WorldWideScience

Sample records for oceans area hh

  1. Oceanic diffusion in the coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukuda, Masaaki

    1980-03-01

    Described in this paper is the eddy diffusion in the area off Tokai Village investigated by means of dye diffusion experiment and of oceanic observation. In order to assess the oceanic diffusion in coastal areas, improved methods effective in complex field were developed. The oceanic diffusion was separated in two groups, horizontal and vertical diffusion respectively. Both these diffusions are combined and their analysis together is difficult. The oceanic diffusion is thus considered separately. Instantaneous point release is the basis of horizontal diffusion analysis. Continuous release is then the overlap of numerous instantaneous releases. It was shown that the diffusion parameters derived from the results of diffusion experiment or oceanic observation vary widely with time and place and with sea conditions. A simple diffusion equation was developed from the equation of continuity. The results were in good agreement with seasonal mean horizontal distribution of river water in the sea area. The vertical observation in diffusion experiment is difficult and the vertical structure of oceanic condition is complex, so that the research on vertical diffusion generally is not advanced yet. With river water as the tracer, a method of estimating vertical diffusion parameters with a Gaussian model or one-dimensional model was developed. The vertical diffusion near sea bottom was numerically analized with suspended particles in seawater as the tracer. Diffusion was computed for each particle size, and by summing up the vertical distribution of beam attenuation coefficient was estimated. By comparing the results of estimation and those of observation the vertical diffusivity and the particle size distribution at sea bottom could be estimated. (author)

  2. Quality assurance for measurements of the radioactivity in the area of the"Horia Hulubei" National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochioiu, Ana; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria; Margineanu, Romul Mircea; Tudor, Ion

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents one part of the activities deployed by the Laboratory for Environment and Personnel Dosimetry (LDPM) of IFIN-HH, namely the radiological monitoring of the environment within the Institute's area and its surrounding influence zone, according to the program approved by the National Regulatory Body for Nuclear Activities, CNCAN. The representative reports regard the radioactive content of soil, surface and underground water, cultivated and spontaneous vegetation, aerosols and atmospheric fallout, sediments. The common requirement is that the measured quantities be precise and the reported values be reliable and credible. This goal is achieved by maintaining a Quality System, verified within the obtaining and maintaining of the laboratory accreditation, according to the international standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005.The LDPM is accredited by the Romanian accreditation body, RENAR, member of the European Accreditation, EA and is designed by CNCAN as a notified testing laboratory. Many measurements were performed in collaboration with the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, RENAR accredited and CNCAN notified for calibration and for testing in the field of radioactivity measurement. This paper proposes a short presentation of the important aspects in our activity: i. description of equipment, samplingmethods, processing and measurement of environmental samples; ii. validation of equipment and methods by participation in international and national proficiency tests; iii. a five year follow chart, containing the results in measurement of samples; iv. a recent application, with a wide impact in Romanian mass media: the credible daily report on the possible influence of Fukushima accident over the Romanian environmental radioactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geotechnical parameters for three deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the results of geotechnical measurements made on cores taken at the three deep ocean sites that have been studied in detail as part of the international programme assessing the feasibility of deep ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste. The capabilities of existing sampling methods and the adequacy of the available data for providing the geotechnical parameters needed to evaluate the technical feasibility of deep ocean disposal are discussed. It is concluded that, while it has not been possible to obtain core samples of sufficient quality and depth to provide all the parameters needed for the assessment, no fundamental differences between the sediments at the study areas and those found on land or in shallow water have been identified. (author)

  4. H-H interactions in Pd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, O. B.; Ditlevsen, Peter; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1989-01-01

    -medium theory to calculate total energies we show the same tendency for the short-range part of the H-H interaction when two H atoms are squeezed into a single site in Pd or PdH. At longer range (of the order a lattice constant) there is an attractive, lattice-mediated H-H interaction. On the basis...

  5. Gemini-IFU spectroscopy of HH 111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Feitosa, J.; Plana, H. [LATO-DCET, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz Rod. Jorge Amado, km 16, Ilhéus, BA, CEP 45662-900 (Brazil); Raga, A. C., E-mail: hoth@uesc.br [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    We present new optical observations of the Herbig–Haro (HH) 111 jet using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in its Integral Field Unit mode. Eight fields of 5{sup ′′}×3.{sup ′′}5 have been positioned along and across the HH 111 jet, covering the spatial region from knot E to L in HH 111 (namely, knots E, F, G, H, J, K, and L). We present images and velocity channel maps for the [O i] 6300+6360, Hα, [N ii] 6548+6583, and [S ii] 6716+6730 lines, as well as for the [S ii] 6716/6730 line ratio. We find that the HH 111 jet has an inner region with lower excitation and higher radial velocity, surrounded by a broader region of higher excitation and lower radial velocity. Also, we find higher electron densities at lower radial velocities. These results imply that the HH 111 jet has a fast, axial region with lower velocity shocks surrounded by a lower velocity sheath with higher velocity shocks.

  6. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein...

  7. Rain-shadow: An area harboring "Gray Ocean" clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Harikishan, G.; Morwal, S. B.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2018-06-01

    The characteristics of monsoon convective clouds over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India have been investigated using in situ aircraft cloud microphysical observations collected during Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment (CAIPEEX). The parameters considered for characterization are: liquid water content (LWC), cloud vertical motion (updraft, downdraft: w), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and effective radius (Re). The results are based on 15 research flights which were conducted from the base station Hyderabad during summer monsoon season. The clouds studied were developing congestus. The clouds have low CDNC and low updraft values resembling the oceanic convective clouds. The super-saturation in clouds is found to be low (≤0.2%) due to low updrafts. The land surface behaves like ocean surface during monsoon as deduced from Bowen ratio. Microphysically the clouds showed oceanic characteristics. However, these clouds yield low rainfall due to their low efficiency (mean 14%). The cloud parameters showed a large variability; hence their characteristic values are reported in terms of median values. These values will serve the numerical models for rainfall simulations over the region and also will be useful as a scientific basis for cloud seeding operations to increase the rainfall efficiency. The study revealed that monsoon convective clouds over the rain-shadow region are of oceanic type over the gray land, and therefore we christen them as "Gray Ocean" clouds.

  8. Luminosity Targets for FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F.; Buffat, X.; Schulte, D.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the choice of target values for the peak and integrated luminosity of a future high-energy frontier circular hadron collider (FCC-hh). We review the arguments on the physics reach of a hadron collider. Next we show that accelerator constraints will limit the beam current and the turnaround time. Taking these limits into account, we derive an expression for the ultimate integrated luminosity per year, depending on a possible pile-up limit imposed by the physics experiments. We finally benchmark our result against the planned two phases of FCC-hh [1, 2, 3

  9. Ocean model system for radionuclides - validation and application to the Rokkasho coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    Coastal areas have complex environmental systems and often a high influence from the atmosphere, rivers and the open sea. A nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan releases liquid radioactive waste from a discharge pipe to such a complex coastal area. Consequently, the development of radionuclide migration forecast system in the ocean plays an important rule for assessing the behavior of radionuclides in the coastal area. The development of ocean model systems will be presented and model application will also be described. (author)

  10. Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world's seas, oceans, and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark John; Cheung, Alan; De Hauwere, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    Depth and topography directly and indirectly influence most ocean environmental conditions, including light penetration and photosynthesis, sedimentation, current movements and stratification, and thus temperature and oxygen gradients. These parameters are thus likely to influence species distribution patterns and productivity in the oceans. They may be considered the foundation for any standardized classification of ocean ecosystems and important correlates of metrics of biodiversity (e.g., species richness and composition, fisheries). While statistics on ocean depth and topography are often quoted, how they were derived is rarely cited, and unless calculated using the same spatial resolution the resulting statistics will not be strictly comparable. We provide such statistics using the best available resolution (1-min) global bathymetry, and open source digital maps of the world's seas and oceans and countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, using a standardized methodology. We created a terrain map and calculated sea surface and seabed area, volume, and mean, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum, of both depth and slope. All the source data and our database are freely available online. We found that although the ocean is flat, and up to 71% of the area has a ocean volume exceeds 1.3 billion km(3) (or 1.3 sextillion liters), and sea surface and seabed areas over 354 million km(2). We propose the coefficient of variation of slope as an index of topographic heterogeneity. Future studies may improve on this database, for example by using a more detailed bathymetry, and in situ measured data. The database could be used to classify ocean features, such as abyssal plains, ridges, and slopes, and thus provide the basis for a standards based classification of ocean topography.

  11. Environmental monitoring of coastal and oceanic areas with orbital sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Genovez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PETROBRAS is using spaceborne multi-sensor remote sensing for its sea surface monitoring program at the Campos, Santos and Espírito Santo basins, southeastern Brazilian coast. Ocean color (SeaWiFS and MODIS, thermal infrared (NOAA/AVHRR, scatterometer (QuikSCAT and Synthetic Aperture Radar (RADARSAT-1 and ASAR/ENVISAT data were integrated in order to detect and characterize different sorts of marine pollution and meteo-oceanographic phenomena. The near real time processing and delivery of the radar data allowed the timely in-situ verification and sampling of the remotely detected events. The integrated analysis of these dataset presents an important decision tool for emergencies, as well for the elaboration of contingency plans and evaluation of the oil industry activity impacts.

  12. Development of the computer network of IFIN-HH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danet, A.; Mirica, M.; Constantinescu, S.

    1998-01-01

    The general computer network of Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), as part of RNC (Romanian National Computer Network for scientific research and technological development), offers the Romanian physics research community an efficient and cost-effective infrastructure to communicate and collaborate with fellow researchers abroad, and to collect and exchange the most up-to-date information in their research area. RNC is the national project co-ordinated and established by the Ministry of Research and Technology targeted on the following main objectives: - setting up a technical and organizational infrastructure meant to provide national and international electronic services for the Romanian scientific research community; - providing a rapid and competitive tool for the exchange information in the framework of R-D community; - using the scientific and technical data bases available in the country and offered by the national networks from other countries through international networks; - providing a support for information, documentation, scientific and technical co-operation. The guiding principle in elaborating the project of general computer network of IFIN-HH was to implement an open system based on OSI standards without technical barriers in communication between different communities using different computing hardware and software. The major objectives achieved in 1997 in the direction of developing the general computer network of IFIN-HH (over 250 computers connected) were: - connecting all the existing and newly installed computer equipment and providing an adequate connectivity; - providing the usual Internet services: e-mail, ftp, telnet, finger, gopher; - providing access to the World Wide Web resources; - providing on-line statistics of IP traffic (input and output) of each node of the domain computer network; - improving the performance of the connection with the central node RNC. (authors)

  13. Lagrangian analysis of multi-satellite data in support of open ocean Marine Protected Area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Penna, Alice; Koubbi, Philippe; Cotté, Cedric; Bon, Cécile; Bost, Charles-André; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Compared to ecosystem conservation in territorial seas, protecting the open ocean has peculiar geopolitical, economic and scientific challenges. One of the major obstacle is defining the boundary of an open ocean Marine Protected Area (MPA). In contrast to coastal ecosystems, which are mostly constrained by topographic structures fixed in time, the life of marine organisms in the open ocean is entrained by fluid dynamical structures like eddies and fronts, whose lifetime occurs on ecologically-relevant timescales. The position of these highly dynamical structures can vary interannually by hundreds of km, and so too will regions identified as ecologically relevant such as the foraging areas of marine predators. Thus, the expected foraging locations suggested from tracking data cannot be directly extrapolated beyond the year in which the data were collected. Here we explore the potential of Lagrangian methods applied to multisatellite data as a support tool for a MPA proposal by focusing on the Crozet archipelago oceanic area (Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean). By combining remote sensing with biologging information from a key marine top predator (Eudyptes chrysolophus, or Macaroni penguin) of the Southern Ocean foodweb, we identify a highly dynamic branch of the Subantarctic front as a foraging hotspot. By tracking this feature in historical satellite data (1993-2012) we are able to extrapolate the position of this foraging ground beyond the years in which tracking data are available and study its spatial variability.

  14. Vertical transport of organic matter in the various oceanic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Nobuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuhide

    1993-01-01

    Organic matter produced by the photosynthesis of the phytoplankton is removed from the euphotic layer to the underlying waters by sinking of the particles consisting of both marine snow and fecal pellet. Phytoplankton bloom always enhances the vertical flux of organic matter from the subsurface to deep waters. Turbidity current is another factor to govern the vertical flux of organic carbon especially in the continental shelf to its slope areas. However, no information are available to distinguish the organic materials from these two sources. Stable carbon isotope ratio and fatty acid composition give most promising informations to diagnose the physiological state of the phytoplankton which is one of the source of the organic materials of the sinking particle, because of the extensive variations of the δ 13 C of the phytoplankton cellular organic matter and fatty acid composition due to the phytoplankton growth rate (O'Leary, 1981; Morris et al., 1985). Δ 14 C of the organic matter of the sinking particle will provide an information as to how much organic materials are derived from the phytoplankton growing in the surface and subsurface waters and/or from the resuspended particles of the surface sediment in the continental shelf and its slope areas. Recently we analyzed various samples of the sinking particles collected from the coastal areas of the Antarctica and off Hokkaido, Japan for fatty acids and found that ratios as biomarker to diagnose these growth phases of the phytoplankton growing in the surface to subsurface waters. Thus, we intend to report here these data obtained. (J.P.N.)

  15. Overview of design development of FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082479; Abelleira, Jose; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Benedikt, Michael; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Buffat, Xavier; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Langner, Andy Sven; Martin, Roman; Riegler, Werner; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Boscolo, Manuela; Collamati, Francesco; Nevay, Laurence James; Hofer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The experimental interaction region (EIR) is one of the key areas that define the performance of the Future Circular Collider. In this overview we will describe the status and the evolution of the design of EIR of FCC-hh, focusing on design of the optics, energy deposition in EIR elements, beam-beam effects and machine detector interface issues.

  16. Developments of the general computer network of NIPNE-HH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirica, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Danet, A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1991 the general computer network of NIPNE-HH was developed and connected to RNCN (Romanian National Computer Network) for research and development and it offers to the Romanian physics research community an efficient and cost-effective infrastructure to communicate and collaborate with fellow researchers abroad, and to collect and exchange the most up-to-date information in their research area. RNCN is targeted on the following main objectives: Setting up a technical and organizational infrastructure meant to provide national and international electronic services for the Romanian scientific research community; - Providing a rapid and competitive tool for the exchange of information in the framework of Research and Development (R-D) community; - Using the scientific and technical data bases available in the country and offered by the national networks from other countries through international networks; - Providing a support for information, scientific and technical co-operation. RNCN has two international links: to EBONE via ACONET (64kbps) and to EuropaNET via Hungarnet (64 kbps). The guiding principle in designing the project of general computer network of NIPNE-HH, as part of RNCN, was to implement an open system based on OSI standards taking into account the following criteria: - development of a flexible solution, according to OSI specifications; - solutions of reliable gateway with the existing network already in use,allowing the access to the worldwide networks; - using the TCP/IP transport protocol for each Local Area Network (LAN) and for the connection to RNCN; - ensuring the integration of different and heterogeneous software and hardware platforms (DOS, Windows, UNIX, VMS, Linux, etc) through some specific interfaces. The major objectives achieved in direction of developing the general computer network of NIPNE-HH are: - linking all the existing and newly installed computer equipment and providing an adequate connectivity. LANs from departments

  17. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station Mayport, Florida. (a) The areas. (1) The St. Johns River restricted...

  18. HH-65A Dolphin digital integrated avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Communication, navigation, flight control, and search sensor management are avionics functions which constitute every Search and Rescue (SAR) operation. Routine cockpit duties monopolize crew attention during SAR operations and thus impair crew effectiveness. The United States Coast Guard challenged industry to build an avionics system that automates routine tasks and frees the crew to focus on the mission tasks. The HH-64A SAR avionics systems of communication, navigation, search sensors, and flight control have existed independently. On the SRR helicopter, the flight management system (FMS) was introduced. H coordinates or integrates these functions. The pilot interacts with the FMS rather than the individual subsystems, using simple, straightforward procedures to address distinct mission tasks and the flight management system, in turn, orchestrates integrated system response.

  19. IFIN-HH, Scientific Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, Felicia; Enescu, Sanda-Elena; Oancea, Margareta; Preda, Mihaela; Prodan, Lucia; Raduta, Adriana; Sandu, Doina; Schiaua, Claudiu

    2001-01-01

    The annual report of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, on 2000 presents progress reports in the fields of Theoretical Physics (Nuclear and Atomic Physics (1 paper), Mathematical Physics, Field Theory and Elementary Particles (4 papers), Physics of Information (11 papers)), Nuclear Physics (Nuclear Structure (12 papers), Nuclear Reactions (11 papers), Applied Nuclear Physics (6 papers)), Atomic Physics (1 paper), Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Astrophysics (3 papers), Inertial Fusion, Physics of Neutrons and Nuclear Transmutations (3 papers), Nuclear Instruments and Methods (12 papers), Particle Physics (11 papers), Health and Environmental Physics (8 papers), Applied Physics (13 papers), Tracers, Radiopharmaceuticals and Radiometry (8 papers), Waste management and Site Restoration (1 paper) and Standardization (2 papers). Appendices are added listing the publications in journals, monographs and as preprints, contributions to international conferences, PhD theses, and scientific exchanges (foreign visitors, invited seminars, visits abroad, seminars abroad). Finally the Institute scientific board and research staff are listed

  20. IFIN-HH, Scientific Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstea, Stefan; Dragulici, Felicia; Enescu, Sanda-Elena; Oancea, Margareta; Preda, Mihaela; Prodan, Lucia; Raduta, Adriana; Sandu, Doina; Schiaua, Claudiu

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH, on 1999 presents progress reports in the fields of Theoretical Physics (Nuclear and Atomic Physics (14 papers); Mathematical Physics, Field Theory and Elementary Particles (5 ); Physics of Information (6)), Nuclear Physics (Nuclear Structure (11), Nuclear Reactions (10), Atomic Physics (3), Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Astrophysics (3), Physics of Neutrons (2); Nuclear Instruments and Methods (11)), Particle Physics (7), Health and Environmental Physics (10), Applied Physics (21), Tracers, Radiopharmaceuticals and Radiometry (16), Technological Development (2), Waste management and Site Restoration (2) and Standardization (4). Appendices are added listing the publications in journals, monographs and as preprints, contributions to international conferences, PhD theses, and scientific exchanges (foreign visitors, invited seminars, visits abroad, seminars abroad). Finally the Institute scientific board and research staff are listed

  1. IFIN-HH, Scientific Report 2001 - 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oancea, Margareta; Schiaua, Claudiu; Grecu, Dan; Dumitriu, Marinela

    2003-01-01

    The annual report of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH on 2001-2002 presents progress reports in the fields of Theoretical Physics (Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Mathematical Physics, Field Theory and Elementary Particles, Computational Physics (Physics of Information) and Solid State Physics), Nuclear Physics (Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Reaction, Atomic Physics, Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Astrophysics, Inertial Fusion, Physics of Neutrons and Nuclear Transmutation, Nuclear Instruments and Methods), Particle Physics, Health and Environmental Physics, Applied Physics, Tracers, Radiopharmaceuticals and Radiometry, Waste Management and Site Restoration and Standardization. Appendices are added listing the publications in journals, books and preprints, participations in international conferences and scientific exchanges (foreign visitors, visits abroad, seminars abroad). Finally, the Institute directorate and research staff are listed

  2. Macrobenthic standing stock in the nodule areas of Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pavithran, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    Diversity, distribution and standing stock of macrofauna in the nodule areas of Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were studied during April 2003. The density ranged between 22 to 132 no.m super(-2) (mean: 55 + or - 37 SD, n=25) and biomass ranged...

  3. Processes analysis of ocean-atmosphere interaction in Colombian marine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jeimmy; Pabon Caicedo, Jose Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This document shows the importance to understanding the processes of interaction ocean-atmosphere by means of the knowledge of the behavior of the physical and biological processes in the Colombian marine areas. For such aim, it was studied the production of the pigment concentration (chlorophyll-a) by means the state of the sea surface temperature and the atmospheric dynamics for year 2001

  4. Ammonia toroid aligned perpendicular to the HH 1 and HH 2 bipolar outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrelles, J.M.; Canto, J.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Ho, P.T.P.; Moran, J.M.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)

    1985-01-01

    The ammonia emission from the region containing the Herbig-Haro objects 1 and 2, which mark the presence of a bipolar outflow, was mapped. The ammonia observations delineate an elongated structure aligned perpendicular to the bipolar outflow. This ammonia condensation is centered between HH 1 and HH 2 and coincides with the recently discovered central radio continuum source. This continuum source has no optical counterpart. The ammonia spectrum at the position of the continuum source shows a remarkable splitting. Based on the orientation of the bipolar outflow, which is known to be oriented nearly perpendicular to the line of sight, and on theoretical considerations, it is concluded that the ammonia source is part of a toroid, viewed edge-on, in slow expansion driven by the wind pressure of the central source. This toroid may be the focusing mechanism for the bipolar outflow. Searches for ammonia condensations in the vicinity of other HH objects may help localize the energy sources of these systems. 26 references

  5. The IFIN-HH triple coincidence liquid scintillation counter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Razdolescu, AC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available at IFIN-HH using a 3 H standard. The performances of the IFIN-HH TDCR counter was checked against the measurement results of the TDCR counters of CSIR NML (South Africa), RC (Poland) and LNHB (France). A set of ready-to-measure Ni-63 sources in liquid...

  6. Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Past, Present and Future Changes in Arctic Terrestrial and Marine Systems" (Kananaskis, Alberta/Canada, February 2012). During these workshops, key areas and key scientific themes as well as drilling and site-survey strategies were discussed. Major scientific themes for future Arctic drilling will include: - The Arctic Ocean during the transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions and millennial scale climate changes; - Physical and chemical changes of the evolving Polar Ocean and Arctic gateways; - Impact of Pleistocene/Holocene warming and sea-level rise on upper continental slope and shelf gas hydrates and on shelf permafrost; - Land-ocean interactions; - Tectonic evolution and birth of the Arctic Ocean basin: Arctic ridges, sea floor spreading and global lithosphere processes. When thinking about future Arctic drilling, it should be clearly emphasized that for the precise planning of future Arctic Ocean drilling campaigns, including site selection, evaluation of proposed drill sites for safety and environmental protection, etc., comprehensive site survey data are needed first. This means that the development of a detailed site survey strategy is a major challenge for the coming years. Here, an overview of perspectives and plans for future Arctic Ocean drilling will be presented.

  7. Observation of the HH 1 and 2 region with IRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravdo, S.H.; Chester, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) observations of the region in Orion containing HH 1 and 2 reveal for the first time the large-scale distribution of newly formed stars. New infrared sources discovered in these observations are discussed, and attempts are made to untangle the complex infrared morphology of this field. A major finding of this study is that HH 1 is near the peak of an intense and broad plateau of 60 and 100 micron emission that spatially corresponds well with the boundaries of a previously detected molecular cloud. Other findings include the detection of an emitting circum-HH object dust complex around HH 2, 25 micron emission associated with the putative HH 1 and 2 exciting source discovered with the VLA, a new luminous far-infrared source, and numerous infrared source complexes, some in blank optical fields and others in fields containing optical emission-line stars. 37 references

  8. The dynamics of Herbig-Haro objects HH46 and 47A and their remarkable connecting filament HH47B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaburn, J.; Dyson, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Echelle observations of the Hα and [S II] line profiles have been made with the Anglo-Australian Telescope along the emission-line filament (HH47B) which connects the Herbig-Haro objects HH46 and 47A. A red continuum source between HH46 and the 10μm peak has a +-200kms -1 wide Hα component centred on the rest velocity of the parent globule. Scattered radiation from an embedded T Tauri star is suggested. HH46 and 47A are receding away from the observer but the connecting filament exhibits some form of velocity ellipse. The bipolar configuration had been previously suggested by the discovery of the counter object HH47C with Vsub(HEL) = 100kms -1 . (author)

  9. Radon-222 as an indicator of continental air masses and air mass boundaries over ocean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.E.; Bressan, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) has proven to be an excellent indicator of the continental nature of over-ocean air and air mass boundaries. Radon is almost exclusively of continental origin, and low-level real-time monitoring is possible with our improved radon measurement techniques. The transition from continental to maritime air in offshore and onshore winds is rather obvious and can easily be established near large islands or continents as an order-of-magnitude change in radon concentration from a few tens of picocuries per cubic meter or more to a few picocuries per cubic meter or less. Sharply changing radon concentrations are usually associated with frontal areas. Our data have offered insights into air movements, and hence transport of continental materials and pollutants over oceanic areas

  10. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE HH 110/270 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdic, P. [Instituto de Astronomia, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reipurth, B.; Walawender, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Raga, A. C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bally, J., E-mail: primoz@geofisica.unam.mx, E-mail: reipurth@IfA.Hawaii.Edu, E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: John.Bally@casa.colorado.edu, E-mail: joshw@ifa.hawaii.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    We present a study of the HH 110/270 system based on three sets of optical images obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope, the Subaru Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The ground-based observations are made in the H{alpha} and [S II] emission lines and the HST observations are made in the H{alpha} line only. Ground-based observations reveal the existence of nine knots, which have not been previously discussed and offer some important insight into the HH 110/270 history. We perform a kinematic study of the HH 110/270 system and an analysis of its emission properties. We measure proper motions of all the knots in the system. Four of the newly identified knots belong to the HH 270 jet. Their positions indicate that the jet's axis changed its direction in the past. We speculate that similar changes may have occurred many times in the past and this could be part of the reason for the unusual structure of the HH 110 jet. The HST observations allow us to resolve individual knots into their substructures and to measure their proper motions. These measurements show that the knots are highly turbulent structures. Finally, we report the discovery of four new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located near the HH 110/270 system.

  11. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE HH 110/270 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdič, P.; Reipurth, B.; Walawender, J.; Raga, A. C.; Bally, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the HH 110/270 system based on three sets of optical images obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope, the Subaru Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The ground-based observations are made in the Hα and [S II] emission lines and the HST observations are made in the Hα line only. Ground-based observations reveal the existence of nine knots, which have not been previously discussed and offer some important insight into the HH 110/270 history. We perform a kinematic study of the HH 110/270 system and an analysis of its emission properties. We measure proper motions of all the knots in the system. Four of the newly identified knots belong to the HH 270 jet. Their positions indicate that the jet's axis changed its direction in the past. We speculate that similar changes may have occurred many times in the past and this could be part of the reason for the unusual structure of the HH 110 jet. The HST observations allow us to resolve individual knots into their substructures and to measure their proper motions. These measurements show that the knots are highly turbulent structures. Finally, we report the discovery of four new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located near the HH 110/270 system.

  12. Incentivizing More Effective Marine Protected Areas with the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah O. Hameed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy oceans are essential to human survival and prosperity, yet oceans are severely impacted worldwide by anthropogenic threats including overfishing, climate change, industrialization, pollution, and habitat destruction. Marine protected areas (MPAs have been implemented around the world and are effective conservation tools that can mitigate some of these threats and build resilience when designed and managed well. However, despite a rich scientific literature on MPA effectiveness, science is not the main driver behind the design and implementation of many MPAs, leading to variable MPA effectiveness and bias in global MPA representativity. As a result, the marine conservation community focuses on promoting the creation of more MPAs as well as more effective ones, however no structure to improve or accelerate effective MPA implementation currently exists. To safeguard marine ecosystems on a global scale and better monitor progress toward ecosystem protection, robust science-based criteria are needed for evaluating MPAs and synthesizing the extensive and interdisciplinary science on MPA effectiveness. This paper presents a strategic initiative led by Marine Conservation Institute called the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES. GLORES aims to set standards to improve the quality of MPAs and catalyze strong protection for at least 30% of the ocean by 2030. Such substantial increase in marine protection is needed to maintain the resilience of marine ecosystems and restore their benefits to people. GLORES provides a comprehensive strategy that employs the rich body of MPA science to scale up existing marine conservation efforts.

  13. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS BARBEY using BT and XBT casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean and other areas from 03 November 1988 to 01 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8800327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS BARBEY in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean,...

  14. A hierarchical classification of benthic biodiversity and assessment of protected areas in the Southern Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda L Douglass

    Full Text Available An international effort is underway to establish a representative system of marine protected areas (MPAs in the Southern Ocean to help provide for the long-term conservation of marine biodiversity in the region. Important to this undertaking is knowledge of the distribution of benthic assemblages. Here, our aim is to identify the areas where benthic marine assemblages are likely to differ from each other in the Southern Ocean including near-shore Antarctica. We achieve this by using a hierarchical spatial classification of ecoregions, bathomes and environmental types. Ecoregions are defined according to available data on biogeographic patterns and environmental drivers on dispersal. Bathomes are identified according to depth strata defined by species distributions. Environmental types are uniquely classified according to the geomorphic features found within the bathomes in each ecoregion. We identified 23 ecoregions and nine bathomes. From a set of 28 types of geomorphic features of the seabed, 562 unique environmental types were classified for the Southern Ocean. We applied the environmental types as surrogates of different assemblages of biodiversity to assess the representativeness of existing MPAs. We found that 12 ecoregions are not represented in MPAs and that no ecoregion has their full range of environmental types represented in MPAs. Current MPA planning processes, if implemented, will substantially increase the representation of environmental types particularly within 8 ecoregions. To meet internationally agreed conservation goals, additional MPAs will be needed. To assist with this process, we identified 107 spatially restricted environmental types, which should be considered for inclusion in future MPAs. Detailed supplementary data including a spatial dataset are provided.

  15. A high-resolution ocean circulation model of the Gulf of Naples and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ruggero, P.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of a high-resolution circulation model of a southern Tyrrhenian coastal area is discussed. The sigma-coordinate Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is implemented with a 1/144° resolution in a domain that includes highly urbanized coastal areas, such as the Gulf of Naples and the nearby gulfs of Gaeta and Salerno, that are particularly relevant from oceanographic, ecological and social viewpoints. The model takes initial and boundary conditions from a 1/48° resolution POM model of the whole Tyrrhenian Sea. The main forcing is provided by ECMWF wind data, but an alternative wind field obtained from the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data is also tested. Fundamental aspects of coastal modeling, such as the relative importance of local and remote forcing in semi-enclosed seas, and the sensitivity to different wind products are discussed.

  16. A new AMS facility based on a Cockcroft-Walton type 1 MV tandetron at IFIN-HH Magurele, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.; Ghita, D. G.; Calinescu, C. I.; Petre, A.; Mosu, D. V.; Klein, M.

    2014-01-01

    A 1 MV AMS machine was recently installed in the National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering IFIN-HH, Bucharest Romania. It is the second AMS facility at IFIN-HH having the goal not only to continue but mainly to enlarge the research area of this highly sensitive analyzing method. The multi-element AMS was developed by HVEE to measure 14C, 10Be, and 26Al, and 129I. The results of an acceptance test are presented and demonstrate that this machine is capable of routine 14C age dating and of measurements of other radioisotopes in terms of accuracy and precision as well as a low background level.

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  18. Salinity and sigma-t data from CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-06 to 1995-08-03 (NODC Accession 9600024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity and sigma-t data were collected using current meter, pressure gauge, and CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from January 6, 1994 to August 3, 1995....

  19. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to October...

  20. The spectrographic orbit of the eclipsing binary HH Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrini, C.H.; Mendez, R.H.; Niemela, V.S.; Ferrer, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    We present a radial velocity study of the eclipsing binary system HH Carinae, and determine for the first time its spectrographic orbital elements. Using the results of a previous photometric study by Soderhjelm, we also determine the values of the masses and dimensions of the binary components. (author)

  1. FCC-hh Hadron Collider - Parameter Scenarios and Staging Options

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, F; Syphers, M J

    2015-01-01

    FCC-hh is a proposed future energy-frontier hadron collider, based on dipole magnets with a field around 16 T installed in a new tunnel with a circumference of about 100 km, which would provide proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV, as well as heavy-ion collisions at the equivalent energy. The FCC-hh should deliver a high integrated proton-proton luminosity at the level of several 100 fb−1 per year, or more. The challenges for operating FCC-hh with high beam current and at high luminosity include the heat load from synchrotron radiation in a cold environment, the radiation from collision debris around the interaction region, and machine protection. In this paper, starting from the FCC-hh design baseline parameters we explore different approaches for increasing the integrated luminosity, and discuss the impact of key individual pa- rameters, such as the turnaround time. We also present some injector considerations and options for early hadron-collider operation.

  2. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A J Graham

    Full Text Available Coral reefs have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution of a warming climate to the loss of live coral cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to assess the importance of local management in conserving coral reefs in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as coral reef fish assemblages are the most species dense vertebrate communities on earth, contributing critical ecosystem functions and providing crucial ecosystem services to human societies in tropical countries. Our assessment of the impacts of the 1998 mass bleaching event on coral cover, reef structural complexity, and reef associated fishes spans 7 countries, 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. Using Bayesian meta-analysis we show that changes in the size structure, diversity and trophic composition of the reef fish community have followed coral declines. Although the ocean scale integrity of these coral reef ecosystems has been lost, it is positive to see the effects are spatially variable at multiple scales, with impacts and vulnerability affected by geography but not management regime. Existing no-take marine protected areas still support high biomass of fish, however they had no positive affect on the ecosystem response to large-scale disturbance. This suggests a need for future conservation and management efforts to identify and protect regional refugia, which should be integrated into existing management frameworks and combined with policies to improve system-wide resilience to climate variation and change.

  3. Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Tim R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Wilson, Shaun K; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Jennings, Simon; Chabanet, Pascale; Clark, Susan; Spalding, Mark D; Letourneur, Yves; Bigot, Lionel; Galzin, René; Ohman, Marcus C; Garpe, Kajsa C; Edwards, Alasdair J; Sheppard, Charles R C

    2008-08-27

    Coral reefs have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution of a warming climate to the loss of live coral cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to assess the importance of local management in conserving coral reefs in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as coral reef fish assemblages are the most species dense vertebrate communities on earth, contributing critical ecosystem functions and providing crucial ecosystem services to human societies in tropical countries. Our assessment of the impacts of the 1998 mass bleaching event on coral cover, reef structural complexity, and reef associated fishes spans 7 countries, 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. Using Bayesian meta-analysis we show that changes in the size structure, diversity and trophic composition of the reef fish community have followed coral declines. Although the ocean scale integrity of these coral reef ecosystems has been lost, it is positive to see the effects are spatially variable at multiple scales, with impacts and vulnerability affected by geography but not management regime. Existing no-take marine protected areas still support high biomass of fish, however they had no positive affect on the ecosystem response to large-scale disturbance. This suggests a need for future conservation and management efforts to identify and protect regional refugia, which should be integrated into existing management frameworks and combined with policies to improve system-wide resilience to climate variation and change.

  4. Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Rocliffe

    Full Text Available In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO, local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region's locally managed marine areas (LMMAs. We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice.

  5. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Turbidity and Ocean Current Velocity of the Ariake Sea Area, Kyushu, Japan Through Regression Analysis with Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Sarusawa; Kohei Arai

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis based method for turbidity and ocean current velocity estimation with remote sensing satellite data is proposed. Through regressive analysis with MODIS data and measured data of turbidity and ocean current velocity, regressive equation which allows estimation of turbidity and ocean current velocity is obtained. With the regressive equation as well as long term MODIS data, turbidity and ocean current velocity trends in Ariake Sea area are clarified. It is also confirmed tha...

  6. Small ships don't shine: classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, Rory GV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the Understanding of Our Living Planet, 10-15 July 2016, Beijing, China Small ships don't shine: Classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions R. G. V. Meyer ; W. Kleynhans ; C. P. Schwegmann Abstract: Monitoring...

  7. THE POLARIMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY OF HH 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran-Rojas, MarIa Carolina; Watson, Alan M.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Hiriart, David

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained ground-based photopolarimetry of the young stellar object HH 30 over the course of one year. Our observations reveal the presence of a dominant periodic modulation of the polarization with a period of 7.49 ± 0.04 days or one of the aliases of this period close to 1 day. There are also suggestions of a weak periodic modulation in the photometry with the same period but a phase displaced by one quarter of a period. These results are in agreement with the lighthouse model for HH 30, in which a beam or shadow from a central source sweeps across the disk. Our observations by themselves appear to be consistent with both of the mechanisms that have been proposed for the lighthouse-asymmetric accretion hot spots on the star or orbiting clumps or voids in the disk-and provide strong quantitative constraints for future models.

  8. First results for a FCC-hh ring optics design

    CERN Document Server

    Chance, Antoine; Payet, Jacques; Alemany Fernandez, Reyes; Holzer, Bernhard; Schulte, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The first order considerations of the optics for the FCC-hh ring are presented. The arc cell is generated taking into account some general considerations like the whole circumference, maximum gradients and lengths of the elements in the cell. The integration of the insertion regions started. Three types of Dispersion Suppressors (DIS) are studied. The sensitivity of the arc parameters to these layout considerations is studied in more detail. An alternative layout is shown as well.

  9. hh+ {Jet} production at 100 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shankha; Englert, Christoph; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Selvaggi, Michele; Spannowsky, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Higgs pair production is a crucial phenomenological process in deciphering the nature of the TeV scale and the mechanism underlying electroweak symmetry breaking. At the Large Hadron Collider, this process is statistically limited. Pushing the energy frontier beyond the LHC's reach will create new opportunities to exploit the rich phenomenology at higher centre-of-mass energies and luminosities. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of the hh+ {jet} channel at a future 100 TeV hadron collider. We focus on the hh→ b\\bar{b} b\\bar{b} and hh → b\\bar{b} τ ^+τ ^- channels and employ a range of analysis techniques to estimate the sensitivity potential that can be gained by including this jet-associated Higgs pair production to the list of sensitive collider processes in such an environment. In particular, we observe that hh → b\\bar{b} τ ^+τ ^- in the boosted regime exhibits a large sensitivity to the Higgs boson self-coupling and the Higgs self-coupling could be constrained at the 8% level in this channel alone.

