Sample records for oceanic detachment fault

  1. The cooling history and the depth of detachment faulting at the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (United States)

    Schoolmeesters, Nicole; Cheadle, Michael J.; John, Barbara E.; Reiners, Peter W.; Gee, Jeffrey; Grimes, Craig B.


    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are domal exposures of oceanic crust and mantle interpreted to be denuded to the seafloor by large slip oceanic detachment faults. We combine previously reported U-Pb zircon crystallization ages with (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronometry and multicomponent magnetic remanence data to determine the cooling history of the footwall to the Atlantis Massif OCC (30°N, MAR) and help establish cooling rates, as well as depths of detachment faulting and gabbro emplacement. We present nine new (U-Th)/He zircon ages for samples from IODP Hole U1309D ranging from 40 to 1415 m below seafloor. These data paired with U-Pb zircon ages and magnetic remanence data constrain cooling rates of gabbroic rocks from the upper 800 m of the central dome at Atlantis Massif as 2895 (+1276/-1162) °C Myr-1 (from ˜780°C to ˜250°C); the lower 600 m of the borehole cooled more slowly at mean rates of ˜500 (+125/-102) °C Myr-1(from ˜780°C to present-day temperatures). Rocks from the uppermost part of the hole also reveal a brief period of slow cooling at rates of ˜300°C Myr-1, possibly due to hydrothermal circulation to ˜4 km depth through the detachment fault zone. Assuming a fault slip rate of 20 mm/yr (from U-Pb zircon ages of surface samples) and a rolling hinge model for the sub-surface fault geometry, we predict that the 780°C isotherm lies at ˜7 km below the axial valley floor, likely corresponding both to the depth at which the semi-brittle detachment fault roots and the probable upper limit of significant gabbro emplacement.

  2. Bathymetric Signatures of Oceanic Detachment Faulting and Potential Ultramafic Lithologies at Outcrop or in the Shallow Subseafloor (United States)

    Cann, J. R.; Smith, D. K.; Escartin, J.; Schouten, H.


    For ten years, domal bathymetric features capped by corrugated and striated surfaces have been recognized as exposures of oceanic detachment faults, and hence potentially as exposures of plutonic rocks from lower crust or upper mantle. Associated with these domes are other bathymetric features that indicate the presence of detachment faulting. Taken together these bathymetric signatures allow the mapping of large areas of detachment faulting at slow and intermediate spreading ridges, both at the axis and away from it. These features are: 1. Smooth elevated domes corrugated parallel to the spreading direction, typically 10-30 km wide parallel to the axis; 2. Linear ridges with outward-facing slopes steeper than 20°, running parallel to the spreading axis, typically 10-30 km long; 3. Deep basins with steep sides and relatively flat floors, typically 10-20 km long parallel to the spreading axis and 5-10 km wide. This characteristic bathymetric association arises from the rolling over of long-lived detachment faults as they spread away from the axis. The faults dip steeply close to their origin at a few kilometers depth near the spreading axis, and rotate to shallow dips as they continue to evolve, with associated footwall flexure and rotation of rider blocks carried on the fault surface. The outward slopes of the linear ridges can be shown to be rotated volcanic seafloor transported from the median valley floor. The basins may be formed by the footwall flexure, and may be exposures of the detachment surface. Critical in this analysis is that the corrugated domes are not the only sites of detachment faulting, but are the places where higher parts of much more extensive detachment faults happen to be exposed. The fault plane rises and falls along axis, and in some places is covered by rider blocks, while in others it is exposed at the sea floor. We use this association to search for evidence for detachment faulting in existing surveys, identifying for example an area

  3. Depth-varying seismogenesis on an oceanic detachment fault at 13°20‧N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Craig, Timothy J.; Parnell-Turner, Ross


    Extension at slow- and intermediate-spreading mid-ocean ridges is commonly accommodated through slip on long-lived faults called oceanic detachments. These curved, convex-upward faults consist of a steeply-dipping section thought to be rooted in the lower crust or upper mantle which rotates to progressively shallower dip-angles at shallower depths. The commonly-observed result is a domed, sub-horizontal oceanic core complex at the seabed. Although it is accepted that detachment faults can accumulate kilometre-scale offsets over millions of years, the mechanism of slip, and their capacity to sustain the shear stresses necessary to produce large earthquakes, remains subject to debate. Here we present a comprehensive seismological study of an active oceanic detachment fault system on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 13°20‧N, combining the results from a local ocean-bottom seismograph deployment with waveform inversion of a series of larger teleseismically-observed earthquakes. The unique coincidence of these two datasets provides a comprehensive definition of rupture on the fault, from the uppermost mantle to the seabed. Our results demonstrate that although slip on the deep, steeply-dipping portion of detachment faults is accommodated by failure in numerous microearthquakes, the shallow, gently-dipping section of the fault within the upper few kilometres is relatively strong, and is capable of producing large-magnitude earthquakes. This result brings into question the current paradigm that the shallow sections of oceanic detachment faults are dominated by low-friction mineralogies and therefore slip aseismically, but is consistent with observations from continental detachment faults. Slip on the shallow portion of active detachment faults at relatively low angles may therefore account for many more large-magnitude earthquakes at mid-ocean ridges than previously thought, and suggests that the lithospheric strength at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges may be concentrated

  4. Weak Serpentine-bearing Fault Zones: laboratory evidence and implications for the activity of of oceanic detachments (United States)

    Tesei, T.; Harbord, C. W. A.; Paola, N.; Collettini, C.; Viti, C.


    Serpentinites are major constituents of oceanic lithosphere shear zones located at slow-spreading margins, transform plate boundaries and obduction complexes. Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that these shear zones are inherently weak and, therefore, studies of serpentine friction are of paramount importance to constrain the strength of oceanic faults. However, laboratory friction experiments give a wide range of friction values for serpentine, which are not conclusive to explain the observed fault weakness. These variable results may arise from the difficulties to accurately characterize the mineralogical composition of serpentinite rocks and, hence, from the lack of pure monomineralic reference samples. Here we present laboratory experiments performed on a suite of serpentine samples, whose mineralogical composition was accurately characterized from the hand specimen down to the nanoscale. We observe that the main, low temperature polymorphs components of ocean-floor retrograde serpentinites (e.g. lizardite, chrysotile and polygonal serpentine) exhibit friction coefficients, µ reported, over a range of pressure and temperature conditions. We applied the frictional reactivation theory based on our experimental result to serpentine-bearing oceanic detachments. We show that detachments may slip until they rotate to very shallow dips 15°, as documented along some Atlantic detachments, accommodating large amounts of extension before being abandoned.

  5. Hydrothermal Upflow, Serpentinization and Talc Alteration Associated with a High Angle Normal Fault Cutting an Oceanic Detachment, Northern Apennines, Italy (United States)

    Alt, J.; Crispini, L.; Gaggero, L.; Shanks, W. C., III; Gulbransen, C.; Lavagnino, G.


    Normal faults cutting oceanic core complexes are observed at the seafloor and through geophysics, and may act as flow pathways for hydrothermal fluids, but we know little about such faults in the subsurface. We present bulk rock geochemistry and stable isotope data for a fault that acted as a hydrothermal upflow zone in a seafloor ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system in the northern Apennines, Italy. Peridotites were exposed on the seafloor by detachment faulting, intruded by MORB gabbros, and are overlain by MORB lavas and pelagic sediments. North of the village of Reppia are fault shear zones in serpentinite, oriented at a high angle to the detachment surface and extending 300 m below the paleo-seafloor. The paleo-seafloor strikes roughly east-west, dipping 30˚ to the north. At depth the fault zone occurs as an anticlinal form plunging 40˚ to the west. A second fault strikes approximately north-south, with a near vertical dip. The fault rock outcrops as reddish weathered talc + sulfide in 0.1-2 m wide anastomosing bands, with numerous splays. Talc replaces serpentinite in the fault rocks, and the talc rocks are enriched in Si, metals (Fe, Cu, Pb), Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE), have variable Eu anomalies, and have low Mg, Cr and Ni contents. In some cases gabbro dikes are associated with talc-alteration and may have enhanced fluid flow. Sulfide from a fault rock has d34S=5.7‰. The mineralogy and chemistry of the fault rocks indicate that the fault acted as the upflow pathway for high-T black-smoker type fluids. Traverses away from the fault (up to 1 km) and with depth below the seafloor (up to 500 m) reveal variable influences of hydrothermal fluids, but there are no consistent trends with distance. Background serpentinites 500 m beneath the paleoseafloor have LREE depleted trends. Other serpentinites exhibit correlations of LREE with HFSE as the result of melt percolation, but there is significant scatter, and hydrothermal effects include LREE enrichment

  6. Cooling rates and the depth of detachment faulting at oceanic core complexes: Evidence from zircon Pb/U and (U-Th)/He ages (United States)

    Grimes, Craig B.; Cheadle, Michael J.; John, Barbara E.; Reiners, P.W.; Wooden, J.L.


    Oceanic detachment faulting represents a distinct mode of seafloor spreading at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges, but many questions persist about the thermal evolution and depth of faulting. We present new Pb/U and (U-Th)/He zircon ages and combine them with magnetic anomaly ages to define the cooling histories of gabbroic crust exposed by oceanic detachment faults at three sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) holes 1270D and 1275D near the 15??20???N Transform, and Atlantis Massif at 30??N). Closure temperatures for the Pb/U (???800??C-850??C) and (U-Th)/He (???210??C) isotopic systems in zircon bracket acquisition of magnetic remanence, collectively providing a temperature-time history during faulting. Results indicate cooling to ???200??C in 0.3-0.5 Myr after zircon crystallization, recording time-averaged cooling rates of ???1000??C- 2000??C/Myr. Assuming the footwalls were denuded along single continuous faults, differences in Pb/U and (U-Th)/He zircon ages together with independently determined slip rates allow the distance between the ???850??C and ???200??C isotherms along the fault plane to be estimated. Calculated distances are 8.4 ?? 4.2 km and 5.0 2.1 km from holes 1275D and 1270D and 8.4 ?? 1.4 km at Atlantis Massif. Estimating an initial subsurface fault dip of 50 and a depth of 1.5 km to the 200??C isotherm leads to the prediction that the ???850??C isotherm lies ???5-7 km below seafloor at the time of faulting. These depth estimates for active fault systems are consistent with depths of microseismicity observed beneath the hypothesized detachment fault at the TAG hydrothermal field and high-temperature fault rocks recovered from many oceanic detachment faults. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Deformation associated to exhumation by detachment faulting of upper mantle rocks in a fossil Ocean Continent Transition: The example of the Totalp unit in SE Switzerland (United States)

    Picazo, S.; Manatschal, G.; Cannat, M.


    The exhumation of upper mantle rocks along detachment faults is widespread at Mid-Ocean Ridges and at the Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) of rifted continental margins. Thermo-mechanical models indicate that significant strain softening of the fault rocks in the footwall is required in order to produce such large fault offsets. Our work focuses on deformation textures, and the associated mineralogy in ultramafic rocks sampled in the upper levels of the footwall next to the exhumation fault. We present two OCT examples, the Totalp relict of a paleo-Tethys OCT exposed in SE Switzerland, and the Iberian distal margin (ODP Leg 173 Site 1070). We built a new geological map and a section of the Totalp unit near Davos (SE Switzerland) and interpreted this area as a local exposure of a paleo-seafloor that is formed by an exhumed detachment surface and serpentinized peridotites. The top of the exhumed mantle rocks is made of ophicalcites that resulted from the carbonation of serpentine under static conditions at the seafloor. The ophicalcites preserve depositional contacts with Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments. These sequences did not exceed prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphic facies conditions, and locally escaped Alpine deformation. Thin mylonitic shear zones as well as foliated amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks have been mapped. The age of these rocks and the link with the final exhumation history are yet unknown but since amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks can be found as clasts in cataclasites related to the detachment fault, they pre-date detachment faulting. Our petrostructural study of the exhumed serpentinized rocks also reveals a deformation gradient from cataclasis to gouge formation within 150m in the footwall of the proposed paleo-detachment fault. This deformation postdates serpentinization. It involves a component of plastic deformation of serpentine in the most highly strained intervals that has suffered pronounced grain-size reduction and

  8. Dynamics of intraoceanic subduction initiation : 1. Oceanic detachment fault inversion and the formation of supra-subduction zone ophiolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffione, Marco; Thieulot, Cedric; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Morris, Antony; Plümper, Oliver; Spakman, Wim

    Subduction initiation is a critical link in the plate tectonic cycle. Intraoceanic subduction zones can form along transform faults and fracture zones, but how subduction nucleates parallel to mid-ocean ridges, as in e.g., the Neotethys Ocean during the Jurassic, remains a matter of debate. In

  9. Seismic Slip on an Oblique Detachment Fault at Low Angles (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Steely, A. N.; Evans, J. P.


    Pseudotachylytes are one of the few accepted indicators of seismic slip along ancient faults. Low-angle normal faults have produced few large earthquakes in historic times and low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are typically severely misoriented relative to a vertical maximum compressive stress. As a result many geoscientists question whether low-angle normal faults produce earthquakes at low angles. Relationships in southern California show that a major low-angle normal-oblique fault slipped at low angles and produced large earthquakes. The exhumed Late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault preserves spectacular fault- related pseudotachylytes along its fault plane and injected into its hanging wall and footwall. Composite pseudotachylyte zones are up to 1.25 m thick and persists over lateral distances of at least 10's of meters. Pseudotachylyte is common in most thin sections of damaged fault rocks with more than 20% (by volume) of cataclasite. We recognized the presence of original melt using numerous criteria: abundant spherulites in thin sections, injection structures at both the thin-section and outcrop scale, black aphanitic textures, quenched vein margins, variations in microcrystallite textures and/or size with respect to the vein margin, and glassy textures in hand sample. Multiple earthquakes are inferred to produce the layered "stratigraphy" in some exposures of pseudotachylytes. We infer that the West Salton detachment fault formed and slipped at low angles because it nearly perfectly reactivates a Cretaceous ductile thrust system at the half km scale and dips between 10 and 45 degrees. The about 30 degree NNE dip of the detachment fault on the north side of Yaqui Ridge is likely steeper than its dip during detachment slip because there is local steepening on the flanks of the Yaqui Ridge antiform in a contractional stepover of a crosscutting Quaternary San Felipe dextral fault zone. These relationships indicate a low dip on the detachment

  10. A low-angle detachment fault revealed: Three-dimensional images of the S-reflector fault zone along the Galicia passive margin (United States)

    Schuba, C. Nur; Gray, Gary G.; Morgan, Julia K.; Sawyer, Dale S.; Shillington, Donna J.; Reston, Tim J.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Brian E.


    A new 3-D seismic reflection volume over the Galicia margin continent-ocean transition zone provides an unprecedented view of the prominent S-reflector detachment fault that underlies the outer part of the margin. This volume images the fault's structure from breakaway to termination. The filtered time-structure map of the S-reflector shows coherent corrugations parallel to the expected paleo-extension directions with an average azimuth of 107°. These corrugations maintain their orientations, wavelengths and amplitudes where overlying faults sole into the S-reflector, suggesting that the parts of the detachment fault containing multiple crustal blocks may have slipped as discrete units during its late stages. Another interface above the S-reflector, here named S‧, is identified and interpreted as the upper boundary of the fault zone associated with the detachment fault. This layer, named the S-interval, thickens by tens of meters from SE to NW in the direction of transport. Localized thick accumulations also occur near overlying fault intersections, suggesting either non-uniform fault rock production, or redistribution of fault rock during slip. These observations have important implications for understanding how detachment faults form and evolve over time. 3-D seismic reflection imaging has enabled unique insights into fault slip history, fault rock production and redistribution.

  11. Dynamical instability produces transform faults at mid-ocean ridges. (United States)

    Gerya, Taras


    Transform faults at mid-ocean ridges--one of the most striking, yet enigmatic features of terrestrial plate tectonics--are considered to be the inherited product of preexisting fault structures. Ridge offsets along these faults therefore should remain constant with time. Here, numerical models suggest that transform faults are actively developing and result from dynamical instability of constructive plate boundaries, irrespective of previous structure. Boundary instability from asymmetric plate growth can spontaneously start in alternate directions along successive ridge sections; the resultant curved ridges become transform faults within a few million years. Fracture-related rheological weakening stabilizes ridge-parallel detachment faults. Offsets along the transform faults change continuously with time by asymmetric plate growth and discontinuously by ridge jumps.

  12. Middle Miocene E-W tectonic horst structure of Crete through extensional detachment faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, D; Vassilakis, E


    Two east-west trending extensional detachment faults have been recognized in Crete, one with top-to-the-north motion of the hanging wall toward the Cretan Sea and one with top-to-the-south motion of the hanging wall toward the Libyan Sea. The east-west trending zone between these two detachment faults, which forms their common footwall, comprises a tectonic horst formed during Middle Miocene slip on the detachment faults. The detachment faults disrupt the overall tectono-stratigraphic succession of Crete and are localized along pre-existing thrust faults and along particular portions of the stratigraphic sequence, including the transition between the Permo-Triassic Tyros Beds and the base of the Upper Triassic-Eocene carbonate platform of the Tripolis nappe. By recognizing several different tectono-stratigraphic formations within what is generally termed the 'phyllite-quartzite', it is possible to distinguish these extensional detachment faults from thrust faults and minor discontinuities in the sequence. The deformation history of units within Crete can be summarized as: (i) compressional deformation producing arc-parallel east-west trending south-directed thrust faults in Oligocene to Early Miocene time (ii) extensional deformation along arc-parallel, east-west trending detachment faults in Middle Miocene time, with hanging wall motion to the north and south; (iii) Late Miocene-Quaternary extensional deformation along high-angle normal and oblique normal faults that disrupt the older arc-parallel structures

  13. Continentward-dipping detachment fault system and asymmetric rift structure of the Baiyun Sag, northern South China Sea (United States)

    Zhou, Zhichao; Mei, Lianfu; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jinyun; Chen, Liang; Hao, Shihao


    The rift architecture and deep crustal structure of the distal margin at the mid-northern margin of the South China Sea have been previously investigated by using deep seismic reflection profiles. However, one fundamental recurring problem in the debate is the extensional fault system and rift structure of the hyperextended rift basins (Baiyun Sag and Liwan Sag) within the distal margin because of the limited amount of seismic data. Based on new 3D seismic survey data and 2D seismic reflection profiles, we observe an array of fault blocks in the Baiyun Sag, which were tilted towards the ocean by extensional faulting. The extensional faults consistently dip towards the continent. Beneath the tilted fault blocks and extensional faults, a low-angle, high-amplitude and continuous reflection has been interpreted as the master detachment surface that controls the extension process. During rifting, the continentward-dipping normal faults evolved in a sequence from south to north, generating the asymmetric rift structure of the Baiyun Sag. The Baiyun Sag is separated from the oceanic domain by a series of structural highs that were uplifted by magmatic activity in response to the continental breakup at 33 Ma and a ridge jump to the south at 26-24 Ma. Therefore, we propose that magmatism played a significant role in the continental extension and final breakup in the South China Sea.

  14. Spatial arrangement and size distribution of normal faults, Buckskin detachment upper plate, Western Arizona (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Hundley, T. H.; Hooker, J. N.; Marrett, R. A.


    Fault arrays typically include a wide range of fault sizes and those faults may be randomly located, clustered together, or regularly or periodically located in a rock volume. Here, we investigate size distribution and spatial arrangement of normal faults using rigorous size-scaling methods and normalized correlation count (NCC). Outcrop data from Miocene sedimentary rocks in the immediate upper plate of the regional Buckskin detachment-low angle normal-fault, have differing patterns of spatial arrangement as a function of displacement (offset). Using lower size-thresholds of 1, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 m, displacements range over 5 orders of magnitude and have power-law frequency distributions spanning ∼ four orders of magnitude from less than 0.001 m to more than 100 m, with exponents of -0.6 and -0.9. The largest faults with >1 m displacement have a shallower size-distribution slope and regular spacing of about 20 m. In contrast, smaller faults have steep size-distribution slopes and irregular spacing, with NCC plateau patterns indicating imposed clustering. Cluster widths are 15 m for the 0.1-m threshold, 14 m for 0.01-m, and 1 m for 0.001-m displacement threshold faults. Results demonstrate normalized correlation count effectively characterizes the spatial arrangement patterns of these faults. Our example from a high-strain fault pattern above a detachment is compatible with size and spatial organization that was influenced primarily by boundary conditions such as fault shape, mechanical unit thickness and internal stratigraphy on a range of scales rather than purely by interaction among faults during their propagation.

  15. Timing and conditions of clay fault gouge formation on the Naxos detachment (Cyclades, Greece) (United States)

    Mancktelow, N.; Zwingmann, H.; Mulch, A.


    Clay fault gouge from the Naxos detachment (locally up to 1.0-1.5 m thick) is reported and dated for the first time. K-Ar ages on eight clay size fractions from the detachment and a minor fault in the immediate footwall have a narrow range, from 10.3 to 9.0 Ma, with an average of 9.7 ± 0.5 Ma (±1σ). These results are in excellent accord with regional and local age constraints, independently demonstrating the reliability of the method. Hydrogen δD values fall in the range -89 to -95‰, indicating interaction with infiltrating meteoric water during gouge formation, which is consistent with deposition of freshwater sediments in the hanging wall at the same time. Clay mineralogy in the detachment gouge is predominantly mixed layer illite-smectite with subordinate 1 M illite and kaolinite but without higher-temperature 2 M1 illite/mica. Clay fault gouge predominantly formed over a limited time and temperature range, potentially acting as a weak lubricant promoting movement on the Naxos detachment, with correspondingly rapid exhumation and cooling of the underlying footwall.

  16. The Evolution from Late Miocene West Salton Detachment Faulting to Cross-Cutting Pleistocene Oblique Strike-Slip Faults in the SW Salton Trough, Southern California


    Steely, Alexander N.


    Field studies in the southwest Salton Trough between Yaqui Ridge and Borrego Mountain show that the West Salton detachment fault was active during the Pliocene and may have initiated during the latest Miocene. At Yaqui Ridge dominantly east-directed extension is recorded by slickenlines on the NW-striking detachment fault, and shows that the fault is actually a low-angle dextral oblique strike-slip fault. Crustal inheritance is responsible for the position of the fault at Yaqui Ridge, which r...

  17. Corrigendum to "Depth-varying seismogenesis on an oceanic detachment fault at 13°20‧N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge" [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 479 (2017) 60-70 (United States)

    Craig, Timothy J.; Parnell-Turner, Ross


    The microseismic hypocenters plotted in our study, derived in Parnell-Turner et al. (2017), used data collected by instrumentation from the NERC Ocean-Bottom Instrumentation Facility (Minshull et al., 2005) under the auspices of NERC projects NE/J022551/1, NE/J02029X/1 and NE/J021741/1 led by Tim Reston, Christine Peirce and Christopher MacLeod, during cruises JC102 and JC109 led by Christine Peirce. The raw seismic data from the OBS deployment are available from the NERC's British Oceanographic Data Centre (, or by contacting the NERC grant-holders directly.

  18. Homogenous stretching or detachment faulting? Which process is primarily extending the Aegean crust (United States)

    Kumerics, C.; Ring, U.


    In extending orogens like the Aegean Sea of Greece and the Basin-and-Range province of the western United States, knowledge of rates of tectonic processes are important for understanding which process is primarily extending the crust. Platt et al. (1998) proposed that homogeneous stretching of the lithosphere (i.e. vertical ductile thinning associated with a subhorizontal foliation) at rates of 4-5 km Myr-1 is the dominant process that formed the Alboran Sea in the western Mediterranean. The Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean is well-known for its low-angle normal faults (detachments) (Lister et al., 1984; Lister &Forster, 1996) suggesting that detachment faulting may have been the primary agent achieving ~>250 km (McKenzie, 1978) of extension since the Miocene. Ring et al. (2003) provided evidence for a very fast-slipping detachment on the islands of Syros and Tinos in the western Cyclades, which suggests that normal faulting was the dominant tectonic process that formed the Aegean Sea. However, most extensional detachments in the Aegean do not allow to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension and therefore a full evaluation of the significance of vertical ductile thinning is not possible. On the Island of Ikaria in the eastern Aegean Sea, a subhorizontal extensional ductile shear zone is well exposed. We studied this shear zone in detail to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension. Numerous studies have shown that natural shear zones usually deviate significantly from progressive simple shear and are characterized by pronounced shortening perpendicular to the shear zone. Numerous deformed pegmatitic veins in this shear zone on Ikaria allow the reconstruction of deformation and flow parameters (Passchier, 1990), which are necessary for quantifying the amount of vertical ductile thinning in the shear zone. Furthermore, a flow-path and finite-strain study in a syn-tectonic granite, which

  19. Geologic continuous casting below continental and deep-sea detachment faults and at the striated extrusion of Sacsayhuaman, Peru (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.


    In the common type of industrial continuous casting, partially molten metal is extruded from a vessel through a shaped orifice called a mold in which the metal assumes the cross-sectional form of the mold as it cools and solidifies. Continuous casting can be sustained as long as molten metal is supplied and thermal conditions are maintained. I propose that a similar process produced parallel sets of grooves in three geologic settings, as follows: (1) corrugated metamorphic core complexes where mylonized mid-crustal rocks were exhumed by movement along low-angle normal faults known as detachment faults; (2) corrugated submarine surfaces where ultramafic and mafic rocks were exhumed by normal faulting within oceanic spreading centers; and (3) striated magma extrusions exemplified by the famous grooved outcrops at the Inca fortress of Sacsayhuaman in Peru. In each case, rocks inferred to have overlain the corrugated surface during corrugation genesis molded and shaped a plastic to partially molten rock mass as it was extruded from a moderate- to high-temperature reservoir.

  20. Thick deltaic sedimentation and detachment faulting delay the onset of continental rupture in the Northern Gulf of California: Analysis of seismic reflection profiles (United States)

    Martin, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Pacheco, M.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.


    The transition from distributed continental extension to the rupture of continental lithosphere is imaged in the northern Gulf of California across the obliquely conjugate Tiburón-Upper Delfín basin segment. Structural mapping on a 5-20 km grid of seismic reflection lines of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) demonstrates that ~1000% extension is accommodated on a series of NNE-striking listric-normal faults that merge at depth into a detachment fault. The detachment juxtaposes a late-Neogene marine sequence over thinned continental crust and contains an intrabasinal divide due to footwall uplift. Two northwest striking, dextral-oblique faults bound both ends of the detachment and shear the continental crust parallel to the tectonic transport. A regional unconformity in the upper 0.5 seconds (TWTT) and crest erosion of rollover anticlines above the detachment indicates inversion and footwall uplift during the lithospheric rupture in the Upper Delfin and Lower Delfin basins. The maximum length of new crust in both Delfin basins is less than 40 km based on the lack of an acoustic basement and the absence of a lower sedimentary sequence beneath a wedge shaped upper sequence that reaches >5 km in thickness. A fundamental difference exists between the Tiburón-Delfin segment and the Guaymas segment to the south in terms of presence of low angle normal faults and amount of new oceanic lithosphere, which we attribute to thermal insulation, diffuse upper-plate extension, and slip on low angle normal faults engendered by a thick sedimentary lid.

  1. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    In order to upgrade probability of activity and action potential evaluation of oceanic active faults which have some important effects on nuclear facilities, trench type oceanic active fault was investigated three dimensionally. Contents of the investigation were high precision sea bottom topographic survey and sea bottom back scattering wave image data observation by using a sea bottom topography acoustic imaginator. And, by high resolution earthquake wave survey, high precision survey of an active fault under sea bottom was conducted to detect oceanic active faults three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the generally issued data were summarized to promote to construct a data base for evaluating the active faults. (G.K.)

  2. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio


    In order to upgrade probability of activity and action potential evaluation of oceanic active faults which have some important effects on nuclear facilities, trench type oceanic active fault was investigated three dimensionally. Contents of the investigation were high precision sea bottom topographic survey and sea bottom back scattering wave image data observation by using a sea bottom topography acoustic imaginator. And, by high resolution earthquake wave survey, high precision survey of an active fault under sea bottom was conducted to detect oceanic active faults three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the generally issued data were summarized to promote to construct a data base for evaluating the active faults. (G.K.)

  3. The Research of Tectonic Framework and the Fault Activity in Large Detachment Basin System on Northern Margin of South China Sea (United States)

    Pan, L., Sr.; Ren, J.


    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal sea on southeast Asia continental margin, developed Paleogene extension-rifting continental margin system which is rare in the world and preserving many deformed characterizes of this kind system. With the investigation of the SCS, guiding by the development of tectonics and geo-physics, especially the development of tectonics and the high quality seismic data based on the development of geo-physics, people gradually accept that the northern margin of the SCS has some detachment basin characterizes. After researching the northern margin of the SCS, we come up with lithosphere profiles across the shelf, slope and deep sea basin in the northeast of the SCS to confirm the tectonic style of ocean-continental transition and the property of the detachment fault. Furthermore, we describe the outline of large detachment basins at northern SCS. Based on the large number of high-quality 2D and 3D deep seismic profile(TWT,10s), drilling and logging data, combined with domestic and international relevant researches, using basin dynamics and tectono-stratigraphy theory, techniques and methods of geology and geophysics, qualitative and quantitative, we describe the formation of the detachment basin and calculate the fault activity rate, stretching factor and settlement. According to the research, we propose that there is a giant and complete detachment basin system in the northern SCS and suggest three conclusions. First of all, the detachment basin system can be divided into three domains: proximal domain covering the Yangjiang Sag, Shenhu uplift and part of Shunde Sag, necking zone covering part of the Shunde Sag and Heshan Sag, distal domain covering most part of Heshan Sag. Second, the difference of the stretching factor is observed along the three domains of the detachment basin system. The factor of the proximal domain is the minimum among them. On the other side, the distal domain is the maximum among them. This

  4. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio [Geological Survey of Japan, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)


    Oceanic active faults were classified into trench and in-land types, and a bottom survey was conducted on an aim of estimation on activity of a trench type oceanic active faults. For both sides of an oceanic active fault found at high precision sonic investigations in 1996 fiscal year, it was attempted from a record remained in sediments how a fault changed by a fault motion and how long time it acted. And, construction of a data base for evaluation of the active faults was promoted by generalizing the issued publications. As a result, it was found that a method to estimate a fault activity using turbidite in success at shallow sea could not easily be received at deep sea, and that as sedimentation method in deep sea changed largely by topography and so on, the turbidite did not play always a rule of key layer. (G.K.)

  5. The Tonalá fault in southeastern Mexico: Evidence that the Central America forearc sliver is not being detached? (United States)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.; Molina-Garza, R. S.


    The Tonalá fault is a NW-SE oriented feature that flanks the Chiapas Massif on its southwestern side. Several authors coincide that the fault originally developed as a right-lateral structure in the Jurassic, but was reactivated as a left-lateral fault in the Miocene. Seismicity along the fault is low: Only one earthquake with magnitude 5.0 or larger is reported along the Tonalá fault in the years 1964 to present. Fault-plane solutions determined by the Mexican Seismological Survey for earthquakes along the fault show left-lateral, strike-slip faulting. The Tonalá fault lies on the northwestern continuation of the Central America volcanic arc. The volcanic arc is the site of medium-sized (magnitudes up to 6.5) shallow, right-lateral, strike-slip earthquakes. This has led several workers to propose that the forearc sliver is being detached from the Caribbean plate along the arc, moving northward. GPS studies have confirmed relative motion between the Chortis block and the forearc sliver. Recent and current motion along the Tonalá fault is in contradiction with motion and detachment of the forearc sliver along the Central America volcanic arc. Left-lateral motion along it cannot accomodate northwest displacement of the forearc sliver. Motion of the Central America forearc would require NW directed compression between the continental shelf of Chiapas and the forearc itself, which is not observed. Therefore, either another fault (or faults) accomodates right-lateral motion and detachment of the forearc sliver, or the sliver is not being detached and relative motion between the forearc sliver and the Chortis block corresponds to displacement of the latter. We suggest that, as proposed by previous authors, the Tonalá fault is instead part of a fault system that runs from the state of Oaxaca (the Valle Nacional fault), forming an arc concave to the northeast, and running perpendicular to the maximum slope of subduction in the area.

  6. The Rock Record of Seismic Nucleation: examples from pseudotachylites beneath the Whipple Detachment Fault, eastern California (United States)

    Ortega-Arroyo, D.; Behr, W. M.; Gentry, E.


    The mechanisms that lead to nucleation and dynamic weakening in the middle crust are not well understood. Proposed mechanisms include flash heating of asperities, thermal pressurization of pore fluids, dynamic instabilities, and fracture interactions. We investigate this issue in the rock record using exhumed mid-crustal rocks exposed beneath the Whipple Detachment fault (WDF) in eastern CA. Analysis of pseudotachylites (PS) beneath the WDF, representing paleo-earthquakes, reveal two types: Type 1 PS exhibit little to no precursory cataclasis and are concentrated along shear bands at the margins of feldspar-rich lenses embedded in more quartz-rich domains. These appear synkinematic with S-C fabrics in the surrounding mylonites and they exhibit finely dynamically recrystallized grains in quartz at their margins, suggesting coeval ductile deformation. By contrast, Type 2 PS occur along the principal slip surface of a brittle shear zone and show evidence for precursory cataclasis, brecciation, and fracturing. Some cataclasites inject into the host rock, forming eddies along the boundary with the PS. Slip appears to localize progressively into a 2 cm thick fault core, with PS concentrated primarily in the interior- the presence of solidified melt and fluidized cataclasite as clasts within the fault core suggests multiple slip events are preserved. We interpret the two types of pseudotachylites to represent different conditions and mechanisms of earthquake nucleation near the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). Type 1 PS are interpreted to represent nucleation in deeper sections of the BDT by failure along mineralogically-controlled stress concentrations hosted within an otherwise viscously deforming mylonite. Our data suggest that these do not develop into large-magnitude EQ's because seismic slip is dampened into the surrounding quartz-rich viscous matrix; instead they may represent deep microseismicity and/or seismic tremor. By contrast, Type 2 PS are interpreted to

  7. Deformation, Fluid Flow and Mantle Serpentinization at Oceanic Transform Faults (United States)

    Rupke, L.; Hasenclever, J.


    Oceanic transform faults (OTF) and fracture zones have long been hypothesized to be sites of enhanced fluid flow and biogeochemical exchange. In this context, the serpentine forming interaction between seawater and cold lithospheric mantle rocks is particularly interesting. The transformation of peridotite to serpentinite not only leads to hydration of oceanic plates and is thereby an important agent of the geological water cycle, it is also a mechanism of abiotic hydrogen and methane formation, which can support archeal and bacterial communities at the seafloor. Inferring the likely amount of mantle undergoing serpentinization reactions therefore allows estimating the amount of biomass that may be autotrophically produced at and around oceanic transform faults and mid-ocean ridges Here we present results of 3-D geodynamic model simulations that explore the interrelations between deformation, fluid flow, and mantle serpentinization at oceanic transform faults. We investigate how slip rate and fault offset affect the predicted patterns of mantle serpentinization around oceanic transform faults. Global rates of mantle serpentinization and associated H2 production are calculated by integrating the modeling results with plate boundary data. The global additional OTF-related production of H2 is found to be between 6.1 and 10.7 x 1011 mol per year, which is comparable to the predicted background mid-ocean ridge rate of 4.1 - 15.0 x 1011 mol H2/yr. This points to oceanic transform faults as potential sites of intense fluid-rock interaction, where chemosynthetic life could be sustained by serpentinization reactions.

