da encosta (Monte Carlo, P ≥ 0,05; ANOSIM, P < 0,001. Euterpe edulis e Sloanea guianensis se destacaram nos terços inferior e médio da encosta, enquanto Ocotea aciphylla e Alchornea triplinervia se destacaram no terço superior. Algumas espécies se mostraram indicadoras dos setores analisados, como é o caso de Actinostemon concolor e Alsophila setosa no terço inferior, Cyathea corcovadensis e Rudgea recurva no terço médio e Myrcia pulchra e Podocarpus sellowii no terço superior. Nossos resultados indicaram que as variações florísticas e estruturais observadas por Veloso e Klein (1959 e Klein (1980; 1984 para o Vale do Itajaí em Santa Catarina apresentam validade estatística nos dias atuais, pois verificamos a formação de diferentes grupos de acordo com a posição topográfica da encosta.

  14. Florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo e análise ambiental de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Alto-Montana no município de Painel, SC

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988449A Floresta Ombrófila Mista Alto-Montana é uma formação pouco estudada que ocorre em altitudes acima de 1.000 m. Os objetivos deste estudo foram conhecer os padrões florísticos e estruturais do componente arbóreo de um fragmento desta floresta na região do Planalto Sul Catarinense e determinar as variáveis ambientais que influenciam esses padrões. O levantamento da composição florística e estrutural e a coleta das variáveis ambientais foram conduzidos em 50 parcelas de 200 m2. Nelas, todos os indivíduos arbóreos com CAP (circunferência medida a altura do peito ≥ 15,7 cm foram medidos (CAP e altura e identificados. Foram coletadas, em cada parcela, variáveis ambientais relacionadas às características químicas e físicas dos solos, topográficas e de cobertura do dossel. Foram calculados os parâmetros fitossociológicos e a estrutura diamétrica da comunidade e das populações com valor de importância (VI acima de 5 %. A similaridade florístico-estrutural entre as parcelas foi analisada pela NMDS (Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling e os vetores das variáveis ambientais significativas (p < 0,05 foram plotados a posteriori. Foram identificadas 50 espécies arbóreas distribuídas em 33 gêneros e 20 famílias botânicas. As espécies com maior VI foram: Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze (17,32 %, Myrceugenia euosma (O.Berg D.Legrand (15,24 % e Acca sellowiana (O.Berg Burret (7,84 %. A estrutura diamétrica de toda a comunidade e das populações estudadas (exceto Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. teve distribuição próxima ao “J invertido”. A análise NMDS demonstrou maior porcentagem de argila nas parcelas com maior densidade de Araucaria angustifolia e menor porcentagem, nas parcelas com maior densidade de Dicksonia sellowiana, Inga lentiscifolia Benth. e Ocotea pulchella Mart. As parcelas de maior declividade tiveram maior densidade de Drimys brasiliensis Miers e aquelas de

  15. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes) on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil.

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    Gomes, Verônica Souza da Mota; Correia, Maria Célia Rodrigues; de Lima, Heloisa Alves; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2008-03-01

    Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation) is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1,680 net-hrs) and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis) in the present study

  16. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume leaves on some food-related bacteria Efeito inibitório do óleo essencial das folhas de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume sobre bactérias de interesse em alimentos

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    Vinicius Nogueira Trajano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, has long been known for having many biological properties. This study aimed to identify the constituents of the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves using GC-MS and to assess its inhibitory effect on Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on MIC and MBC determination and kill-time study. Eugenol (73.27% was the most prevalent compound in the essential oil followed by trans-β-cariophyllene (5.38%, linalool (3.31%, and alcohol cinamic acetate (2.53%. The results showed an interesting antibacterial activity of the oil with MIC ranging from 1.25 to 10 µL.mL-1. MBC values were in the range of 20 - 80 µL.mL-1. A concentration of 10 and 40 µL.mL-1 of the essential oil caused a fast and steady decrease in viable cell count (2 to 5 log cycles of all assayed strains along 24 hours. A concentration of 40 µL.mL-1 of the oil provided a total elimination of the initial inocula of S. aureus after 2 hours. These results show the possibility of regarding the essential oil from C. zeylanicum leaves as alternative sources of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food conservation systems.Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Lauraceae, é uma espécie vegetal reconhecida, a longo tempo, como possuidora de muitas propriedades biológicas. Este estudo objetivou identificar os constituintes do óleo essencial das folhas de C. zeylanicum, utilizando CG-EM, e avaliar seu efeito inibitório sobre Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa através da determinação da CIM e CBM, bem como através da análise do tempo de morte bacteriana. Eugenol (73,27% foi o composto mais prevalente no óleo essencial, seguido por trans-β-cariofileno (5,38%, linalol (3,31% e álcool acetato cinâmico (2,53%. Os resultados mostraram uma interessante atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial com CIM, variando de 1,25 a 10 µL.mL-1. Os valores de

  17. Florística das espécies arbóreas de quatro fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecídua Montana na Fazenda Dona Carolina (Itatiba/Bragança Paulista, São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic of tree species of four fragments of semi-deciduous Seasonal Montana Forest in Dona Carolina Farm (Itatiba/Bragança Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Roberta Macedo CERGUEIRA Leonardo Dias MEIRELES

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento florísticoem quatro fragmentos de Floresta EstacionalSemidecídua Montana na Fazenda Dona Carolina,localizada nos municípios de Itatiba e Bragança Paulista,São Paulo, Brasil (22º 56’ 16” S e 46º 42’ 02” W.A Fazenda localiza-se dentro da unidademorfoescultural do Planalto Atlântico, com climaCfa e altitudes entre 775 e 974 m. As espéciesarbóreas de altura 2 metros foram coletadas eidentificadas. Foram amostradas 157 espécies,distribuídas em 109 gêneros e 41 famílias. As famíliasFabaceae (24 spp., Myrtaceae (15 spp., Lauraceae(9 spp. e Meliaceae (9 spp. foram as mais ricasem espécies. A similaridade florística da área emestudo com Florestas Estacionais SemidecíduasMontanas e Submontanas do Estado de São Paulofoi verificada através do índice de Jaccard e dométodo de agrupamento por média de grupos(UPGMA. Uma Twinspan foi realizada paraverificar quais espécies caracterizariam os gruposformados. A área estudada apresentou altasimilaridade florística com os fragmentos localizadosno município de Campinas, não se agrupando como fragmento florestal amostrado no mesmomunicípio. A restauração de áreas degradadas e aconservação de fragmentos localizados nessa regiãodevem, então, considerar a composição florísticados fragmentos adjacentes.A floristic survey was carried out in fourfragments of Semideciduous Seasonal MontaneForest in Dona Carolina Farm, located in themunicipalities of Itatiba and Bragança Paulista,São Paulo, Brazil (22º 56’ 16” S e 46º 42’ 02” W.The Farm is within the Atlantic Plateaumorphosculptural unit, with climate Cfa, between775 and 974 m elevation. Only tree species 2 meters high were collected and identified.A total of 157 species distributed in 109 generaand 41 families were sampled. Fabaceae (24species, Myrtaceae (15, Lauraceae (9 and Meliaceae(9 were the richest families. The floristicsimilarity between the studied area and other Semideciduous

  18. Geographic pattern of genetic diversity in natural populations of Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, in the Central Amazonia Padrão geográfico de diversidade genética em populações naturais de Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora, na Amazônia Central

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    Ronaldo Pereira Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae is an Amazonian evergreen tree and a source of the purest linalool, the main component of its essential oil, which is very valuable in the international perfumery market. After decades of over-exploitation it is currently considered as threatened. We evaluated the genetic diversity and its distribution in four populations in Central Amazonia. Thirty-five reliable RAPD markers were generated, of which 32 were polymorphic (91.4%. Variation was higher within the populations (76.5%; p O Pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, Lauraceae é uma árvore amazônica fonte do mais puro linalol, o qual é o principal componente do seu óleo essencial e muito valioso no mercado internacional de perfumaria. Após várias décadas de intensa exploração, a espécie foi levada à categoria de ameaçada de extinção. Quatro populações naturais distribuídas na bacia Amazônia Central foram avaliadas quanto ao nível e a distribuição da diversidade genética. Trinta e cinco marcadores RAPD reprodutíveis foram gerados, dos quais 32 foram polimórficos (91,4%. A diversidade foi maior dentro das populações (76,5%; p < 0,0001 e a distribuição geográfica contribuiu para a diferenciação entre as populações (23,4%; p < 0,0001. A AMOVA indicou que pode haver uma influência parcial do Rio Amazonas no fluxo gênico (3,3%; p < 0,0001, mas foram identificadas evidências de fluxo gênico atravessando o rio. Houve diferenças significativas nas freqüências dos marcadores (p < 0,05 e o fluxo gênico estimado foi relativamente baixo (Nm = 2,02. A correlação entre a distância genética e o fluxo gênico foi de - 0,95 (p = 0,06 e para a distância geográfica e o fluxo gênico foi de - 0,78 (p = 0,12. Houve um padrão geográfico de variabilidade ao longo do eixo Leste - Oeste, influenciado também pelo Rio Amazonas, o que sugere que o rio poderia funcionar como uma barreira para o fluxo gênico. Apesar de amea

  19. Composição florística do estrato arbóreo de floresta Atlântica Interiorana em Araponga - Minas Gerais Tree strtum floristc composition of an Inland Atlantic forest in Araponga - MG