  10. Ecological biogeography of southern ocean islands: species-area relationships, human impacts, and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chown, S.L.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Gaston, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that southern ocean islands are anomalous because past glacial extent and current temperature apparently explain most variance in their species richness. Here, the relationships between physical variables and species richness of vascular plants, insects, land and

  11. Presal36: a high resolution ocean current model for Brazilian pre-salt area: implementation and validation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellkopf, Jacques P. [Advanced Subsea do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The PRESAL 36 JIP is a project for the development of a powerful Ocean Current Model of 1/36 of a degree resolution, nested in an existing Global Ocean global Model, Mercator PSY4 (1/12-a-degree resolution ), with tide corrections, improved bathymetry accuracy and high frequency atmospheric forcing (every 3 hours). The simulation outputs will be the 3 dimensional structure of the velocity fields (u,v,w) at 50 vertical levels over the water column, including geostrophic, Ekman and tidal currents, together with Temperature, Salinity and sea surface height at a sub-mesoscale spatial resolution. Simulations will run in hindcast, nowcast and forecast modes, with a temporal resolution of 3 hours . This Ocean current model will allow to perform detailed statistical studies on various areas using conditions analysed using hindcast mode, short term operational condition prediction for various surface and sub sea operations using realtime and Forecast modes. The paper presents a publication of significant results of the project, in term of pre-sal zoomed model implementation, and high resolution model validation. It demonstrate the capability to properly describe ocean current phenomenon at beyond mesoscale frontier. This project demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining accurate information for engineering studies and operational conditions, based on a 'zoom technique' starting from global ocean models. (author)

  12. HH 1158: THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY EXTERNALLY IRRADIATED HERBIG–HARO JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.; Whelan, E. T.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified a new externally irradiated Herbig–Haro (HH) jet, HH 1158, within ∼2 pc of the massive OB type stars in the σ Orionis cluster. At an L bol  ∼ 0.1 L ⊙ , HH 1158 is the lowest luminosity irradiated HH jet identified to date in any cluster. Results from the analysis of high-resolution optical spectra indicate asymmetries in the brightness, morphology, electron density, velocity, and the mass outflow rates for the blue and redshifted lobes. We constrain the position angle of the HH 1158 jet at 102° ± 5°. The mass outflow rate and the mean accretion rate for HH 1158 using multiple diagnostics are estimated to be (5.2 ± 2.6) × 10 −10 M ⊙ yr −1 and (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10 −10 M ⊙ yr −1 , respectively. The properties for HH 1158 are notably similar to the externally irradiated HH 444–HH 447 jets previously identified in σ Orionis. In particular, the morphology is such that the weaker jet beam is tilted toward the massive stars, indicating a higher extent of photo-evaporation. The high value for the Hα/[S ii] ratio is also consistent with the ratios measured in other irradiated jets, including HH 444–HH 447. The presence of an extended collimated jet that is bipolar and the evidence of shocked emission knots make HH 1158 the first unique case of irradiated HH jets at the very low-luminosity end, and provides an opportunity to learn the physical properties of very faint HH jet sources

  13. Beam-beam studies for FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Furuseth, Sondre Vik

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron (FCC-hh) design study is currently exploring different IR design possibilities including round and flat optics or different crossing schemes. The present study intends to evaluate each scenario from the beam-beam effects point of view. In particular the single particle long term stability to maximize beam lifetimes and luminosity reach is used to quantify the differences. The impact of strong head on interactions on the beam quality and lifetime is addressed by means of GPU accelerated simulations code featuring a weak-strong 6-dimensional beam-beam interaction.

  14. EMQN best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Graça; Brissot, Pierre; Swinkels, Dorine W; Zoller, Heinz; Kamarainen, Outi; Patton, Simon; Alonso, Isabel; Morris, Michael; Keeney, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic testing for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is recognized as a reference test to confirm the diagnosis of suspected HH or to predict its risk. The vast majority (typically >90%) of patients with clinically characterized HH are homozygous for the p.C282Y variant in the HFE gene, referred to as HFE-related HH. Since 1996, HFE genotyping was implemented in diagnostic algorithms for suspected HH, allowing its early diagnosis and prevention. However, the penetrance of disease in p.C282Y homozygotes is incomplete. Hence, homozygosity for p.C282Y is not sufficient to diagnose HH. Neither is p.C282Y homozygosity required for diagnosis as other rare forms of HH exist, generally referred to as non-HFE-related HH. These pose significant challenges when defining criteria for referral, testing protocols, interpretation of test results and reporting practices. We present best practice guidelines for the molecular genetic diagnosis of HH where recommendations are classified, as far as possible, according to the level and strength of evidence. For clarification, the guidelines' recommendations are preceded by a detailed description of the methodology and results obtained with a series of actions taken in order to achieve a wide expert consensus, namely: (i) a survey on the current practices followed by laboratories offering molecular diagnosis of HH; (ii) a systematic literature search focused on some identified controversial topics; (iii) an expert Best Practice Workshop convened to achieve consensus on the practical recommendations included in the guidelines. PMID:26153218

  15. Aerosol properties over the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) campaign area retrieved from ATSR-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robles-Gonzalez, C.; Leeuw, G.de; Decae, R.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.T.; Stammes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol retrieved algorithms for ATSR-2 have been applied over land and water using data from the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) Intensive Field Phase (IFP) in February and March 1999. The goal was the extension of the ATSR-2 algorithms, developed for application over the U.S. east coast and

  16. A contribution to the study of atmospheric aerosols in urban, marine and oceanic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butor, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    A study of atmospheric aerosols, especially marine aerosols, was carried out, using impactors and nuclepore filters in association with electron microscopy techniques. The performances of the experimental device were first determined carefully and a generator of monodisperse aerosols was built at the laboratory in order to measure the efficiency of the filters used. It was demonstrated that the chief atmospheric particulate constituents could be determined by electron microscopy. The particle-size distribution of oceanic aerosols was next studied on the basis of the results of three measurement campaigns carried out in the Atlantic ocean. In Brest, where urban aerosols more or less affected by the meteorological conditions can be found superimposed to marine aerosols, an assessment was made of the effects of moderate anthropogeneous pollution on marine aerosols as measured in the Atlantic ocean. Two cases of marine aerosol disturbance, the former by an accidental marine pollution, the latter linked to a natural local phenomenon are related and a model of the marine aerosol in the Northern Atlantic ocean is proposed which takes into account the mean particle size spectra, the characteristic parameters of its three-modal distribution and the qualitative analysis of particles. (author) [fr

  17. Physical oceanographic characteristics influencing the dispersion of dissolved tracers released at the sea floor in selected deep ocean study areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.; Moore, D.E.

    1981-02-01

    Scenarios which follow the development in space and time of the concentration field of a dissolved tracer released at the sea floor are presented for a Pacific and two Atlantic study areas. The scenarios are closely tied to available data by means of simple analytical models and proceed in stages from short time and space scales in the immediate vicinity of a release point to those scales characteristic of ocean basins. The concepts of internal mixing time and residence time in the benthic mixed layer, useful for developing an intuitive feeling for the behavior of a tracer in this feature, are introduced and discussed. We also introduce the concept of domain of occupation, which is useful in drawing distinctions between mixing and stirring in the ocean. From this study it is apparent that reliable estimation of mixing will require careful consideration of the dynamics of the eddy fields in the ocean. Another area in which more information is urgently needed is in the relation of deep isopycnal structure and bottom topography to local near-bottom circulation

  18. The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its

  19. Age and area predict patterns of species richness in pumice rafts contingent on oceanic climatic zone encountered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Eleanor; Bryan, Scott E; Ekins, Merrick; Cook, Alex G; Hurrey, Lucy; Firn, Jennifer

    2018-05-01

    The theory of island biogeography predicts that area and age explain species richness patterns (or alpha diversity) in insular habitats. Using a unique natural phenomenon, pumice rafting, we measured the influence of area, age, and oceanic climate on patterns of species richness. Pumice rafts are formed simultaneously when submarine volcanoes erupt, the pumice clasts breakup irregularly, forming irregularly shaped pumice stones which while floating through the ocean are colonized by marine biota. We analyze two eruption events and more than 5,000 pumice clasts collected from 29 sites and three climatic zones. Overall, the older and larger pumice clasts held more species. Pumice clasts arriving in tropical and subtropical climates showed this same trend, where in temperate locations species richness (alpha diversity) increased with area but decreased with age. Beta diversity analysis of the communities forming on pumice clasts that arrived in different climatic zones showed that tropical and subtropical clasts transported similar communities, while species composition on temperate clasts differed significantly from both tropical and subtropical arrivals. Using these thousands of insular habitats, we find strong evidence that area and age but also climatic conditions predict the fundamental dynamics of species richness colonizing pumice clasts.

  20. Model for collimated outflows in molecular clouds and the case of HH 7-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestro, G; Ferrari, A; Rosner, R; Trussoni, E; Tsinganos, K

    1987-01-15

    Modelling is carried out for collimated outflows of high-velocity gas in molecular clouds, which is often observed to be associated with linear chains of optical emission knots. A wind-flow model is proposed to account for the phenomenon, based on the structural similarities between the outflows and jets from active galactic nuclei and quasars. The chain of Herbig-Haro objects HH7-11 is used to illustrate the proposal. The model is based on flows in a channel of variable cross-sectional area due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities between the flow and the ambient medium. Solutions of the Mach number equation for such a channel are presented, which possess multiple critical points and shocks identified with observed optical knots. (U.K.).

  1. HH 222: A GIANT HERBIG-HARO FLOW FROM THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM V380 ORI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kraus, Stefan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Appenzeller, Immo [Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Burgasser, Adam, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: caa@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: msc@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: tgeballe@gemini.edu, E-mail: stefan.kraus@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: iappenze@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or ''the waterfall'' on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ∼1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  2. Ocean-bottom pressure changes above a fault area for tsunami excitation and propagation observed by a submarine dense network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, K.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional tsunami excitation and propagation have been formulated by incompressible fluid with velocity components. This approach is valid in most cases because we usually analyze tunamis as "long gravity waves" excited by submarine earthquakes. Newly developed ocean-bottom tsunami networks such as S-net and DONET have dramatically changed the above situation for the following two reasons: (1) tsunami propagations are now directly observed in a 2-D array manner without being suffered by complex "site effects" of sea shore, and (2) initial tsunami features can be directly detected just above a fault area. Removing the incompressibility assumption of sea water, we have formulated a new representation of tsunami excitation based on not velocity but displacement components. As a result, not only dynamics but static term (i.e., the component of zero frequency) can be naturally introduced, which is important for the pressure observed on the ocean floor, which ocean-bottom tsunami stations are going to record. The acceleration on the ocean floor should be combined with the conventional tsunami height (that is, the deformation of the sea level above a given station) in the measurement of ocean-bottom pressure although the acceleration exists only during fault motions in time. The M7.2 Off Fukushima earthquake on 22 November 2016 was the first event that excited large tsunamis within the territory of S-net stations. The propagation of tsunamis is found to be highly non-uniform, because of the strong velocity (i.e., sea depth) gradient perpendicular to the axis of Japan Trench. The earthquake was located in a shallow sea close to the coast, so that all the tsunami energy is reflected by the trench region of high velocity. Tsunami records (pressure gauges) within its fault area recorded clear slow motions of tsunamis (i.e., sea level changes) but also large high-frequency signals, as predicted by our theoretical result. That is, it may be difficult to extract tsunami

  3. Cunea n. g. (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida) with two cryptic species isolated from different areas of the ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. This paper describes a new genus, Cunea n. g., of marine naked amoebae with two cryptic species, Cunea profundata and Cunea thuwala, isolated from distant localities in the ocean and different depths (Brazilian abyssal plain, Western Atlantic Ocean, depth >5. km and the Red Sea off the Saudi Arabian coast, depth ca. 58.7. m). Both species are very similar to each other in the set of light microscopic and ultrastructural characters and might be described as a single species, yet their genetic divergence based on 3 molecular markers (small-subunit ribosomal RNA, actin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) corresponds to the level of variation typically observed between different morphospecies of Amoebozoa. In addition, the studied strains differ strongly in their temperature tolerance ranges, C. profundata isolated from the cold Atlantic deep-sea habitat being able to reproduce under lower temperatures than C. thuwala isolated from the warm Red Sea benthos. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rRNA gene shows that the new genus robustly branches within the Dactylopodida, but forms an independent clade within this order that does not group with any of its known genera.

  4. Cunea n. g. (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida) with two cryptic species isolated from different areas of the ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. This paper describes a new genus, Cunea n. g., of marine naked amoebae with two cryptic species, Cunea profundata and Cunea thuwala, isolated from distant localities in the ocean and different depths (Brazilian abyssal plain, Western Atlantic Ocean, depth >5. km and the Red Sea off the Saudi Arabian coast, depth ca. 58.7. m). Both species are very similar to each other in the set of light microscopic and ultrastructural characters and might be described as a single species, yet their genetic divergence based on 3 molecular markers (small-subunit ribosomal RNA, actin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) corresponds to the level of variation typically observed between different morphospecies of Amoebozoa. In addition, the studied strains differ strongly in their temperature tolerance ranges, C. profundata isolated from the cold Atlantic deep-sea habitat being able to reproduce under lower temperatures than C. thuwala isolated from the warm Red Sea benthos. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rRNA gene shows that the new genus robustly branches within the Dactylopodida, but forms an independent clade within this order that does not group with any of its known genera.

  5. Identification of Holocene millennial-scale forcing in the North Atlantic area: Ocean/atmosphere contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debret, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Christophe, C.; de Vernal, A.; Massei, N.; Eynaud, F.; Nicolle, M.; Frank, N.; Mary, Y.; Magny, M.

    2017-12-01

    Millennial (1500-year) cycles were evidenced decades ago from the advance and retreat of glaciers but many subsequent studies failed to demonstrate the unequivocal character of such oscillation from paleoclimate time series. Hence, the identification of a persistent 1500 year periodicity remains controversial both for the last glacial episode and the Holocene. Applying wavelet analysis to Holocene climate records, we have identified synchronous millennial-scale oscillations which permit to establish a North Atlantic millennial variability index (NAV-Index), maximum at 5330 ± 245, 3560 ± 190, 1810 ± 160 cal years BP and minimum at 4430 ± 250, 2640 ± 225 and 970 ± 200 years before present. This NAV-index was compared with the millennial variability of cosmogenic 10Be isotope, a proxy of solar activity. Differences between the two sets of records suggest that an internal mechanism (Ocean/atmosphere) must be at the origin of the North Atlantic millennial scale variability. Our data document an increased coherence and magnitude of the North Atlantic millennial variability since 6000 cal. years BP, with a frequency of 1780 ± 240 years. During the early Holocene, deglacial meltwater fluxes had strong regional impact and the coupling between subpolar gyre migration and Atlantic meridional oceanic circulation observed since afterward seems to be related to the end of the Laurentide and Inuitian ice sheet meltwater discharge. Hence, we may conclude that the evolution of this millennial oscillation in the future will depend upon the Greenland stability or melting.

  6. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION MULTI-LINE STUDY OF HH 1 AND 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A. C.; Castellanos-Ramírez, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Reipurth, Bo; Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bally, J., E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) narrow band images of the bright Herbig–Haro (HH) objects HH 1 and 2 in the light of the Hα, Hβ, [O i] 6300, [O ii] 3726+28, [O iii] 5007 and [S ii] 6716+30 emission lines. The resulting emission and line ratio maps give an improved picture of the physical structure of these HH objects, showing the presence of spatially limited, high excitation/ionization ridges. We find that HH 1 has a morphology that could be interpreted in terms of a single, asymmetric bow shock, and that many of the clumps of HH 2 fall in two bow-shaped structures of different excitations. We also construct two-line ratio plots showing clear trends, which are much simpler than the highly complex spatial distributions of the emission, and are therefore interesting for testing shock models of HH objects (we only present a comparison with previously published, steady plane-parallel shock models). We have also used the temperature-sensitive [O i]/[S ii] line ratio to evaluate the temperature range and to obtain temperature maps of HH 1 and 2. We find that this line ratio picks out emitting regions with temperatures ≈10{sup 4} K, except along the leading edges of the HH 1 and 2 bow shocks (in which temperatures of ∼3 → 5 × 10{sup 4} K are obtained)

  7. Supra-subduction and mid-ocean ridge peridotites from the Piranshahr area, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajialioghli, Robab; Moazzen, Mohssen

    2014-11-01

    The Piranshahr metaperidotites in the northwestern end of the Zagros orogen were emplaced following the closure of the Neotethys ocean. The ophiolitic rocks were emplaced onto the passive margin of the northern edge of the Arabian plate as a result of northeastward subduction and subsequent accretion of the continental fragments. The metaperidotites have compositions ranging from low-clinopyroxene lherzolite to harzburgite and dunite. They are mantle residues with distinct geochemical signatures of both mid-ocean ridge and supra subduction zone (SSZ) affinities. The abyssal peridotites are characterized by high Al2O3 and Cr2O3 contents and low Mg-number in pyroxenes. The Cr-number in the coexisting spinel is also low. The SSZ mantle peridotites are characterized by low Al2O3 contents in pyroxenes as well as low Al2O3 and high Cr-number in spinel. Mineral chemical data indicate that the MOR- and SSZ-type peridotites are the residues from ∼15-20% and ∼30-35% of mantle melting, respectively. Considering petrography, mineralogy and textural evidence, the petrological history of the Piranshahr metaperidotites can be interpreted in three stages: mantle stable stage, serpentinization and metamorphism. The temperature conditions in the mantle are estimated using the Ca-in-orthopyroxene thermometer as 1210 ± 26 °C. The rocks have experienced serpentinization. Based on the textural observations, olivine and pyroxene transformed into lizardite and/or chrysotile with pseudomorphic textures at temperatures below 300 °C during the initial stage of serpentinization. Subsequent orogenic metamorphism affected the rocks at temperatures lower than 600 °C under lower-amphibolite facies metamorphism.

  8. COLORS OF A SECOND EARTH: ESTIMATING THE FRACTIONAL AREAS OF OCEAN, LAND, AND VEGETATION OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yuka; Kawahara, Hajime; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Fukuda, Satoru; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Turner, Edwin L.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the surfaces of rocky exoplanets via their scattered light will be an essential challenge in investigating their habitability and the possible existence of life on their surfaces. We present a reconstruction method for fractional areas of different surface types from the colors of an Earth-like exoplanet. We create mock light curves for Earth without clouds using empirical data. These light curves are fitted to an isotropic scattering model consisting of four surface types: ocean, soil, snow, and vegetation. In an idealized situation where the photometric errors are only photon shot noise, we are able to reproduce the fractional areas of those components fairly well. The results offer some hope for detection of vegetation via the distinct spectral feature of photosynthesis on Earth, known as the red edge. In our reconstruction method, Rayleigh scattering due to the atmosphere plays an important role, and for terrestrial exoplanets with an atmosphere similar to our Earth, it is possible to estimate the presence of oceans and an atmosphere simultaneously.

  9. A Comparison of the Radio and Optical Time-Evolution of HH 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L. F.; Raga, A. C.; Rodríguez-Kamenetzky, A.; Carrasco-González, C.

    2018-04-01

    We present a comparison between the time-evolution over the past ≍20 years of the radio continuum and Hα emission of HH 1 and 2. We find that the radio continuum and the Hα emission of both objects show very similar trends, with HH 1 becoming fainter and HH 2 brightening quite considerably (by about a factor of 2). We also find that the FHα /Fff (Hα to freefree continuum) ratio of HH 1 and 2 has higher values than the ones typically found in planetary nebulae (PNe), which we interpret as an indication that the Hα and free-free emission of HH 1/2 is produced in emitting regions with lower temperatures (≍2000 K) than the emission of PNe (with ≍104 K).

  10. Narrowband imaging of the Herbig-Haro object HH 46/47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.; Mateo, M.

    1987-01-01

    Narrow-band CCD images of the HH 46/47 system were obtained in the light of the H-alpha, forbidden N II 6583-A forbidden S II 6717-A and forbidden S II 6731-A emission lines. The images include HH 46, HH 47B, and HH 47A. A calibration for these images was carried out that makes it possible to calculate line ratios, and then use these line ratios as diagnostics of the physical conditions in the radiating gas. The study shows that the bright condensation HH 47A has a higher electron density and a lower excitation spectrum than the jet that joins this condensation to the central source. This result does not agree with the observations of other morphologically similar Herbig-Haro objects. 36 references

  11. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  12. Mammotome HH biopsy - the future of minimal invasive breast surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, G.; Nowicki, J.; Bojarski, B.; Kedzierski, B.; Wysocki, A.; Prudlak, E.

    2007-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy / Mammotome HH '' R '' Breast Biopsy System/ is the milestone in the diagnosis of breast lesions. This system has proven to be as diagnostically reliable as open surgery, but without scarring, deformations and hospitalizations associated with an open procedure. The aim of our study was to assess the role and possibilities of using this biopsy in treatment of benign breast lesions like fibroadenoma. From 2001 to 2004, about 1118 Mammotome biopsies were performed in our Department. Among 445 Mammotome biopsies performed under US control there were 211 cases of fibroadenomas. Follow-up was performed in 156 patients with this result at 6 and 12 months after biopsy. In our study we took into considerations the size, localizations as well as performers. In 2002 there were 70.8% patients with total lesion excision, 16.7% with residual lesion and 12.5% women with hematomas or scars. In 2003-2004 there were more women with total lesion excision (84.3%), fewer residual tumors and other lesions. In future, Mammotome breast biopsy can replace scalpel, and will become an alternative method to open surgical excision of fibroadenomas. It is important especially in the cases of young women to prevent cosmetic deformations and scars. (author)

  13. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, Héctor G.; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Corder, Stuartt A.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion

  14. Statistical Study of Aircraft Icing Probabilities at the 700- and 500- Millibar Levels over Ocean Areas in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Porter J.; Lewis, William; Mulholland, Donald R.

    1957-01-01

    A statistical study is made of icing data reported from weather reconnaissance aircraft flown by Air Weather Service (USAF). The weather missions studied were flown at fixed flight levels of 500 millibars (18,000 ft) and 700 millibars (10,000 ft) over wide areas of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans. This report is presented as part of a program conducted by the NACA to obtain extensive icing statistics relevant to aircraft design and operation. The thousands of in-flight observations recorded over a 2- to 4-year period provide reliable statistics on icing encounters for the specific areas, altitudes, and seasons included in the data. The relative frequencies of icing occurrence are presented, together with the estimated icing probabilities and the relation of these probabilities to the frequencies of flight in clouds and cloud temperatures. The results show that aircraft operators can expect icing probabilities to vary widely throughout the year from near zero in the cold Arctic areas in winter up to 7 percent in areas where greater cloudiness and warmer temperatures prevail. The data also reveal a general tendency of colder cloud temperatures to reduce the probability of icing in equally cloudy conditions.

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  16. Doppler Spectrum-Based NRCS Estimation Method for Low-Scattering Areas in Ocean SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The image intensities of low-backscattering areas in synthetic aperture radar (SAR images are often seriously contaminated by the system noise floor and azimuthal ambiguity signal from adjacent high-backscattering areas. Hence, the image intensity of low-backscattering areas does not correctly reflect the backscattering intensity, which causes confusion in subsequent image processing or interpretation. In this paper, a method is proposed to estimate the normalized radar cross-section (NRCS of low-backscattering area by utilizing the differences between noise, azimuthal ambiguity, and signal in the Doppler frequency domain of single-look SAR images; the aim is to eliminate the effect of system noise and azimuthal ambiguity. Analysis shows that, for a spaceborne SAR with a noise equivalent sigma zero (NESZ of −25 dB and a single-look pixel of 8 m × 5 m, the NRCS-estimation precision of this method can reach −38 dB at a resolution of 96 m × 100 m. Three examples are given to validate the advantages of this method in estimating the low NRCS and the filtering of the azimuthal ambiguity.

  17. Theoretical Feasibility of Digital Communication Over Ocean Areas by High Frequency Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    The theoretical reliability of digital data transmission via high frequency radio is examined for typical air traffic routes in the Atlantic and Pacific areas to assist the U.S. Department of Transportation in the evaluation of a system for improving...

  18. Meteorological and other data collected from CTD, XBT casts, and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean by NATSUSHIMA from 23 January 1993 to 11 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological, temperature, and salinity data were collected using CTD, BT, XBT casts, and other instruments from the NATSUSHIMA in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean....

  19. Temperature profile and pressure data from CTD casts in the TOGA area of the Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER from 1994-05-11 to 1994-11-19 (NODC Accession 9600136)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the TOGA area of the Pacific Ocean from 11 May 1994 to 19 November...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1984-06-09 to 1984-06-21 (NODC Accession 8700051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 09 June 1984 to 21 June 1984. Data...

  1. Current meter and temperature profile data from current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 27 April 1993 to 09 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9700042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 27 April 1993 to 09 June 1994....

  2. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in the Gulf of Mexico and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1985-10-20 to 1985-12-14 (NODC Accession 8700105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the Gulf of Mexico and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 30 October 1985 to...

  3. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in the TOGA area of the Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER from 1986-11-13 to 1987-01-12 (NODC Accession 8700330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts in the TOGA area of the Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER from 13 November 1986 to 12 January 1987....

  4. Temperature profile and pressure data from CTD casts from the MALCOLM BALRDIGE and other platforms from the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 1993-02-28 to 1997-06-27 (NODC Accession 9700222)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using CTD casts in the TOGA area of the Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from...

  5. Temperature profile and pressure data from CTD casts in the TOGA area of the Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER from 1992-09-06 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 9400195)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the TOGA area of the Pacific Ocean from 06 September 1992 to 08...

  6. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 1984-10-10 to 1985-06-19 (NODC Accession 8800073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 10 October 1984 to 19 June 1985. Data...

  7. Temperature profile data collected using XBT and BT casts in the TOGA Area of Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1979-02-28 to 1991-07-27 (NODC Accession 9300170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the TOGA Area of Pacific Ocean from 28 February 1979...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA Area- Pacific Ocean from 1984-04-11 to 1984-05-05 (NODC Accession 8800211)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 11 April 1984 to 05 May 1984. Data...

  9. Temperature profile and other data from CTD Casts in the Gulf of Mexico and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1982-03-26 to 1983-11-26 (NODC Accession 8500267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean...

  10. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from SEDCO / BP 471 using BT and XBT casts in the East Indian Archipelago and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 14 November 1988 to 20 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8900043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the SEDCO / BP 471 in the East Indian Archipelago. and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean....

  11. Zooplankton data collected from zooplankton net casts from RESEARCHER I and other platforms in TOGA Area of Pacific Ocean; 16 March 1968 to 02 July 1970 (NODC Accession 9500141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected using zooplankton casts in the TOGA Area of Pacific Ocean from RESEARCHER I and other platforms. Data...

  12. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1985-04-18 to 1986-11-20 (NODC Accession 8700149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA Area - Atlantic Ocean from 18 April 1985 to 20 November 1986....

  13. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from AUSTRALIA STAR and other platforms using XBT casts in the TOGA Area - Atlantic and Pacific Ocean from 05 October 1989 to 21 December 1992 (NODC Accession 9400035)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using XBT casts from the AUSTRALIA STAR and other platforms in the TOGA Area - Atlantic and Pacific Ocean,...

  14. Temperature profile and pressure data from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN and NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 1997-08-05 to 1999-06-28 (NODC Accession 9900141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using CTD casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN and NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA from...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 1992-01-01 to 1993-02-17 (NODC Accession 9600019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from January 1, 1992 to...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 1980-02-21 to 1980-03-07 (NODC Accession 8200239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 21 February 1980 to 07 March 1980....

  17. Current meter and temperature profile data from current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 29 March 1991 to 24 December 1993 (NODC Accession 9900057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using current meter and buoy casts in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 29 March 1991 to 24 December...

  18. Chemical data from bottle casts in the Arctic Ocean and other Sea areas by the University of Alaska, from 16 April 1948 to 17 September 2000 (NODC Accession 0000918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using bottle casts from multiple vessels in the Arctic Ocean and other Sea areas from 16 April 1948 to 17 September 2000. Data were...

  19. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1984-04-09 to 1984-11-05 (NODC Accession 8800072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 09 April 1984 to 05 November 1984....

  20. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1984-11-13 to 1986-12-01 (NODC Accession 8700194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 13 November...

  1. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER from 1989-05-13 to 1989-12-08 (NODC Accession 9100142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRDIGE and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 13...

  2. Connectivity, persistence, and loss of high abundance areas of a recovering marine fish population in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Stephanie A; Shackell, Nancy L; Carson, Stuart; den Heyer, Cornelia E

    2017-11-01

    In the early 1990s, the Northwest Atlantic Ocean underwent a fisheries-driven ecosystem shift. Today, the iconic cod ( Gadus morhua ) remains at low levels, while Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus ) has been increasing since the mid-2000s, concomitant with increasing interest from the fishing industry. Currently, our knowledge about halibut ecology is limited, and the lack of recovery in other collapsed groundfish populations has highlighted the danger of overfishing local concentrations. Here, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal approach to model the spatial structure of juvenile Atlantic halibut over 36 years and three fisheries management regimes using three model parameters to characterize the resulting spatiotemporal abundance structure: persistence (similarity of spatial structure over time), connectivity (coherence of temporal pattern over space), and spatial variance (variation across the seascape). Two areas of high juvenile abundance persisted through three decades whereas two in the northeast are now diminished, despite the increased abundance and landings throughout the management units. The persistent areas overlap with full and seasonal area closures, which may act as refuges from fishing. Connectivity was estimated to be 250 km, an order of magnitude less than the distance assumed by the definition of the Canadian management units (~2,000 km). The underlying question of whether there are distinct populations within the southern stock unit cannot be answered with this model, but the smaller ~250 km scale of coherent temporal patterns suggests more complex population structure than previously thought, which should be taken into consideration by fishery management.

  3. BLUECOM+ project: Connecting Humans and Systems at Ocean Remote Areas using Cost-effective Broadband Communications field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Pedro; Terrinha, Pedro; Magalhães, Vitor; Santos, Joana; Duarte, Débora; Campos, Rui

    2017-04-01

    The BLUECOM + project (Connecting Humans and Systems at Remote Ocean Areas using Cost-effective Broadband Communications) aims at developing an innovative communications solution that will enable broadband, cost-effective Internet access in remote ocean areas (ideally beyond 100 km from shore), using standard wireless access technologies - e.g., Wi-Fi and LTE. BLUECOM+ is an EEA Grants PT02 project developed by INESC TEC (Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering, Technology and Science), IPMA (Portuguese Institute for the Sea and the Atmosphere), and MARLO (Transport and Logistics Consultants). The BLUECOM+ key idea and innovation lies on deploying a long-term communications infrastructure, which will extend broadband communications from shore to remote ocean areas by leveraging (1) Helikites - a combination of a helium balloon and kite - that can be tethered to existing or new land and ocean platforms, (2) long range line of sight wireless communications using TV white spaces, and (3) multi-hop relaying techniques to further increase range. At this stage the communications protocols were defined and tested in lab conditions and two sea trials for demonstration of the system were carried out in July/2016 and September/2016 using research vessels. Results of the cruises: 1st cruise corresponded to the first sea-trials of the project. Single-hop communications were established between a land base station deployed at Cabo Espichel lighthouse and the Sea Station deployed in a Helikite launched from the vessel and flying at an altitude of 120m. Successful communications between the two stations were established at a maximum distance of 40km with a data rate in excess of 1Mbit/s. 2nd cruise corresponded to the second sea-trials. During this trial single-hop and two-hop land-sea communications were tested. For two-hop communications tests two Helikites were launched at 120m from two vessels. The first was launched from a vessel closer to shore; the other was

  4. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Mah, Christopher L; Mooi, Rich; O'Hara, Tim; Pawson, David L; Roux, Michel; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite being the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. In order to predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to these research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, the megafauna within the UKSRL exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal echinoderm megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 62 distinct morphospecies (13 Asteroidea, 5 Crinoidea, 9 Echinoidea, 29 Holothuroidea and 6 Ophiuroidea) identified mostly by imagery but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  5. Foraminiferal area density as a proxy for ocean acidification over the last 200 years in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppm to 400 ppm over the last 250 years. It is estimated that approximately one-third of this anthropogenically produced CO2 is sequestered in the global ocean, increasing the inventory of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+) and consuming carbonate (CO32-) as a result of carbonate buffering reactions. This increase in [H+] lowers seawater pH, the phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). Estimates indicate that mean seawater pH has already decreased by 0.1 pH units since 1750 and IPCC reports indicate it is likely that CO2 concentrations will reach 790 ppm by 2100 further reducing pH by 0.3 units. Marine calcifiers, such as foraminifera, utilize CO32- dissolved in seawater during calcification, a process that is highly sensitive to changes in pH due to the chemical reactions described above. The reduction in surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) caused by OA has impaired calcification of planktonic foraminifera and other marine calcifiers. It has been proposed that planktonic foraminiferal shell weight or shell thickness is positively correlated with ambient [CO32-] and has been used as proxy to reconstruct past changes in the surface ocean carbonate system. An ideal location for the application of this proxy is the California Current System (CSS), an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS), which is characterized as having naturally lower pH. Upwelling introduces CO2-enriched bottom waters to the surface ocean, intensifying the effects of increasing dissolved CO2 as a result of anthropogenic activities. Upwelling produces a wide range of surface water [CO32-] making the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) an ideal site to carry out a foraminiferal shell weight calibration study. Area density (ρA) is a new method for collecting size-normalized shell weights that will be used in this study. Species-specific calibrations have been derived for two symbiont

  6. Comparative evaluation of H&H and WFNS grading scales with modified H&H (sans systemic disease): A study on 1000 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Praneeth, Kokkula; Sodhi, Harsimrat Bir Singh; Pal, Sudhir Singh; Gaudihalli, Sachin; Khandelwal, N; Mukherjee, Kanchan K; Tewari, M K; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Mathuriya, S N

    2018-01-01

    The comparative studies on grading in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) had several limitations such as the unclear grading of Glasgow Coma Scale 15 with neurological deficits in World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS), and the inclusion of systemic disease in Hunt and Hess (H&H) scales. Their differential incremental impacts and optimum cut-off values for unfavourable outcome are unsettled. This is a prospective comparison of prognostic impacts of grading schemes to address these issues. SAH patients were assessed using WFNS, H&H (including systemic disease), modified H&H (sans systemic disease) and followed up with Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3 months. Their performance characteristics were analysed as incremental ordinal variables and different grading scale dichotomies using rank-order correlation, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden's J and multivariate analyses. A total of 1016 patients were studied. As univariate incremental variable, H&H sans systemic disease had the best negative rank-order correlation coefficient (-0.453) with respect to lower GOS (p H&H sans systemic disease had the greatest adjusted incremental impact of 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.91) against a lower GOS as compared to 0.6 (95% CI 0.45-0.74) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.42-0.68) for H&H and WFNS grades, respectively. In multivariate categorical analysis, H&H grades 4-5 sans systemic disease had the greatest impact on unfavourable GOS with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.06 (95% CI 3.94-9.32). To conclude, H&H grading sans systemic disease had the greatest impact on unfavourable GOS. Though systemic disease is an important prognostic factor, it should be considered distinctly from grading. Appropriate cut-off values suggesting unfavourable outcome for H&H and WFNS were 4-5 and 3-5, respectively, indicating the importance of neurological deficits in addition to level of consciousness.

  7. Bovine exome sequence analysis and targeted SNP genotyping of recessive fertility defects BH1, HH2, and HH3 reveal a putative causative mutation in SMC2 for HH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Matthew C; Bickhart, Derek; Null, Dan; Vanraden, Paul; Xu, Lingyang; Wiggans, George; Liu, George; Schroeder, Steve; Glasscock, Jarret; Armstrong, Jon; Cole, John B; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of bovine haplotypes with negative effects on fertility in the Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey breeds has allowed producers to identify carrier animals using commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays. This study was devised to identify the causative mutations underlying defective bovine embryo development contained within three of these haplotypes (Brown Swiss haplotype 1 and Holstein haplotypes 2 and 3) by combining exome capture with next generation sequencing. Of the 68,476,640 sequence variations (SV) identified, only 1,311 genome-wide SNP were concordant with the haplotype status of 21 sequenced carriers. Validation genotyping of 36 candidate SNP identified only 1 variant that was concordant to Holstein haplotype 3 (HH3), while no variants located within the refined intervals for HH2 or BH1 were concordant. The variant strictly associated with HH3 is a non-synonymous SNP (T/C) within exon 24 of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes 2 (SMC2) on Chromosome 8 at position 95,410,507 (UMD3.1). This polymorphism changes amino acid 1135 from phenylalanine to serine and causes a non-neutral, non-tolerated, and evolutionarily unlikely substitution within the NTPase domain of the encoded protein. Because only exome capture sequencing was used, we could not rule out the possibility that the true causative mutation for HH3 might lie in a non-exonic genomic location. Given the essential role of SMC2 in DNA repair, chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division, our findings strongly support the non-synonymous SNP (T/C) in SMC2 as the likely causative mutation. The absence of concordant variations for HH2 or BH1 suggests either the underlying causative mutations lie within a non-exomic region or in exome regions not covered by the capture array.

  8. Bovine exome sequence analysis and targeted SNP genotyping of recessive fertility defects BH1, HH2, and HH3 reveal a putative causative mutation in SMC2 for HH3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C McClure

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of bovine haplotypes with negative effects on fertility in the Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey breeds has allowed producers to identify carrier animals using commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assays. This study was devised to identify the causative mutations underlying defective bovine embryo development contained within three of these haplotypes (Brown Swiss haplotype 1 and Holstein haplotypes 2 and 3 by combining exome capture with next generation sequencing. Of the 68,476,640 sequence variations (SV identified, only 1,311 genome-wide SNP were concordant with the haplotype status of 21 sequenced carriers. Validation genotyping of 36 candidate SNP identified only 1 variant that was concordant to Holstein haplotype 3 (HH3, while no variants located within the refined intervals for HH2 or BH1 were concordant. The variant strictly associated with HH3 is a non-synonymous SNP (T/C within exon 24 of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes 2 (SMC2 on Chromosome 8 at position 95,410,507 (UMD3.1. This polymorphism changes amino acid 1135 from phenylalanine to serine and causes a non-neutral, non-tolerated, and evolutionarily unlikely substitution within the NTPase domain of the encoded protein. Because only exome capture sequencing was used, we could not rule out the possibility that the true causative mutation for HH3 might lie in a non-exonic genomic location. Given the essential role of SMC2 in DNA repair, chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division, our findings strongly support the non-synonymous SNP (T/C in SMC2 as the likely causative mutation. The absence of concordant variations for HH2 or BH1 suggests either the underlying causative mutations lie within a non-exomic region or in exome regions not covered by the capture array.

  9. The planktonic communities of the Jamaican south-east coast; a comparison of harbor, shelf and oceanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Small

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared water quality and plankton along the eutrophication gradient from Kingston Harbour to oceanic waters around Jamaica. To compare the planktonic community along the expected nutrient gradient, we sampled every two weeks at four stations, from eutrophic Kingston Harbour to oceanic California Bank. Phytoplankton was assessed from whole water Niskin bottle casts and zooplankton by vertical hauls with plankton nets of three different mesh sizes: 64µm, 200µm, and 600µm. Total phytoplankton biomass declined sharply away from the harbour (1.0 μg L-1 at the Harbour Shoal Beacon to 0.2 μg L-1 at California Bank. Characteristic estuarine phytoplankton genera -such as Ceratium, Gonyaulax, Gyrodinium and Rhizosolenia- dominated harbour samples while genera characteristic of offshore locations -such as Asterionelliopsis, Navicula, Nitzschia, Rhizosolenia and Thalassionema- dominated California Bank. Highest phytoplankton densities (mean values of 34 174 cells L-1 were found at the harbor mouth. Mean zooplankton abundances ranged from maximum (5 858.5m-3 at Beacon to minimum (2 124.2 m-3 at California; 171 species of zooplankton were identified and copepods dominated with 76 species. Overall, 75 species of zooplankton were identified from Beacon, 107 from Port Royal Cays- South East Cay, 110 from the exposed shelf edge- Windward Edge, and 95 from the oceanic California Bank. Larval forms dominated; copepod nauplii, fish eggs and echinoderm larvae occurred at all sites. Lucifer faxoni and Penilia avirostris were indicative of harbor waters and Microsetella sp. and Farranula carinata of offshore waters. Some zooplankton taxa, like L. faxoni, Paracalanus parvus and copepod nauplii, despite showing gradual decline with distance from Beacon to the Edge, increased in abundance at the furthest station, California. California Bank clearly experiences enrichment which at times can be as high as near-shore areas, but the planktonic

  10. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Taylor, John D; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Todt, Christiane; Ikebe, Chiho; Rabone, Muriel; Glover, Adrian G

    2017-01-01

    We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ' cf ' as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  11. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Wiklund

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ, central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ‘cf’ as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  12. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE STAR-FORMING CORE AHEAD OF HH 80N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masque, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert; Osorio, Mayra; Anglada, Guillem; Girart, Josep M.; Garay, Guido; Calvet, Nuria; Beltran, Maria T.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of continuum emission in the mid-infrared to millimeter wavelength range, complemented with ammonia observations, of the dense core ahead of the radio Herbig-Haro (HH) object HH 80N, found in the GGD 27 region. The continuum emission in all the observed bands peaks at the same position, consistent with the presence of an embedded object, HH 80N-IRS1, within the core. The distribution of the Very Large Array ammonia emission is well correlated with that of the dust, suggesting that photochemical effects caused by the nearby HH object do not play an important role in shaping this particular molecular emission. In order to unveil the nature of HH 80N-IRS1, we analyzed the continuum data of this source, using self-consistent models of protostellar collapse. We find that a young protostar surrounded by a slowly rotating collapsing envelope of radius ∼0.08 pc and 20 M sun plus a circumstellar disk of radius ∼300 AU and 0.6 M sun provide a good fit to the observed spectral energy distribution and to the maps at 350 μm, 1.2 mm, and 3.5 mm of HH 80N-IRS1. Besides, the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment and Plateau de Bure Interferometer continuum maps at 350 μm and 3.5 mm, respectively, reveal additional clumps in the continuum emission. Given the modeling results and the observed morphology of the emission, we propose a scenario consisting of a central embedded Class 0 object, HH 80N-IRS1, with the rest of the material of the HH 80N core possibly undergoing fragmentation that may lead to the formation of several protostars.