  8. Meteoric water circulation and rolling-hinge detachment faulting: Example of the Northern Snake Range core complex, Nevada (United States)

    Gébelin, Aude; Teyssier, Christian; Heizler, Matthew T.; Andreas, Mulch


    The Northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex developed as a consequence of Oligo-Miocene extension of the Basin and Range Province and is bounded by an arched detachment that separates the cold, brittle upper crust from the ductile middle crust. On the western and eastern limbs of the arch, the detachment footwall displays continuous sections of muscovite-bearing quartzite and schist from which we report new microfabrics, δD values, and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Results indicate that the two limbs record distinct stages of the metamorphic and kinematic Cenozoic events, including Eocene collapse of previously overthickned crust in the west, and one main Oligo-Miocene extensional event in the east. Quartzite from the western part of the range preserves Eocene fabrics (~49-45 Ma) that developed during coaxial deformation in the presence of metamorphic fluids. In contrast, those from the east reveal a large component of non coaxial strain, Oligo-Miocene ages (27-21 Ma) and contain recrystallized muscovite grains indicating that meteoric fluids sourced at high elevation (low-δD) infiltrated the brittle-ductile transition zone during deformation. Percolation of meteoric fluids down to the mylonitic detachment footwall was made possible by the development of an east-dipping rolling-hinge detachment system that controlled the timing and location of active faulting in the brittle upper crust and therefore the pathway of fluids from the surface to the brittle-ductile transition. Oligo-Miocene upper crustal extension was accommodated by a fan-shaped fault pattern that generated shear and tension fractures and channelized surface fluids, while top-to-the-east ductile shearing and advection of hot material in the lower plate allowed the system to be progressively exhumed. As extension proceeded, brittle normal faults active in the wedge of the hanging wall gradually rotated and translated above the detachment fault where, became inactive and precluded the circulation of fluids

  9. Spreading rate dependence of gravity anomalies along oceanic transform faults. (United States)

    Gregg, Patricia M; Lin, Jian; Behn, Mark D; Montési, Laurent G J


    Mid-ocean ridge morphology and crustal accretion are known to depend on the spreading rate of the ridge. Slow-spreading mid-ocean-ridge segments exhibit significant crustal thinning towards transform and non-transform offsets, which is thought to arise from a three-dimensional process of buoyant mantle upwelling and melt migration focused beneath the centres of ridge segments. In contrast, fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are characterized by smaller, segment-scale variations in crustal thickness, which reflect more uniform mantle upwelling beneath the ridge axis. Here we present a systematic study of the residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly of 19 oceanic transform faults that reveals a strong correlation between gravity signature and spreading rate. Previous studies have shown that slow-slipping transform faults are marked by more positive gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments, but our analysis reveals that intermediate and fast-slipping transform faults exhibit more negative gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments. This finding indicates that there is a mass deficit at intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults, which could reflect increased rock porosity, serpentinization of mantle peridotite, and/or crustal thickening. The most negative anomalies correspond to topographic highs flanking the transform faults, rather than to transform troughs (where deformation is probably focused and porosity and alteration are expected to be greatest), indicating that crustal thickening could be an important contributor to the negative gravity anomalies observed. This finding in turn suggests that three-dimensional magma accretion may occur near intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults.

  10. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology: An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States (United States)

    Wells, M.L.; Snee, L.W.; Blythe, A.E.


    Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine the above for the top-to-the-east Raft River detachment fault and shear zone by study of spatial gradients in 40Ar/39Ar and fission track cooling ages of footwall rocks and cooling histories and by comparison of cooling histories with deformation temperatures. Mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages indicate that extension-related cooling began at ???25-20 Ma, and apatite fission track ages show that motion on the Raft River detachment proceeded until ???7.4 Ma. Collective cooling curves show acceleration of cooling rates during extension, from 5-10??C/m.y. to rates in excess of 70-100??C/m.y. The apparent slip rate along the Raft River detachment, recorded in spatial gradients of apatite fission track ages, is 7 mm/yr between 13.5 and 7.4 Ma and is interpreted to record the rate of migration of a rolling hinge. Microstructural study of footwall mylonite indicates that deformation conditions were no higher than middle greenschist facies and that deformation occurred during cooling to cataclastic conditions. These data show that the shear zone and detachment fault represent a continuum produced by progressive exhumation and shearing during Miocene extension and preclude the possibility of a Mesozoic age for the ductile shear zone. Moderately rapid cooling in middle Eocene time likely records exhumation resulting from an older, oppositely rooted, extensional shear zone along the west side of the Grouse Creek, Raft River, and Albion Mountains. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. The evolution, argon diffusion properties, and 40Argon/39Argon ages of detachment-related fault rocks in the footwalls of the Whipple and Chemehuevi Mountains, Southeastern, California (United States)

    Hazelton, Garrett Blaine

    Furnace and laser spot methods of obtaining 40Ar/ 39Ar ages from fine-grained cataclasite and pseudotachylyte are compared and evaluated in terms of protolith, faulting, and cooling age components. These methods are applied to fault rocks from outcrop-scale, small-displacement, brittle detachment faults (minidetachments or MDF's) that cut mid-crustal rocks from the footwalls of brittle, large-displacement (>20 km), top-to-the-NE, low-angle normal (i.e., detachment) faults in the Whipple (WM) and Chemehuevi Mountains (CM), SE California. Mid-Tertiary extension affected both areas from ˜26 Ma to ˜11--8 Ma. Rapid footwall cooling began at ˜22 Ma. WM-CM furnace ages range from 22.0 +/- 1.3 to 14.6 +/- 0.6 Ma, CM laser ages from 29.9 +/- 3.7 to 15.7 +/- 1.2 Ma. These ages are younger than host protolith formation and record detachment faulting or footwall cooling. At least 50 MDF's were mapped; they typically cut all basement fabrics. Brittle MDFand detacriment-generated fault rocks are texturally similar, but some in the WM are plastically deformed. Fault rock matrix was mechanically extracted, optically studied, probed to characterize bulk mineralogy. K-feldspar grains are the primary source of fault rock-derived Ar. The laser provides high spatial resolution and the furnace method yields the Ar diffusion properties of fault rock matrix. Both methods yield reproducible results, but ages are difficult to interpret without an established geothermochronologic context. Fault rock 40Ar/39Ar measurements reveal: (1) closure temperatures of 140--280°C (at 100°C/Myr); (2) activation energies ranging from 33--50 kcal/mol; (3) individual K-feldspar grain ages of 55--5 Ma; (4) unanticipated and poorly understood low-temperature diffusion behavior; (5) little difference between pseudotachylyte and cataclasite matrix diffusion and age results; (6) that pre-analysis sample characterization is requisite. The diffusion properties of prepared glasses (47--84% SiO2) were also

  12. Ocean Economy and Fault Diagnosis of Electric Submersible Pump applied in Floating platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panlong Zhang


    Full Text Available Ocean economy plays a crucial role in the strengthening maritime safety industry and in the welfare of human beings. Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP have been widely used in floating platforms on the sea to provide oil for machines. However, the ESP fault may lead to ocean environment pollution, on the other hand, a timely fault diagnosis of ESP can improve the ocean economy. In order to meet the strict regulations of the ocean economy and environmental protection, the fault diagnosis of ESP system has become more and more popular in many countries. The vibration mechanical models of typical faults have been able to successfully diagnose the faults of ESP. And different types of sensors are used to monitor the vibration signal for the signal analysis and fault diagnosis in the ESP system. Meanwhile, physical sensors would increase the fault diagnosis challenge. Nowadays, the method of neural network for the fault diagnosis of ESP has been applied widely, which can diagnose the fault of an electric pump accurately based on the large database. To reduce the number of sensors and to avoid the large database, in this paper, algorithms are designed based on feature extraction to diagnose the fault of the ESP system. Simulation results show that the algorithms can achieve the prospective objectives superbly.

  13. Layered Fault Rocks Below the West Salton Detachment Fault (WSDF), CA Record Multiple Seismogenic? Slip Events and Transfer of Material to a Fault Core (United States)

    Axen, G. J.; Luther, A. L.; Selverstone, J.; Mozley, P.


    Unique layered cataclasites (LCs) occur locally along footwall splays, S of the ~N-dipping, top-E WSDF. They are well exposed in a NW-plunging antiform that folds the LCs and their upper and lower bounding faults. Layers range from very fine-grained granular shear zones 1-2 mm thick and cm's to m's long, to medium- to coarse-grained isotropic granular cataclasite with floating clasts up to 4-5 cm diameter in layers up to ~30 cm thick and 3 to >10 m long. The top, N-flank contact is ~5 m structurally below the main WSDF. Maximum thickness of the LCs is ~5 m on the S flank of the antiform, where the upper 10-50 cm of LCs are composed of relatively planar layers that are subparallel to the upper fault, which locally displays ultracataclasite. Deeper layers are folded into open to isoclinal folds and are faulted. Most shear-sense indicators show N-side-to-E or -SE slip, and include: (1) aligned biotite flakes and mm-scale shear bands that locally define a weak foliation dipping ~ESE, (2) sharp to granular shears, many of which merge up or down into fine-grained layers and, in the base of the overlying granodiorite, (3) primary reidel shears and (4) folded pegmatite dikes. Biotite is unaltered and feldspars are weakly to strongly altered to clays and zeolites. Zeolites also grew in pores between clasts. XRF analyses suggest minimal chemical alteration. The upper fault is sharp and relatively planar, carries granular to foliated cataclasitic granodiorite that grades up over ~2-4 m into punky, microcracked but plutonic-textured rock with much of the feldspar alteration seen in LC clasts. Some upper-plate reidels bend into parallelism with the top fault and bound newly formed LC layers. The basal fault truncates contorted layers and lacks evidence of layers being added there. We infer that the deeper, contorted layers are older and that the LC package grew upward by transfer of cataclasized slices from the overlying granodiorite while folding was ongoing. Particle

  14. Early (pre–8 Ma) fault activity and temporal strain accumulation in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Bull, J.M.; Scrutton, R.A.

    -reflection profiles within the central Indian Ocean demonstrate that compressional activity started much earlier than previously thought, at around 15.4-13.9 Ma. From reconstructions of fault activity histories, it is shown that 12% of the total reverse fault...

  15. Extensional Detachment faulting in melange rocks. Plurikilometres migration by W the External Zone (Cordillera Bética, Spain) (United States)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Rodríguez, Jose; Mateos, Rosa Maria


    The synthesis and correlation of units carried out in the continuous geological map (Roldán et al., 2012), has revealed a fragmentation of the carbonate outcrops belong to the Subbetic Domain (García-Hernández et al., 1980). Subbetic NW verging thrust and fold axial traces have not lateral continuity and Jurassic carbonate outscrops appear as klippes on the olistotromic unit. These ductile structures that can be observed in the internal structure of these jurassic blocks are unrelated to the brittle-ductile deformation bands observed at the basal pelitic levels. Basal detachments are rooted in: a) the Olistostromic unit, a Upper Langhian-Lower Serravallian breccia constituted by gypsum-bearing clay and marls; b) Cretaceous-Tertiary marly sedimentary rocks (Rodríguez-Fernández, et al., 2013) . In both kind of rocks, cataclastic structures allows to infer a top-to-the WSW displacement. Paleostress measurements, made on these detachments levels, are compatible with a extensional regime (Roldán et al., 2012). At the same time, the analysis and interpretation of subsurface data (seismic surveys and borehole testing) shows that the Subbetic Domain (External Subbetic, Molina 1987) are affected by westward low-angle normal faults. A balanced cross-section, based on morphological and cartographic data in the area between Sierra de Cabra and Sierra de Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén), shows plurikilometric displacements which has been produced during Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian times. References: García-Hernández, M., López-Garrido, A.C., Rivas, P., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Vera, J.A. (1980): Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the zones of the Betic Cordillera. Geol. Mijnb. 59 (2). 155-168. Molina, J.M. (1987). Análisis de facies del Mesozoico en el Subbético. Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Granada. 518 p. Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Roldán, F. J., Azañón, J.M. y García-Cortés, A. (2013). El colapso gravitacional del frente orogénico a lpino en el Dominio Subb

  16. Structural Evolution of Transform Fault Zones in Thick Oceanic Crust of Iceland (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Brandsdottir, B.; Horst, A. J.; Farrell, J.


    Spreading centers in Iceland are offset from the regional trend of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) in the north and the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) in the south. Rift propagation away from the center of the Iceland hotspot, has resulted in migration of these transform faults to the N and S, respectively. As they migrate, new transform faults develop in older crust between offset spreading centers. Active transform faults, and abandoned transform structures left in their wakes, show features that reflect different amounts (and durations) of slip that can be viewed as a series of snapshots of different stages of transform fault evolution in thick, oceanic crust. This crust has a highly anisotropic, spreading fabric with pervasive zones of weakness created by spreading-related normal faults, fissures and dike margins oriented parallel to the spreading centers where they formed. These structures have a strong influence on the mechanical properties of the crust. By integrating available data, we suggest a series of stages of transform development: 1) Formation of an oblique rift (or leaky transform) with magmatic centers, linked by bookshelf fault zones (antithetic strike-slip faults at a high angle to the spreading direction) (Grimsey Fault Zone, youngest part of the TFZ); 2) broad zone of conjugate faulting (tens of km) (Hreppar Block N of the SISZ); 3) narrower ( 20 km) zone of bookshelf faulting aligned with the spreading direction (SISZ); 4) mature, narrow ( 1 km) through-going transform fault zone bounded by deformation (bookshelf faulting and block rotations) distributed over 10 km to either side (Húsavík-Flatey Fault Zone in the TFZ). With progressive slip, the transform zone becomes progressively narrower and more closely aligned with the spreading direction. The transform and non-transform (beyond spreading centers) domains may be truncated by renewed propagation and separated by subsequent spreading. This perspective

  17. Transpressive mantle uplift at large offset oceanic transform faults (United States)

    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Ligi, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T.


    Large-offset transform faults deform due to changes in plate motions and local processes. At the St. Paul transform, in the Equatorial Atlantic, a large body of ultramafic rocks composed of variably serpentinized and mylonitized peridotites is presently being tectonically uplifted. We recently discovered that the origin of the regional mantle uplift is linked to long-standing compressive stresses along the transform fault (1). A positive flower structure, mainly made of mylonitized mantle rocks, can be recognized on the 200 km large push-up ridge. Compressive earthquakes mechanisms reveal seismically active thrust faults on the southern flank of the ridge . The regional transpressive stress field affects a large portion of the ridge segment south of the transform, as revealed by the presence of faults and dykes striking obliquely to the direction of the central ridge axis. A smaller thrust, affecting recent sediments, was mapped south of this segment, suggesting a regional active compressive stress field. The transpressive stress field is interpreted to derive from the propagation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) segment into the transform domain as a response to the enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis. The propagation forced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault southward and the formation of restraining step-overs. The process started after a counterclockwise change in plate motion at 11 Ma initially resulting in extensive stress of the transform domain. A flexural transverse ridge formed in response. Shortly after plate reorganization, the MAR segment started to propagate southwards due to the interaction of the ridge and the Sierra Leone thermal anomaly. 1- Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault Nat. Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  18. A deep hydrothermal fault zone in the lower oceanic crust, Samail ophiolite Oman (United States)

    Zihlmann, B.; Mueller, S.; Koepke, J.; Teagle, D. A. H.


    Hydrothermal circulation is a key process for the exchange of chemical elements between the oceans and the solid Earth and for the extraction of heat from newly accreted crust at mid-ocean ridges. However, due to a dearth of samples from intact oceanic crust, or continuous samples from ophiolites, there remain major short comings in our understanding of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust, especially in the deeper parts. In particular, it is unknown whether fluid recharge and discharge occurs pervasively or if it is mainly channeled within discrete zones such as faults. Here, we present a description of a hydrothermal fault zone that crops out in Wadi Gideah in the layered gabbro section of the Samail ophiolite of Oman. Field observations reveal a one meter thick chlorite-epidote normal fault with disseminated pyrite and chalcopyrite and heavily altered gabbro clasts at its core. In both, the hanging and the footwall the gabbro is altered and abundantly veined with amphibole, epidote, prehnite and zeolite. Whole rock mass balance calculations show enrichments in Fe, Mn, Sc, V, Co, Cu, Rb, Zr, Nb, Th and U and depletions of Si, Ca, Na, Cr, Zn, Sr, Ba and Pb concentrations in the fault rock compared to fresh layered gabbros. Gabbro clasts within the fault zone as well as altered rock from the hanging wall show enrichments in Na, Sc, V, Co, Rb, Zr, Nb and depletion of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb. Strontium isotope whole rock data of the fault rock yield 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7046, which is considerably more radiogenic than fresh layered gabbro from this locality (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7030 - 0.7034), and similar to black smoker hydrothermal signatures based on epidote, measured elsewhere in the ophiolite. Altered gabbro clasts within the fault zone show similar values with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7045 - 0.7050, whereas hanging wall and foot wall display values only slightly more radiogenic than fresh layered gabbro.The secondary mineral assemblages and strontium isotope

  19. Scaling Relations for the Thermal Structure of Segmented Oceanic Transform Faults (United States)

    Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Boettcher, M. S.; Behn, M. D.


    Mid-ocean ridge-transform faults (RTFs) are a natural laboratory for studying strike-slip earthquake behavior due to their relatively simple geometry, well-constrained slip rates, and quasi-periodic seismic cycles. However, deficiencies in our understanding of the limited size of the largest RTF earthquakes are due, in part, to not considering the effect of short intra-transform spreading centers (ITSCs) on fault thermal structure. We use COMSOL Multiphysics to run a series of 3D finite element simulations of segmented RTFs with visco-plastic rheology. The models test a range of RTF segment lengths (L = 10-150 km), ITSC offset lengths (O = 1-30 km), and spreading rates (V = 2-14 cm/yr). The lithosphere and upper mantle are approximated as steady-state, incompressible flow. Coulomb failure incorporates brittle processes in the lithosphere, and a temperature-dependent flow law for dislocation creep of olivine activates ductile deformation in the mantle. ITSC offsets as small as 2 km affect the thermal structure underlying many segmented RTFs, reducing the area above the 600˚C isotherm, A600, and thus the size of the largest expected earthquakes, Mc. We develop a scaling relation for the critical ITSC offset length, OC, which significantly reduces the thermal affect of adjacent fault segments of length L1 and L2. OC is defined as the ITSC offset that results in an area loss ratio of R = (Aunbroken - Acombined)/Aunbroken - Adecoupled) = 63%, where Aunbroken = C600(L1+L2)1.5V-0.6 is A600 for an RTF of length L1 + L2; Adecoupled = C600(L11.5+L21.5)V-0.6 is the combined A600 of RTFs of lengths L1 and L2, respectively; and Acombined = Aunbroken exp(-O/ OC) + Adecoupled (1-exp(-O/ OC)). C600 is a constant. We use OC and kinematic fault parameters (L1, L2, O, and V) to develop a scaling relation for the approximate seismogenic area, Aseg, for each segment of a RTF system composed of two fault segments. Finally, we estimate the size of Mc on a fault segment based on Aseg. We

  20. Exploring tectonomagmatic controls on mid-ocean ridge faulting and morphology with 3-D numerical models (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Ito, G.; Behn, M. D.; Olive, J. A. L.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Morrow, T. A.


    Previous two-dimensional (2-D) modeling studies of abyssal-hill scale fault generation and evolution at mid-ocean ridges have predicted that M, the ratio of magmatic to total extension, strongly influences the total slip, spacing, and rotation of large faults, as well as the morphology of the ridge axis. Scaling relations derived from these 2-D models broadly explain the globally observed decrease in abyssal hill spacing with increasing ridge spreading rate, as well as the formation of large-offset faults close to the ends of slow-spreading ridge segments. However, these scaling relations do not explain some higher resolution observations of segment-scale variability in fault spacing along the Chile Ridge and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where fault spacing shows no obvious correlation with M. This discrepancy between observations and 2-D model predictions illuminates the need for three-dimensional (3-D) numerical models that incorporate the effects of along-axis variations in lithospheric structure and magmatic accretion. To this end, we use the geodynamic modeling software LaMEM to simulate 3-D tectono-magmatic interactions in a visco-elasto-plastic lithosphere under extension. We model a single ridge segment subjected to an along-axis gradient in the rate of magma injection, which is simulated by imposing a mass source in a plane of model finite volumes beneath the ridge axis. Outputs of interest include characteristic fault offset, spacing, and along-axis gradients in seafloor morphology. We also examine the effects of along-axis variations in lithospheric thickness and off-axis thickening rate. The main objectives of this study are to quantify the relative importance of the amount of magmatic extension and the local lithospheric structure at a given along-axis location, versus the importance of along-axis communication of lithospheric stresses on the 3-D fault evolution and morphology of intermediate-spreading-rate ridges.

  1. Divertor detachment (United States)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei


    The heat exhaust is one of the main conceptual issues of magnetic fusion reactor. In a standard operational regime the large heat flux onto divertor target reaches unacceptable level in any foreseeable reactor design. However, about two decades ago so-called ``detached divertor'' regimes were found. They are characterized by reduced power and plasma flux on divertor targets and look as a promising solution for heat exhaust in future reactors. In particular, it is envisioned that ITER will operate in a partly detached divertor regime. However, even though divertor detachment was studied extensively for two decades, still there are some issues requiring a new look. Among them is the compatibility of detached divertor regime with a good core confinement. For example, ELMy H-mode exhibits a very good core confinement, but large ELMs can ``burn through'' detached divertor and release large amounts of energy on the targets. In addition, detached divertor regimes can be subject to thermal instabilities resulting in the MARFE formation, which, potentially, can cause disruption of the discharge. Finally, often inner and outer divertors detach at different plasma conditions, which can lead to core confinement degradation. Here we discuss basic physics of divertor detachment including different mechanisms of power and momentum loss (ionization, impurity and hydrogen radiation loss, ion-neutral collisions, recombination, and their synergistic effects) and evaluate the roles of different plasma processes in the reduction of the plasma flux; detachment stability; and an impact of ELMs on detachment. We also evaluate an impact of different magnetic and divertor geometries on detachment onset, stability, in- out- asymmetry, and tolerance to the ELMs. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-DE-FG02-04ER54739 at UCSD.

  2. Refinements on the inferred causative faults of the great 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes (United States)

    Revathy, P. M.; Rajendran, K.


    As the largest known intra-plate strike-slip events, the pair of 2012 earthquakes in the Wharton Basin is a rarity. Separated in time by 2 hours these events rouse interest also because of their short inter-event duration, complex rupture mechanism, and spatial-temporal proximity to the great 2004 Sumatra plate boundary earthquake. Reactivation of fossil ridge-transform pairs is a favoured mechanism for large oceanic plate earthquakes and their inherent geometry triggers earthquakes on conjugate fault systems, as observed previously in the Wharton Basin. The current debate is whether the ruptures occurred on the WNW-ESE paleo ridges or the NNE-SSW paleo transforms. Back-projection models give a complex rupture pattern that favours the WNW-ESE fault [1]. However, the static stress changes due to the 2004 Sumatra earthquake and 2005 Nias earthquake favour the N15°E fault [2]. We use the Teleseismic Body-Wave Inversion Program [3] and waveform data from Global Seismic Network, to obtain the best fit solutions using P and S-wave synthetic modelling. The preliminary P-wave analysis of both earthquakes gives source parameters that are consistent with the Harvard CMT solutions. The obtained slip distribution complies with the NNE-SSW transforms. Both these earthquakes triggered small tsunamis which appear as two distinctive pulses on 13 Indian Ocean tide gauges and buoys. Frequency spectra of the tsunami recordings from various azimuths provide additional constraint for the choice of the causative faults. References: [1] Yue, H., T. Lay, and K. D. Koper (2012), En echelon and orthogonal fault ruptures of the 11 April 2012 great intraplate earthquakes, Nature, 490, 245-249, doi:10.1038/nature11492 [2] Delescluse, M., N. Chamot-Rooke, R. Cattin, L. Fleitout, O. Trubienko and C. Vigny April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust, Nature, 490(2012), pp. 240-244, doi:10.1038/nature11520 [3] M. Kikuchi and H. Kanamori, Note on

  3. Retinal Detachment (United States)

    ... to your brain. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving, and seeing fine detail. A retinal detachment lifts or pulls the retina from its normal position. It can occur at ...

  4. Model heat flow and magnetotellurics for the San Andreas and oceanic transform faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricard, Y.; Froidevaux, C.; Hermance, J.F.


    Two-dimensional temperature structures are computed for a lithospheric shear zone in order to predict the geometry of the hot anomalous region caused by shear heating. The results are compatible with earlier one-dimensional models. The comparison with the heat flow data from California is quite satisfactory. It requires to take into account the geometrical constraints corresponding to the migration of the Mendocino triple point. This is obtained by solving the time dependent heat equation. The possibility to probe the existence of a sub-Moho hot window by magnetotelluric sounding is then examined. A drop in apparent resistivity by a factor 2 to 4 is predicted. However, the presence of conductive sedimentary basins at the surface may hide this effect in California. In this respect the ocean floor transform faults might offer a somewhat simpler site for field observations

  5. Faults Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  6. Late Cenozoic cooling history of the central Menderes Massif: Timing of the Büyük Menderes detachment and the relative contribution of normal faulting and erosion to rock exhumation (United States)

    Wölfler, Andreas; Glotzbach, Christoph; Heineke, Caroline; Nilius, Nils-Peter; Hetzel, Ralf; Hampel, Andrea; Akal, Cüneyt; Dunkl, István; Christl, Marcus


    Based on new thermochronological data and 10Be-derived erosion rates from the southern part of the central Menderes Massif (Aydın block) in western Turkey, we provide new insights into the tectonic evolution and landscape development of an area that undergoes active continental extension. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He data reveal that the footwall of the Büyük Menderes detachment experienced two episodes of enhanced cooling and exhumation. Assuming an elevated geothermal gradient of 50 °C/km, the first phase occurred with an average rate of 0.90 km/Myr in the middle Miocene and the second one in the latest Miocene and Pliocene with a rate of 0.43 km/Myr. The exhumation rates between these two phases were lower and range from 0.14 to 0.24 km/Myr, depending on the distance to the detachment. Cosmogenic nuclide-based erosion rates for catchments in the Aydın block range from 0.1 to 0.4 km/Myr. The similarity of the erosion rates on both sides of the Aydın block (northern and southern flank) indicate that a rather symmetric erosion pattern has prevailed during the Holocene. If these millennial erosion rates are representative on a million-year timescale they indicate that, apart from normal faulting, erosion in the hanging wall of the Büyük Menderes detachment fault did also contribute to the exhumation of the metamorphic rocks.

  7. Effect of bend faulting on the hydration state of oceanic crust: Electromagnetic constraints from the Middle America Trench (United States)

    Naif, S.; Key, K.; Constable, S.; Evans, R. L.


    In Northern Central America, the portion of the incoming Cocos oceanic plate formed at the East Pacific Rise has a seafloor spreading fabric that is oriented nearly parallel to the trench axis, whereby flexural bending at the outer rise reactivates a dense network of dormant abyssal hill faults. If bending-induced normal faults behave as fluid pathways they may promote extensive mantle hydration and significantly raise the flux of fluids into the subduction system. Multi-channel seismic reflection data imaged bend faults that extend several kilometers beneath the Moho offshore Nicaragua, coincident with seismic refraction data showing significant P-wave velocity reductions in both the crust and uppermost mantle. Ignoring the effect of fracture porosity, the observed mantle velocity reduction is equivalent to an upper bound of 15-20% serpentinization (or 2.0-2.5 wt% H2O). Yet the impact of bend faulting on porosity structure and crustal hydration are not well known. Here, we present results on the electrical resistivity structure of the incoming Cocos plate offshore Nicaragua, the first controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) experiment at a subduction zone. The CSEM data imaged several sub-vertical conductive channels extending beneath fault scarps to 5.5 km below seafloor, providing independent evidence for fluid infiltration into the oceanic crust via bending faults. We applied Archie's Law to estimate porosity from the resistivity observations: the dike and gabbro layers increase from 2.7% and 0.7% porosity at 100 km to 4.8% and 1.7% within 20 km of the trench, respectively. In contrast the resistivity, and hence porosity, remain relatively unchanged at sub-Moho depths. Therefore, either the faults do not provide an additional flux of free water to the mantle or, in light of the reduced seismic velocities, the volumetric expansion resulting from mantle serpentinization rapidly consumes any fault-generated porosity. Since our crustal porosity estimates seaward

  8. Detached Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McBride


    Full Text Available Joseph Raz has introduced an interesting class of statements —detached statements— into the philosophical lexicon. In brief, such statements are (informa- tive normative statements, yet the speaker does not, in so uttering them, express or convey acceptance of the point of view of the hearer to whom they are addressed (as contrasted with committed statements, where the speaker does express or convey such acceptance. I propose to offer a novel analysis of such statements (and to clear away some confusions about them. In brief, such statements will be analysed as wide-scope normative conditionals.

  9. Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Riaz, MD


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 58-year-old female presented to the emergency department reporting six days of progressive, atraumatic left eye vision loss. Her symptoms started with the appearance of dark spots and “spider webs,” and then progressed to darkening of vision in her left eye. She reports mild pain since yesterday. Her review of symptoms was otherwise negative. Ocular physical examination revealed normal external appearance, intact extraocular movements, and visual acuities of 20/25 OD and light/dark sensitivity OS. Fluorescein uptake was negative and slit lamp exam was unremarkable. Significant findings: Bedside ocular ultrasound revealed a serpentine, hyperechoic membrane that appeared tethered to the optic disc posteriorly with hyperechoic material underneath. These findings are consistent with retinal detachment (RD and associated retinal hemorrhage. Discussion: The retina is a layer of organized neurons that line the posterior portion of the posterior chamber of the eye. RD occurs when this layer separates from the underlying epithelium, resulting in ischemia and progressive photoreceptor degeneration, with potentially rapid and permanent vision loss if left untreated.1 Risk factors include advanced age, male sex (60%, race (Asians and Jews, and myopia and lattice degeneration.2 Bedside ultrasound (US performed by emergency physicians provides a valuable tool that has been used by ophthalmologists for decades to evaluate intraocular disease.1,3 Findings on bedside ultrasound consistent with RD include a hyperechoic membrane floating in the posterior chamber. RD usuallyremain tethered to the optic disc posteriorly and do not cross midline, a feature distinguishing them from posterior vitreous detachments. Associated retinal hemorrhage, seen as hyperechoic material under the retinal flap, can often be seen.1,2 US can also distinguish between “mac-on” and “mac-off” detachments. If the retina is still attached to the

  10. Three-Dimensional Mantle Flow Near an Oceanic Paleotransform Fault System: Geological Constraints From the Bogota Peninsula, New Caledonia (United States)

    Chatzaras, V.; Kruckenberg, S. C.; Titus, S.; Tikoff, B.; Teyssier, C. P.; Drury, M. R.


    We provide geological constraints on mantle deformation across a system of two oceanic paleotransform faults exposed in the Bogota Peninsula area, New Caledonia. Mantle deformation occurred at depths corresponding to temperatures of 900 oC and is highly heterogeneous. The paleotransform faults consist of mylonitic shear zones ( 1 km wide), and are surrounded by broader areas in which rotation of both the shape fabric (foliation and lineation) and olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) takes place. Outside the plaeotransform faults, mantle flows oblique to the strike of the mylonitic zones and is characterized by lateral variations in the flow direction. To further constrain the kinematics and type of deformation, we determine the orientation of the crystallographic vorticity axes as an independent tool for constraining deformation geometry (e.g., simple shear, transpression, transtension). The observed mantle flow is associated to lateral variations in: 1) the geometry and degree of anisotropy of spinel shape fabric; 2) olivine CPO type; 3) amount of stretching; and 4) the orientation of the crystallographic vorticity axes. Upper mantle in the vicinity of oceanic transform faults may be characterized by complex, three-dimensional flow patterns and deformation geometries deviating from simple shear.

  11. Three dimensional investigation on the oceanic active fault. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Okamoto, Yukinobu; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio; Arai, Kosaku [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    In order to upgrade activity and likelihood ratio on active potential evaluation of the water active fault with possibility of severe effect on nuclear facilities, by generally applying the conventional procedures to some areas and carrying out a demonstration survey, a qualitative upgrading on survey to be conducted by the executives was planned. In 1998 fiscal year, among the water active faults classified to the trench and the inland types, three dimensional survey on the inland type water active fault. The survey was carried out at the most southern part of aftershock area in the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake, which is understood to be a place changing shallow geological structure (propagation of fault) from an old report using the sonic survey. As a result, a geological structure thought to be an active fault at a foot of two ridge topographies was found. Each fault was thought to be a reverse fault tilt to its opposite direction and an active fault cutting to its sea bottom. (G.K.)

  12. Three dimensional investigation on the oceanic active fault. A demonstration survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Okamoto, Yukinobu; Ikehara, Ken; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio; Arai, Kosaku


    In order to upgrade activity and likelihood ratio on active potential evaluation of the water active fault with possibility of severe effect on nuclear facilities, by generally applying the conventional procedures to some areas and carrying out a demonstration survey, a qualitative upgrading on survey to be conducted by the executives was planned. In 1998 fiscal year, among the water active faults classified to the trench and the inland types, three dimensional survey on the inland type water active fault. The survey was carried out at the most southern part of aftershock area in the 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake, which is understood to be a place changing shallow geological structure (propagation of fault) from an old report using the sonic survey. As a result, a geological structure thought to be an active fault at a foot of two ridge topographies was found. Each fault was thought to be a reverse fault tilt to its opposite direction and an active fault cutting to its sea bottom. (G.K.)

  13. Ocean-bottom pressure changes above a fault area for tsunami excitation and propagation observed by a submarine dense network (United States)

    Yomogida, K.; Saito, T.


    Conventional tsunami excitation and propagation have been formulated by incompressible fluid with velocity components. This approach is valid in most cases because we usually analyze tunamis as "long gravity waves" excited by submarine earthquakes. Newly developed ocean-bottom tsunami networks such as S-net and DONET have dramatically changed the above situation for the following two reasons: (1) tsunami propagations are now directly observed in a 2-D array manner without being suffered by complex "site effects" of sea shore, and (2) initial tsunami features can be directly detected just above a fault area. Removing the incompressibility assumption of sea water, we have formulated a new representation of tsunami excitation based on not velocity but displacement components. As a result, not only dynamics but static term (i.e., the component of zero frequency) can be naturally introduced, which is important for the pressure observed on the ocean floor, which ocean-bottom tsunami stations are going to record. The acceleration on the ocean floor should be combined with the conventional tsunami height (that is, the deformation of the sea level above a given station) in the measurement of ocean-bottom pressure although the acceleration exists only during fault motions in time. The M7.2 Off Fukushima earthquake on 22 November 2016 was the first event that excited large tsunamis within the territory of S-net stations. The propagation of tsunamis is found to be highly non-uniform, because of the strong velocity (i.e., sea depth) gradient perpendicular to the axis of Japan Trench. The earthquake was located in a shallow sea close to the coast, so that all the tsunami energy is reflected by the trench region of high velocity. Tsunami records (pressure gauges) within its fault area recorded clear slow motions of tsunamis (i.e., sea level changes) but also large high-frequency signals, as predicted by our theoretical result. That is, it may be difficult to extract tsunami

  14. Magmatic controls on axial relief and faulting at mid-ocean ridges (United States)

    Liu, Zhonglan; Buck, W. Roger


    Previous models do not simultaneously reproduce the observed range of axial relief and fault patterns at plate spreading centers. We suggest that this failure is due to the approximation that magmatic dikes open continuously rather than in discrete events. During short - lived events, dikes open not only in the strong axial lithosphere but also some distance into the underlying weaker asthenosphere. Axial valley relief affects the partitioning of magma between the lithosphere and asthenosphere during diking events. The deeper the valley, the more magma goes into lithospheric dikes in each event and so the greater the average opening rate of those dikes. The long-term rate of lithospheric dike opening controls faulting rate and axial depth. The feedback between axial valley depth D and lithospheric dike opening rate allows us to analytically relate steady-state values of D to lithospheric thickness HL and crustal thickness HC. A two-dimensional model numerical model with a fixed axial lithospheric structure illustrates the analytic model implications for axial faulting. The predictions of this new model are broadly consistent with global and segment-scale trends of axial depth and fault patterns with HL and HC.

  15. Quasi-3-D Seismic Reflection Imaging and Wide-Angle Velocity Structure of Nearly Amagmatic Oceanic Lithosphere at the Ultraslow-Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (United States)

    Momoh, Ekeabino; Cannat, Mathilde; Watremez, Louise; Leroy, Sylvie; Singh, Satish C.


    We present results from 3-D processing of 2-D seismic data shot along 100 m spaced profiles in a 1.8 km wide by 24 km long box during the SISMOSMOOTH 2014 cruise. The study is aimed at understanding the oceanic crust formed at an end-member mid-ocean ridge environment of nearly zero melt supply. Three distinct packages of reflectors are imaged: (1) south facing reflectors, which we propose correspond to the damage zone induced by the active axial detachment fault: reflectors in the damage zone have dips up to 60° and are visible down to 5 km below the seafloor; (2) series of north dipping reflectors in the hanging wall of the detachment fault: these reflectors may correspond to damage zone inherited from a previous, north dipping detachment fault, or small offset recent faults, conjugate from the active detachment fault, that served as conduits for isolated magmatic dykes; and (3) discontinuous but coherent flat-lying reflectors at shallow depths (serpentinization and fracturation of the exhumed mantle-derived peridotites in the footwall of active and past detachment faults.

  16. Does seismic activity control carbon exchanges between transform-faults in old ocean crust and the deep sea? A hypothesis examined by the EU COST network FLOWS (United States)

    Lever, M. A.