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    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a composição florística de um fragmento de Floresta e analisar a sua similaridade com outras áreas de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Densa, com o intuito de classificar a tipologia florestal da área de estudo. O levantamento foi realizado em uma trilha interpretativa na Pousada Serra D'Água (20º41'24"S e 42º29'47"W, 1.100 m de altitude, região de entorno do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB, Município de Araponga, MG. A listagem florística foi obtida a partir do levantamento fitossociológico, no qual foram demarcados 150 pontos quadrantes. Foram relacionadas 147 espécies, 98 gêneros e 50 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram: Melastomataceae (14, Leguminosae (11, Myrtaceae (10, Rubiaceae (8, Annonaceae (7, Flacourtiaceae (7, Lauraceae (7 e Meliaceae (6. Os resultados da análise de agrupamento revelaram que os aspectos de proximidade geográfica e altitude são os principais responsáveis pela similaridade florística de muitas áreas. A vegetação da área de estudo pode ser classificada como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, pelo fato de a sua composição florística mostrar alta similaridade com outras áreas dessa mesma tipologia.The objective of this work was to determine the floristic composition of a forest fragment and to analyze its similarity with other areas of the Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and Dense Ombrophylous Forest, in order to classify the forest typology of this area. The survey was carried out in an interpretative trail at the Pousada Serra D'Água (20º41'24"S and 42º29'47"W, 1100 m altitude, in the region around the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park (PESB, municipality of Araponga, MG. The floristic list was obtained from the phytosociological survey in which 150 quarter-centered-points were established. A total of 147 species, 98 genera and 50 families were found. The families with the greatest

  20. Florística da vegetação arbustivo - arbórea colonizadora de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim, em Brás Pires, MG Floristic of shrub - tree vegetation colonizing an area degraded by kaolin mining, in Brás Pires, MG

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    Fernanda Squizzatto de Araújo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos analisar a composição florística da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea colonizadora de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim, em Brás Pires, MG, compará-la com outros fragmentos florestais e caracterizar aspectos de auto-ecologia das espécies e o solo da área. O levantamento florístico abrangeu uma área de 0,5 ha, subdividida em 50 parcelas contíguas de 10 m x 10 m. Foram incluídos todos os indivíduos com CAP igual ou superior a 10 cm. A composição florística é o resultado desse levantamento acrescida de coletas fora da área de amostragem, totalizando 64 espécies, distribuídas em 50 gêneros e 30 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae (11, Annonaceae (5, Lauraceae e Melastomataceae (4, enquanto o gênero mais rico foi Machaerium (3. A análise do substrato, nas condições em que se encontrava, revelou que este não impedia o estabelecimento da vegetação. A síndrome de dispersão preponderante era a zoocórica, destacando-se a importância de indivíduos remanescentes, fragmentos próximos e sua fauna associada. A maior similaridade florística ocorreu com o fragmento em Cruzeiro, SP, estando ambas as áreas em início de sucessão.This study aimed to analyze the floristic composition of shrub-tree vegetation colonizing an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, compare it with other forest fragments and characterize ecological aspects of species and soil of the area. The sampled area was 0.5 ha subdivided in 50 grid plots of 10x10 meters each. All individuals included had CAP equal or larger than 10cm. The floristic composition is the result of the sampled area plus species collected outside of it. A total of 64 species was obtained, distributed in 50 genera and 30 families. The families with the greater number of species were Leguminosae (11, Annonaceae (5, Lauraceae e Melastomataceae (4, while the richest genus was Machaerium (3. The soil

  1. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  2. Evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de 25 plantas provenientes de una Reserva de Conservación Biológica de Costa Rica In vivo evaluation of the antimalarial activity of 25 plants from a Biological Conservation Reserve of Costa Rica

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    MISAEL CHINCHILLA-CARMONA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación in vivo de la actividad antimalárica de las hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz de 25 plantas de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, situada en San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Las plantas estudiadas fueron Aphelandra aurantiaca (Scheidw. Lindl., Aphelandra tridentata Hemsl. (Acanthaceae, Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouché K. Koch. (Araceae, Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav. (Arecaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass. (Asteraceae, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Poir. Kunth ex DC., Pterocarpus hayesii Hemsl., Senna papillosa (Britton & Rose H.S. Irwin & Barneby., Cinnamomum chavarrianum (Hammel Kosterm. (Fabaceae, Nectandra membranacea (Sw. Griseb., Persea povedae W.C. Burger. (Lauraceae, Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae, Guarea glabra Vahl., Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch. (Meliaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae, Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC. (Piperaceae, Clematis dioica L. (Ranunculaceae, Prunus annularis Koehne. (Rosaceae, Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. (Siparunaceae, Solanum arboreum Dunal., Witheringia solanacea L'Hér. (Solanaceae, Ticodendron incognitum Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez. (Ticodendraceae, Heliocarpus appendiculatus Turcz. (Tiliaceae y Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. (Urticaceae. Los extractos alcohólicos frescos y secos, fueron evaluados por su actividad inhibitoria de la parasitemia causada por Plasmodium berghei en ratones Swiss. Al realizar las prueba de CI50 las plantas en que esa actividad fue muy relevante fueron (en mg kg-1 de peso: 12 para la corteza de B. frutescens, 18 para la raíz de H. appendiculata, 14 para la raíz de I. deltoidea, 4 para el fruto inmaduro de M. longipes, 21 para la raíz de N. membranacea, 19 para las hojas tiernas de P. povedae y 16 para el fruto inmaduro de S. tecaphora. Los extractos frescos presentaron una mayor actividad antimalárica que los sometidos a desecación. Este estudio es

  3. Comunidade de Syrphidae (Diptera: diversidade e preferências florais no Cinturão Verde (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil Syrphidae (Diptera community: diversity and floral preferences in the Green Belt (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil

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    Mírian Nunes Morales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a comunidade de Syrphidae, do Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, permitindo a obtenção de informações acerca da composição e estrutura desta comunidade, suas preferências florais e interações entre as espécies na utilização de recursos alimentares. Realizaram-se coletas com rede entomológica, entre setembro/2001 a janeiro/2005. Foram capturados 1.283 espécimes de Syrphidae, representados por 88 espécies, distribuídos em 21 gêneros. Eristalinae apresentou o maior número de espécies coletadas, seguida por Syrphinae e Microdontinae. O gênero Palpada Macquart e a espécie P. urotaenia (Curran foram os mais abundantes. As coletas alcançaram cerca de 80% do que se estima para a área de estudo. Coletaram-se 1.187 sirfídeos (74 espécies visitantes de 51 espécies de plantas, de 23 famílias, onde Apiaceae e Asteraceae apresentaram o maior número de visitantes. O grau de especialização alimentar variou de acordo com os tipos de flores visitadas. A facilidade do acesso aos recursos florais e a coloração clara das flores são os principais responsáveis pela atração dos sirfídeos em Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Oleaceae, Poaceae e Solanaceae. A diversidade da comunidade de Syrphidae é regulada por interações locais entre as espécies, principalmente entre as condições ambientais e disponibilidade de recursos alimentares.The aim of this study was to investigate the Syrphidae community in the area of the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil, as well as to obtain information on the structure and composition of this community, its floral preferences and the interactions between the species in the food resource utilization. The specimens were collected with entomological net, from September/2001 to January/2005. A total of 1.283 syrphid specimens were collected, totaling 88 species distributed in 21 genera. Eristalinae presented the highest number of

  4. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia

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    DD Amaral

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha, Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha, Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha, Combu Is. reserve (10 ha, Gunma Park reserve (10 ha and Mocambo reserve (5 ha. Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008 were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae, Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae, Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae, Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae, Manilkara huberi (Ducke Chevalier (Sapotaceae, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (Bignoniaceae, Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn. Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae. Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve, as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém.

  5. A degradation debt? Large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation.

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    Zahawi, Rakan A; Oviedo-Brenes, Federico; Peterson, Chris J

    2017-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary) and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to species in two surveys taken ~5-6 years apart (>3,000 stems/survey). Although the reserve maintains high species richness (>200 spp.), with many rare species represented by only one individual, we document a strong shift in composition with a two-fold increase in the number of soft-wooded pioneer individuals. The dominant late-successional understory tree species, Chrysochlamys glauca (Clusiaceae), and most species in the Lauraceae, declined dramatically. Turnover was high: 22.9% of stems in the first survey were lost, and 27.8% of stems in the second survey represented new recruits. Mean tree diameter decreased significantly and there was a 10% decrease in overall biomass. Such alteration has been documented previously but only in smaller fragments or within ~100 m of an edge boundary. Further penetration into this fragment was perhaps driven by a progressive invasion of disturbance-adapted species into the fragment's core over time; the loss of once-dominant late successional species could be a contributing factor. The pattern found is of particular concern given that such fragments represent a substantial portion of today's remaining tropical habitat; further studies in similar-sized fragments that have been isolated for similar prolonged periods are called for.

  6. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Lee, Sung Haeng; Park, Zee Yong; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Hwang, Ji-Sun; So, Jae-Seon; Lee, Choong-Gu; Sahoo, Anupama; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeon, Won Kyung; Ko, Byoung Seob; Im, Chang-Rok

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde), tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8 + T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of diverse cancers

  7. Dynamics of Mixed Dipterocarps Forests in Wanariset Semboja, East Kalimantan after Three Times of Forest Fires within the Periods of 1980-2003

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    HERWINT SIMBOLON

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A plot of 150x700 m2 was established in a mixed dipterocarps of Wanariset Semboja, East Kalimantan during the periods of 1979-1981. The forest was dominated by Eusideroxylon zwageri (Lauraceae, Dipterocarpus cornutus (Dipterocarpaceae, Pholidocarpus majadum (Arecaceae, and Diospyros borneensis (Ebenaceae. Since the plot establishment, the forests then had experienced three times of forest fires, those were in 1982-1983, 1994-1995 and 1997-1998. The present paper reports the results of re-measurement of some 150x110 m2 parts of the plot in August 2003, about 23 years after plot establishment. Micro topographically, the studied plot was relatively undulating in higher parts and relatively flat in the lower parts of the plot, while the differences between lowest sub-plot and higher sub-plot of the re-measured plot was 26 m. Forest floor of the lower parts of the plot were humid to wet during rainy season and still humid during dry season. Almost all of the trees within lower parts of the plot were escaped from these three times of forest fires; hence these sub-plots were dominated by the trees of primary species that enumerated in 1980. Those sub-plots in the higher parts were burnt during the past forest fires indicated by the charcoal of standing trees and remaining felling logs in the forest floor. These burnt sub-plots were dominated by pioneer or secondary tree species, such as: Mallotus spp., Macaranga spp., Ficus spp. and Vernonia arborea. Local distribution of some indicator species (such as primary tree species: Pholidocarpus majadum, Diospyros spp., Eusideroxylon zwageri and species of Dipterocarpaceae; pioneer or secondary tree species Vernonia arborea, Macaranga spp., Mallotus spp., Ficus uncinulata, Piper aduncum, Peronema canescens within the plot were figured. Mortality, recruitment and growth rate during the period of 1980-2003 were also discussed.