  13. Seismic Constraints on the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary Beneath the Izu-Bonin Area: Implications for the Oceanic Lithospheric Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qinghui; Wei, Rongqiang; Zhou, Yuanze; Gao, Yajian; Li, Wenlan

    2018-01-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is the seismic discontinuity with negative velocity contrasts in the upper mantle. Seismic detections on the LAB are of great significance in understanding the plate tectonics, mantle convection and lithospheric evolution. In this paper, we study the LAB in the Izu-Bonin subduction zone using four deep earthquakes recorded by the permanent and temporary seismic networks of the USArray. The LAB is clearly revealed with sP precursors (sdP) through the linear slant stacking. As illustrated by reflected points of the identified sdP phases, the depth of LAB beneath the Izu-Bonin Arc (IBA) is about 65 km with a range of 60-68 km. The identified sdP phases with opposite polarities relative to sP phases have the average relative amplitude of 0.21, which means a 3.7% velocity drop and implies partial melting in the asthenosphere. On the basis of the crustal age data, the lithosphere beneath the IBA is located at the 1100 °C isotherm calculated with the GDH1 model. Compared to tectonically stable areas, such as the West Philippine Basin (WPB) and Parece Vela Basin (PVB) in the Philippine Sea, the lithosphere beneath the Izu-Bonin area shows the obvious lithospheric thinning. According to the geodynamic and petrological studies, the oceanic lithospheric thinning phenomenon can be attributed to the strong erosion of the small-scale convection in the mantle wedge enriched in volatiles and melts.

  14. Isostatic anomaly characteristics and dynamic environment of New Britain Ocean trenches and neighboring Area in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Shen, C.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the Airy-Heiskanen isostatic anomaly in the New Britain ocean trenches and its surrounding areas of Papua New Guinea using the topography model and the gravity anomaly model from Scripps Institute of Oceanography, and analyzed the characteristics of isostatic anomaly and the earthquake dynamic environment of this region. The results show that there are obviously differences in the isostatic state between each block in the region, and the crustal tectonic movement is very intense in the regions with high positive or negative isostatic gravity anomalies; A number of sub-plates in this area is driven by the external tectonic action such as plate subduction and thrust of the Pacific plate, the Indian - Australian plate and the Eurasian plate. From the distribution of isostatic gravity anomaly, the tectonic action of anti-isostatic movement in this region is the main source of power; from the isostatic gravity and the spatial distribution of the earthquake, with the further contraction of the Indian-Australian plate, the southwestern part of the Solomon Haiya plate will become part of the Owen Stanley fold belt, the northern part will enter the lower part of the Bismarck plate, eastern part will enter the front of the Pacific plate, the huge earthquake will migrate to the north and east of the Solomon Haiya plate.

  15. Adapting National Water Model Forecast Data to Local Hyper-Resolution H&H Models During Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhofen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) is a remarkable undertaking. The foundation of the NWM is a 1 square kilometer grid which is used for near real-time modeling and flood forecasting of most rivers and streams in the contiguous United States. However, the NWM falls short in highly urbanized areas with complex drainage infrastructure. To overcome these shortcomings, the presenter proposes to leverage existing local hyper-resolution H&H models and adapt the NWM forcing data to them. Gridded near real-time rainfall, short range forecasts (18-hour) and medium range forecasts (10-day) during Hurricane Irma are applied to numerous detailed H&H models in highly urbanized areas of the State of Florida. Coastal and inland models are evaluated. Comparisons of near real-time rainfall data are made with observed gaged data and the ability to predict flooding in advance based on forecast data is evaluated. Preliminary findings indicate that the near real-time rainfall data is consistently and significantly lower than observed data. The forecast data is more promising. For example, the medium range forecast data provides 2 - 3 days advanced notice of peak flood conditions to a reasonable level of accuracy in most cases relative to both timing and magnitude. Short range forecast data provides about 12 - 14 hours advanced notice. Since these are hyper-resolution models, flood forecasts can be made at the street level, providing emergency response teams with valuable information for coordinating and dispatching limited resources.

  16. Observations of high-velocity molecular gas near Herbig-Haro objects: HH 24--27 and HH 1--2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Edwards, S.

    1982-01-01

    High-velocity CO has been detected in the vicinity of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 24--27. These observations indicate that there are two sources of high-velocity outflow; one centered on an infrared source near HH 26, and the second centered roughly 2' south of HH 24. The redshifted and blueshifted wings in both sources are spatially separated suggesting that the high-velocity gas is due to energetic bipolar outflow from young stars embedded in the molecular cloud. The association of Herbig-Haro objects with regions of high-velocity gas suggests a common origin for both in the interaction of a stellar wind with the ambient molecular cloud. The mass loss rates implied by our observations, assuming that the rate of mass loss has been constant throughout the dynamical lifetime of the bipolar lobes, are roughly 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1 for both sources. We have also searched for high-velocity gas near HH 1--2 but found no evidence for mass outflow in this region

  17. Determination of trace elements in the human hair reference material, HH-I, by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, P.; Pieterse, H.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical procedures are presented and problem areas identified with regard to the determination of trace elements in IAEA powdered human hair reference material, HH-I, of limited sample size (100-200 mg), by NAA and graphite furnace AAS. Results obtained for the twelve elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, and Zn studied in human hair and other biological reference material like orchard leaves, seaplant material, and copepod compare satisfactorily with the certified values

  18. Araxa Group in the type-area: A fragment of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust in the Brasilia Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seer, Hildor Jose; Brod, Jose Affonso; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Dardenne, Marcel Auguste

    2001-01-01

    This study reviews the geological characteristics and puts forward a new evolution model for the Araxa Group in its type-area, the southern segment of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Araxa Group is confined within a thrust sheet belonging to a syn formal regional fold, the Araxa Syn form, overlying two other thrust sheets made of the Ibia and Canastra Groups. The Araxa Group is described as a tectono stratigraphic terrane in the sense of Howell (1993). It comprises an igneous mafic sequence, with fine and coarse grained amphibolites, associated with pelitic meta sedimentary rocks, and subordinate psanmites. All rocks were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies at ca. 630 Ma ago and were intruded by collisional granites. The amphibolites represent original basaltic and gabbroic rocks, with minor ultramafic (serpentinite/ amphibole-talc schist). The basalts are similar to high Fe O tholeiites, with REE signatures that resemble E-MORB and ε Nd(T) =+ 1.1. The meta sedimentary rocks are interpreted as the result of a marine deep-water sedimentation. They have Sm-Nd model ages of 1,9 Ga, and ε Nd(T) = -10.21. The amphibolites and metasediments could represent a fragment of back-arc oceanic crust. The data presented here differ significantly from the original definition of Barbosa et al. (1970) who describe the Araxa Group as a pelitic/psanmitic sequence and the collisional granites as a basement complex. (author)

  19. The Cenozoic western Svalbard margin: sediment geometry and sedimentary processes in an area of ultraslow oceanic spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Ingrid Marie Hasle; Blinova, Maria; Hjelstuen, Berit Oline; Mjelde, Rolf; Haflidason, Haflidi

    2011-12-01

    The northeastern high-latitude North Atlantic is characterised by the Bellsund and Isfjorden fans on the continental slope off west Svalbard, the asymmetrical ultraslow Knipovich spreading ridge and a 1,000 m deep rift valley. Recently collected multichannel seismic profiles and bathymetric records now provide a more complete picture of sedimentary processes and depositional environments within this region. Both downslope and alongslope sedimentary processes are identified in the study area. Turbidity currents and deposition of glacigenic debris flows are the dominating downslope processes, whereas mass failures, which are a common process on glaciated margins, appear to have been less significant. The slide debrite observed on the Bellsund Fan is most likely related to a 2.5-1.7 Ma old failure on the northwestern Barents Sea margin. The seismic records further reveal that alongslope current processes played a major role in shaping the sediment packages in the study area. Within the Knipovich rift valley and at the western rift flank accumulations as thick as 950-1,000 m are deposited. We note that oceanic basement is locally exposed within the rift valley, and that seismostratigraphic relationships indicate that fault activity along the eastern rift flank lasted until at least as recently as 1.5 Ma. A purely hemipelagic origin of the sediments in the rift valley and on the western rift flank is unlikely. We suggest that these sediments, partly, have been sourced from the western Svalbard—northwestern Barents Sea margin and into the Knipovich Ridge rift valley before continuous spreading and tectonic activity caused the sediments to be transported out of the valley and westward.

  20. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Thomas G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys.

  1. Zooplankton studies with special reference to krill Euphausia superba Dana from fishing area 58 of Indian Ocean sector in Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    from 16 stations du r- ing the FIKEX (December 1995 to March 1996) of FORV Sagar Sampada to the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, covering within the geographical limits of latitude 58 ?00 minute to 61 ?17 minuteS and longitude 30 ?00 minute....22 to 8.03 ml 1 ? 1 ( x ? =7.68 ? 0.24). Zooplankton biomass values fluctuated widely du ring the present investigation. They were generally higher and varied between 9.79 and 303.62 ml 100 m ? 3 ( x ? =143.14 ? 77...

  2. Blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Alexandr K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with approaches to the analysis of competitiveness in the construction field. The methodology of blue ocean strategy was analyzed. Based on the conducted analysis a set of measures related to blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure was developed. Implementation of the proposed methodological provisions will allow improving investment efficiency in the course of construction projects implementation and enhancing the competitive ability of the developer.

  3. Investigating the role of wind in generating surface currents over the slope area of the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteson, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    Mixing mechanisms of the Arctic Ocean have profound impacts on sea ice, global ocean dynamics, and arctic communities. This project used a two-year long time series of ocean current velocities collected from eight moorings located on the Eurasian basin, as well as ERA-interim wind data, to compare and assess relationships between current and wind velocities at different depths. Determining the strength of these correlations will further scientific understanding of the degree to which wind influences mixing, with implications for heat flux, diffusion, and sea ice changes. Using statistical analysis, I calculated whether a significant relationship between wind velocity and ocean currents existed beginning at the surface level ( 50m) .The final correlation values, ranging from R = 0.11 to R = 0.28, indicated a weak relationship between wind velocity and ocean currents at the surface for all eight mooring sites. The results for the surface depth imply that correlation likely decreases with increasing depths, and thus further testing of deeper depth levels was unnecessary. This finding suggests that there is another dominant factor at play in the ocean; we postulate that topography exerts a significant influence on subsurface mixing. This study highlights the need for further research of the different mechanisms and their importance in influencing the dynamic structure of the ocean.

  4. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE OUTER KNOTS OF THE HH 80/81/80N RADIO-JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain)

    2015-11-20

    The radio-knots of the Herbig–Haro (HH) 80/81/80N jet extend from the HH 80 object to the recently discovered Source 34 and has a total projected jet size of 10.3 pc, constituting the largest collimated radio-jet system known so far. It is powered by the bright infrared source IRAS 18162−2048 associated with a massive young stellar object. We report 6 cm JVLA observations that, compared with previous 6 cm VLA observations carried out in 1989, allow us to derive proper motions of the HH 80, HH 81, and HH 80N radio knots located about 2.5 pc away in projection from the powering source. For the first time, we measure proper motions of the optically obscured HH 80N object providing evidence that this knot, along with HH 81 and HH 80 are associated with the same radio-jet. We also confirm the presence of Source 34, located further north of HH 80N, previously proposed to belong to the jet.We derived that the tangential velocity of HH 80N is 260 km s{sup −1} and has a direction in agreement with the expected direction of a ballistic precessing jet. The HH 80 and HH 81 objects have tangential velocities of 350 and 220 km s{sup −1}, respectively, but their directions are somewhat deviated from the expected jet path. The velocities of the HH objects studied in this work are significantly lower than those derived for the radio knots of the jet close to the powering source (600–1400 km s{sup −1}) suggesting that the jet is slowing down due to a strong interaction with the ambient medium. As a result, since HH 80 and HH 81 are located near the edge of the cloud, the inhomogeneous and low density medium may contribute to skew the direction of their determined proper motions. The HH 80 and HH 80N emission at 6 cm is, at least in part, probably synchrotron radiation produced by relativistic electrons in a magnetic field of 1 mG. If these electrons are accelerated in a reverse adiabatic shock, we estimate a jet total density of ≲1000 cm{sup −3}. All of these

  5. The relationship between genus richness and geographic area in Late Cretaceous marine biotas: epicontinental sea versus open-ocean-facing settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Lagomarcino

    Full Text Available For present-day biotas, close relationships have been documented between the number of species in a given region and the area of the region. To date, however, there have been only limited studies of these relationships in the geologic record, particularly for ancient marine biotas. The recent development of large-scale marine paleontological databases, in conjunction with enhanced geographical mapping tools, now allow for their investigation. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in comparing the environmental and paleobiological properties of two broad-scale marine settings: epicontinental seas, broad expanses of shallow water covering continental areas, and open-ocean-facing settings, shallow shelves and coastlines that rim ocean basins. Recent studies indicate that spatial distributions of taxa and the kinetics of taxon origination and extinction may have differed in these two settings. Against this backdrop, we analyze regional Genus-Area Relationships (GARs of Late Cretaceous marine invertebrates in epicontinental sea and open-ocean settings using data from the Paleobiology Database. We present a new method for assessing GARs that is particularly appropriate for fossil data when the geographic distribution of these data is patchy and uneven. Results demonstrate clear relationships between genus richness and area for regions worldwide, but indicate that as area increases, genus richness increases more per unit area in epicontinental seas than in open-ocean settings. This difference implies a greater degree of compositional heterogeneity as a function of geographic area in epicontinental sea settings, a finding that is consistent with the emerging understanding of physical differences in the nature of water masses between the two marine settings.

  6. Linking sardine recruitment in coastal areas to ocean currents using surface drifters and HF radar. A case study in the Gulf of Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Roberta; Berta, Maristella; Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of ocean currents in the recruitment of commercially and ecologically important fish is an important step towards developing sustainable resource management guidelines. To this end, we attempt to elucidate the role of surface ocean transport in supplying recruits of sardine...... (Sardinus pilchardus) to the Gulf of Manfredonia, a known recruitment area in the Adriatic Sea. Sardine early life history stages (ELHS) were collected during two cruises to provide observational estimates of age-size relationship and of their passive pelagic larval duration (PPLD). We combine these PPLDs...... in the Gulf is characterized by repeated pulses from remote SAs. This is the first attempt to describe the processes related to Lagrangian connection to, and retention in, the Gulf of Manfredonia that will be complemented in the future using validated numerical ocean models and biophysical models....

  7. Ocean Uses: California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  8. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  9. COLLISIONALLY EXCITED FILAMENTS IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Hα AND Hβ IMAGES OF HH 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A. C.; Castellanos-Ramírez, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-543, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Reipurth, B.; Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bally, J., E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hα and Hβ images of the HH 1/2 system, and we find that the Hα/Hβ ratio has high values in ridges along the leading edges of the HH 1 bow shock and of the brighter condensations of HH 2. These ridges have Hα/Hβ = 4 → 6, which is consistent with collisional excitation from the n = 1 to the n = 3 and 4 levels of hydrogen in a gas of temperatures T = 1.5 → 10 × 10{sup 4} K. This is therefore the first direct evidence that the collisional excitation/ionization region of hydrogen just behind Herbig-Haro shock fronts is detected.

  10. Cross-talk studies between FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081283; Seryi, Andrei; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Besana, Maria Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Debris from 50 TeV proton-proton collisions at the main interaction point in the FCC-hh may contribute to the background in the subsequent detector. This cross-talk is of possible concern for the FCC-hh due to the high luminosity and energy of the collider. DPMJET-III is used as a collision debris generator in order to assess the muon cross-talk contribution. An analytical calculation of muon range in rock is performed. This is followed by a full Monte Carlo simulation using FLUKA, where the accelerator tunnel has been modelled. The muon cross talk between the adjacent interaction points is assessed and its implications for FCC-hh design are discussed.

  11. First Design of a Proton Collimation System for 50 TeV FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Fiascaris, Maria; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We present studies aimed at defining a first conceptual solution for a collimation system for the hadron-hadron option for the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh). The baseline collimation layout is based on the scaling of the present LHC collimation system to the FCC-hh energy. It currently includes a dedicated betatron cleaning insertion as well as collimators in the experimental insertions to protect the inner triplets. An aperture model for the FCC-hh is defined and the geometrical acceptance is calculated at top energy taking into account mechanical and optics imperfections. Based on these studies the collimator settings needed to protect the machine are defined. The performance of the collimation system is then assessed with particle tracking simulation tools assuming a perfect machine.

  12. Considerations on operation schedule and maintenance aspects of FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Niemi, Arto; Foraz, Katy

    2018-01-01

    The Future Circular Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) has ambitious goals for integrated luminosity production. Reaching these goals requires reducing the time for planned technical stops and commissioning, compared to the LHC. This note describes potential options for an FCC-hh operation schedule. Special attention is given to considerations on how to accomplish the required maintenance activities in a limited time frame. The note recommends to study further the feasibility and cost-efficiency of operating without annual stops and longer intervals between long shutdowns.

  13. Updates on the optics of the future hadron-hadron collider FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093721; Boutin, David Jean Henri; Dalena, Barbara; Holzer, Bernhard; Langner, Andy Sven; Schulte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The FCC-hh (Future Hadron-Hadron Circular Collider) is one of the three options considered for the next generation accelerator in high-energy physics as recommended by the European Strategy Group. The layout of FCC-hh has been optimized to a more compact design following recommendations from civil engineering aspects. The updates on the first order and second order optics of the ring will be shown for collisions at the required centre-of-mass energy of 100 TeV. Special emphasis is put on the dispersion suppressors and general beam cleaning sections as well as first considerations of injection and extraction sections.

  14. Assessment of carbon dioxide sink/source in the oceanic areas: the results of 1982-84 investigation. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Chipman, D.W.; Smethie, W. Jr.; Goddard, J.; Trumbore, S.; Mathieu, G.G.; Sutherland, S.

    1985-07-01

    The oceanic CO 2 sink/source relationships over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, the eastern North and South Pacific Ocean, and the Ross Sea were investigated. The net CO 2 flux across the air-sea interface over these areas was estimated. Measurements of the Kr-85 in atmospheric samples collected over the central Pacific along the 155 0 W meridian were initiated. Based on the measurements of the difference between the pCO 2 values in the surface ocean water and the atmosphere and of the radon-222 distribution in the upper water column, we have found that the average net flux for the Atlantic equatorial belt, 10 0 N-10 0 S, is 1.3 moles CO 2 /m 2 .y out of the ocean, when our measurements were made in November 1982 through February 1983. The surface water pCO 2 data obtained over the eastern North and South Pacific during the period, October 1983 through January 1984, show that the equatorial zone between 2 0 N and 8 0 S is an intense CO 2 source area, whereas a 10 0 wide belt coinciding with the area between the Subtropical and Antarctic Convergence Zones is a strong CO 2 sink area. The temperate gyre area located north of about 5 0 N and that located between 8 0 S and 35 0 S are nearly in equilibrium with atmospheric CO 2 . The surface water pCO 2 data obtained in the Southern Ocean during the past ten or more years suggest strongly the existence of an intense CO 2 sink zone, the Circumpolar Low pCO 2 Zone, which is about 10 0 wide in latitude and centered at about 50 0 S surrounding the Antarctica Continent. The surface water of the Ross Sea is found to be a strong CO 2 sink during the period January 23 through February 12, 1984. Because of contamination problems, no reliable data for atmospheric krypton-85 have been obtained. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Determination of ocean/atmosphere carbon dioxide flux within OMP survey area. Final technical progress report, June, 1 1993--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, T.

    1995-10-17

    Determination of the net flux of atmospheric CO{sub 2} with the ocean at the continental margin is one of the three principal goals of the Ocean Margins Program. The work reported here represents the initial phase of that determination, as carried out during two cruises within the OMP survey area in 1993 and 1994. The interannual variability was addressed through the occupation of hydrographic stations of nearly identical location one year apart, while the spatial variability in the air-sea PCO{sub 2} difference (ApCO{sub 2}), representing the driving force for net CO{sub 2} flux, was addressed during a survey of much of the continental shelf between the survey area off North Carolina and Georges Bank. Not addressed by the initial cruises was the seasonal variability of the net CO{sub 2} flux, since both scoping cruises were mounted during the same season of the respective years.

  16. HH-MIP: An Enhancement of Mobile IP by Home Agent Handover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chun-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an enhancement of Mobile IP (MIP called MIP with Home Agent Handover (HH-MIP to enjoy most of the advantages of Route Optimization MIP (ROMIP but with only a small increase of signaling overhead. In HH-MIP, the concept of Temporary HA (THA is proposed and the mobile host (MH registers the new CoA with its THA rather than its original HA. Since the THA of an MH is selected to be close to the current location of MH, HH-MIP reduces the handoff latency and shortens the signaling path of registration as well. Moreover, HH-MIP adopts an aggressive approach in selecting THA for an MH, that is, whenever an MH is moving away from its HA or previous THA, the MH triggers the handover of THA. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme enjoys small handoff latency as well as routing efficiency, and the signaling cost of the proposed scheme is significantly less than that in ROMIP.

  17. THE MOLECULAR EMISSION OF THE IRRADIATED STAR-FORMING CORE AHEAD OF HH 80N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masque, Josep M.; Beltran, Maria T.; Estalella, Robert; Girart, Josep M.; Viti, Serena

    2009-01-01

    We present a Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association Array molecular survey of the star-forming core ahead of HH 80N, the optically obscured northern counterpart of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 80/81. Continuum emission at 1.4 mm and 8 μm is detected at the center of the core, which confirms the presence of an embedded very young stellar object in the core. All detected molecular species arise in a ringlike structure, which is most clearly traced by CS (2-1) emission. This molecular ring suggests that strong molecular depletion occurs in the inner part of the core (at a radius of ≅0.1 pc and densities higher than ∼5 x 10 4 cm -3 ). Despite the overall morphology and kinematic similarity between the different species, there is significant molecular differentiation along the ringlike structure. The analysis of the chemistry along the core shows that part of this differentiation may be caused by the UV irradiation of the nearby HH 80N object that illuminates the part of the core facing HH 80N, which results in an abundance enhancement of some of the detected species.

  18. Reefs and islands of the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean: why it is the world’s largest no-take marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEPPARD, C. R. C.; ATEWEBERHAN, M.; BOWEN, B. W.; CARR, P.; CHEN, C. A.; CLUBBE, C.; CRAIG, M. T.; EBINGHAUS, R.; EBLE, J.; FITZSIMMONS, N.; GAITHER, M. R.; GAN, C-H.; GOLLOCK, M.; GUZMAN, N.; GRAHAM, N. A. J.; HARRIS, A.; JONES, R.; KESHAVMURTHY, S.; KOLDEWEY, H.; LUNDIN, C. G.; MORTIMER, J. A.; OBURA, D.; PFEIFFER, M.; PRICE, A. R. G.; PURKIS, S.; RAINES, P.; READMAN, J. W.; RIEGL, B.; ROGERS, A.; SCHLEYER, M.; SEAWARD, M. R. D; SHEPPARD, A. L. S.; TAMELANDER, J.; TURNER, J. R.; VISRAM, S.; VOGLER, C.; VOGT, S.; WOLSCHKE, H.; YANG, J. M-C.; YANG, S-Y.; YESSON, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Chagos Archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (MPA) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km2, with more than 60 000 km2 shallow limestone platform and reefs. This has doubled the global cover of such MPAs.It contains 25–50% of the Indian Ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world’s largest contiguous undamaged reef area. It has suffered from warming episodes, but after the most severe mortality event of 1998, coral cover was restored after 10 years.Coral reef fishes are orders of magnitude more abundant than in other Indian Ocean locations, regardless of whether the latter are fished or protected.Coral diseases are extremely low, and no invasive marine species are known.Genetically, Chagos marine species are part of the Western Indian Ocean, and Chagos serves as a ‘stepping-stone’ in the ocean.The no-take MPA extends to the 200 nm boundary, and. includes 86 unfished seamounts and 243 deep knolls as well as encompassing important pelagic species.On the larger islands, native plants, coconut crabs, bird and turtle colonies were largely destroyed in plantation times, but several smaller islands are in relatively undamaged state.There are now 10 ‘important bird areas’, coconut crab density is high and numbers of green and hawksbill turtles are recovering.Diego Garcia atoll contains a military facility; this atoll contains one Ramsar site and several ‘strict nature reserves’. Pollutant monitoring shows it to be the least polluted inhabited atoll in the world. Today, strict environmental regulations are enforced.Shoreline erosion is significant in many places. Its economic cost in the inhabited part of Diego Garcia is very high, but all islands are vulnerable.Chagos is ideally situated for several monitoring programmes, and use is increasingly being made of the archipelago for this purpose. PMID:25505830

  19. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH as a modulator of aggression in crustacean decapods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aquiloni

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1 'control pairs' (CP, n = 8: both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS; (2 'reinforced pairs' (RP, n = 9: the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3 'inverted pairs' (IP, n = 9: the opposite of (2. We found that, independently of the crayfish's prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii higher glycemic levels, and (iii lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans.

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Dax1 knockout in the monkey recapitulates human AHC-HH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu; Zheng, Bo; Shen, Bin; Chen, Yongchang; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jianying; Niu, Yuyu; Cui, Yiqiang; Zhou, Jiankui; Wang, Hong; Guo, Xuejiang; Hu, Bian; Zhou, Qi; Sha, Jiahao; Ji, Weizhi; Huang, Xingxu

    2015-12-20

    Mutations in the DAX1 locus cause X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), which manifest with primary adrenal insufficiency and incomplete or absent sexual maturation, respectively. The associated defects in spermatogenesis can range from spermatogenic arrest to Sertoli cell only syndrome. Conclusions from Dax1 knockout mouse models provide only limited insight into AHC/HH disease mechanisms, because mouse models exhibit more extensive abnormalities in testicular development, including disorganized and incompletely formed testis cords with decreased number of peritubular myoid cells and male-to-female sex reversal. We previously reported successful clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome targeting in cynomolgus monkeys. Here, we describe a male fetal monkey in which targeted genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 produced Dax1-null mutations in most somatic tissues and in the gonads. This DAX1-deficient monkey displayed defects in adrenal gland development and abnormal testis architecture with small cords, expanded blood vessels and extensive fibrosis. Sertoli cell formation was not affected. This phenotype strongly resembles findings in human patients with AHC-HH caused by mutations in DAX1. We further detected upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin-VEGF signaling in the fetal Dax1-deficient testis, suggesting abnormal activation of signaling pathways in the absence of DAX1 as one mechanism of AHC-HH. Our study reveals novel insight into the role of DAX1 in HH and provides proof-of-principle for the generation of monkey models of human disease via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Towards a regional ocean forecasting system for the IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area: developments and improvements within the ECOOP project framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cailleau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional ocean operational system remains a key element in downscaling from large scale (global or basin scale systems to coastal ones. It enables the transition between systems in which the resolution and the resolved physics are quite different. Indeed, coastal applications need a system to predict local high frequency events (inferior to the day such as storm surges, while deep sea applications need a system to predict large scale lower frequency ocean features. In the framework of the ECOOP project, a regional system for the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland area has been upgraded from an existing V0 version to a V2. This paper focuses on the improvements from the V1 system, for which the physics are close to a large scale basin system, to the V2 for which the physics are more adapted to shelf and coastal issues. Strong developments such as higher regional physics resolution in the NEMO Ocean General Circulation Model for tides, non linear free surface and adapted vertical mixing schemes among others have been implemented in the V2 version. Thus, regional thermal fronts due to tidal mixing now appear in the latest version solution and are quite well positioned. Moreover, simulation of the stratification in shelf areas is also improved in the V2.

  2. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor HhAntag691 Is a Potent Inhibitor of ABCG2/BCRP and ABCB1/Pgp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available HhAntag691 (GDC-0449, a low-molecular weight inhibitor of the tumor-promoting hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway, has been used to treat medulloblastoma in animal models and has recently entered clinical trials for a variety of solid tumors. Here, we show that HhAntag691 inhibits multiple ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. ATP-binding cassette transporters are within a family of membrane proteins, the overexpression of which is associated with multidrug resistance, a major impediment to successful cancer treatment. HhAntag691 is a potent inhibitor of two ABC transporters, ABCG2/BCRP and ABCB1/Pgp, and is a mild inhibitor of ABCC1/MRP1. In ABCG2-overexpressing HEK293 cells, HhAntag691 increased retention of the fluorescent ABCG2 substrate BODIPY-prazosin and resensitized these cells to mitoxantrone, an antineoplastic ABCG2 substrate. In Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells engineered to overexpress Pgp or MRP1, HhAntag691 increased the retention of calcein-AM and resensitized them to colchicine. HhAntag691 also resensitized human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells NCI-H460/par and NCI-H460/MX20, which overexpress ABCG2 in response to mitoxantrone, to mitoxantrone, and to topotecan or SN-38. The IC50 values of HhAntag691 for inhibition of ABCG2 and Pgp were ∼1.4 and ∼3.0 µM, respectively. Because ABC transporters are highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and on many tumor cells, they contribute significantly to treatment failure of many types of cancer, particularly of those within the neuraxis. In addition to its effect on Hh signaling, the ability of HhAntag691 and related compounds to inhibit two key ABC transporters could contribute to their effectiveness in treating malignancies.

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry at IFIN-HH in Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Catana, D.; Plostinaru, D.; Radulescu, M.; Enachescu, M.

    1999-01-01

    An AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) facility was constructed at the FN - 8 MV Tandem Accelerator of the National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest. It represents the first experimental setup of this type in the large geographical area of Eastern Europe. The main components of the facility are: the ion injector deck, the AMS beam line and the detector systems. The injector deck is polarised at 50 kV and contains the high current sputtering ion source (spherical ionizer) followed, for beam transport, by electrostatic devices (single lenses, steerers, quadrupole lenses), a double focussing, 90 angle analysing magnet (Danfysik), a pre-acceleration tube (NEC) and several diagnose and defining elements. The AMS samples are placed in an eight stack magazine attached to the ion source. On the exit side of the Tandem Accelerator tank, a velocity filter and the particle detection system are mounted. The beam line, on the high energy side, is optically achromatic and contains two 90 angle analysing magnets of 150 MEP. For particle detection a Bragg-curve Spectroscopy Detector (ionisation chamber) is used and a multi-anode gas detector with TOF discrimination is under construction. The research programme at this new facility is focused on using 26 Al for medical applications. In future it will be use for 129 I - AMS measurements as a nuclear safeguard. This long lived isotope will be used to monitor and investigate the transport of 129 I in vicinity of three nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe: Kozloduy (Bulgaria), Cernavoda (Romania) and Chernobyl (Ukraine). Measurements will concern soil, precipitation and air samples. Water samples will be collected along the flow of rivers Danube and Dnieper, from the Danube Delta and from coastal areas of the Black Sea. (authors)

  4. Interpreting operational altimetry signals in near-coastal areas using underwater autonomous vehicles and remotely sensed ocean colour data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Ines; Oddo, Paolo; Russo, Aniello; Coelho, Emanuel

    2017-04-01

    During the LOGMEC16 (Long-Term Glider Mission for Environmental Characterization) sea trial carried out in the eastern Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), two oceanographic gliders rated to a maximum depth of 1000m were operating continuously from 3 May to 27 June 2016. When possible, glider tracks were synchronized with the footprints of contemporaneous altimeters (i.e., Jason 2, Altika and Cryosat 2). Temperature and salinity measured by the gliders along the tracks that were co-localized with the altimeter passages, were used to calculate along-track dynamic heights. The latter were then compared with near-real time absolute sea level CMEMS-TAPAS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service - Tailored Product for Data Assimilation) product. TAPAS provides along-track sea level anomaly (SLA) estimates together with all the terms used in the correction and the associated Mean Dynamic Topography. Where available, the CMEMS near-real time 1km resolution, Aqua-MODIS ocean colour data was also used as a tracer of the main oceanographic features of the region. Comparison between SLA derived from gliders and TAPAS along common transects, indicates that differences increase for larger sampling time lags between platforms and especially when time differences exceed 20 hrs. In fact, contemporaneous ocean color images reveal the presence of several mesoscale/sub-mesoscale structures (i.e., transient meanders and filaments), suggesting that the oceanographic variability of the region is likely the main cause for the differences observed between the glider and altimetry-based SLA. Results from this study provide additional evidence of the advantages on using a networked ocean observing system. In fact, the interpretation of in-situ observations obtained from a continuously operating sampling platform (also during ongoing experiments at sea) can be greatly improved when combined with other operational datasets, as the CMEMS SLA used here.

  5. Concentrations and (delta)13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta) 13 C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta) 13 C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO 2 from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO 2 concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta) 13 C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO 2 concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta) 13 C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO 2 over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at the end of 1996 to about 373 ppmv at the end of 2003 (mean growth

  6. AIRBORNE X-HH INCIDENCE ANGLE IMPACT ON CANOPY HEIGHT RETREIVAL: IMPLICATIONS FOR SPACEBORNE X-HH TANDEM-X GLOBAL CANOPY HEIGHT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Tighe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To support international climate change mitigation efforts, the United Nations REDD+ initiative (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation seeks to reduce land use induced greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. It requires independent monitoring of forest cover and forest biomass information in a spatially explicit form. It is widely recognised that remote sensing is required to deliver this information. Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR techniques have gained traction in the last decade as a viable technology from which vegetation canopy height and bare earth elevations can be derived. The viewing geometry of a SAR sensor is side-looking where the radar pulse is transmitted out to one side of the aircraft or satellite, defining an incidence angle (θ range. The incidence angle will change from near-range (NR to far-range (FR across of the track of the SAR platform. InSAR uses image pairs and thus, contain two set of incidence angles. Changes in the InSAR incidence angles can alter the relative contributions from the vegetation canopy and the ground surface and thus, affect the retrieved vegetation canopy height. Incidence angle change is less pronounced in spaceborne data than in airborne data and mitigated somewhat when multiple InSAR-data takes are combined. This study uses NEXTMap® single- and multi-pass X-band HH polarized InSAR to derive vegetation canopy height from the scattering phase centre height (hspc. Comparisons with in situ vegetation canopy height over three test sites (Arizona-1, Minnesota-2; the effect of incidence angle changes across swath on the X-HH InSAR hspc was examined. Results indicate at steep incidence angles (θ = 35º, more exposure of lower vegetation canopy structure (e.g. tree trunks led to greater lower canopy double bounce, increased ground scattering, and decreased volume scattering. This resulted in a lower scattering phase centre height (hspc or a greater underestimation of

  7. Luminous Herbig-Haro objects from a massive protostar: The unique case of HH 80/81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reipurth, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Herbig-Haro (HH) objects are the optical manifestations of shock waves excited by outflows from young stars. They represent one of the few classes of spatially extended astronomical objects where both structural changes and proper motions can be measured on time scales of years to decades. HH 80/81 is a pair of HH objects in Sagittarius which are the intrinsically most luminous HH objects known. The driving source of HH 80/81 is the embedded star IRAS 18162-2048, which has a luminosity of 20,000 Lsun and excites a compact HII region, suggesting that it is a newborn massive star. HH objects associated with massive young stars are very rare, only a handful of cases are known, but what makes the HH 80/81 source unique among massive protostars is that it produces a finely collimated bipolar radio jet with extremely high velocity and pointing straight to HH 80/81. We propose to observe the HH 80/81 complex with WFC3 and the following four filters: Halpha 6563, Hbeta 4861, [SII] 6717/31, and [OIII] 5007. First epoch HST images were obtained 22 years ago, which now allows a very precise determination of proper motions. Groundbased optical and radio proper motions are not only uncertain, but actually contradict each other, a controversy that will be resolved by HST. The fine resolution of WFC3 allows a study of both fine structural details and structural changes of the shocks. Finally we will use a sophisticated adaptive grid code to interpret the (de-reddened) line ratios across the shocks.

  8. Temperature profile and other data from CTD casts from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the TOGA area of Pacific Ocean from 1987-05-28 to 1987-07-27 (NODC Accession 9000149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD); and other data were collected using NOAA Ship Oceanographer from TOGA Area-Pacific (30 N to 30 S) under the Transport...

  9. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Large-Area Stationary Point Count Surveys (SPC) in the Pacific Ocean from 2000-09-09 to 2007-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0162466)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large-area stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  10. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Large-Area Stationary Point Count Surveys (SPC) at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Ocean from 2000 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large-area stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  11. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the TOGA Area of Pacific Ocean from 1987-04-25 to 1988-12-03 (NODC Accession 8900298)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER, NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE, and NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the TOGA area...

  12. Physical, meteorological, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 January 1988 to 31 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8900241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 01 January 1988 to 31 December 1988. Data...

  13. Sound velocity profiles in the St. Clair and St. Mary's Rivers in the Great Lakes area by the National Ocean Service's Navigation Response Team 4, May 2006 (NODC Accession 0006777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity profile data were collected using sound velocimeter in the St. Clair and St. Mary rivers in the Great Lakes area by the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 4...

  14. Ultraboosted Zt and γt production at the HL-LHC and FCC-hh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Granada (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    Searches for anomalous Zt and γt production provide an excellent probe of flavour-changing top interactions when the energies considered are very large. In this note we estimate the sensitivity to these interactions at the high-luminosity phase of the LHC and a future 100 TeV pp collider (FCC-hh). For the LHC, the expected limits on t → uZ/uγ branching ratios from Zt and γt production will reach the 10{sup -5} level, one order of magnitude better than the existing projections for t → uZ from t anti t production. For the FCC-hh, the limits on t → uZ/uγ could reach an impressive sensitivity at the 10{sup -6} level, with limits on t → cZ/cγ at the 10{sup -5} level. (orig.)

  15. The Time-Dependent Wavelet Spectrum of HH 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, A. C.; Reipurth, B.; Esquivel, A.; González-Gómez, D.; Riera, A.

    2018-04-01

    We have calculated the wavelet spectra of four epochs (spanning ≍20 yr) of Hα and [S II] HST images of HH 1 and 2. From these spectra we calculated the distribution functions of the (angular) radii of the emission structures. We found that the size distributions have maxima (corresponding to the characteristic sizes of the observed structures) with radii that are logarithmically spaced with factors of ≍2→3 between the successive peaks. The positions of these peaks generally showed small shifts towards larger sizes as a function of time. This result indicates that the structures of HH 1 and 2 have a general expansion (seen at all scales), and/or are the result of a sequence of merging events resulting in the formation of knots with larger characteristic sizes.