    The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)-Action FLOWS ( was initiated on the 25th of October 2013. It is a consortium formed by members of currently 14 COST countries and external partners striving to better understand the interplay between earthquakes and fluid flow at transform-faults in old oceanic crust. The recent occurrence of large earthquakes and discovery of deep fluid seepage calls for a revision of the postulated hydrogeological inactivity and low seismic activity of old oceanic transform-type plate boundaries, and indicates that earthquakes and fluid flow are intrinsically associated. This Action merges the expertise of a large number of research groups and supports the development of multidisciplinary knowledge on how seep fluid (bio)chemistry relates to seismicity. It aims to identify (bio)geochemical proxies for the detection of precursory seismic signals and to develop innovative physico-chemical sensors for deep-ocean seismogenic faults. National efforts are coordinated through Working Groups (WGs) focused on 1) geophysical and (bio)geochemical data acquisition; 2) modelling of structure and seismicity of faults; 3) engineering of deep-ocean physico-chemical seismic sensors; and 4) integration and dissemination. This poster will illustrate the overarching goals of the FLOWS Group, with special focus to research goals concerning the role of seismic activity in controlling the release of carbon from the old ocean crust into the deep ocean.

  17. The 2012 Mw 8.6 Wharton Basin sequence: A cascade of great earthquakes generated by near-orthogonal, young, oceanic mantle faults (United States)

    Hill, Emma M.; Yue, Han; Barbot, Sylvain; Lay, Thorne; Tapponnier, Paul; Hermawan, Iwan; Hubbard, Judith; Banerjee, Paramesh; Feng, Lujia; Natawidjaja, Danny; Sieh, Kerry


    We improve constraints on the slip distribution and geometry of faults involved in the complex, multisegment, Mw 8.6 April 2012 Wharton Basin earthquake sequence by joint inversion of high-rate GPS data from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), teleseismic observations, source time functions from broadband surface waves, and far-field static GPS displacements. This sequence occurred under the Indian Ocean, ˜400 km offshore Sumatra. The events are extraordinary for their unprecedented rupture of multiple cross faults, deep slip, large strike-slip magnitude, and potential role in the formation of a discrete plate boundary between the Indian and Australian plates. The SuGAr recorded static displacements of up to ˜22 cm, along with time-varying arrivals from the complex faulting, which indicate that the majority of moment release was on young, WNW trending, right-lateral faults, counter to initial expectations that an old, lithospheric, NNE trending fracture zone played the primary role. The new faults are optimally oriented to accommodate the present-day stress field. Not only was the greatest moment released on the younger faults, but it was these that sustained very deep slip and high stress drop (>20 MPa). The rupture may have extended to depths of up to 60 km, suggesting that the oceanic lithosphere in the northern Wharton Basin may be cold and strong enough to sustain brittle failure at such depths. Alternatively, the rupture may have occurred with an alternative weakening mechanism, such as thermal runaway.

  18. Origin of a crustal splay fault and its relation to the seismogenic zone and underplating at the erosional north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Agudelo, W.; Ribodetti, A.; Marcaillou, B.


    Splay faults within accretionary complexes are commonly associated with the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Prestack depth migration of a multichannel seismic line across the north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin images a crustal splay fault that correlates with the seaward limit of the rupture zone of the 1958 (Mw 7.7) tsunamogenic subduction earthquake. The splay fault separates 5-6.6 km/s velocity, inner wedge basement rocks, which belong to the accreted Gorgona oceanic terrane, from 4 to 5 km/s velocity outer wedge rocks. The outer wedge is dominated by basal tectonic erosion. Despite a 3-km-thick trench fill, subduction of 2-km-high seamount prevented tectonic accretion and promotes basal tectonic erosion. The low-velocity and poorly reflective subduction channel that underlies the outer wedge is associated with the aseismic, décollement thrust. Subduction channel fluids are expected to migrate upward along splay faults and alter outer wedge rocks. Conversely, duplexes are interpreted to form from and above subducting sediment, at ˜14- to 15-km depths between the overlapping seismogenic part of the splay fault and the underlying aseismic décollement. Coeval basal erosion of the outer wedge and underplating beneath the apex of inner wedge control the margin mass budget, which comes out negative. Intraoceanic basement fossil listric normal faults and a rift zone inverted in a flower structure reflect the evolution of the Gorgona terrane from Cretaceous extension to likely Eocene oblique compression. The splay faults could have resulted from tectonic inversion of listric normal faults, thus showing how inherited structures may promote fluid flow across margin basement and control seismogenesis.

  19. The semi-brittle to ductile transition in peridotite on oceanic faults: mechanisms and P-T condition (United States)

    Prigent, C.; Warren, J. M.; Kohli, A. H.; Teyssier, C. P.


    Experimental and geological-petrological studies suggest that the transition from brittle faulting to ductile flow of olivine, i.e. from seismic to aseismic behavior of mantle rocks (peridotites), occurs close to 600°C. However, recent seismological studies on oceanic transform faults (TFs) and ridges have documented earthquakes to temperatures (T) up to 700-800°C. In this study, we carried out a petrological, microstructural and geochemical analysis of natural samples of peridotites dredged at 3 different oceanic TFs of the Southwest Indian Ridge: Shaka, Prince Edward and Atlantis II. We selected samples displaying variable amounts of ductile deformation (from porphyroclastic tectonites to ultramylonites) prior to serpentinization in order to characterize their relatively high-T mechanical behavior. We find that the most deformed samples record cycles of ductile and brittle deformation. Peridotite ductile flow is characterized by drastic grain size reduction and the development of (ultra)mylonitic shear zones. In these zones, a switch in olivine deformation mechanism from dislocation creep to grain-size sensitive creep is associated with dissolution/precipitation processes. Brittle deformation of these samples is evidenced by the presence of (at least centimetric) transgranular and intragranular fractures that fragment coarser grained minerals. Both kinds of fractures are filled with the same phase assemblage as in the ultramylonitic bands: olivine + amphibole ± orthopyroxene ± Al-phase (plagioclase and/or spinel) ± sulfides. The presence of amphibole indicates that this semi-brittle deformation was assisted by hydrous fluids and its composition (e.g. high concentration of chlorine) suggests that the fluids have most likely a hydrothermal origin. We interpret these fractures to have formed under fluid-assisted conditions, recording paleo-seismic activity that alternated with periods of relatively slow interseismic ductile flow. The presence of Mg

  20. Tectonic interpretation of the Andrew Bain transform fault: Southwest Indian Ocean (United States)

    Sclater, John G.; Grindlay, Nancy R.; Madsen, John A.; Rommevaux-Jestin, Celine


    Between 25°E and 35°E, a suite of four transform faults, Du Toit, Andrew Bain, Marion, and Prince Edward, offsets the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) left laterally 1230 km. The Andrew Bain, the largest, has a length of 750 km and a maximum transform domain width of 120 km. We show that, currently, the Nubia/Somalia plate boundary intersects the SWIR east of the Prince Edward, placing the Andrew Bain on the Nubia/Antarctica plate boundary. However, the overall trend of its transform domain lies 10° clockwise of the predicted direction of motion for this boundary. We use four transform-parallel multibeam and magnetic anomaly profiles, together with relocated earthquakes and focal mechanism solutions, to characterize the morphology and tectonics of the Andrew Bain. Starting at the southwestern ridge-transform intersection, the relocated epicenters follow a 450-km-long, 20-km-wide, 6-km-deep western valley. They cross the transform domain within a series of deep overlapping basins bounded by steep inward dipping arcuate scarps. Eight strike-slip and three dip-slip focal mechanism solutions lie within these basins. The earthquakes can be traced to the northeastern ridge-transform intersection via a straight, 100-km-long, 10-km-wide, 4.5-km-deep eastern valley. A striking set of seismically inactive NE-SW trending en echelon ridges and valleys, lying to the south of the overlapping basins, dominates the eastern central section of the transform domain. We interpret the deep overlapping basins as two pull-apart features connected by a strike-slip basin that have created a relay zone similar to those observed on continental transforms. This transform relay zone connects three closely spaced overlapping transform faults in the southwest to a single transform fault in the northeast. The existence of the transform relay zone accounts for the difference between the observed and predicted trend of the Andrew Bain transform domain. We speculate that between 20 and 3.2 Ma, an

  1. Mesozoic strike-slip movement of the Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone in NE China: A response to oceanic plate subduction (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Guang; Zhang, Shuai; Gu, Chengchuan; Li, Yunjian; Su, Nan; Xiao, Shiye


    The NE-striking Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone (DMFZ) is one of two branches of the continental-scale sinistral Tan-Lu Fault Zone in NE China. The field data presented here indicate that the ca. 1000 km long DMFZ records two phases of sinistral faulting. The structures produced by these two phases of faulting include NE-SW-striking ductile shear belts and brittle faults, respectively. Mylonite-hosted microstructures and quartz c-axis fabrics suggest deformation temperatures of 450 °C-500 °C for the ductile shear belts. Combining new zircon U-Pb dates for 14 igneous rock samples analyzed during this study with the geology of this region indicates these shear belts formed during the earliest Early Cretaceous. This phase of sinistral displacement represents the initial formation of the DMFZ in response to the northward propagation of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone into NE China. A phase of Early Cretaceous rifting was followed by a second phase of sinistral faulting at 102-96 Ma, as evidenced by our new U-Pb ages for associated igneous rocks. Combining our new data with the results of previous research indicates that the DFMZ records a four-stage Cretaceous evolutionary history, where initial sinistral faulting at the beginning of the Early Cretaceous gave way to rifting during the rest of the Early Cretaceous. This was followed by a second phase of sinistral faulting at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous and a second phase of local rifting during the rest of the Late Cretaceous. The Cretaceous evolution of the DMFZ records the synchronous tectonic evolution of the NE China continent bordering the Pacific Ocean. Two phases of regional N-S compression generated the two phases of sinistral faulting within the DMFZ, whereas two-stage regional extension generated the two phases of rifting. The two compressive events were the result of the rapid low-angle subduction of the Izanagi and Pacific plates, whereas the two-stage extension was caused by the roll-back of these respective

  2. Seismic evidence for overpressured subducted oceanic crust and megathrust fault sealing. (United States)

    Audet, Pascal; Bostock, Michael G; Christensen, Nikolas I; Peacock, Simon M


    Water and hydrous minerals play a key part in geodynamic processes at subduction zones by weakening the plate boundary, aiding slip and permitting subduction-and indeed plate tectonics-to occur. The seismological signature of water within the forearc mantle wedge is evident in anomalies with low seismic shear velocity marking serpentinization. However, seismological observations bearing on the presence of water within the subducting plate itself are less well documented. Here we use converted teleseismic waves to obtain observations of anomalously high Poisson's ratios within the subducted oceanic crust from the Cascadia continental margin to its intersection with forearc mantle. On the basis of pressure, temperature and compositional considerations, the elevated Poisson's ratios indicate that water is pervasively present in fluid form at pore pressures near lithostatic values. Combined with observations of a strong negative velocity contrast at the top of the oceanic crust, our results imply that the megathrust is a low-permeability boundary. The transition from a low- to high-permeability plate interface downdip into the mantle wedge is explained by hydrofracturing of the seal by volume changes across the interface caused by the onset of crustal eclogitization and mantle serpentinization. These results may have important implications for our understanding of seismogenesis, subduction zone structure and the mechanism of episodic tremor and slip.

  3. Retinal detachment following endophthalmitis. (United States)

    Nelsen, P T; Marcus, D A; Bovino, J A


    Fifty-five consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis were reviewed. All patients were treated with systemic, periocular, topical, and intravitreal antibiotics. In addition, 33 of the patients underwent a pars plana vitrectomy. Nine retinal detachments occurred within six months of initial diagnosis. The higher frequency of retinal detachment in the vitrectomy group (21%) as compared to those patients managed without vitrectomy (9%) may be explained by a combination of surgical complications and the increased severity of endophthalmitis in the vitrectomy group. The two patients who developed retinal detachment during vitrectomy surgery rapidly progressed to no light perception. Conversely, the repair of retinal detachments diagnosed postoperatively had a good prognosis.

  4. Kinematic evidence for downdip movement on the Mormon Peak detachment (United States)

    Walker, Christopher D.; Anders, Mark H.; Christie-Blick, Nicholas


    The Mormon Peak detachment is considered to be one of the best examples of a rooted upper crustal detachment fault that propagated through the brittle crust at a low angle. The hanging wall of the detachment today consists of a number of isolated blocks that have been interpreted as remnants of a once-contiguous extensional allochthon. Here we present the results of a new study of directional indicators from the basal surfaces beneath these blocks. These measurements do not agree with the long-standing interpretation of a S75°W movement direction for the detachment hanging wall. Instead, the most recent movement on each section of the detachment took place approximately parallel to the present downdip direction. We conclude that the Mormon Peak detachment is best explained as the basal surfaces to a series of rootless gravity slides.

  5. Mid Ocean Ridge Processes at Very Low Melt Supply : Submersible Exploration of Smooth Ultramafic Seafloor at the Southwest Indian Ridge, 64 degree E (United States)

    Cannat, M.; Agrinier, P.; Bickert, M.; Brunelli, D.; Hamelin, C.; Lecoeuvre, A.; Lie Onstad, S.; Maia, M.; Prampolini, M.; Rouméjon, S.; Vitale Brovarone, A.; Besançon, S.; Assaoui, E. M.


    Mid-ocean ridges are the Earth's most extensive and active volcanic chains. They are also, particularly at slow spreading rates, rift zones, where plate divergence is in part accommodated by faults. Large offset normal faults, also called detachments, are characteristic of slow-spreading ridges, where they account for the widespread emplacement of mantle-derived rocks at the seafloor. In most cases, these detachments occur together with ridge magmatism, with melt injection and faulting interacting to shape the newly formed oceanic lithosphere. Here, we seek to better understand these interactions and their effects on oceanic accretion by studying the end-member case of a ridge where magmatism is locally almost absent. The portion of the Southwest Indian ridge we are studying has an overal low melt supply, focused to discrete axial volcanoes, leaving almost zero melt to intervening sections of the axial valley. One of these nearly amagmatic section of the ridge, located at 64°E, has been the focus of several past cruises (sampling, mapping and seismic experiments). Here we report on the most recent cruise to the area (RV Pourquoi Pas? with ROV Victor; dec-jan 2017), during which we performed high resolution mapping, submersible exploration and sampling of the ultramafic seafloor and of sparse volcanic formations. Our findings are consistent with the flip-flop detachment hypothesis proposed for this area by Sauter et al. (Nature Geosciences, 2013; ultramafic seafloor forming in the footwall of successive detachment faults, each cutting into the footwall of the previous fault, with an opposite polarity). Our observations also document the extent and geometry of deformation in the footwall of a young axial detachment, the role of mass-wasting for the evolution of this detachment, and provide spectacular evidence for serpentinization-related hydrothermal circulation and for spatial links between faults and volcanic eruptions.

  6. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.


    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  7. Retinal detachment repair (United States)

    ... medicines Problems breathing You may not recover full vision. ... detachments can be repaired. Failure to repair the retina always results in loss of vision to some degree. After surgery, the quality of ...

  8. Serous Macular Detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Özdemir


    Full Text Available Serous macular detachment has only recently been recognized to occur in a significant number of eyes with macular pathology including diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, Behçet disease, Irvine-Gass syndrome and pars planitis. These serous retinal detachments associated with retinal vascular leakage are not suspected clinically or angiographically but can be diagnosed with optical coherence tomography (OCT beneath the edematous neurosensory retina. The detection of shallow foveal detachment may be helpful in better understanding the pathogenesis of these disorders. In addition, the detection of serous macular detachment may also help to better guide and assess the results of therapy in the future. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 146-9

  9. Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Choroidal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sh. Bilandarli


    Full Text Available Review describes the theme of rhegmatogenous retinal dеtаchment associated with choroidal separation. It is rare, but quite severe eye pathology. In most cases it has a very poor prognosis. Most authors consider the retinal detachment as a primary pathogenetic part, which decompensates the production of aqueous humor by increasing the absorptive surface of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dilatation of choroidal arterioles occurs in hypotension, it leads to extravasation of protein-rich fluid in the choroidal and the suprachoroidal space. This helps to further swelling and separation of the ciliary body and the choroid with reduced production of aqueous humor and progressive hypotension. There is a high risk of developing “retino-choroidal” separation in patients with macular rupture due to localization of retinal separation and rupture rear hyaloid membrane. The protein level in aqueous humor can be increased to 70 times. It may be a result of reflux of suprachoroidal proteins through uveoscleral route and / or venous proteins through the trabecular network. In addition, the diffusion of proteins from the posterior camera and vitreous cavity is possible. This creates favorable conditions for cell proliferation that can lead to postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Typically patients have a pronounced signs of inflammation, pain, and “red eye”, which is accompanied with vision decrement. Rhegmatogenous retinal reparationcan be associated with such clinical symptoms as severe panuveit, deepening of the anterior camera and the inflammatory response in the moisture, concentric wrinkles and sagging back of the iris, posterior synechia, iridofakodenez, blurred vitreous detachment of the ciliary body, hypotension, and choroidal and retinal detachment in addition. Debatableness of etiopathogenesis and a clinical picture, which is similar to other eye diseases create significant difficulties in early diagnosis and proper treatment of

  10. From magma-poor Ocean Continent Transitions to steady state oceanic spreading: the balance between tectonic and magmatic processes (United States)

    Gillard, Morgane; Manatschal, Gianreto; Autin, Julia; Decarlis, Alessandro; Sauter, Daniel


    The evolution of magma-poor rifted margins is linked to the development of a transition zone whose basement is neither clearly continental nor oceanic. The development of this Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) is generally associated to the exhumation of serpentinized mantle along one or several detachment faults. That model is supported by numerous observations (IODP wells, dredges, fossil margins) and by numerical modelling. However, if the initiation of detachment faults in a magma-poor setting tends to be better understood by numerous studies in various area, the transition with the first steady state oceanic crust and the associated processes remain enigmatic and poorly studied. Indeed, this latest stage of evolution appears to be extremely gradual and involves strong interactions between tectonic processes and magmatism. Contrary to the proximal part of the exhumed domain where we can observe magmatic activity linked to the exhumation process (exhumation of gabbros, small amount of basalts above the exhumed mantle), in the most distal part the magmatic system appears to be independent and more active. In particular, we can observe large amounts of extrusive material above a previously exhumed and faulted basement (e.g. Alps, Australia-Antarctica margins). It seems that some faults can play the role of feeder systems for the magma in this area. Magmatic underplating is also important, as suggested by basement uplift and anomalously thick crust (e.g. East Indian margin). It results that the transition with the first steady state oceanic crust is marked by the presence of a hybrid basement, composed by exhumed mantle and magmatic material, whose formation is linked to several tectonic and magmatic events. One could argue that this basement is not clearly different from an oceanic basement. However, we consider that true, steady state oceanic crust only exists, if the entire rock association forming the crust is created during a single event, at a localized

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-EE0002960 Recovery Act. Detachment faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation of Pearl Hot Spring, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Daniel F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    The Pearl Host Spring Geothermal Project funded by the DoE Geothermal Program was a joint academic (KU/UT & OU) and industry collaboration (Sierra and Ram Power) to investigate structural controls and the importance of low-angle normal faults on geothermal fluid flow through a multifaceted geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigation in west-central Nevada. The study clearly showed that the geothermal resources in Clayton Valley are controlled by the interplay between low-angle normal faults and active deformation related to the Walker Lane. The study not only identified potentially feasible blind geothermal resource plays in eastern Clayton Valley, but also provide a transportable template for exploration in the area of west-central Nevada and other regional and actively-deforming releasing fault bends. The study showed that deep-seated low-angle normal faults likely act as crustal scale permeability boundaries and could play an important role in geothermal circulation and funneling geothermal fluid into active fault zones. Not unique to this study, active deformation is viewed as an important gradient to rejuvenated fracture permeability aiding the long-term viability of blind geothermal resources. The technical approach for Phase I included the following components, (1) Structural and geological analysis of Pearl Hot Spring Resource, (2) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and geothermometry, (3) detailed gravity data and modeling (plus some magnetic and resistivity), (4) Reflection and Refraction Seismic (Active Source), (5) Integration with existing and new geological/geophysical data, and (6) 3-D Earth Model, combining all data in an innovative approach combining classic work with new geochemical and geophysical methodology to detect blind geothermal resources in a cost-effective fashion.

  12. Safety detaching hook specification.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JD


    Full Text Available hydraulic tensioning system The impactor must subject the safety detaching hook to an impact energy of 150 kJ minimum. A high speed digital imaging system, capable of recording at least 2000 full frames per second, shall be used to record video images... document compiled by the Contractor, detailing all major events in the production phase, including but not necessarily limited to inspection requirements, test procedures and acceptance/rejection criteria, sampling plans and equipment to be employed...

  13. Model of detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Chance, M.


    Recently a tokamak plasma was observed in TFTR that was not limited by a limiter or a divertor. A model is proposed to explain this equilibrium, which is called a detached plasma. The model consists of (1) the core plasma where ohmic heating power is lost by anomalous heat conduction and (2) the shell plasma where the heat from the core plasma is radiated away by the atomic processes of impurity ions. A simple scaling law is proposed to test the validity of this model

  14. Between Involvement and Detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Gry

    that the Department of State attempted a ‘political bargain’, with which the allies would be given political consultation and a détente in return for re-commitment to integration, whereas the Acheson Committee proposed a détente and deterrence formula in NATO to the overcome this perceived alliance disintegration....... Thus the US proposed the Harmel formula before Harmel. In general, the developments in Western Europe put the Johnson administration in a state of alarm, and the European allies therefore had a larger impact on America’s policies, except in the essentially detached nuclear policy, which...

  15. Oceanographer transform fault structure compared to that of surrounding oceanic crust: Results from seismic refraction data analysis (United States)

    Ambos, E. L.; Hussong, D. M.


    A high quality seismic refraction data set was collected near the intersection of the tranform portion of the Oceanographer Fracture Zone (OFZ) with the adjacent northern limb of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge spreading center (MAR). One seismic line was shot down the axis of the transform valley. Another was shot parallel to the spreading center, crossing from normal oceanic crust into the transform valley, and out again. This latter line was recorded by four Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) spaced along its length, providing complete reversed coverage over the crucial transform valley zone. Findings indicate that whereas the crust of the transform valley is only slightly thinner (4.5 km) compared to normal oceanic crust (5-8 km), the structure is different. Velocities in the range of 6.9 to 7.7. km/sec, which are characteristics of seismic layer 3B, are absent, although a substantial thickness (approximately 3 km) of 6.1-6.8 km/sec material does appear to be present. The upper crust, some 2 km in thickness, is characterized by a high velocity gradient (1.5 sec -1) in which veloxity increases from 2.7 km/sec at the seafloor to 5.8 km/sec at the base of the section. A centrally-located deep of the transform valley has thinner crust (1-2 km), whereas the crust gradually thickens past the transform valley-spreading center intersection. Analysis of the seismic line crossing sub-perpendicular to the transform valley demonstrates abrupt thinning of the upper crustal section, and thickening of the lower crust outside of the trasform valley. In addition, high-velocity material seems to occur under the valley flanks, particularly the southern flanking ridge. This ridge, which is on the side of the transform opposite to the intersection of spreading ridge and transform, may be an expression of uplifted, partially serpentinized upper mantle rocks.

  16. [Prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment]. (United States)

    Binder, S; Riss, B


    The indications for and results of prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment during a period of five years are reported and compared with the results in the literature. Half of the cases (3 out of 6 eyes) which developed a retinal detachment had been horse-shoe tears combined with a vitreous hemorrhage. For this reason a small buckle operation is recommended in these cases, to prevent further traction. Lattice degeneration should rather be observed than treated, except in special cases: This includes eyes where the fellow eye had a detachment from a lattice degeneration, cases in which one eye is blind from an uncured detachment or has no useful visual acuity, and eyes whose fellow eye has giant tears. In aphakic eyes treatment of lattice degeneration is recommended, because the incidence of detachment from these areas is high, especially in young aphakic cases. In one aphakic eye which had been photocoagulated several times the formation of a preretinal membrane was observed.

  17. Structural Discordance Between Neogene Detachments and Frontal Sevier Thrusts, Central Mormon Mountains, Southern Nevada (United States)

    Wernicke, Brian; Walker, J. Douglas; Beaufait, Mark S.


    Detailed geologic mapping in the Mormon Mountains of southern Nevada provides significant insight into processes of extensional tectonics developed within older compressional orogens. A newly discovered, WSW-directed low-angle normal fault, the Mormon Peak detachment, juxtaposes the highest levels of the frontal most part of the east-vergent, Mesozoic Sevier thrust belt with autochthonous crystalline basement. Palinspastic analysis suggests that the detachment initially dipped 20-25° to the west and cut discordantly across thrust faults. Nearly complete lateral removal of the hanging wall from the area has exposed a 5 km thick longitudinal cross-section through the thrust belt in the footwall, while highly attenuated remnants of the hanging wall (nowhere more than a few hundred meters thick) structurally veneer the range. The present arched configuration of the detachment resulted in part from progressive "domino-style" rotation of a few degrees while it was active, but is largely due to rotation on younger, structurally lower, basement-penetrating normal faults that initiated at high-angle. The geometry and kinematics of normal faulting in the Mormon Mountains suggest that pre-existing thrust planes are not required for the initiation of low-angle normal faults, and even where closely overlapped by extensional tectonism, need not function as a primary control of detachment geometry. Caution must thus be exercised in interpreting low-angle normal faults of uncertain tectonic heritage such as those seen in the COCORP west-central Utah and BIRP's MOIST deep-reflection profiles. Although thrust fault reactivation has reasonably been shown to be the origin of a very few low-angle normal faults, our results indicate that it may not be as fundamental a component of orogenic architecture as it is now widely perceived to be. We conclude that while in many instances thrust fault reactivation may be both a plausible and attractive hypothesis, it may never be assumed.

  18. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas (United States)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.


    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  19. [Surgical managment of retinal detachment]. (United States)

    Haritoglou, C; Wolf, A


    The detachment of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium can be related to breaks of the retina allowing vitreous fluid to gain access to the subretinal space, to exudative changes of the choroid such as tumours or inflammatory diseases or to excessive tractional forces exerted by interactions of the collagenous vitreous and the retina. Tractional retinal detachment is usually treated by vitrectomy and exudative detachment can be addressed by treatment of the underlying condition in many cases. In rhegmatogenous retinal detachment two different surgical procedures, vitrectomy and scleral buckling, can be applied for functional and anatomic rehabilitation of our patients. The choice of the surgical procedure is not really standardised and often depends on the experience of the surgeon and other more ocular factors including lens status, the number of retinal breaks, the extent of the detachment and the amount of preexisting PVR. Using both techniques, anatomic success rates of over 90 % can be achieved. Especially in young phakic patients scleral buckling offers the true advantage to prevent the progression of cataract formation requiring cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Therefore, scleral buckling should be considered in selected cases as an alternative surgical option in spite of the very important technical refinements in modern vitrectomy techniques. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Testing the Extensional Detachment Paradigm: A Borehole Observatory in the Sevier Desert Basin


    Gianreto Manatschal; Brian P. Wernicke; Mark H. Anders; Nicholas Christie-Blick


    Low-angle normal faults or detachments are widely regarded as playing an important role in crustal extension and the development of rifted continental margins (Manatschal et al., 2007). However, no consensus exists on how to resolve the mechanical paradox implied by the gentledips of these faults and by the general absence of evidence for associated seismicity (Sibson, 1985; Wernicke, 1995; Axen, 2004). As part of a new initiative to rationalize geological and geophysical evidence and our the...

  1. Deformation associated to exhumation of serpentinized mantle rocks in a fossil Ocean Continent Transition: The Totalp unit in SE Switzerland (United States)

    Picazo, S.; Manatschal, G.; Cannat, M.; Andréani, M.


    Although the exhumation of ultramafic rocks in slow and ultraslow spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges and Ocean Continent Transitions (OCTs) has been extensively investigated, the deformation processes related to mantle exhumation are poorly constrained. In this paper we present a new geological map and a section across the exhumed serpentinized peridotites of the Totalp unit near Davos (SE Switzerland), and we propose that the Totalp unit is formed by two Alpine thrust sheets. Geological mapping indicates local exposure of a paleo-seafloor that is formed by an exhumed detachment surface and serpentinized peridotites. The top of the exhumed mantle rocks is made of ophicalcites that resulted from the carbonation of serpentine under static conditions at the seafloor. The ophicalcites preserve depositional contacts with Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments (Bernoulli and Weissert, 1985). These sequences did not exceed prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphic facies conditions, and locally escaped Alpine deformation. Thin mylonitic shear zones as well as foliated amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks have been mapped. The age of these rocks and the link with the final exhumation history are yet unknown but since amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks can be found as clasts in cataclasites related to the detachment fault, they pre-date detachment faulting. Our petrostructural study of the exhumed serpentinized rocks also reveals a deformation gradient from cataclasis to gouge formation within 150 m in the footwall of the proposed paleo-detachment fault. This deformation postdates serpentinization. It involves a component of plastic deformation of serpentine in the most highly strained intervals that has suffered pronounced grain-size reduction and a polyphase cataclastic overprint.

  2. Retinal detachment in paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S. N.; Qureshi, N.; Azad, N.; Khan, A.


    Objective: To assess the causes of retinal detachment in children and the various operative procedures requiring vitreoretinal surgical intervention for the same. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to May 2009. Methodology: A total of 281 eyes of 258 patients, (aged 0 - 18 years) who underwent vitreo-retinal surgical intervention for retinal detachment were included. Surgical log was searched for the type of retinal detachment and its causes. Frequencies of various interventions done in these patients viz. vitrectomy, scleral buckle, use of tamponading agents, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy were noted. Results were described as descriptive statistics. Results: Myopia was the cause in 62 (22.1%) and trauma in 51 (18.1%) of the eyes. Total retinal detachment (RD) was treated in 94 (33.5%) eyes, sub total RD in 36 (12.8%), recurrent RD in 32 (11.4%), giant retinal tear in 28 (10%), tractional RD in 15 (5.3%) and exudative RD in 2 (0.7%). Prophylactic laser or cryotherapy was applied in 74 (26.3%) of the eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was carried out in 159 (56.6%) eyes while scleral buckle procedure was done in 129 (45.9%) eyes. Silicon oil was used in 149 (53%), perfluorocarbon liquid in 32 (11.4%) and gas tamponade in 20 (7.1%) eyes. Conclusion: The most common cause of retinal detachment in paediatric patients was myopia, followed by trauma. Total RD was more common as compared to the other types. The most common procedure adopted was pars plana vitrectomy followed by scleral buckle procedure. (author)

  3. An oceanic core complex (OCC) in the Albanian Dinarides? Preliminary paleomagnetic and structural results from the Mirdita Ophiolite (northern Albania) (United States)

    Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M.


    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are dome-shaped massifs commonly associated with the inside corners of the intersection of transform faults and slow (and ultra-slow) spreading centres. They represent the uplifted footwalls of large-slip oceanic detachment faults (e.g. Cann et al., 1997; Blackman et al., 1998) and are composed of mantle and lower crustal rocks exhumed during fault displacement (Smith et al., 2006, 2008). Recent paleomagnetic studies of core samples from OCCs in the Atlantic Ocean (Morris et al., 2009; MacLeod et al., in prep) have confirmed that footwall sections undergo substantial rotation around (sub-) horizontal axes. These studies, therefore, support “rolling hinge” models for the evolution of OCCs, whereby oceanic detachment faults initiate at a steep angle at depth and then “roll-over” to their present day low angle orientations during unroofing (Buck, 1988; Wernicke & Axen, 1988; Lavier et al., 1999). However, a fully integrated paleomagnetic and structural analysis of this process is hampered by the one-dimensional sampling provided by ocean drilling of OCC footwalls. Therefore, ancient analogues for OCCs in ophiolites are of great interest, as these potentially provide 3-D exposures of these important structures and hence a more complete understanding of footwall strain and kinematics (providing that emplacement-related phases of deformation can be accounted for). Recently, the relationship between outcropping crustal and upper mantle rocks led Tremblay et al. (2009) to propose that an OCC is preserved within the Mirdita ophiolite of the Albanian Dinarides (northern Albania). This is a slice of Jurassic oceanic lithosphere exposed along a N-S corridor which escaped the main late Cenozoic Alpine deformation (Robertson, 2002, 2004; Dilek et al., 2007). Though in the eastern portion of the Mirdita ophiolite a Penrose-type sequence is present, in the western portion mantle rocks are in tectonic contact with upper crustal lithologies

  4. Geomorphic and Structural Evidence for Rolling Hinge Style Deformation in the Footwall of an Active Low Angle Normal Fault, Mai'iu Fault, Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Mizera, M.; Little, T.; Norton, K. P.; Webber, S.; Ellis, S. M.; Oesterle, J.


    While shown to operate in oceanic crust, rolling hinge style deformation remains a debated process in metamorpic core complexes (MCCs) in the continents. The model predicts that unloading and isostatic uplift during slip causes a progressive back-tilting in the upper crust of a normal fault that is more steeply dipping at depth. The Mai'iu Fault in the Woodlark Rift, SE Papua New Guinea, is one of the best-exposed and fastest slipping (probably >7 mm/yr) active low-angle normal faults (LANFs) on Earth. We analysed structural field data from this fault's exhumed slip surface and footwall, together with geomorphic data interpreted from aerial photographs and GeoSAR-derived digital elevation models (gridded at 5-30 m spacing), to evaluate deformational processes affecting the rapidly exhuming, domal-shaped detachment fault. The exhumed fault surface emerges from the ground at the rangefront near sea level with a northward dip of 21°. Up-dip, it is well-preserved, smooth and corrugated, with some fault remnants extending at least 29 km in the slip direction. The surface flattens over the crest of the dome, beyond where it dips S at up to 15°. Windgaps perched on the crestal main divide of the dome, indicate both up-dip tectonic advection and progressive back-tilting of the exhuming fault surface. We infer that slip on a serial array of m-to-km scale up-to-the-north, steeply S-dipping ( 75°) antithetic-sense normal faults accommodated some of the exhumation-related, inelastic bending of the footwall. These geomorphically well expressed faults strike parallel to the main Mai'iu fault at 110.9±5°, have a mean cross-strike spacing of 1520 m, and slip with a consistent up-to-the-north sense of throw ranging from <5 m to 120 m. Apparently the Mai'iu Fault was able to continue slipping despite having to negotiate this added fault-roughness. We interpret the antithetic faulting to result from bending stresses, and to provide the first clear examples of rolling hinge

  5. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.


    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  6. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  7. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.


    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  8. Variations of posterior vitreous detachment


    Kakehashi, A.; Kado, M.; Akiba, J.; Hirokawa, H.


    AIMS—To identify variations in posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and establish a clinical classification system for PVD.
METHODS—400 consecutive eyes were examined using biomicroscopy and vitreous photography and classified the PVD variations—complete PVD with collapse, complete PVD without collapse, partial PVD with thickened posterior vitreous cortex (TPVC), or partial PVD without TPVC.
RESULTS—In each PVD type, the most frequently seen ocular pathologies were as follows: in complete PVD ...

  9. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment


    Kakehashi, Akihiro; Takezawa, Mikiko; Akiba, Jun


    Akihiro Kakehashi,1 Mikiko Takezawa,1 Jun Akiba21Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, 2Kanjodori Eye Clinic, Asahikawa, JapanAbstract: Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography...

  10. Posterior vitreous detachment and retinal detachment after cataract surgery. (United States)

    Ripandelli, Guido; Coppé, Andrea Maria; Parisi, Vincenzo; Olzi, Diego; Scassa, Cecilia; Chiaravalloti, Adele; Stirpe, Mario


    To evaluate possible changes of vitreous status in emmetropic eyes after uneventful phacoemulsification surgery, and possible related complications such as the onset of retinal detachment (RD). Retrospective case series. Four hundred fifty-three emmetropic eyes from 453 patients (mean age, 62.03+/-5.57 years) subjected to uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in the capsular bag were considered in the study. They had a refractive error within +/-0.5 diopters (mean, -0.21+/-0.08). Eyes with peripheral retinal lattice degeneration were included only if asymptomatic and only if the degeneration involved one retinal quadrant. After cataract surgery, the 453 eyes were evaluated preoperatively at days 1, 15, and 30 and months 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60. The whole period of follow-up was 5 years. Evaluation of vitreous status by biomicroscopic examination, indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy, and B-scan ultrasonography. Postoperative onset of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and RD. After cataract surgery, a PVD occurred in 107 of 141 (75.88%) eyes without preoperative PVD or lattice degeneration. Posterior vitreous detachment occurred in 41 of 47 eyes (87.23%) with preoperative lattice degeneration and no PVD. Eyes with preoperative lattice degeneration and postoperative PVD showed a higher incidence of RD after cataract surgery (21.27%) than eyes without preoperative PVD or lattice degeneration (0.70%). In all patients with lattice degeneration, RD originated from horseshoe retinal tears on lattice areas located on the superior quadrants. No correlation was observed between the development of RD and age. Our results suggest that the onset of postoperative PVD should be considered an important risk factor for the development of RD after cataract surgery, particularly in eyes with lattice areas.