  8. Rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer: Physiognomy, floristics and diversity in ‘lowland rainforests’ of Meghalaya, India

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    Uma Shankar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The lowland rainforests of Meghalaya, India represent the westernmost limit of the rainforests north of the Tropic of Cancer. These forests, on the Shillong plateau, are akin to Whitmore's ‘tropical lowland evergreen rainforest’ formation and exhibit striking similarities and conspicuous differences with the equatorial rainforests in Asia-Pacific as well as tropical seasonal rainforests in southwestern China near the Tropic of Cancer. We found these common attributes of the rainforests in Meghalaya: familial composition with predominance of Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myrsiticaceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae; deciduousness in evergreen physiognomy; dominance of mega- and mesophanerophytic life-forms; abundance of species with low frequency of occurrence (rare and aggregated species; low proportional abundance of the abundant species; and truncated lognormal abundance distribution. The levels of stand density and stand basal area were comparable with seasonal rainforests in southwestern China, but were lower than equatorial rainforests. Tropical Asian species predominated flora, commanding 95% of the abundance. The differences include overall low stature (height of the forest, inconspicuous stratification in canopy, fewer species and individuals of liana, thicker understory, higher proportion of rare species, absence of locally endemic species and relatively greater dominance of Fagaceae and Theaceae. The richness of species per hectare (S was considerably lower at higher latitudes in Meghalaya than in equatorial rainforests, but was comparable with seasonal rainforests. Shannon's diversity index (H′ = 4.40 nats for ≥10 cm gbh and 4.25 nats for ≥30 cm gbh was lower on higher latitudes in Meghalaya in comparison to species-rich equatorial rainforests, but it was the highest among all lowland rainforests near the Tropic of Cancer.

  9. Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), the vector of laurel wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian

    2008-12-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a native of Southeast Asia recently established in coastal forests of Georgia, SC and Florida. It vectors a wilt fungus, Raffaelea sp., lethal to redbay trees, Persea borbonia L. Spreng, and certain other Lauraceae. No practical monitoring system exists for this beetle so we conducted studies to identify host attractants and develop lures. Volatiles were collected from redbay wood and bark by steam distillation, direct solvent extraction, and dynamic headspace sampling with a Poropak Q cartridge. Steam, methanol, and pentane extracts were tested as baits in trapping trials but were not attractive to X. glabratus. Major constituents in Poropak aerations identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3-carene, eucalyptol, p-cymene, alpha-copaene, terpinene-4-ol, linalool, calamenene, and nonanoic acid. We assayed several of these compounds (including eucalyptol, p-cymene, terpinene-4-ol, linalool, nonanoic acid, and caryophyllene oxide) both individually and in combination, but none were attractive at tested doses. Two other redbay odor components, alpha-copaene and calamenene, were unavailable in sufficient quantities commercially so we substituted manuka oil, the essential oil extracted from Leptospermum scoparium Forst. and Forst., which contains high proportions of both compounds. Manuka oil was equally attractive as redbay wood to X. glabratus, but increasing release rates >10-fold did not enhance its activity. Phoebe oil, an extract of Brazilian walnut (Phoebe porosa Mez.), which contains significant quantities of alpha-copaene and calamenene, was also attractive. Fractions of manuka oil were not more attractive than the whole oil. Manuka and phoebe oil are readily available and are good alternatives to redbay wood as a trap bait for monitoring X. glabratus distribution and population trends.

  10. Potential of contact insecticides to control Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a vector of laurel wilt disease in avocados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Crane, Jonathan H; Peña, Jorge E

    2013-12-01

    Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is an invasive ambrosia beetle that vectors laurel wilt, a new disease that threatens avocado and other species in the Lauraceae Family. The lethal concentrations (LC50 & 90) of nine commercial insecticides to X. glabratus were determined by using a bolt-dip bioassay. Different formulations of bifenthrin, permethrin, fenpropathrin, z-cypermethrin + bifenthrin, 1-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, malathion, chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and methomyl were tested. Four concentrations of each insecticide were tested (0.5, 0.1, 0.03, and 0.01 of the label rate) and with water as a control. Beetles were exposed to treated bolts and mortality registered 48 h later. After 2 wk, bolts were destructively sampled to determine the number of beetles that constructed galleries and were alive inside the wood. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC50 & 90. Six pesticides were applied directly to the trunk and limbs of avocado trees in a commercial grove. Limbs of treated trees were cut weekly after the application and exposed to X. glabratus to determine the number of beetles boring into the logs. The toxicity of pesticides to X. glabratus was greatly reduced 2 wk after application. Among the tested pesticides, malathion and z-cypermethrin + bifenthrin provided the best suppression of X. glabratus. Among the insecticides registered for use in avocado, fenpropathrin and malathion were the most effective in protecting trees from attack by X. glabratus. Other pesticides that are currently not registered for use in avocados could be useful for managing this ambrosia beetle.

  11. Diversity hotspots of the laurel forest on Tenerife, Canary Islands: a phylogeographic study of Laurus and Ixanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzin, Anja; Thiv, Mike; Koch, Marcus A

    2016-09-01

    Macaronesian laurel forest is among the worldwide hotspots of threatened biodiversity. With increasing evidence that woodland composition on the Canary Islands changed dramatically during the last few thousand years, the aim of this study was to find evidence for substantial recent population dynamics of two representative species from laurel forest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to evaluate fine-scaled genetic variation of the paradigmatic tree Laurus novocanariensis (Lauraceae) and a long-lived herbaceous gentian from core laurel forest, Ixanthus viscosus (Gentianaceae), on Tenerife. Bioclimatic variables were analysed to study the respective climate niches. A chloroplast DNA screening was performed to evaluate additional genetic variation. Genetic diversity of the laurel tree showed severe geographic partitioning. On Tenerife, fine-scaled Bayesian clustering of genetic variation revealed a western and an eastern gene pool, separated by a zone of high admixture and with a third major gene pool. Compared with genetic clusters found on the other Canary Islands, the East-West differentiation on Tenerife seems to be more recent than differentiation between islands. This is substantiated by the finding of extremly low levels of chloroplast DNA-based polymorphisms. Ixanthus showed no geographic structuring of genetic variation. Genetic data from Tenerife indicate contemporary gene flow and dispersal on a micro/local scale rather than reflecting an old and relic woodland history. In particular for Laurus, it is shown that this species occupies a broad bioclimatic niche. This is not correlated with its respective distribution of genetic variation, therefore indicating its large potential for contemporary rapid and effective colonization. Ixanthus is more specialized to humid conditions and is mostly found in the natural Monteverde húmedo vegetation types, but even for this species indications for long-term persistence in the respective

  12. Vertical Distribution and Daily Flight Periodicity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida Avocado Orchards Affected by Laurel Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocal, Octavio; Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Crane, Jonathan H; Carrillo, Daniel

    2018-03-08

    Ambrosia beetles have emerged as significant pests of avocado ((Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae])) due to their association with pathogenic fungal symbionts, most notably Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the causal agent of the laurel wilt (LW) disease. We evaluated the interaction of ambrosia beetles with host avocado trees by documenting their flight height and daily flight periodicity in Florida orchards with LW. Flight height was assessed passively in three avocado orchards by using ladder-like arrays of unbaited sticky traps arranged at three levels (low: 0-2 m; middle: 2-4 m; high: 4-6 m). In total, 1,306 individuals of 12 Scolytinae species were intercepted, but six accounted for ~95% of the captures: Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Euplatypus parallelus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The primary vector of R. lauricola, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was not detected. Females of X. volvulus showed a preference for flight at low levels and X. bispinatus for the low and middle levels; however, captures of all other species were comparable at all heights. At a fourth orchard, a baiting method was used to document flight periodicity. Females of X. saxesenii and Hypothenemus sp. were observed in flight 2-2.5 h prior to sunset; X. bispinatus, X. volvulus, and X. affinis initiated flight at ~1 h before sunset and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at 30 min prior to sunset. Results suggest that ambrosia beetles in South Florida fly near sunset (when light intensity and wind speed decrease) at much greater heights than previously assumed and have species-specific patterns in host

  13. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

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    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  14. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

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    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  15. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  16. Further studies on membrane stabilizing, anti-inflammatory and FCA induced arthritic activity of various fractions of bark of Machilus macrantha in rats

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    Anil U Tatiya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Machilus macrantha Nees, Lauraceae, bark is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to validate, mechanism based anti-inflammatory activity of fractions M. macrantha bark are investigated for first time. Test materials viz. petroleum ether (PE, alkaloidal fraction (CH, acetone extracts (TAN and mucilage (MM (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. obtained from M. macrantha bark were tested for membrane stabilizing, anti-nociceptive; anti inflammatory and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA induced arthritis activity. Diclofenac sodium and morphine were used as the reference standards in pharmacological assay. Test materials have significantly (p<0.01 inhibited paw edema after Carrageenan and histamine induction at higher doses. Administration of test materials of M. macrantha (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced abdominal writhing, formalin nociception, cotton pellet granuloma and vascular permeability in experimental animal. In addition to this, bark of M. macrantha showed chronic anti-rheumatic effect by suppressing the swelling volume, arthritis index, hematological and biochemical parameters (ESR, RA factor, CRP, liver transferase enzyme in FCA-induced arthritis. It also significantly inhibited protein denaturation, heat-induced haemolysis of RBC and reduction in total leukocyte migration. Bioassay guided fractionation of the pet. ether extract of bark of M. macrantha led to isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol and stigma sterol confirmed by its HPLC, NMR and GC-MS study. In conclusion, extracts of M. macrantha bark can be explored as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis.