  16. Sudden rotation reactive scattering: Theory and application to 3-D H+H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.M.; Lee, K.T.

    1980-01-01

    An approximate quantum mechanical theory of reactive scattering is presented and applied to the H+H 2 reaction in three dimensions. Centrifugal sudden and rotational sudden approximations are made in each arrangement channel, however, vibrational states are treated in a fully coupled manner. Matching of arrangement channel wave functions is done where the arrangement channel centrifugal potentials are equal. This matching is particularly appropriate for collinearly favored reactions. Integral and differential cross sections are calculated for the H+H 2 reaction for H 2 in the ground and first excited vibrational states. These calculations employ the Porter--Karplus potential energy surface mainly to allow for comparisons with previous accurate and approximate quantal and quasiclassical calculations

  17. Exploring the $Z' \\rightarrow t\\overline{t}$ heavy resonance at FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Rachel Emma Clarke

    2017-01-01

    My summer student project explored the feasibility of detecting final states with boosted top quarks at 100 TeV with the baseline FCC-hh detector. I focused specifically on the $Z' \\rightarrow t\\overline{t}$ hadronic process. I determined the exclusion cross-section of $Z' \\rightarrow t\\overline{t}$ and the integrated luminosity required to make a discovery at the baseline FCC detector at 95% confidence level.

  18. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio ( 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies 15 eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10 13 eV - 10 15 eV. The results show detailed effects of the direction of EAS incidence relative to the geomagnetic field, depending, in particular, of the primary mass. Based on the results, we can say that WILLI-EAS experiment could be used for testing the hadronic interaction models. Measurements of the high energy muon flux in underground of the salt mine from Slanic Prahova, Romania was performed using a new mobile detector developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of 2 scintillator plates measuring in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements on different positions at surface or in underground. The detector was used to measure muon fluxes in different locations at surface or in underground. The detector was used to measure muon fluxes at different sites of Romania and in the underground of the salt mines from Slanic Prahova, Romania where IFIN-HH has a modern underground laboratory. New methods for the detection of cosmic ray muons are investigated in our institute based on scintillator techniques using optical fiber and MPPC photodyodes.

  19. The Three-Dimensional Structure of HH 32 from GMOS IFU Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tracy L.; Riera, A.; Raga, A. C.; Aspin, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present new high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the Herbig-Haro object HH 32 from system verification observations made with the GMOS IFU at Gemini North Observatory. The three-dimensional spectral data cover a 8.7"×5.85" spatial field and 4820-7040 Å spectral region centered on the HH 32 A knot complex. We show the position-dependent line profiles and radial velocity channel maps of the Hα line, as well as line ratio velocity channel maps of [O III] λ5007/Hα, [O I] λ6300/Hα, [N II] λ6583/Hα, [S II] λλ(6716+6730)/Hα, and [S II] λ6716/λ6730. We find that the line emission and the line ratios vary significantly on spatial scales of ~1" and over velocities of ~50 km s-1. A ``3/2-dimensional'' bow shock model is qualitatively successful at reproducing the general features of the radial velocity channel maps, but it does not show the same complexity as the data, and it fails to reproduce the line ratios in our high spatial resolution maps. The observations of HH 32 A show two or three superposed bow shocks with separations of ~3", which we interpret as evidence of a line-of-sight superposition of two or three working surfaces located along the redshifted body of the HH 32 outflow. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF, the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  20. Design and performance studies of a hadronic calorimeter for a FCC-hh experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltova, J.

    2018-03-01

    The hadron-hadron Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh) project studies the physics reach of a proton-proton machine with a centre-of-mass-energy of 100 TeV and five times greater peak luminosities than at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The high-energy regime of the FCC-hh opens new opportunities for the discovery of physics beyond the standard model. At 100 TeV a large fraction of the W, Z, H bosons and top quarks are produced with a significant boost. It implies an efficient reconstruction of very high energetic objects decaying hadronically. The reconstruction of those boosted objects sets the calorimeter performance requirements in terms of energy resolution, containment of highly energetic hadron showers, and high transverse granularity. We present the current baseline technologies for the calorimeter system in the barrel region of the FCC-hh reference detector: a liquid argon electromagnetic and a scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeters. The focus of this paper is on the hadronic calorimeter and the performance studies for hadrons. The reconstruction of single particles and the achieved energy resolution for the combined system of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters are discussed.

  1. Analytical parametrization and shape classification of anomalous HH production in the EFT approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Manzano, Pablo de Castro; Dorigo, Tommaso; Goertz, Florian; Gouzevich, Maxime; Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    In this document we study the effect of anomalous Higgs boson couplings on non-resonant pair production of Higgs bosons ($HH$) at the LHC. We explore the space of the five parameters $\\kappa_{\\lambda}$, $\\kappa_{t}$, $c_2$, $c_g$, and $c_{2g}$ in terms of the corresponding kinematics of the final state, and describe a partition of the space into a limited number of regions featuring similar phenomenology in the kinematics of $HH$ final state. We call clusters the sets of points belonging to the same region; to each cluster corresponds a representative point which we call a benchmark. We discuss a possible technique to estimate the sensitivity of an experimental search to the kinematical differences between the phenomenology of the benchmark points and the rest of the parameter space contained in the corresponding cluster. We also provide an analytical parametrization of the cross-section modifications that the variation of anomalous couplings produces with respect to standard model $HH$ production along with ...

  2. The Intricate Structure of HH 508, the Brightest Microjet in the Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.

    2018-02-01

    We present Magellan adaptive optics Hα imaging of HH 508, which has the highest surface brightness among protostellar jets in the Orion Nebula. We find that HH 508 actually has a shorter component to the west, and a longer and knotty component to the east. The east component has a kink at 0.″3 from the jet-driving star θ 1 Ori B2, so it may have been deflected by the wind/radiation from the nearby θ 1 Ori B1B5. The origin of both components is unclear, but if each of them is a separate jet, then θ 1 Ori B2 may be a tight binary. Alternatively, HH 508 may be a slow-moving outflow, and each component represents an illuminated cavity wall. The ionization front surrounding θ 1 Ori B2B3 does not directly face θ 1 Ori B1B5, suggesting that the EUV radiation from θ 1 Ori C plays a dominant role in affecting the morphology of proplyds even in the vicinity of θ 1 Ori B1B5. Finally, we report an Hα blob that might be ejected by the binary proplyd LV 1.

  3. Current meter components and other data from fixed platforms from TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) and other locations in support of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) and the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) projects from 1989-04-16 to 1990-05-14 (NODC Accession 9200266)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from fixed platforms from the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) and other locations from 16 April 1989 to 14 May 1990....

  4. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the MOANA WAVE from the Toga Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 1986-12-18 to 1987-03-01 (NODC Accession 8700129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the MOANA WAVE and other platforms in the Toga Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 18 December 1986 to 01...

  5. Binary energy source of the HH 250 outflow and its circumstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerón, Fernando; Reipurth, Bo; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Connelley, Michael S.

    2018-04-01

    Aims: Herbig-Haro flows are signposts of recent major accretion and outflow episodes. We aim to determine the nature and properties of the little-known outflow source HH 250-IRS, which is embedded in the Aquila clouds. Methods: We have obtained adaptive optics-assisted L-band images with the NACO instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT), together with N- and Q-band imaging with VISIR also on the VLT. Using the SINFONI instrument on the VLT we carried out H- and K-band integral field spectroscopy of HH 250-IRS, complemented with spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument at the InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) in the JHKL bands. Finally, the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) interferometer was used to study the circumstellar environment of HH 250-IRS at 225 and 351 GHz with CO (2-1) and CO (3-2) maps and 0.9 mm and 1.3 mm continuum images. Results: The HH 250-IRS source is resolved into a binary with 0.''53 separation, corresponding to 120 AU at the adopted distance of 225 pc. The individual components show heavily veiled spectra with weak CO absorption indicative of late-type stars. Both are Class I sources, but their spectral energy distributions between 1.5 μm and 19 μm differ markedly and suggest the existence of a large cavity around one of the components. The millimeter interferometric observations indicate that the gas mainly traces a circumbinary envelope or disk, while the dust emission is dominated by one of the circumstellar envelopes. Conclusions: HH 250-IRS is a new addition to the handful of multiple systems where the individual stellar components, the circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk can be studied in detail, and a rare case among those systems in which a Herbig-Haro flow is present. Based on observations obtained with the VLT (Cerro Paranal, Chile) in programs 089.C-0196(A), 095.C-0488(A), and 095.C-0488(B), as well as with IRTF (Mauna Kea, Hawaii), SMA (Mauna Kea, Hawaii), and the Nordic Optical Telescope (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain

  6. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, R.H.; Justus, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  7. The electronic structure and bonding of a H-H pair in the vicinity of a BCC Fe bulk vacancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, A.; Pistonesi, C.; Brizuela, G. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Departamento de Fisica; Garcia, A.J. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion

    2003-09-01

    The H-Fe interaction near a bcc Fe vacancy is analysed using a semi-empirical theoretical method. Calculations were performed using a Fe{sub 86} cluster with a vacancy. Hydrogen atoms are positioned in their local energy minima configurations. Changes in the electronic structure of Fe atoms near a vacancy were analysed for the system without H, with one H and with two H atoms. Fe atoms surrounding the vacancy weaken their bond when hydrogen is present. This is due to the formation of H-Fe bonds. Hydrogen influences only its nearest-neighbour Fe atoms. The H-H interaction was also analysed. For H-H distance of 0.82 Angstrom an H-H association is formed, while H-Fe interaction and Fe-Fe weakening is markedly reduced, when compared with other H-H interactions. (author)

  8. Hooded seal Cystophora cristata foraging areas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean-Investigated using three complementary methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Vacquie-Garcia

    Full Text Available Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles. Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1 first passage time (FPT; 2 vertical transit rate and; 3 change in dive drift rate. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMM were applied to each method to determine whether specific habitat characteristics were associated with foraging. Separate models were run for the post-molting and the post-breeding seasons; sex and age classes were included in the GAMMs. All three methods highlighted a few common geographic areas as being important foraging zones; however, there were also some different areas identified by the different methods, which highlights the importance of using multiple indexes when analyzing tracking and diving data to study foraging behavior. Foraging occurred most commonly in relatively shallow areas with high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST, corresponding to continental shelf areas with Atlantic Water masses. All age and sex classes overlapped spatially to some extent, but the different age and sex groups showed differences in the bathymetry of their foraging areas as well as in their vertical use of the water column. When foraging, pups dove in the upper part of the water column in relatively deep areas. Adult females foraged relatively shallowly in deep water areas too, though in shallower areas than pups. Adult males foraged close to the bottom in shallower areas.

  9. Deep VLA images of the HH 124 IRS radio cluster and its surroundings, and a new determination of the distance to NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf del Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Galli, Phillip, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-20

    We present new deep (σ ∼ 6 μJy) radio images of the HH 124 IRS radio cluster at 4.8 and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 50 radio sources, most of them compact. Variability and spectral indices were analyzed in order to determine the nature of the sources and of their radio emission. A proper motion study was also performed for several of these radio sources using previously reported radio observations. Our analysis shows that 11 radio sources can be associated with Galactic objects, most of them probably young stars. Interestingly, 8 of these sources are in an area less than 1 arcmin{sup 2} in size. The importance of such compact clusters resides in that all of its members can be observed in a single pointing with most telescopes and are, therefore, ideal for multi-wavelength studies of variability. Another 4 of the detected sources are clearly extragalactic. Finally, we propose from statistical arguments that out of the remaining sources, about 10 are Galactic, but our study does not allow us to identify which of the sources fall in that specific category. The relatively large proper motions observed for the sources in HH 124 IRS suggest that this region is located at about 400 pc from the Sun. This is significantly smaller than the ∼800-900 pc distance usually assigned to the nearby open cluster NGC 2264 with which HH 124 is thought to be associated. However, a reanalysis of the Hipparcos parallaxes for members of NGC 2264, a convergent point approach, and a kinematic analysis all argue in favor of a distance of the order of 400 pc for NGC 2264 as well.

  10. Ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubelet, Helene; Veyre, Philippe; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    This brief publication first recalls and outlines that ocean acidification is expected to increase, and will result in severe ecological impacts (more fragile coral reefs, migration of species, and so on), and therefore social and economic impacts. This issue is particularly important for France who possesses the second exclusive maritime area in the world. The various impacts of ocean acidification on living species is described, notably for phytoplankton, coral reefs, algae, molluscs, and fishes. Social and economic impacts are also briefly presented: tourism, protection against risks (notably by coral reefs), shellfish aquaculture and fishing. Issues to be addressed by scientific research are evoked: interaction between elements of an ecosystem and between different ecosystems, multi-stress effects all along organism lifetime, vulnerability and adaptability of human societies

  11. Assessment of Snow Status Changes Using L-HH Temporal-Coherence Components at Mt. Dagu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR horizontally transmitted and horizontally received (HH coherence data was decomposed into temporal-coherence, spatial-coherence, and thermal noise components. The multitemporal data spanned between February and May of 2008, and consisted of two pairs of interferometric SAR (InSAR images formed by consecutive repeat passes. With the analysis of ancillary data, a snow increase process and a snow decrease process were determined. Then, the multiple temporal-coherence components were used to study the variation of thawing and freezing statuses of snow because the components can mostly reflect the temporal change of the snow that occurred between two data acquisitions. Compared with snow mapping results derived from optical images, the outcomes from the snow increase process and the snow decrease process reached an overall accuracy of 71.3% and 79.5%, respectively. Being capable of delineating not only the areas with or without snow cover but also status changes among no-snow, wet snow, and dry snow, we have developed a critical means to assess the water resource in alpine areas.

  12. A study of the Herbig-Haro object HH 120 and the associated cometary globule CG 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, B.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared and spectroscopic observations are presented of a new Herbig-Haro object, here named HH 120, in the cometary globule CG 30. The emission line spectrum indicates a very low degree of excitation of the same order as that found for HH 47, HH 7, and HH 11. From several spectra a radial velocity of -42 km -1 +-12 km s -1 is deduced and the electron temperature, Tsub(e), and electron number density, Nsub(e), are found to be 9100 K+-400 K and 1700 cm -3 +-600 cm -3 , respectively. A prominent continuum is shown to be composed of a collisionally enhanced two-photon continuum and a reflected late-type stellar component, probably originating in the hidden source of energy. Infrared scans of CG 30 revealed five sources, two of which are very close to HH 120. It is argued that one of them, CG 30-IRS4, is the source of energy producing HH 120 and an associated reflection nebula. The bolometric luminosity of CG 30-IRS4 is estimated to be at least 0.9 Lsub(sun), its mass 1.1 Msub(sun) and its radius 1.6 Rsub(sun). (orig.)

  13. Gravity Field Atlas of the S. Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Gravity Field Atlas of the Southern Ocean from GEOSAT is MGG Report 7. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because...

  14. Impulse Response of the Ocean Floor Nonlinear Techniques for Measurement Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Although there is current interest in detection of broadband energy in the ocean, most ASW systems are designed for discrete frequency emissions from...M«U2CDZ«’TZ — n HHO I-" (- UJ*UJ0 uj.»>- Z-- 3^ II I/IO U OZ CL*Q.HH LOS-^+CN

  15. Observing and Reducing IFUs: INTEGRAL and PMAS—Properties of the Ionized Gas in HH 202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis López-Martín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of integral field spectroscopy (IFS data requires several stages and many repetitive operations to convert raw data into, typically, a large number of spectra. Instead there are several semiautomatic data reduction tools and here we present this data reduction process using some of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF tasks devoted to reduce spectroscopic data. After explaining the whole process, we illustrate the power of this instrumental technique with some results obtained for the object HH202 in the Orion Nebula (Mesa-Delgado et al., 2009.

  16. Exploring the triplet parameters space to optimise the final focus of the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2141109; Abelleira, Jose; Seryi, Andrei; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    One of the main challenges when designing final focus systems of particle accelerators is maximising the beam stay clear in the strong quadrupole magnets of the inner triplet. Moreover it is desirable to keep the quadrupoles in the triplet as short as possible for space and costs reasons but also to reduce chromaticity and simplify corrections schemes. An algorithm that explores the triplet parameter space to optimise both these aspects was written. It uses thin lenses as a first approximation and MADX for more precise calculations. In cooperation with radiation studies, this algorithm was then applied to design an alternative triplet for the final focus of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh).

  17. Radiation Load Optimization in the Final Focus System of FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Roman; Cerutti, Francesco; Tomás, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    With a center-of-mass energy of up to 100 TeV, FCC-hh will produce highly energetic collision debris at the Interaction Point (IP). Protecting the final focus quadrupoles from this radiation is challenging, since the required amount of shielding placed inside the magnets will reduce the free aperture, thereby limiting the β^{*} reach and luminosity. Hence, radiation mitigation strategies that make best use of the available aperture are required. In this paper, we study the possibility to split the first quadrupole Q1 into two quadrupoles with individual apertures, in order to distribute the radiation load more evenly and reduce the peak dose.

  18. High velocity molecular gas near Herbig-Haro objects HH 7--11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Edwards, S.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 transitions of 12 CO and 13 CO reveal the presence of high velocity molecular gas associated with a low luminosity infrared source in the vicinity of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 7--11. The blueshifted and redshifted wings show peak intensities spatially separated by 1X5 (0.2 pc), suggesting an energetic bipolar outflow of gas from a young low mass star. The mass loss rate implied by these observations is 8 x 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1

  19. Temperature, salinity, nutrients and other profile data from bottle, XBT, and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Japan, and other Sea areas by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 01 January 1965 to 31 December 2002 (NODC Accession 0000972)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle, XBT, and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Japan, and other Sea areas from 01 January...

  20. Magnetic Hysteresis of Deep-Sea Sediments in Korea Deep Ocean Study(KODOS) Area, NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Park, C.; Yoo, C.

    2001-12-01

    The KODOS area within the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone (C-C zone) is surrounded by the Hawaiian and Line Island Ridges to the west and the central American continent to the east. Topography of the seafloor consists of flat-topped abyssal hills and adjacent abyssal troughs, both of which run parallel in N-S direction. Sediments from the study area consist mainly of biogenic sediments. Latitudinal zonation of sedimentary facies was caused by the accumulation of biogenic materials associated with the equatorial current system and movement of the Pacific plate toward the north or northwest. The KODOS area belongs to the latitudinal transition zone having depositional characteristics between non-fossiliferous pelagic clay-dominated zone and calcareous sediment-dominated zone. The box core sediments of the KODOS area are analyzed in an attempt to obtain magnetic hysteresis information and to elucidate the relationship between hysteresis property and lithological facies. Variations in magnetic hysteresis parameters with unit layers reflect the magnetic grain-size and concentrations within the sediments. The ratios of remanant coercivity/coercive force (Hcr/Hc) and saturation remnance/saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) indicate that coarse magnetic grains are mainly distributed in dark brown sediments (lower part of the sediment core samples) reflecting high Hcr/Hc and low Mrs/Ms ratios. These results are mainly caused by dissolution differences with core depth. From the plotting of the ratios of hyteresis parameters, it is indicated that magnetic minerals in cubic samples are in pseudo-single domain (PSD) state.

  1. Physics and life-business: Participation of IFIN-HH in ConvEX-3 Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, D.; Slavnicu, D.; Gheorghiu, Dorina; Acasandrei, V.; Vamanu, B.

    2005-01-01

    The paper illustrates a less popular yet by no means less consequential task within IFIN-HH's public mission, namely - to provide scientific advice and technical support in the management of nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. The case in point is ConvEX-3, a 36-hour, 41-actor-countries international alert exercise conducted, May 2005, by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna and targeting a virtual accident at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Romania. A comprehensive Technical Report compiled in the aftermath of the exercise covers the results, as well as the ways and means at work, highlighting the productive complementarities of the two chief tools employed as assessment and decision support: RODOS (Real Time On-line Decision Support) - a 'major league' expert system based on fixed workstations, in development under an EC project and vying for a position of comprehensive, reference European tool 160 in nuclear emergency crises - for which IFIN-HH is the sole licensed operator in Romania; and RAT (Radiological Assessment Toolkit), a 'minor league' domestic counterpart operating at PC level, assembling a vademecum of, mainly U.S.-originated, reference models dwelling in radioactive inventories, source terms, environmental dispersion, dose and derived response levels, cadastral evaluation of impacts, and countermeasure assessment. (authors)

  2. Optimizing laboratory animal stress paradigms: The H-H* experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Major advances in behavioral neuroscience have been facilitated by the development of consistent and highly reproducible experimental paradigms that have been widely adopted. In contrast, many different experimental approaches have been employed to expose laboratory mice and rats to acute versus chronic intermittent stress. An argument is advanced in this review that more consistent approaches to the design of chronic intermittent stress experiments would provide greater reproducibility of results across laboratories and greater reliability relating to various neural, endocrine, immune, genetic, and behavioral adaptations. As an example, the H-H* experimental design incorporates control, homotypic (H), and heterotypic (H*) groups and allows for comparisons across groups, where each animal is exposed to the same stressor, but that stressor has vastly different biological and behavioral effects depending upon each animal's prior stress history. Implementation of the H-H* experimental paradigm makes possible a delineation of transcriptional changes and neural, endocrine, and immune pathways that are activated in precisely defined stressor contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  4. Groundwater flow in a relatively old oceanic volcanic island: The Betancuria area, Fuerteventura Island, Canary Islands, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Christian, E-mail: cherrera@ucn.cl [Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Custodio, Emilio [Department of Geo-Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    The island of Fuerteventura is the oldest of the Canary Islands' volcanic archipelago. It is constituted by volcanic submarine and subaerial activity and intrusive Miocene events, with some residual later volcanism and Quaternary volcanic deposits that have favored groundwater recharge. The climate is arid, with an average rainfall that barely attains 60 mm/year in the coast and up to 200 mm/year in the highlands. The aquifer recharge is small but significant; it is brackish due to large airborne atmospheric salinity, between 7 and 15 g m{sup −2} year{sup −1} of chloride deposition, and high evapo-concentration in the soil. The average recharge is estimated to be less than about 5 mm/year at low altitude and up to 10 mm/year in the highlands, and up to 20 mm/year associated to recent lava fields. Hydrochemical and water isotopic studies, supported by water table data and well and borehole descriptions, contribute a preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow and water origin in the Betancuria area, the central area of the island. In general, water from springs and shallow wells tends to be naturally brackish and of recent origin. Deep saline groundwater is found and is explained as remnants of very old marine water trapped in isolated features in the very low permeability intrusive rocks. Preliminary radiocarbon dating indicates that this deep groundwater has an apparent age of less than 5000 years BP but it is the result of mixing recent water recharge with very old deep groundwater. Most of the groundwater flow occurs through the old raised volcanic shield of submarine and subaerial formations and later Miocene subaerial basalts. Groundwater transit time through the unsaturated zone is of a few decades, which allows the consideration of long-term quasi-steady state recharge. Transit times are up to a few centuries through the saturated old volcanics and up to several millennia in the intrusive formations, where isolated pockets of very old water may

  5. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrica, Bogdan [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Bucharest, P.O.B.MG-6 (Romania)

    2012-11-20

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

  6. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Pyenson

    Full Text Available Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how.We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity.Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their primary feeding ground by employing generalist filter-feeding modes

  7. Ocean Acidification | Smithsonian Ocean Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor ocean is affected. Such a relatively quick change in ocean chemistry doesn't give marine life, which

  8. A conceptual solution for a beam halo collimation system for the Future Circular hadron-hadron Collider (FCC-hh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiascaris, M.; Bruce, R.; Redaelli, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present the first conceptual solution for a collimation system for the hadron-hadron option of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh). The collimation layout is based on the scaling of the present Large Hadron Collider collimation system to the FCC-hh energy and it includes betatron and momentum cleaning, as well as dump protection collimators and collimators in the experimental insertions for protection of the final focus triplet magnets. An aperture model for the FCC-hh is defined and the geometrical acceptance is calculated at injection and collision energy taking into account mechanical and optics imperfections. The performance of the system is then assessed through the analysis of normalized halo distributions and complete loss maps for an ideal lattice. The performance limitations are discussed and a solution to improve the system performance with the addition of dispersion suppression collimators around the betatron cleaning insertion is presented.

  9. Latest developments in the predisposal of radioactive waste at the radioactive waste management department from ifin-hh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.; Dogaru, G.; Neacsu, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department (DMDR) from IFIN-HH has a wide experience in the management of the non-fuel cycle radioactive wastes from all over Romania generated from nuclear techniques and technologies application, assuring the radiological safety and security of operators, population and environment. During 2011-2015 was implemented a major upgrading programme applied both on the technological systems of the building and on equipment. The paper describes the facility developments having the scope to share to the public and stakeholders the radioactive waste predisposal capabilities available at DMDR-IFIN-HH. As a whole, today DMDR-IFIN-HH represents a complete and complex infrastructure, assuring high quality services in all the steps related to the management of the institutional radioactive waste in Romania. (authors)

  10. 177Lu-DOTA-HH1, a novel anti-CD37 radio-immunoconjugate: a study of toxicity in nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H V Repetto-Llamazares

    Full Text Available CD37 is an internalizing B-cell antigen expressed on Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL. The anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody HH1 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and labelled with the beta-particle emitting radionuclide 177Lu creating the radio-immunoconjugate (RIC 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1, trade name Betalutin. The present toxicity study was performed prior to initiation of clinical studies with 177Lu-HH1.Nude mice with or without tumor xenografts were treated with 50 to 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu- HH1 and followed for clinical signs of toxicity up to ten months. Acute, life threatening bone marrow toxicity was observed in animals receiving 800 and 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Significant changes in serum concentrations of liver enzymes were evident for treatment with 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Lymphoid depletion, liver necrosis and atrophy, and interstitial cell hyperplasia of the ovaries were also observed for mice in this dose group.177Lu-DOTA-HH1 was well tolerated at dosages about 10 times above those considered relevant for radioimmunotherapy in patients with B-cell derived malignancies.The toxicity profile was as expected for RICs. Our experimental results have paved the way for clinical evaluation of 177Lu-HH1 in NHL patients.

  11. THE COUNTERJET OF HH 30: NEW LIGHT ON ITS BINARY DRIVING SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estalella, Robert; Lopez, Rosario; Riera, Angels [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Anglada, Guillem; Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Gomez, Gabriel, E-mail: robert.estalella@am.ub.es, E-mail: rosario.lopez@am.ub.es, E-mail: guillem@iaa.es, E-mail: ggv@iac.es, E-mail: gabriel.gomez@gtc.iac.es, E-mail: angels.riera@upc.edu, E-mail: carrasco@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    We present new [S II] images of the Herbig-Haro (HH) 30 jet and counterjet observed in 2006, 2007, and 2010 that, combined with previous data, allowed us to measure with improved accuracy the positions and proper motions of the jet and counterjet knots. Our results show that the motion of the knots is essentially ballistic, with the exception of the farthest knots, which trace the large-scale 'C'-shape bending of the jet. The observed bending of the jet can be produced by a relative motion of the HH 30 star with respect to its surrounding environment, caused either by a possible proper motion of the HH 30 star, or by the entrainment of environment gas by the red lobe of the nearby L1551-IRS5 outflow. Alternatively, the bending can be produced by the stellar wind from a nearby classical T Tauri star, identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog as J04314418+181047. The proper motion velocities of the knots of the counterjet show more variations than those of the jet. In particular, we identify two knots of the counterjet that have the same kinematic age but whose velocities differ by almost a factor of two. Thus, it appears from our observations that counterjet knots launched simultaneously can be ejected with very different velocities. We confirm that the observed wiggling of the jet and counterjet arises from the orbital motion of the jet source in a binary system. Precession, if present at all, is of secondary importance in shaping the jet. We derive an orbital period of {tau}{sub o} = 114 {+-} 2 yr and a mass function of m{mu}{sup 3}{sub c} = 0.014 {+-} 0.006 M{sub Sun }. For a mass of the system of m = 0.45 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} (the value inferred from observations of the CO kinematics of the disk), we obtain a mass of m{sub j} = 0.31 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} for the jet source, a mass of m{sub c} = 0.14 {+-} 0.03 M{sub Sun} for the companion, and a binary separation of a = 18.0 {+-} 0.6 AU. This binary separation coincides with the value required

  12. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the TOGA Area - Pacific, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-03-19 to 1992-09-24 (NODC Accession 9700039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrochemical, hydrophysical, and other data were collected from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from March 19, 1992 to September 24, 1992. Data were submitted by Dr. Curt...

  13. Characterization of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the dengue vector population established in urban areas of Fernando de Noronha, a Brazilian oceanic island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lêda N; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; da Cunha, Mércia Cristiane Santana; Souza, Fátima; Batista, Carlos Alberto Vieira; Barbosa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Souza, Wayner Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Aedes aegypti has played a major role in the dramatic expansion of dengue worldwide. The failure of control programs in reducing the rhythm of global dengue expansion through vector control suggests the need for studies to support more appropriated control strategies. We report here the results of a longitudinal study on Ae. aegypti population dynamics through continuous egg sampling aiming to characterize the infestation of urban areas of a Brazilian oceanic island, Fernando de Noronha. The spatial and temporal distribution of the dengue vector population in urban areas of the island was described using a monitoring system (SMCP-Aedes) based on a 103-trap network for Aedes egg sampling, using GIS and spatial statistics analysis tools. Mean egg densities were estimated over a 29-month period starting in 2011 and producing monthly maps of mosquito abundance. The system detected continuous Ae. aegypti oviposition in most traps. The high global positive ovitrap index (POI=83.7% of 2815 events) indicated the frequent presence of blood-fed-egg laying females at every sampling station. Egg density (eggs/ovitrap/month) reached peak values of 297.3 (0 - 2020) in May and 295 (0 - 2140) in August 2012. The presence of a stable Ae. aegypti population established throughout the inhabited areas of the island was demonstrated. A strong association between egg abundance and rainfall with a 2-month lag was observed, which combined with a first-order autocorrelation observed in the series of egg counts can provide an important forecasting tool. This first description of the characteristics of the island infestation by the dengue vector provides baseline information to analyze relationships between the spatial distribution of the vector and dengue cases, and to the development of integrated vector control strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  15. Evidence for CP violation in time-integrated $D^0 \\rightarrow h^-h^+$ decay rates

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalorav Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    A search for time-integrated $CP$ violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow h^-h^+$ ($h=K$, $\\pi$) decays is presented using 0.62~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by LHCb in 2011. The flavor of the charm meson is determined by the charge of the slow pion in the $D^{*+} \\rightarrow D^0 \\pi^+$ and $D^{*-} \\rightarrow \\overline{D}^0 \\pi^-$ decay chains. The difference in $CP$ asymmetry between $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- K^+$ and $D^0 \\rightarrow \\pi^- \\pi^+$, $\\Delta A_{CP} \\equiv A_{CP}(K^-K^+) \\, - \\, A_{CP}(\\pi^-\\pi^+)$, is measured to be $\\left[ -0.82 \\pm 0.21 (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.11 (\\mathrm{syst.}) \\right]\\%$. This differs from the hypothesis of $CP$ conservation by $3.5$ standard deviations.

  16. Proton cross-talk and losses in the dispersion suppressor regions at the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100784; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Krainer, Alexander; Langner, Andy Sven; Abelleira, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Protons that collide at the interaction points of the FCC-hh may contribute to the background in the subsequent detector. Due to the high luminosity of the proton beams this may be of concern. Using DPMJET-III to model 50 TeV proton-proton collisions, tracking studies have been performed with PTC and MERLIN in order to gauge the elastic and inelastic proton cross-talk. High arc losses, particularly in the dispersion suppressor regions, have been revealed. These losses originate mainly from particles with a momentum deviation, either from interaction with a primary collimator in the betatron cleaning insertion, or from the proton-proton collisions. This issue can be mitigated by introducing additional collimators in the dispersion suppressor region. The specific design, lattice integration, and the effect of these collimators on cross-talk is assessed.

  17. ATLAS searches for VH, HH, VV, V+$\\gamma$/$\\gamma\\gamma$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00441490; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider motivates searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in channels involving coupling to the Higgs boson. A search for massive resonances decaying into couples of bosons is described. The considered final states are: $HH$, $VH$, $VV$, $V\\gamma$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$ with $V$ indicating either the $W$ or the $Z$ boson. Final states with different number of leptons or photons and where, in many cases, at least one Higgs decays into a b-quark pair are studied using different jet reconstruction techniques which allow to optimize the signal acceptance for low or high Higgs boson transverse momentum. The most recent diboson resonance searches using LHC Run 2 data are described.

  18. Betatron-collimation Studies for Heavy Ions in the FCC-hh

    CERN Multimedia

    Logothetis Agaliotis, Efstathios

    2018-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in the design of the FCC-hh is the collimation system. From LHC experience it is known that a collimation system optimized for proton cleaning has a significantly reduced efficiency for heavy ions. The study presented in this contribution evaluates the betatron-collimation efficiency for the heavy-ion operation with lead nuclei at a beam energy of 50 Z TeV in the system designed for proton operation. The fragmentation processes of the main beam particles in the primary collimator are simulated with FLUKA and fragments are individually tracked with SixTrack until being lost in the downstream aperture. In this way a first-impact loss-map is obtained, identifying locations where high energy deposition are to be expected. This provides a first-level assessment of feasibility and allows to include countermeasures in the conceptual accelerator design.

  19. Itinerant deaf educator and general educator perceptions of the D/HH push-in model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinsky, Rebecca J

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative case study using the deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) push-in model was conducted on the perceptions of 3 itinerant deaf educators and 3 general educators working in 1 school district. Participants worked in pairs of 1 deaf educator and 1 general educator at 3 elementary schools. Open-ended research questions guided the study, which was concerned with teachers' perceptions of the model in general and with the model's advantages, disadvantages, and effectiveness. Data collected from observations, one-to-one interviews, and a focus group interview enabled the investigator to uncover 4 themes: Participants (a) had an overall positive experience, (b) viewed general education immersion as an advantage, (c) considered high noise levels a disadvantage, and (d) believed the effectiveness of the push-in model was dependent on several factors, in particular, the needs of the student and the nature of the general education classroom environment.

  20. Physics at the FCC-hh, a 100 TeV pp collider

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    A 100 TeV pp collider is under consideration, by the high-energy physics community, as an important step for the future development of our field, following the completion of the LHC and High-luminosity LHC physics programmes. In particular, CERN is considering 100 TeV pp collisions as the key target of a Future Circular Collider facility, built around a 100 km tunnel and designed to deliver pp, e+e- and ep collisions, in addition to a programme with heavy ion beams and with the injector complex. CERN is coordinating an international study tasked with the completion, by the end of 2018, of a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for this facility. This document presents the first results of the assessment of the physics potential of the hadronic part of this research programme (FCC-hh).

  1. Spitzer spectral line mapping of the HH211 outflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionatos, Odyssefs; Nisini, Brunella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    of emission line diagnostics and an existing grid of molecular shock models. The physical properties of the warm gas are compared against other molecular jet tracers and to the results of a similar study towards the L1448-C outflow. Results: We have detected and mapped the v=0-0 S(0) - S(7) H2 lines and fine...... compared to solar abundances by a factor ~10-50. Conclusions: Spitzer spectral mapping observations reveal for the first time a cool H$_2$ component towards the CO jet of HH211 consistent with the CO material being fully molecular and warm at ~ 300 K. The maps also reveal for the first time the existence...... uncertainties on jet speed and shock conditions are too large for a definite conclusion....

  2. Neutral competition of stem cells is skewed by proliferative changes downstream of Hh and Hpo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyel, Marc; Simons, Benjamin D; Bach, Erika A

    2014-10-16

    Neutral competition, an emerging feature of stem cell homeostasis, posits that individual stem cells can be lost and replaced by their neighbors stochastically, resulting in chance dominance of a clone at the niche. A single stem cell with an oncogenic mutation could bias this process and clonally spread the mutation throughout the stem cell pool. The Drosophila testis provides an ideal system for testing this model. The niche supports two stem cell populations that compete for niche occupancy. Here, we show that cyst stem cells (CySCs) conform to the paradigm of neutral competition and that clonal deregulation of either the Hedgehog (Hh) or Hippo (Hpo) pathway allows a single CySC to colonize the niche. We find that the driving force behind such behavior is accelerated proliferation. Our results demonstrate that a single stem cell colonizes its niche through oncogenic mutation by co-opting an underlying homeostatic process. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Improved bow shock models for Herbig-Haro objects - application to HH 2A-prime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Hartmann, L.; Hartigan, P.

    1988-01-01

    An improved version of the bow shock theory previously applied to Herbig-Haro objects is presented. The modifications provide a more accurate calculation of the ionization state of material entering the bow shock. The revised preionization does not drastically affect the emission-line predictions for a 200 km/s bow shock model, though the effects will be more severe for slower shock velocities. The line profiles of the new models resemble the observed profiles somewhat more closely, and the relative emission-line intensities typically differ by 30 percent from those predicted by the older models. The models agree well with new IUE spectra and existing optical data for HH 2A-prime. 32 references

  4. Performance assessment of the SIMFAP parallel cluster at IFIN-HH Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gh.; Adam, S.; Ayriyan, A.; Dushanov, E.; Hayryan, E.; Korenkov, V.; Lutsenko, A.; Mitsyn, V.; Sapozhnikova, T.; Sapozhnikov, A; Streltsova, O.; Buzatu, F.; Dulea, M.; Vasile, I.; Sima, A.; Visan, C.; Busa, J.; Pokorny, I.

    2008-01-01

    Performance assessment and case study outputs of the parallel SIMFAP cluster at IFIN-HH Bucharest point to its effective and reliable operation. A comparison with results on the supercomputing system in LIT-JINR Dubna adds insight on resource allocation for problem solving by parallel computing. The solution of models asking for very large numbers of knots in the discretization mesh needs the migration to high performance computing based on parallel cluster architectures. The acquisition of ready-to-use parallel computing facilities being beyond limited budgetary resources, the solution at IFIN-HH was to buy the hardware and the inter-processor network, and to implement by own efforts the open software concerning both the operating system and the parallel computing standard. The present paper provides a report demonstrating the successful solution of these tasks. The implementation of the well-known HPL (High Performance LINPACK) Benchmark points to the effective and reliable operation of the cluster. The comparison of HPL outputs obtained on parallel clusters of different magnitudes shows that there is an optimum range of the order N of the linear algebraic system over which a given parallel cluster provides optimum parallel solutions. For the SIMFAP cluster, this range can be inferred to correspond to about 1 to 2 x 10 4 linear algebraic equations. For an algorithm of polynomial complexity N α the task sharing among p processors within a parallel solution mainly follows an (N/p)α behaviour under peak performance achievement. Thus, while the problem complexity remains the same, a substantial decrease of the coefficient of the leading order of the polynomial complexity is achieved. (authors)

  5. Linking sardine recruitment in coastal areas to ocean currents using surface drifters and HF radar. A case study in the Gulf of Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Roberta; Berta, Maristella; Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of ocean currents in the recruitment of commercially and ecologically important fish is an important step towards developing sustainable resource management guidelines. To this end, we attempt to elucidate the role of surface ocean transport in supplying recruits of sardine...