  11. Fault finder (United States)

    Bunch, Richard H.


    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  12. FTIR measurements of OH in deformed quartz and feldspars of the South Tibetan Detachment, Greater Himalaya (United States)

    Jezek, L.; Law, R. D.; Jessup, M. J.; Searle, M. P.; Kronenberg, A. K.


    OH absorption bands due to water in deformed quartz and feldspar grains of mylonites from the low-angle Lhotse Detachment (of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Rongbuk Valley north of Mount Everest) have been measured by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Previous microstructural studies have shown that these rocks deformed by dislocation creep at high temperature conditions in the middle crust (lower - middle amphibolite facies), and oxygen isotope studies suggest significant influx of meteoric water. OH absorption bands at 3400 cm-1 of quartz mylonites from the footwall of the Lhotse Detachment Fault are large, with the character of the molecular water band due to fluid inclusions in milky quartz. Mean water contents depend on structural position relative to the core of the Lhotse Detachment, from 1000 ppm (OH/106 Si) at 420 m below the fault to 11,350 (+/-1095) ppm near its center. The gradient in OH content shown by quartz grains implies influx of meteoric water along the Lhotse Detachment from the Tibetan Plateau ground surface to middle crustal depths, and significant fluid penetration into the extruding Himalayan slab by intergranular, permeable fluid flow processes. Feldspars of individual samples have comparable water contents to those of quartz and some are wetter. Large water contents of quartz and feldspar may have contributed to continued deformation and strain localization on the South Tibetan Detachment System. Dislocation creep in quartz is facilitated by water in laboratory experiments, and the water contents of the Lhotse fault rocks are similar to (and even larger than) water contents of quartz experimentally deformed during water weakening. Water contents of feldspars are comparable to those of plagioclase aggregates deformed experimentally by dislocation and diffusion creep under wet conditions.

  13. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment (United States)

    Kakehashi, Akihiro; Takezawa, Mikiko; Akiba, Jun


    Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography (OCT). By biomicroscopy, the vitreous condition is determined based on the presence or absence of a PVD. The PVD then is classified as either a complete posterior vitreous detachment (C-PVD) or a partial posterior vitreous detachment (P-PVD). A C-PVD is further divided into a C-PVD with collapse and a C-PVD without collapse, while a P-PVD is divided into a P-PVD with shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD with shrinkage) and a P-PVD without shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD without shrinkage). A P-PVD without shrinkage has a subtype characterized by vitreous gel attachment through the premacular hole in a posterior hyaloid membrane to the macula (P-PVD without shrinkage [M]). By OCT, a shallow PVD is classified as the absence of a shallow PVD or as a shallow PVD. A shallow PVD is then subclassified as a shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, a shallow PVD with shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, and a peripheral shallow PVD. A shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex has two subtypes: an age-related shallow PVD and a perifoveal PVD associated with a macular hole. PMID:24376338

  14. Outcomes in bullous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Read


    Conclusions and importance: GRTs are an uncommon cause of retinal detachment. While pars plana vitrectomy with tamponade is standard in GRT management, there is variability in the use of scleral buckling and PFO in these cases. This is in contrast to retinal dialysis where scleral buckle alone can yield favorable results. Though a baseball ocular trauma is common, retinal involvement is rare compared to other sports injuries such as those occurring with tennis, soccer and golf. Sports trauma remains an important cause of retinal injury and patients should be counseled on the need for eye protection.

  15. Using bathymetry and reflective seismic profiles to tests a suspected link between melt flux and cumulative fault heave at mid-ocean ridges (United States)

    Haughton, G.; Murton, B. J.; Le Bas, T.; Henstock, T.


    The interplay between magma supply and spreading rate is believed to play a major role in determining large scale seafloor morphology. Here we use bathymetry to test this relationship in areas with similar spreading rates and differing magma supplies. By using open source bathymetry data we have developed a repeatable, automated method for categorising seafloor cumulative fault heave and then attempt to identify the controlling variables. We measure the total apparent fault heave along axis and off-axis at 29°N and 60°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge then compare this to proxies for deformation and magma supply. Two approaches are adopted for identifying faults: one using bathymetry and the other spreading-parallel seismic reflection data. The first re-examines the orthogonally spreading Broken Spur segment (26°N) spreading at 23 mm yr-1 (full rate). The other examines the Reykjanes Ridge (60°N) spreading obliquely at 21 mm yr-1 (full rate), which may be influenced by the Icelandic hotspot. Each have contrasting residual depth and structure, with the former being typical of slow spreading ridges, with marked axial valleys, whereas the latter is more typical of fast spreading ridge morphology, with smooth axial rise. We find that high total heave (indicating high tectonic spreading) on the Broken Spur segment does not correlate with high mantle Bouguer anomalies (indicating thin crust and low melt flux). From this we hypothesise that total heave on the large scale at the Broken Spur segment is not controlled by crustal thickness or melt supply. At the Raykjanes Ridge, V-shaped ridges have thicker crust (measured seismically) which converge south of Iceland. These are thought to reflect transient (every 4-6 Myrs) pulses of hot mantle radiating away from the Iceland plume. We find ridge-symmetrical variation in fault heave but with a lower frequency (6-8 Myrs) and longer wavelength (3-7 Myrs) than the V-shaped ridges. Our analysis shows that plume pulses do not

  16. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj


    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  17. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.


    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  18. Detached divertor plasmas in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, L D; Borrass, K; Corrigan, G; Gottardi, N; Lingertat, J; Loarte, A; Simonini, R; Stamp, M F; Taroni, A [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Stangeby, P C [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Studies


    In simulations with high radiated power fractions, it is possible to produce the drop in ion current to the divertor targets typical of detached plasmas. Despite the fact that these experiments are performed on beryllium target tiles, radiation from deuterium and beryllium cannot account for the measured power losses. The neutral deuterium levels in the SOL in these plasmas are higher than the model predicts. This may be due to leakage from the divertor or to additional wall sources related to the non-steady nature of these plasmas. In contrast, a surprisingly high level of carbon is present in these discharges; higher even than would be predicted are the divertor target tiles pure carbon. This level may well be large enough to produce the measured radiation. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and uveitis. (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Frank T; Lamberts, Querin J; van den Biesen, Pieter R; Rothova, Aniki


    To evaluate the frequency, high-risk factors, and visual prognosis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in patients with uveitis. Retrospective case-control study. We included 1387 consecutive patients with uveitis who consulted our uveitis clinic from January 1990 through December 1997 of whom 43 patients (46 eyes) with RRD were identified. The retinal detachment (RD) controls were 212 consecutive patients with RRD (221 eyes, first occurrence of RD, not associated with uveitis) who were admitted for surgery in the period from April 1999 to April 2000. The uveitis control group consisted of 150 age-matched patients (210 eyes) selected from the entire uveitis series. Retrospective analysis of clinical data. The presence of RRD and eventual risk factors for RRD, such as myopia, retinal lattice degeneration, prior intraocular surgery, anatomic location of uveitis, its specific diagnosis, and clinical manifestations. Furthermore, the surgical and nonsurgical outcomes of RRD, as well as the results of various treatment regimens, were analyzed. RRD was identified in 3.1% of the patients with uveitis. RRD was most frequently associated with panuveitis (6.6%). RRD was associated more frequently with infectious (7.6%) than noninfectious uveitis (2.1%). At the onset of RRD, uveitis was active in most (46%) affected eyes. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy was present in 30% of the uveitic RRD eyes at presentation in contrast to 12% of the RRD control eyes. In uveitic RRD, the retina was reattached in 59% of eyes with a single operation; the final anatomic reattachment rate was 88%. Finally, a visual acuity of less than 20/200 was present in 71% of the uveitic RRD eyes, 10% of which had no light perception. We discovered a high prevalence of RRD in patients with active panuveitis and infectious uveitis and document that uveitis in itself is a risk factor for the development of RRD. The visual prognosis of RRD in uveitis was poor because of the uveitis itself and the

  20. Experimental results from detached plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Boody, F.P.; Bush, C.E.


    Detached plasmas are formed in TFTR which have the principal property of the boundary to the high temperature plasma core being defined by a radiating layer. This paper documents the properties of TFTR ohmic-detached plasmas with a range of plasma densities at two different plasma currents

  1. Intraretinal proliferation induced by retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.K.; Erickson, P.A.; Lewis, G.P.; Anderson, D.H.


    Cellular proliferation after retinal detachment was studied by 3 H-thymidine light microscopic autoradiography in cats that had experimental detachments of 0.5-180 days duration. The animals underwent labeling 2 hr before death with an intraocular injection of 200 microCi of 3 H-thymidine. The number of labeled nuclei were counted in 1-micron thick tissue sections in regions of detachment, in regions of the experimental eyes that remained attached, and in control eyes that had no detachments. In the normal eye, in one that had only the lens and vitreous removed, and in the eyes with 0.5- and 1-day detachments, the number of labeled nuclei ranged from 0/mm (0.5-day detachment) to 0.38/mm (lens and vitreous removed only). By 2 days postdetachment, the number of labeled nuclei increased to 2.09/mm. The highest levels of labeling occurred in two animals with detachments of 3 (7.86/mm) and 4 (7.09/mm) days. Thereafter, the numbers declined steadily until near-baseline counts were obtained at 14 days. The number of labeled nuclei was slightly elevated in the attached regions of two animals with 3-day detachments. Labeled cell types included: Mueller cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and endothelial cells of the retinal vasculature, and both resident (microglial cells) and invading macrophages. In an earlier study RPE cells were also shown to proliferate in response to detachment. Thus, these data show that proliferation is a rapid response to detachment, reaching a maximum within 4 days, and that virtually every nonneuronal cell type in the retina can participate in this response. The data suggest that events leading to such clinical manifestations as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and subretinal fibrosis may have their beginnings in this very early proliferative response

  2. Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McElnea


    Full Text Available AIM: To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. METHODS: A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5% of whom were male and 9 (37.5% of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0% cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3% cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6% cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

  3. Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes. (United States)

    McElnea, Elizabeth; Stephenson, Kirk; Gilmore, Sarah; O'Keefe, Michael; Keegan, David


    To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5%) of whom were male and 9 (37.5%) of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0%) cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3%) cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6%) cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

  4. Fault diagnosis (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy


    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  5. Meteoric water in normal fault systems: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic phases in brittle fault rocks (United States)

    Haines, S. H.; Anderson, R.; Mulch, A.; Solum, J. G.; Valley, J. W.; van der Pluijm, B. A.


    The nature of fluid circulation systems in normal fault systems is fundamental to understanding the nature of fluid movement within the upper crust, and has important implications for the on-going controversy about the strength of faults. Authigenic phases in clay gouges and fault breccias record the isotopic signature of the fluids they formed in equilibrium with, and can be used to understand the ‘plumbing system’ of brittle fault environments. We obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic illite and/or smectite in clay gouge from normal faults in two geologic environments, 1.) low-angle normal faults (Ruby Mountains detachment, NV; Badwater Turtleback, CA; Panamint range-front detachment; CA; Amargosa detachment; CA; Waterman Hills detachment, CA), and 2.) An intracratonic high-angle normal fault (Moab Fault, UT). All authigenic phases in these clay gouges are moderately light isotopically with respect to oxygen (illite δ18O -2.0 - + 11.5 ‰ SMOW, smectite δ18O +3.6 and 17.9 ‰) and very light isotopically with respect to hydrogen (illite δD -148 to -98 ‰ SMOW, smectite δD -147 to -92 ‰). Fluid compositions calculated from the authigenic clays at temperatures of 50 - 130 ○C (as indicated by clay mineralogy) indicate that both illite and smectite in normal fault clay gouge formed in the presence of near-pristine to moderately-evolved meteoric fluids and that igneous or metamorphic fluids are not involved in clay gouge formation in these normal fault settings. We also obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on chlorites derived from footwall chlorite breccias in 4 low-angle normal fault detachment systems (Badwater and Mormon Point Turtlebacks, CA, the Chemehuevi detachment, CA, and the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment, AZ). All chlorites are isotopically light to moderately light with respect to oxygen (δ18O +0.29 to +8.1 ‰ SMOW) and very light with respect to hydrogen (δD -97 to -113 ‰) and indicate

  6. Structure of the oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle north of the Gloria Fault in the eastern mid-Atlantic by receiver function analysis (United States)

    Hannemann, Katrin; Krüger, Frank; Dahm, Torsten; Lange, Dietrich


    Receiver functions (RF) have been used for several decades to study structures beneath seismic stations. Although most available stations are deployed on shore, the number of ocean bottom station (OBS) experiments has increased in recent years. Almost all OBSs have to deal with higher noise levels and a limited deployment time (˜1 year), resulting in a small number of usable records of teleseismic earthquakes. Here we use OBSs deployed as midaperture array in the deep ocean (4.5-5.5 km water depth) of the eastern mid-Atlantic. We use evaluation criteria for OBS data and beamforming to enhance the quality of the RFs. Although some stations show reverberations caused by sedimentary cover, we are able to identify the Moho signal, indicating a normal thickness (5-8 km) of oceanic crust. Observations at single stations with thin sediments (300-400 m) indicate that a probable sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) might exist at a depth of ˜70-80 km which is in line with LAB depth estimates for similar lithospheric ages in the Pacific. The mantle discontinuities at ˜410 km and ˜660 km are clearly identifiable. Their delay times are in agreement with PREM. Overall the usage of beam-formed earthquake recordings for OBS RF analysis is an excellent way to increase the signal quality and the number of usable events.

  7. Detachments in Shale: Controlling Characteristics on Fold-Thrust Belt Style (United States)

    Hansberry, Rowan; King, Ros; Collins, Alan; Morley, Chris


    Fold-thrust belts occur across multiple tectonic settings where thin-skinned deformation is accommodated by one or more detachment zones, both basal and within the fold-thrust belt. These fold-thrust belts exhibit considerable variation in structural style and vergence depending on the characteristics (e.g. strength, thickness, and lithology) and number of detachment zones. Shale as a detachment lithology is intrinsically weaker than more competent silts and sands; however, it can be further weakened by high pore pressures, reducing resistance to sliding and; high temperatures, altering the rheology of the detachment. Despite the implications for petroleum exploration and natural hazard assessment the precise nature by which detachments in shale control and are involved in deformation in fold-thrust belts is poorly understood. Present-day active basal detachment zones are usually located in inaccessible submarine regions. Therefore, this project employs field observations and sample analysis of ancient, exhumed analogues to document the nature of shale detachments (e.g. thickness, lithology, dip and dip direction, deformational temperature and thrust propagation rates) at field sites in Thailand, Norway and New Zealand. X-ray diffraction analysis of illite crystallinity and oxygen stable isotopes analysis are used as a proxy for deformational temperature whilst electron-backscatter diffraction analysis is used to constrain microstructural deformational patterns. K-Ar dating of synkinematic clay fault gouges is being applied to date the final stages of activity on individual faults with a view to constraining thrust activation sequences. It is not possible to directly measure palaeo-data for some key detachment parameters, such as pore pressure and coefficients of friction. However, the use of critical taper wedge theory has been used to successfully infer internal and basal coefficients of friction and depth-normalized pore pressure within a wedge and at its base

  8. The Wenquan ultramafic rocks in the Central East Kunlun Fault zone, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau—crustal relics of the Paleo-Tethys ocean (United States)

    Jia, Lihui; Meng, Fancong; Feng, Huibin


    The Wenquan ultramafic rocks, located in the East Kunlun Orogenic belt in the northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, consist of dunite, wehrlite, olivine-clinopyroxenite and clinopyroxenite, and exhibit cumulate textures. Olivine from dunite has high Fo (forsterite, 90.0-91.8 wt%) and NiO content (0.15-0.42 wt%). Cr-spinels from all of the rocks in this suite are characterized by high Cr# (100×[Cr/(Cr + Al)], 67-91), low Mg# (100×[Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)], 17-35) and low TiO2 contents (mostly rocks show enrichment of LILE, Sr, and Ba, and depletion of Nb and Th. High-Mg# (mostly > 80) and low-CaO (evolution along the Central East Kunlun Fault zone.

  9. IODP Expedition 340T: Borehole Logging at Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Blackman


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 340T returned to the 1.4-km-deep Hole U1309D at Atlantis Massif to carry out borehole logging including vertical seismic profiling (VSP. Seismic, resistivity, and temperature logs were obtained throughout the geologic section in the footwall of this oceanic core complex. Reliable downhole temperature measurements throughout and the first seismic coverage of the 800–1400 meters below seafloor (mbsf portionof the section were obtained. Distinct changes in velocity, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility characterize the boundaries of altered, olivine-rich troctolite intervals within the otherwise dominantly gabbroic se-quence. Some narrow fault zones also are associated with downhole resistivity or velocity excursions. Small deviations in temperature were measured in borehole fluid adjacent to known faults at 750 mbsf and 1100 mbsf. This suggests that flow of seawater remains active along these zones of faulting and rock alteration. Vertical seismic profile station coverage at zero offsetnow extends the full length of the hole, including the uppermost 150 mbsf, where detachment processes are expected to have left their strongest imprint. Analysis of wallrock properties, together with alteration and structural characteristics of the cores from Site U1309, highlights the likely interplay between lithology, structure, lithospheric hydration, and core complex evolution.

  10. The Subduction of an Exhumed and Serpentinized Magma-Poor Basement Beneath the Northern Lesser Antilles Reveals the Early Tectonic Fabric at Slow-Spreading Mid-Oceanic Ridges (United States)

    Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Laurencin, M.; Biari, Y.; Graindorge, D.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Laigle, M.; Lallemand, S.


    Multichannel and wide-angle seismic data as well as heat-flow measurements (ANTITHESIS cruise, 2016) reveal a 200x200km patch of magma-poor oceanic basement in the trench and beneath the outer fore-arc offshore of Antigua to Saint Martin in the Northern Lesser Antilles. These data highlight an oceanic basement with the following features: 1/ Absence of any reflection at typical Moho depth and layer2/layer3 limit depths. 2/ High Velocity Vp at the top (>5.5 km/s), low velocity gradient with depth (serpentinized at the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic Ridge 80 Myr ago, is currently subducting beneath the Northern Lesser Antilles. During the exhumation, early extension triggers penetrative shear zones sub-parallel to the ridge and to the transform fault. Eventually, this early extension generates sliding along the so-called detachment fault, while the other proto-detachment abort. Approaching the trench, the plate bending reactivates these weak zones in normal faults and fluid pathways promoting deep serpentinisation and localizing tectonic deformation at the plate interface. These subducting fluid-rich mechanically weak mantle rocks rise questions about their relation to the faster slab deepening, the lower seismic activity and the pervasive tectonic partitioning in this margin segment.

  11. Criteria for Seismic Splay Fault Activation During Subduction Earthquakes (United States)

    Dedontney, N.; Templeton, E.; Bhat, H.; Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.


    As sediment is added to the accretionary prism or removed from the forearc, the material overlying the plate interface must deform to maintain a wedge structure. One of the ways this internal deformation is achieved is by slip on splay faults branching from the main detachment, which are possibly activated as part of a major seismic event. As a rupture propagates updip along the plate interface, it will reach a series of junctions between the shallowly dipping detachment and more steeply dipping splay faults. The amount and distribution of slip on these splay faults and the detachment determines the seafloor deformation and the tsunami waveform. Numerical studies by Kame et al. [JGR, 2003] of fault branching during dynamic slip-weakening rupture in 2D plane strain showed that branch activation depends on the initial stress state, rupture velocity at the branching junction, and branch angle. They found that for a constant initial stress state, with the maximum principal stress at shallow angles to the main fault, branch activation is favored on the compressional side of the fault for a range of branch angles. By extending the part of their work on modeling the branching behavior in the context of subduction zones, where critical taper wedge concepts suggest the angle that the principal stress makes with the main fault is shallow, but not horizontal, we hope to better understand the conditions for splay fault activation and the criteria for significant moment release on the splay. Our aim is to determine the range of initial stresses and relative frictional strengths of the detachment and splay fault that would result in seismic splay fault activation. In aid of that, we conduct similar dynamic rupture analyses to those of Kame et al., but use explicit finite element methods, and take fuller account of overall structure of the zone (rather than focusing just on the branching junction). Critical taper theory requires that the basal fault be weaker than the overlying

  12. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment following intravitreal ocriplasmin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madi, Haifa A.; Haynes, Richard J.; Depla, Diana; de la Cour, Morten D.; Lesnik-Oberstein, Sarit; Muqit, Mahi M. K.; Patton, Niall; Price, Nick; Steel, David H. W.


    To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after ocriplasmin (OCP) injection. Retrospective, multi-centre, observational case series with case note review. Eight patients with symptomatic vitreomacular traction (six with

  13. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov


    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  14. Blueschist facies fault tectonites from the western margin of the Siberian Craton: Implications for subduction and exhumation associated with early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (United States)

    Likhanov, Igor I.; Régnier, Jean-Luc; Santosh, M.


    The tectonic evolution of the Siberian Cratonic margins offers important clues for global paleogeographic reconstructions, particularly with regard to the complex geological history of Central Asia. The Yenisey Ridge fold-and-thrust belt at the western margin of the Siberian Craton forms part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and is a key to understand the Precambrian tectonic evolution of the Siberian Craton and crustal growth in the CAOB, the world's largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic belt. Here we report for the first time, the occurrence of glaucophane schist relics in tectonites within the Yenisey shear zone which provides insights on Chilean-type convergent boundary. We present results from isotope geochronology (SHRIMP zircon analysis and mica 40Ar/39Ar dating), coupled with P-T calculations derived from conventional geothermobarometry and pseudosections in the system NCKFMASH that suggest two superimposed metamorphic events. During the first stage, glaucophane schists formed at around 640-620 Ma at P-T conditions of 8-10 kbar and 400-450 °C. In the second stage, the rocks experienced dynamic metamorphism (c. 600 Ma) at 11-15 kbar/550-640 °C. The differences in P-T parameters between weakly deformed rocks and intensely deformed tectonites and P-T paths suggest distinct tectonic processes. Geochemical features of the mafic tectonites suggest N-MORB and E-MORB affinity, and the zircon U-Pb ages suggest formation of the protoliths at 701.6 ± 8.4. The sequence of spreading, subduction and shear deformation identified in our study correlate with the early stages of development of the Paleo-Asian Ocean at the western margin of the Siberian Craton and supports the spatial proximity of Siberia and Laurentia at 700-600 Ma, as proposed for the Late Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstructions and as robustly constrained from large igneous province (LIP) record.

  15. [Paediatric retinal detachment and hereditary vitreoretinal disorders]. (United States)

    Meier, P


    The number of retinal detachments in children is very low in comparison to the number in adults. One predisposing factor for development of paediatric retinal detachment is suffering from hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration (e.g., Stickler syndrome, Wagner syndrome, Kniest dysplasia, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, congenital X-linked retinoschisis, Knobloch syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, Norrie disease). Hereditary vitreoretinopathies are characterised by an abnormal-appearing vitreous gel with associated retinal changes. In most of these eyes further ocular abnormalities can be diagnosed. A group of hereditary disorders is associated with characteristic systemic abnormalities. Allied conditions should be considered in the clinical diagnosis. Vitreoretinopathies are the most common cause of inherited retinal detachment. In most eyes primary vitrectomy is necessary, and disease-specific surgical treatment is discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The Mormon Peak and Tule Springs Detachments of Southern Nevada and Their Role in Interpreting the Subsurface Structure of the Sevier Desert Basin (United States)

    Wernicke, B.; Axen, G. J.


    The eastern Sevier front is commonly overprinted by west-dipping normal faults that have been active through much of Cenozoic time. Although examples of disparate age and geometry abound, the Sevier Desert detachment stands out as being: (1) a very large, low-angle structure, (2) probably still active, and (3) at drillable depth, and hence is a prime target for scientific drilling. Among the closest surface-exposed analogs of the detachment are the Miocene Mormon Peak and Tule Springs detachments in southern Nevada, about 250 km SSW of the Sevier Desert. In both areas, the detachments developed within a few km of the basal Sevier thrust. The few traces of the southern Nevada detachments that were identified by reconnaissance mapping in the 1950s were first interpreted as underlying "rootless" gravity-slide masses. Detailed stratigraphic and structural mapping in the 1980s revealed the full extent of these detachments and their close relationship to the basal Sevier thrust. Construction and retrodeformation of cross sections through the two detachments demonstrated that neither fault could represent the base of a surficial slide mass. The key field relationship is the structural contiguity of the hanging walls of the detachments with large mountain range blocks in their down-dip directions. "Rootless" gravity-driven masses of equivalent or larger scale are widely documented, and in contrast to the southern Nevada detachments show clear evidence along their down-dip portions of either riding over the earth's surface (e.g. Heart Mountain, WY; Shadow Valley, CA) or having been internally shortened (e.g. Bearpaw Mountains, MT; Louisiana shelf). A rootless slide origin for the Mormon Peak detachment has been revived based on meso- and microstructural analysis of the fault surface (refs. 1, 2, and 3), but the hypothesis still fails the retrodeformation test at macroscopic scale. The retrodefomed sections indicate that the footwalls of the southern Nevada detachments

  17. From detached to attached buildup complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, B.; Elvebakk, G.; Andreassen, K.


    -like ridges and possibly areas with restricted circulation. Warm-water carbonate buildups, forming ridges and isolated mounds, occur in the Gipsdalen Group (latest Serpukhovian-mid-Sakmarian), where they initially grew in a detached platform setting. The carbonate buildups are several tens of kilometres long...... deposition and buildup growth bridged the detached platform with the attached platform. In the Bjarmeland Group (Lower Permian) 0.35-4.8 km wide, 1.5-27 km long and 60-420 m thick cool-water bryozoan-dominated straight, sinuous and continuous carbonate ridges or atoll-like ridges are located on top...

  18. Influence of mineralogy and microstructures on strain localization and fault zone architecture of the Alpine Fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Ichiba, T.; Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.; Oohashi, K.; Schuck, B.; Janssen, C.; Schleicher, A.; Toy, V.; Dresen, G.


    The Alpine Fault on New Zealand's South Island is an oblique, dextral strike-slip fault that accommodated the majority of displacement between the Pacific and the Australian Plates and presents the biggest seismic hazard in the region. Along its central segment, the hanging wall comprises greenschist and amphibolite facies Alpine Schists. Exhumation from 35 km depth, along a SE-dipping detachment, lead to mylonitization which was subsequently overprinted by brittle deformation and finally resulted in the fault's 1 km wide damage zone. The geomechanical behavior of a fault is affected by the internal structure of its fault zone. Consequently, studying processes controlling fault zone architecture allows assessing the seismic hazard of a fault. Here we present the results of a combined microstructural (SEM and TEM), mineralogical (XRD) and geochemical (XRF) investigation of outcrop samples originating from several locations along the Alpine Fault, the aim of which is to evaluate the influence of mineralogical composition, alteration and pre-existing fabric on strain localization and to identify the controls on the fault zone architecture, particularly the locus of brittle deformation in P, T and t space. Field observations reveal that the fault's principal slip zone (PSZ) is either a thin (< 1 cm to < 7 cm) layered structure or a relatively thick (10s cm) package lacking a detectable macroscopic fabric. Lithological and related rheological contrasts are widely assumed to govern strain localization. However, our preliminary results suggest that qualitative mineralogical composition has only minor impact on fault zone architecture. Quantities of individual mineral phases differ markedly between fault damage zone and fault core at specific sites, but the quantitative composition of identical structural units such as the fault core, is similar in all samples. This indicates that the degree of strain localization at the Alpine Fault might be controlled by small initial

  19. Raised intraocular pressure and recurrence of retinal detachment as complications of external retinal detachment surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawwad, M.; Khan, B.; Shah, M.A.; Qayyum, I.; Aftab, M.; Qayyum, I.


    Patients with Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment may develop raised intraocular pressure and recurrence of retinal detachment when they undergo external retinal detachment surgery. The present study was conducted to determine the postoperative rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) and recurrence of retinal detachment. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted at Eye department of Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar on 25 patients of both genders from August 2012 to July 2014. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) developed raised IOP in the immediate postoperative period; this figure decreased to 12 (48%) at one week. Following medical or surgical intervention in these 12 cases, there was only 1 (4%) case with mildly raised IOP at two weeks postoperative. Five (20%) cases developed recurrent retinal detachment which later resolved with treatment. There were no significant differences by age or gender. Conclusion: External Retinal Detachment Surgery raised intraocular pressure postoperatively and caused recurrence of retinal detachment. These complications were treated medically and surgically with resolution within two weeks. (author)

  20. Recent massive sulfide deposits of the Semenov ore district, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 13°31' N: Associated rocks of the oceanic core complex and their hydrothermal alteration (United States)

    Pertsev, A. N.; Bortnikov, N. S.; Vlasov, E. A.; Beltenev, V. E.; Dobretsova, I. G.; Ageeva, O. A.


    The oceanic core complexes and large-offset detachment faults characteristic of the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge are crucial for the structural control of large hydrothermal systems, including those forming sub-seafloor polymetallic sulfide mineralization. The structural-geological, petrographic, and mineralogical data are considered for the oceanic core complex enclosing the Semenov-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 inactive hydrothermal sulfide fields recently discovered on the Mid-Oceanic Ridge at 13°31' N. The oceanic core complex is composed of serpentinized and talc-replaced peridotites and sporadic gabbroic rocks, however, all hydrothermal fields reveal compositional indications of basaltic substrate. The volcanic structures superposed on the oceanic core complex are marked by outcrops of pillow lavas with fresh quenched glass. Dolerites regarded as volcanic conduits seem to represent separate dike swarms. The superposed volcanic structures develop largely along the near-latitudinal high-angle tectonic zone controlling the Semenov-1, -2, -5, and -3 hydrothermal sulfide fields. The manifestations of hydrothermal metasomatic alteration are diverse. The widespread talcose rocks with pyrrhotite-pyrite mineralization after serpentinite, as well as finding of talc-chlorite metabasalt are interpreted as products of hydrothermal activity in the permeable zone of detachment fault. Chloritization and brecciation of basalts with superposed quartz or opal, barite, and pyrite or chalcopyrite mineralization directly related to the sub-seafloor sulfide deposition. The native copper mineralization in almost unaltered basalts at the Semenov-4 field is suggested to precipitate from ore-forming fluids before they reach the level of sub-seafloor sulfide deposition. Amphibolites with plagiogranite veinlets are interpreted as tectonic fragments of the highest-temperature portions of hydrothermal systems, where partial melting of basic rocks in the presence of aqueous fluid with

  1. Carbonate pseudotachylite? from a Miocene extensional detachment, W. Cyclades, Greece. (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard


    Most pseudotachylites, both impact- and fault-related, occur in silicate-rich rocks, typically with 'granitoid' compositions. Examples of melting in carbonate rocks, excluding magmatic sources, are restricted to impact-events, except for a carbonate pseudotachylite in the Canalone Fault, S. Italy (Viganò et al. 2011). Another potential example of carbonate pseudotachylite, shown here, comes from the Miocene-aged W. Cycladic Detachment System, in Greece. Top-SSE ductile to brittle movement on this detachment, with a maximum displacement estimated at tens of kilometers, exhumed of HP-rocks. The carbonate pseudotachylite occurs within an 43 mm thick), consists of dark (hematitic) red, ultra-fine grained unlayered carbonate with up to 40x10 mm rather rounded clasts of earlier generations of cataclasite, many with a quartzite composition. These clasts are fractured and partially separated, with a fine red carbonate matrix. No layering of the matrix or clasts is apparent. The clasts become finer and more abundant towards the boundary with Layer B. Layers B and D (~57 & ~20 mm thick) dominantly comprises protocataclasite with greyish quartz fragments separated by a carbonate matrix along narrow fractures. Zone C and E (~23 m & >15 mm thick) comprise pale pink carbonate-dominated rocks with abundant material and may have darker (?reaction) rims. No layering is seen in the pale pink groundmass although this is present in some elongate clasts. All layer boundaries are irregular and no principle slip surfaces have been seen. Injection veins from 1 to 9 mm wide and up to at least 100 mm long derive from the central layer (C), cutting the overall layering at a high angle and branching in several places. These veins contain clasts comparable to those in Layer C. Both thick and thin injection-veins are rimmed by impersistent white calcite suggesting that injection was associated with precipitation of calcite. Whether Layer C (and perhaps E also) is a carbonate pseudotachylite is

  2. Electron detachment by H- + H- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibisov, M.I.; Yavlinskii, Yu.N.


    The autoionization channels for electrons detachment in collisions of two negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 300 - 500 eV and > 500 eV are investigated. In small energy range at large inter-ion distances the asymptotic approximation is used; at high energies - perturbation theory and classical motion are used. 18 refs., 3 figs

  3. Retinal detachment in black South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low incidence of retinal detachment in black patients is not known. ... a retinal break. Predisposing factors include peripheral retinal degenerations, myopia, aphakia and trauma. Delay in presentation increases the difficulty in achieving adequate surgical ... On examination, note was taken of the visual acuity in both eyes, the ...

  4. Detached Eddy Simulations of Hypersonic Transition (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Barnhardt, M.; Candler, G.


    This slide presentation reviews the use of Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) of hypersonic transistion. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using CFD in general, DES in particular, for prediction of roughness-induced boundary layer transition to turbulence and the resulting increase in heat transfer.

  5. Shoreline response to detached breakwaters in prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuong, T.C.


    An accurate prediction of shoreline changes behind detached breakwaters is, in regard to the adjustment to the environmental impact, still a challenge for designers and coastal managers. This research is expected to fill the gaps in the estimation of shoreline changes by developing new and

  6. Electron detachment in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreugd, C. de.


    The electron detachment process that occurs in negative ion-atom collisions is investigated. Differential cross sections were measured for the collisions of F - , Cl - , Br - , I - on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Na and K. Electron energy distributions were obtained for some of the systems. (Auth.)

  7. Spectroscopic investigations of divertor detachment in TCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Verhaegh


    The inferred magnitude of recombination is small compared to the target ion current at the time detachment (particle flux drop starts at the target. However, recombination may be having more localized effects (to a flux tube which we cannot discern at this time. Later, at the highest densities achieved, the total recombination does reach levels similar to the particle flux.

  8. Fluctuation characteristics in detached recombining plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Naoyuki; Takamura, Shuichi; Budaev, Viatcheslav


    Fluctuation in detached recombining plasmas has been investigated experimentally in the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. As increasing neutral gas pressure, floating potential fluctuation of the target plate installed at the end of the NADIS-II device becomes larger and bursty negative spikes are observed in the signal associated with a transition from attached to detached a plasmas. The fluctuation property has been analyzed by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), probability distribution function (PDF) and wavelet transform. The PDF of the floating potential fluctuation in the attached plasma condition obeys the Gaussian distribution function, on the other hand, the PDF in detached plasma shows a strong deviation from the Gaussian distribution function, which can be characterized by flatness and skewness. Comparison of the fluctuation properties between the floating potential and the optical emission from the detached plasma has been done based on the wavelet transform to show that a strong correlation between them, which could indicate bursty transport of energetic electrons from upstream to downstream region along the magnetic field. (author)

  9. Two-Phase Exhumation of the Santa Rosa Mountains: Low- and High-Angle Normal Faulting During Initiation and Evolution of the Southern San Andreas Fault System (United States)

    Mason, Cody C.; Spotila, James A.; Axen, Gary; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Luther, Amy; Stockli, Daniel F.


    Low-angle detachment fault systems are important elements of oblique-divergent plate boundaries, yet the role detachment faulting plays in the development of such boundaries is poorly understood. The West Salton Detachment Fault (WSDF) is a major low-angle normal fault that formed coeval with localization of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the northern Salton Trough, CA. Apatite U-Th/He thermochronometry (AHe; n = 29 samples) and thermal history modeling of samples from the Santa Rosa Mountains (SRM) reveal that initial exhumation along the WSDF began at circa 8 Ma, exhuming footwall material from depths of >2 to 3 km. An uplifted fossil (Miocene) helium partial retention zone is present in the eastern SRM, while a deeper crustal section has been exhumed along the Pleistocene high-angle Santa Rosa Fault (SFR) to much higher elevations in the southwest SRM. Detachment-related vertical exhumation rates in the SRM were 0.15-0.36 km/Myr, with maximum fault slip rates of 1.2-3.0 km/Myr. Miocene AHe isochrons across the SRM are consistent with northeast crustal tilting of the SRM block and suggest that the post-WSDF vertical exhumation rate along the SRF was 1.3 km/Myr. The timing of extension initiation in the Salton Trough suggests that clockwise rotation of relative plate motions that began at 8 Ma is associated with initiation of the southern San Andreas system. Pleistocene regional tectonic reorganization was contemporaneous with an abrupt transition from low- to high-angle faulting and indicates that local fault geometry may at times exert a fundamental control on rock uplift rates along strike-slip fault systems.