  17. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  18. Inusual riqueza, composición y estructura arbórea en el bosque de tierra firme del Pongo Qoñec, Sur Oriente peruano

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    Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció una parcela de 1 ha, en bosque de tierra firme en el Pongo de Qoñec, valle Kosñipata (Cusco, dentro de la Reserva Biósfera del Manú, a 710 m; 12°53'53"S y 72°22'25"W. Se registró 56 familias, 153 géneros, 249 especies con 813 individuos con Dap ≥ 10 cm. Las familias, más ricas fueron: Fabaceae (32 especies, Moraceae (24, Rubiaceae (17 y Lauraceae (12; los géneros más ricos, Inga (17, Neea (7, Miconia (5; se halló un área basal total de 40,50 m2, de ellas Iriartea deltoidea con 6,58 m2, Socratea salazarii 2,28 m2, y Endlicheria sp 1,65 m2, obtuvieron mayor ab; la especie con mayor valor de importancia fue: I. deltoidea, cor- roborando estudios anteriores en bosques de tierra firme. El análisis estructural muestra que clases diamétricas 10-20 cm, abarcan 71,3% del total de fustes. Al comparar nuestros resultados, el Pongo de Qoñec, sorpren- dentemente supera en riqueza a parcelas adyacentes dentro del sur peruano y muestra un patrón de riqueza de familias y géneros similar a parcelas peruanas diversas como Yanamono 300 especies y Mishana (289, en Loreto. Consideramos que esta inusual riqueza se debe en gran medida a factores ambientales únicos que se dan en este Pongo, como son la alta precipitación, dinámica de vientos y la variabilidad de suelos en áreas pequeñas. Por tanto estos resultados difieren considerablemente de enunciados conocidos, que consideran a la amazonia sur peruana con moderada a baja riqueza arbórea.

  19. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Nectandra leucantha leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecco, Simone dos S; Martins, Euder Glendes A; Girola, Natália; de Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Soares, Marisi G; Bertoldo, Bruno de C; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-01-01

    Nectandra (Lauraceae) species have been used in folk medicine as an antidiarrheal, analgesic, antifungal, etc., and have many pharmacological proprieties. Investigation of the chemical composition and cytotoxicity of essential oil from Nectandra leucantha Nees & Mart. leaves. This is the first study involving N. leucantha reported in the literature. The essential oil of N. leucantha leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation. Its chemical composition was determined using a combination of GC/FID, GC/MS, and determination of Kovats index (KI). In vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated against six cancer cell lines - murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U-87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), and human cervical tumor (Siha) as well as against one non-tumorigenic cell line - human foreskin fibroblast (HFF). Thirty-three compounds were identified primarily sesquiterpenes (81.41%), the main compounds being bicyclogermacrene (28.44%), germacrene A (7.34%), spathulenol (5.82%), and globulol (5.25%). Furthermore, monoterpenes were also found in the analyzed oil (12.84%), predominantly α- and β-pinenes (6.59 and 4.57%, respectively). The crude essential oil displayed significant cytotoxic activity against B16F10-Nex2 (IC50 33 ± 1 μg/mL) and U87 (IC50 75.95 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and HeLa (IC50 60 ± 12 μg/mL) cell lines. The main identified compound, bicyclogermacrene, displayed IC50 ranging from 3.1 ± 0.2 to 21 ± 6 μg/mL. The results indicate that the crude oils from leaves of N. leucantha displayed cytotoxic activity being bicyclogermacrene, the main compound identified in the crude oil responsible, at least in part, for this potential.

  20. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  1. Combined community ecology and floristics, a synthetic study on the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forests in Yunnan, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhu; Yong Chai; Shisun Zhou; Lichun Yan; Jipu Shi; Guoping Yang

    2016-01-01

    The upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan occurs mainly in the zone of persistent cloud and has a discontinuous, island-like, distribution. It is diverse, rich in endemic species, and likely to be sensitive to climate change. Six 1-ha sampling plots were established across the main distribution area of the upper montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan. All trees with d.b.h.>1 cm in each plot were identified. Patterns of seed plant distributions were quantified at the specific, generic and family levels. The forests are dominated by the families Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae and Magnoliaceae, but are very diverse with only a few species shared between sites. Floristic similarities at the family and generic level were high, but they were low at the specific level, with species complementarity between plots. Diversity varied greatly among sites, with greater species richness and more rare species in western Yunnan than central Yunnan. The flora is dominated by tropical biogeographical elements, mainly the pantropic and the tropical Asian distributions at the family and genus levels. In contrast, at the species level, the flora is dominated by the southwest or the southeast China distributions, including Yunnan endemics. This suggests that the flora of the upper montane forest in Yunnan could have a tropical floristic origin, and has adapted to cooler temperatures with the uplift of the Himalayas. Due to great sensitivity to climate, high endemism and species complementarity, as well as the discontinuous, island-like, distribution patterns of the upper montane forest in Yunnan, the regional conservation of the forest is especially needed.

  2. Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-ru; PENG Shao-lin; MO Jiang-ming; LIU Xin-wei; CHEN Zhuo-quan; ZHOU Kai; WU Jin-rong

    2006-01-01

    Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features-color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. Thisis the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China.

  3. Análise florística e estrutural de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, situado em Criúva, RS - Brasil.

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    Rubens Marques Rondon Neto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar a composição florística e descrever a estrutura do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, localizado no município de Criúva, RS. Em oito parcelas de 10 x 100 m foram inventariados 673 indivíduos com DAP  5 cm, distribuídos em 37 espécies, pertencentes a 32 gêneros e 22 famílias. O valor do índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 2,768. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de indivíduos amostrados são: Araucariaceae, Myrsinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae e Rutaceae. O dossel dessa floresta é dominado pela Araucaria angustifolia e o sub-bosque por espécies das famílias Lauraceae e Myrtaceae. A densidade total encontrada foi de 841,25 indivíduos/ha, com DAP médio de 24,01 cm e altura média de 9,34 m. As cinco espécies que tiveram os maiores valores de importância, em ordem decrescente, foram: Araucaria angustifolia, Sebastiania commersoniana, Lithraea brasiliensis, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium e Myrcia sp.. O fragmento apresenta uma considerável diversidade florística de espécies, apesar das perturbações sofridas no passado. Para que a vegetação atinja as características florísticas e estruturais próximas às da vegetação original é preciso evitar a presença de bovinos e eqüinos na área e explorações da floresta.

  4. ANÁLISE FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURAL DE UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA MONTANA, SITUADO EM CRIÚVA, RS - BRASIL

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    Rubens Marques Rondon Neto

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar a composição florística e descrever a estrutura do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Montana, localizado no município de Criúva, RS. Em oito parcelas de 10 x 100 m foram inventariados 673 indivíduos com DAP  5 cm, distribuídos em 37 espécies, pertencentes a 32 gêneros e 22 famílias. O valor do índice de diversidade de Shannon foi de 2,768. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de indivíduos amostrados são: Araucariaceae, Myrsinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Anacardiaceae e Rutaceae. O dossel dessa floresta é dominado pela Araucaria angustifolia e o sub-bosque por espécies das famílias Lauraceae e Myrtaceae. A densidade total encontrada foi de 841,25 indivíduos/ha, com DAP médio de 24,01 cm e altura média de 9,34 m. As cinco espécies que tiveram os maiores valores de importância, em ordem decrescente, foram: Araucaria angustifolia, Sebastiania commersoniana, Lithraea brasiliensis, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium e Myrcia sp.. O fragmento apresenta uma considerável diversidade florística de espécies, apesar das perturbações sofridas no passado. Para que a vegetação atinja as características florísticas e estruturais próximas às da vegetação original é preciso evitar a presença de bovinos e eqüinos na área e explorações da floresta.

  5. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares Dealmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.

    2009-04-01

    Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m-3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae) from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae) from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species) accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot) accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  6. A degradation debt? Large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation.

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    Rakan A Zahawi

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to species in two surveys taken ~5-6 years apart (>3,000 stems/survey. Although the reserve maintains high species richness (>200 spp., with many rare species represented by only one individual, we document a strong shift in composition with a two-fold increase in the number of soft-wooded pioneer individuals. The dominant late-successional understory tree species, Chrysochlamys glauca (Clusiaceae, and most species in the Lauraceae, declined dramatically. Turnover was high: 22.9% of stems in the first survey were lost, and 27.8% of stems in the second survey represented new recruits. Mean tree diameter decreased significantly and there was a 10% decrease in overall biomass. Such alteration has been documented previously but only in smaller fragments or within ~100 m of an edge boundary. Further penetration into this fragment was perhaps driven by a progressive invasion of disturbance-adapted species into the fragment's core over time; the loss of once-dominant late successional species could be a contributing factor. The pattern found is of particular concern given that such fragments represent a substantial portion of today's remaining tropical habitat; further studies in similar-sized fragments that have been isolated for similar prolonged periods are called for.

  7. Further studies on membrane stabilizing, anti-inflammatory and FCA induced arthritic activity of various fractions of bark of Machilus macrantha in rats

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    Anil U Tatiya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Machilus macrantha Nees, Lauraceae, bark is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to validate, mechanism based anti-inflammatory activity of fractions M. macrantha bark are investigated for first time. Test materials viz. petroleum ether (PE, alkaloidal fraction (CH, acetone extracts (TAN and mucilage (MM (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. obtained from M. macrantha bark were tested for membrane stabilizing, anti-nociceptive; anti inflammatory and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA induced arthritis activity. Diclofenac sodium and morphine were used as the reference standards in pharmacological assay. Test materials have significantly (p<0.01 inhibited paw edema after Carrageenan and histamine induction at higher doses. Administration of test materials of M. macrantha (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced abdominal writhing, formalin nociception, cotton pellet granuloma and vascular permeability in experimental animal. In addition to this, bark of M. macrantha showed chronic anti-rheumatic effect by suppressing the swelling volume, arthritis index, hematological and biochemical parameters (ESR, RA factor, CRP, liver transferase enzyme in FCA-induced arthritis. It also significantly inhibited protein denaturation, heat-induced haemolysis of RBC and reduction in total leukocyte migration. Bioassay guided fractionation of the pet. ether extract of bark of M. macrantha led to isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol and stigma sterol confirmed by its HPLC, NMR and GC-MS study. In conclusion, extracts of M. macrantha bark can be explored as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis.