  6. Ocean tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  7. Diagnostic value of progesterone receptor, p16, p53 and pHH3 expression in uterine atypical leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Xiaoduan; Lü, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between atypical leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma may be hard based on morphological criterion at times. It would be helpful to find out biomarkers that can be used to distinguish them. The aim of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of progesterone receptor (PR), p16, p53 and pHH3 expression in a series of uterine smooth muscle tumors. Immunohistochemical expression of PR, p16, p53 and pHH3 was investigated on 32 atypical leiomyomas, 15 leiomyosarcomas and 15 usual leomyomas. The difference in expression was compared between atypical leiomyoma and other groups. The expression of PR, p16, and pHH3 was found significantly different between atypical leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, but lack of significant difference between atypical leiomyomas and usual leiomyomas. There was no significant difference with regard to p53 distribution among these uterine smooth muscle tumors. High p16, pHH3 expression and low PR expression preferred the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. The panel of antibodies used in this study is a useful complementary analysis in the assessment of problematic uterine smooth muscle tumors.

  8. Sequential application of ligand and structure based modeling approaches to index chemicals for their hH4R antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pappalardo

    Full Text Available The human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R, a member of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR family, is an increasingly attractive drug target. It plays a key role in many cell pathways and many hH4R ligands are studied for the treatment of several inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, as well as for analgesic activity. Due to the challenging difficulties in the experimental elucidation of hH4R structure, virtual screening campaigns are normally run on homology based models. However, a wealth of information about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has also accumulated over the last few years and an appropriate combination of these ligand-based knowledge with structure-based molecular modeling studies emerges as a promising strategy for computer-assisted drug design. Here, two chemoinformatics techniques, the Intelligent Learning Engine (ILE and Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE approach, were used to index chemicals for their hH4R bioactivity. An application of the prediction model on external test set composed of more than 160 hH4R antagonists picked from the chEMBL database gave enrichment factor of 16.4. A virtual high throughput screening on ZINC database was carried out, picking ∼ 4000 chemicals highly indexed as H4R antagonists' candidates. Next, a series of 3D models of hH4R were generated by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations performed in fully atomistic lipid membranes. The efficacy of the hH4R 3D models in discrimination between actives and non-actives were checked and the 3D model with the best performance was chosen for further docking studies performed on the focused library. The output of these docking studies was a consensus library of 11 highly active scored drug candidates. Our findings suggest that a sequential combination of ligand-based chemoinformatics approaches with structure-based ones has the potential to improve the success rate in discovering new biologically active GPCR drugs and

  9. Sequential application of ligand and structure based modeling approaches to index chemicals for their hH4R antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Matteo; Shachaf, Nir; Basile, Livia; Milardi, Danilo; Zeidan, Mouhammed; Raiyn, Jamal; Guccione, Salvatore; Rayan, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The human histamine H4 receptor (hH4R), a member of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family, is an increasingly attractive drug target. It plays a key role in many cell pathways and many hH4R ligands are studied for the treatment of several inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune disorders, as well as for analgesic activity. Due to the challenging difficulties in the experimental elucidation of hH4R structure, virtual screening campaigns are normally run on homology based models. However, a wealth of information about the chemical properties of GPCR ligands has also accumulated over the last few years and an appropriate combination of these ligand-based knowledge with structure-based molecular modeling studies emerges as a promising strategy for computer-assisted drug design. Here, two chemoinformatics techniques, the Intelligent Learning Engine (ILE) and Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) approach, were used to index chemicals for their hH4R bioactivity. An application of the prediction model on external test set composed of more than 160 hH4R antagonists picked from the chEMBL database gave enrichment factor of 16.4. A virtual high throughput screening on ZINC database was carried out, picking ∼ 4000 chemicals highly indexed as H4R antagonists' candidates. Next, a series of 3D models of hH4R were generated by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations performed in fully atomistic lipid membranes. The efficacy of the hH4R 3D models in discrimination between actives and non-actives were checked and the 3D model with the best performance was chosen for further docking studies performed on the focused library. The output of these docking studies was a consensus library of 11 highly active scored drug candidates. Our findings suggest that a sequential combination of ligand-based chemoinformatics approaches with structure-based ones has the potential to improve the success rate in discovering new biologically active GPCR drugs and increase the

  10. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS from the North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 July 1989 to 31 July 1989 (NODC Accession 8900256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  11. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS from the North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 May 1989 to 31 May 1989 (NODC Accession 8900179)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  12. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON and other PLATFORMS from the North/South Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1991-11-01 to 1991-11-30 (NODC Accession 9100243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were...

  13. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS from the North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 01 December 1988 to 31 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8900007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from the OKEAN and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected by US...

  14. Efficient heterologous expression and secretion in Aspergillus oryzae of a llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment V(HH) against EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Aoki, Jun-ichi; Tabuchi, Soichiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-10-01

    We have constructed a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae that secretes a llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (V(HH)) that binds specifically to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a culture medium. A major improvement in yield was achieved by fusing the V(HH) with a Taka-amylase A signal sequence (sTAA) and a segment of 28 amino acids from the N-terminal region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (N28). The yields of secreted, immunologically active anti-EGFR V(HH) reached 73.8 mg/1 in a Sakaguchi flask. The V(HH) fragments were released from the sTAA or N28 proteins by an indigenous A. oryzae protease during cultivation. The purified recombinant V(HH) fragment was specifically recognized and could bind to the EGFR with a high affinity.

  15. CENTIMETER CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF THE NORTHERN HEAD OF THE HH 80/81/80N JET: REVISING THE ACTUAL DIMENSIONS OF A PARSEC-SCALE JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masque, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Beltran, Maria T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-10-10

    We present 6 and 20 cm Jansky Very Large Array/Very Large Array observations of the northern head of the HH 80/81/80N jet, one of the largest collimated jet systems known so far, aimed to look for knots farther than HH 80N, the northern head of the jet. Aligned with the jet and 10' northeast of HH 80N, we found a radio source not reported before, with a negative spectral index similar to that of HH 80, HH 81, and HH 80N. The fit of a precessing jet model to the knots of the HH 80/81/80N jet, including the new source, shows that the position of this source is close to the jet path resulting from the modeling. If the new source belongs to the HH 80/81/80N jet, its derived size and dynamical age are 18.4 pc and >9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr, respectively. If the jet is symmetric, its southern lobe would expand beyond the cloud edge resulting in an asymmetric appearance of the jet. Based on the updated dynamical age, we speculate on the possibility that the HH 80/81/80N jet triggered the star formation observed in a dense core found ahead of HH 80N, which shows signposts of interaction with the jet. These results indicate that parsec-scale radio jets can play a role in the stability of dense clumps and the regulation of star formation in the molecular cloud.

  16. Araxa Group in the type-area: A fragment of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust in the Brasilia Fold Belt; Grupo Araxa em sua area tipo: um fragmento de crosta oceanica Neoproterozoica na faixa de dobramentos Brasilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seer, Hildor Jose [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Araxa, (CEFET), MG (Brazil); Brod, Jose Affonso; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Dardenne, Marcel Auguste [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2001-09-01

    This study reviews the geological characteristics and puts forward a new evolution model for the Araxa Group in its type-area, the southern segment of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Araxa Group is confined within a thrust sheet belonging to a syn formal regional fold, the Araxa Syn form, overlying two other thrust sheets made of the Ibia and Canastra Groups. The Araxa Group is described as a tectono stratigraphic terrane in the sense of Howell (1993). It comprises an igneous mafic sequence, with fine and coarse grained amphibolites, associated with pelitic meta sedimentary rocks, and subordinate psanmites. All rocks were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies at ca. 630 Ma ago and were intruded by collisional granites. The amphibolites represent original basaltic and gabbroic rocks, with minor ultramafic (serpentinite/ amphibole-talc schist). The basalts are similar to high Fe O tholeiites, with REE signatures that resemble E-MORB and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} =+ 1.1. The meta sedimentary rocks are interpreted as the result of a marine deep-water sedimentation. They have Sm-Nd model ages of 1,9 Ga, and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} = -10.21. The amphibolites and metasediments could represent a fragment of back-arc oceanic crust. The data presented here differ significantly from the original definition of Barbosa et al. (1970) who describe the Araxa Group as a pelitic/psanmitic sequence and the collisional granites as a basement complex. (author)

  17. New cosmic rays experiments in the underground laboratory of IFIN-HH from Slanic Prahova, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Stanca, Denis; Brancus, Iliana; Margineanu, Romul; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Toma, Gabriel; Rebel, Heinigerd; Haungs, Andreas; Sima, Octavian; Gherghel-Lascu, Alexandru; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Mihai

    2015-02-01

    Since 2006 a modern laboratory has been developed by IFIN-HH in the underground of Slanic Prahova salt ore. This work presents a short review of previous scientific activities performed in the underground laboratory, in parallel with some plans for the future. A mobile detector for cosmic muon flux measurements has been set up at IFIN-HH, Romania. The device is used to measure the muon flux on different locations at the surface and underground and it consists of two detection layers, each one including four large scintillator plates. A new rotatable detector for measurements of the directional variation of the muon flux has been designed and it is presently under preliminary tests. Built from four layers of sensitive material and using for collecting the signals and directing them to the micro PMTs a new technique, through optical fibers instead wave length shifters, it allows an easy discrimination of the moun flux on the arrival directions of muons. Combining the possibility to rotate and the directionality properties, the underground muon detector is acting like a muon tomography device, being able to scan, using cosmic muons, the rock material above the detector. In parallel new detection system based on SiPM will be also installed in the following weeks. It should be composed by four layers, each layer consisting in 4 scintillator plates what we consider in the following as a module of detection. For this purpose, first two scintillator layers, with the optical fibers positioned on perpendicular directions are put in coincidence with other two layers, 1 m distance from the first two, with similar optical fiber arrangement, thus allowing reconstructing muon trajectory. It is intended also to design and construct an experimental device for the investigation of such radio antennas and the behavior of the signal in rock salt at the Slanic salt mine in Romania. Another method to detect high energy neutrinos is based on the detection of secondary particles resulting

  18. New cosmic rays experiments in the underground laboratory of IFIN-HH from Slanic Prahova, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Stanca, Denis; Brancus, Iliana; Margineanu, Romul; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Toma, Gabriel; Gherghel-Lascu, Alexandru; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Mihai [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, P.O.B. MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Rebel, Heinigerd; Haungs, Andreas [Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Campus North, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sima, Octavian [Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    Since 2006 a modern laboratory has been developed by IFIN-HH in the underground of Slanic Prahova salt ore. This work presents a short review of previous scientific activities performed in the underground laboratory, in parallel with some plans for the future. A mobile detector for cosmic muon flux measurements has been set up at IFIN-HH, Romania. The device is used to measure the muon flux on different locations at the surface and underground and it consists of two detection layers, each one including four large scintillator plates. A new rotatable detector for measurements of the directional variation of the muon flux has been designed and it is presently under preliminary tests. Built from four layers of sensitive material and using for collecting the signals and directing them to the micro PMTs a new technique, through optical fibers instead wave length shifters, it allows an easy discrimination of the moun flux on the arrival directions of muons. Combining the possibility to rotate and the directionality properties, the underground muon detector is acting like a muon tomography device, being able to scan, using cosmic muons, the rock material above the detector. In parallel new detection system based on SiPM will be also installed in the following weeks. It should be composed by four layers, each layer consisting in 4 scintillator plates what we consider in the following as a module of detection. For this purpose, first two scintillator layers, with the optical fibers positioned on perpendicular directions are put in coincidence with other two layers, 1 m distance from the first two, with similar optical fiber arrangement, thus allowing reconstructing muon trajectory. It is intended also to design and construct an experimental device for the investigation of such radio antennas and the behavior of the signal in rock salt at the Slanic salt mine in Romania. Another method to detect high energy neutrinos is based on the detection of secondary particles resulting

  19. NWS Marine Forecast Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWS Marine Forecast Areas

  20. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...... of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also reaffirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity....

  1. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  2. MULTI-COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF POSITION-VELOCITY CUBES OF THE HH 34 JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-González, A.; Esquivel, A.; Raga, A. C.; Cantó, J.; Curiel, S.; Riera, A.; Beck, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of Hα spectra of the HH 34 jet with two-dimensional spectral resolution. We carry out multi-Gaussian fits to the spatially resolved line profiles and derive maps of the intensity, radial velocity, and velocity width of each of the components. We find that close to the outflow source we have three components: a high (negative) radial velocity component with a well-collimated, jet-like morphology; an intermediate velocity component with a broader morphology; and a positive radial velocity component with a non-collimated morphology and large linewidth. We suggest that this positive velocity component is associated with jet emission scattered in stationary dust present in the circumstellar environment. Farther away from the outflow source, we find only two components (a high, negative radial velocity component, which has a narrower spatial distribution than an intermediate velocity component). The fitting procedure was carried out with the new AGA-V1 code, which is available online and is described in detail in this paper.

  3. Design and performance of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a FCC-hh experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborowska, A.

    2018-03-01

    The physics reach and feasibility of the Future Circular Collider are currently under investigation. The goal is to collide protons with centre-of-mass energies up to 100 TeV, extending the research carried out at the current HEP facilities. The detectors designed for the FCC experiments need to tackle harsh conditions of the unprecedented collision energy and luminosity. The baseline technology for the calorimeter system of the FCC-hh detector is described. The electromagnetic calorimeter in the barrel, as well as the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in the endcaps and the forward regions, are based on the liquid argon as active material. The detector layout in the barrel region combines the concept of a high granularity calorimeter with precise energy measurements. The calorimeters have to meet the requirements of high radiation hardness and must be able to deal with a very high number of collisions per bunch crossings (pile-up). A very good energy and angular resolution for a wide range of electrons' and photons' momentum is needed in order to meet the demands based on the physics benchmarks. First results of the performance studies with the new liquid argon calorimeter are presented, meeting the energy resolution goal.

  4. Vibrational inelastic and charge transfer processes in H++H2 system: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaran, Saieswari; Kumar, Sanjay

    2007-12-01

    State-resolved differential cross sections, total and integral cross sections, average vibrational energy transfer, and the relative probabilities are computed for the H++H2 system using the newly obtained ab initio potential energy surfaces at the full CI/cc-pVQZ level of accuracy which allow for both the direct vibrational inelastic and the charge transfer processes. The quantum dynamics is treated within the vibrational close-coupling infinite-order-sudden approximation approach using the two ab initio quasidiabatic potential energy surfaces. The computed collision attributes for both the processes are compared with the available state-to-state scattering experiments at Ec.m.=20eV. The results are in overall good agreement with most of the observed scattering features such as rainbow positions, integral cross sections, and relative vibrational energy transfers. A comparison with the earlier theoretical study carried out on the semiempirical surfaces (diatomics in molecules) is also made to illustrate the reliability of the potential energy surfaces used in the present work.

  5. RESOLVING THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AROUND THE MASSIVE PROTOSTAR DRIVING THE HH 80-81 JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Galvan-Madrid, Roberto [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); D' Alessio, Paola; Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Hofner, Peter [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Linz, Hendrik [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Araya, Esteban D., E-mail: carrasco@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We present new high angular resolution observations toward the driving source of the HH 80-81 jet (IRAS 18162-2048). Continuum emission was observed with the Very Large Array at 7 mm and 1.3 cm, and with the Submillimeter Array at 860 {mu}m, with angular resolutions of {approx}0.''1 and {approx}0.''8, respectively. Submillimeter observations of the sulfur oxide (SO) molecule are reported as well. At 1.3 cm the emission traces the well-known radio jet, while at 7 mm the continuum morphology is quadrupolar and seems to be produced by a combination of free-free and dust emission. An elongated structure perpendicular to the jet remains in the 7 mm image after subtraction of the free-free contribution. This structure is interpreted as a compact accretion disk of {approx}200 AU radius. Our interpretation is favored by the presence of rotation in our SO observations observed at larger scales. The observations presented here add to the small list of cases where the hundred-AU scale emission from a circumstellar disk around a massive protostar has been resolved.

  6. A new ion beam facility based on a 3 MV Tandetron™ at IFIN-HH, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burducea, I.; Straticiuc, M.; Ghiță, D. G.; Moșu, D. V.; Călinescu, C. I.; Podaru, N. C.; Mous, D. J. W.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    A 3 MV Tandetron™ accelerator system has been installed and commissioned at the "Horia Hulubei" National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH, Măgurele, Romania. The main purpose of this machine is to strengthen applied nuclear physics research ongoing in our institute for more than four decades. The accelerator system was developed by High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V. (HVE) and comprises three high energy beam lines. The first beam line is dedicated to ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry - RBS, Nuclear Reaction Analysis - NRA, Particle Induced X-ray and γ-ray Emission - PIXE and PIGE and micro-beam experiments - μ-PIXE. The second beam line is dedicated to high energy ion implantation experiments and the third beam line was designed mainly for nuclear cross-sections measurements used in nuclear astrophysics. A unique feature, the first time in operation at an accelerator facility is the Na charge exchange canal (CEC), which is used to obtain high intensity beams of He- of at least 3 μA. The results of the acceptance tests demonstrate the huge potential of this new facility in various fields, from IBA to radiation hardness studies and from medical or environmental applications to astrophysics. The main features of the accelerator are presented in this paper.

  7. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L

    2011-01-01

    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  9. Oceanic Sub-Moho Reflectors in and Around the Segmentation Boundary Between the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquake Area, the Central Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ito, A.; Sato, T.; Park, J.; Obana, K.; Kaneda, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The Nankai Trough is a unique subduction zone because the recurrence intervals of M8 class earthquakes and the segmentation of rupture zones are well documented on the basis of geophysical, geological and historic data. In 2004, large intraslab earthquake (Mw7.5) occurred southeast off the Kii Peninsula, the central Nankai Trough. Recent ocean bottom seismograph observation off the Kii Peninsula shows seismicity concentrated in the oceanic crust and the uppermost mantle. To understand the genesis of such intraslab earthquakes and its relation to large interplate earthquakes as well as to obtain an entire structural image of Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, a wide-angle reflection/refraction survey across the coseismic rupture zone of the Tonankai earthquake was conducted in 2004. This research is part of "Structure research on plate dynamics of the presumed rupture zone of the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The result of structural image shows a bit thicker oceanic crust (>8km) subducting landward, and the existence of oceanic sub-Moho reflectors in the uppermost mantle. The aftershocks of the 2004 off Kii Peninsula earthquake are distributed within the oceanic crust and the uppermantle, which is not consistent with the estimated fault plane of main shock. Comparing the structural image with this aftershock distribution and usual seismicity in the uppermost mantle, the depth of the oceanic sub-Moho reflectors and the intraslab events within the uppermantle are both distributed around 20km. We consider that such sub-Moho reflectors may become a seismic fault of intraslab earthquakes.

  10. Assessing the living and dead proportions of cold-water coral colonies: implications for deep-water Marine Protected Area monitoring in a changing ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Vad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coral growth patterns result from an interplay of coral biology and environmental conditions. In this study colony size and proportion of live and dead skeletons in the cold-water coral (CWC Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758 were measured using video footage from Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV transects conducted at the inshore Mingulay Reef Complex (MRC and at the offshore PISCES site (Rockall Bank in the NE Atlantic. The main goal of this paper was to explore the development of a simple method to quantify coral growth and its potential application as an assessment tool of the health of these remote habitats. Eighteen colonies were selected and whole colony and dead/living layer size were measured. Live to dead layer ratios for each colony were then determined and analysed. The age of each colony was estimated using previously published data. Our paper shows that: (1 two distinct morphotypes can be described: at the MRC, colonies displayed a ‘cauliflower-shaped’ morphotype whereas at the PISCES site, colonies presented a more flattened ‘bush-shaped’ morphotype; (2 living layer size was positively correlated with whole colony size; (3 live to dead layer ratio was negatively correlated to whole colony size; (4 live to dead layer ratio never exceeded 0.27. These results suggest that as a colony develops and its growth rate slows down, the proportion of living polyps in the colony decreases. Furthermore, at least 73% of L. pertusa colonies are composed of exposed dead coral skeleton, vulnerable to ocean acidification and the associated shallowing of the aragonite saturation horizon, with significant implications for future deep-sea reef framework integrity. The clear visual contrast between white/pale living and grey/dark dead portions of the colonies also gives a new way by which they can be visually monitored over time. The increased use of marine autonomous survey vehicles offers an important new platform from which such a surveying

  11. Speciation in the aqueous H+/H2VO4-/H2O2/citrate system of biomedical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzsás, András; Getty, Kendra; Andersson, Ingegärd; Pettersson, Lage

    2004-09-21

    The speciation in the quaternary aqueous H+/H2VO4-/H2O2/citrate (Cit3-) and H+/H2VO4-/Cit3-/L-(+)-lactate (Lac-) systems has been determined at 25 degrees C in the physiological medium of 0.150 M Na(Cl). A combination of 51V NMR integral intensities and chemical shift (Bruker AMX500) as well as potentiometric data (glass electrode) have been collected and evaluated with the computer program LAKE, which is able to treat multimethod data simultaneously. The pKa-values for citric acid have been determined as 2.94, 4.34 and 5.61. Altogether six vanadate-citrate species have been found in the ternary H+/H2VO4-/Cit3- system in the pH region 2-10, only two of which are mononuclear. Reduction of vanadium(V) becomes more pronounced at pH acidic solutions limited the final model to pH > 4. In the quaternary H+/H2VO4-/Cit3-/Lac- system, two mixed-ligand species have been determined, with the compositions V2CitLac2- and V2CitLac3- (pKa = 5.0). To our knowledge, this is the first time such complexes have been reported for vanadium(V). 51V NMR chemical shifts, compositions and formation constants are given, and equilibrium conditions are illustrated in distribution diagrams as well as the fit of the model to the experimental data. When suitable, structural proposals are given, based on 13C NMR measurements and available literature data of related compounds.

  12. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB, HhH, and BRCT domains of Escherichia coli DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kai; Nair, Pravin A; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-08-22

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigAs) are ubiquitous in bacteria and essential for growth. LigA enzymes have a modular structure in which a central catalytic core composed of nucleotidyltransferase and oligonucleotide-binding (OB) domains is linked via a tetracysteine zinc finger to distal helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) and BRCT (BRCA1-like C-terminal) domains. The OB and HhH domains contribute prominently to the protein clamp formed by LigA around nicked duplex DNA. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the OB and HhH domains of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions, entailing 43 mutations at 22 amino acids. We thereby identified essential functional groups in the OB domain that engage the DNA phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(333)); penetrate the minor grove and distort the nick (Val(383) and Ile(384)); or stabilize the OB fold (Arg(379)). The essential constituents of the HhH domain include: four glycines (Gly(455), Gly(489), Gly(521), Gly(553)), which bind the phosphate backbone across the minor groove at the outer margins of the LigA-DNA interface; Arg(487), which penetrates the minor groove at the outer margin on the 3 (R)-OH side of the nick; and Arg(446), which promotes protein clamp formation via contacts to the nucleotidyltransferase domain. We find that the BRCT domain is required in its entirety for effective nick sealing and AMP-dependent supercoil relaxation.

  13. INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF NITROGEN-BEARING MOLECULAR SPECIES IN THE STAR-FORMING CORE AHEAD OF HH 80N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5 - parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Beltrán, Maria T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-10-10

    We present Very Large Array NH{sub 3} and Plateau de Bure Interferometer NH{sub 2}D and HN{sup 13}C observations of the star-forming core ahead of HH 80N, the optically obscured northern counterpart of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 80/81. The main goal is to determine the kinematical information of the high density regions of the core (n ∼> 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) missed in previous works due to the depletion of the species observed (e.g., CS). The obtained maps show different kinematical signatures between the eastern and western parts of the core, suggesting a possible dynamical interaction of the core with the HH 80/81/80N outflow. The analysis of the position-velocity (P-V) plots of these species rules out a previous interpretation of having a molecular ring-like structure with a radius of 6 × 10{sup 4} AU traced by CS infalling onto a central protostar found in the core (IRS1). A high degree of NH{sub 3} deuteration, with respect to the central part of the core harboring IRS1, is derived in the eastern part, where a dust condensation (SE) is located. This deuteration trend of NH{sub 3} suggests that SE is in a pre-stellar evolutionary stage, earlier than that of IRS1. Since SE is the closest condensation to the HH 80N/81/80N outflow, in a case of outflow-core dynamical interaction, it should be perturbed first and be the most evolved condensation in the core. Therefore, the derived evolutionary sequence for SE and IRS1 makes outflow triggered star formation on IRS1 unlikely.

  14. Predictive habitat modelling as a tool to assess the change in distribution and extent of an OSPAR priority habitat under an increased ocean temperature scenario: consequences for marine protected area networks and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Kate S G; Porter, Joanne S; Bell, Michael C; Hull, Angela D; Sanderson, William G

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in "future-proofing" conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer). The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC) was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as 'good' to 'excellent' on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of "most suitable", "less suitable" and "unsuitable" habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009) and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100). A loss of 100% of "most suitable" habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible "conservation management tool".

  15. Predictive habitat modelling as a tool to assess the change in distribution and extent of an OSPAR priority habitat under an increased ocean temperature scenario: consequences for marine protected area networks and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S G Gormley

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in "future-proofing" conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer. The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as 'good' to 'excellent' on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of "most suitable", "less suitable" and "unsuitable" habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009 and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100. A loss of 100% of "most suitable" habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible "conservation management tool".

  16. Design of an Automated System for Synthesis of [18 F] FDG for PET Investigation at IFIN-HH Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, Liviu Stefan; Cimpeanu, Catalina; Constantinescu, Olimpiu; Dudu, Dorin; Ionescu, Cristina; Negoita, Nicolae; Racolta, Petru Mihai; Rusen, Ion

    2009-01-01

    A novel apparatus constructed at IFIN-HH is described for automated synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 18 F for use in positron emission tomography (PET) investigations. [18 F] fluoride was produced at the IFIN-HH cyclotron by irradiation of H 2 O enriched 97% in 18 O with 13 MeV deuterons, or 8 MeV protons. The irradiated H 2 O was transferred (injected) into the radiochemical fully-automated processing systems which ensured the separation of 18 F from H 2 O, the labeling with 18 F, and finally purified by filtration with selective absorbants. The system is easy to operate and contains a programmable logical controller that manages the entire operation program stored in its internal memory. The computer is used to assist the operator during the different steps of synthesis and to allow visualization of the process and printing the report. The device was used for used for the production of 2-[18 F] FLUORO-2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE at the IFIN-HH cyclotron, one of the most used radiopharmaceutical in PET investigations. The synthesis module is configured so that is flexible enough to accomplish other nucleophile reactions of labeling with short lived radioisotopes.

  17. Design of an Automated System for Synthesis of [18 F] FDG for PET Investigation at IFIN-HH Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Liviu Stefan; Cimpeanu, Catalina; Constantinescu, Olimpiu; Dudu, Dorin; Ionescu, Cristina; Negoita, Nicolae; Racolta, Petru Mihai; Rusen, Ion

    2009-03-01

    A novel apparatus constructed at IFIN-HH is described for automated synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 18F for use in positron emission tomography (PET) investigations. [18 F] fluoride was produced at the IFIN-HH cyclotron by irradiation of H2O enriched 97% in 18O with 13 MeV deuterons, or 8 MeV protons. The irradiated H2O was transferred (injected) into the radiochemical fully-automated processing systems which ensured the separation of 18F from H2O, the labeling with 18F, and finally purified by filtration with selective absorbants. The system is easy to operate and contains a programmable logical controller that manages the entire operation program stored in its internal memory. The computer is used to assist the operator during the different steps of synthesis and to allow visualization of the process and printing the report. The device was used for used for the production of 2-[18 F] FLUORO-2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE at the IFIN-HH cyclotron, one of the most used radiopharmaceutical in PET investigations. The synthesis module is configured so that is flexible enough to accomplish other nucleophile reactions of labeling with short lived radioisotopes.

  18. Formation and Atmosphere of Complex Organic Molecules of the HH 212 Protostellar Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hirano, Naomi; Shang, Hsien [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou, E-mail: cflee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    HH 212 is a nearby (400 pc) Class 0 protostellar system recently found to host a “hamburger”-shaped dusty disk with a radius of ∼60 au, deeply embedded in an infalling-rotating flattened envelope. We have spatially resolved this envelope-disk system with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at up to ∼16 au (0.″04) resolution. The envelope is detected in HCO{sup +} J = 4–3 down to the dusty disk. Complex organic molecules (COMs) and doubly deuterated formaldehyde (D{sub 2}CO) are detected above and below the dusty disk within ∼40 au of the central protostar. The COMs are methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), deuterated methanol (CH{sub 2}DOH), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and formamide (NH{sub 2}CHO, a prebiotic precursor). We have modeled the gas kinematics in HCO{sup +} and COMs and found a centrifugal barrier (CB) at a radius of ∼44 au, within which a Keplerian rotating disk is formed. This indicates that HCO{sup +} traces the infalling-rotating envelope down to the CB and COMs trace the atmosphere of a Keplerian rotating disk within the CB. The COMs are spatially resolved for the first time, both radially and vertically, in the atmosphere of a disk in the earliest, Class 0 phase of star formation. Our spatially resolved observations of COMs favor their formation in the disk rather than a rapidly infalling (warm) inner envelope. The abundances and spatial distributions of the COMs provide strong constraints on models of their formation and transport in low-mass star formation.

  19. A dedicated beam line for Rutherford backscattering analysis at IFIN-HH cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E. A.; Dudu, D.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Vata, I.

    2003-01-01

    Rutherford back-scattering technique (RBS) is an analytical tool that uses elastic scattering of 1-5 MeV charged particles for analysis of the surface and the outer few micrometers of solids. IFIN-HH RBS system consists of the U-120 Cyclotron, a dedicated beam line and a scattering chamber with sample manipulators and particle detectors. In our RBS system the samples are bombarded with 2-5 alpha particles accelerated by U-120 Cyclotron (in 3-rd subharmonic regime) while the scattered particles are detected by a surface barrier detector. The signal from the detector is processed by common nuclear electronics and the particle energy spectra are stored in a computer based multichannel analyser. The data evaluation is accomplished using standard procedures and computer codes. The necessary vacuum inside chamber is obtained with an oil-free turbo pump. The beam spot dimension on the target is 1x1 mm. The standard measurement are done at Θ = 165 angle. The samples are electrically insulated and can be rotated around a vertical axis. The advantage of the RBS technique lies in the quantitative analysis of major and minor constituents lying in the first 0.5 to 2.0 micrometers of a material. Depending on the sample structure and composition, the detection limits vary from 10 11 to 10 15 at. cm -2 for heavy and light elements, respectively. The depth distribution of constituents can be reconstructed with a depth resolution of 10-20 nm. The RBS technique is non-destructive since the erosion and the radiation degradation of the sample material by the particle impact is negligible. The most extensive use of the RBS technique is in the field of electronic and optical materials, special coatings and in the study of various physico-chemical processes on the solid surfaces. (authors)

  20. Status and Perspectives for a Slow Positron Beam Facility at the HH-NIPNE Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straticiuc, Mihai; Craciun, Liviu Stefan; Constantinescu, Olimpiu; Ghita, Ionica Alina; Ionescu, Cristina; Racolta, Petru Mihai; Vasilescu, Angela; Braic, Viorel; Zoita, Catalin; Kiss, Adrian; Bojin, Dionezie

    2009-03-01

    The development of a positron annihilation spectroscopy laboratory at the HH-NIPNE Bucharest-to be used for material studies and applications was started in the last 10 years. In the framework of a national research project extended over the last 3 years, was designed a low energy positron accelerator, as a high-vacuum dedicated beam line with two options: a 25 mCi 22NaCl source and in line with the NIPNE-cyclotron or a new intense compact cyclotron. The construction of the beam line was planned as a sequence of modules: source- moderator system; magnetical filter for fast positrons in order to select the positrons energies in the range 0.8-1 keV; a modular system for focusing, transport and acceleration of monoenergetic positrons in the energy range 0.8-50 keV and a CDBS analysis chamber. The moderator proposed-is tungsten as a foil of about 3 μm prepared at the Optoelectronics Institute were put into a thermal treatment vacuum chamber and bombarded with electrons from a 100 W electron gun After the treatment, they were tested for changes of elemental composition of the surface and structure at the Polytechnic University. The structure tests were performed on a DRON 3 M diffractometer, with a Co tube (λKα = 1.7903 A)-the angular regions studied were around 34° (1 0 0) and 69° (2 0 0). In the present time, the trajectories of the positron are going to be simulated with dedicated software (an ion and electron optics simulator). For the coincidence measurements (CDBS) set-up we used a home-made 22NaCl source, by separation without carrier from a metallic Mg target irradiated with 12 MeV protons and separated by columnar cation exchange. A home- made biparametric system for CDBS measurements will be reported, also.

  1. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  2. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  3. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  4. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  5. Pressure Profile in the experimental area of FCC-hh and FCC-ee calculated by an analytical code

    CERN Multimedia

    Aichinger, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Ultra high vacuum in the beam pipe is a basic requirement for the Future Circular Colliders (FCC). The dimension of the FCC and the high energy of the particles will make this requirement challenging. Simulations that predict the vacuum quality due to material and beam induced effects will allow to evaluate different designs and to choose an optimal solution. The mathematical model behind the simulations will be shown. Four coupled differential equations describe the mass conservation of the residual gas particles in the beam pipe. The sinks include all kind of distributed and local pumping. The sources are caused by synchrotron radiation, electron clouds, thermal outgassing and ion-induced desorption. The equation system is solved by an analytical method. This requires a transformation to first order equations for which a general valid solution exists. Adding a particular solution and the inclusion of appropriate boundary conditions define the solution function. The big advantage here is that an analytical...

  6. Seven year satellite observations of the mean structures and variabilities in the regional aerosol distribution over the oceanic areas around the Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nair

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol distribution over the oceanic regions around the Indian subcontinent and its seasonal and interannual variabilities are studied using the aerosol optical depth (AOD derived from NOAA-14 and NOAA-16 AVHRR data for the period of November 1995–December 2003. The air-mass types over this region during the Asian summer monsoon season (June–September are significantly different from those during the Asian dry season (November–April. Hence, the aerosol loading and its properties over these oceanic regions are also distinctly different in these two periods. During the Asian dry season, the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal are dominated by the transport of aerosols from Northern Hemispheric landmasses, mainly the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Arabia. This aerosol transport is rather weak in the early part of the dry season (November–January compared to that in the later period (February–April. Large-scale transport of mineral dust from Arabia and the production of sea-salt aerosols, due to high surface wind speeds, contribute to the high aerosol loading over the Arabian Sea region during the summer monsoon season. As a result, the monthly mean AOD over the Arabian Sea shows a clear annual cycle with the highest values occurring in July. The AOD over the Bay of Bengal and the Southern Hemisphere Indian Ocean also displays an annual cycle with maxima during March and October, respectively. The amplitude of the annual variation is the largest in coastal Arabia and the least in the Southern Hemisphere Indian Ocean. The interannual variability in AOD is the largest over the Southeast Arabian Sea (seasonal mean AOD varies from 0.19 to 0.42 and the northern Bay of Bengal (seasonal mean AOD varies from 0.24 to 0.39 during the February–April period and is the least over the Southern Hemisphere Indian Ocean. This study also investigates the altitude regions and pathways of dominant aerosol transport by combining the AOD distribution with

  7. The Ocean: Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  8. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  9. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  10. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  11. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  12. Ocean Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  13. Bringing an Ocean to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Mark W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a school program in which two sixth-grade science classes researched, created, and put together an ocean museum targeted at kindergarten through eighth graders who are geographically distanced from the ocean. Details the process for investigating topical areas, organizing teams of students, researching, writing, creating displays, and…

  14. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  15. Nutrients and temperature profile data from XBT and CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and other Sea areas by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), from 06 January 2000 to 08 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using XBT and CTD casts from the R/V MIRAI in the North/South Pacific Ocean and other Sea areas from 06 January...

  16. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

    2009-08-15

    often not well known or are completely unknown, a strategic workshop was organised by the ESF Standing Committee for Life, Earth and Environmental Sciences (LESC) in cooperation with the ESF EUROCORES Programme EuroCLIMATE. The aim was to address the issue of the impacts of ocean acidification on both the natural and socioeconomic systems, and to identify the gaps of knowledge in this field. The present Science Policy Briefing resulting from this strategic workshop has undergone external international peer review and has been approved by both the Marine Board-ESF and LESC. The ESF considers this Science Policy Briefing on the Impacts of Ocean Acidification an important step towards raising awareness amongst a wide range of research actors, policy makers and funding agencies. Taking into account the range of priorities and key areas of research requiring action at the pan-European level, a series of recommendations for European actions have been drawn up under the following five headings: (i) increase understanding and improve quantification of the organismal and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification; (ii) include the human dimension by increasing collaboration and integration efforts between natural and social sciences; (iii) rationalise, improve and focus monitoring and data gathering, management, processing and accessibility efforts; (iv) increase dissemination, outreach and capacity-building efforts, in particular related to communicating ocean acidification to stakeholders (policy makers, research founders, public, media, etc.); and (v) improve coordination of ocean acidification research and collaboration both at the national and international levels

  17. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1984-04-16 to 1985-10-01 (NODC Accession 8700147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from April 16, 1984 to October 1, 1985. Data were...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1987-05-01 to 1987-05-05 (NODC Accession 9000211)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 01 May 1987 to 06 August 1988. Data were submitted...

  19. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  20. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  1. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph E; Körtzinger, Arne; Gruber, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O2 in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean 02 changes.

  2. Surface drift prediction in the Adriatic Sea using hyper-ensemble statistics on atmospheric, ocean and wave models: Uncertainties and probability distribution areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixen, M.; Ferreira-Coelho, E.; Signell, R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous and regular improvements in underlying models, surface drift prediction in the ocean remains a challenging task because of our yet limited understanding of all processes involved. Hence, deterministic approaches to the problem are often limited by empirical assumptions on underlying physics. Multi-model hyper-ensemble forecasts, which exploit the power of an optimal local combination of available information including ocean, atmospheric and wave models, may show superior forecasting skills when compared to individual models because they allow for local correction and/or bias removal. In this work, we explore in greater detail the potential and limitations of the hyper-ensemble method in the Adriatic Sea, using a comprehensive surface drifter database. The performance of the hyper-ensembles and the individual models are discussed by analyzing associated uncertainties and probability distribution maps. Results suggest that the stochastic method may reduce position errors significantly for 12 to 72??h forecasts and hence compete with pure deterministic approaches. ?? 2007 NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC).

  3. The ocean planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    The Blue Planet is 70% water, and all but 3% of it is salt water. Life on earth first evolved in the primordial soup of ancient seas, and though today's seas provide 99% of all living space on the planet, little is known about the world's oceans. However, the fact that the greatest threats to the integrity of our oceans come from land-based activities is becoming clear. Humankind is in the process of annihilating the coastal and ocean ecosystems and the wealth of biodiversity they harbor. Mounting population and development pressures have taken a grim toll on coastal and ocean resources. The trend arising from such growth is the chronic overexploitation of marine resources, whereby rapidly expanding coastal populations and the growth of cities have contributed to a rising tide of pollution in nearly all of the world's seas. This crisis is made worse by government inaction and a frustrating inability to enforce existing coastal and ocean management regulations. Such inability is mainly because concerned areas contain so many different types of regulations and involve so many levels of government, that rational planning and coordination of efforts are rendered impossible. Concerted efforts are needed by national governments and the international community to start preserving the ultimate source of all life on earth.