  10. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.


    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  11. The timing of fault motion in Death Valley from Illite Age Analysis of fault gouge (United States)

    Lynch, E. A.; Haines, S. H.; Van der Pluijm, B.


    We constrained the timing of fluid circulation and associated fault motion in the Death Valley region of the US Basin and Range Province from Illite Age Analysis (IAA) of fault gouge at seven Low-Angle Normal Fault (LANF) exposures in the Black Mountains and Panamint Mountains, and in two nearby areas. 40Ar/39Ar ages of neoformed, illitic clay minerals in these fault zones range from 2.8 Ma to 18.6 Ma, preserving asynchronous fault motion across the region that corresponds to an evolving history of crustal block movements during Neogene extensional deformation. From north to south, along the western side of the Panamint Range, the Mosaic Canyon fault yields an authigenic illite age of 16.9±2.9 Ma, the Emigrant fault has ages of less than 10-12 Ma at Tucki Mountain and Wildrose Canyon, and an age of 3.6±0.17 Ma was obtained for the Panamint Front Range LANF at South Park Canyon. Across Death Valley, along the western side of the Black Mountains, Ar ages of clay minerals are 3.2±3.9 Ma, 12.2±0.13 Ma and 2.8±0.45 Ma for the Amargosa Detachment, the Gregory Peak Fault and the Mormon Point Turtleback detachment, respectively. Complementary analysis of the δH composition of neoformed clays shows a primarily meteoric source for the mineralizing fluids in these LANF zones. The ages fall into two geologic timespans, reflecting activity pulses in the Middle Miocene and in the Upper Pliocene. Activity on both of the range front LANFs does not appear to be localized on any single portion of these fault systems. Middle Miocene fault rock ages of neoformed clays were also obtained in the Ruby Mountains (10.5±1.2 Ma) to the north of the Death Valley region and to the south in the Whipple Mountains (14.3±0.19 Ma). The presence of similar, bracketed times of activity indicate that LANFs in the Death Valley region were tectonically linked, while isotopic signatures indicate that faulting pulses involved surface fluid penetration.

  12. 40Ar/39Ar dating of oceanic plagiogranite: Constraints on the initiation of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (United States)

    Zhong, Li-Feng; Cai, Guan-Qiang; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Xu, Yi-Gang; Xu, He-Hua; Gao, Hong-Fang; Xia, Bin


    The Cenozoic opening of the South China Sea was one of the most significant tectonic events in SE Asia, coinciding with complex regional rifting, subduction, terrane collision, and large-scale continental strike-slip faulting. The timing of the initiation of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea remains controversial due to a scarcity of incontrovertible age data. This work provides the first report of an oceanic plagiogranite from the Penglai Seamount, located on the 17°N fossil spreading center of the East Sub-basin of the South China Sea, near the Manila Trench. Pyroxene and whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating yields ages of 32.3 ± 0.5 Ma and 28.9 ± 1.9 Ma, respectively. The plagiogranite show trace element and isotopic composition similar to those of mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB), with 87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70394; εNd(t) = 8.21; 206Pb/204Pb = 17.9930, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.4839, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.8852; εHf(t) = 20.95; and γOs(t) = 15.89. It suggested that the rock formed due to differential cooling between adjacent layers of oceanic crust and asthenospheric shearing at the oceanic spreading ridge, resulting in the development of detachment faults. This triggered the subsequent ingress of seawater along the faults, which transformed into a hydrothermal fluid under the influence of shear and geothermal heating, altering the parent gabbro, and leading to the generation of the daughter plagiogranite by anatexis during the early Oligocene. This new geochronology also demonstrates that the initial opening of the South China Sea occurred before 32 Ma, thereby constraining the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia.

  13. Gently dipping normal faults identified with Space Shuttle radar topography data in central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and some implications for fault mechanics (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.


    Space-shuttle radar topography data from central Sulawesi, Indonesia, reveal two corrugated, domal landforms, covering hundreds to thousands of square kilometers, that are bounded to the north by an abrupt transition to typical hilly to mountainous topography. These domal landforms are readily interpreted as metamorphic core complexes, an interpretation consistent with a single previous field study, and the abrupt northward transition in topographic style is interpreted as marking the trace of two extensional detachment faults that are active or were recently active. Fault dip, as determined by the slope of exhumed fault footwalls, ranges from 4?? to 18??. Application of critical-taper theory to fault dip and hanging-wall surface slope, and to similar data from several other active or recently active core complexes, suggests a theoretical limit of three degrees for detachment-fault dip. This result appears to conflict with the dearth of seismological evidence for slip on faults dipping less than ~. 30??. The convex-upward form of the gently dipping fault footwalls, however, allows for greater fault dip at depths of earthquake initiation and dominant energy release. Thus, there may be no conflict between seismological and mapping studies for this class of faults. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail:; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)


    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  15. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and conventional surgical treatment. (United States)

    Golubovic, M


    The aim of the paper was to present the efficacy and indications for application of conventional surgical treatment of retinal detachment by using external implants, that is,application of encircling band and buckle. This study comprised patients from the University Eye Clinic in Skopje. A total of 33 patients were diagnosed and surgically treated in the period between May 2010 and August 2011. Conventional surgery was applied in smaller number of patients whose changes of the vitreous body were manifested by detachment of posterior hyaloid membrane, syneresis, with appearance of a small number of pigment cells in the vitreous body and synchysis, and the very retina was with fresh detachment without folds or epiretinal changes (that is, PVR A grade). There were a larger number of patients with more distinct proliferative changes of the vitreous body and of the retina, grades PVR B to C1-C2, and who also underwent the same surgical approach. Routine ophthalmologic examinations were performed, including: determination of visual acuity by Snellen's optotypes, determination of eye pressure with Schiotz's tonometer, examination of anterior segment on biomicroscopy, indirect biomicroscopy of posterior eye segment (vitreous body and retina) and examination on biomicroscopy with Goldmann prism, B scan echography of the eyes before and after surgical treatment. Conventional treatment was used by external application of buckle or application of buckle and encircling band. In case of one break, radial buckle was applied and in case of multiple breaks in one quadrant limbus parallel buckle was applied. Besides buckle, encircling band was applied in patients with total or subtotal retinal detachment with already present distinct changes in the vitreous body (PVR B or C1-C2) and degenerative changes in the vitreous body. Breaks were closed with cryopexy. The results obtained have shown that male gender was predominant and that the disease was manifested in younger male adults

  16. Identifying subsurface detachment defects by acoustic tracing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklodowski, R.; Drdácký, Miloš; Sklodowski, M.


    Roč. 56, June (2013), s. 56-64 ISSN 0963-8695 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : acoustic excitation * plaster detachment defects * frequency response * inspection systems * signal processing Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.717, year: 2013

  17. The seasonal cycle of Titan's detached haze (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Seignovert, Benoît; Rannou, Pascal; Dumont, Philip; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Perry, Jason; Roy, Mou; Ovanessian, Aida


    Titan's `detached' haze, seen in Voyager images in 1980 and 1981 and monitored by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the period 2004-2017, provides a measure of seasonal activity in Titan's mesosphere with observations over almost half of Saturn's seasonal cycle. Here we report on retrieved haze extinction profiles that reveal a depleted layer (having a diminished aerosol content), visually manifested as a gap between the main haze and a thin, detached upper layer. Our measurements show the disappearance of the feature in 2012 and its reappearance in 2016, as well as details after the reappearance. These observations highlight the dynamical nature of the detached haze. The reappearance seems congruent with earlier descriptions by climate models but more complex than previously described. It occurs in two steps, first as haze reappearing at 450 ± 20 km and one year later at 510 ± 20 km. These observations provide additional tight and valuable constraints about the underlying mechanisms, especially for Titan's mesosphere, that control Titan's haze cycle.

  18. A new scaling for divertor detachment (United States)

    Goldston, R. J.; Reinke, M. L.; Schwartz, J. A.


    The ITER design, and future reactor designs, depend on divertor ‘detachment,’ whether partial, pronounced or complete, to limit heat flux to plasma-facing components and to limit surface erosion due to sputtering. It would be valuable to have a measure of the difficulty of achieving detachment as a function of machine parameters, such as input power, magnetic field, major radius, etc. Frequently the parallel heat flux, estimated typically as proportional to P sep/R or P sep B/R, is used as a proxy for this difficulty. Here we argue that impurity cooling is dependent on the upstream density, which itself must be limited by a Greenwald-like scaling. Taking this into account self-consistently, we find the impurity fraction required for detachment scales dominantly as power divided by poloidal magnetic field. The absence of any explicit scaling with machine size is concerning, as P sep surely must increase greatly for an economic fusion system, while increases in the poloidal field strength are limited by coil technology and plasma physics. This result should be challenged by comparison with 2D divertor codes and with measurements on existing experiments. Nonetheless, it suggests that higher magnetic field, stronger shaping, double-null operation, ‘advanced’ divertor configurations, as well as alternate means to handle heat flux such as metallic liquid and/or vapor targets merit greater attention.

  19. The prognosis of retinal detachment due to lattice degeneration. (United States)

    Benson, W E; Morse, P H


    In a series of 553 consecutive retinal detachments, 29% (120) were due to lattice degeneration. Forty-five percent of these were due to atrophic holes in the lattice degeneration and 55% were due to tears caused by traction posterior to or at the end of a patch of lattice. In phakic patients, retinal detachments due to atrophic holes were most common in young myopes. Detachments due to traction tears were seen in older, less myopic patients. The incidence of massive periretinal proliferation was less (5%) in detachments due to lattice degeneration than in detachments not due to lattice degeneration (6.5%).

  20. Coastal Response, a system of detached breakwaters (United States)

    García Ortiz, Isabelo; Negro Valdecantos, Vicente; Santos López, Jose; Esteban, María Dolores


    The coastline's sedimentary response in the form of a tombolo or semi-tombolo (salient) as a result of the construction of detached breakwaters is an aspect that should be known in the design phase so that these marine structures may be properly designed. In achieving an ecological, social and economic value, such areas must also be properly managed. All design methods in existence since Dean (1978) are mainly based on hypotheses formulated from geometric studies on existing formations. No relationship at all is established with climate and littoral dynamics typical of the location (only Suh and Darlymple (1987) and the Japanese Ministry of Construction (1986) present relationships depending on wave variables). Neither has the influence on systems with more than two breakwaters been studied. These methods are not fully adapted to the cases existing on the Spanish Mediterranean littoral. The lines of investigation as proposed by L. Bricio and V. Negro (2010) were continued with for this study. These researchers developed a method for dimensioning isolated, detached breakwaters and their semi-tombolo or tombolo associated formations using all the characteristics of the site (energy, geometric and structural), specific climate and geomorphology and littoral dynamics' characteristics. This methodology is currently acknowledged and accepted in works undertaken on the Spanish Mediterranean littoral. A linear regression was obtained in the investigation undertaken on the 18 detached breakwater systems along the whole of the 1670 km of the Spanish Mediterranean littoral using the proposals made by L. Bricio and V. Negro. The adjustment of R2 ≥ 0.90 was used for the sandy, tombolo formations behind all the detached breakwater systems between several non-dimensional monomials displaying the most representative characteristics of the site. L/H12 + (2ṡB)/G =12,15ṡ(X/Xc)+7,3231 X: Distance of breakwaters from coastline Xc: Distance from coastline where the closure depth

  1. Study on imaging diagnosis of the ciliochoroidal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dapeng; Feng Gansheng; Li Shuyin


    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of imaging appearances and diagnostic value of ciliochoroidal detachment. Methods: Ultrasound, MRI and CT appearances of 19 eases of ciliochoroidal detachment were reviewed, which included 9 cases of serous ciliochoroidal detachment, 7 cases of choroid hematoma, and 3 cases of ciliary, body detachment. All cases were examined by both B ultrasound and MRI at the same time, 11 of them were examined by CT. Results: Ultrasound showed membrane bulge of the eyeball wall with different extent in 9 cases of serous ciliochoroidal detachment. Its postzone connected the equator or close to optic disc and its prozone could not been detected by ultrasound. There was echofree fluid darkspace under detached membrane. MRI showed membrane detachment at both nasal side and temporal side of ocular annelation in 9 cases of ciliochoroidal detachment. The detached membrane was approximately symmetry, its anterior margin did not exceed ciliary body adhesion of ocular annelation and its posterior margin stopped at posterior part of ocular annelation. There was long T 1 and long T 2 signal under detached membrane. CT showed slight thickening of ocular annelation and slightly increased density of eyeball in 5 eases of serous ciliochoroidal detachment. Ultrasound showed hemispheroid or curve bulge of eyeball wall, projected toward the vitreous cavity in 7 cases of choroid hematoma, and there was an amount of low echo light spot under the detached membrane. Both MRI (7 cases) and CT (5 cases) showed hemispheroid, fusiform or curve bulge on the nasal side, temporal side and posterior part of ocular annelation. They appeared as isodensity or slight high density on CT, iso- or high signal on T 1 WI and T 2 WI. Stratification was seen on T 2 WI in 1 case of choroid hematoma. Ciliary body detachment could not been detected by either MRI (3 cases) or CT (1 case) except ultrasound. Conclusion: Imaging examination may provide reliable diagnostic evidence

  2. Testing the Extensional Detachment Paradigm: A Borehole Observatory in the Sevier Desert Basin, Utah (United States)

    Christie-Blick, N.; Wernicke, B. P.


    The Sevier Desert basin, Utah represents a world-class target for scientific drilling and for the development of an in situ borehole observatory of active faulting, with potential for establishing that normal-sense slip can occur along a brittle low-angle fault and, by determining the conditions under which that may take place, for resolving the mechanical paradox associated with such structures. The Sevier Desert detachment was defined in the mid- 1970s on the basis seismic reflection data and commercial wells as the contact between Paleozoic carbonate rocks and Cenozoic basin fill over a depth range of ~0-4 km. Today, the interpreted fault is thought by most workers to root into the crust to the west, to have large estimated offset (basin development and displacement along the interpreted fault. A workshop will take place from July 15-18, 2008, in Utah, under the auspices of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, to flesh out objectives, strategies and operational details, and to develop a consensus on the location of a drill site.

  3. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These ...

  4. Testing the Extensional Detachment Paradigm: A Borehole Observatory in the Sevier Desert Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianreto Manatschal


    Full Text Available Low-angle normal faults or detachments are widely regarded as playing an important role in crustal extension and the development of rifted continental margins (Manatschal et al., 2007. However, no consensus exists on how to resolve the mechanical paradox implied by the gentledips of these faults and by the general absence of evidence for associated seismicity (Sibson, 1985; Wernicke, 1995; Axen, 2004. As part of a new initiative to rationalize geological and geophysical evidence and our theoretical understanding of how rocks deform, a group of forty-seven scientists and drilling experts from five countries met for four days on 15–18 July 2008 to discuss the present status of the paradox and a borehole-based strategy for resolving it. The workshop was held at two venues in Utah (the Utah Department ofNatural Resources in Salt Lake City, and Solitude Mountain Resort in the adjacent Wasatch Range, with a one-day field trip to the Sevier Desert basin of west-central Utah (Figs. 1, 2 to examine the general setting of potential drill sites and the footwall geology of the Sevier Desert detachment (Canyon Range.

  5. A gravity slide origin for the Mormon Peak detachment: Re-examining the evidence for extreme extension in the Mormon Mountains, southeastern Nevada, U.S.A (United States)

    Walker, Christopher David

    The Mormon Peak detachment is an enigmatic, low-angle surface that cuts almost all other structures in the Mormon Mountains of southeast Nevada. It has been described as both a large-magnitude offset, low-angle normal fault and as a rootless gravity slide. The two models have been tested, and the gravity slide model explains the geology exposed in the range better than the extreme extension model. Kinematic indicators on the detachment show down-dip motion. Structure contours delimit discrete domains. Exhumed structures reveal no large-magnitude offset between the Meadow Valley and Mormon Mountains. Thermochronological modeling indicates basin-wide exhumation beginning at ˜23--17 Ma. Field mapping documents a pervasive role for long-lived high-angle normal faults with spatially and temporally restricted detachment formation events, and measurements of the volume of rock contained in the hanging wall show it required only a small source area with respect to the size of the range. Regional crustal extension from the Meadow Valley Mountains to the Beaver Dam Mountains is approximately 25%, an order of magnitude less than previously interpreted. The conclusions from the Mormon Mountains were applied to several interpreted detachment faults elsewhere and a set of criteria developed to help future workers distinguish between rooted structures that accommodate crustal extension and rootless structures that do not.

  6. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment. (United States)

    Rezende, Flávio A; Kickinger, Mônica C; Li, Gisèle; Prado, Renata F; Regis, Luiz Gustavo T


    To describe a novel surgical technique for drainage of bullous serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments. A prospective, consecutive case series of 6 eyes with serous and/or hemorrhagic choroidal detachments secondary to intraocular surgery was documented to evaluate the feasibility of using the 25-gauge and 20-gauge transconjunctival trocar/cannula systems to drain choroidal detachments. Two eyes had expulsive hemorrhagic choroidal detachments and 4 eyes had serous choroidal detachments after glaucoma surgeries. A 25-gauge infusion line was placed in the anterior chamber. A 20-gauge (in eyes with hemorrhagic choroidal detachments) or a 25-gauge (in eyes with serous detachments) trocar/cannula system was inserted into the suprachoroidal space 7.0 mm from limbus. After drainage, the cannulas were removed and no sutures were placed. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed only in eyes with concomitant pathology that demanded the additional procedure. The primary outcome measure was presence of choroidal detachment at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity at 6 months and intraocular pressure at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Drainage of hemorrhagic choroidal detachments resulted in resolution of the detachments by 1 month postoperatively. In eyes with serous detachments, resolution was achieved by 1 week postdrainage. In both groups, intraocular pressure increased to at least 10 mmHg by postoperative Week 1. The visual acuity improved in all eyes. No complications related to the transconjunctival technique were noted. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments seems to be a feasible and simple surgical option with minimal scleral and conjunctival damage. Pars plana vitrectomy may not be necessary when draining choroidal detachments in this manner.

  7. Analysis of the fault geometry of a Cenozoic salt-related fault close to the D-1 well, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenoe Clausen, O.; Petersen, K.; Korstgaard, A.


    A normal detaching fault in the Norwegian-Danish Basin around the D-1 well (the D-1 faults) has been mapped using seismic sections. The fault has been analysed in detail by constructing backstripped-decompacted sections across the fault, contoured displacement diagrams along the fault, and vertical displacement maps. The result shows that the listric D-1 fault follows the displacement patterns for blind normal faults. Deviations from the ideal displacement pattern is suggested to be caused by salt-movements, which is the main driving mechanisms for the faulting. Zechstein salt moves primarily from the hanging wall to the footwall and is superposed by later minor lateral flow beneath the footwall. Back-stripping of depth-converted and decompacted sections results in an estimation of the salt-surface and the shape of the fault through time. This procedure then enables a simple modelling of the hanging wall deformation using a Chevron model with hanging wall collapse along dipping surfaces. The modelling indicates that the fault follows the salt surface until the Middle Miocene after which the offset on the fault also may be accommodated along the Top Chalk surface. (au) 16 refs.

  8. Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.; Smith, C.F.


    Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability

  9. Structural recovery of the detached macula after retinal detachment repair as assessed by optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Joe, Soo Geun; Kim, Yoon Jeon; Chae, Ju Byung; Yang, Sung Jae; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, June-Gone; Yoon, Young Hee


    To investigate correlations between preoperative and postoperative foveal microstructures in patients with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). We reviewed the records of 31 eyes from 31 patients with macula-off RRD who had undergone successful re-attachment surgery. We analyzed data obtained from complete ophthalmologic examinations and optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and 9 to 12 months after surgery. All postoperative OCT measurements were taken with spectral-domain OCT, but a subset of preoperative OCT measurements were taken with time-domain OCT. The mean duration of macular detachment was 15.5 ± 15.2 days, and mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) was 1.03 ± 0.68. Preoperative visual acuity was correlated with retinal detachment height (p macula-off duration. The final BCVA was significantly correlated with integrity of the junction between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) combined with the continuity of external limiting membrane (ELM) (p = 0.025). The presence of IRS and OLU on a detached macula were highly correlated with the final postoperative integrity of the IS/OS junction and the ELM (p = 0.017). Eyes preoperatively exhibiting IRS and OLU showed a higher incidence of disruption to the photoreceptor IS/OS junction and the ELM at final follow-up. Such a close correlation between preoperative and postoperative structural changes may explain why ultimate visual recovery in such eyes is poor.

  10. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.


    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  11. Selective detachment process in column flotation froth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Ozsever, A.V.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The selectivity in flotation columns involving the separation of particles of varying degrees of floatability is based on differential flotation rates in the collection zone, reflux action between the froth and collection zones, and differential detachment rates in the froth zone. Using well-known theoretical models describing the separation process and experimental data, froth zone and overall flotation recovery values were quantified for particles in an anthracite coal that have a wide range of floatability potential. For highly floatable particles, froth recovery had a very minimal impact on overall recovery while the recovery of weakly floatable material was decreased substantially by reductions in froth recovery values. In addition, under carrying-capacity limiting conditions, selectivity was enhanced by the preferential detachment of the weakly floatable material. Based on this concept, highly floatable material was added directly into the froth zone when treating the anthracite coal. The enriched froth phase reduced the product ash content of the anthracite product by five absolute percentage points while maintaining a constant recovery value.

  12. Meniscus Shapes in Detached Bridgman Growth (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K


    In detached Bridgman crystal growth, most of the melt is in contact with the ampoule wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically 1-100 micrometers. A liquid free surface, or meniscus, bridges across this gap at the position of the melt-crystal interface. Meniscus shapes have been calculated for the case of detached Bridgman growth in cylindrical ampoules by solving the Young-Laplace equation. Key parameters affecting meniscus shapes are the growth angle, contact angle of the meniscus to the ampoule wall, the pressure differential across the meniscus, and the Bond number, a measure of the ratio of gravitational to capillary forces. In general, for specified values of growth and contact angles, solutions exist only over a finite range of pressure differentials. For intermediate values of the Bond number, there are multiple solutions to the Young-Laplace equations. There are also cases where, as a function of pressure differential, existence intervals alternate with intervals where no solutions exist. The implications of the meniscus shape calculations on meniscus stability are discussed.

  13. Risk of Retinal Detachment After Pediatric Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haargaard, Birgitte; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Oudin, Anna


    PURPOSE: To determine the long-term risk of retinal detachment following pediatric cataract surgery and to identify risk factors for retinal detachment. METHODS: We included all children (aged 0 to 17 years) who during the time period of 1977 to 2005 underwent pediatric cataract surgery in Denmark...... was based on medical chart review. RESULTS: Among 1043 eyes of 656 children undergoing surgery for pediatric cataract, 25 eyes (23 children) developed retinal detachment at a median time of 9.1 years after surgery. The overall 20-year risk of retinal detachment was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3...... (16% [95% CI: 6%-24%]). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated overall risk of retinal detachment 20 years after pediatric cataract surgery was 7%, but only 3% for isolated cataract. Particularly high risks of retinal detachment after cataract surgery were associated with mental retardation and having other...

  14. How does continental lithosphere break-apart? A 3D seismic view on the transition from magma-poor rifted margin to magmatic oceanic lithosphere (United States)

    Emmanuel, M.; Lescanne, M.; Picazo, S.; Tomasi, S.


    In the last decade, high-quality seismic data and drilling results drastically challenged our ideas about how continents break apart. New models address their observed variability and are presently redefining basics of rifting as well as exploration potential along deepwater rifted margins. Seafloor spreading is even more constrained by decades of scientific exploration along Mid Oceanic Ridges. By contrast, the transition between rifting and drifting remains a debated subject. This lithospheric breakup "event" is geologically recorded along Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT) at the most distal part of margins before indubitable oceanic crust. Often lying along ultra-deepwater margin domains and buried beneath a thick sedimentary pile, high-quality images of these domains are rare but mandatory to get strong insights on the processes responsible for lithospheric break up and what are the consequences for the overlying basins. We intend to answer these questions by studying a world-class 3D seismic survey in a segment of a rifted margin exposed in the Atlantic. Through these data, we can show in details the OCT architecture between a magma-poor hyper-extended margin (with exhumed mantle) and a classical layered oceanic crust. It is characterized by 1- the development of out-of-sequence detachment systems with a landward-dipping geometry and 2- the increasing magmatic additions oceanwards (intrusives and extrusives). Geometry of these faults suggests that they may be decoupled at a mantle brittle-ductile interface what may be an indicator on thermicity. Furthermore, magmatism increases as deformation migrates to the future first indubitable oceanic crust what controls a progressive magmatic crustal thickening below, above and across a tapering rest of margin. As the magmatic budget increases oceanwards, full-rate divergence is less and less accommodated by faulting. Magmatic-sedimentary architectures of OCT is therefore changing from supra-detachment to magmatic

  15. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palama, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.


    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'

  16. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesareo, R. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail:; Buccolieri, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Donativi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Palama, F. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Quarta, S. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); De Nunzio, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Marabelli, M. [Istituto Centrale del Restauro, P.zza S. Francesco di Paola, 00184 Rome (Italy); Santamaria, U. [Laboratori dei Musei Vaticani, Citta del Vaticano, Rome (Italy)


    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'.

  17. Tractional retinal detachment in Usher syndrome type II. (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Pal, Nikhil; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Sharma, Yog Raj; Chandra, Parijat; Vikram Singh, Deependra


    Retinal detachment is a rare complication in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. A case is reported of tractional retinal detachment in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural hearing loss, which was diagnosed as Usher syndrome type II. Because of the poor visual prognosis, the patient refused surgery in that eye. Tractional retinal detachment should be added to the differential diagnoses of visual loss in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

  18. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.


    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  19. Transition in plasma fluctuation between attached and detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Katsuya; Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin; Tanaka, Hirohiko


    The static and dynamic behaviors of detached plasmas have received considerable attention because the use of a detached divertor is thought to provide a promising method for reducing the heat flux to plasma-facing components. In this study, fluctuations were measured with an electrostatic probe as the plasma was changed from attached to detached states by increasing the neutral gas pressure. The transition from an attached plasma to a detached plasma was found to change the phase relation between the density and the potential. (author)

  20. Risk of retinal detachment in patients with lattice degeneration. (United States)

    Sasaki, K; Ideta, H; Yonemoto, J; Tanaka, S; Hirose, A; Oka, C


    To determine the risk of retinal detachment in patients with lattice degeneration of the retina, we statistically analyzed the incidence of retinal detachment in these patients. The data of hospital patients with retinal detachment associated with lattice degeneration in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, in 1990 were collected. The prevalence of lattice degeneration in Kumamoto was reported to be 9.5% in 1980. Based on population data from the 1990 census, the cumulative incidence of retinal detachment associated with lattice degeneration was calculated in this study. Among 1,840,000 residents in Kumamoto, there were 110 patients with retinal detachment associated with lattice degeneration; 72 with detachment resulting from tractional tears (tears), and 38 with detachment from atrophic holes. The cumulative incidence of retinal detachment from atrophic holes was 1.5% at the age of 40 years; from tears it was 3.6% at the age of 80 years. The cumulative incidence of detachment from both atrophic holes and tears was 5.3% at the age of 80 years. The results of this study are useful for clarifying the natural course of lattice degeneration.

  1. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the evolution of the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N) (United States)

    Morris, A.; Pressling, N.; Gee, J. S.


    Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip detachment faults. They represent a fundamental component of the seafloor spreading system at slow and ultraslow axes. One of the most extensively studied oceanic core complexes is Atlantis Massif, located at 30°N at the intersection of the Atlantis Transform Fault and the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The central dome of the massif exposes the corrugated detachment fault surface and was drilled during IODP Expedition 304/305 (Hole U1309D). This sampled a 1.4 km faulted and complexly layered footwall section dominated by gabbroic lithologies with minor ultramafic rocks. Palaeomagnetic analyses demonstrate that the gabbroic sequences at Atlantis Massif carry highly stable remanent magnetizations that provide valuable information on the evolution of the section. Thermal demagnetization experiments recover high unblocking temperature components of reversed polarity (R1) throughout the gabbroic sequences. Correlation of structures observed on oriented borehole (FMS) images and those recorded on unoriented core pieces allows reorientation of R1 remanences. The mean remanence direction in true geographic coordinates constrains the tectonic rotation experienced by the Atlantis Massif footwall, indicating a 46°±6° counterclockwise around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 011°±6°. The detachment fault therefore initiated at a steep dip of >50° and then rotated flexurally to its present day low angle geometry (consistent with a 'rolling-hinge' model for detachment evolution). In a number of intervals, the gabbros exhibit a complex remanence structure with the presence of additional intermediate temperature normal (N1) and lower temperature reversed (R2) polarity components, suggesting an extended period of remanence acquisition during different polarity intervals. Sharp break-points between different polarity components suggest

  2. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.


    deformation on the LA and SFS segments: an early period characterized by fault-propagation or structural wedge kinematics that terminates in the early Pleistocene, followed by a period of quiescence. The faults were subsequently reactivated in the middle Pleistocene and propagated upward to detachments, with the deformation characterized by fold-bend folding kinematics. Slip on the LA segment decreases to the West, suggesting lateral growth in that direction. Our work highlights the need to assess along-strike variability in slip rate when assessing the seismic hazard of a compressional fault, as marginal sites may significantly underestimate fault activity. Ponti, D. J. et al. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 1013 (2007).

  3. Design of fault simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)], E-mail:; Sayed, Hanaa E.; Osunleke, Ajiboye S. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Division of Industrial Innovation Sciences Department of Intelligent Systems Engineering, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Masanobu, Hara [AspenTech Japan Co., Ltd., Kojimachi Crystal City 10F, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan)


    Fault simulator is proposed to understand and evaluate all possible fault propagation scenarios, which is an essential part of safety design and operation design and support of chemical/production processes. Process models are constructed and integrated with fault models, which are formulated in qualitative manner using fault semantic networks (FSN). Trend analysis techniques are used to map real time and simulation quantitative data into qualitative fault models for better decision support and tuning of FSN. The design of the proposed fault simulator is described and applied on experimental plant (G-Plant) to diagnose several fault scenarios. The proposed fault simulator will enable industrial plants to specify and validate safety requirements as part of safety system design as well as to support recovery and shutdown operation and disaster management.

  4. Iowa Bedrock Faults (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This fault coverage locates and identifies all currently known/interpreted fault zones in Iowa, that demonstrate offset of geologic units in exposure or subsurface...

  5. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos


    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  6. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...


    Hetler, D M; Bronfenbrenner, J


    The active substance (phage) present in the lytic broth filtrate is distributed through the medium in the form of particles. These particles vary in size within broad limits. The average size of these particles as calculated on the basis of the rate of diffusion approximates 4.4 mmicro in radius. Fractionation by means of ultrafiltration permits partial separation of particles of different sizes. Under conditions of experiments here reported the particles varied in the radius size from 0.6 mmicro to 11.4 mmicro. The active agent apparently is not intimately identified with these particles. It is merely carried by them by adsorption, and under suitable experimental conditions it can be detached from the larger particles and redistributed on smaller particles of the medium.

  8. Physical activity after retinal detachment surgery. (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Marcus, D F


    A prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial to assess the value of limited physical activity after scleral buckling surgery included 108 consecutive patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment randomly divided into two groups. The first group was encouraged to resume full physical activity immediately after hospital discharge. In the second group, bending, lifting, straining at stool, driving, sexual activity, lawnmowing, gardening, athletics, and returning to work were strictly forbidden for six weeks. A thorough evaluation of patient compliance was performed after six weeks. Six months after surgery the rates of reoperation and final reattachment percentages of the active and inactive groups showed no statistically significant difference (P greater than .05). Final visual acuity, measured one year after surgery, also identified no statistically significant difference between the groups (P greater than .05).

  9. Functional Detachment of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek


    The paper describes the systematization process of architectural styles in use during Nazi period in Germany between 1933-45. In the results of the research some regularity about strict concern between function & styling has been observed. Using comparison & case study as well as analytical methods there were pointed out characteristic features of more than 500 objects’ architectural appearance that helped to specify their styling & group them into architectural trends. Ultimately the paper proves that the found trends of architectural styling could be collected by functional detachment key. This observation explains easy to recognize even nowadays traceability - so characteristic to Nazi German architecture. Facing today pluralism in architecture, the findings could be a helpful key in the organization of spatial architectural identification process.

  10. Missed retinal breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Takkar


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the causes and associations of missed retinal breaks (MRBs and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. METHODS: Case sheets of patients undergoing vitreo retinal surgery for RRD at a tertiary eye care centre were evaluated retrospectively. Out of the 378 records screened, 253 were included for analysis of MRBs and 191 patients were included for analysis of PVD, depending on the inclusion criteria. Features of RRD and retinal breaks noted on examination were compared to the status of MRBs and PVD detected during surgery for possible associations. RESULTS: Overall, 27% patients had MRBs. Retinal holes were commonly missed in patients with lattice degeneration while missed retinal tears were associated with presence of complete PVD. Patients operated for cataract surgery were significantly associated with MRBs (P=0.033 with the odds of missing a retinal break being 1.91 as compared to patients with natural lens. Advanced proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR and retinal bullae were the most common reasons for missing a retinal break during examination. PVD was present in 52% of the cases and was wrongly assessed in 16%. Retinal bullae, pseudophakia/aphakia, myopia, and horse shoe retinal tears were strongly associated with presence of PVD. Traumatic RRDs were rarely associated with PVD. CONCLUSION: Pseudophakic patients, and patients with retinal bullae or advanced PVR should be carefully screened for MRBs. Though Weiss ring is a good indicator of PVD, it may still be over diagnosed in some cases. PVD is associated with retinal bullae and pseudophakia, and inversely with traumatic RRD.

  11. Seismic Evidence for Conjugate Slip and Block Rotation Within the San Andreas Fault System, Southern California (United States)

    Nicholson, Craig; Seeber, Leonardo; Williams, Patrick; Sykes, Lynn R.


    The pattern of seismicity in southern California indicates that much of the activity is presently occurring on secondary structures, several of which are oriented nearly orthogonal to the strikes of the major through-going faults. Slip along these secondary transverse features is predominantly left-lateral and is consistent with the reactivation of conjugate faults by the current regional stress field. Near the intersection of the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults, however, these active left-lateral faults appear to define a set of small crustal blocks, which in conjunction with both normal and reverse faulting earthquakes, suggests contemporary clockwise rotation as a result of regional right-lateral shear. Other left-lateral faults representing additional rotating block systems are identified in adjacent areas from geologic and seismologic data. Many of these structures predate the modern San Andreas system and may control the pattern of strain accumulation in southern California. Geodetic and paleomagnetic evidence confirm that block rotation by strike-slip faulting is nearly ubiquitous, particularly in areas where shear is distributed, and that it accommodates both short-term elastic and long-term nonelastic strain. A rotating block model accounts for a number of structural styles characteristic of strike-slip deformation in California, including: variable slip rates and alternating transtensional and transpressional features observed along strike of major wrench faults; domains of evenly-spaced antithetic faults that terminate against major fault boundaries; continued development of bends in faults with large lateral displacements; anomalous focal mechanisms; and differential uplift in areas otherwise expected to experience extension and subsidence. Since block rotation requires a detachment surface at depth to permit rotational movement, low-angle structures like detachments, of either local or regional extent, may be involved in the contemporary strike

  12. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.


    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  13. Fault zone hydrogeology (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.