  8. Rearing Xyleborus volvulus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Media Containing Sawdust from Avocado or Silkbay, With or Without Raffaelea lauricola (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocal, Octavio; Cruz, Luisa F; Kendra, Paul E; Crane, Jonathan H; Ploetz, Randy C; Carrillo, Daniel

    2017-12-08

    Like other ambrosia beetles, Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with fungi that serve as food source. Until recently, X. volvulus was not considered a pest, and none of its symbionts were considered plant pathogens. However, recent reports of an association between X. volvulus and Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), the cause of the laurel wilt disease of avocado (Persea americana Mill. [Laurales: Lauraceae]), and its potential role as vector of the pathogen merit further investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate three artificial media containing sawdust obtained from avocado or silkbay (Persea humilis Nash) for laboratory rearing of X. volvulus. The effect of R. lauricola in the media on the beetle's reproduction was also evaluated. Of the three media, the one with the lowest content of sawdust and intermediate water content provided the best conditions for rearing X. volvulus. Reproduction on this medium was not affected by the sawdust species or the presence of R. lauricola. On the other two media, there was a significant interaction between sawdust species and R. lauricola. The presence of R. lauricola generally had a negative effect on brood production. There was limited colonization of the mycangia of X. volvulus by R. lauricola on media inoculated with the pathogen. From galleries formed within the best medium, there was 50% recovery of R. lauricola, but recovery was much less from the other two media. Here, we report the best artificial substrate currently known for X. volvulus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Comparison and Field Validation of Binomial Sampling Plans for Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Hass Avocado in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesus R; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker, & Abatiello is a foliar pest of 'Hass' avocados [Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae)]. The recommended action threshold is 50-100 motile mites per leaf, but this count range and other ecological factors associated with O. perseae infestations limit the application of enumerative sampling plans in the field. Consequently, a comprehensive modeling approach was implemented to compare the practical application of various binomial sampling models for decision-making of O. perseae in California. An initial set of sequential binomial sampling models were developed using three mean-proportion modeling techniques (i.e., Taylor's power law, maximum likelihood, and an empirical model) in combination with two-leaf infestation tally thresholds of either one or two mites. Model performance was evaluated using a robust mite count database consisting of >20,000 Hass avocado leaves infested with varying densities of O. perseae and collected from multiple locations. Operating characteristic and average sample number results for sequential binomial models were used as the basis to develop and validate a standardized fixed-size binomial sampling model with guidelines on sample tree and leaf selection within blocks of avocado trees. This final validated model requires a leaf sampling cost of 30 leaves and takes into account the spatial dynamics of O. perseae to make reliable mite density classifications for a 50-mite action threshold. Recommendations for implementing this fixed-size binomial sampling plan to assess densities of O. perseae in commercial California avocado orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Datasets on abundance of common blossom thrips and weather variables in small-scale avocado orchards at Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro

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    James J. Odanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Avocado, Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae, is an important fruit crop cultivated by small-holder farmers along Afrotropical highlands of Taita Hills in South-eastern Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro in Northern Tanzania. The small-holder farmers in these East African regions generate substantial food and cash from avocado fruits. However, the avocado crop is faced with challenges of infestation by insect pests such as the common blossom thrips (Frankliniella schultzei Trybom which feeds on pollen and floral tissue thereby reducing productivity of the trees. Moreover, there is no information describing distribution patterns of Frankliniella schultzei and associated weather in East African avocado orchards despite the fact that small-scale farming is dependent on rainfall. This article was, therefore, initiated to provide dataset on abundance of Frankliniella schultzei from the avocado plants that relates with monthly rainfall and air temperatures at Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro. Frankliniella schultzei was collected using white coloured beating tray and camel brush whereas air temperatures (°C and rainfall (mm was recorded daily using automatic data loggers and rain gauge, respectively. The survey at the two transects commenced during peak flowering season of avocado crop in August up to end of harvesting period in July of the following year. Temporal datasets were generated by Kruskal-Wallis Chi-square test. Current temporal datasets presents strong baseline information specifically for Kenya and Tanzania government agencies to develop further agricultural strategies aimed at improving avocado farming within Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro agro-ecosystems. Keywords: Frankliniella schultzei, Avocado, Weather variables, Taita Hills, Mount Kilimanjaro

  11. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  12. Estrutura florestal em projeto de assentamento, comunidade São Mateus, município de Placas, Pará, Brasil

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    Renato Bezerra da Silva Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial e a estrutura florestal de uma Floresta Ombrófila Densa de terra firme, da Comunidade São Mateus, município de Placas, Pará. A avaliação foi realizada em dois tipos de ambiente, sendo, um, em Floresta Manejada (FM e, outro, em Floresta Não Manejada (FNM. Foram alocadas 20 unidades amostrais, sendo nove em FM e 11 em FNM. Em cada unidade amostral, os indivíduos foram inventariados em três classes de tamanho (CT: CT1 - 10 cm 50 cm (50 m x 200 m. As formas de utilização de todas as espécies arbóreas registradas foram verificadas por meio de entrevistas com assentados, no comércio, nas feiras livres e no mercado municipal de Santarém. Foram amostrados 472,6 árvores/ha na FM, distribuídas em 134 espécies e, na FNM, 508,0 árvores/ha, distribuídas em 146 espécies. As espécies de maior valor de importância nos dois tipos florestais foram: Licania kunthianamm Hook. f. (Chrysobalanaceae e Mezilaurus itauba Taubert ex Mez (Lauraceae. As espécies que mais se destacaram com diferentes possibilidades de uso foram: Protium cf. heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand (Burseraceae, Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabaceae e Caryocar villosum (Aubl. Pers (Caryocaraceae. Após quatro anos de colheitas, não ocorreu diferenciação estrutural entre FM e FNM.

  13. Plant derived aporphinic alkaloid S-(+-dicentrine induces antinociceptive effect in both acute and chronic inflammatory pain models: evidence for a role of TRPA1 channels.

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    Deise Prehs Montrucchio

    Full Text Available S-(+-dicentrine is an aporphinic alkaloid found in several plant species, mainly from Lauraceae family, which showed significant antinociceptive activity in an acute model of visceral pain in mice. In this work, we extended the knowledge on the antinociceptive properties of S-(+-dicentrine and showed that this alkaloid also attenuates mechanical and cold hypersensitivity associated with cutaneous inflammation induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant in mice. Given orally, S-(+-dicentrine (100 mg/kg reversed CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, evaluated as the paw withdrawal threshold to von Frey hairs, and this effect lasted up to 2 hours. S-(+-dicentrine also reversed CFA-induced cold hypersensitivity, assessed as the responses to a drop of acetone in the injured paw, but did not reverse the heat hypersensitivity, evaluated as the latency time to paw withdrawal in the hot plate (50°C. Moreover, S-(+-dicentrine (100 mg/kg, p.o. was effective in inhibit nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 activator, but not the responses induced by capsaicin, a TRPV1 activator. When administered either by oral or intraplantar routes, S-(+-dicentrine reduced the licking time (spontaneous nociception and increased the latency time to paw withdrawal in the cold plate (cold hypersensitivity, both induced by the intraplantar injection of cinnamaldehyde. Taken together, our data adds information about antinociceptive properties of S-(+-dicentrine in inflammatory conditions, reducing spontaneous nociception and attenuating mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, probably via a TRPA1-dependent mechanism. It also indicates that S-(+-dicentrine might be potentially interesting in the development of new clinically relevant drugs for the management of persistent pain, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  14. A new hypothesis for the importance of seed dispersal in time

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    Adriana Guzmán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on seed dispersal in time have focused on seed dormancy and the physiological triggers for germination. However, seed dispersed by animals with low metabolic and moving rates, and long gutpassage times such as terrestrial turtles, could be considered another type of dispersal in time. This study tests the hypothesis that seeds dispersed in time may lower predation rates. We predicted that seeds deposited below parent trees after fruiting fall has finished is advantageous to minimize seed predators and should show higher survival rates. Four Amazonian plant species, Dicranostyles ampla, Oenocarpus bataua, Guatteria atabapensis and Ocotea floribunda, were tested for seed survival probabilities in two periods: during fruiting and 10-21 days after fruiting. Experiments were carried out in two biological stations located in the Colombian Amazon (Caparú and Zafire Biological Stations. Seed predation was high and mainly caused by non-vertebrates. Out of the four plant species tested, only Guatteria atabapensis supported the time escape hypothesis. For this species, seed predation by vertebrates after the fruiting period increased (from 4.1% to 9.2% while seed predation by nonvertebrates decreased (from 54.0% to 40.2%. In contrast, seed predation by vertebrates and by non-vertebrates after the fruiting period in D. ampla increased (from 7.9% to 22.8% and from 40.4% to 50.6%, respectively, suggesting predator satiation. Results suggest that for some species dispersal in time could be advantageous to avoid some type of seed predators. Escape in time could be an additional dimension in which seeds may reach adequate sites for recruitment. Thus, future studies should be address to better understand the survival advantages given by an endozoochory time-dispersal process. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1795-1803. Epub 2011 December 01.La mayoría de estudios sobre dispersión de semillas en el tiempo tratan sobre la dormancia de las semillas y los