  4. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  5. Response of benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods index to different perturbations in coastal oligotrophic areas (Canary archipelago, North East Atlantic Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Oligotrophic areas harbour low macrofaunal abundance and patchy distribution. In these areas it is necessary to test the reliability of biological indicators, especially those based on taxonomic sufficiency where the level of identification is balanced against the need for ecological information and could affect the efficiency of bioindicators. The BOPA (benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods) index was applied in five coastal areas subjected to different perturbations (aquaculture, ...

  6. Proceedings of oceans '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Oceans '91 Conference. Topics addressed include: ocean energy conversion, marine communications and navigation, ocean wave energy conversion, environmental modeling, global climate change, ocean minerals technology, oil spill technology, and submersible vehicles

  7. 33 CFR 334.1050 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Military Ocean Terminal, Bay Area, Pier No. 8 (Port of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1050 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to... at 50 FR 42696, Oct. 22, 1985; 51 FR 25198, July 11, 1986, as amended at 62 FR 17557, Apr. 10, 1997] ...

  8. Congruence between distribution modelling and phylogeographical analyses reveals Quaternary survival of a toadflax species (Linaria elegans) in oceanic climate areas of a mountain ring range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    · The role of Quaternary climatic shifts in shaping the distribution of Linaria elegans, an Iberian annual plant, was investigated using species distribution modelling and molecular phylogeographical analyses. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain the Quaternary history of its mountain ring range. · The distribution of L. elegans was modelled using the maximum entropy method and projected to the last interglacial and to the last glacial maximum (LGM) using two different paleoclimatic models: the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC). Two nuclear and three plastid DNA regions were sequenced for 24 populations (119 individuals sampled). Bayesian phylogenetic, phylogeographical, dating and coalescent-based population genetic analyses were conducted. · Molecular analyses indicated the existence of northern and southern glacial refugia and supported two routes of post-glacial recolonization. These results were consistent with the LGM distribution as inferred under the CCSM paleoclimatic model (but not under the MIROC model). Isolation between two major refugia was dated back to the Riss or Mindel glaciations, > 100 kyr before present (bp). · The Atlantic distribution of inferred refugia suggests that the oceanic (buffered)-continental (harsh) gradient may have played a key and previously unrecognized role in determining Quaternary distribution shifts of Mediterranean plants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. 4D display of the outflow track of embryonic-chick hearts (HH 14-19) using a high speed streak mode OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siyu; Wang, Rui; Goodwin, Richard L.; Markwald, Roger R.; Borg, Thomas K.; Runyan, Raymond B.; Gao, Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common congenital malformation in newborns in the US. Although knowledge of CHD is limited, altered hemodynamic conditions are suspected as the factor that stimulates cardiovascular cell response, resulting in the heart morphology remodeling that ultimately causes CHDs. Therefore, one of recent efforts in CHD study is to develop high-speed imaging tools to correlate the rapidly changing hemodynamic condition and the morphological adaptations of an embryonic heart in vivo. We have developed a high-speed streak mode OCT that works at the center wavelength of 830 nm and is capable of providing images (292x220 μm2) of the outflow tract of an embryonic chick heart at the rate of 1000 Hz. The modality can provide a voxel resolution in the range of 10 μm3, and the spectral resolution allows a depth range of 1.63 mm. In the study reported here, each of the 4D images of an outflow tract was recorded for 2 seconds. The recording was conducted every 2 hours (HH17 to HH18), 3 hours (HH14 to HH17), and 4 hours (HH18 to HH19). Because of the fast scan speed, there is no need for postacquisition processing such as use of gating techniques to provide a fine 3D structure. In addition, more details of the outflow tract are preserved in the recorded images. The 4D images can be used in the future to determine the role of blood flow in CHD development.

  10. Operational Ocean Modelling with the Harvard Ocean Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV2008 A417 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) dr. F.P.A. Lam dr. ir. M.W. Schouten dr. L.A. te Raa...area of theory and implementation of numerical schemes and parameterizations, ocean models have grown from experimental tools to full-blown ocean...sound propagation through mesoscale features using 3-D coupled mode theory , Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA. 1992. [9] Robinson

  11. Search for lepton-flavor and lepton-number-violating τ→ℓhh{sup ′} decay modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Hayasaka, K., E-mail: hayasaka@hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Asner, D.M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Aulchenko, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS and Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Aushev, T. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bakich, A.M. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bay, A. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bhardwaj, V. [Nara Women' s University, Nara (Japan); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati (India); Bischofberger, M. [Nara Women' s University, Nara (Japan); Bozek, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Bračko, M. [University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Browder, T.E. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Chang, M.-C. [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, A. [National Central University, Chung-li, Taiwan (China); Chen, P. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheon, B.G. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chistov, R. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-02-26

    We search for lepton-flavor and lepton-number-violating τ decays into a lepton (ℓ= electron or muon) and two charged mesons (h,h{sup ′}=π{sup ±} or K{sup ±}) using 854 fb{sup −1} of data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup −} collider. We obtain 90% confidence level upper limits on the τ→ℓhh{sup ′} branching fractions in the range (2.0–8.4)×10{sup −8}. These results improve upon our previously published upper limits by factors of about 1.8 on average.

  12. A ROTATING MOLECULAR DISK TOWARD IRAS 18162-2048, THE EXCITING SOURCE OF HH 80-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, M.; Curiel, S.; Girart, J. M.; Gomez, Y.; Ho, P. T. P.; Patel, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present several molecular line emission arcsecond and subarcsecond observations obtained with the Submillimeter Array in the direction of the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048, the exciting source of HH 80-81. The data clearly indicate the presence of a compact (radius ∼425-850 AU) SO 2 structure, enveloping the more compact (radius ∼ sun . The SO 2 spectral line data also allow us to constrain the structure temperature between 120 and 160 K and the volume density ∼> 2 x 10 9 cm -3 . We also find that such a rotating flattened system could be unstable due to gravitational disturbances. The data from C 17 O line emission show a dense core within this star-forming region. Additionally, the H 2 CO and SO emissions appear clumpy and trace the disk-like structure, a possible interaction between a molecular core and the outflows, and in part, the cavity walls excavated by the thermal radio jet.

  13. Cellulose-dependent expression and antibacterial characteristics of surfactin from Bacillus subtilis HH2 isolated from the giant panda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhijun; Su, Huaiyi; Li, Jin; Li, Haozhou; Feng, Fan; Lan, Jingchao; Zhang, Zhihe; Fu, Hualin; Hu, Yanchun; Cao, Suizhong; Chen, Weigang; Deng, Jiabo; Yu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Wenping

    2018-01-01

    Surfactin secreted by Bacillus subtilis can confer strong, diverse antipathogenic effects, thereby benefitting the host. Carbon source is an important factor for surfactin production. However, the mechanism that bacteria utilize cellulose, the most abundant substance in the intestines of herbivores, to produce surfactin remains unclear. Here, we used B. subtilis HH2, isolated from the feces of a giant panda, as a model to determine changes in surfactin expression in the presence of different concentrations of cellulose by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography. We further investigated the antimicrobial effects of surfactin against three common intestinal pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica) and its resistance to high temperature (60–121°C), pH (1–12), trypsin (100–300 μg/mL, pH 8), and pepsin (100–300 μg/mL, pH 2). The results showed that the surfactin expressed lowest in bacteria cultured in the presence of 1% glucose medium as the carbon source, whereas increased in an appropriate cellulose concentration (0.67% glucose and 0.33% cellulose). The surfactin could inhibit E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but did not affect efficiently for Salmonella enterica. The antibacterial ability of surfactin did not differ according to temperature (60–100°C), pH (2–11), trypsin (100–300 μg/mL), and pepsin (100–300 μg/mL; P > 0.05), but decreased significantly at extreme environments (121°C, pH 1 or 12; P < 0.05) compared with that in the control group (37°C, pH = 7, without any protease). In conclusion, our findings indicated that B. subtilis HH2 could increase surfactin expression in an appropriate cellulose environment and thus provide benefits to improve the intestinal health of herbivores. PMID:29385201

  14. Cellulose-dependent expression and antibacterial characteristics of surfactin from Bacillus subtilis HH2 isolated from the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyao Zhou

    Full Text Available Surfactin secreted by Bacillus subtilis can confer strong, diverse antipathogenic effects, thereby benefitting the host. Carbon source is an important factor for surfactin production. However, the mechanism that bacteria utilize cellulose, the most abundant substance in the intestines of herbivores, to produce surfactin remains unclear. Here, we used B. subtilis HH2, isolated from the feces of a giant panda, as a model to determine changes in surfactin expression in the presence of different concentrations of cellulose by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography. We further investigated the antimicrobial effects of surfactin against three common intestinal pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica and its resistance to high temperature (60-121°C, pH (1-12, trypsin (100-300 μg/mL, pH 8, and pepsin (100-300 μg/mL, pH 2. The results showed that the surfactin expressed lowest in bacteria cultured in the presence of 1% glucose medium as the carbon source, whereas increased in an appropriate cellulose concentration (0.67% glucose and 0.33% cellulose. The surfactin could inhibit E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but did not affect efficiently for Salmonella enterica. The antibacterial ability of surfactin did not differ according to temperature (60-100°C, pH (2-11, trypsin (100-300 μg/mL, and pepsin (100-300 μg/mL; P > 0.05, but decreased significantly at extreme environments (121°C, pH 1 or 12; P < 0.05 compared with that in the control group (37°C, pH = 7, without any protease. In conclusion, our findings indicated that B. subtilis HH2 could increase surfactin expression in an appropriate cellulose environment and thus provide benefits to improve the intestinal health of herbivores.

  15. Temperature profile and other data from XIANG YANG HONG 14 in the TOGA Area of the Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from 09 January 1986 to 09 February 1986 (NODC Accession 8800114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data in this accession was collected using XIANG YANG HONG 14 ship. Barometric pressure and other data were collected from Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere...

  16. Characterization of environmental radioactivity in the influence zone of IFIN-HH Bucharest, Magurele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlea, C.; Garlea, I.; Kelerman, C.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of 40 years of nuclear related activities on the Bucharest Magurele site, the environment surrounding the area of the institute was significantly influenced. The main facilities acting as sources of radioactive pollution are inter alia the VVR-S research reactor, the U-120 cyclotron, the radioisotope production centre, the radioactive waste treatment plant, and spent fuel storage facility. In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project entitled 'Site characterization techniques used in environmental restoration activities', under research contract No.8735, methods for the characterization of radioactive contamination in the institute influence zone have been developed. The attention focused on the routes involved in radioactive waste and spent fuel management. Based on the environmental monitoring programme developed for the nuclear units on the site, the monitoring network was improved in area Reactor - Spent Fuel Storage - RWTP - railway station for shipping the drums to the national repository Baita-Bihor, an area with elevated radiological risks. Additionally, the work has been extended to the temporary radioactive waste storage at the former Magurele military fort, which is now partially decommissioned. The paper presents techniques, methods and instrumentation used for the radiological characterization of the site Magurele and its influence area, during the period of 1995 - 1999, as well as the respective quality assurance (QA) procedures. The results of this radiological survey presented here will be used to define the environmental restoration programme of the zone. In addition the system for the information of the public developed in this project is discussed. (author)

  17. Resonant Higgs boson pair production in the $hh\\rightarrow b\\bar{b} \\; WW \\rightarrow b\\bar{b} \\ell^+ \

    CERN Document Server

    Martín Lozano, Víctor; Park, Chan Beom

    2015-01-01

    Adding a scalar singlet provides one of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model. In this work we briefly review the latest constraints on the mass and mixing of the new Higgs boson and study its production and decay at the LHC. We mainly focus on double Higgs production in the $hh \\rightarrow b \\bar{b} WW \\rightarrow b \\bar{b} \\ell^+ \

  18. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (V-HH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, van den N.; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5'- or 3'-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment V-HH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which

  19. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship OREGON II and other PLATFORMS from the North Atlantic Ocean and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1992-01-01 to 1992-01-31 (NODC Accession 9200041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship OREGON II and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were collected...

  20. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Vasco [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: vbranco@ipimar.pt; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), Avenida de Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Miguel Neves dos [National Institute for Agronomy and Fisheries Research (INIAP/IPIMAR), South Regional Center for Fisheries Research (IPIMAR/CRIPSul), Avenida 5 de Outubro s/n, 8700-305 Olhao (Portugal)

    2007-12-15

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1}) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs.

  1. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Vasco; Vale, Carlos; Canario, Joao; Santos, Miguel Neves dos

    2007-01-01

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5 μg g -1 ; swordfish: 0.031-9.8 μg g -1 ) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liaisons. - Mercury levels differ in Azores and Equator, and detoxification by selenium occurs

  2. Planet Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  3. ONR Ocean Wave Dynamics Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    In anticipation of the start (in Fiscal Year 1988) of a new Office of Naval Research (ONR) Accelerated Research Initiative (ARI) on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics, a workshop was held August 5-7, 1986, at Woods Hole, Mass., to discuss new ideas and directions of research. This new ARI on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics is a 5-year effort that is organized by the ONR Physical Oceanography Program in cooperation with the ONR Fluid Mechanics Program and the Physical Oceanography Branch at the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA). The central theme is improvement of our understanding of the basic physics and dynamics of surface wave phenomena, with emphasis on the following areas: precise air-sea coupling mechanisms,dynamics of nonlinear wave-wave interaction under realistic environmental conditions,wave breaking and dissipation of energy,interaction between surface waves and upper ocean boundary layer dynamics, andsurface statistical and boundary layer coherent structures.

  4. Seasonal variation of nutrients and hydrological conditions in the State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS and adjacent continental shelf areas (South Atlantic Ocean - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete de Santis Braga

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine parks constitute important areas for the conservation of marine life and the genetic heritage around the world. The creation of such marine parks must be accompanied by careful measures to guarantee the coexistence of natural biota and human activities in these systems. The State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS is so close to an industrial pole and urban area that its creation and maintenance is an example for humanity. However, no program has yet been installed for the monitoring of its biotic and abiotic water parameters. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide hydrological and hydrochemical parameters with emphasis on dissolved nutrients to establish a starting point for the monitoring of these waters. The presence of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW in the marine park during the spring and summer sampling periods was evidenced by the observation of low temperatures ( 7.00 µmol L-1, while the concentration of N-ammonium (maximum 9.86 µmol L-1 demonstrated a rapid regeneration of the organic matter, mainly in the euphotic zone. Analysis of the data from summer periods revealed an annual difference, showing January 2014 to be drier than January 2015, which influenced the availability of some nutrients and the standard distribution of hydrochemical parameters in this region. The results of the distribution of hydrochemical parameters in the marine park confirms the preserved conditions of the seawater around the Laje de Santos, demonstrated by the excellent water quality, concluding the need to implant monitoring actions based on these reference data to preserve this important reserve of marine life.

  5. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  6. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Non-Consumptive sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  7. Turbines in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-10-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  8. A 100 au Wide Bipolar Rotating Shell Emanating from the HH 212 Protostellar Disk: A Disk Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yun; Codella, Claudio; Ho, Paul T. P.; Podio, Linda; Hirano, Naomi; Shang, Hsien; Turner, Neal J.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2018-03-01

    HH 212 is a Class 0 protostellar system found to host a “hamburger”-shaped dusty disk with a rotating disk atmosphere and a collimated SiO jet at a distance of ∼400 pc. Recently, a compact rotating outflow has been detected in SO and SO2 toward the center along the jet axis at ∼52 au (0.″13) resolution. Here we resolve the compact outflow into a small-scale wide-opening rotating outflow shell and a collimated jet, with the observations in the same S-bearing molecules at ∼16 au (0.″04) resolution. The collimated jet is aligned with the SiO jet, tracing the shock interactions in the jet. The wide-opening outflow shell is seen extending out from the inner disk around the SiO jet and has a width of ∼100 au. It is not only expanding away from the center, but also rotating around the jet axis. The specific angular momentum of the outflow shell is ∼40 au km s‑1. Simple modeling of the observed kinematics suggests that the rotating outflow shell can trace either a disk wind or disk material pushed away by an unseen wind from the inner disk or protostar. We also resolve the disk atmosphere in the same S-bearing molecules, confirming the Keplerian rotation there.

  9. Two Component Decomposition of Dual Polarimetric HH/VV SAR Data: Case Study for the Tundra Environment of the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ullmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a two component decomposition technique for HH/VV-polarized PolSAR (Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar data. The approach is a straight forward adaption of the Yamaguchi decomposition and decomposes the data into two scattering contributions: surface and double bounce under the assumption of a negligible vegetation scattering component in Tundra environments. The dependencies between the features of this two and the classical three component Yamaguchi decomposition were investigated for Radarsat-2 (quad and TerraSAR-X (HH/VV data for the Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada. In situ data on land cover were used to derive the scattering characteristics and to analyze the correlation among the PolSAR features. The double bounce and surface scattering features of the two and three component scattering model (derived from pseudo-HH/VV- and quad-polarized data showed similar scattering characteristics and positively correlated-R2 values of 0.60 (double bounce and 0.88 (surface scattering were observed. The presence of volume scattering led to differences between the features and these were minimized for land cover classes of low vegetation height that showed little volume scattering contribution. In terms of separability, the quad-polarized Radarsat-2 data offered the best separation of the examined tundra land cover types and will be best suited for the classification. This is anticipated as it represents the largest feature space of all tested ones. However; the classes “wetland” and “bare ground” showed clear positions in the feature spaces of the C- and X-Band HH/VV-polarized data and an accurate classification of these land cover types is promising. Among the possible dual-polarization modes of Radarsat-2 the HH/VV was found to be the favorable mode for the characterization of the aforementioned tundra land cover classes due to the coherent acquisition and the preserved co-pol. phase. Contrary, HH/HV-polarized and VV

  10. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  11. Artificial radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1979-10-01

    The report highlights the areas of major contributions that the nuclear era has made to the understanding of oceanography and the marine sciences, and in particular the application to the public health problems that arise through anthropogenic exploitation of the oceans for the disposal of radioactive materials

  12. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  13. Ocean Prediction Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Weather Analysis & Forecasts of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1988-05-24 to 1989-05-26 (NODC Accession 9100207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 24 May 1988 to 26 May 1989. Data were submitted by...

  15. Recognition of Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Neogene tectonic reactivation through apatite fission-track analysis in Precambrian areas of southeast Brazil: association with the opening of the south Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello Saenz, C. A.; Hackspacher, P. C.; Hadler Neto, J. C.; Iunes, P. J.; Guedes, S.; Ribeiro, L. F. B.; Paulo, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Apatite fission-track analysis was used for the determination of thermal histories and ages in Precambrian areas of southeast Brazil. Together with geological and geomorphologic information, these ages enable us to quantify the thermal histories and timing of Mesozoic and Cenozoic epirogenic and tectonic processes. The collected samples are from different geomorphologic blocks: the high Mantiqueira mountain range (HMMR) with altitude above 1000 m, the low Mantiqueira mountain range (LMMR) under 1000 m, the Serra do Mar mountain range (SMMR), the Jundiaí and Atlantic Plateaus, and the coastline, all of which have distinct thermal histories. During the Aptian (˜120 Ma), there was an uplift of the HMMR, coincident with opening of the south Atlantic Ocean. Its thermal history indicates heating (from ˜60 to ˜80 °C) until the Paleocene, when rocks currently exposed in the LMMR reached temperatures of ˜100 °C. In this period, the Serra do Mar rift system and the Japi erosion surface were formed. The relief records the latter. During the Late Cretaceous, the SMMR was uplifted and probably linked to its origin; in the Tertiary, it experienced heating from ˜60 to ˜90 °C, then cooling that extends to the present. The SMMR, LMMR, and HMMR were reactivated mainly in the Paleocene, and the coastline during the Paleogene. These processes are reflected in the sedimentary sequences and discordances of the interior and continental margin basins.

  16. Revisit the landscape of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n with n = 10-17: An ab initio global search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ruili; Li, Keyao; Su, Yan; Tang, Lingli; Huang, Xiaoming; Sai, Linwei; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-05-01

    Using a genetic algorithm incorporated with density functional theory, we explore the ground state structures of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n with n = 10-17. Then we re-optimize the isomers at B97-D/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The extra proton connects with a H2O molecule to form a H3O+ ion in all H+(H2O)10-17 clusters. The lowest-energy structures adopt a monocage form at n = 10-16 and core-shell structure at n = 17 based on the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//B97-D/aug-cc-pVDZ+ZPE single-point-energy calculation. Using second-order vibrational perturbation theory, we further calculate the infrared spectra with anharmonic correction for the ground state structures of H+(H2O)10-17 clusters at the PBE0/aug-cc-pVDZ level. The anharmonic correction to the spectra is crucial since it reproduces the experimental results quite well. The extra proton weakens the O-H bond strength in the H3O+ ion since the Wiberg bond order of the O-H bond in the H3O+ ion is smaller than that in H2O molecules, which causes a red shift of the O-H stretching mode in the H3O+ ion.

  17. GOCE Data for Ocean Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija

    and order. The method makes use of all available GOCE gradient data in addition to the global models and aims at improving the determination of Earth’s gravitational field in regional areas. Subsequently, the calculated equipotential surface, known as the geoid, is used together with measurements of sea...... surface height in a calculation of the Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT). This reflects the geostrophic ocean currents and leads to a better understanding of ocean mass and heat transfer. In regional geoid recovery from GOCE gradients, two methods are used, one of them being Least-Squares Collocation (LSC...

  18. Resolving the Polarized Dust Emission of the Disk around the Massive Star Powering the HH 80–81 Radio Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girart, J. M.; Fernández-López, M.; Li, Z.-Y.; Yang, H.; Estalella, R.; Anglada, G.; Áñez-López, N.; Busquet, G.; Carrasco-González, C.; Curiel, S.; Galvan-Madrid, R.; Gómez, J. F.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Krasnopolsky, R.; Martí, J.; Osorio, M.; Padovani, M.; Rao, R.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Here we present deep (16 μJy beam‑1), very high (40 mas) angular resolution 1.14 mm, polarimetric, Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations toward the massive protostar driving the HH 80–81 radio jet. The observations clearly resolve the disk oriented perpendicularly to the radio jet, with a radius of ≃0.″171 (∼291 au at 1.7 kpc distance). The continuum brightness temperature, the intensity profile, and the polarization properties clearly indicate that the disk is optically thick for a radius of R ≲ 170 au. The linear polarization of the dust emission is detected almost all along the disk, and its properties suggest that dust polarization is produced mainly by self-scattering. However, the polarization pattern presents a clear differentiation between the inner (optically thick) part of the disk and the outer (optically thin) region of the disk, with a sharp transition that occurs at a radius of ∼0.″1 (∼170 au). The polarization characteristics of the inner disk suggest that dust settling has not occurred yet with a maximum dust grain size between 50 and 500 μm. The outer part of the disk has a clear azimuthal pattern but with a significantly higher polarization fraction compared to the inner disk. This pattern is broadly consistent with the self-scattering of a radiation field that is beamed radially outward, as expected in the optically thin outer region, although contribution from non-spherical grains aligned with respect to the radiative flux cannot be excluded.

  19. The origin of continents and oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegener, Alfred 1880-1930; Biram, John

    1966-01-01

    ... and Antarctica up through the Indian Ocean, and closing the remaining gaps. Wegener then explained various phenomena in historical geology, geomorphy, paleontology, paleoclimatology, and similar areas of science in terms of this continental drift."--From back cover.

  20. Ecosystem characterization in Indian Ocean sector, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Parulekar, A.H.

    is most pronounced, which makes Indian Ocean sector an upwelled area marked by high nutrients, appreciable growth rate of phytoplankton and rich organic matter in the water column. The fractionation studies revealed the importance of picoautotrophs...

  1. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  2. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time strongly suggests a connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  3. Mineral resources of the Indian Ocean and related scientific research

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Gujar, A.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Valsangkar, A.B.; Nath, B.N.

    The Indian Ocean (area: 74.917 x 106 km2, water volume: 291.945 x 106 km3, average depth: 3897 m) is the third largest of the world oceans. The lands bordering the ocean contain almost 40 percent of the world's population and contribute...

  4. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  5. Clinicians' perceptions of usefulness of the PubMed4Hh mobile device application for clinical decision making at the point of care: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Kyungsook; Brennan, Caitlin W; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Liu, Fang; Smith, Karen G; Fontelo, Paul

    2018-05-08

    Although evidence-based practice in healthcare has been facilitated by Internet access through wireless mobile devices, research on the effectiveness of clinical decision support for clinicians at the point of care is lacking. This study examined how evidence as abstracts and the bottom-line summaries, accessed with PubMed4Hh mobile devices, affected clinicians' decision making at the point of care. Three iterative steps were taken to evaluate the usefulness of PubMed4Hh tools at the NIH Clinical Center. First, feasibility testing was conducted using data collected from a librarian. Next, usability testing was carried out by a postdoctoral research fellow shadowing clinicians during rounds for one month in the inpatient setting. Then, a pilot study was conducted from February, 2016 to January, 2017, with clinicians using a mobile version of PubMed4Hh. Invitations were sent via e-mail lists to clinicians (physicians, physician assistants and nurse practitioners) along with periodic reminders. Participants rated the usefulness of retrieved bottom-line summaries and abstracts and indicated their usefulness on a 7-point Likert scale. They also indicated location of use (office, rounds, etc.). Of the 166 responses collected in the feasibility phase, more than half of questions (57%, n = 94) were answerable by both the librarian using various resources and by the postdoctoral research fellow using PubMed4Hh. Sixty-six questions were collected during usability testing. More than half of questions (60.6%) were related to information about medication or treatment, while 21% were questions regarding diagnosis, and 12% were specific to disease entities. During the pilot study, participants reviewed 34 abstracts and 40 bottom-line summaries. The abstracts' usefulness mean scores were higher (95% CI [6.12, 6.64) than the scores of the bottom-line summaries (95% CI [5.25, 6.10]). The most frequent reason given was that it confirmed current or tentative diagnostic or

  6. Electromagnetic exploration of the oceanic mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic exploration is a geophysical method for examining the Earth's interior through observations of natural or artificial electromagnetic field fluctuations. The method has been in practice for more than 70 years, and 40 years ago it was first applied to ocean areas. During the past few decades, there has been noticeable progress in the methods of instrumentation, data acquisition (observation), data processing and inversion. Due to this progress, applications of this method to oceanic regions have revealed electrical features of the oceanic upper mantle down to depths of several hundred kilometers for different geologic and tectonic environments such as areas around mid-oceanic ridges, areas around hot-spot volcanoes, subduction zones, and normal ocean areas between mid-oceanic ridges and subduction zones. All these results estimate the distribution of the electrical conductivity in the oceanic mantle, which is key for understanding the dynamics and evolution of the Earth together with different physical properties obtained through other geophysical methods such as seismological techniques.

  7. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  8. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  9. Physical and chemical data collected using bottle and BTs casts in the TOGA Area of Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1974-06-25 to 1974-08-16 (NODC Accession 7700649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data was collected from June 25, 1974 to August 16, 1974 using METEOR and other platforms as part of GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Atlantic Tropical...

  10. Ocean currents data as part of Ordinance Reef Transport Study collected by ADCP from Ordnance Reef area of Oahu, Hawaii from 17 January 2010 to 23 August 2010 (NODC Accession 0079514)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Four high-precision sensor arrays at a conventional munitions disposal site off Waianae known locally as "Ordnance Reef" and one sensor array at a deep-water...

  11. CTD data from Rhode Island Sound collected from R/V Hope Hudner in 2009-2010 in support of Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (NODC Accession 0109929)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of 173 CTD casts in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds obtained during 4 surveys. The surveys were performed during 22-24 September 2009, 7-8...

  12. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  13. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  14. People and Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  15. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  16. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  17. Ethane ocean on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  18. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  19. Ocean Disposal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  20. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  1. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  2. Studying the outflow-core interaction with ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichen; Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Dunham, Michael; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Corder, Stuartt; Offner, Stella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow which is driven by a low-mass Class 0/I protostar. Previous ALMA Cycle 0 12CO observation showed outflow cavities produced by the entrainment of ambient gas by the protostellar jet and wide-angle wind. Here we present analysis of observation of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and other species using combined 12m array and ACA observations. The improved angular resolution and sensitivity allow us to detect details of the outflow structure. Specially, we see that the outflow cavity wall is composed of two or more layers of outflowing gas, which separately connect to different shocked regions along the outflow axis inside the cavity, suggesting the outflow cavity wall is composed of multiple shells entrained by a series of jet bow-shock events. The new 13CO and C18O data also allow us to trace relatively denser and slower outflow material than that traced by the 12CO. These species are only detected within about 1 to 2 km/s from the cloud velocity, tracing the outflow to lower velocities than what is possible using only the 12CO emission. Interestingly, the cavity wall of the red lobe appears at very low outflow velocities (as low as ~0.2 km/s). In addition, 13CO and C18O allow us to correct for the CO optical depth, allowing us to obtain more accurate estimates of the outflow mass, momentum and kinetic energy. Applying the optical depth correction significantly increases the previous mass estimate by a factor of 14. The outflow kinetic energy distribution shows that even though the red lobe is mainly entrained by jet bow-shocks, most of the outflow energy is being deposited into the cloud at the base of the outflow cavity rather than around the heads of the bow shocks. The estimated total mass, momentum, and energy of the outflow indicate that the outflow has the ability to disperse the parent core. We found possible evidence for a slowly moving rotating outflow in CS. Our 13CO and C18O observations also trace a

  3. ROTATION AND OUTFLOW MOTIONS IN THE VERY LOW-MASS CLASS 0 PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM HH 211 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-F.; Hirano, Naomi; Ho, Paul T. P.; Shang, Hsien; Palau, Aina; Bourke, Tyler L.; Zhang Qizhou

    2009-01-01

    HH 211 is a nearby young protostellar system with a highly collimated jet. We have mapped it in 352 GHz continuum, SiO (J = 8 - 7), and HCO + (J = 4 - 3) emission at up to ∼0.''2 resolution with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The continuum source is now resolved into two sources, SMM1 and SMM2, with a separation of ∼ 84 AU. SMM1 is seen at the center of the jet, probably tracing a (inner) dusty disk around the protostar driving the jet. SMM2 is seen to the southwest of SMM1 and may trace an envelope-disk around a small binary companion. A flattened envelope-disk is seen in HCO + around SMM1 with a radius of ∼ 80 AU perpendicular to the jet axis. Its velocity structure is consistent with a rotation motion and can be fitted with a Keplerian law that yields a mass of ∼50 ± 15 M Jup (a mass of a brown dwarf) for the protostar. Thus, the protostar could be the lowest mass source known to have a collimated jet and a rotating flattened envelope-disk. A small-scale (∼200 AU) low-speed (∼2 km s -1 ) outflow is seen in HCO + around the jet axis extending from the envelope-disk. It seems to rotate in the same direction as the envelope-disk and may carry away part of the angular momentum from the envelope-disk. The jet is seen in SiO close to ∼100 AU from SMM1. It is seen with a 'C-shaped' bending. It has a transverse width of ∼ -1 . A possible velocity gradient is seen consistently across its innermost pair of knots, ∼0.5 km s -1 at ∼10 AU, consistent with the sense of rotation of the envelope-disk. If this gradient is an upper limit of the true rotational gradient of the jet, then the jet carries away a very small amount of angular momentum of ∼ -1 and thus must be launched from the very inner edge of the disk near the corotation radius.

  4. Status and perspectives for the Pd-103 radioactive seeds production at the cyclotron IFIN-HH from Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudu, D.; Popa, V.; Racolta, P.M.; Tetcu, N.; Voiculescu, Dana

    2001-01-01

    Historically, 103 Pb, a short-lived isotope for permanent implant treatment of early stage prostate cancer, was generated via the 102 Pd(n,γ) 103 Pd reaction which relied on the availability of 1% naturally abundant 102 Pd in an enriched form and its moderately high neutron capture cross section. For the last 12 years, the accelerator production method for 103 Pd has been based on the irradiation of the rhodium metal with rather low energy protons via the reaction 103 Rh(p,n) 103 Pd. Big corporations from USA operate more than 10 dedicated accelerators to produce this nuclide. The prostate cancer market with 180,000 new cases reported annually justifies the effort for this radionuclide production. Recently, a manufacture in Europe also brought the USA patented type of 103 Pd seed implants on the world market. Our interest for this radioisotope production was started in 2000, as a result of the demand of two big hospitals from Bucharest and the opportunity to participate in a research programme (333-F2-RC 832) co-ordinated by the IAEA in Vienna. The U-120 Cyclotron, made in 1956 and brought from Russia, was quite a reliable machine. The accelerator is a classical cyclotron with adjustable energy. Now at the level of our technology, we can maintain it by ourselves and operate it quite independently. The experiments for the first year were focused on obtaining homemade data on cross-section, thick target yields and possible contaminants for the nuclear reaction 103 Rh (p,n) 103 Pb in the proton energy region 5-14 MeV. The experiments were performed at our Van de Graaff HV Tandem FN 15 accelerator (8 MV on terminal) by using proton beams up to 14 MeV with a current intensity of 100 nA. Design and adaptation of a dedicated beam line at IFIN-HH Cyclotron for the 103 production was a priority in our work planning for the first year

  5. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  6. High resolution HH-XRF scanning and XRD modelling as a tool in sedimentological analysis - A case study from the Enreca-3 core, Bach Long Vi Island, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Malgorzata; Hemmingsen Schovsbo, Niels; Korte, Christoph; Bryld Wessel Fyhn, Michael

    2017-04-01

    To improve the understanding and interpretation of the depositional environment of a late Oligocene lacustrine organic rich oil-prone source rock succession, 2464 hand held (HH)-XRF measurements were made systematically on the 500 m long, continuous core from the fully cored Enreca-3 well. This core, drilled on the remote Bach Long Vi Island, northern Gulf of Tonkin, offshore Vietnam, represents a deep lake succession alternating between lacustrine pelagic dominated sediments interrupted by hyperpycnal turbidites, high density turbidites and debris flows [1, 2]. From a combined HH-XRF-XRD data set, multivariate data analysis and regression models are used to type the rock and to predict the XRD mineral composition based on HH-XRF composition. The rock types and the modelled mineral composition highlight the geochemical variations of the sediment and allows for direct comparison with sedimentological processes and facies changes. The modeling also depicts the cyclic alteration of rock types that are present on many different scales ranging from centimeters to hundreds of meters [1, 2]. The sedimentological and geochemical variations observed throughout the cored section reflects fluctuating paleoclimate, tectonism and hinterland condition controlling the depositional setting, which may provide a deeper understanding of the deposition of this and similar Paleogene syn-rift succession in the South China Sea region. It allows furthermore the development of a more generalized depositional model relevant for other deep-lacustrine syn-rift basins. [1] Petersen et al. (2014) Journal of Petroleum Geology, 37: 373-389. [2] Hovikoski et al. (2016) Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(8): 982-1007.

  7. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  8. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  9. Catch-In-Areas Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  10. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  11. Study of the physics potential of the FCC-hh machine to measure the coupling of the Higgs boson to b quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The FCC project as well as the Pythia + Delphes analysis within the FCC software are introduced. The ROOT analysis carried out to reconstruct main observables, such the invariant mass of the bb system, transverse mass and momentum of the W boson together with the lepton pT and distribution is explained. The resulting reconstructed invariant mass of the bb system showed a peak near the 125 GeV in correspondence with the Higgs boson. Future steps towards estimating the physics potential of the FCC-hh machine in this channel are discussed.

  12. Evidence for infragravity wave-tide resonance in deep oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hiroko; Fukao, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2010-10-05

    Ocean tides are the oscillatory motions of seawater forced by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun with periods of a half to a day and wavelengths of the semi-Pacific to Pacific scale. Ocean infragravity (IG) waves are sea-surface gravity waves with periods of several minutes and wavelengths of several dozen kilometres. Here we report the first evidence of the resonance between these two ubiquitous phenomena, mutually very different in period and wavelength, in deep oceans. The evidence comes from long-term, large-scale observations with arrays of broadband ocean-bottom seismometers located at depths of more than 4,000 m in the Pacific Ocean. This observational evidence is substantiated by a theoretical argument that IG waves and the tide can resonantly couple and that such coupling occurs over unexpectedly wide areas of the Pacific Ocean. Through this resonant coupling, some of ocean tidal energy is transferred in deep oceans to IG wave energy.

  13. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  14. Observations and measurements of dynamic effects due to beam-beam interactions in the LHC and extrapolation to the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves Jorge, Patrik

    The Future Circular hadron-hadron Collider (FCC-hh) is a design study for a 100 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The dynamics of the beams in such a collider poses many challenges, in particular the amount of energy stored in each beam (8.4 GJ) makes them very destructive and therefore requires a tight control of the machine and beam parameters during the full cycle in order to avoid damages and reach the collider designed performances. The FCC-hh features an increase of the beam brightness during the cycle due to the presence of synchrotron radiation damping at high energy. As a result, the electromagnetic forces that the two beams exert on each other, the so-called beam-beam forces, are enhanced and might become an issue for the safe operation of the machine. In this new regime, the impact of the beam-beam interaction on the optics becomes non-negligible. In this master thesis, for the first time, the impact of the beam-beam interaction on the optics ($\\beta$-beating) is measured in a hadron collider (LHC). The e...

  15. Organophosphorus esters in the oceans and possible relation with ocean gyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wenhan; Xie, Zhouqing; Blais, Jules M.; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Ming; Yang, Chengyun; Huang, Wen; Ding, Rui; Sun, Liguang

    2013-01-01

    Four organophosphorus esters (OPEs) were detected in aerosol samples collected in the West Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean from 2009 to 2010, suggesting their circumpolar and global distribution. In general, the highest concentrations were detected near populated regions in China, Australia and New Zealand. OPE concentrations in the Southern Ocean were about two orders of magnitude lower than those near major continents. Additionally, relatively high OPE concentrations were detected at the Antarctic Peninsula, where several scientific survey stations are located. The four OPEs investigated here are significantly correlated with each other, suggesting they may derive from the same source. In the circumpolar transect, OPE concentrations were associated with ocean gyres in the open ocean. Their concentrations were positively related with average vorticity in the sampling area suggesting that a major source of OPEs may be found in ocean gyres where plastic debris is known to accumulate. -- Highlights: •We provide OPE concentrations in aerosols in a circumpolar expedition. •We find strong anthropogenic source of OPE pollution. •We suggest potential relationship between ocean gyres and OPE pollution. -- Our work provides a circumpolar investigation on OPEs in the Southern Ocean and we suggest a possibility that ocean currents and gyres may act as important roles in global transport of OPEs

  16. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  17. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  18. Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickwood, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

  19. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  20. Southern Ocean carbon-wind stress feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason

    2018-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is the largest sink of anthropogenic carbon in the present-day climate. Here, Southern Ocean pCO2 and its dependence on wind forcing are investigated using an equilibrium mixed layer carbon budget. This budget is used to derive an expression for Southern Ocean pCO2 sensitivity to wind stress. Southern Ocean pCO2 is found to vary as the square root of area-mean wind stress, arising from the dominance of vertical mixing over other processes such as lateral Ekman transport. The expression for pCO2 is validated using idealised coarse-resolution ocean numerical experiments. Additionally, we show that increased (decreased) stratification through surface warming reduces (increases) the sensitivity of the Southern Ocean pCO2 to wind stress. The scaling is then used to estimate the wind-stress induced changes of atmospheric pCO_2 in CMIP5 models using only a handful of parameters. The scaling is further used to model the anthropogenic carbon sink, showing a long-term reversal of the Southern Ocean sink for large wind stress strength.