    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  14. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  15. Fluid flow and permeabilities in basement fault zones (United States)

    Hollinsworth, Allan; Koehn, Daniel


    Fault zones are important sites for crustal fluid flow, specifically where they cross-cut low permeability host rocks such as granites and gneisses. Fluids migrating through fault zones can cause rheology changes, mineral precipitation and pore space closure, and may alter the physical and chemical properties of the host rock and deformation products. It is therefore essential to consider the evolution of permeability in fault zones at a range of pressure-temperature conditions to understand fluid migration throughout a fault's history, and how fluid-rock interaction modifies permeability and rheological characteristics. Field localities in the Rwenzori Mountains, western Uganda and the Outer Hebrides, north-west Scotland, have been selected for field work and sample collection. Here Archaean-age TTG gneisses have been faulted within the upper 15km of the crust and have experienced fluid ingress. The Rwenzori Mountains are an anomalously uplifted horst-block located in a transfer zone in the western rift of the East African Rift System. The north-western ridge is characterised by a tectonically simple western flank, where the partially mineralised Bwamba Fault has detached from the Congo craton. Mineralisation is associated with hydrothermal fluids heated by a thermal body beneath the Semliki rift, and has resulted in substantial iron oxide precipitation within porous cataclasites. Non-mineralised faults further north contain foliated gouges and show evidence of leaking fluids. These faults serve as an analogue for faults associated with the Lake Albert oil and gas prospects. The Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) was largely active during the Caledonian Orogeny (ca. 430-400 Ma) at a deeper crustal level than the Ugandan rift faults. Initial dry conditions were followed by fluid ingress during deformation that controlled its rheological behaviour. The transition also altered the existing permeability. The OHFZ is a natural laboratory in which to study brittle fault

  16. Frictional and elastic energy in gecko adhesive detachment. (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar


    Geckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1 m s(-1). Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive since it requires both strong attachment and easy, rapid removal. Conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives are either strong and difficult to remove (e.g. duct tape) or weak and easy to remove (e.g. sticky notes). We discovered that the energy required to detach adhering tokay gecko setae (W(d)) is modulated by the angle (theta) of a linear path of detachment. Gecko setae resist detachment when dragged towards the animal during detachment (theta = 30 degrees ) requiring W(d) = 5.0+/-0.86(s.e.) J m(-2) to detach, largely due to frictional losses. This external frictional loss is analogous to viscous internal frictional losses during detachment of pressure-sensitive adhesives. We found that, remarkably, setae possess a built-in release mechanism. Setae acted as springs when loaded in tension during attachment and returned elastic energy when detached along the optimal path (theta=130 degrees ), resulting in W(d) = -0.8+/-0.12 J m(-2). The release of elastic energy from the setal shaft probably causes spontaneous release, suggesting that curved shafts may enable easy detachment in natural, and synthetic, gecko adhesives.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this study a comparison is made between the detachment behavior of human fibroblasts adhered to hydrophobic FEP-Teflon (water contact angle 109 degrees) and to hydrophilic glass (water contact angle smaller than 15 degrees) during exposure to a laminar, incrementally loaded flow. Detachment from

  18. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim was to determine the hospital incidence, pattern and clinical presentation of retinal detachment at the Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case files of all retinal detachment patients seen at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha between June 1997 and May 2012 were reviewed.

  19. Risk of progression in macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. (United States)

    Callizo, Josep; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Lahme, Eva; van Oterendorp, Christian; Khattab, Mohammed; Bemme, Sebastian; Kulanga, Miroslav; Hoerauf, Hans; Feltgen, Nicolas


    To identify factors that may lead to a rapid progression in macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), in particular, those that may lead to macular involvement. Observational, prospective, single-center study. Patients referred for surgery due to primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with the macula on between 2009 and 2013 were included. Relevant factors analyzed included age, time delay until surgery, lens status, myopia, the detachment's location and configuration as well as number, size and type of retinal breaks. Eyes underwent optical coherence tomography to detect macular detachment. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the effect of several factors in the progression of retinal detachment. A total of 116 eyes of 116 patients were included. Mean time delay between admission and surgery was 1.8 ± 1.4 days. Progression was observed in 19.8% of the eyes. Of those, 47.8% presented macular detachment. Ten of the 11 (90.9%) eyes presenting progression involving the macula also exhibited a bullous configuration, which was the only parameter that correlated significantly with detachment progression in patients with (p = 0.0036) and without (p = 0.0014) macular involvement. For the first time in a prospective trial, a bullous configuration was found to be a highly significant predictor for progression in macula-on detachments. Our data support prompt surgery in patients diagnosed with bullous macula-on RRD.

  20. Inhibition of microparticle release triggers endothelial cell apoptosis and detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abid Hussein, Mohammed N.; Böing, Anita N.; Sturk, Augueste; Hau, Chi M.; Nieuwland, Rienk


    Endothelial cell cultures contain caspase 3-containing microparticles (EMP), which are reported to form during or after cell detachment. We hypothesize that also adherent endothelial cells release EMP, thus protecting these cells from caspase 3 accumulation, detachment and apoptosis. Human umbilical

  1. Cell detachment method using shock wave induced cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, L.; Junge, L.; Ohl, C.D.; Wolfrum, B.; Arora, M.; Ikink, R.


    The detachment of adherent HeLa cells from a substrate after the interaction with a shock wave is analyzed. Cavitation bubbles are formed in the trailing, negative pressure cycle following the shock front. We find that the regions of cell detachment are strongly correlated with spatial presence of

  2. A history of detachable coils: 1987-2012. (United States)

    Hui, Ferdinand K; Fiorella, David; Masaryk, Thomas J; Rasmussen, Peter A; Dion, Jacques E


    The development of detachable coils is one of the most pivotal developments in neurointervention, providing a tool that could be used to treat a wide variety of hemorrhagic stroke. From the original Guglielmi detachable coil, a number of different coil designs and delivery designs have evolved. This article reviews the history of commercially available detachable coils. A timeline of detachable coils was constructed and coil design philosophies were reviewed. A complete list of commercially available coils is presented in a timeline format. Detachable coil technology continues to evolve. Advances in construction and design have yielded products which may benefit patients in terms of safety, radiation dose reduction and cost of treatment. Continued evolution is expected, irrespective of competing disruptive technologies.

  3. Ocular hemodynamics in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Zavgorodnya


    Full Text Available Aim. In case of retinal detachment atrophic processes lead to irreversible loss of functions within 4–6 days, it happens on underlying low ocular blood flow. In order to evaluate the degree of violation of regional hemodynamics in patients with retinal detachment two groups of patients were examined: the main group (52 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and the control group (24 myopic patients with lattice form of peripheral chorioretinal dystrophy. Methods and results. Doppler and reography results had been compared, significant decrease of blood flow in patients with retinal detachment was found. No differences between affected and fellow eye in these patients, close negative correlation between the level of ocular blood flow and the degree of myopia in the control group. Conclusion. This demonstrates the feasibility of actions to improve regional blood flow in patients operated on for retinal detachment.

  4. Library holdings for Cradle of the Earthquake: Exploring the Underwater San Andreas Fault on the R/V Pacific Storm and the SRV Derek M. Baylis in the North Pacific Ocean between September 10, 2010 and October 3, 2010 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE: Geophysical signatures of oceanic core complexes (United States)

    Blackman, Donna K.; Canales, J. Pablo; Harding, Alistair


    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) provide access to intrusive and ultramafic sections of young lithosphere and their structure and evolution contain clues about how the balance between magmatism and faulting controls the style of rifting that may dominate in a portion of a spreading centre for Myr timescales. Initial models of the development of OCCs depended strongly on insights available from continental core complexes and from seafloor mapping. While these frameworks have been useful in guiding a broader scope of studies and determining the extent of OCC formation along slow spreading ridges, as we summarize herein, results from the past decade highlight the need to reassess the hypothesis that reduced magma supply is a driver of long-lived detachment faulting. The aim of this paper is to review the available geophysical constraints on OCC structure and to look at what aspects of current models are constrained or required by the data. We consider sonar data (morphology and backscatter), gravity, magnetics, borehole geophysics and seismic reflection. Additional emphasis is placed on seismic velocity results (refraction) since this is where deviations from normal crustal accretion should be most readily quantified. However, as with gravity and magnetic studies at OCCs, ambiguities are inherent in seismic interpretation, including within some processing/analysis steps. We briefly discuss some of these issues for each data type. Progress in understanding the shallow structure of OCCs (within ~1 km of the seafloor) is considerable. Firm constraints on deeper structure, particularly characterization of the transition from dominantly mafic rock (and/or altered ultramafic rock) to dominantly fresh mantle peridotite, are not currently in hand. There is limited information on the structure and composition of the conjugate lithosphere accreted to the opposite plate while an OCC forms, commonly on the inside corner of a ridge-offset intersection. These gaps preclude full

  6. The large Bonin deep Event of 30 May 2015: Seismogenesis in a Detached and Fragmented Slab (United States)

    Okal, Emile; Kirby, Stephen H.


    The earthquake of 30 May 2015 in the Bonin Island was exceptional in many respects: it was the fifth largest deep earthquake ever recorded (7.8 E27 dyn*cm; Mw = 7.9); at h = 680 km, it was 100 km deeper than any known event in that subduction zone and 150 km distant from its nearest neighbor (including relocated historical events dating back to the 1920s); it was displaced as much as 150 km East of the prolongation of the mapped Wadati-Benioff Zone; and finally its focal mechanism was close to the opposite of the down-dip compression prevailing for the deepest known earthquakes. Other cases of "detached" deep earthquakes occurring in highwavespeed, high-Q slab material, have been described in front of subduction zones, notably by Fukao et al. [19092], Van der Hilst et al. [1993] aand Okal [2001]. The geometry of the 2015 Bonin event is reminiscent of that of the cluster of (much smaller) seismic events beneath the North Fiji Basin, which appear be unrelated to presently active W-B systems, but rather express seismogenesis in detached or fragmented slab material that has foundered to the bottom of the transition zone [Kirby et al., 1996; Okal and Kirby, 1998], where stresses may be generated by heterogeneous volume changes associated with the metastable olivine-spinel metamorphic reaction. How and why slab fragments become detached has been suggested to possibly involve collisions of oceanic plateaux or island arcs with oceanic forearcs, leading to arc reversal and/or fragmentation of normal oceanic and plateau lithosphere. In this context, the Igasawara Plateau is currently colliding with the Bonin forearc just to the South of the 2015 deep event. The Bonin Ridge to the North may represent a section of thick remnant crust that otherwise detached from its slab and later foundered in the mantle all the way to the bottom of the transition zone, stagnating to this day in the source region of the 2015 shock.

  7. Differential Extension, Displacement Transfer, and the South to North Decrease in Displacement on the Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley Fault System, Western Great Basin. (United States)

    Katopody, D. T.; Oldow, J. S.


    The northwest-striking Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley (FC-FLV) fault system stretches for >250 km from southeastern California to western Nevada, forms the eastern boundary of the northern segment of the Eastern California Shear Zone, and has contemporary displacement. The FC-FLV fault system initiated in the mid-Miocene (10-12 Ma) and shows a south to north decrease in displacement from a maximum of 75-100 km to less than 10 km. Coeval elongation by extension on north-northeast striking faults within the adjoining blocks to the FC-FLV fault both supply and remove cumulative displacement measured at the northern end of the transcurrent fault system. Elongation and displacement transfer in the eastern block, constituting the southern Walker Lane of western Nevada, exceeds that of the western block and results in the net south to north decrease in displacement on the FC-FLV fault system. Elongation in the eastern block is accommodated by late Miocene to Pliocene detachment faulting followed by extension on superposed, east-northeast striking, high-angle structures. Displacement transfer from the FC-FLV fault system to the northwest-trending faults of the central Walker Lane to the north is accomplished by motion on a series of west-northwest striking transcurrent faults, named the Oriental Wash, Sylvania Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain fault systems. The west-northwest striking transcurrent faults cross-cut earlier detachment structures and are kinematically linked to east-northeast high-angle extensional faults. The transcurrent faults are mapped along strike for 60 km to the east, where they merge with north-northwest faults forming the eastern boundary of the southern Walker Lane. The west-northwest trending transcurrent faults have 30-35 km of cumulative left-lateral displacement and are a major contributor to the decrease in right-lateral displacement on the FC-FLV fault system.

  8. Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Lamarche, J.; Gauthier, B. D. M.; Dunne, W. M.; Sanderson, David J.


    Spatial arrangement is a fundamental characteristic of fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings. Five papers describe new methods and improvements of existing techniques to quantify spatial arrangement. One study unravels the time evolution of opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement, which are data needed to compare natural patterns with progressive fracture growth in kinematic and mechanical models. Three papers investigate the role of evolving diagenesis in localizing fractures by mechanical stratigraphy and nine discuss opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement. Two papers show the relevance of complex cluster patterns to unconventional reservoirs through examples of fractures in tight gas sandstone horizontal wells, and a study of fracture arrangement in shale. Four papers demonstrate the roles of folds in fracture localization and the development spatial patterns. One paper models along-fault friction and fluid pressure and their effects on fault-related fracture arrangement. Contributions address deformation band patterns in carbonate rocks and fault size and arrangement above a detachment fault. Three papers describe fault and fracture arrangements in basement terrains, and three document fracture patterns in shale. This collection of papers points toward improvement in field methods, continuing improvements in computer-based data analysis and creation of synthetic fracture patterns, and opportunities for further understanding fault and fracture attributes in

  9. Continental deformation accommodated by non-rigid passive bookshelf faulting: An example from the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet (United States)

    Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An


    Collision-induced continental deformation commonly involves complex interactions between strike-slip faulting and off-fault deformation, yet this relationship has rarely been quantified. In northern Tibet, Cenozoic deformation is expressed by the development of the > 1000-km-long east-striking left-slip Kunlun, Qinling, and Haiyuan faults. Each have a maximum slip in the central fault segment exceeding 10s to ~ 100 km but a much smaller slip magnitude (~bookshelf-fault model for the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet. Our model, quantitatively relating discrete left-slip faulting to distributed off-fault deformation during regional clockwise rotation, explains several puzzling features, including the: (1) clockwise rotation of east-striking left-slip faults against the northeast-striking left-slip Altyn Tagh fault along the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, (2) alternating fault-parallel extension and shortening in the off-fault regions, and (3) eastward-tapering map-view geometries of the Qimen Tagh, Qaidam, and Qilian Shan thrust belts that link with the three major left-slip faults in northern Tibet. We refer to this specific non-rigid bookshelf-fault system as a passive bookshelf-fault system because the rotating bookshelf panels are detached from the rigid bounding domains. As a consequence, the wallrock of the strike-slip faults deforms to accommodate both the clockwise rotation of the left-slip faults and off-fault strain that arises at the fault ends. An important implication of our model is that the style and magnitude of Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet vary considerably in the east-west direction. Thus, any single north-south cross section and its kinematic reconstruction through the region do not properly quantify the complex deformational processes of plateau formation.

  10. SHARPIN Regulates Uropod Detachment in Migrating Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Pouwels


    Full Text Available SHARPIN-deficient mice display a multiorgan chronic inflammatory phenotype suggestive of altered leukocyte migration. We therefore studied the role of SHARPIN in lymphocyte adhesion, polarization, and migration. We found that SHARPIN localizes to the trailing edges (uropods of both mouse and human chemokine-activated lymphocytes migrating on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, which is one of the major endothelial ligands for migrating leukocytes. SHARPIN-deficient cells adhere better to ICAM-1 and show highly elongated tails when migrating. The increased tail lifetime in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes decreases the migration velocity. The adhesion, migration, and uropod defects in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes were rescued by reintroducing SHARPIN into the cells. Mechanistically, we show that SHARPIN interacts directly with lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, a leukocyte counterreceptor for ICAM-1, and inhibits the expression of intermediate and high-affinity forms of LFA-1. Thus, SHARPIN controls lymphocyte migration by endogenously maintaining LFA-1 inactive to allow adjustable detachment of the uropods in polarized cells.

  11. Ethnic variation in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (United States)

    Chandra, A; Banerjee, P; Davis, D; Charteris, D


    Purpose We aimed to investigate the clinical variation of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD) in patients of different ethnicities. Methods Patients presenting with a primary RD from two ethnic groups were recruited from our tertiary referral hospital between August 2010 and December 2012. Patients who self-reported their ethnic origin either as European Caucasian (EC) or South Asian (SA) were included. Exclusion criteria included trauma, previous vitreoretinal procedures, age under 18 years, complicated cataract surgery and the presence of syndromes known to be associated with a high prevalence of RD. Detailed phenotypic data were collected. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were undertaken. Results 1269 Patients were recruited. 1173 (92.4%) were EC. Mean age of onset was 58.3 years (EC) and 54.5 years (SA) (P=0.006). 75.3% EC and 58.4% SA were phakic (Plattice retinal degeneration in the affected eye (P=0.003). Refractive myopia was greater in SA patients (mean: −6.1DS) than EC (−4.2DS) (P=0.032). Additionally, SA patients had a greater mean axial length (25.65 mm) than EC (25.06 mm) (P=0.014). No differences were demonstrated in laterality, family history, type of retinal break or macular status. Conclusions SA patients present with RD at an earlier age and have a more severe phenotype than ECs. Future management strategies for RD may need to reflect these differences. PMID:25853394

  12. BTeV detached vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, E.E.


    BTeV is a collider experiment that has been approved to run in the Tevatron at Fermilab. The experiment will conduct precision studies of CP violation using a forward-geometry detector. The detector will be optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and anti-protons. BTeV will trigger on beauty and charm events by taking advantage of the main difference between these heavy quark events and more typical hadronic events - the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger will receive data from a pixel vertex detector at a rate of 100 gb s -1 , reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject 99% of beam crossings that do not produce beauty or charm particles, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its influence on the design of the pixel vertex detector is presented

  13. A computer investigation of chemically mediated detachment in bacterial biofilms. (United States)

    Hunt, Stephen M; Hamilton, Martin A; Sears, John T; Harkin, Gary; Reno, Jason


    A three-dimensional computer model was used to evaluate the effect of chemically mediated detachment on biofilm development in a negligible-shear environment. The model, BacLAB, combines conventional diffusion-reaction equations for chemicals with a cellular automata algorithm to simulate bacterial growth, movement and detachment. BacLAB simulates the life cycle of a bacterial biofilm from its initial colonization of a surface to the development of a mature biofilm with cell areal densities comparable to those in the laboratory. A base model founded on well established transport equations that are easily adaptable to investigate conjectures at the biological level has been created. In this study, the conjecture of a detachment mechanism involving a bacterially produced chemical detachment factor in which high local concentrations of this detachment factor cause the bacteria to detach from the biofilm was examined. The results show that the often observed 'mushroom'-shaped structure can occur if detachment events create voids so that the remaining attached cells look like mushrooms.

  14. Interaction between mantle and crustal detachments: a non-linear system controlling lithospheric extension (United States)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Weinberg, R. F.


    We use numerical modelling to investigate the development of crustal and mantle detachment faults during lithospheric extension. Our models simulate a wide range of rift systems with varying values of crustal thickness and heat flow, showing how strain localization in the mantle interacts with localization in the upper crust and controls the evolution of extensional systems. Model results reveal a richness of structures and deformation styles, which grow in response to a self-organized mechanism that minimizes the internal stored energy of the system by localizing deformation at different levels of the lithosphere. Crustal detachment faults are well developed during extension of overthickened (60 km) continental crust, even when the initial heat flow is relatively low (50 mW/m2). In contrast, localized mantle deformation is most pronounced when the extended lithosphere has a normal crustal thickness (30-40 km) and an intermediate (60-70 mW/m2) heat flow. Results show a non-linear response to subtle changes in crustal thickness or heat flow, characterized by abrupt and sometime unexpected switches in extension modes (e.g. from diffuse rifting to effective lithospheric-scale rupturing) or from mantle- to crust-dominated strain localization. We interpret this non-linearity to result from the interference of doming wavelengths. Disharmony of crust and mantle doming wavelengths results in efficient communication between shear zones at different lithospheric levels, leading to rupturing of the whole lithosphere. In contrast, harmonious crust and mantle doming inhibits interaction of shear zones across the lithosphere and results in a prolonged rifting history prior to continental breakup.

  15. Vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone oil tamponade in the management of retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Di Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To report the results of combined vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone oil (SO tamponade in treating primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD associated with choroidal detachment (CD.METHODS: A retrospective, consecutive and case series study of 21 subjects with concurrent RRD associated with CD was conducted. All subjects underwent a standard three-port 20G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with lensectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Mean follow-up time was 8 months (rang from 4 to 19 months. The primary and final anatomic success rate, visual acuity and final intraocular pressure(IOP were recorded and analyzed.RESULTS: Of 21 subjects, 8 were women and 13 were men. Age at presentation ranged from 22 to 75 years (mean 57.4 years. The presenting vision ranged from light perception to 0.15. The initial IOP ranged from 3mmHg to 12mmHg (mean 6.2mmHg. All eyes were phakic except one pseudophakic. No intraocular lens was implanted during the primary surgical intervention. Fifteen of 21 (71.4% eyes had retina reattached after one operation. Six eyes had recurrent inferior retinal detachment due to proliferation. Five of them were successfully reattached after one or more additional operations. Mean IOP at final follow-up was 15.2mmHg (range from 8mmHg to 20mmHg. One case declined for further operation. The final reattachment rate was 95.2%. Visual acuity improved in 19 (90.5% eyes, was unchanged in 1 (4.8% eye and decreased in 1 (4.8% eye.CONCLUSION: Combination of vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone tamponade is an effective method in treating RRD associated with CD, reducing the incidence of postoperative hypotony.

  16. Ohmic discharges in Tore Supra - Marfes and detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, J.C.


    The Tore Supra plasma characteristics are given. The observed discharges are either leaning on the graphite inner first wall or limited by movable pump limiters located outboard and at the bottom of the vacuum chamber. The particular plasma conditions which lead to marfes and detached plasmas in ohmically heated He and D2 discharges limited by the inner wall are investigated. The results show that the ratio of radiated power to ohmic power increase linearly with M.g. As M.g rises, attached plasma, marfe and detached plasma are sequentially observed. Detached plasma with an effective radius as small as. 7 times the limiter radius was observed on Tore Supra

  17. Shape Evolution of Detached Bridgman Crystals Grown in Microgravity (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.


    A theory describing the shape evolution of detached Bridgman crystals in microgravity has been developed. A starting crystal of initial radius r0 will evolve to one of the following states: Stable detached gap; Attachment to the crucible wall; Meniscus collapse. Only crystals where alpha plus omega is great than 180 degrees will achieve stable detached growth in microgravity. Results of the crystal shape evolution theory are consistent with predictions of the dynamic stability of crystallization (Tatarchenko, Shaped Crystal Growth, Kluwer, 1993). Tests of transient crystal evolution are planned for ICESAGE, a series of Ge and GeSi crystal growth experiments planned to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS).

  18. Fault tolerant control for uncertain systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    A fault tolerant control (FTC) architecture based on active fault diagnosis (AFD) and the YJBK (Youla, Jarb, Bongiorno and Kucera)parameterization is applied in this paper. Based on the FTC architecture, fault tolerant control of uncertain systems with slowly varying parametric faults...... is investigated. Conditions are given for closed-loop stability in case of false alarms or missing fault detection/isolation....

  19. Architecture of a low-angle normal fault zone, southern Basin and Range (SE California) (United States)

    Goyette, J. A.; John, B. E.; Campbell-Stone, E.; Stunitz, H.; Heilbronner, R.; Pec, M.


    Exposures of the denuded Cenozoic detachment fault system in the southern Sacramento Mountains (SE California) delimit the architecture of a regional low-angle normal fault, and highlight the evolution of these enigmatic faults. The fault was initiated ~23 Ma in quartzo-feldspathic basement gneiss and granitoids at a low-angle (2km, and amplitudes up to 100m. These corrugations are continuous along their hinges for up to 3.6 km. Damage zone fracture intensity varies both laterally, and perpendicular to the fault plane (over an area of 25km2), decreasing with depth in the footwall, and varies as a function of lithology and proximity to corrugation walls. Deformation is concentrated into narrow damage zones (100m) are found in areas where low-fracture intensity horses are corralled by sub-horizontal zones of cataclasite (up to 8m) and thick zones of epidote (up to 20cm) and silica-rich alteration (up to 1m). Sub-vertical shear and extension fractures, and sub-horizontal shear fractures/zones dominate the NE side of the core complex. In all cases, sub-vertical fractures verge into or are truncated by low-angle fractures that dominate the top of the damage zone. These low-angle fractures have an antithetic dip to the detachment fault plane. Some sub-vertical fractures become curviplanar close to the fault, where they are folded into parallelism with the sub-horizontal fault surface in the direction of transport. These field data, corroborated by ongoing microstructural analyses, indicate fault activity at a low angle accommodated by a variety of deformation mechanisms dependent on lithology, timing, fluid flow, and fault morphology.

  20. The potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra


    The paper gives an account of the potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in Greenland. It is based on studies of house construction compared with Building Regulation requirements and the spread of buildings over time. In the climatic...... conditions of Greenland, there is considerable potential for energy saving in houses due to their construction, shape and condition. To estimate the total potential for energy saving and thus reducing CO2 emissions, we carried out a detailed investigation of three typical standard semi-detached family houses...

  1. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep


    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting is needed to facilitate cell detachment. The method do not require inactivation of cell lifting solution and no washing of detaching cells is required to remove cell lifting solution. Detached cells can be stained with dye in the presence of cell lifting solution and are further analyzed using flow cytometer. The method has been tested using 6 different cell lines, 4 different assays, two different plate formats (96 and 384 well plates) and two different flow cytometry instruments. The method is simple to perform, less time consuming, with no cell loss and makes high throughput flow cytometry on adherent cells a reality.

  2. Characterisation of detached plasmas on the MAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, J.R., E-mail: [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lisgo, S.W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, St.Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Gibson, K.J. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dowling, J. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)


    Divertor detachment is an attractive operating regime for the next generation of tokamak devices, as it offers a means of mitigating the steady-state heat flux to plasma facing components. In order to clarify the dominant physical mechanisms that govern detachment, high quality data from several diagnostics are required to constrain theoretical models. To that end, high spatial ({approx}3 mm) and temporal (5 kHz) resolution measurements have been made of the intensity of deuterium Balmer and carbon emission lines during the onset and evolution of detachment of the lower inner strike point in MAST L-mode discharges. Furthermore, spatially-resolved measurements of the shapes and intensities of high-n Balmer lines have been recorded to infer plasma conditions during the detached phase.

  3. Disappearance of a detached vapor mass in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Shigeaki; Miyasaka, Yoshiki; Izumi, Ryotaro.


    Experiments on pool transition boiling of water under atmospheric pressure on a heated surface 10 mm in diameter were conducted for subcooling 15 - 50 K. The mass flux of condensation of a detached coalescent vapor bubble was experimentally estimated by a mathematical model based on the mass transfer mechanism of condensation. As a result, it is clarified that the mass flux of condensation of the detached bubble was influenced by the initial growing velocity of a vapor bubble immediately following the detached bubble. The disappearance velocity of the detached bubble defined as a ratio of the bubble diameter at the departure to the time required until the disappearance, is in the range 0.2 to 2.0 m/sec. The disappearance velocity is proportional to the initial growing velocity of the bubble, to the square of the heat flux of the heated surface and to the cube of the wall superheat, separately. (author)

  4. Faulting and hydration of the Juan de Fuca plate system (United States)

    Nedimović, Mladen R.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Carbotte, Suzanne M.; Pablo Canales, J.; Dziak, Robert P.


    Multichannel seismic observations provide the first direct images of crustal scale normal faults within the Juan de Fuca plate system and indicate that brittle deformation extends up to ~ 200 km seaward of the Cascadia trench. Within the sedimentary layering steeply dipping faults are identified by stratigraphic offsets, with maximum throws of 110 ± 10 m found near the trench. Fault throws diminish both upsection and seaward from the trench. Long-term throw rates are estimated to be 13 ± 2 mm/kyr. Faulted offsets within the sedimentary layering are typically linked to larger offset scarps in the basement topography, suggesting reactivation of the normal fault systems formed at the spreading center. Imaged reflections within the gabbroic igneous crust indicate swallowing fault dips at depth. These reflections require local alteration to produce an impedance contrast, indicating that the imaged fault structures provide pathways for fluid transport and hydration. As the depth extent of imaged faulting within this young and sediment insulated oceanic plate is primarily limited to approximately Moho depths, fault-controlled hydration appears to be largely restricted to crustal levels. If dehydration embrittlement is an important mechanism for triggering intermediate-depth earthquakes within the subducting slab, then the limited occurrence rate and magnitude of intraslab seismicity at the Cascadia margin may in part be explained by the limited amount of water imbedded into the uppermost oceanic mantle prior to subduction. The distribution of submarine earthquakes within the Juan de Fuca plate system indicates that propagator wake areas are likely to be more faulted and therefore more hydrated than other parts of this plate system. However, being largely restricted to crustal levels, this localized increase in hydration generally does not appear to have a measurable effect on the intraslab seismicity along most of the subducted propagator wakes at the Cascadia margin.

  5. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury. (United States)

    Joondeph, Stephanie A; Joondeph, Brian C


    The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  6. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury


    Joondeph, Stephanie A.; Joondeph, Brian C.


    The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  7. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Joondeph


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  8. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in patients with retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzney, S.M.; Pruett, R.C.; Regan, C.D.; Walton, D.S.; Smith, T.R.


    Three children (two girls and one boy) with bilateral retinoblastoma each developed a presumed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in one eye. All three eyes had previously received radiation and cryotherapy. In each case the retinal detachment responded promptly to conventional surgical methods via scleral buckling in the area of treated retinoblastoma and presumed retinal break. All three eyes have retained useful vision for follow-up periods of 3.5 to 12 years

  9. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in patients with retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzney, S.M.; Pruett, R.C.; Regan, C.D.; Walton, D.S.; Smith, T.R.


    Three children (two girls and one boy) with bilateral retinoblastoma each developed a presumed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in one eye. All three eyes had previously received radiation and cryotherapy. In each case the retinal detachment responded promptly to conventional surgical methods via scleral buckling in the area of treated retinoblastoma and presumed retinal break. All three eyes have retained useful vision for follow-up periods of 3.5 to 12 years.

  10. HAMLET binding to α-actinin facilitates tumor cell detachment. (United States)

    Trulsson, Maria; Yu, Hao; Gisselsson, Lennart; Chao, Yinxia; Urbano, Alexander; Aits, Sonja; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina


    Cell adhesion is tightly regulated by specific molecular interactions and detachment from the extracellular matrix modifies proliferation and survival. HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a protein-lipid complex with tumoricidal activity that also triggers tumor cell detachment in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that molecular interactions defining detachment are perturbed in cancer cells. To identify such interactions, cell membrane extracts were used in Far-western blots and HAMLET was shown to bind α-actinins; major F-actin cross-linking proteins and focal adhesion constituents. Synthetic peptide mapping revealed that HAMLET binds to the N-terminal actin-binding domain as well as the integrin-binding domain of α-actinin-4. By co-immunoprecipitation of extracts from HAMLET-treated cancer cells, an interaction with α-actinin-1 and -4 was observed. Inhibition of α-actinin-1 and α-actinin-4 expression by siRNA transfection increased detachment, while α-actinin-4-GFP over-expression significantly delayed rounding up and detachment of tumor cells in response to HAMLET. In response to HAMLET, adherent tumor cells rounded up and detached, suggesting a loss of the actin cytoskeletal organization. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in β1 integrin staining and a decrease in FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, consistent with a disruption of integrin-dependent cell adhesion signaling. Detachment per se did not increase cell death during the 22 hour experimental period, regardless of α-actinin-4 and α-actinin-1 expression levels but adherent cells with low α-actinin levels showed increased death in response to HAMLET. The results suggest that the interaction between HAMLET and α-actinins promotes tumor cell detachment. As α-actinins also associate with signaling molecules, cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane receptors and ion channels, additional α-actinin-dependent mechanisms are discussed.

  11. An Unusual Case of Extensive Lattice Degeneration and Retinal Detachment


    Mathew, David J.; Sarma, Saurabh Kumar; Basaiawmoit, Jennifer V.


    Lattice degeneration of the retina is not infrequently encountered on a dilated retinal examination and many of them do not need any intervention. We report a case of atypical lattice degeneration variant with peripheral retinal detachment. An asymptomatic 35-year-old lady with minimal refractive error was found to have extensive lattice degeneration, peripheral retinal detachment and fibrotic changes peripherally with elevation of retinal vessels on dilated retinal examination. There were al...

  12. Ocean Acidification | Smithsonian Ocean Portal (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor ocean is affected. Such a relatively quick change in ocean chemistry doesn't give marine life, which

  13. Design of the Detachable Extension Shaft Assembly for KJRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Ryou, Myoung-Han; Ryu, Jeong-Soo


    In this study, we designed the ESA and basket which can increase the connecting force between the ES adapter and the ES, and can be easily attachable and detachable with the basket. Because the upper part of the ESA can be placed near the reactor core for a long time and directly connected to the FFA, the deterioration of its mechanical properties is expected to be relatively quicker than the lower part of the ESA. The ESA is therefore composed of an Extension Shaft (ES) and an ES adapter, and the ES adapter can be detachable from the ES and replaceable by new one. In the previous design concept, the ES adapter had four latches which can be detached from the ES in the reactor core by external pulling force, and the detached CAR or SSR, FFA and ES adapter are individually disconnected in some baskets when it is needed to replace CAR/SSR/FFA or shuffle them. When the force is too small, the bundle of CAR/SSR/FFA and ES adapter can be unexpectedly detached from the ES. To solve the problem, we have studied another design concept which can increase the connecting force and can be easily detachable when it is needed. The forces needed to be connected and disconnected were calculated from FE analysis, and the force to be disconnected can be guessed without FE contact analysis. The prototypes of the designed components were fabricated, and they were suitable to be used

  14. [Prevention of retinal detachment and treatment of retinoschisis]. (United States)

    Messmer, E P


    The necessity for prophylactic treatment for degenerative disease in the peripheral retina cannot be evaluated merely on the basis of the ophthalmoscopic findings. Factors such as the patient's history, refraction, the status of the vitreous, and prospective future cataract extraction all have a major impact on the risk of developing retinal detachment. The latter condition can be classified in to three groups: (1) low risk (patients with no history of retinal detachment, intraocular surgery or posterior vitreous detachment, myopia less than three diopters): treatment of atrophic holes and lattice degeneration is not justified, treatment of flap tears according to the circumstances; (2) medium risk (patients with no history of retinal or posterior vitreous detachment; however, myopia of more than three diopters and/or aphakia): the treatment of lattice degeneration is not justified; treatment of breaks according to the circumstances; (3) high risk: (patients with symptoms of posterior vitreous detachment): the treatment of lattice degeneration and atrophic holes is not justified: treatment of tears is necessary; fellow eyes: the treatment of retinal breaks is necessary; treatment of lattice degeneration seems advisable in cases with bilateral symmetric findings or prior to cataract extraction. Treatment of senile retinoschisis is only justified in cases with large and centrally located holes in the outer wall or in the presence of symptomatic schisis detachment.

  15. Numerical analysis of the bubble detachment diameter in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, M I; Sáiz Jabardo, J M; Arce, A; Fariñas, P


    The present paper presents a tri-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model to investigate the fluid flow around bubbles attached to heated walls. Transient solutions of the governing field equations in a domain containing the bubbles and the surrounding liquid have been obtained. The nucleation, growing and detachment processes have been analyzed. Concerning the software, the open source OpenFOAM has been used. Special attention has been given to the bubble detachment diameter. Two mechanisms have been considered as physically related to the detachment: surface tension and buoyancy. As expected, it has been verified that the bubble detachment diameter depends on the contact angle, operating pressure and properties of the fluid. Several fluids have been considered (water, R134a, ammonia and R123), as well as several operating pressures (between 0.1 and 10 bar) and contact angles (between 10 and 80°). It has been concluded that the detachment diameter depends strongly on the contact angle and fluid properties and slightly on the pressure. A correlation for the bubble detachment diameter has been developed based on the obtained numerical results. Data from this expression compare reasonably well with those from other correlations from the literature.

  16. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.


    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  17. How do normal faults grow?


    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette


    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  18. Characterization of leaky faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao.


    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Solar system fault detection (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.


    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  20. The fellow eye of patients with phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment from atrophic holes of lattice degeneration without posterior vitreous detachment. (United States)

    Gonzales, C R; Gupta, A; Schwartz, S D; Kreiger, A E


    Primary phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) without posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) represents a unique clinical entity that behaves differently from RRD associated with PVD. While previous studies have reported the long term findings in the fellow eye of patients with RRD and PVD, the outcome of the fellow eye of patients with RRD without PVD is not known. Consecutive patients with RRD not associated with PVD were studied retrospectively. The authors evaluated the fellow eye for retinal detachment or other vision threatening pathology. 27 patients (mean age 32 years) were studied with follow up of between 9 and 326 months (mean 111 months). 24 (89%) were myopic. Bilateral retinal detachment occurred in eight patients (30%). On initial examination, 17 patients (63%) had retinal findings (including lattice degeneration, atrophic holes, and/or cystic retinal tufts) in the fellow eye that might predispose them to retinal detachment. 14 vision threatening events or diagnoses occurred (nine of which were rhegmatogenous in nature) in the fellow eye including eight retinal detachments, one traumatic PVD without retinal tears, one retinal tear after PVD, one diagnosis of pigmentary glaucoma needing trabeculectomy, two visually significant cataracts, and one diagnosis of chorioretinitis. 23 patients (85%) maintained visual acuity better than 20/50, with most retaining 20/20 vision in the fellow eye. Patients who experience RRD without PVD are at risk of developing vision threatening events in the contralateral eye and, as such, the fellow eye should be followed carefully.