  15. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yatağan basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  16. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanula, James L; Mayfield, Albert E; Fraedrich, Stephen W; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2008-08-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the seasonal flight activity of X. glabratus, its host associations, and population levels at eight locations in South Carolina and Georgia where infestations ranged from very recent to at least several years old. Adults were active throughout the year with peak activity in early September. Brood development seems to take 50-60 d. Wood infested with beetles and infected with the Raffaelea sp. was similar in attraction to uninfested redbay wood, whereas both were more attractive than a nonhost species. Sassafras, Sassafras albidium (Nutt.) Nees, another species of Lauraceae, was not attractive to X. glabratus and very few beetle entrance holes were found in sassafras wood compared with redbay. Conversely, avocado, Persea americana Mill., was as attractive to X. glabratus as swampbay, P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg., and both were more attractive than the nonhost red maple, Acer rubrum L. However, avocado had relatively few entrance holes in the wood. In 2007, we compared X. glabratus populations in areas where all mature redbay have died to areas where infestations were very active and more recent. Trap catches of X. glabratus and numbers of entrance holes in trap bolts of redbay were correlated with the number of dead trees with leaves attached. Older infestations where mature host trees had been eliminated by the wilt had low numbers of beetles resulting in trap catches ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 beetles per trap per d compared with 4-7 beetles per trap per d in areas with numerous recently dead trees. Our results indicate beetle populations drop dramatically after suitable host material is gone and provide hope that management strategies can be developed to restore

  17. Composição florística da regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas ao longo de oito anosem um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual, em Viçosa, MG Floristic composition of natural regeneration of tree species in a mountain seasonal semideciduous florest fragment over an eigth year period, in Viçosa, MG, Brazil

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    Pedro Higuchi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A florística da regeneração natural foi estudada em 10 locais, com seis sub-parcelas em cada local, em 1992, 1995 e 2000, em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, em Viçosa, MG. A amostragem da classe 1 de tamanho de planta (até 1 m de altura, classe 2 (1-3 m de altura e classe 3 (>3 m de altura e The floristic composition of the natural regeneration in a secondary Seasonal Semideciduous Forest fragment in the Atlantic Forest domain, Southeastern Brazil, was studied in the years 1992, 1995 and 2000. The sampling unit sizes were 0.5x10m, 0.5x20m and 1x20m, respectively, for plant size class 1 (height up to 1 m, class 2 (height from 1 to 3 m and class 3 (height > 3m and DBH < 5cm. A total of 4,149 individuals were sampled over the inventory period, comprising 42 families and 160 species, being 11.7 % pioneer, 62.1 % early secondary, and 26.2 % late secondary species. Family number did not change and number of species increased with time. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae and Lauraceae were the predominant families. Species ingrowth was higher than mortality. Shannon-Weaver diversity index was significantly lower (P < 0.05 only for the plant size class 1 as compared to the other size classes, in 1992, and it increased significantly from 3.45 (average of all plant size classes, in 1992, to 3.67 and 3.64 in 1995 and 2000, respectively. The Pielou equability index per inventory date varied from 0.71 to 0.74, and it was 0.71; 0. 79 and 0.82 for the size classes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Overall, the results showed that monitoring the natural regeneration over an age sequence is important to understand the dynamics of the secondary forest fragments.

  18. Chemical and canine analysis as complimentary techniques for the identification of active odors of the invasive fungus, Raffaelea lauricola.

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    Simon, Alison G; Mills, DeEtta K; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungus causing a vascular wilt (laurel wilt) in Lauraceae trees, was introduced into the United States in the early 2000s. It has devastated forests in the Southeast and has now moved into the commercial avocado groves in southern Florida. Trained detection canines are currently one of the few successful methods for early detection of pre-symptomatic diseased trees. In order to achieve the universal and frequent training required to have successful detection canines, it is desirable to create accessible, safe, and long-lasting training aids. However, identification of odorants and compounds is limited by several factors, including both the availability of chemicals and the need to present chemicals individually and in combination to detection canines. A method for the separation and identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from environmental substances for the creation of such a canine training aid is presented here. Headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the odors present in avocado trees infected with the R. lauricola phytopathogen. Twenty-eight compounds were detected using this method, with nine present in greater than 80% of samples. The majority of these compounds were not commercially available as standard reference materials, and a canine trial was designed to identify the active odors without the need of pure chemical compounds. To facilitate the creation of a canine training aid, the VOCs above R. lauricola were separated by venting a 0.53mm ID solgel-wax gas chromatography column to the atmosphere. Ten minute fractions of the odor profile were collected on cotton gauze in glass vials and presented to the detection canines in a series of field trials. The canines alerted to the VOCs from the vials that correspond to a portion of the chromatogram containing the most volatile species from R. lauricola. This innovative fractionation and collection

  19. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

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    de Castro, Ana I; Ehsani, Reza; Ploetz, Randy C; Crane, Jonathan H; Buchanon, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs), band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR), (Red-Green) and Combination 1 (COMB1) in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB) to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the rapid detection

  20. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

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    Ana I de Castro

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana. This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs, band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR, (Red-Green and Combination 1 (COMB1 in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the

  1. Early Oligocene plant diversity along the Upper Rhine Graben: The fossil flora of Rauenberg, Germany

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    Kovar-Eder Johanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The macroflora of Rauenberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is treated monographically. The plant-bearing sediments are marine, mainly well-bedded clay- to siltstones, the so-called Fischschiefer, which are part of the Bodenheim Formation. Based on nannoplankton they are dated to nannoplankton zone NP 23 (Rupelian, Lower Oligocene. The plant remains, mainly leaves and some fructifications, are preserved as compressions. The taxonomic assignment is based on gross morphology and cuticle characteristics. The flora yields marine algae and remains of the very diverse terrestrial flora. A total of 68 taxa, including three types of algae, one cycad, 12 conifers, and 49 dicots, among them 5 palms, are described. The following fossil species are described for the first time: Laurophyllum rauenbergense, Myrica obliquifolia, Distylium metzleri, ? Berchemia altorhenana, ? Ternstroemites maritiae, Trachelospermum kelleri, Oleinites altorhenana, O. rauenbergensis, Dicotylophyllum badense, D. oechsleri, D. vesiculaeferens, D. ziegleri, ? Viscophyllum hendriksiae, and Cladites vesiculaeferens. Dicotylophyllum vesiculaeferens and Cladites vesiculaeferens bear peculiar, complex cuticular structures presumably representing salt-secreting glands. Both taxa are interpreted to derive from one plant species of yet uncertain systematic affinity. The flora bears a high proportion of broad-leaved, presumably evergreen taxa, whereas the diversity of modern Arcto-Tertiary taxa (sensu Kvaček 1994 is rather low. Most abundant are Platanus neptuni, Daphnogene cinnamomifolia, and Tetraclinis salicornioides. On the family level, Lauraceae (10 species and Pinaceae (8 are most diverse, followed by Arecaceae (4-5, Cupressaceae, and Myricaceae (4 species each. Surprisingly, Fagaceae are documented solely by a single leaf of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis f. haselbachensis, and the record of Pentaphyllaceae remains ambiguous (? Ternstroemites maritiae. Sloanea olmediaefolia is recorded

  2. Florística e estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista no Planalto Catarinense

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    Carine Klauberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p35 O Planalto Catarinense constitui-se em uma importante região estratégica para estudos referentes à conservação, em função da ocorrência de remanescentes de Floresta Ombrófila Mista e por ser uma área de recarga e afloramento do aquífero Guarani. Com o objetivo de avaliar a similaridade florística entre diferentes áreas amostrais e descrever a estrutura do componente arbóreo, foram alocadas, no Parque Natural Municipal de Lages, SC, quatro parcelas permanentes (40 x 40m e cada uma foi dividida em 16 unidades amostrais de 10 x 10m. Árvores com DAP ≥ 5cm foram mapeadas, marcadas e mensuradas. Os espécimes foram coletados, identificados e depositados em herbário. Foram amostradas 46 espécies distribuídas em 39 gêneros e 27 famílias. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Salicaceae e Sapindaceae as quais apresentaram alta densidade, assim como Dicksoniaceae e Clethraceae. Sete espécies somaram mais de 60% do total de indivíduos amostrados. A diversidade específica (H’ foi de 3,05 nats.ind-1 (J’= 0,81. A similaridade entre as parcelas foi de 32 a 44%, indicando baixa semelhança entre as parcelas estudadas. A distribuição espacial da maioria das espécies é classificada como agregada, conforme o índice de Morisita. Esta floresta é considerada rica e diversa, com espécies arbóreas ameaçadas de extinção tais como Araucaria angustifolia e Dicksonia sellowiana. Devido à grande importância ecológica para a flora e fauna local e o processo de fragmentação na região, este remanescente florestal deve ser protegido e conservado, visto que ainda ocorrem interferências antrópicas negativas.

  3. Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and the Lawa in Thailand.

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    Junsongduang, Auemporn; Balslev, Henrik; Inta, Angkhana; Jampeetong, Arunothai; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2013-06-24

    Many ecosystem services provided by forests are important for the livelihoods of indigenous people. Sacred forests are used for traditional practices by the ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and they protect these forests that are important for their culture and daily life. Swidden fallow fields are a dominant feature of the agricultural farming landscapes in the region. In this study we evaluate and compare the importance of swidden fallow fields and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern Thailand. We made plant inventories in swidden fallow fields of three different ages (1-2, 3-4, 5-6 years old) and in sacred forests around two villages using a replicated stratified design of vegetation plots. Subsequently we interviewed the villagers, using semi-structured questionnaires, to assess the medicinal use of the species encountered in the vegetation survey. We registered a total of 365 species in 244 genera and 82 families. Of these 72(19%) species in 60(24%) genera and 32(39%) families had medicinal uses. Although the sacred forest overall housed more species than the swidden fallow fields, about equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means that a higher proportion (48% and 34%) of the species in the relatively species poor fallows were used for medicinal purposes than the proportion of medicinal plants from the sacred forest which accounted for 17-22%. Of the 32 medicinal plant families Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae had most used species in the Karen and Lawa villages respectively. Sacred forest are important for providing medicinal plant species to the Karen and Lawa communities in northern Thailand, but the swidden fallows around the villages are equally important in terms of absolute numbers of medicinal plant species, and more important if counted as proportion of the total number of species in a habitat. This points to the importance of

  4. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

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    Mahomed Waheed

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocado (Persea americana belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR. Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. Results 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. Conclusions This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved

  5. Cenozoic plant diversity of Yunnan: A review

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    Yongjiang Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan in southwestern China is renowned for its high plant diversity. To understand how this modern botanical richness formed, it is critical to investigate the past biodiversity throughout the geological time. In this review, we present a summary on plant diversity, floristics and climates in the Cenozoic of Yunnan and document their changes, by compiling published palaeobotanical sources. Our review demonstrates that thus far a total of 386 fossil species of ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms belonging to 170 genera within 66 families have been reported from the Cenozoic, particularly the Neogene, of Yunnan. Angiosperms display the highest richness represented by 353 species grouped into 155 genera within 60 families, with Fagaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae and Juglandaceae being the most diversified. Most of the families and genera recorded as fossils still occur in Yunnan, but seven genera have disappeared, including Berryophyllum, Cedrelospermum, Cedrus, Palaeocarya, Podocarpium, Sequoia and Wataria. The regional extinction of these genera is commonly referred to an aridification of the dry season associated with Asian monsoon development. Floristic analyses indicate that in the late Miocene, Yunnan had three floristic regions: a northern subtropical floristic region in the northeast, a subtropical floristic region in the east, and a tropical floristic region in the southwest. In the late Pliocene, Yunnan saw two kinds of floristic regions: a subalpine floristic region in the northwest, and two subtropical floristic regions separately in the southwest and the eastern center. These floristic concepts are verified by results from our areal type analyses which suggest that in the Miocene southwestern Yunnan supported the most Pantropic elements, while in the Pliocene southwestern Yunnan had abundant Tropical Asia (Indo–Malaysia type and East Asia and North America disjunct type that were absent from northwestern Yunnan. From the late Miocene to

  6. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the genus Litsea: An update.

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    Wang, Yun-Song; Wen, Zheng-Qi; Li, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-04-02

    The genus Litsea is one of the most diverse genera of evergreen trees or shrubs belong to Lauraceae, and comprises roughly 400 species of tree that are distributed abundantly throughout tropical and subtropical Asia, North and South America. Litsea species have been used globally in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including influenza, stomach aches, diarrhea, diabetes, vomiting, bone pain, inflammation, illness related to the central nervous system and other ailments. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacological research of Litsea species in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. All the available information on Litsea species was actualised by systematically searching the scientific literatures including Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Indian, and South American herbal classics, library catalogs and scientific databases (PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar, VIP and Wanfang). The Plant List, International Plant Name index and Scientific Database of China Plant Species were used to validate scientific names. 407 secondary metabolites have been reported from Litsea species. Litsea Species are sources of secondary metabolites with interesting chemical structures (alkaloids, lactones, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, and essential oils) and significant bioactivities. Crude extracts, fractions and phytochemical constituents isolated from Litsea show a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, insecticidal, etc. From data collected in this review, the genus Litsea comprises a wide range of therapeutically promising and valuable plants, and has attracted much attention owing to its multiple functions. Many traditional uses of Litsea species have now been validated by

  7. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

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    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1 680 net-hrs and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis in the

  8. Ritmo de crecimiento y longevidad de follaje del estrato arbustivo en la Reserva Biológica A. Brenes, Costa Rica

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    Elke Freiberg

    1999-09-01

    season. Other species sprout periodically or only once a year. This interval, which is the time period between the beginning of the shooting of one leaf and the next, varied among the investigated species between 17-22 days (Malvaviscus arboreus, Urera elata, Myriocarpa longipes and more than half a year (Cyclanthus bipartitus, Iriartea deltoidea, Ocotea gomezii. For some species this interval was longer at dry and dark sites (M. arboreus, but in many cases microclimatical factors such as temperature, relative light intensity, and evaporation varied to such a small extent within the forest that the differences did not lead to significant influences on growth factors of the plants. The mean leaf longevity varied between a half and four years. The maximum leaf age of the palms Cryosophila warscewiczii, I. deltoidea and Calyptrogyne trichostachys was estimated to be more than five years. In some cases leaf age was significantly correlated with microclimatical factors. Leaves of Begonia cooperi growing at higher light intensities in gaps fell earlier than leaves of plants in darker sites in the understory. Generally, the longevity of leaves was lower in plants growing at moister sites, but in most cases this relation was not significant. The data show that even in a rather constant climate in the understory of a very moist premontane rain forest, there is some seasonality in growth rhythm and that plant growth varies between different sites within the forest although climate variations are very small.

  9. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um fragmento florestal em Luminárias, MG Floristic composition and structure of the tree layer of a forest fragment in Luminárias Municipality, Minas Gerais State

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    Luciene Alves Rodrigues

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a composição florística e estrutural da comunidade arbórea de uma floresta em Luminárias, MG. O local de estudo é conhecido como Mata do Galego, possui cerca de 77 ha e está localizado a 21°29'S e 44°55'W, às margens do rio Ingaí. A amostragem florística foi realizada em parcelas e também em caminhadas pela floresta. Todo o material coletado foi identificado e incorporado ao Herbário ESAL, da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O levantamento estrutural foi realizado por meio de amostragem sistemática, em 32 parcelas de 20 × 20m, distribuídas em três transeções, da margem do rio até a borda da mata. Nas parcelas, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbóreos, vivos, com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP ≥ 15,5 cm. As variáveis químicas e físicas do solo foram obtidas das análises de amostras superficiais de solo (0-20 cm de cada parcela. No levantamento florístico foram amostradas 201 espécies, 129 gêneros e 57 famílias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Fabaceae Faboideae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Fabaceae Mimosoideae. No levantamento estrutural foram amostrados 2343 indivíduos de 159 espécies, 104 gêneros e 50 famílias. As espécies mais abundantes foram Casearia sylvestris, Lithraea molleoides, Machaerium stipitatum, Faramea cyanea, Diospyros inconstans e Copaifera langsdorffii. A Mata do Galego apresentou alta diversidade de espécies (H' = 4,23 nat/indivíduo e alta equabilidade (J' = 0,83. A alta diversidade de espécies pode estar relacionada à influência de formações vegetais próximas e aos diferentes microhabitats proporcionados pela topografia, variações na fertilidade e umidade do solo.The aim of this study was to analyze the floristic composition and structure of the tree layer of a forest fragment in the municipality of Luminárias, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The forest fragment is locally known as Mata do

  10. Distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, as compared with those of the eastern Chinese subtropical regions

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    Tang, C. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the geographic distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, and compares with other subtropical regions in the east of China in terms of forest types, pertinent species, and spatial distribution along latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In general, for both the western and the eastern subtropical regions, the evergreen broad-leaved forests are dominated by species of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia, and Michelia, (Magnoliaceae, while in southwestern China there are more diverse forest types including semi-humid, monsoon, mid-montane moist and humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, but only monsoon and humid forests in the east. The Yunnan area has more varied species of Lithocarpus or Cyclobalanopsis or Castanopsis as dominants than does eastern China, where the chief dominant genus is Castanopsis. The upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaved forests are mainly 2400–2800 m in western Yunnan and western Sichuan, much higher than in eastern China (600–1500, but 2500 m in Taiwan. Also discussed are the environmental effects on plant diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystems exemplified by Yunnan and Taiwan.En este trabajo se analiza los patrones de distribución geográfica de los bosques subtropicales perennifolios de hoja ancha del suroeste de china, y se comparan con los de otras regiones subtropicales del este de China en términos de tipología de bosque, especies relevantes, y distribución espacial a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal, longitudinal y altitudinal. De manera general, los bosques perennifolios de hoja ancha de la regiones subtropicales tanto orientales como occidentales presentan dominancia de especies de Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia y Michelia

  11. Composición florística y estructura de un bosque húmedo premontano en el Valle Central de Costa Rica

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    Alfredo Cascante M.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura y composición florística de un remanente de bosque húmedo premontano (BHP en la Zona Protectora El Rodeo, Valle Central de Costa Rica. Se establecieron tres parcelas permanentes (1 ha. cada una en el bosque no alterado y se marcaron, midieron e identificaron todos los árboles con un diámetro a la altura del pecho (dap >10 cm. Las parcelas se ubicaron en un área de 500 m de radio. Se encontró un total de 106 especies, con un promedio de 69.6 especies ha-1 y 509 individuos ha-1, el área basal promedio 36.35 m² ha-1. La diversidad fue H’= 3.54 (Índice de Shannon y las especies compartidas entre las parcelas S=0.68-0.70 (Índice de Similitud de Sørensen. El 52% de las especies estuvieron representadas por pocos individuos (cinco o menos. No se encontró árboles emergentes o palmas arborescentes. La familia Moraceae es la más importante, seguida de Fabaceae, Lauraceae y Sapotaceae (Índice de Importancia Familiar, FIV. Pseudolmedia oxyphillaria (Moraceae es la especie dominante (Índice de Valor de Importancia, IVI y constituye el 25% del total de individuos; seguida por Clarisia racemosa (Moraceae, Heisteria concinna (Olacaceae y Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae como especies más relevantes. La distribución por categorías diamétricas fue similar en las tres parcelas y en general presentó la característica forma de J-invertida. Diferencias en cuanto a la abundancia de árboles, composición florística y distribución espacial de algunas especies entre las parcelas de estudio evidencian la heterogeneidad de la vegetación de este ecosistema. Además, la zona constituye un reservorio natural importante para la conservación de algunas especies raras o amenazadas en el nivel nacional. Utilizando los resultados de este trabajo como punto de partida, se pretende iniciar el seguimiento a largo plazo de los posibles cambios en la estructura y composición del bosque de este ecosistema, el cual se encuentra muy

  12. Caracterização florística de uma área de contato entre Cerrado e Mata Atlântica na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo.