  1. The great challenges in Arctic Ocean paleoceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, international, multidisciplinary expeditions and projects for scientific drilling/coring in the Arctic Ocean are needed. Key areas and approaches for drilling and recovering undisturbed and complete sedimentary sequences are depth transects across the major ocean ridge systems, i.e., the Lomonosov Ridge, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, and the Chukchi Plateau/Northwind Ridge, the Beaufort, Kara and Laptev sea continental margins, as well as the major Arctic gateways towards the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The new detailed climate records from the Arctic Ocean spanning time intervals from the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene Greenhouse world to the Neogene-Quaternary Icehouse world and representing short- and long-term climate variability on scales from 10 to 10 6 years, will give new insights into our understanding of the Arctic Ocean within the global climate system and provide an opportunity to test the performance of climate models used to predict future climate change. With this, studying the Arctic Ocean is certainly one of the major challenges in climate research for the coming decades.

  2. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  3. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  4. Communicating Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  5. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  6. 12. Oceans and coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paden, M.; Seligman, D.; Weber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The trends of the past 20 years show increasing coastal pollution, accelerated destruction of coastal marine habitats, and, in many areas, a declining catch of marine fish species that have been affected by overfishing and pollution. Stopping land-based pollution, especially pollutants from runoff, requires entering a new political arena, contesting powerful interests in agriculture and industry, and dealing with a nearly worldwide economic framework that allows land-based pollutant sources to dispose of their wastes in waterways at no direct cost. The paper discusses these topics under the following headings: pollution trends (nutrient pollution, human health problems, toxic chemical pollution); coastal habitat destruction (coral reef bleaching, threats to the ocean's surface); fisheries trends; aquaculture; a regional approach to preventing pollution [trends in marine pollution control, upstream activities that pollute coastal waters (logging, agriculture, dam construction and irrigation, cities and industry, air pollution)], vulnerability of coastal waters to pollution, coordinating pollution control (linking the land and the water), case studies of watershed/coastal management (Phuket Province, Thailand; the Chesapeake Bay; the Mediterranean)

  7. Ocean acidification postcards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  8. Irradiation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal area induces complete regression of mucocutaneous lesions in disseminated histiocytosis X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, G.; Stefani, S.; Gridelli, C.; Conte, A.; Airoma, G.; Contegiacomo, A.; Bianco, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    We report on a 54-year-old woman with disseminated histiocytosis X who had a complete regression of all mucocutaneous lesions within 1 month from the completion of radiation therapy (4500 cGy) to the hypothalamic-hypophyseal (H-H) area. This response lasted 12 months, after which new cutaneous and bone lesions appeared

  9. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  10. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  11. 75 FR 49351 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Nonappropriated Fund Wage and Survey Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Jersey: Atlantic Cape May Ocean Salem Monmouth Survey Area New Jersey: Monmouth Area of Application...: Alabama: Mobile Mississippi: Forest Jackson Lauderdale Survey Area Mississippi: Lauderdale Area of...

  12. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  13. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-05-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  14. Slow-spreading submarine ridges in the South Atlantic as a significant oceanic iron source

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saito, MA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of the micronutrient iron limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large areas of the global ocean. The location and magnitude of oceanic iron sources remain uncertain, however, owing to a scarcity of data, particularly...

  15. Preface to: Pan Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Brown, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Joseph, G.

    Conference (PORSEC), earlier known as the Paci c Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC), was formed in 1992 to provide a venue for international cooperation in the increasingly important area of remote sensing of the ocean. Many countries that border... and ocean dynamics, and modeling with satellite sensor (mainly microwave) data. Some of the presentations are of regional interest, while others will nd an audience beyond the satellite remote sensing community. These rst results through their simple...

  16. Oceanic migration and spawning of anguillid eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K

    2009-06-01

    Many aspects of the life histories of anguillid eels have been revealed in recent decades, but the spawning migrations of their silver eels in the open ocean still remains poorly understood. This paper overviews what is known about the migration and spawning of anguillid species in the ocean. The factors that determine exactly when anguillid eels will begin their migrations are not known, although environmental influences such as lunar cycle, rainfall and river discharge seem to affect their patterns of movement as they migrate towards the ocean. Once in the ocean on their way to the spawning area, silver eels probably migrate in the upper few hundred metres, while reproductive maturation continues. Although involvement of a magnetic sense or olfactory cues seems probable, how they navigate or what routes they take are still a matter of speculation. There are few landmarks in the open ocean to define their spawning areas, other than oceanographic or geological features such as oceanic fronts or seamounts in some cases. Spawning of silver eels in the ocean has never been observed, but artificially matured eels of several species have exhibited similar spawning behaviours in the laboratory. Recent collections of mature adults and newly spawned preleptocephali in the spawning area of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica have shown that spawning occurs during new moon periods in the North Equatorial Current region near the West Mariana Ridge. These data, however, show that the latitude of the spawning events can change among months and years depending on oceanographic conditions. Changes in spawning location of this and other anguillid species may affect their larval transport and survival, and appear to have the potential to influence recruitment success. A greater understanding of the spawning migration and the choice of spawning locations by silver eels is needed to help conserve declining anguillid species.

  17. Reversible Heterolytic Cleavage of the H-H Bond by Molybdenum Complexes: Controlling the Dynamics of Exchange Between Proton and Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Appel, Aaron M.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2017-05-18

    Controlling the heterolytic cleavage of the H-H bond of dihydrogen is critically important in catalytic hydrogenations and in the catalytic oxidation of H2. We show how the rate of reversible heterolytic cleavage of H2 can be controlled over nearly four orders of magnitude at 25 °C, from 2.1 × 103 s-1 to ≥107 s-1. Bifunctional Mo complexes, [CpMo(CO)(κ3-P2N2)]+ (P2N2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane with alkyl/aryl groups on N and P), have been developed for heterolytic cleavage of H2 into a proton and a hydride, akin to Frustrated Lewis Pairs. The H-H bond cleavage is enabled by the basic amine in the second coordination sphere. The products of heterolytic cleavage of H2, Mo hydride complexes bearing protonated amines, [CpMo(H)(CO)(P2N2H)]+, were characterized by spectroscopic studies and by X-ray crystallography. Variable temperature 1H, 15N and 2-D 1H-1H ROESY NMR spectra indicated rapid exchange of the proton and hydride. The exchange rates are in the order [CpMo(H)(CO)(PPh2NPh2H)]+ > [CpMo(H)(CO)(PtBu2NPh2H)]+ > [CpMo(H)(CO)(PPh2NBn2H)]+ > [CpMo(H)(CO)(PtBu2NBn2H)]+ > [CpMo(H)(CO)(PtBu2NtBu2H)]+. The pKa values determined in acetonitrile range from 9.3 to 17.7, and show a linear correlation with the logarithm of the exchange rates. Thus the exchange dynamics are controlled through the relative acidity of the [CpMo(H)(CO)(P2N2H)]+ and [CpMo(H2)(CO)(P2N2)]+ isomers, providing a design principle for controlling heterolytic cleavage of H2.

  18. Transcriptional regulation and adaptation to a high-fiber environment in Bacillus subtilis HH2 isolated from feces of the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyao Zhou

    Full Text Available In the giant panda, adaptation to a high-fiber environment is a first step for the adequate functioning of intestinal bacteria, as the high cellulose content of the gut due to the panda's vegetarian appetite results in a harsh environment. As an excellent producer of several enzymes and vitamins, Bacillus subtilis imparts various advantages to animals. In our previous study, we determined that several strains of B. subtilis isolated from pandas exhibited good cellulose decomposition ability, and we hypothesized that this bacterial species can survive in and adapt well to a high-fiber environment. To evaluate this hypothesis, we employed RNA-Seq technology to analyze the differentially expressed genes of the selected strain B. subtilis HH2, which demonstrates significant cellulose hydrolysis of different carbon sources (cellulose and glucose. In addition, we used bioinformatics software and resources to analyze the functions and pathways of differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, comparison of the cellulose and glucose groups revealed that the up-regulated genes were involved in amino acid and lipid metabolism or transmembrane transport, both of which are involved in cellulose utilization. Conversely, the down-regulated genes were involved in non-essential functions for bacterial life, such as toxin and bacteriocin secretion, possibly to conserve energy for environmental adaptation. The results indicate that B. subtilis HH2 triggered a series of adaptive mechanisms at the transcriptional level, which suggests that this bacterium could act as a probiotic for pandas fed a high-fiber diet, despite the fact that cellulose is not a very suitable carbon source for this bacterial species. In this study, we present a model to understand the dynamic organization of and interactions between various functional and regulatory networks for unicellular organisms in a high-fiber environment.

  19. Ocean Literacy After-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Ocean Literacy is a topic that is often underrepresented in secondary school science curriculum. To combat this deficit, our School has partnered up with Hudson River Community Sailing (HRCS), a local organization in New York City that offers an after-school program to high-need high school students in the surrounding community. This organization has developed a 9th grade Sail Academy which allows students from participating public high schools to increase their proficiency in math and science by learning basic sailing, navigation, and boat building. Upon successfully completing the 9th grade Sail Academy curriculum, students enter the "First Mates Program" which offers a scaffolded set of youth development experiences that prepare students for college, career, leadership, and stewardship. This program is built in the context of a new Ocean Literacy Curriculum focused around 3 major topics within Ocean Literacy: Marine Debris, Meteorology, and Ecology (specifically water quality). The learning experiences include weekly data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing in the Hudson River adjacent to the HRCS Boathouse. Additionally there are weekly lessons engaging students in the fundamentals of each of the 3 topics and how they are also important in the lens of sailing. During the marine debris portion of the curriculum students identify sources of marine debris, impacts on the local environment, and study how debris can travel along the ocean currents leading in to larger garbage gyres. To supplement the curriculum, students embarked on a day trip to the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility in Brooklyn, NY to learn how and where NYC receives its drinking water, how wastewater is treated, and how water quality in the local area can be easily influenced. While on the trip, students did their data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing at Newtown Creek, and then they compared their results

  20. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  1. Zooplankton data from plankton net in the Northwest Pacific Ocean by the Japan Hydrography Association from 22 April 1952 to 06 January 1990 (NODC Accession 0000273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea area of the western North Pacific Ocean off the northeastern part of Japan is called Tohoku Sea Area. The hydrography in the sea area is complicated by...

  2. Ocean Margins Programs, Phase I research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, P. [ed.

    1994-08-01

    During FY 1992, the DOE restructured its regional coastal-ocean programs into a new Ocean Margins Program (OMP), to: Quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that affect the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; Define ocean-margin sources and sinks in global biogeochemical cycles, and; Determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior ocean. Currently, the DOE Ocean Margins Program supports more than 70 principal and co-principal investigators, spanning more than 30 academic institutions. Research funded by the OMP amounted to about $6.9M in FY 1994. This document is a collection of abstracts summarizing the component projects of Phase I of the OMP. This phase included both research and technology development, and comprised projects of both two and three years duration. The attached abstracts describe the goals, methods, measurement scales, strengths and limitations, and status of each project, and level of support. Keywords are provided to index the various projects. The names, addresses, affiliations, and major areas of expertise of the investigators are provided in appendices.

  3. Modeling Europa's Ice-Ocean Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenousy, A.; Vance, S.; Bills, B. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on modeling the ice-ocean interface on Jupiter's Moon (Europa); mainly from the standpoint of heat and salt transfer relationship with emphasis on the basal ice growth rate and its implications to Europa's tidal response. Modeling the heat and salt flux at Europa's ice/ocean interface is necessary to understand the dynamics of Europa's ocean and its interaction with the upper ice shell as well as the history of active turbulence at this area. To achieve this goal, we used McPhee et al., 2008 parameterizations on Earth's ice/ocean interface that was developed to meet Europa's ocean dynamics. We varied one parameter at a time to test its influence on both; "h" the basal ice growth rate and on "R" the double diffusion tendency strength. The double diffusion tendency "R" was calculated as the ratio between the interface heat exchange coefficient αh to the interface salt exchange coefficient αs. Our preliminary results showed a strong double diffusion tendency R ~200 at Europa's ice-ocean interface for plausible changes in the heat flux due to onset or elimination of a hydrothermal activity, suggesting supercooling and a strong tendency for forming frazil ice.

  4. Satellite based Ocean Forecasting, the SOFT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmann, L.; Tintoré, J.; Moneris, S.

    2003-04-01

    The knowledge of future oceanic conditions would have enormous impact on human marine related areas. For such reasons, a number of international efforts are being carried out to obtain reliable and manageable ocean forecasting systems. Among the possible techniques that can be used to estimate the near future states of the ocean, an ocean forecasting system based on satellite imagery is developped through the Satelitte based Ocean ForecasTing project (SOFT). SOFT, established by the European Commission, considers the development of a forecasting system of the ocean space-time variability based on satellite data by using Artificial Intelligence techniques. This system will be merged with numerical simulation approaches, via assimilation techniques, to get a hybrid SOFT-numerical forecasting system of improved performance. The results of the project will provide efficient forecasting of sea-surface temperature structures, currents, dynamic height, and biological activity associated to chlorophyll fields. All these quantities could give valuable information on the planning and management of human activities in marine environments such as navigation, fisheries, pollution control, or coastal management. A detailed identification of present or new needs and potential end-users concerned by such an operational tool is being performed. The project would study solutions adapted to these specific needs.

  5. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  6. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  7. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  8. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 222 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  9. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  10. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  11. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  12. Ocean surface partitioning strategies using ocean colour remote Sensing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Lilian Anne; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Barbosa, Ana B.

    2017-06-01

    The ocean surface is organized into regions with distinct properties reflecting the complexity of interactions between environmental forcing and biological responses. The delineation of these functional units, each with unique, homogeneous properties and underlying ecosystem structure and dynamics, can be defined as ocean surface partitioning. The main purposes and applications of ocean partitioning include the evaluation of particular marine environments; generation of more accurate satellite ocean colour products; assimilation of data into biogeochemical and climate models; and establishment of ecosystem-based management practices. This paper reviews the diverse approaches implemented for ocean surface partition into functional units, using ocean colour remote sensing (OCRS) data, including their purposes, criteria, methods and scales. OCRS offers a synoptic, high spatial-temporal resolution, multi-decadal coverage of bio-optical properties, relevant to the applications and value of ocean surface partitioning. In combination with other biotic and/or abiotic data, OCRS-derived data (e.g., chlorophyll-a, optical properties) provide a broad and varied source of information that can be analysed using different delineation methods derived from subjective, expert-based to unsupervised learning approaches (e.g., cluster, fuzzy and empirical orthogonal function analyses). Partition schemes are applied at global to mesoscale spatial coverage, with static (time-invariant) or dynamic (time-varying) representations. A case study, the highly heterogeneous area off SW Iberian Peninsula (NE Atlantic), illustrates how the selection of spatial coverage and temporal representation affects the discrimination of distinct environmental drivers of phytoplankton variability. Advances in operational oceanography and in the subject area of satellite ocean colour, including development of new sensors, algorithms and products, are among the potential benefits from extended use, scope and

  13. Validation and Inter-comparison Against Observations of GODAE Ocean View Ocean Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Smith, G. C.; Lu, Y.; Hernandez, F.; Regnier, C.; Drevillon, M.; Ryan, A.; Martin, M.; Spindler, T. D.; Brassington, G. B.; Oke, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    For weather forecasts, validation of forecast performance is done at the end user level as well as by the meteorological forecast centers. In the development of Ocean Prediction Capacity, the same level of care for ocean forecast performance and validation is needed. Herein we present results from a validation against observations of 6 Global Ocean Forecast Systems under the GODAE OceanView International Collaboration Network. These systems include the Global Ocean Ice Forecast System (GIOPS) developed by the Government of Canada, two systems PSY3 and PSY4 from the French Mercator-Ocean Ocean Forecasting Group, the FOAM system from UK met office, HYCOM-RTOFS from NOAA/NCEP/NWA of USA, and the Australian Bluelink-OceanMAPS system from the CSIRO, the Australian Meteorological Bureau and the Australian Navy.The observation data used in the comparison are sea surface temperature, sub-surface temperature, sub-surface salinity, sea level anomaly, and sea ice total concentration data. Results of the inter-comparison demonstrate forecast performance limits, strengths and weaknesses of each of the six systems. This work establishes validation protocols and routines by which all new prediction systems developed under the CONCEPTS Collaborative Network will be benchmarked prior to approval for operations. This includes anticipated delivery of CONCEPTS regional prediction systems over the next two years including a pan Canadian 1/12th degree resolution ice ocean prediction system and limited area 1/36th degree resolution prediction systems. The validation approach of comparing forecasts to observations at the time and location of the observation is called Class 4 metrics. It has been adopted by major international ocean prediction centers, and will be recommended to JCOMM-WMO as routine validation approach for operational oceanography worldwide.

  14. IODE OceanTeacher

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M.; Pikula, L.; Reed, G.

    2002-01-01

    The OceanTeacher website and CD-ROM publication have proven to be powerful and flexible tools for marine data and information management training. There are two segments of OceanTeacher: marine data management and marine information management. The IODE trainers have created an encyclopedic Resource Kit covering all aspects of the subjects. Through continual updates, the Kit provides the latest versions of popular public-domain software, documentation for global and regional datasets, docu...

  15. Modeling of oceanic vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman-Roisin, B.

    Following on a tradition of biannual meetings, the 5th Colloquium on the Modeling of Oceanic Vortices was held May 21-23, 1990, at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. The colloquium series, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, is intended to gather oceanographers who contribute to our understanding of oceanic mesoscale vortices via analytical, numerical and experimental modeling techniques.

  16. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  17. Gravity Field Over the S.Ocean - Poster, MGG-6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a full color 24 by 36 inch poster. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because survey lines by ships are hundreds...

  18. Southern Ocean Predicted Seafloor Topography Poster - MGG9

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 36 by 48 inch full color poster is MGG Report 9. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because survey lines by ships...

  19. On some aspects of Indian Ocean warm pool

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saji, P.K.; Balchand, A.N.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    Annual and interannual variation of Indian Ocean Warm Pool (IOWP) was studied using satellite and in situ ocean temperature data IOWP surface area undergoes a strong annual cycle attaining a maximum of 24x106km2 during April...

  20. Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu in the Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saager, Paul M.; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Howland, Robin J.

    1992-01-01

    Vertical profiles of dissolved Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu in the Northwest Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea) exhibit a nutrient type distribution also observed in other oceans. The area is characterized by strong seasonal upwelling and a broad oxygen minimum zone in intermediate waters. However, neither Cd, Zn, Ni

  1. Observations of Lambda(0)(b) -> Lambda K+pi(-) and Lambda(0)(b) -> Lambda K+K- decays and searches for other Lambda(0)(b) and Xi(0)(b) decays to Lambda h(+)h '(-) final states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abelian; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrechtl, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Arnato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    2016-01-01

    A search is performed for the charmless three-body decays of the Lambda(0)(b) and Xi(0)(b) baryons to the final states Lambda h(+)h'(-), where h(') = pi or K. The analysis is based on a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 of pp collisions, collected by the LHCb

  2. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  3. The Indian Ocean - An environmental overview

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Qasim, S.Z.

    . Geographically, it is the area from 30 degrees S latitude to the Gulf of Oman and the head of the Bay of Bengal and from the East Africa coast to the coastlines of Burma, Thailand and Malaysia (excluding the Strait of Malacca). In this region of the Indain Ocean...

  4. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    is larger and warmer, a peculiarity of the pool in the Indian Ocean is its seasonal variation. The surface area of the pool changes from 24 x 106 km2 in April to 8 x 106 km2 in September due to interaction with the southwest monsoon. The annual cycles of sea...

  5. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) provides an avenue for ... Effects of blood meal as a substitute for fish meal in the culture of juvenile Silver ... area of eastern Africa: the case of Quirimbas National Park, Mozambique ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  6. Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science: Incorporating ecosystem services approaches into ocean and coastal decision-making and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of social science has been recognized as a priority for effective ocean and coastal management, driving much discussion and fostering emerging efforts in several areas. The Interagency Working Group on Ocean Social Science (IWG-OSS) is tasked with assisting the Su...

  7. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to forecast environmental effect in association with isolation of carbon dioxide in oceans. (Surveys on development and research support on a technology to forecast environmental effect in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points); 1998 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. CO{sub 2} horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is increasing, and discussions are urged on measures to suppress emission of CO2 into atmosphere. While different CO2 fixing technologies may be conceived, there is a technology to utilize CO2 absorbing capability of ocean by discharging and dissolving CO2 artificially into middle layer of the ocean to separate CO2 from atmosphere. This technology is one of the technologies which are promising in the aspects of technology, economic performance, and possible amount of CO2 reduction. However, it is difficult to say that scientific and technological discussions have been given sufficiently on behavior of CO2 discharged into the ocean, effect of the discharge on environments, and CO2 separation capability of the ocean. Therefore, in the present research and development, a 'technology to forecast environmental effect in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points' is developed to serve for acquiring technological prospect on the feasibility to realize the CO2 ocean separation by discharging CO2 into the middle layer of the ocean. The present fiscal year has performed researches on the following research and development items: elucidation of behavior of liquefied CO2 when discharged into the ocean, CO2 feeding and diluting technologies, indoor experiments on the effects of CO2 on ocean living organisms, and development of a model to forecast environments in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points. (NEDO)

  8. Biogeochemical studies of selenium in the Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, H.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kimura, M.; Koike, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Selenium that is a one of trace essential elements exists mainly in the chemical form of Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic selenium in ocean. Moreover, the monitoring of the selenium species has become a matter of interest as a mean of estimating their influence in biological processes in ocean. In recent works, some investigators reported that Se(IV) shows nutrient-type especially like silica's behavior, Se(VI) shows an approximately constant value, and the biological activities control the distribution of organic selenium. However, these reports were not included the whole world's oceans. It is necessary to research several oceans for the explication of fate on selenium. We investigated at the most interesting area - the Eastern Indian Ocean where should play a key role in global ocean's cycle for acquiring the new knowledge of selenium species at first

  9. Ocean Physicochemistry versus Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Góralski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    It is the dwindling ocean productivity which leaves dissolved carbon dioxide in the seawater. Its solubility is diminished by the rise in ocean water temperature (by one degree Celsius since 1910, according to IPCC). Excess carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, while its growing concentration in seawater leads to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification leading to lowering pH of surface ocean water remains an unsolved problem of science. My today’s lecture will mark an attempt at ...

  10. Navigating a sea of values: Understanding public attitudes toward the ocean and ocean energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Jonathan Charles

    In examining ocean values and beliefs, this study investigates the moral and ethical aspects of the relationships that exist between humans and the marine environment. In short, this dissertation explores what the American public thinks of the ocean. The study places a specific focus upon attitudes to ocean energy development. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research: elicits mental models that exist in society regarding the ocean; unearths what philosophies underpin people's attitudes toward the ocean and offshore energy development; assesses whether these views have any bearing on pro-environmental behavior; and gauges support for offshore drilling and offshore wind development. Despite the fact that the ocean is frequently ranked as a second-tier environmental issue, Americans are concerned about the state of the marine environment. Additionally, the data show that lack of knowledge, rather than apathy, prevents people from undertaking pro-environmental action. With regard to philosophical beliefs, Americans hold slightly more nonanthropocentric than anthropocentric views toward the environment. Neither anthropocentrism nor nonanthropocentrism has any real impact on pro-environmental behavior, although nonanthropocentric attitudes reduce support for offshore wind. This research also uncovers two gaps between scientific and public perceptions of offshore wind power with respect to: 1) overall environmental effects; and 2) the size of the resource. Providing better information to the public in the first area may lead to a shift toward offshore wind support among opponents with nonanthropocentric attitudes, and in both areas, is likely to increase offshore wind support.

  11. Red ocean vs blue ocean strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Λαΐνος, Ιάσονας

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the strategies that a company can adopt in order to get a competitive advantage over its rivals, and thus be successful (Red Ocean Strategies). We also tried to explain what actually entrepreneurship is, to be able to understand why the corporate strategies are formed as they do, and why companies are choosing to follow them. The following project is a part of our master thesis that we will present for the University of Piraeus for the MBA-TQM master department. The thesis...

  12. Study of the WWR-S IFIN-HH reactor main components stare, after 40 years working, using nondestructive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, A. C.; Zorliu, A.; Ripeanu, R.; Petran, C.; Mincu, I.

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of these investigations was to establish the security level after 40 years of working of the WWR-S research reactor of Horia Hulubei National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele. The purpose of these investigations was: checking the functionality and the physical integrity of the main components of the reactor. The physical integrity of the components is usually affected by slow processes, such as: corrosion, erosion, aging, deformations and initially hidden flaws with very slow evolutions. The methods used to determine the effects of these processes and to infer conclusions about the physical integrity of the facility are: visualizations by optical means (endoscopy and video camera), examination using ultrasounds and gammagraphy. The objective of the endoscopic checking was the view of the state of interior surfaces of the tubes and pipes, specially the inaccessible areas of the non-dismantling parts of the reactor. Big size components, such as reactor vessel, the biologic protection vessel and the main large diameter pipes of the primary cooling system, were investigated using a special device that contains a video camera connected to a PC. To obtain more information regarding the evolution of the corrosion spots, scratches and harmed areas on the investigated surfaces, their depth was checked by ultrasounds, and the welding seams structure was determined by gammagraphy. A table is given with some significant results obtained from ultrasound measurements in different points of reactor vessel, thermal column, horizontal tubes, etc. After these tests, the conclusions are: the maximum corrosion depth is 0.2 mm; - scratches are superficially, not exceeding 0.2-0.5 mm; - the traces of harmed areas are produced by the electromagnetic device utilization used for manipulation of aluminium capsules which contain irradiated substances. They are superficial, with maximum area of about 1 cm 2 ; the

  13. Development of manganese nodule resources in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Resources evalution on grade and abundance of nodules using statistical methods for grab samples and photography data, combined with bathymetric and structural mapping, were carried out for delineation of the potential area of Central Indian Ocean...

  14. Oceans and Human Health: Microplastics and Harmful Algal Bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the focus of research and concern of environmental studies in the marine system is the impact of human activities in the ocean: the sources, distribution and fate of pollutants resulting from human activities. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact health can come from eating contaminated seafood, swimming in polluted water, and exposure to toxins from harmful algal blooms. This paper will present two areas of concern that illustrates the fact that the health of the oceans and the health of humans go hand in hand: chemical pollution from plastics in the ocean and harmful alga bloom. The nuclear methodologies than can be useful in these areas will also be introduced. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. (author)

  15. Generation of the problem-dependent data libraries for IFIN-HH WWR-S spent fuel storage criticality and dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ene, Daniela; Tigau, F.

    1998-01-01

    The methods used for the radioactivity inventory calculation and dose evaluation of the fuel elements irradiated in the WWR-S IFIN-HH reactor are discussed in this work. A particular attention is paid to the processed problem-dependent nuclear libraries. SAS2H, a complex sequence of the SCALE-4.3 code system containing the modules BONAMI - NITAWL - XSDRNPM - COUPLE - ORIGEN-S - XSDOSE, has been assimilated on the IFIN-HH computer and applied to update the ORIGEN-S libraries by producing problem-dependent processed data libraries needed to perform the depletion and shielding analysis. This sequence uses one of the eight associated data libraries of the SCALE-4.3 system according to the choice of the user. The method consists in the following analysis processes: i) lattice cell neutron analysis to produce the flux weighting spectrum for activation library updating; ii) update of the nuclear data constants of the ORIGEN-S libraries; iii) depletion and decay analysis for a specified fuel assembly and irradiation history in order to generate gamma and neutron source strength and spectra. iv) one-dimensional radial shielding calculation for the evaluation of the angular neutron and gamma flux at the surface of a spent fuel shipping cask and further calculation of the dose rates at various points outside the cask. An efficient alternative of the calculation sequence mentioned above is the ARP (Automatic Rapid Processing) method conceived in order to generate independently ORIGEN-S libraries and to reduce substantially the running time. The substance of this method is the generation of the problem-dependent libraries from basis libraries a priori created by SAS2H for specific fuel assembly type and further interpolation of two independent variables, enrichment and burnup. Specific applications concerning WWR-S spent fuel were performed: i) generation of three problem-dependent libraries for the S-36 fuel assembly taking into account the maximum value of the burnup of this

  16. Temperature-dependent transitions between normal and inverse isotope effects pertaining to the interaction of H-H and C-H bonds with transition metal centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Gerard

    2009-02-17

    Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) serve as versatile tools to infer details about reaction mechanisms and the nature of transition states, while equilibrium isotope effects (EIEs) associated with the site preferences of hydrogen and deuterium enable researchers to study aspects of molecular structure. Researchers typically interpret primary deuterium isotope effects based on two simple guidelines: (i) the KIE for an elementary reaction is normal (k(H)/k(D) > 1) and (ii) the EIE is dictated by deuterium preferring to be located in the site corresponding to the highest frequency oscillator. In this Account, we evaluate the applicability of these rules to the interactions of H-H and C-H bonds with a transition metal center. Significantly, experimental and computational studies question the predictability of primary EIEs in these systems based on the notion that deuterium prefers to occupy the highest frequency oscillator. In particular, the EIEs for (i) formation of sigma-complexes by coordination of H-H and C-H bonds and (ii) oxidative addition of dihydrogen exhibit unusual temperature dependencies, such that the same system may demonstrate both normal (i.e., K(H)/K(D) > 1) and inverse (i.e., K(H)/K(D) ZPE (where SYM is the symmetry factor, MMI is the mass-moment of inertia term, EXC is the excitation term, and ZPE is the zero-point energy term), and the distinctive temperature profile results from the inverse ZPE (enthalpy) and normal [SYM x MMI x EXC] (entropy) components opposing each other and having different temperature dependencies. At low temperatures, the ZPE component dominates and the EIE is inverse, while at high temperatures, the [SYM x MMI x EXC] component dominates and the EIE is normal. The inverse nature of the ZPE term is a consequence of the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of RH (R = H, CH(3)) becoming low-energy isotopically sensitive vibrations in the product, while the normal nature of the [SYM x MMI x EXC] component

  17. Ocean Bottom Pressure Seasonal Cycles and Decadal Trends from GRACE Release-05: Ocean Circulation Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. C.; Chambers, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean mass variations are important for diagnosing sea level budgets, the hydrological cycle and global energy budget, as well as ocean circulation variability. Here seasonal cycles and decadal trends of ocean mass from January 2003 to December 2012, both global and regional, are analyzed using GRACE Release 05 data. The trend of global flux of mass into the ocean approaches 2 cm decade-1 in equivalent sea level rise. Regional trends are of similar magnitude, with the North Pacific, South Atlantic, and South Indian oceans generally gaining mass and other regions losing mass. These trends suggest a spin-down of the North Pacific western boundary current extension and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the South Atlantic and South Indian oceans. The global average seasonal cycle of ocean mass is about 1 cm in amplitude, with a maximum in early October and volume fluxes in and out of the ocean reaching 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3 s-1) when integrated over the area analyzed here. Regional patterns of seasonal ocean mass change have typical amplitudes of 1-4 cm, and include maxima in the subtropics and minima in the subpolar regions in hemispheric winters. The subtropical mass gains and subpolar mass losses in the winter spin up both subtropical and subpolar gyres, hence the western boundary current extensions. Seasonal variations in these currents are order 10 Sv, but since the associated depth-averaged current variations are only order 0.1 cm s-1, they would be difficult to detect using in situ oceanographic instruments. a) Amplitude (colors, in cm) and b) phase (colors, in months of the year) of an annual harmonic fit to monthly GRACE Release 05 CSR 500 km smoothed maps (concurrently with a trend and the semiannual harmonic). The 97.5% confidence interval for difference from zero is also indicated (solid black line). Data within 300 km of coastlines are not considered.

  18. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  19. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  20. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The operational and technical feasibility of the penetrator option for HGW disposal has been reviewed and the areas where research is required to confirm feasibility have been identified. The research requirements have been presented against the Department's ocean disposal programme timescale on a series of bar charts. The bar charts show the need for theoretical and experimental studies of the basic mechanisms governing hole closure and the development of suitable instrumentation to assess the actual behaviour of the remoulded sediment in deep ocean trials. Detailed planning of deep ocean trials in sufficient time to develop strategy, models and instrumentation, identification of site investigation requirements and thermal response studies of sediments are also required. (author)

  1. Ocean commitments under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Natalya D.; Victor, David G.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2017-11-01

    Under the Paris Agreement nations made pledges known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs), which indicate how national governments are evaluating climate risks and policy opportunities. We find that NDCs reveal important systematic patterns reflecting national interests and capabilities. Because the ocean plays critical roles in climate mitigation and adaptation, we created a quantitative marine focus factor (MFF) to evaluate how governments address marine issues. In contrast to the past, when oceans received minimal attention in climate negotiations, 70% of 161 NDCs we analysed include marine issues. The percentage of the population living in low-lying areas--vulnerable to rising seas--positively influences the MFF, but negotiating group (Annex 1 or small island developing states) is equally important, suggesting political motivations are crucial to NDC development. The analysis reveals gaps between scientific and government attention, including on ocean deoxygenation, which is barely mentioned. Governments display a keen interest in expanding marine research on climate priorities.

  2. The 360 Degree Fulldome Production "Clockwork Ocean"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschek, B.; Heinsohn, R.; Opitz, D.; Fischer, T.; Baschek, T.

    2016-02-01

    The investigation of submesoscale eddies and fronts is one of the leading oceanographic topics at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016. In order to observe these small and short-lived phenomena, planes equipped with high-resolution cameras and fast vessels were deployed during the Submesoscale Experiments (SubEx) leading to some of the first high-resolution observations of these eddies. In a future experiment, a zeppelin will be used the first time in marine sciences. The relevance of submesoscale processes for the oceans and the work of the eddy hunters is described in the fascinating 9-minute long 360 degree fulldome production Clockwork Ocean. The fully animated movie is introduced in this presentation taking the observer from the bioluminescence in the deep ocean to a view of our blue planet from space. The immersive media is used to combine fascination for a yet unknown environment with scientific education of a broad audience. Detailed background information is available at the parallax website www.clockwork-ocean.com. The Film is also available for Virtual Reality glasses and smartphones to reach a broader distribution. A unique Mobile Dome with an area of 70 m² and seats for 40 people is used for science education at events, festivals, for politicians and school classes. The spectators are also invited to participate in the experiments by presenting 360 degree footage of the measurements. The premiere of Clockwork Ocean was in July 2015 in Hamburg, Germany and will be worldwide available in English and German as of fall 2015. Clockwork Ocean is a film of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht produced by Daniel Opitz and Ralph Heinsohn.

  3. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  4. Hawaii ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for artificial reefs, designated critical habitats, national parks, marine sanctuaries, special management areas,...

  5. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  6. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; Mueller, James L.

    2000-01-01

    The document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. This document supersedes the earlier version (Mueller and Austin 1995) published as Volume 25 in the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. This document marks a significant departure from, and improvement on, theformat and content of Mueller and Austin (1995). The authorship of the protocols has been greatly broadened to include experts specializing in some key areas. New chapters have been added to provide detailed and comprehensive protocols for stability monitoring of radiometers using portable sources, abovewater measurements of remote-sensing reflectance, spectral absorption measurements for discrete water samples, HPLC pigment analysis and fluorometric pigment analysis. Protocols were included in Mueller and Austin (1995) for each of these areas, but the new treatment makes significant advances in each topic area. There are also new chapters prescribing protocols for calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors, sun photometer and sky radiance measurements and analysis, and data archival. These topic areas were barely mentioned in Mueller and Austin (1995).

  7. Building a network of flowers, green, and ocean. Investigation report on establishment of new energy vision in Wada Town area (Chiba Prefecture); Hana midori umi no network zukuri. Wadacho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    With the idea of living together with well-blessed nature placed as the base of building the town, new energy utilization promoting measures were established spanning over ten years starting fiscal 2000. Specifically, the vision was established with the following points as the substance: introduction of new energy technologies into the agricultural and fishery industries as the basic district industry, initiative introduction into public facilities in consideration of repercussion effects brought about by the introduction, provision of energy related information by improving publicity magazines and information technologies, and expanded provision of environmental information collaborated with schools. Specific measures discussed include photovoltaic power generation, utilization of bio-mass energies made available from livestock excreta, and algae, utilization of hydro-energy through the improvement project of the Komukai dam, utilization of wind power energy and ocean wave power energy, and utilization of rape-seed oil as automotive fuel. Such educational activities will also be promoted actively as the setting of economy indexes, assistance to autonomous activities, and holding training meetings, seminars, and experience education class rooms. (NEDO)

  8. TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Rastogi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an assessment of the repeat periods of great earthquakes from past seismicity, convergence rates and paleoseismological results, possible future source zones of tsunami generating earthquakes in the Indian Ocean (possible seismic gap areas are identified along subduction zones and zones of compression. Central Sumatra, Java, Makran coast, Indus Delta, Kutch-Saurashtra, Bangladesh and southern Myanmar are identified as possible source zones of earthquakes in near future which might cause tsunamis in the Indian Ocean, and in particular, that could affect India. The Sunda Arc (covering Sumatra and Java subduction zone, situated on the eastern side of the Indian Ocean, is one of the most active plate margins in the world that generates frequent great earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. The Andaman- Nicobar group of islands is also a seismically active zone that generates frequent earthquakes. However, northern Sumatra and Andaman-Nicobar regions are assessed to be probably free from great earthquakes (M!8.0 for a few decades due to occurrence of 2004 Mw 9.3 and 2005 Mw 8.7 earthquakes. The Krakatau volcanic eruptions have caused large tsunamis in the past. This volcano and a few others situated on the ocean bed can cause large tsunamis in the future. List of past tsunamis generated due to earthquakes/volcanic eruptions that affected the Indian region and vicinity in the Indian Ocean are also presented.

  9. MicroHH 1.0: a computational fluid dynamics code for direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerwaarden, Chiel C.; van Stratum, Bart J. H.; Heus, Thijs; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Fedorovich, Evgeni; Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes MicroHH 1.0, a new and open-source (www.microhh.org) computational fluid dynamics code for the simulation of turbulent flows in the atmosphere. It is primarily made for direct numerical simulation but also supports large-eddy simulation (LES). The paper covers the description of the governing equations, their numerical implementation, and the parameterizations included in the code. Furthermore, the paper presents the validation of the dynamical core in the form of convergence and conservation tests, and comparison of simulations of channel flows and slope flows against well-established test cases. The full numerical model, including the associated parameterizations for LES, has been tested for a set of cases under stable and unstable conditions, under the Boussinesq and anelastic approximations, and with dry and moist convection under stationary and time-varying boundary conditions. The paper presents performance tests showing good scaling from 256 to 32 768 processes. The graphical processing unit (GPU)-enabled version of the code can reach a speedup of more than an order of magnitude for simulations that fit in the memory of a single GPU.