  1. Magmatism and crustal extension: Constraining activation of the ductile shearing along the Gediz detachment, Menderes Massif (western Turkey) (United States)

    Rossetti, Federico; Asti, Riccardo; Faccenna, Claudio; Gerdes, Axel; Lucci, Federico; Theye, Thomas


    The Menderes Massif of western Turkey is a key area to study feedback relationships between magma generation/emplacement and activation of extensional detachment tectonics. Here, we present new textural analysis and in situ U-(Th)-Pb titanite dating from selected samples collected in the transition from the undeformed to the mylonitized zones of the Salihli granodiorite at the footwall of the Neogene, ductile-to-brittle, top-to-the-NNE Gediz-Alaşheir (GDF) detachment fault. Ductile shearing was accompanied by the fluid-mediated sub-solidus transformation of the granodiorite to orthogneiss, which occurred at shallower crustal levels and temperatures compatible with the upper greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions (530-580 °C and P system ages during fluid-assisted syn-tectonic re-crystallisation in the transition from magma crystallization and emplacement (at 16-17 Ma) to the syn-tectonic, solid-state shearing (at 14-15 Ma). A minimum time lapse of ca. 1-2 Ma is then inferred between the crustal emplacement of the Salihli granodiorite and nucleation of the ductile extensional shearing along the Gediz detachment. The reconstruction of the cooling history of the Salihli granodiorite documents a punctuated evolution dominated by two episodes of rapid cooling, between 14 Ma and 12 Ma ( 100 °C/Ma) and between 3 and 2 Ma ( 105 °C/Ma). We relate the first episode to nucleation and development of post-emplacement of ductile shearing along the GDF and the second to brittle high-angle faulting, respectively. Our dataset suggests that in the Menderes Massif the activation of ductile extension was a consequence, rather than the cause, of magma emplacement in the extending crust.

  2. Cost-Utility of Evaluation for Posterior Vitreous Detachment and Prophylaxis of Retinal Detachment. (United States)

    Yannuzzi, Nicolas A; Chang, Jonathan S; Brown, Gary C; Smiddy, William E


    To evaluate the costs and cost-utility of examination for posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and treatment of associated pathology, and of managing various other peripheral retinal disorders to prevent retinal detachment (RD). A decision analysis model of cost-utility. There were no participants. Published retrospective data on the natural course of PVD, retinal tears, and lattice degeneration were used to quantitate the visual benefits of examination and treatment. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data were used to calculate associated modeled costs in a hospital/facility-based and nonfacility/ambulatory surgical center (ASC)-based setting. Published standards of utility for a given level of visual acuity were used to derive costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Cost of evaluation and treatment, utility of defined health states, QALY, and cost per QALY. The modeled cost of evaluation of a patient with PVD and treatment of associated pathology in the facility/hospital (nonfacility/ASC)-based setting was $65 to $190 ($25-$71) depending on whether a single or 2-examination protocol was used. The cost per QALY saved was $255 to $638/QALY ($100-$239/QALY). Treatment of a symptomatic horseshoe tear resulted in a net cost savings of $1749 ($1314) and improved utility, whereas treatment of an asymptomatic horseshoe tear resulted in $2981/QALY ($1436/QALY). Treatment of asymptomatic lattice degeneration in an eye in which the fellow eye had a history of RD resulted in $4414/QALY ($2187/QALY). Evaluation and management of incident acute PVD (and symptomatic horseshoe tears) offer a low cost and a favorable cost-utility (low $/QALY) as a result of the minimization of the cost and morbidity associated with the development of RD, thus justifying current practice standards. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A chick model of retinal detachment: cone rich and novel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen M Cebulla

    Full Text Available Development of retinal detachment models in small animals can be difficult and expensive. Here we create and characterize a novel, cone-rich retinal detachment (RD model in the chick.Retinal detachments were created in chicks between postnatal days 7 and 21 by subretinal injections of either saline (SA or hyaluronic acid (HA. Injections were performed through a dilated pupil with observation via surgical microscope, using the fellow eye as a control. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after retinal detachment to evaluate the cellular responses of photoreceptors, Müller glia, microglia and nonastrocytic inner retinal glia (NIRG. Cell proliferation was detected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU-incorporation and by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Cell death was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. As in mammalian models of RD, there is shortening of photoreceptor outer segments and mis-trafficking of photoreceptor opsins in areas of RD. Photoreceptor cell death was maximal 1 day after RD, but continued until 14 days after RD. Müller glia up-regulated glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP, proliferated, showed interkinetic nuclear migration, and migrated to the subretinal space in areas of detachment. Microglia became reactive; they up-regulated CD45, acquired amoeboid morphology, and migrated toward outer retina in areas of RD. Reactive NIRG cells accumulated in detached areas.Subretinal injections of SA or HA in the chick eye successfully produced retinal detachments and cellular responses similar to those seen in standard mammalian models. Given the relatively large eye size, and considering the low cost, the chick model of RD offers advantages for high-throughput studies.

  4. Self-sustained detachment observed in LHD and comparison with detachment and Marfe in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Yamada, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Peterson, B. J.; Shoji, M.; Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.


    One of the crucial issues for a magnetically confined fusion reactor [1-3] is the reduction of the divertor heat load. Edge plasma cooling by increasing the density or introducing impurities such as neon as radiators is effective for reducing the divertor heat load by detaching the plasma from the divertor plates. In high-density tokamak plasmas, the so-called high-recycling regime is predicted by two-point model [4,5], where the divertor temperature (density) nonlinearly decreases (increases) with the main plasma density. Detachment takes place when the density is increased further. Then, the pressure in the flux tube is no longer conserved due to the increased radiation loss, charge exchange loss, and volume recombination. Eventually, the discharge is terminated by disruption often via rapid formation of a radiation condensation Marfe [5,6]. This scenario well explains the experimental results of tokamaks [5,7]. A similar kind of conventional detachment has been also intensively studied in a stellarator, W7-AS, after modification to the island divertor configuration [8,9]. Detachment in W7-AS is achieved by increasing the density beyond the density threshold for the high-density H-mode (HDH) [10]. As the density is increased further to the operational density limit, complete detachment takes place and, in some cases, the Marfe is formed on (or inside of) the last-closed-flux-surface (LCFS) [11-13]. These are reviewed in Section 4. Recently, a new state of self-sustained detachment has been found in LHD and named the Serpens mode (Self-regulated plasma edge neath the last-closed-flux-surface) [15,16]. In the Serpens mode, the hot plasma boundary is shrinking to equal 90 % of the LCFS radius. Large fluctuations appear in the divertor flux, H alpha and Cm signals, together with a rotating radiation belt named the serpent [17]. Detachment in LHD is observed in a significant decrease in the ion saturation current, Isat, measured on the divertor tiles [18,19]. In this

  5. View of an intact oceanic arc, from surficial to mesozonal levels: Cretaceous Alisitos arc, Baja California (United States)

    Busby, Cathy; Fackler Adams, Benjamin; Mattinson, James; Deoreo, Stephen


    suspensions that mixed completely with water. In contrast, gentler slopes on the opposite flank allowed pyroclastic flows to enter the sea with integrity, and supported extensive buildups of bioherms. Caldera collapse on the major subaerial edifice ponded the tuff of Aguajito to a thickness of at least 3 km. The outflow ignimbrite forms a marker in nonmarine to shallow marine sections, and in deepwater sections it occurs as blocks up to 150 m long in a debris-avalanche deposit. These welded ignimbrite blocks were deposited hot enough to deform plastically and form peperite with the debris-avalanche matrix. The debris avalanche was likely triggered by injection of feeder dikes along the basin-bounding fault zone during the caldera-forming eruption. Intra-arc extension controlled very high subsidence rates, followed shortly thereafter by accretion through back-arc basin closure by 105 Ma. Accretion of the oceanic arc may have been accomplished by detachment of the upper crust along a still hot, thick middle crustal tonalitic layer, during subduction of mafic-ultramafic substrate.

  6. Ocean tides (United States)

    Hendershott, M. C.


    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  7. Fault Management Metrics (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig


    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  8. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob


    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  9. Bilateral patching in retinal detachment: fluid mechanics and retinal "settling". (United States)

    Foster, William J


    When a patient suffers a retinal detachment and surgery is delayed, it is known clinically that bilaterally patching the patient may allow the retina to partially reattach or "settle." Although this procedure has been performed since the 1860s, there is still debate as to how such a maneuver facilitates the reattachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using commercially available analysis software are used to elucidate the influence of reduction in eye movement caused by bilateral patching on the flow of subretinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. It was found that by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, a physically consistent explanation of increased retinal detachment with eye movements can be found in the case of traction on the retinal hole. Large eye movements increase vitreous traction and detachment forces on the edge of the retinal hole, creating a subretinal vacuum and facilitating increased subretinal fluid. Alternative models, in which intraocular fluid flow is redirected into the subretinal space, are not consistent with these simulations. The results of these simulations explain the physical principles behind bilateral patching and provide insight that can be used clinically. In particular, as is known clinically, bilateral patching may facilitate a decrease in the height of a retinal detachment. The results described here provide a description of a physical mechanism underlying this technique. The findings of this study may aid in deciding whether to bilaterally patch patients and in counseling patients on pre- and postoperative care.

  10. A review of direct experimental measurements of detachment (United States)

    Boedo, J.; McLean, A. G.; Rudakov, D. L.; Watkins, J. G.


    Detached divertor plasmas feature strong radial and parallel gradients of density, temperature, electric fields and flow over the divertor volume and therefore, sampling the divertor plasma directly provides crucial knowledge to the interpretation and modeling efforts. We review the contribution of diagnostics that directly sample the plasma to the advancement of knowledge of the physics of detachment and detached divertors, such as the characteristics of the various regimes, discovery and quantification of drifts and identification of convection of heat and particles. We focus on wall probes, scanning probes, retarding field analyzers and Thomson scattering in the divertor region and also include the contribution of measurements away from the divertor that provide insight on how divertor detachment affects core, edge or pedestal conditions. Wall probes are critical as they can be installed in closed volumes of difficult access to other diagnostics and measure plasma parameters at the divertor structures, which define the plasma boundary conditions and where detachment effects are more likely to be strongest.

  11. Lattice degeneration of the retina and retinal detachment. (United States)

    Semes, L P


    Lattice retinal degeneration is considered the most significant peripheral retinal disorder potentially predisposing to retinal breaks and retinal detachment. Lattice degeneration affects the vitreous and inner retinal layers with secondary changes as deep as the retinal pigment epithelium and perhaps the choriocapillaris. Variations in clinical appearance are the rule; geographically, lattice lesions favor the vertical meridians between the equator and the ora serrata. Lattice degeneration begins early in life and has been reported in sequential generations of the same family. Along with its customary bilateral occurrence, lattice shares other characteristics of a dystrophy. The association between the vitreous and retina in lattice lesions may be responsible for the majority of lattice-induced retinal detachments. The tumultuous event of posterior vitreous separation in the presence of abnormally strong vitreoretinal adherence is the trigger for a retinal tear that, in turn, may lead to retinal detachment. Although retinal holes in young patients with lattice degeneration may play a role in the evolution of retinal detachment, the clinical course of lattice degeneration seems to be one of dormancy rather than of progressive change. This discussion outlines the pathophysiology of lattice retinal degeneration and the relationship of pathophysiology to clinical presentation. The epidemiology of lattice degeneration is summarized, as are the possible precursors to retinal detachment. A clinical characterization of the natural history of lattice degeneration is offered, and interventions for complications are described. To conclude, management strategies from a primary-care standpoint are reviewed.

  12. [Preventive treatment of retinal detachment in aphakic eyes]. (United States)

    Regnault, F; Bregeat, P


    We have examined 243 cases with retinal detachment occurring within 6 months following cataract surgery. In 92 of them retinal tear was due to lattice degeneration, in 66 to snail track degeneration and in 17 to equatorial degeneration. 290 other patients had preventive treatments. In this group, there were only 10 cases of retinal detachment. 9 out of 22 patients who had no preventive treatment suffered retinal detachments. There are two reasons for the occurrence of this retinal detachment in the 6 months following cataract surgery in eyes where retinal degenerations are found: (1) surgical trauma even with cryoextraction is responsible for traction of the vitreous base, (2) rapid disappearance of the hyaluronic acid in the aphakic vitreous is responsible for the degradation of the vitreous with formation of large zones of liquid vitreous. When adhesion between the vitreous and the retinal degeneration area remains, the traction is responsible for retinal tear or retinal detachment. The importance of the preventive treatment of retinal lesions prior to cataract surgery should be stressed.

  13. The fellow eye of patients with phakic lattice retinal detachment. (United States)

    Folk, J C; Arrindell, E L; Klugman, M R


    A retrospective study was performed to determine whether the prophylactic treatment of areas of lattice degeneration, holes, or breaks reduced the risk of subsequent new breaks or detachment in the fellow undetached phakic eyes of patients with a phakic lattice retinal detachment (RD). Three hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients who presented to the University of Iowa between 1959 and 1984 were followed for a mean of 7.9 +/- 5.8 years after the detachment in the first eye. Fellow eyes which received no prophylactic treatment had a 2.5 times greater risk of a new break or RD over 7 years than eyes receiving full prophylactic treatment (19.4 versus 7.5%; P = 0.0002). Fellow eyes receiving no treatment also had a greater risk of a new RD over 7 years than eyes receiving full treatment (5.1 versus 1.8%; P = 0.0125). These results do not allow us to make recommendations concerning which fellow eyes, if any, should be prophylactically treated. On the one hand, prophylactic treatment did significantly reduce the risk of new breaks and detachments. On the other hand, however, prophylactic treatment reduced the risk of new RD alone in the fellow eye only from 5.1 to 1.8% over 7 years. In addition, prophylactic treatment did not reduce the risk of detachment in the higher risk eyes with high myopia or extensive lattice.

  14. Fault Analysis in Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Joye, Marc


    In the 1970s researchers noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements naturally present in packaging material could cause bits to flip in sensitive areas of electronic chips. Research into the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductors, an area of particular interest in the aerospace industry, led to methods of hardening electronic devices designed for harsh environments. Ultimately various mechanisms for fault creation and propagation were discovered, and in particular it was noted that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault attacks. Preventing fault attacks without

  15. Fault tolerant control based on active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    An active fault diagnosis (AFD) method will be considered in this paper in connection with a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) architecture based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. The architecture consists of a fault diagnosis (FD) part and a controller reconfiguration (CR......) part. The FTC architecture can be applied for additive faults, parametric faults, and for system structural changes. Only parametric faults will be considered in this paper. The main focus in this paper is on the use of the new approach of active fault diagnosis in connection with FTC. The active fault...... diagnosis approach is based on including an auxiliary input in the system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD, given as the transfer function from the auxiliary input to the residual output. This can be considered as a generalization of the passive fault diagnosis case, where...

  16. Faulting of gas-hydrate-bearing marine sediments - contribution to permeability (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Holbrook, W.S.; Drury, Rebecca; Gettrust, Joseph; Hutchinson, Deborah; Booth, James; Taylor, Michael


    Extensive faulting is observed in sediments containing high concentrations of methane hydrate off the southeastern coast of the United States. Faults that break the sea floor show evidence of both extension and shortening; mud diapirs are also present. The zone of recent faulting apparently extends from the ocean floor down to the base of gas-hydrate stability. We infer that the faulting resulted from excess pore pressure in gas trapped beneath the gas hydrate-beating layer and/or weakening and mobilization of sediments in the region just below the gas-hydrate stability zone. In addition to the zone of surface faults, we identified two buried zones of faulting, that may have similar origins. Subsurface faulted zones appear to act as gas traps.

  17. Metabolism during ECM Detachment: Achilles Heel of Cancer Cells? (United States)

    Mason, Joshua A; Hagel, Kimberly R; Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T


    Integrin-mediated attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is required to combat the induction of programmed cell death in a variety of distinct cell types. If cells fail to maintain proper ECM attachment, they become subject to elimination via an apoptotic cell death program known as anoikis. However, anoikis inhibition is not sufficient to promote the long-term survival of ECM-detached cells. Several recent studies have unveiled the profound (anoikis-independent) impact of cell metabolism on the viability of ECM-detached cells. Thus, we posit that, during metastatic dissemination (when cancer cells are exposed to periods of ECM detachment), cancer cells must alter their metabolism in a fashion that promotes survival and ultimately contributes to metastatic outgrowth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracing detached and attached care practices in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine B.


    The implementation of skills labs in Danish nursing education can, in itself, be viewed as a complexity. The students are expected to eventually carry out their work in a situated hospital practice, but they learn their professional skills in a different space altogether, detached and removed from...... of care are not explicated in the curriculum or textbooks; however, they surfaced once this crooked approach to studying care in a simulated practice was applied. The article starts from the assertion that detached engagements are not recognized within the field of nursing education as an equal component...... analytical approach to care work, as involving both attached and detached engagement within Danish nursing education, is advocated....

  19. Simulation of experimentally achieved detached plasmas using the UEDGE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Allen, S.; Fenstermacher, M.


    The introduction of a divertor Thomson scattering system in DIII-D has enabled accurate determination of the plasma properties in the divertor region. We identify two plasma regimes; detached and attached. The electron temperature in the detached regime is about 2 eV, much lower than 5 to 10 eV determined earlier. We show that fluid models of the DIII-D scrape-off layer plasma are able to reproduce many of the features of these two plasma regimes, including the boundaries for transition between them. Detailed comparison between the results obtained from the fluid models and experiment suggest the models underestimate the spatial extent of the low temperature region associated the detached plasma mode. We suggest that atomic physics processes at the low electron temperatures reported here may account for this discrepancy

  20. An Unusual Case of Extensive Lattice Degeneration and Retinal Detachment. (United States)

    Mathew, David J; Sarma, Saurabh Kumar; Basaiawmoit, Jennifer V


    Lattice degeneration of the retina is not infrequently encountered on a dilated retinal examination and many of them do not need any intervention. We report a case of atypical lattice degeneration variant with peripheral retinal detachment. An asymptomatic 35-year-old lady with minimal refractive error was found to have extensive lattice degeneration, peripheral retinal detachment and fibrotic changes peripherally with elevation of retinal vessels on dilated retinal examination. There were also areas of white without pressure, chorioretinal scarring and retinal breaks. All the changes were limited to beyond the equator but were found to span 360 degrees. She was treated with barrage laser all around to prevent extension of the retinal detachment posteriorly. She remained stable till her latest follow-up two years after the barrage laser. This case is reported for its rarity with a discussion of the probable differential diagnoses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such findings in lattice degeneration.

  1. Peripheral retinal degenerations and the risk of retinal detachment. (United States)

    Lewis, Hilel


    To review the degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship with the risk to develop a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to present recommendations for use in eyes at increased risk of developing a retinal detachment. Focused literature review and author's clinical experience. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina, and most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and, rarely, zonular traction tufts, can result in a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic therapy; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Well-designed, prospective, randomized clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefit-risk ratio of prophylactic treatment. In the meantime, the evidence available suggests that most of the peripheral retinal degenerations should not be treated except in rare, high-risk situations.

  2. Quaternary Fault Lines (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains locations and information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of M>6 earthquakes during the...

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting as retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha


    Full Text Available Retinal detachment is a rare presentation of lung cancer. A young female presented with blurring of vision in her right eye for the last 10 days without any history of trauma. On indirect ophthalmoscopy, there was a presence of right sided retinal detachment which was treated with oral prednisolone (60 mg/day. After 1 month of continuous treatment, she came back with dry cough left sided chest pain and deterioration of her eye symptoms. Chest X-ray showed left lung mass. Computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration cytology and with immunohistochemistry confirmed adenocarcinoma of the lung. She was treated with 6 cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine.

  4. Bilateral Simultaneous Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment following Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Yumusak


    Full Text Available A 21-year-old woman developed simultaneous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in both eyes. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy surgery combined with endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade in the right eye. A week later, pneumatic retinopexy was done in the left eye. As the retinal tear did not seal, 360° scleral buckling surgery was performed and retina was attached. Bilateral simultaneous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after LASIK for correction of myopia can be a serious complication. Patients should be informed about the possibility of this complication.

  5. Retinal detachment secondary to ocular perforation during retrobulbar Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam


    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics and the retinal breaks associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments secondary to accidental globe perforation during local infiltration anaesthesia in five highly myopic eyes are presented. Retinal detachment was total with variable proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The pattern of retinal breaks was rather typical and predictable. Management involved vitreous surgery with internal tamponade by silicone oil in four eyes and perfluoropropane gas in one eye. At the last follow-up, all eyes had attached retina. One eye did not recover useful vision due to possible concurrent optic nerve damage.

  6. Magnetic Detachment and Plume Control in Escaping Magnetized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, P.F.; Fisch, N.J.


    The model of two-fluid, axisymmetric, ambipolar magnetized plasma detachment from thruster guide fields is extended to include plasmas with non-zero injection angular velocity profiles. Certain plasma injection angular velocity profiles are shown to narrow the plasma plume, thereby increasing exhaust efficiency. As an example, we consider a magnetic guide field arising from a simple current ring and demonstrate plasma injection schemes that more than double the fraction of useful exhaust aperture area, more than halve the exhaust plume angle, and enhance magnetized plasma detachment

  7. Fault lubrication during earthquakes. (United States)

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T


    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  8. Vipava fault (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer


    Full Text Available During mapping of the already accomplished Razdrto – Senožeče section of motorway and geologic surveying of construction operations of the trunk road between Razdrto and Vipava in northwestern part of External Dinarides on the southwestern slope of Mt. Nanos, called Rebrnice, a steep NW-SE striking fault was recognized, situated between the Predjama and the Ra{a faults. The fault was named Vipava fault after the Vipava town. An analysis of subrecent gravitational slips at Rebrnice indicates that they were probably associated with the activity of this fault. Unpublished results of a repeated levelling line along the regional road passing across the Vipava fault zone suggest its possible present activity. It would be meaningful to verify this by appropriate geodetic measurements, and to study the actual gravitational slips at Rebrnice. The association between tectonics and gravitational slips in this and in similar extreme cases in the areas of Alps and Dinarides points at the need of complex studying of geologic proceses.

  9. Extensional Fault Evolution and its Flexural Isostatic Response During Iberia-Newfoundland Rifted Margin Formation (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, J.; Kusznir, N.; Manatschal, G.; Roberts, A.


    or more) pre- and syn-rift stratigraphy, but also extensional allochthons underlain by apparent horizontal detachments. These detachment faults were never active in this sub-horizontal geometry; they were only active as steep faults which were isostatically rotated to their present sub-horizontal position.

  10. Are turtleback fault surfaces common structural elements of highly extended terranes? (United States)

    Çemen, Ibrahim; Tekeli, Okan; Seyitoğlu, Gűrol; Isik, Veysel


    The Death Valley region of the U.S.A. contains three topographic surfaces resembling the carapace of a turtle. These three surfaces are well exposed along the Black Mountain front and are named the Badwater, Copper Canyon, and Mormon Point Turtlebacks. It is widely accepted that the turtlebacks are also detachment surfaces that separate brittlely deformed Cenozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the hanging wall from the strongly mylonitic, ductilely deformed pre-Cenozoic rocks of the footwall. We have found a turtleback-like detachment surface along the southern margin of the Alasehir (Gediz) Graben in western Anatolia, Turkey. This surface qualifies as a turtleback fault surface because it (a) is overall convex-upward and (b) separates brittlely deformed hanging wall Cenozoic sedimentary rocks from the ductilely to brittlely deformed, strongly mylonitic pre-Cenozoic footwall rocks. The surface, named here Horzum Turtleback, contains striations that overprint mylonitic stretching lineations indicating top to the NE sense of shear. This suggests that the northeasterly directed Cenozoic extension in the region resulted in a ductile deformation at depth and as the crust isostatically adjusted to the removal of the rocks in the hanging wall of the detachment fault, the ductilely deformed mylonitic rocks of the footwall were brought to shallower depths where they were brittlely deformed. The turtleback surfaces have been considered unique to the Death Valley region, although detachment surfaces, rollover folds, and other extensional structures have been well observed in other extended terranes of the world. The presence of a turtleback fault surface in western Anatolia, Turkey, suggests that the turtleback faults may be common structural features of highly extended terranes.

  11. Fault morphology of the lyo Fault, the Median Tectonic Line Active Fault System


    後藤, 秀昭


    In this paper, we investigated the various fault features of the lyo fault and depicted fault lines or detailed topographic map. The results of this paper are summarized as follows; 1) Distinct evidence of the right-lateral movement is continuously discernible along the lyo fault. 2) Active fault traces are remarkably linear suggesting that the angle of fault plane is high. 3) The lyo fault can be divided into four segments by jogs between left-stepping traces. 4) The mean slip rate is 1.3 ~ ...

  12. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María


    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...... of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also reaffirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity....

  13. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  14. Turbulent Simulations of Divertor Detachment Based On BOUT + + Framework (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang; Ye, Minyou


    China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is under conceptual design, acting as a bridge between ITER and DEMO. The detached divertor operation offers great promise for a reduction of heat flux onto divertor target plates for acceptable erosion. Therefore, a density scan is performed via an increase of D2 gas puffing rates in the range of 0 . 0 ~ 5 . 0 ×1023s-1 by using the B2-Eirene/SOLPS 5.0 code package to study the heat flux control and impurity screening property. As the density increases, it shows a gradually change of the divertor operation status, from low-recycling regime to high-recycling regime and finally to detachment. Significant radiation loss inside the confined plasma in the divertor region during detachment leads to strong parallel density and temperature gradients. Based on the SOLPS simulations, BOUT + + simulations will be presented to investigate the stability and turbulent transport under divertor plasma detachment, particularly the strong parallel gradient driven instabilities and enhanced plasma turbulence to spread heat flux over larger surface areas. The correlation between outer mid-plane and divertor turbulence and the related transport will be analyzed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675075.

  15. Endovascular therapy of arteriovenous fistulae with electrolytically detachable coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, O.; Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M.; Hartmann, M.; Kummer, R. von; Tronnier, V.; Sartor, K. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany)


    We report our experience in using Guglielmi electrolytically detachable coils (GDC) alone or in combination with other materials in the treatment of intracranial or cervical high-flow fistulae. We treated 14 patients with arteriovenous fistulae on brain-supplying vessels - three involving the external carotid or the vertebral artery, five the cavernous sinus and six the dural sinuses - by endovascular occlusion using electrolytically detachable platinum coils. The fistula was caused by trauma in six cases. In one case Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was the underlying disease, and in the remaining seven cases no aetiology could be found. Fistulae of the external carotid and vertebral arteries and caroticocavernous fistulae were reached via the transarterial route, while in all dural fistulae a combined transarterial-transvenous approach was chosen. All fistulae were treated using electrolytically detachable coils. While small fistulae could be occluded with electrolytically detachable coils alone, large fistulae were treated by using coils to build a stable basket for other types of coil or balloons. In 11 of the 14 patients, endovascular treatment resulted in complete occlusion of the fistula; in the remaining three occlusion was subtotal. Symptoms and signs were completely abolished by this treatment in 12 patients and reduced in 2. On clinical and neuroradiological follow-up (mean 16 months) no reappearance of symptoms was recorded. (orig.)

  16. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    retinal detachment symptoms, the predisposing/precipitating factors and the need ... Sebastian N. N. Nwosu, Guinness Eye Center, PMB 1534, Onitsha, Anambra ... the temporal retina and are all associated with total ... Table 2 shows the ocular risk factors. ..... Olurin O. Refractive errors in Nigerians: A hospital clinic study.

  17. Bilateral Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment during External Beam Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Hidaka


    Full Text Available Herein, we report a case of nontraumatic bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD during external beam radiotherapy for nonocular tumor, presented as an observational case study in conjunction with a review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to bilateral RRD. He underwent a biopsy for a tumor of the left frontal lobe 4 months prior to presentation, and the tumor had been diagnosed as primary central nerve system B-cell type lymphoma. He received chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy for 1 month. There were no traumatic episodes. Bilateral retinal detachment occurred during a series of radiotherapies. Simultaneous nontraumatic bilateral retinal detachment is rare. The effects of radiotherapy on ocular functionality, particularly in cases involving retinal adhesion and vitreous contraction, may include RRD. Thus, it is necessary to closely monitor the eyes of patients undergoing radiotherapy, particularly those undergoing surgery for retinal detachment and those with a history of photocoagulation for retinal tears, a relevant family history, or risk factors known to be associated with RRD.

  18. Silicone oil removal after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: comparing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. S.; Dell'omo, R.; Mura, M.


    Purpose To assess the outcome of silicone oil removal after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery, and to compare results of a two-port (infusion-extraction) versus a three-port (full vitrectomy) approach. Methods Primary outcome measure was the rate of redetachment. Secondary outcome

  19. Measurement of the relative afferent pupillary defect in retinal detachment. (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Burton, T C


    A swinging flashlight test and calibrated neutral density filters were used to quantitate the depth of relative afferent pupillary defects in ten patients with retinal detachment. Postoperatively, the pupillary responses returned to normal in seven of nine patients with anatomically successful surgery.

  20. On The Detachment of Massive Trans-Neptunian Objects (United States)

    Fleisig, Jacob; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Zderic, Alexander


    Our Solar System contains a large population of icy bodies stretching well beyond the orbit of Neptune. These objects, known collectively as the Scattered Disk, are remnants from the early formation of the Solar System that were scattered outward from their birth location by Neptune. But not all fit the bill.Sedna, one particularly massive Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO), does not conform to the scattering pattern. Its orbital eccentricity (e) is much lower than expected for a scattered object. This means its perihelion distance (proportional to 1-e) is much larger than the orbit of Neptune, or that it is “detached” from the main Solar System. Many more TNOs share similarities with Sedna. These observations suggest that there is a large population of detached TNOs that have a dynamical history different than that of the objects scattered by Neptune.The physical mechanism by which these massive minor planets become detached is currently unknown. However, we have discovered a phenomenon, driven by differential precession between TNOs of different masses and mutual secular gravitational torques, that naturally detach massive minor planets. This mechanism could have notable consequences for the outer Solar System and may shed some light on the origin of the detached population of minor planets near the Scattered Disk.

  1. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke E.


    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting

  2. Epithelial cell detachment by Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm and planktonic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, L.; van Loveren, C.; Ling, J.; Wei, X.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.


    Porphyromonas gingivalis is present as a biofilm at the sites of periodontal infections. The detachment of gingival epithelial cells induced by P. gingivalis biofilms was examined using planktonic cultures as a comparison. Exponentially grown planktonic cultures or 40-h biofilms were co-incubated

  3. Functional and environmental design of detached, low crest level breakwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricio Garberi, L.; Negro Valdecantos, V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Lopez Gutierrez, J. S.


    The research work as presented in this article covers the design of detached breakwaters since they constitute a type of coastal defense work with which to combat many of the erosion problems found on beaches in a stable, sustainable fashion. The main aim of this work is to formulate a functional and environmental (non structural) method of design enabling the fundamental characteristics of a detached breakwater to be defined as a function of the effect it is wished to induce on the coast whilst meeting social demands and preserving or improving the quality of the littoral environment. The general applicability of the method is also sought by means of considering relations between variables od different natures (climatic, geomorphologic and geometric) influencing the changes experienced on the coast after the detached breakwater has been built. The study of the relations between the different variables is carried out on the data from a abase of nineteen actual, existing detached breakwaters on the Spanish Mediterranean coastline and follows a methodology based on the implementation of non-dimensional monomials and on a search for relations of dependency between them. Finally, a discussion on the results obtained lead to a proposal for a design method that uses some of the graphic relations found between the variables studied with which the aforesaid main objective is achieved. (Author) 9 refs.

  4. Air versus gas tamponade in retinal detachment surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. Stevie; Oberstein, Sarit Y. Lesnik; Mura, Marco; Bijl, Heico M.


    Objective To compare the outcome of air tamponade with gas tamponade in primary vitrectomy for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods We examined the records of 524 cases of 523 patients that underwent primary vitrectomy for RRD with air or sulphur hexafluoride 20% gas

  5. Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a familial aggregation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, S.L.; Hoyng, C.B.; Klaver, C.C.W.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. DESIGN: Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology of the

  6. Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment a familial aggregation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Go (Sioe Lie); C. Hoyng (Carel); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline)


    textabstractObjective: To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. Design: Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology

  7. Self-sustained detachment in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Arimoto, H.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, N.; Shoji, M.; Nishiura, M.; Murakami, S.; Funaba, H.; Peterson, B.J.; Sakakibara, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Osakabe, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Morisaki, T.; Nishimura, K.; Yamada, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.


    Self-sustained detachment has been obtained in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Strong hydrogen gas puffing of ∼200 Pa m 3 s -1 after a density feedback phase detaches the plasma from the divertor plates with high reproducibility. High electron density of over 1 x 10 20 m -3 is sustained without gas puffing until the heating beam stops and a high-density flat top for 2 s has been demonstrated. Throughout the self-sustained detachment phase, the minor radius of the hot plasma column shrinks to ∼90% of the last-closed-flux-surface, which corresponds to the ι-bar ι/2π = 1/q =1 rational surface. This new state has been named the 'Serpens mode', for self-regulated plasma edge 'neath the last-closed-flux-surface. Global energy confinement of the Serpens mode is compared with the international stellarator scaling 1995 (ISS95) and the recently established scaling for high-density LHD plasmas (HD scaling), where shrinking confinement volume and shallow penetration of the heating beams are taken into account. Although the energy confinement of the Serpens mode seems deteriorated compared with ISS95, as in the case of high-density attached plasmas, it is consistent with the HD scaling. This suggests that the energy confinement properties of detached plasmas in LHD are similar to those in high-density attached plasmas

  8. Effect of detachment time of pineapple ( Ananas comosus L .) crown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limiting factor to large scale production of pineapple is the scarcity of planting materials. The use of pineapple crown as a propagation material is common, but with no regard to length of time after detachment. A study was conducted in the late seasons of 2007 and 2008 at the Teaching and Research Farm Ekiti State ...

  9. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated......Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...

  10. Fault Detection for Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang


    Full Text Available A new fault-relevant KPCA algorithm is proposed. Then the fault detection approach is proposed based on the fault-relevant KPCA algorithm. The proposed method further decomposes both the KPCA principal space and residual space into two subspaces. Compared with traditional statistical techniques, the fault subspace is separated based on the fault-relevant influence. This method can find fault-relevant principal directions and principal components of systematic subspace and residual subspace for process monitoring. The proposed monitoring approach is applied to Tennessee Eastman process and penicillin fermentation process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L


    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  13. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Screening for anthracnose disease resistance in strawberry using a detached leaf assay (United States)

    Inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with Colletotrichum species may provide a rapid, non-destructive method of identifying anthracnose resistant germplasm. The reliability and validity of assessing disease severity is critical to disease management decisions. We inoculated detached strawberr...

  15. Computer hardware fault administration (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.


    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  16. Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel


    For many years, most computer architects have pursued one primary goal: performance. Architects have translated the ever-increasing abundance of ever-faster transistors provided by Moore's law into remarkable increases in performance. Recently, however, the bounty provided by Moore's law has been accompanied by several challenges that have arisen as devices have become smaller, including a decrease in dependability due to physical faults. In this book, we focus on the dependability challenge and the fault tolerance solutions that architects are developing to overcome it. The two main purposes

  17. Fault tolerant linear actuator (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert


    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  18. Habitat information in the region on the underwater San Andreas Fault - Topic: Exploring the Undersea San Andreas Fault: Revealing the Past, Present, and Future at the Centennial of the Great 1906 Earthquake (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During this exploration, the first comprehensive high-resolution multi-beam sonar and seismic reflection survey of the Northern San Andreas Fault (NSAF) was...

  19. Wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Johnson, Kathryn


    In this updated edition of a previous wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control challenge, we present a more sophisticated wind turbine model and updated fault scenarios to enhance the realism of the challenge and therefore the value of the solutions. This paper describes...

  20. Reevaluation of 1935 M 7.0 earthquake fault, Miaoli-Taichung Area, western Taiwan: a DEM and field study (United States)

    Lin, Y. N.; Chen, Y.; Ota, Y.