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    Nicole da Silva PINTO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Remanescentes de vegetação nativa em áreas de contato florístico e fitogeográfico têm especial importância na conservação da biodiversidade. A EstaçãoExperimental de Itapeva – EExI apresenta os referidos atributos, pois, abriga remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e de Cerrado. A EExI está localizada na BaciaHidrográfica do Alto Paranapanema – BHAP, na região sudoeste do Estado de São Paulo, considerada altamente degradada e prioritária para estudos de flora e fauna. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: inventariar e caracterizar a vegetação e a flora vascular da EExI; ampliar o conhecimento sobre a biodiversidade da BHAP e subsidiar propostas de manejo. Realizou-se a caracterização fisionômica e florística considerando todos os hábitos, com coletas mensais de material botânico, de maio de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Nas duas formações presentes na EExI, Mata Atlântica (Floresta Estacional Semidecidual – FES e Cerrado (campo rupestre, campo sujo úmido, campo sujo, cerrado ralo e cerrado denso, foram registradas 605 espécies. As famílias mais ricasna FES foram: Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae e Lauraceae, e no Cerrado:Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae e Bignoniaceae. Na FES predominaramas espécies arbóreas com 54,1% do total, ao contrário do Cerrado, onde predominaram as espécies não arbóreas (67,5%. Entre as espécies levantadas, 14 estão ameaçadas de extinção, mas apenas Araucaria angustifolia é citada nas listas estadual, nacional e mundial. Considerando o mosaico de FES e fisionomias de Cerrado, a alta diversidade de espécies e a presença de espécies ameaçadas de extinção, os remanescentes de vegetação da EExI são de extrema importância para a conservação e o estudo da biodiversidade regional.Remnants of native vegetation in areas of floristic and phytogeographical contact have special importance in biodiversity conservation. The Itapeva Experimental

  13. Campo Sujo Úmido: fisionomia de Cerrado ameaçada pela contaminação de Pinus elliottii Engelm. na Estação Ecológica de Itapeva, Estado de São Paulo. Campo Sujo Úmido: Cerrado physiognomy threatened by the contamination of Pinus elliottii Engelm. in the Itapeva Ecological Station, São Paulo state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Soares de ALMEIDA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A ameaça de perda da biodiversidade da fisionomia Campo Sujo Úmido, localizada na Estação Ecológica de Itapeva, devido à contaminação biológica causada pela invasão de Pinus elliottii Engelm., motivou a elaboração deste trabalho. Os objetivos foram caracterizar floristicamente essa fisionomia e quantificar a existência de Pinus elliottii na área, de modo a subsidiar propostas de manejo. Realizou-se o mapeamento da área ocupadapor Campo Sujo Úmido na Estação através da interpretação de fotografias aéreas. O estudoflorístico foi realizado através de coletas mensais de material botânico, no período de junhode 2008 a maio de 2009, posteriormente processado e depositado no herbário SPSF. Para a quantificação de Pinus elliottii, adotou-se o método de parcelas, utilizando-se 12 parcelas de 3 m x 15 m. Os indivíduos a partir de 15 cm de altura foram medidos e contados para o cálculo da densidade e frequência. A área de Campo Sujo Úmido representou 2,3% da área total da Estação. Foram encontradas 106 espécies. As famílias mais ricas foram Melastomataceae (11 espécies, Asteraceae (8, Cyperaceae e Poaceae (7, Myrtaceae e Rubiaceae (5, Fabaceae, Lauraceae e Myrsinaceae (4. A densidade absoluta de Pinus elliottii foi de 1.704 indivíduos.ha e a frequência absoluta, 92%. Portanto, Pinus elliottii apresentou duas propriedades que caracterizam espécies dominantes: grande número de indivíduos e ampla disseminação na área. A área relativamente pequena ocupada por Campo Sujo Úmido na Estação Ecológica, a elevada riqueza de espécies observada e o grau de contaminação biológica constatado nessa fisionomia, indicam a possibilidade de perda iminente de considerável parcela da biodiversidade da Unidade de Conservação. São propostas medidas de manejo para combater o problema.The risk of biodiversity loss of the Campo Sujo Úmido physiognomy, at the Itapeva Ecological Station due to the biological contamination

  14. Survey of insect fauna from plants medicinal, aromatic and seasoning and disinfestation by the process of radiation; Levantamento da entomofauna de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares e desinfestacao pelo processo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fabricio Caldeira

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to survey the insect fauna associated with medicinal plants, aromatic dehydrated and seasoning trade in Sao Paulo city, using different doses of gamma radiation with the aim of disinfestation of the material and determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on Sphaericus gibboides. From April to May 2011 were collected in 10 establishments the following sample materials: Melissa officinalis L. (Lemongrass), Mentha piperita L. (Mint), Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Senna alexandrina Mill (senna), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (salsa) and Pimpinella anisum L. (Fennel), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. (Gorse), Chamomilla recutita L. (= M. recutita L.) (chamomile), Laurus nobilis L. (Blonde) (Lauraceae); Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet paprika), Bixa orellana L. (Spice) (Bixaceae) and Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo). The first screening showed that all the tested materials did not show the presence of adult insects. After 45 days 940 adult insects were found and larvae from eggs. The substrates analyzed Chamomilla recutita showed the highest rate of infestation, with 70,6%. Pelmus boldus, Laurus nobilis, Chamomilla recutita and Capsicum annuum, had the highest species diversity. Baccharis trimera, Bixa orellana, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum showed no infestation. The species was Lasioderma serricorne the insect with the largest number of individuals found (936), higher percentage of infestation in different materials (62.5%) and lots, and highest occurrence (68,75%) materials (M. piperita, S. alexandrian, P. anisum, Chamomilla recutita, P. crispum, L. nobilis, C. sativum, C. annuum, O. basilicum, P. boldus and T. vulgaris). The following materials were selected for testing disinfestation by irradiation process: Bixa orellana, Capsicum annuum, Cassia angustifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Mentha

  15. Survey of insect fauna from plants medicinal, aromatic and seasoning and disinfestation by the process of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Fabricio Caldeira

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to survey the insect fauna associated with medicinal plants, aromatic dehydrated and seasoning trade in Sao Paulo city, using different doses of gamma radiation with the aim of disinfestation of the material and determine the lethal dose of gamma radiation on Sphaericus gibboides. From April to May 2011 were collected in 10 establishments the following sample materials: Melissa officinalis L. (Lemongrass), Mentha piperita L. (Mint), Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil), Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Senna alexandrina Mill (senna), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (salsa) and Pimpinella anisum L. (Fennel), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. (Gorse), Chamomilla recutita L. (= M. recutita L.) (chamomile), Laurus nobilis L. (Blonde) (Lauraceae); Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet paprika), Bixa orellana L. (Spice) (Bixaceae) and Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo). The first screening showed that all the tested materials did not show the presence of adult insects. After 45 days 940 adult insects were found and larvae from eggs. The substrates analyzed Chamomilla recutita showed the highest rate of infestation, with 70,6%. Pelmus boldus, Laurus nobilis, Chamomilla recutita and Capsicum annuum, had the highest species diversity. Baccharis trimera, Bixa orellana, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum showed no infestation. The species was Lasioderma serricorne the insect with the largest number of individuals found (936), higher percentage of infestation in different materials (62.5%) and lots, and highest occurrence (68,75%) materials (M. piperita, S. alexandrian, P. anisum, Chamomilla recutita, P. crispum, L. nobilis, C. sativum, C. annuum, O. basilicum, P. boldus and T. vulgaris). The following materials were selected for testing disinfestation by irradiation process: Bixa orellana, Capsicum annuum, Cassia angustifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Mentha

  16. Forest vegetation of Xishuangbanna, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hua

    2006-01-01

    limestone slopes. It is similar to the tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in the region in physiognomy, but differs from the latter in floristic composition. It is a vegetation type on limestone at high elevations. The monsoon forest in Xishuangbanna is a tropical deciduous forest under the influence of a strong monsoon climate and is considered to be a transitional vegetation type between a tropical rain forest and savanna in physiognomy and distribution. The tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest is the main montane vegetation type in the region. It is dominated largely by the families Fagaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae and Lauraceae. It differs from tropical lower montane rain forests in its lack of epiphytes and in having more abundant lianas and plants with compound leaves. It is considered to be a distinct vegetation type from the northern margin of mainland southeastern Asia, controlled by a strong seasonal climate, based on its floristic and physiognomic characteristics.

  17. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay

  18. El Copturomímus Perseae Hustache Nueva Especie Entomológica, Grave Plaga del Aguacate en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Moreno Ernesto

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Colombia, por la diversidad de climas y condiciones variadas de suelos, está capacitada para producir ventajosamente las especies frutales que en general son consideradas como de carácter comercial. Entre las cuales, el aguacate, dentro de la zona tropical y subtropical, ocupa lugar prominente, junto con el popular grupo de los Citrus. Aunque la explotación de estas especies frutales se encuentra en forma incipiente, y para mejor decirlo en estado semisilvestre, la correcta vegetación y fructificación abundante lograda dentro de vastas zonas, son un elocuente índice, que unido a la demanda creciente de fruta en los mercados, insatisfecha con la escasa producción nacional, aseguran el éxito de las empresas que consagren sus esfuerzos a la lucrativa industria de la producción de frutas. 2. Ante las perspectivas tan halagadoras que presenta el cultivo del aguacate en el país, y en el convencimiento de que el control de las plagas y enfermedades constituye uno de los factores de mayor importancia, es evidente la necesidad de propender por el establecimiento de las medidas sanitarias, que a la vez que sean económicas, tengan la suficiente efectividad para eliminar el peligro que puedan constituir. 3. El aguacate, dentro de la clasificación botánica pertenece a la familia Lauracea, género Persea y comprende 2 especies principales, Persea americana Mill. (P. gratissimaGaertn y PerseadrymifoliaCham. &Schelecnt. (P.americanavar. DrymifoliaMez. Comercialmente se ha dividido en 3 razas claramente diferenciadas, la Antillana, Guatemalteca y Mexicana, dentro de las cuales se hallan agrupadas variedades en crecido número; aunque existen ciertas variedades que participan de características comunes a dos de las razas mencionadas y se consideran como híbridos o cruces genéticos. Comúnmente tiene diferentes denominaciones que varían de país a país y aun en regiones del mismo país, entre las cuales las más conocidas son, aguacate