  10. Comportamiento de las aleaciones termorresistentes AISI HH y HK-40 ante los procesos de carburización y nitruración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleno Alfonso-Brindis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el comportamiento de los aceros austeníticos fundidos AISI HH y HK- 40 (de producción nacional ante los procesos de carburización y nitruración en los rangos de temperaturas desde 750 hasta 1 000 °C. Se estudia la cinética y la termodinámica de las posibles reacciones y los productos de las mismas se caracterizan mediante técnicas de Microscopía Óptica, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y Microanálisis (MEB-EDAX. En el análisis microscópico se observó la formación de carburos de cromo después de la carburización, mientras que la nitruración dio lugar a la formación de nitruros de cromo. Se concluye que la aleación AISI HK-40 posee una elevada resistencia intrínseca a la carburización y a la nitruración, que hace factible su empleo en componentes de hornos de soleras múltiples para la reducción de minerales lateríticos

  11. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus; the H+/H- ratio and the activation state of the enzyme during reduction of acetyl pyridine adenine dinucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, T; Jackson, J B

    1992-02-21

    Chromatophores from Rhodobacter capsulatus were incubated in the dark with NADPH and acetylpyridineadenine dinucleotide (AcPdAD+) in the presence of different concentrations of myxothiazol. The transhydrogenase activity was monitored until an appropriate mass action ratio, [AcPdAD+][NADPH]/[AcPdADH][NADP+], was reached. The sample was then illuminated and the initial rate of either AcPdAD+ reduction by NADPH or AcPdADH oxidation by NADP+ was recorded. The ratio of H+ translocated per H- equivalent transferred by transhydrogenase was calculated from the value of the membrane potential (delta pH = 0) at which illumination caused no net reaction in either direction. The mean value for the H+/H- ratio was 0.55. At greater values of [AcPdAD+][NADPH]/[AcPdADH][NADP+] than were employed in the above experiments and over a wider range of concentrations of myxothiazol, it was found that incremental increases in the membrane potential always gave rise to a decrease, never an increase in the rate of AcPdAD+ reduction. In contrast to the H(+)-ATP synthase, there is no evidence of any activation/deactivation of H(+)-transhydrogenase by the protonmotive force.

  12. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  13. An Ocean of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Doug

    2010-01-01

    For more than one hundred years teachers have paddled beside the great ocean of mathematical adventure. Between them they have taught millions of young people. A few have dived in and kept swimming, some have lingered on the shore playing in pools, but most have dipped their toes in and run like heck in the other direction never to return. There…

  14. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    roughly 28°S. The second is the Hawaiian Island Chain, extending to Midway Island at 28°N, 177°W and finally the Emperor Seamount chain running due...dimension array centered near Ascension. The climatology ocean (WOA09) showed very little seasonal dependence or change from the geodesic and this is

  15. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.

    2015-01-01

    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  16. Power from Ocean Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  17. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  18. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  19. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  20. Tsunami Speed Variations in Density-stratified Compressible Global Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tsunami observations in the deep ocean have accumulated unequivocal evidence that tsunami traveltime delays compared with the linear long-wave tsunami simulations occur during tsunami propagation in the deep ocean. The delay is up to 2% of the tsunami traveltime. Watada et al. [2013] investigated the cause of the delay using the normal mode theory of tsunamis and attributed the delay to the compressibility of seawater, the elasticity of the solid earth, and the gravitational potential change associated with mass motion during the passage of tsunamis. Tsunami speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed propagator matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4-km deep ocean, the total tsunami speed reduction is 0.45% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. Tsunami speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles and characteristic structures are discussed. Tsunami speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except for in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on tsunami traveltime should be included for precise modeling of trans-oceanic tsunamis. Data locations where a vertical ocean profile deeper than 2500 m is available in World Ocean Atlas 2009. The dark gray area indicates the Pacific Ocean defined in WOA09. a) Tsunami speed variations. Red, gray and black bars represent global, Pacific, and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. b) Regression lines of the tsunami velocity reduction for all oceans. c)Vertical ocean profiles at grid points indicated by the stars in Figure 1.

  1. A biologically relevant method for considering patterns of oceanic retention in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mao; Corney, Stuart P.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Klocker, Andreas; Sumner, Michael; Constable, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Many marine species have planktonic forms - either during a larval stage or throughout their lifecycle - that move passively or are strongly influenced by ocean currents. Understanding these patterns of movement is important for informing marine ecosystem management and for understanding ecological processes generally. Retention of biological particles in a particular area due to ocean currents has received less attention than transport pathways, particularly for the Southern Ocean. We present a method for modelling retention time, based on the half-life for particles in a particular region, that is relevant for biological processes. This method uses geostrophic velocities at the ocean surface, derived from 23 years of satellite altimetry data (1993-2016), to simulate the advection of passive particles during the Southern Hemisphere summer season (from December to March). We assess spatial patterns in the retention time of passive particles and evaluate the processes affecting these patterns for the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Our results indicate that the distribution of retention time is related to bathymetric features and the resulting ocean dynamics. Our analysis also reveals a moderate level of consistency between spatial patterns of retention time and observations of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) distribution.

  2. Arctic Ocean Scientific Drilling: The Next Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruediger Stein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The modern Arctic Ocean appears to be changing faster than any other region on Earth. To understand the potential extent of high latitude climate change, it is necessary to sample the history stored in the sediments filling the basins and covering the ridges of the Arctic Ocean. These sediments have been imaged with seismic reflection data, but except for the superficial record, which has been piston cored, they have been sampled only on the Lomonosov Ridge in 2004 during the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX-IODP Leg 302; Backman et al., 2006 and in 1993 in the ice-free waters in the Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau area (ODP Leg 151; Thiede et al., 1996.Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last few decades, the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution are poorly known compared to the other oceans. Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the database we have from this area is still very weak. Large segments of geologic time have not been sampled in sedimentary sections. The question of regional variations cannot be addressed.

  3. Wind and temperature data from current meter in the TOGA - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS), 28 May 1994 to 21 March 1995 (NODC Accession 9800041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and temperature data were collected using current meter in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from May 28, 1994 to March 21, 1995. Data were submitted...

  4. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  5. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  6. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  7. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  8. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  9. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  10. ocean_city_md.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  11. Carbon–climate feedbacks accelerate ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Matear

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon–climate feedbacks have the potential to significantly impact the future climate by altering atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Zaehle et al. 2010. By modifying the future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the carbon–climate feedbacks will also influence the future ocean acidification trajectory. Here, we use the CO2 emissions scenarios from four representative concentration pathways (RCPs with an Earth system model to project the future trajectories of ocean acidification with the inclusion of carbon–climate feedbacks. We show that simulated carbon–climate feedbacks can significantly impact the onset of undersaturated aragonite conditions in the Southern and Arctic oceans, the suitable habitat for tropical coral and the deepwater saturation states. Under the high-emissions scenarios (RCP8.5 and RCP6, the carbon–climate feedbacks advance the onset of surface water under saturation and the decline in suitable coral reef habitat by a decade or more. The impacts of the carbon–climate feedbacks are most significant for the medium- (RCP4.5 and low-emissions (RCP2.6 scenarios. For the RCP4.5 scenario, by 2100 the carbon–climate feedbacks nearly double the area of surface water undersaturated with respect to aragonite and reduce by 50 % the surface water suitable for coral reefs. For the RCP2.6 scenario, by 2100 the carbon–climate feedbacks reduce the area suitable for coral reefs by 40 % and increase the area of undersaturated surface water by 20 %. The sensitivity of ocean acidification to the carbon–climate feedbacks in the low to medium emission scenarios is important because recent CO2 emission reduction commitments are trying to transition emissions to such a scenario. Our study highlights the need to better characterise the carbon–climate feedbacks and ensure we do not underestimate the projected ocean acidification.

  12. Carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matear, Richard J.; Lenton, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Carbon-climate feedbacks have the potential to significantly impact the future climate by altering atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Zaehle et al. 2010). By modifying the future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the carbon-climate feedbacks will also influence the future ocean acidification trajectory. Here, we use the CO2 emissions scenarios from four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) with an Earth system model to project the future trajectories of ocean acidification with the inclusion of carbon-climate feedbacks. We show that simulated carbon-climate feedbacks can significantly impact the onset of undersaturated aragonite conditions in the Southern and Arctic oceans, the suitable habitat for tropical coral and the deepwater saturation states. Under the high-emissions scenarios (RCP8.5 and RCP6), the carbon-climate feedbacks advance the onset of surface water under saturation and the decline in suitable coral reef habitat by a decade or more. The impacts of the carbon-climate feedbacks are most significant for the medium- (RCP4.5) and low-emissions (RCP2.6) scenarios. For the RCP4.5 scenario, by 2100 the carbon-climate feedbacks nearly double the area of surface water undersaturated with respect to aragonite and reduce by 50 % the surface water suitable for coral reefs. For the RCP2.6 scenario, by 2100 the carbon-climate feedbacks reduce the area suitable for coral reefs by 40 % and increase the area of undersaturated surface water by 20 %. The sensitivity of ocean acidification to the carbon-climate feedbacks in the low to medium emission scenarios is important because recent CO2 emission reduction commitments are trying to transition emissions to such a scenario. Our study highlights the need to better characterise the carbon-climate feedbacks and ensure we do not underestimate the projected ocean acidification.

  13. It is the time for oceanic seabirds: Tracking year-round distribution of gadfly petrels across the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raul; Carlile, Nicholas; Madeiros, Jeremy; Ramirez, Ivan; Paiva, Vitor H.; Dinis, Herculano A.; Zino, Francis; Biscoito, Manuel; Leal, Gustavo R.; Bugoni, Leandro; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Ryan, Peter G.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    AimAnthropogenic activities alter and constrain the structure of marine ecosystems with implications for wide-ranging marine vertebrates. In spite of the environmental importance of vast oceanic ecosystems, most conservation efforts mainly focus on neritic areas. To identify relevant oceanic areas for conservation, we assessed the year-round spatial distribution and spatio-temporal overlap of eight truly oceanic seabird species of gadfly petrels (Pterodroma spp.) inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean.LocationAtlantic Ocean.MethodsUsing tracking data (mostly from geolocators), we examined year-round distributions, the timing of life-cycle events, and marine habitat overlap of eight gadfly petrel species that breed in the Atlantic Ocean.ResultsWe compiled 125 year-round tracks. Movement strategies ranged from non-migratory to long-distance migrant species and from species sharing a common non-breeding area to species dispersing among multiple non-breeding sites. Gadfly petrels occurred throughout the Atlantic Ocean but tended to concentrate in subtropical regions. During the boreal summer, up to three species overlapped spatio-temporally over a large area around the Azores archipelago. During the austral summer, up to four species coincided in a core area in subtropical waters around Cape Verde, and three species shared habitat over two distinct areas off Brazil. The petrels used many national Exclusive Economic Zones, although they also exploited offshore international waters.Main conclusionsTracking movements of highly mobile vertebrates such as gadfly petrels can provide a powerful tool to evaluate and assess the potential need for and location of protected oceanic areas. As more multispecies, year-round data sets are collected from wide-ranging vertebrates, researchers and managers will have greater insight into the location of biodiversity hotspots. These can subsequently inform and guide marine spatial planning efforts that account for both conservation and

  14. Ecological Stoichiometry of Ocean Plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Allison R.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2018-01-01

    Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained. We propose that specific physiological mechanisms have a strong impact on plankton and community stoichiometry in nutrient-rich environments, whereas biogeochemical interactions are important for the stoichiometry of the oligotrophic gyres. Finally, we outline key areas with missing information that is needed to advance understanding of the present and future ecological stoichiometry of ocean plankton.

  15. World ocean and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiknadze, O.E.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The radioecological situation that took shape in the Arctic, North Atlantic Ocean and Far East regions as a result of radioactive waste marine disposal was assessed. Accurate account of radionuclides formation and decay in submerged water-water reactors of nuclear submarines suggests that total activity of radioactive waste disposed near the Novaya Zemlya amounted to 107 kCi by the end of 1999. Activity of radioactive waste disposed in the North Atlantic currently is not in excess of 430 kCi. It is pointed out that the Far East region heads the list in terms of total activity disposed (529 kCi). Effective individual dose for critical groups of population in the Arctic, North Atlantic and Far East regions was determined. The conclusion was made that there is no detrimental effect of the radioactive waste disposed on radioecological situation in the relevant areas [ru

  16. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  17. Suspended sediment concentration and optical property observations of mixed-turbidity, coastal waters through multispectral ocean color inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multispectral satellite ocean color data from high-turbidity areas of the coastal ocean contain information about the surface concentrations and optical properties of suspended sediments and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Empirical and semi-analytical inversion algorit...

  18. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from BROOKE using BT and XBT casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 03 October 1975 to 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 8900225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the BROOKE in the North Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  19. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  20. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  1. National Ocean Sciences Bowl in 2014: A National Competition for High School Ocean Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-31

    and Environmental Science (NJ). Through creative storytelling and visualization, "Ocean Acidification" addressed human actions that increase carbon... history . They also are beginning to understand the interplay between areas of science, something that is rarely taught. To he an effective scientist

  2. New perspectives in ocean acidification research: editor's introduction to the special feature on ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Philip L

    2017-09-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by the uptake of additional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmosphere, will have far-reaching impacts on marine ecosystems (Gattuso & Hansson 2011 Ocean acidification Oxford University Press). The predicted changes in ocean chemistry will affect whole biological communities and will occur within the context of global warming and other anthropogenic stressors; yet much of the biological research conducted to date has tested the short-term responses of single species to ocean acidification conditions alone. While an important starting point, these studies may have limited predictive power because they do not account for possible interactive effects of multiple climate change drivers or for ecological interactions with other species. Furthermore, few studies have considered variation in responses among populations or the evolutionary potential within populations. Therefore, our knowledge about the potential for marine organisms to adapt to ocean acidification is extremely limited. In 2015, two of the pioneers in the field, Ulf Riebesell and Jean-Pierre Gattuso, noted that to move forward as a field of study, future research needed to address critical knowledge gaps in three major areas: (i) multiple environmental drivers, (ii) ecological interactions and (iii) acclimation and adaptation (Riebesell and Gattuso 2015 Nat. Clim. Change 5 , 12-14 (doi:10.1038/nclimate2456)). In May 2016, more than 350 researchers, students and stakeholders met at the 4th International Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO 2 World in Hobart, Tasmania, to discuss the latest advances in understanding ocean acidification and its biological consequences. Many of the papers presented at the symposium reflected this shift in focus from short-term, single species and single stressor experiments towards multi-stressor and multispecies experiments that address knowledge gaps about the ecological impacts of ocean acidification on marine communities. The nine papers in this

  3. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and planes...

  4. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  5. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  6. Far-field tsunami magnitude determined from ocean-bottom pressure gauge data around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, T.; Hirata, K.; Kaneda, Y.

    2003-12-01

    doubled by reflection at the fixed edge (coastline). Hence, we introduce a water-depth term and a reflection coefficient of 2 in the original Abe_fs empirical relation to correct tsunami amplitude for open oceans and obtain Mt = log(2H/h-1/4) + 9.1, where h is the depth of the ocean bottom pressure gage. The modified empirical relation produces tsunami magnitudes close to those determined using tide gauges.

  7. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  8. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Alía, Rubén García; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Brugger, Markus; Cerutti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh), running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee) as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  9. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infantino Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh, running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he. In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  10. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  11. Open ocean tide modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Two trends evident in global tidal modelling since the first GEOP conference in 1972 are described. The first centers on the incorporation of terms for ocean loading and gravitational self attraction into Laplace's tidal equations. The second centers on a better understanding of the problem of near resonant modelling and the need for realistic maps of tidal elevation for use by geodesists and geophysicists. Although new models still show significant differences, especially in the South Atlantic, there are significant similarities in many of the world's oceans. This allows suggestions to be made for future locations for bottom pressure gauge measurements. Where available, estimates of M2 tidal dissipation from the new models are significantly lower than estimates from previous models.

  12. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The feasibility of safe ocean disposal options for heat-generating radioactive waste relies on the existence of suitable disposal sites. This review considers the status of the development of site selection criteria and the results of the study area investigations carried out under various national and international research programmes. In particular, the usefulness of the results obtained is related to the data needed for environmental and emplacement modelling. Preliminary investigations have identified fifteen potential deep ocean study areas in the North Atlantic. From these Great Meteor East (GME), Southern Nares Abyssal Plan (SNAP) and Kings Trough Flank (KTF) were selected for further investigation. The review includes appraisals of regional geology, geophysical studies, sedimentology, geotechnical studies, geochemical studies and oceanography. (author)

  13. Ocean abandonment of radioactive waste. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouyama, Hiroaki

    1994-01-01

    Now, the nuclear powered submarines armed with ballistic missiles have become the main strength of navy. In Russia, eight nuclear powered icebreakers are operated. Mainly PWRs are used for these nuclear ships. The fuel exchange for nuclear powered submarines is carried out after the use for nearly ten years, therefore, the degree of enrichment of U-235 in fuel seems considerably high. So far, the sinking accidents of five nuclear powered submarines were reported. Former USSR began the ocean abandonment of radioactive waste in 1959, and continued it up to recent date. The northern sea area where the abandonment was carried out and the abandoned amount of radioactivity are shown. Also those in Far East sea area are shown. The management system for radioactive waste in Russia, the course after the abandonment of liquid waste in Japan Sea by Russian navy, the response of Japan regarding the ocean abandonment of radioactive waste and so on are described. (K.I.)

  14. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  15. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  16. Ocean Bottom Seismic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    EPR, the Clipperton and Orozco fracture zones , and along the coast of Mexico, were recorded for a two month period using ocean bottom seismometers...67. Tuthill, J.D., Lewis, B.R., and Garmany, J.D., 1981, Stonely waves, Lopez Island noise, and deep sea noise from I to 5 hz, Marine Geophysical...Patrol Pell Marine Science Library d/o Coast Guard R & D Center University of Rhode Island Avery Point Narragansett Bay Campus Groton, CT 06340

  17. Ocean Observations of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Don

    2016-01-01

    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  18. Springer handbook of ocean engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Xiros, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The handbook is the definitive reference for the interdisciplinary field that is ocean engineering. It integrates the coverage of fundamental and applied material and encompasses a diverse spectrum of systems, concepts and operations in the maritime environment, as well as providing a comprehensive update on contemporary, leading-edge ocean technologies. Coverage includes but is not limited to; an overview of ocean science, ocean signals and instrumentation, coastal structures, developments in ocean energy technologies, and ocean vehicles and automation. The handbook will be of interest to practitioners in a range of offshore industries and naval establishments as well as academic researchers and graduate students in ocean, coastal, offshore, and marine engineering and naval architecture.

  19. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  20. Toward a Sociology of Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John

    2017-02-01

    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  1. Global ocean monitoring for the World Climate Research Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, R; Bretherton, F

    1986-07-01

    -"Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (TOGA)"-will be undertaken to sudy the sequence of events of air-sea interactions in the tropical oceans and their impact on climatic variations on land-for example, variations in the strength and location of the Indian Ocean monsoon, droughts in low latitudes, and climatic fluctuations in temperate latitudes.Experimental and continuing time series will be taken at fixed locations to obtain a better picture of the magnitude and causes of ocean climate variability. National and multinational systematic repeated measurements along selected ocean transects or in specific ocean areas will be taken to determine oceanic variability and teleconnections between oceanic and atmospheric processes. Examples are the long Japanese section along the meridian of 137° E and the 'Sections' program of the USSR and several other countries in Energy-Active zones.The results from this wide range of observations and experiments will be used to guide and define mathematical models of the ocean circulation and its interactions with the atmosphere.It can be shown that biogeochemical processes in the ocean play an important role in determining the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere and thus in causing long-term climatic changes. Variations in the biological productivity of sub-surface waters cause variations in the effectveness of the biological pump which carries organic carbon down into deeper waters where it is oxidized. Studies of ice cores from 20 000 to 30 000 yr before the present indicate that atmospheric carbon dioxide varied by a factor of 2 within times of the order of 100 yr, and these variations were accompanied by large excursions in atmospheric temperature. Thus, ocean climatic monitoring must take into account measurements of both biological and physical variations in the ocean.

  2. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  3. The ocean depths: Elf's target for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Elf has long since been aware of the potential of sedimentary basins in the ocean depths. For this reason, the group has been preparing to descend to these depths for many years. Today, it is setting itself the target of being ready to optimise as from 1997 a discovery made in the depth between 400 and 1500 m of water in Africa. In the Gulf of Guinea, most of the neighbouring countries have opened up their deep sea offshore areas, in order to try to renew their reserves on the verge of the third millennium. Indeed a great similarity can be seen between the West African and the Brazilian ocean depths. In the African offshore areas, Elf has acquired or renewed eight blocks, four of which are in Nigeria, one in the Congo, one in Gabon and two in Angola. The group is also interested in the ocean depths which are now accessible in the North Sea, whether in the Norwegian (Voring and More) of British (Western Shetlands) areas. (author). 1 fig

  4. Effects of Ocean Ecosystem on Marine Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Meskhidze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using satellite data for the surface ocean, aerosol optical depth (AOD, and cloud microphysical parameters, we show that statistically significant positive correlations exist between ocean ecosystem productivity, the abundance of submicron aerosols, and cloud microphysical properties over different parts of the remote oceans. The correlation coefficient for remotely sensed surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl-a] and liquid cloud effective radii over productive areas of the oceans varies between −0.2 and −0.6. Special attention is given to identifying (and addressing problems from correlation analysis used in the previous studies that can lead to erroneous conclusions. A new approach (using the difference between retrieved AOD and predicted sea salt aerosol optical depth, AODdiff is developed to explore causal links between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the remote marine atmosphere. We have found that over multiple time periods, 550 nm AODdiff (sensitive to accumulation mode aerosol, which is the prime contributor to CCN correlates well with [Chl-a] over the productive waters of the Southern Ocean. Since [Chl-a] can be used as a proxy of ocean biological productivity, our analysis demonstrates the role of ocean ecology in contributing CCN, thus shaping the microphysical properties of low-level marine clouds.

  5. Open-Ocean and Coastal Properties of Recent Major Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, A.; Thomson, R.; Zaytsev, O.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of six major tsunamis during the period 2009-2015 (2009 Samoa; 2010 Chile; 2011 Tohoku; 2012 Haida Gwaii; 2014 and 2015 Chile) were thoroughly examined using coastal data from British Columbia, the U.S. West Coast and Mexico, and offshore open-ocean DART and NEPTUNE stations. Based on joint spectral analyses of the tsunamis and background noise, we have developed a method to suppress the influence of local topography and to use coastal observations to determine the underlying spectra of tsunami waves in the deep ocean. The "reconstructed" open-ocean tsunami spectra were found to be in close agreement with the actual tsunami spectra evaluated from the analysis of directly measured open-ocean tsunami records. We have further used the spectral estimates to parameterize tsunamis based on their integral open-ocean spectral characteristics. Three key parameters are introduced to describe individual tsunami events: (1) Integral open-ocean energy; (2) Amplification factor (increase of the mean coastal tsunami variance relative to the open-ocean variance); and (3) Tsunami colour, the frequency composition of the open-ocean tsunami waves. In particular, we found that the strongest tsunamis, associated with large source areas (the 2010 Chile and 2011 Tohoku) are "reddish" (indicating the dominance of low-frequency motions), while small-source events (the 2009 Samoa and 2012 Haida Gwaii) are "bluish" (indicating strong prevalence of high-frequency motions).

  6. MERSEA, the European Gate to Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, F. P.; Manzella, G.; Maudire, G.; Bahurel, P.; Bell, M.; Haines, K.

    2004-12-01

    Mersea ('Marine Environment and Security for the European Area'), a European project to manage the oceans, aims to develop by 2008 the GMES ocean component ('Global Monitoring for Environment and Security'), a system for operational monitoring and forecasting on global and regional scales of the ocean physics, bio-geochemistry and ecosystems. Mersea project started on April 1st, 2004. This ocean monitoring system is envisioned as an operational network that systematically acquires data and disseminates information to serve the needs of intermediate users and policy makers, in support of safe and efficient off-shore activities, environmental management, security, and sustainable use of marine resources. Three real-time data streams have been identified: remote sensed from satellites, in situ from ocean observing networks, and surface forcing fields from numerical weather prediction agencies. Mersea will ensure the availability of near real time and delayed mode products over the period 2004-2008, global and regional products optimised for supporting operational oceanography. Historical data sets for the last 15 years will also be prepared. Mersea is also the European center serving Godae goals ('Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment', 2003-2005). The timely delivery of high quality and reliable information to many user categories is essential for the success of such integrated project. There is consequently a large effort to coordinate all delivery actions giving special attention on the users' needs. This effort will cover many issues like product presentation, products and web services catalogue and how to deal for an interdisciplinary and integrated use. A first major difficulty is to reach at many levels product coherency and standardisation, which is needed to facilitate the visibility, understanding and exchange of the ocean observing data. A first task will therefore be to write a common unified framework guide, a kind of member chart, which will require

  7. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Bange, Hermann W.

    2012-01-01

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N2O and N2O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N2O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N2O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N2O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N2O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N2O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr−1. This is in agreement with estimates of the global N2O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N2O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N2O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed. PMID:22451110

  8. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W R; Bange, Hermann W

    2012-05-05

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N(2)O and N(2)O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N(2)O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N(2)O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N(2)O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N(2)O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N(2)O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr(-1). This is in agreement with estimates of the global N(2)O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N(2)O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N(2)O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed.

  9. Development of three dimensional ocean current model for coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya

    1999-12-01

    In order to study the migration behavior of radionuclides released into a coastal region around Japan, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was introduced. This three-dimensional ocean current model was modified to be applied for oceanic simulations around Japan. This report describes the governing equations, numerical methods and model improvements. In addition, database system which is utilized for calculations and visualization system for graphical outputs are also described. Model simulation was carried out at off the area of Shimokita. Aomori-ken, Japan to investigate the effects of the boundary conditions on simulated results. (author)

  10. 75 FR 38779 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... managing agencies to fill key conservation gaps in important ocean areas. DATES: Comments on the... tide mark). Benefits of joining the national system of MPAs, which are expected to increase over time... federal and regional ocean conservation and management initiatives (such as integrated ocean observing...

  11. Regional State of the Coast Report - Western Indian Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosire, J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available protected area in Africa, covering more than 4020 square miles. The region continues to explore new and innovative options for managing oceans and coasts. We also recognise the transboundary nature of shared ocean resources, and our governments have... to list, we would like to express sincere appreciations to the: All Contracting Parties to the Nairobi Convention for supporting the focal points and the Governments of Kenya and Mozambique for graciously hosting and supporting capacity building...

  12. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the USO Patriotic Festival Air Show. This action... Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA. (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  13. 76 FR 329 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Reporting Requirements for the Ocean Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Reporting Requirements for the Ocean Salmon Fishery Off the Coasts of Washington..., designated regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and... requirements to land salmon within specific time frames and in specific areas may be implemented in the...

  14. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  15. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  16. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  17. Cruise report RV Ocean Surveyor Cruise 0-1-00-GM; the bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the Pinnacles area; northern Gulf of Mexico, May 23, through June 10, 2000; Venice, LA to Venice, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Dartnell, Peter; Hellequin, Laurent; Calder, Brian R.; Mayer, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive deep (~100 m) reef tract occurs on the Mississippi-Alabama outer continental shelf (OCS). The tract, known as "The Pinnacles", is apparently part of a sequence of drowned reef complexes along the "40-fathom" shelf edge of the northern Gulf of Mexico (Ludwick and Walton, 1957). It is critical to determine the accurate geomorphology of deep-reefs because of their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. The Pinnacles were mapped by Ludwick and Walton (1957) using a single-beam echo sounder but the spatial extent and morphology were interpreted from a series of widely separated, poorly navigated bathymetric profiles. Other recent studies, supported by Minerals Management Service (MMS), used towed sidescan sonars and single-channel seismic-reflection profiling. None of the existing studies provide the quality of geomorphic data necessary for reasonable habitat studies. The fish faunas of shallow hermatypic reefs have been well studied, but those of deep ahermatypic reefs have relatively ignored. The ecology of deep ahermatypic reefs is fundamentally different from hermatipic reefs because autochthonous intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (the carbon source for hermatypic corals) do not form the base of the trophic web. Instead, exogenous plankton, transported to the reef by currents, serves as the primary carbon source. Deep OCS reefs also lie below the practical working depths for SCUBA; consequently, remote investigations from a ship or in situ investigations using submersibles or ROVs are required. Community structure and trophodynamics of demersal fishes of the Pinnacles are presently the focus of USGS reseach. A goal of the research is to answer questions concerning the relataive roles played by geomorphology and surficial geology in the interaction with and control of biological differentiation. OCS reefs are important because we now know that such areas are important coral reef fish havens, key spawning 2 sites, and a critical early larval

  18. Summertime calcium carbonate undersaturation in shelf waters of the western Arctic Ocean – how biological processes exacerbate the impact of ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    N. R. Bates; M. I. Orchowska; R. Garley; J. T. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean accounts for only 4% of the global ocean area, but it contributes significantly to the global carbon cycle. Recent observations of seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry in shelf waters of the western Arctic Ocean, primarily in the Chukchi Sea, from 2009 to 2011 indicate that bottom waters are seasonally undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals, particularly aragonite. Nearly 40% of sampled bottom waters on the shelf have saturation states...

  19. Arctic Ocean Paleoceanography and Future IODP Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger

    2015-04-01

    areas and approaches for drilling and recovering undisturbed and complete sedimentary sequences are depth transects across the major ocean ridge systems, such as the Lomonosov Ridge. These new detailed climate records spanning time intervals from the (late Cretaceous/)Paleogene Greenhouse world to the Neogene-Quaternary Icehouse world will give new insights into our understanding of the Arctic Ocean within the global climate system and provide an opportunity to test the performance of climate models used to predict future climate change. During the Polarstern Expedition PS87 in August-September 2014, new site survey data including detailed multibeam bathymetry, multi-channel seismic and Parasound profiling as well as geological coring, were obtained on Lomonosov Ridge (Stein, 2015), being the basis for a more precise planning and update for a future IODP drilling campaign. Reference: Stein, R. (Ed.), 2015. Cruise Report of Polarstern Expedition PS87-2014 (Arctic Ocean/Lomonosov Ridge). Reps. Pol. Mar. Res., in press. Stein, R. , Weller, P. , Backman, J. , Brinkhuis, H., Moran, K. , Pälike, H., 2014. Cenozoic Arctic Ocean Climate History: Some highlights from the IODP Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX). Developments in Marine Geology 7, Elsevier Amsterdam/New York, pp. 259-293.

  20. Studying the Indian Ocean Ridge System: Agenda for the new century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Banerjee, R.; Drolia, R.K.

    Studies on the Indian Ocean Ridge System, though sporadic, was aimed to map the complete IORS petrologically and tectonically. Three areas are placed for immediate investigation; one in the slow spreading Carlsberg Ridge area, the second, along...

  1. Advancing Ocean Science Through Coordination, Community Building, and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benway, H. M.

    2016-02-01

    The US Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program (www.us-ocb.org) is a dynamic network of scientists working across disciplines to understand the ocean's role in the global carbon cycle and how marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are responding to environmental change. The OCB Project Office, which is based at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), serves as a central information hub for this network, bringing different scientific disciplines together and cultivating partnerships with complementary US and international programs to address high-priority research questions. The OCB Project Office plays multiple important support roles, such as hosting and co-sponsoring workshops, short courses, working groups, and synthesis activities on emerging research issues; engaging with relevant national and international science planning initiatives; and developing education and outreach activities and products with the goal of promoting ocean carbon science to broader audiences. Current scientific focus areas of OCB include ocean observations (shipboard, autonomous, satellite, etc.); changing ocean chemistry (acidification, expanding low-oxygen conditions, etc.); ocean carbon uptake and storage; estuarine and coastal carbon cycling; biological pump and associated biological and biogeochemical processes and carbon fluxes; and marine ecosystem response to environmental and evolutionary changes, including physiological and molecular-level responses of individual organisms, as well as shifts in community structure and function. OCB is a bottom-up organization that responds to the continually evolving priorities and needs of its network and engages marine scientists at all career stages. The scientific leadership of OCB includes a scientific steering committee and subcommittees on ocean time-series, ocean acidification, and ocean fertilization. This presentation will highlight recent OCB activities and products of interest to the ocean science community.

  2. Tropical Indian Ocean Variability Driving Southeast Australian Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, C. C.; England, M. H.; McIntosh, P. C.; Meyers, G. A.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.; Sen Gupta, A.; Taschetto, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    Variability in the tropical Indian Ocean has widespread effects on rainfall in surrounding countries, including East Africa, India and Indonesia. The leading mode of tropical Indian Ocean variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), is a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode characterized by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of opposite sign in the east and west of the basin with an associated large-scale atmospheric re-organisation. Earlier work has often focused on the positive phase of the IOD. However, we show here that the negative IOD phase is an important driver of regional rainfall variability and multi-year droughts. For southeastern Australia, we show that it is actually a lack of the negative IOD phase, rather than the positive IOD phase or Pacific variability, that provides the most robust explanation for recent drought conditions. Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called "Big Dry". The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show that the "Big Dry" and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by tropical Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of characteristic Indian Ocean temperature conditions that are conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the "Big Dry", its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent above-average temperatures. Implications of recent non-uniform warming trends in the Indian Ocean and how that might affect ocean characteristics and climate in

  3. Monitoring of ocean storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2003-02-01

    It has been proposed that atmospheric CO2 accumulation could be slowed by capture of CO2 from point sources and subsequent storage of that CO2 in the ocean. If applied, such sequestration efforts would need to be monitored for compliance, effectiveness, and unintended consequences. Aboveground inspection and monitoring of facilities and practices, combined with ocean observations, could assure compliance with ocean sequestration guidelines and regulations. Ocean observations could be made using a variety of sensors mounted on moorings or underwater gliders. Long-term effectiveness and leakage to the atmosphere must be estimated from models, since on large spatial scales it will be impossible to observationally distinguish carbon stored by a project from variable concentrations of background carbon. Furthermore, the ocean naturally would absorb roughly 80% of fossil fuel CO2 released to the atmosphere within a millennium. This means that most of the CO2 sequestered in the ocean that leaks out to the atmosphere will be reabsorbed by the ocean. However, there is no observational way to distinguish remaining carbon from reabsorbed carbon. The science of monitoring unintended consequences in the deep ocean interior is at a primitive state. Little is understood about ecosystems of the deep ocean interior; and even less is understood about how those ecosystems would respond to added CO2. High priority research objectives should be (1) to improve our understanding of the natural ecosystems of the deep ocean, and (2) to improve our understanding of the response of these ecosystems to increased oceanic CO2 concentrations and decreased ocean pH.

  4. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  5. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  6. Ocean bottom seismometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, William A., Jr.

    Seismometers have been placed on the ocean bottom for about 45 years, beginning with the work of Ewing and Vine [1938], and their current use to measure signals from earthquakes and explosions constitutes an important research method for seismological studies. Approximately 20 research groups are active in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, and the United States. A review of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) instrument characteristics and OBS scientific studies may be found in Whitmarsh and Lilwall [1984]. OBS instrumentation is also important for land seismology. The recording systems that have been developed have been generally more sophisticated than those available for land use, and several modern land seismic recording systems are based on OBS recording system designs.The instrumentation developed for OBS work was the topic of a meeting held at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in July 1982. This article will discuss the state of the art of OBS Technology, some of the problems remaining to be solved, and some of the solutions proposed and implemented by OBS scientists and engineers. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of existing instrumentation.

  7. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from unknown platforms in the TOGA Area - Pacific from 1992-11-10 to 1993-02-20 (NODC Accession 9600030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Ocean Station Chemistry data collected in TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) and Coupled...

  8. Sustaining observations in the polar oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, E P

    2014-09-28

    Polar oceans present a unique set of challenges to sustained observations. Sea ice cover restricts navigation for ships and autonomous measurement platforms alike, and icebergs present a hazard to instruments deployed in the upper ocean and in shelf seas. However, the important role of the poles in the global ocean circulation provides ample justification for sustained observations in these regions, both to monitor the rapid changes taking place, and to better understand climate processes in these traditionally poorly sampled areas. In the past, the vast majority of polar measurements took place in the summer. In recent years, novel techniques such as miniature CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) tags carried by seals have provided an explosion in year-round measurements in areas largely inaccessible to ships, and, as ice avoidance is added to autonomous profiling floats and gliders, these promise to provide further enhancements to observing systems. In addition, remote sensing provides vital information about changes taking place in sea ice cover at both poles. To make these observations sustainable into the future, improved international coordination and collaboration is necessary to gain optimum utilization of observing networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  10. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C

    1996-01-01

    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  11. Energy from the ocean. Report of the Committee on Science and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session by the Science Policy Research Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    In the area of renewable sources of energy from the ocean, the report includes chapters on ocean thermal energy conversion; energy from ocean waves; energy from ocean currents; energy from tides; energy from oceanic winds; energy from salinity gradients; and energy from oceanic bioconversion. Also covered are the nonrenewable sources of energy from the ocean with chapters on deep ocean oil and gas; offshore geothermal energy; and offshore hard mineral energy resources. The report concludes with a bibliography and a selection of current articles on the general subject of the energy potential of the oceans.

  12. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-12-15

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  13. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana; Llabré s, Moira; Lubiá n, Luis M.; Moreno-Ostos, Enrique; Estrada, Marta; Duarte, Carlos M.; Cerezo, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  14. Pelagic ecology of the South West Indian Ocean Ridge seamounts: Introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    The Indian Ocean was described by Behrman (1981) as the "Forlorn Ocean", a region neglected by science up to the late-1950s. For example, the Challenger Expedition from 1872 to 1876 largely avoided the Indian Ocean, sailing from Cape Town into Antarctic waters sampling around the Prince Edward Islands, Kerguelen Island and Crozet Islands before heading to Melbourne. From 1876 to the 1950s there were expeditions on several vessels including the Valdivia, Gauss and Planet (Germany), the Snellius (Netherlands), Discovery II, MahaBiss (United Kingdom), Albatross (Sweden), Dana and Galathea (Denmark; Behrman, 1981). There was no coordination between these efforts and overall the Indian Ocean, especially the deep sea remained perhaps the most poorly explored of the world's oceans. This situation was largely behind the multilateral effort represented by the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIEO), which was coordinated by the Scientific Committee for Ocean Research (SCOR), and which ran from 1959-1965. Work during this expedition focused on the Arabian Sea, the area to the northwest of Australia and the waters over the continental shelves and slopes of coastal states in the region. Subsequently several large-scale international oceanographic programmes have included significant components in the Indian Ocean, including the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). These studies were focused on physical oceanographic measurements and biogeochemistry and whilst the Indian Ocean is still less understood than other large oceans it is now integrated into the major ocean observation systems (Talley et al., 2011). This cannot be said for many aspects of the biology of the region, despite the fact that the Indian Ocean is one of the places where exploitation of marine living resources is still growing (FAO, 2016). The biology of the deep Indian Ocean outside of the Arabian Sea is particularly poorly understood given the presence

  15. Oceanic hydrates: more questions than answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Methane hydrates create problems by blocking pipelines and casing; they are also accused of contributing to environmental problems (e.g. global warming). Methane hydrates are also found in permafrost areas and in oceanic sediments where the necessary temperature and pressure for stability occur. Claims for the widespread occurrence in thick oceanic deposits are unfounded: apparently indirect evidence from seismic reflectors, seismic hydrocarbon indicators, logs and free samples is unreliable. At one time, hydrate was seen as a static, biogenic, continuous, huge resource but that view is changing to one of a dynamic, overpressurised, discontinuous and unreliable resource. Only Japan and India are currently showing any serious interest in hydrates. Academic research has raised more questions than answers. It is suggested that more hard exploratory evidence rather than theoretical study is required

  16. 76 FR 4139 - National Ocean Council; Development of Strategic Action Plans for the National Policy for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ...: Resiliency and Adaptation to Climate Change and Ocean Acidification: Strengthen resiliency of coastal... coastal areas in the face of climate-induced and other environmental changes; and Objective 9: Ocean... objective can further, including transformative changes in how we address the stewardship of the oceans...

  17. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  18. Western Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, Wildlife Refuges, Wild and Scenic Rivers, and State Parks. Vector polygons in this data...

  19. Virginia ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for management areas, national parks, state and local parks, and wildlife refuges in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. Alabama ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for designated critical habitats, state parks, wildlife refuges, and wildlife management areas in Alabama. Vector...