    A large earthquake (M 7.0) took place in Miaoli area, western Taiwan on April 21st, 1935. Right to its south is the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake fault, indicating it is not only tectonically but seismically active. As the previous study, the study area is located in the mature zone of a tectonic collision that occurred between Philippine sea Plate and Eurasia continental Plate. The associated surface ruptures of 1935 earthquake daylighted Tungtsichiao Fault, a tear fault trending NE in the south and Chihhu Fault, a back thrust trending N-S in the north, but no ruptures occurred in between. Strike-slip component was identified by the horizontal offset observed along Tungtsichiao Fault; however, there are still disputes on the reported field evidence. Our purposes are (1) to identify the structural behaviors of these two faults, (2) to find out what the seismogenic structure is, and (3) to reconstruct the regional geology by information given by this earthquake. By DEM interpretation and field survey, we can clearly recognize a lot of the 1935 associated features. In the west of Chihhu Fault, a series of N-S higher terraces can be identified with eastward tilted surfaces and nearly 200 m relative height. Another lower terrace is also believed being created during the 1935 earthquake, showing an east-facing scarp with a height of ca. 1.5~2 m. Outcrop investigation reveals that the late-Miocene bedrock has been easterly thrusted over the Holocene conglomerates, indicating a west-dipping fault plane. The Tungtsichiao Fault cuts through a lateritic terrace at Holi, which is supposed developed in Pleistocene. The fault scarp is only discernible in the northeastern ending. Other noticeable features are the fault related antiforms that line up along the surface rupture. There is no outcrop to show the fault geometry among bedrocks. We re-interpret the northern Chihhu Fault as the back thrust generated from a main subsurface detachment, which may be the actual seismogenic fault

  1. Nonresonant excess photon detachment of negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, M. S.; Zhao, Xin Miao; Bryant, H. C.; Strauss, Charlie E. M.; Funk, David J.; Stintz, A.; Rislove, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ingalls, W. B.; Miller, W. A.


    One-photon detachment and two-photon nonresonant excess photon detachment of electrons from the H - ion (outer-electron binding energy = 0.7542 eV) are observed with 1.165 eV laser pulses from a Nd:YAG laser (where YAG denotes yttrium aluminum garnet). A Penning ion source produces a pulsed 8 μA, 35 keV H - beam that intersects a laser beam cylindrically focused down to a 17 μm full width at half maximum waist in the ion beam direction, creating a high-intensity interaction region with peak intensities of up to 10 11 W/cm 2 . The interaction time is 7 ps. The detached electrons are detected by a time-of-flight apparatus enabling us to detect a very small two-photon signal in the presence of a very large signal from single photon detachments. By rotating the linear polarization angle, we study the angular distribution of the electrons for both one- and two-photon detachments. The spectra are modeled to determine the asymmetry parameters and one- and two-photon cross sections. We find β 2 to be 2.54+0.44/-0.60 and β 4 to be 2.29+0.07/-0.31, corresponding to a D state of 89+3/-12% of the S wave and D wave detachments for the two-photon results. The relative phase angle between the S and D amplitudes is measured to be less than 59 degree sign . The measured cross sections are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. The one-photon photodetachment cross section is measured to be (3.6±1.7)x10 -17 cm 2 . The two-photon photodetachment generalized cross section is (1.3±0.5)x10 -48 cm 4 sec, consistent with theoretical calculations of the cross section. The three-photon generalized cross section is less than 4.4x10 -79 cm 6 sec 2 . (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  2. Fault management and systems knowledge (United States)


    Pilots are asked to manage faults during flight operations. This leads to the training question of the type and depth of system knowledge required to respond to these faults. Based on discussions with multiple airline operators, there is agreement th...

  3. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon


    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  4. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko


    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  5. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  6. Introduction to fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.


    An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed

  7. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob


    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  8. Row fault detection system (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN


    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  9. Fault isolation techniques (United States)

    Dumas, A.


    Three major areas that are considered in the development of an overall maintenance scheme of computer equipment are described. The areas of concern related to fault isolation techniques are: the programmer (or user), company and its policies, and the manufacturer of the equipment.

  10. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...

  11. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  12. Fault-Related Sanctuaries (United States)

    Piccardi, L.


    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  13. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng


    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  14. Observation of multiphoton detachment of the H/sup -/ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.Y.; Harris, P.G.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545; Cohen Mechanical Design, Broomall, Pennsylvania 19008; The University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06268; Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225)


    We have observed nonresonant multiphoton electron detachment of H/sup -/ ions in moderately intense (a few tens of GW/cm 2 ) laser fields. A well-collimated beam of H/sup -/ ions with an energy of 581 MeV was intersected by focused 10.6-μm radiation from a pulsed CO 2 laser. The center-of-mass photon energy was tuned using the relativistic Doppler shift so that the minimum number of simultaneous photons required for electron detachment ranged from three to sixteen. Definite signals were observed for the minimum photon number ranging from three to eight. Our preliminary results show evidence for structure in the relative total cross section

  15. Modeling detachment physics in the NSTX snowflake divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.T., E-mail: [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rognlien, T.D.; Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)


    The snowflake divertor is a proposed technique for coping with the tokamak power exhaust problem in next-step experiments and eventually reactors, where extreme power fluxes to material surfaces represent a leading technological and physics challenge. In lithium-conditioned National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) discharges, application of the snowflake divertor typically induced partial outer divertor detachment and severalfold heat flux reduction. UEDGE is used to analyze and compare conventional and snowflake divertor configurations in NSTX. Matching experimental upstream profiles and divertor measurements in the snowflake requires target recycling of 0.97 vs. 0.91 in the conventional case, implying partial saturation of the lithium-based pumping mechanism. Density scans are performed to analyze the mechanisms that facilitate detachment in the snowflake, revealing that increased divertor volume provides most of the parallel heat flux reduction. Also, neutral gas power loss is magnified by the increased wetted area in the snowflake, and plays a key role in generating volumetric recombination.

  16. Bubble growth and detachment between two close surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.


    Nucleate boiling is an efficient heat transfer process both as a mean of achieving high heat flux at moderate surface temperature and as a mean of generating steam. The ability to predict nucleate boiling heat flux depends on many interconnected factors such as the number of active sites, the frequency of bubble emission at these sites, and the heat transfer associated with a single bubble. Therefore, the determination of the bubble shape, growth, detachment diameter, and detachment time plays an important role in understanding the boiling mechanisms and in predicting the heat transfer rates. Although much research have been carried-out for the study of free bubble dynamics, the analysis of such problem in a narrow gap-between two close and parallel surfaces (as the gaps between steam generator tubes and tube sheet) has not been attempted, so far as the author is aware. This paper represents an attempt to shed some light on this complex problem. (author)

  17. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng


    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  18. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts. (United States)

    Pila, Justine


    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  19. Detachment dynamics of colloidal spheres with adhesive interactions (United States)

    Bergenholtz, J.


    Escape of colloidal-size particles from various kinds of solids, such as aggregates and surfaces, occurs in a wide variety of settings of both fundamental and applied scientific interest. In this paper an exact solution for the detachment of adhesive spheres from each other by means of diffusion is presented. The solution takes into account repeated detachment and reattachment events in the course of time on the way toward the permanently separated state. For strongly adhesive spheres this state is approached in an exponential manner essentially regardless of how the bound state is specified. The analytical solution is shown to capture semiquantitatively the escape from more realistic potential wells using a mapping procedure whereby equality of second virial coefficients is imposed.

  20. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with bilateral serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vieira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a malignant hematopoietic neoplasia, which is rare in adults. Although ocular fundus alterations may be commonly observed in the course of the disease, such alterations are rarely the presenting signs of the disease. Here we describe the case of a patient with painless and progressive loss of visual acuity (right eye, 2/10; left eye, 3/10 developing over two weeks, accompanied by fever and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fundus examination showed bilateral macular serous detachment, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescent pinpoints in the posterior poles. The limits of the macular detachment were revealed in the late phase of the angiogram. The results of blood count analysis triggered a thorough, systematic patient examination. The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia B (CD10+ was established, and intensive systemic chemotherapy was immediately initiated. One year after the diagnosis, the patient remains in complete remission without any ophthalmologic alterations.


    Bilge, Ayse D; Yaylali, Sevil A; Yavuz, Sara; Simsek, İlke B


    The purpose of this study was to report a case of a woman with nephrotic syndrome who presented with blurred vision because of bilateral serous macular detachment. Case report and literature review. A 55-year-old woman with a history of essential hypertension, diabetes, and nephrotic syndrome was presented with blurred vision in both eyes. Her fluorescein angiography revealed dye leakage in the early and subretinal pooling in the late phases, and optical coherence tomography scans confirmed the presence of subretinal fluid in the subfovel area. In nephrotic syndrome cases especially with accompaniment of high blood pressure, fluid accumulation in the retina layer may occur. Serous macular detachment must be kept in mind when treating these patients.

  2. GONAF - A Deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnhoff, Marco


    An outline was given of the GONAF (Deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault Zone) project operating at the Marmara seismic gap of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. The Princes Island Segment is a part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in Marmara seismic gap. This segment is a remaining part of the recent rupture of the North Anatolian Fault. Further, the rupture of this part is predicted to occur in the near future. The primary objectives of the project are to collect seismograms of small earthquakes with magnitudes less than zero using borehole observations with low noise, to gain new insight into the physical states of critically stressed fault segments during and after large earthquakes, and to monitor progressive damage evolution at fault asperities. There were explanations about the seismic network in the region, the recent micro-earthquake observation, and the project's PIRES (Princes Islands Real time Permanent Seismic Network). For the GONAF project, a network of eight borehole arrays with five-level seismometers, including a ground surface of 300-m boreholes, is planned. Horizontal arrays on the surface of an island in the Marmara Sea have also been deployed. In addition, deployment of a permanent ocean bottom seismometer is planned as part of the GONAF+ plan in 2014. (author)

  3. Collisional-electron detachment of Cl- on diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, B.K.; Datz, S.


    Recent experimental results for collisional-electron detachment of Cl - by H 2 /D 2 , N 2 , O 2 , NO, and CO are discussed. The emphasis is on angular distributions and energy loss measurements for laboratory energies of a few hundred eV. Evidence for the possibility of bound excited states of N 2 Cl and COCl and the role of target negative-ion resonant states is presented

  4. Lowest auto-detachment state of the water anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houfek, K.; Cizek, M.


    Because of the abundance of water in living tissue the reactive low-energy electron collisions with the water molecule represent an important step in the radiation damage of cells. In this paper, the potential energy surface of the ground state of the water anion H_2O"- is carefully mapped using multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations for a large range of molecular geometries. Particular attention is paid to a consistent description of both the O"-+H_2 and OH"-+H asymptotes and to a relative position of the anion energy to the ground state energy of the neutral molecule. The auto-detachment region, where the anion state crosses to the electronic continuum is identified. The local minimum in the direction of the O"- + H_2 channel previously reported by Werner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2913 (1987)] is found to be slightly off the linear geometry and is separated by a saddle from the auto-detachment region. The auto-detachment region is directly accessible from the OH"-+H asymptote. For the molecular geometries in the auto-detachment region and in its vicinity we also performed fixed-nuclei electron-molecule scattering calculations using the R-matrix method. Tuning of consistency of a description of the correlation energy in both the multireference CI and R-matrix calculations is discussed. Two models of the correlation energy within the R-matrix method that are consistent with the quantum chemistry calculations are found. Both models yield scattering quantities in a close agreement. The results of this work will allow a consistent formulation of the nonlocal resonance model of the water anion in a future publication

  5. Retinal detachment and retinal holes in retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento. (United States)

    Csaky, K; Olk, R J; Mahl, C F; Bloom, S M


    Retinal detachment and retinal holes in two family members with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento are reported. We believe these are the first such cases reported in the literature. We describe the presenting symptoms and management, including cryotherapy, scleral buckling procedure, and sulfur hexafluoride injection (SF6), resulting in stable visual acuity in one case and retinal reattachment and improved visual acuity in the other case.

  6. Success Rates of Vitrectomy in Treatment of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment


    Mohamed, Yasser Helmy; Ono, Kozue; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Uematsu, Masafumi; Tsuiki, Eiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Kitaoka, Takashi


    Aim. To investigate the anatomical success rates of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) after primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between December 2008 and October 2014 at Nagasaki University Hospital. The preoperative data recorded included the lens status, location of the retinal tear, whether a tear was visualized, presence of multiple tears, macula status, presence of peripheral lattice retinal degeneration, and best-corrected visual ac...

  7. Pneumothorax simulated by detachment of parietal pleura associated with pneumomediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeik, C.; Kotterer, O.; Deininger, H.K.


    We report a case of blunt chest trauma, where findings on repeated conventional chest radiographs were compatible with pneumothorax developing after 2 days of mechanical high-pressure ventilation. CT showed that the appearance was due to a detachment of the parietal pleura along the lateral, mediastinal and diaphragmatic boundaries of the lungs, imitating a pneumothorax. The case report illustrates the key role of CT in the differential diagnosis of epipleural interstitial air collection versus pneumothorax. (orig./MG)

  8. Pneumothorax simulated by detachment of parietal pleura associated with pneumomediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozeik, C. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany); Kotterer, O. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany); Deininger, H.K. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany)


    We report a case of blunt chest trauma, where findings on repeated conventional chest radiographs were compatible with pneumothorax developing after 2 days of mechanical high-pressure ventilation. CT showed that the appearance was due to a detachment of the parietal pleura along the lateral, mediastinal and diaphragmatic boundaries of the lungs, imitating a pneumothorax. The case report illustrates the key role of CT in the differential diagnosis of epipleural interstitial air collection versus pneumothorax. (orig./MG)

  9. LAMPF first-fault identifier for fast transient faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, A.R.; Hill, R.E.


    The LAMPF accelerator is presently producing 800-MeV proton beams at 0.5 mA average current. Machine protection for such a high-intensity accelerator requires a fast shutdown mechanism, which can turn off the beam within a few microseconds of the occurrence of a machine fault. The resulting beam unloading transients cause the rf systems to exceed control loop tolerances and consequently generate multiple fault indications for identification by the control computer. The problem is to isolate the primary fault or cause of beam shutdown while disregarding as many as 50 secondary fault indications that occur as a result of beam shutdown. The LAMPF First-Fault Identifier (FFI) for fast transient faults is operational and has proven capable of first-fault identification. The FFI design utilized features of the Fast Protection System that were previously implemented for beam chopping and rf power conservation. No software changes were required

  10. Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  11. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  12. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  13. Ocean Color (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  14. Fundus autofluorescence findings in a mouse model of retinal detachment. (United States)

    Secondi, Roberta; Kong, Jian; Blonska, Anna M; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Sparrow, Janet R


    Fundus autofluorescence (fundus AF) changes were monitored in a mouse model of retinal detachment (RD). RD was induced by transscleral injection of hyaluronic acid (Healon) or sterile balanced salt solution (BSS) into the subretinal space of 4-5-day-old albino Abca4 null mutant and Abca4 wild-type mice. Images acquired by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Spectralis HRA) were correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), infrared reflectance (IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, and histologic analysis. Results. In the area of detached retina, multiple hyperreflective spots in IR images corresponded to punctate areas of intense autofluorescence visible in fundus AF mode. The puncta exhibited changes in fluorescence intensity with time. SD-OCT disclosed undulations of the neural retina and hyperreflectivity of the photoreceptor layer that likely corresponded to histologically visible photoreceptor cell rosettes. Fluorescence emission spectra generated using flat-mounted retina, and 488 and 561 nm excitation, were similar to that of RPE lipofuscin. With increased excitation wavelength, the emission maximum shifted towards longer wavelengths, a characteristic typical of fundus autofluorescence. In detached retinas, hyper-autofluorescent spots appeared to originate from photoreceptor outer segments that were arranged within retinal folds and rosettes. Consistent with this interpretation is the finding that the autofluorescence was spectroscopically similar to the bisretinoids that constitute RPE lipofuscin. Under the conditions of a RD, abnormal autofluorescence may arise from excessive production of bisretinoid by impaired photoreceptor cells.

  15. Primary 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy in pseudophakic retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horozoglu Fatih


    Full Text Available Aims: There are few reports on 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV in cases of pseudophakic retinal detachment. We conducted this study to report the anatomic and functional outcomes of 25-gauge TSV in the treatment of primary pseudophakic retinal detachment (RD. Design: Prospective, interventional case series. Materials and Methods: Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with RD after cataract surgery with phacoemulsification were evaluated. Primary pseudophakic RDs with macular detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy Stage B or less were included in the study. Pars plana vitrectomy with the 25-gauge TSV system, perfluorocarbon liquid injection followed by air exchange, endolaser photocoagulation and sulfur hexafluoride gas (20% injection were applied to all eyes. Results: Mean follow-up time was 9.2 months (range, six to 12 months. Retinal reattachment with a single operation was achieved in 93% of eyes and with additional surgery, the retina was reattached in 100% of eyes. Preoperative visual acuity was less than 20/200 in all eyes (range, hand motions to 20/400. Postoperative visual acuity was 20/40 or better in eight eyes (53% and between 20/50 and 20/200 in seven eyes (47%. No severe hypotony was encountered and no sutures were required to close the scleral and conjunctival openings. Postoperative complications were macular pucker in one eye (7% and cystoid macular edema in another eye (7%. Conclusions: Primary 25-gauge TSV system appears to be an effective and safe procedure in the treatment of uncomplicated pseudophakic RD.

  16. Complex descemet′s membrane tears and detachment during phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Orucoglu


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of complex Descemet′s membrane detachment (DMD and tears during phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Case Report: A 64-year-old woman underwent phacoemulsification surgery in her right eye and developed tears and partial loss of Descemet′s membrane (DM while the aspiration port was inserted through the main incision. Massive corneal edema obscured the view and the anterior chamber was barely visible the following day. Scheimpflug imaging was used to complement slit lamp examination in the postoperative period. Frequent topical corticosteroid drops were initiated. After 5 days of treatment, multiple tears and detachment of DM were visible and the anterior chamber was filled with air. After 5 weeks, the cornea regained much of its clarity despite large DM tears and focal loss of DM. Conclusion: Despite partial loss of DM, the corneal edema mostly disappeared after 5 weeks of air bubble injection. Scheimpflug imaging was beneficial in the diagnosis and monitoring of DM tears and detachments.

  17. Ocean Quality


    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis


    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  18. Fault-tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Cin, M.; Hohl, W.


    Tests, Diagnosis and Fault Treatment were chosen as the guiding themes of the conference. However, the scope of the conference included reliability, availability, safety and security issues in software and hardware systems as well. The sessions were organized for the conference which was completed by an industrial presentation: Keynote Address, Reconfiguration and Recover, System Level Diagnosis, Voting and Agreement, Testing, Fault-Tolerant Circuits, Array Testing, Modelling, Applied Fault Tolerance, Fault-Tolerant Arrays and Systems, Interconnection Networks, Fault-Tolerant Software. One paper has been indexed separately in the database. (orig./HP)

  19. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.


    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  20. Network Fault Diagnosis Using DSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hao; Yan Pu-liu; Chen Xiao; Wu Jing


    Difference similitude matrix (DSM) is effective in reducing information system with its higher reduction rate and higher validity. We use DSM method to analyze the fault data of computer networks and obtain the fault diagnosis rules. Through discretizing the relative value of fault data, we get the information system of the fault data. DSM method reduces the information system and gets the diagnosis rules. The simulation with the actual scenario shows that the fault diagnosis based on DSM can obtain few and effective rules.

  1. Exudative Retinal Detachment Treatment in a Patient with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Sampo


    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, without associated hypertension, successfully treated with plasmapheresis. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman with a medical history of TTP presented with unilateral exudative retinal detachment. Biological and radiological assessment eliminated other causes of exudative retinal detachment, including hypertension. Plasma exchange was performed, followed by a rapid improvement in visual acuity and total disappearance of serous detachment. Conclusion: Exudative unilateral retinal detachment is a rare complication of TTP and can be successfully treated by plasma exchange.

  2. Strain on the san andreas fault near palmdale, california: rapid, aseismic change. (United States)

    Savage, J C; Prescott, W H; Lisowski, M; King, N E


    Frequently repeated strain measurements near Palmdale, California, during the period from 1971 through 1980 indicate that, in addition to a uniform accumulation of right-lateral shear strain (engineering shear, 0.35 microradian per year) across the San Andreas fault, a 1-microstrain contraction perpendicular to the fault that accumulated gradually during the interval 1974 through 1978 was aseismically released between February and November 1979. Subsequently (November 1979 to March 1980), about half of the contraction was recovered. This sequence of strain changes can be explained in terms of south-southwestward migration of a slip event consisting of the south-southwestward movement of the upper crust on a horizontal detachment surface at a depth of 10 to 30 kilometers. The large strain change in 1979 corresponds to the passage of the slip event beneath the San Andreas fault.

  3. Motion in the north Iceland volcanic rift zone accommodated by bookshelf faulting (United States)

    Green, Robert G.; White, Robert S.; Greenfield, Tim


    Along mid-ocean ridges the extending crust is segmented on length scales of 10-1,000km. Where rift segments are offset from one another, motion between segments is accommodated by transform faults that are oriented orthogonally to the main rift axis. Where segments overlap, non-transform offsets with a variety of geometries accommodate shear motions. Here we use micro-seismic data to analyse the geometries of faults at two overlapping rift segments exposed on land in north Iceland. Between the rift segments, we identify a series of faults that are aligned sub-parallel to the orientation of the main rift. These faults slip through left-lateral strike-slip motion. Yet, movement between the overlapping rift segments is through right-lateral motion. Together, these motions induce a clockwise rotation of the faults and intervening crustal blocks in a motion that is consistent with a bookshelf-faulting mechanism, named after its resemblance to a tilting row of books on a shelf. The faults probably reactivated existing crustal weaknesses, such as dyke intrusions, that were originally oriented parallel to the main rift and have since rotated about 15° clockwise. Reactivation of pre-existing, rift-parallel weaknesses contrasts with typical mid-ocean ridge transform faults and is an important illustration of a non-transform offset accommodating shear motion between overlapping rift segments.

  4. Happy, healthy, and productive: the role of detachment from work during nonwork time. (United States)

    Fritz, Charlotte; Yankelevich, Maya; Zarubin, Anna; Barger, Patricia


    Mentally distancing oneself from work during nonwork time can help restore resources lost because of work demands. In this study, we examined possible outcomes of such psychological detachment from work, specifically well-being and job performance. Although employees may need to mentally detach from work to restore their well-being, high levels of detachment may require a longer time to get back into "working mode," which may be negatively associated with job performance. Our results indicate that higher levels of self-reported detachment were associated with higher levels of significant other-reported life satisfaction as well as lower levels of emotional exhaustion. In addition, we found curvilinear relationships between psychological detachment and coworker reported job performance (task performance and proactive behavior). Thus, although high psychological detachment may enhance employee well-being, it seems that medium levels of detachment are most beneficial for job performance. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Faults in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel; Thomas, Gaël; Saha, Suman


    In 2001, Chou et al. published a study of faults found by applying a static analyzer to Linux versions 1.0 through 2.4.1. A major result of their work was that the drivers directory contained up to 7 times more of certain kinds of faults than other directories. This result inspired a number...... of development and research efforts on improving the reliability of driver code. Today Linux is used in a much wider range of environments, provides a much wider range of services, and has adopted a new development and release model. What has been the impact of these changes on code quality? Are drivers still...... a major problem? To answer these questions, we have transported the experiments of Chou et al. to Linux versions 2.6.0 to 2.6.33, released between late 2003 and early 2010. We find that Linux has more than doubled in size during this period, but that the number of faults per line of code has been...

  6. Bending-related faulting and mantle serpentinization at the Middle America trench. (United States)

    Ranero, C R; Morgan, J Phipps; McIntosh, K; Reichert, C


    The dehydration of subducting oceanic crust and upper mantle has been inferred both to promote the partial melting leading to arc magmatism and to induce intraslab intermediate-depth earthquakes, at depths of 50-300 km. Yet there is still no consensus about how slab hydration occurs or where and how much chemically bound water is stored within the crust and mantle of the incoming plate. Here we document that bending-related faulting of the incoming plate at the Middle America trench creates a pervasive tectonic fabric that cuts across the crust, penetrating deep into the mantle. Faulting is active across the entire ocean trench slope, promoting hydration of the cold crust and upper mantle surrounding these deep active faults. The along-strike length and depth of penetration of these faults are also similar to the dimensions of the rupture area of intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  7. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon


    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  8. Large earthquakes and creeping faults (United States)

    Harris, Ruth A.


    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  9. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  10. Strain localisation in mechanically layered rocks beneath detachment zones: insights from numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Le Pourhiet


    Full Text Available We have designed a series of fully dynamic numerical simulations aimed at assessing how the orientation of mechanical layering in rocks controls the orientation of shear bands and the depth of penetration of strain in the footwall of detachment zones. Two parametric studies are presented. In the first one, the influence of stratification orientation on the occurrence and mode of strain localisation is tested by varying initial dip of inherited layering in the footwall with regard to the orientation of simple shear applied at the rigid boundary simulating a rigid hanging wall, all scaling and rheological parameter kept constant. It appears that when Mohr–Coulomb plasticity is being used, shear bands are found to localise only when the layering is being stretched. This corresponds to early deformational stages for inital layering dipping in the same direction as the shear is applied, and to later stages for intial layering dipping towards the opposite direction of shear. In all the cases, localisation of the strain after only γ=1 requires plastic yielding to be activated in the strong layer. The second parametric study shows that results are length-scale independent and that orientation of shear bands is not sensitive to the viscosity contrast or the strain rate. However, decreasing or increasing strain rate is shown to reduce the capacity of the shear zone to localise strain. In the later case, the strain pattern resembles a mylonitic band but the rheology is shown to be effectively linear. Based on the results, a conceptual model for strain localisation under detachment faults is presented. In the early stages, strain localisation occurs at slow rates by viscous shear instabilities but as the layered media is exhumed, the temperature drops and the strong layers start yielding plastically, forming shear bands and localising strain at the top of the shear zone. Once strain localisation has occured, the deformation in the shear band becomes

  11. Real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control


    Gao, Zhiwei; Ding, Steven X.; Cecati, Carlo


    This "Special Section on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control" of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics is motivated to provide a forum for academic and industrial communities to report recent theoretic/application results in real-time monitoring, diagnosis, and fault-tolerant design, and exchange the ideas about the emerging research direction in this field. Twenty-three papers were eventually selected through a strict peer-reviewed procedure, which represent the mo...

  12. Massive Hydrothermal Flows of Fluids and Heat: Earth Constraints and Ocean World Considerations (United States)

    Fisher, A. T.


    This presentation reviews the hydrogeologic nature of Earth's ocean crust and evidence for massive flows of low-temperature (≤70°C), seafloor hydrothermal circulation through ridge flanks, including the influence of crustal relief and crustal faults.

  13. The ocean-continent transition along the NW Moroccan margin - A new insight (United States)

    Block, M.; Reichert, C.; Berglar, K.; Schnabel, M.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Schnurle, P.


    In a joint effort a marine geoscientific survey off Morocco was conducted by BGR and Ifremer onboard the French R/V L'ATALANTE (MIRROR cruise in 2011) providing two grids of seismic profiles. In this paper we refer to the multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data of leg 2 (southern grid) between the latitudes of 30.5° and 33° N with a total length of 1,391 km. Basic objectives included to image the structure of the crust and to test rifting models in order to understand the nature of the continental margin of Morocco as well as the opening process of the Atlantic Ocean between NW Africa and Canada. Already an initial interpretation of the MCS data enabled the identification of major seismic unconformities and sequences, and their correlation with the two existing DSDP wells 415 and 416 revealing more details about the continent-ocean transition and its function in the plate tectonic history. Two main MCS profiles of the southern grid, which are spanning 300 km each, are running perpendicular to the slope, and traverse the shelf edge/break, the slope, the Essaouira Rise, and the Agadir Canyon, ending just over the abyssal plain. They are crossing three different structural units, a zone of rifted continental margin (Zone 1), a zone of initial seafloor spreading (Zone 2), and a zone of regular seafloor spreading as well as post-Cretaceous igneous activity (Zone 3). Zone 1 is composed (i) of huge rotated basement blocks located under the shelf and the uppermost slope, and (ii) of striking salt domes at the lowermost slope. Zone 2 is characterized by a sub-basement reflector with overlying tilted basement blocks. The sub-basement reflector trends generally horizontal and appears to be a detachment fault. At the seaward end of the profiles a Zone 3 can be distinguished. Its basement is imaged by reflectors typical for oceanic crust though they are only locally recognizable. In this zone volcanic remnants dominate the sedimentary record expressed by seismic images of

  14. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  15. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  16. The San Andreas Fault and a Strike-slip Fault on Europa (United States)


    The mosaic on the right of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault on Earth which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. The left mosaic shows the portion of the San Andreas fault near California's san Francisco Bay that has been scaled to the same size and resolution as the Europa image. Each covers an area approximately 170 by 193 kilometers(105 by 120 miles). The red line marks the once active central crack of the Europan fault (right) and the line of the San Andreas fault (left). A strike-slip fault is one in which two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. The overall motion along the Europan fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the entire length of the feature, with a path resembling stepson a staircase crossing zones which have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. Opposite sides of the fault can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides as well as older individual cracks and ridges that had been broken by its movements. Bends in the Europan fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This pulling-apart along the fault's bends created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, and in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may

  17. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan


    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  18. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan; Hanafy, Sherif; Guo, Bowen; Kosmicki, Maximillian Sunflower


    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  19. Unraveling multiple phases of sulfur cycling during the alteration of ancient ultramafic oceanic lithosphere (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Johnston, David T.


    Ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems - characterized by ongoing serpentinization reactions - exert an important influence on the global sulfur cycle. Extensive water-rock interaction causes elemental exchange between seawater and the oceanic lithosphere, effectively removing sulfate from seawater through both abiogenic and biogenic processes. Here, we use bulk rock multiple sulfur isotope signatures (32S, 33S, 34S) and in situ sulfide analyses together with petrographic observations to track the sulfur cycling processes and the hydrothermal evolution of ancient peridotite-hosted hydrothermal systems. We investigate serpentinized peridotites from the Northern Apennine ophiolite in Italy and the Santa Elena ophiolite in Costa Rica and compare those with the Iberian Margin (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 149 and 173) and the 15°20‧N Fracture Zone along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (ODP Leg 209). In situ measurements of sulfides in the Northern Apennine serpentinites preserve a large range in δ34Ssulfide of -33.8 to +13.3‰ with significant heterogeneities within single sulfide grains and depending on mineralogy. Detailed mineralogical investigation and comparison with bulk rock Δ33Ssulfide and in situ δ34Ssulfide data implies a thermal evolution of the system from high temperatures (∼350 °C) that allowed thermochemical sulfate reduction and input of hydrothermal sulfide to lower temperatures (rock associated with detachment faulting along a mid-ocean ridge spreading center. The Santa Elena peridotites preserve distinct signatures for fluid circulation at high temperatures with both closed system thermochemical sulfate reduction and input of mafic-derived sulfur. In addition, the peridotites provide strong evidence that low Ca2+ concentrations in peridotite-hosted systems can limit sulfate removal during anhydrite precipitation at temperatures above 150 °C. This may play a central role for the availability of sulfate to microbial communities within these

  20. Detachable balloon embolization of an aneurysmal gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defreyne, Luc; De Schrijver, Ignace; Vanlangenhove, Peter; Kunnen, Marc [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium)


    Extrahepatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the gastroduodenal artery and the portal venous system are rare and almost always a late complication of gastric surgery. Secondary portal hypertension and mesenteric ischemia may provoke abdominal pain, upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea, and weight loss. Until recently, surgical excision has been the therapy of choice with excellent results. The authors report a case of gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula with a rare large interpositioned aneurysm in a cardiopulmonary-compromised patient who was considered a non-surgical candidate. The gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula was occluded endovascularly by means of a detachable balloon. A survey of the literature of this rare type of arterioportal fistula is included. (orig.)

  1. Total retinal detachment occurring after minor head trauma. (United States)

    Mircea, Pienaru; Ramona, Serban; Mircea, Filip; Andrei, Filip


    The objective of this article is to present the case of a patient with a severe decrease of visual acuity that occurred after an apparently minor head injury. Following the investigations, the patient was diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that was triggered by a fall from the same level and which occurred on a background of lattice degeneration. In this case, a minor trauma caused a severe complication because the patient had a contributing factor for the complication. The patient was operated and the end result was satisfactory.

  2. Detached Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels; Davidson, Lars


    The effect of resolving inflow turbulence in detached eddy simulations of airfoil flows is studied. Synthetic turbulence is used for inflow boundary condition. The generated turbulence fields are shown to decay according to experimental data as they are convected through the domain with the free...... stream velocity. The subsonic flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil is studied at Reynolds number 1.6 × 106 and at various angles of attack before and after stall. Simulations with turbulent inflow are compared to experiments and to simulations without turbulent inflow. The results show that the flow...

  3. Wilshire fault: Earthquakes in Hollywood? (United States)

    Hummon, Cheryl; Schneider, Craig L.; Yeats, Robert S.; Dolan, James F.; Sieh, Kerry E.; Huftile, Gary J.


    The Wilshire fault is a potentially seismogenic, blind thrust fault inferred to underlie and cause the Wilshire arch, a Quaternary fold in the Hollywood area, just west of downtown Los Angeles, California. Two inverse models, based on the Wilshire arch, allow us to estimate the location and slip rate of the Wilshire fault, which may be illuminated by a zone of microearthquakes. A fault-bend fold model indicates a reverse-slip rate of 1.5-1.9 mm/yr, whereas a three-dimensional elastic-dislocation model indicates a right-reverse slip rate of 2.6-3.2 mm/yr. The Wilshire fault is a previously unrecognized seismic hazard directly beneath Hollywood and Beverly Hills, distinct from the faults under the nearby Santa Monica Mountains.

  4. What is Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Frei, C. W.; Kraus, K.


    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control is the synonym for a set of recent techniques that were developed to increase plant...... availability and reduce the risk of safety hazards. Its aim is to prevent that simple faults develop into serious failure. Fault-tolerant control merges several disciplines to achieve this goal, including on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions when a fault...... is detected. The envelope of the possible remedial actions is wide. This paper introduces tools to analyze and explore structure and other fundamental properties of an automated system such that any redundancy in the process can be fully utilized to enhance safety and a availability....

  5. Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin


    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  6. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system (United States)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa


    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  7. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, R.H.; Justus, J.R.


    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  8. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  9. Fault current limiter (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony


    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  10. Towards an entropy-based detached-eddy simulation (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Yan, Chao; Li, XinLiang; Kong, WeiXuan


    A concept of entropy increment ratio ( s¯) is introduced for compressible turbulence simulation through a series of direct numerical simulations (DNS). s¯ represents the dissipation rate per unit mechanical energy with the benefit of independence of freestream Mach numbers. Based on this feature, we construct the shielding function f s to describe the boundary layer region and propose an entropy-based detached-eddy simulation method (SDES). This approach follows the spirit of delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) proposed by Spalart et al. in 2005, but it exhibits much better behavior after their performances are compared in the following flows, namely, pure attached flow with thick boundary layer (a supersonic flat-plate flow with high Reynolds number), fully separated flow (the supersonic base flow), and separated-reattached flow (the supersonic cavity-ramp flow). The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) resolved region is reliably preserved and the modeled stress depletion (MSD) phenomenon which is inherent in DES and DDES is partly alleviated. Moreover, this new hybrid strategy is simple and general, making it applicable to other models related to the boundary layer predictions.

  11. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi


    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  12. Macula-Sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: Is emergent surgery necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Mahmoudi


    Full Text Available The status of the macula is a significant factor in determining final visual outcomes in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD and should be considered in the timing of surgical repair. Several studies have shown that macula-involving RRDs attain similar visual and anatomic outcomes when surgery is performed within seven days as compared to emergent surgery (within 24 hours. In contrast, surgery prior to macular detachment in macula-sparing RRDs generally yields the best visual outcomes. In the case of macula-sparing RRDs, it is not clear how long the macula may remain attached, therefore, standard practice dictates emergent surgery. Timing of presentation, examination findings, case complexity, co-existing medical conditions, surgeon expertise, and timing and quality of access to operating facilities and staff, however, should all be considered in determining whether a macula-sparing RRD requires immediate intervention or if equivalent visual and possibly better overall outcomes can be achieved with scheduled surgery within an appropriate time frame.

  13. Anatomical success in patients after retinectomy for complex retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.; Ishaq, M.; Islam, Q.U.


    To evaluate the efficacy of primary and redo retinectomy in eyes with complex retinal detachment. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Fifty eight eyes (patients) underwent relaxing retinectomies for complex retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy or intrinsic retinal shortening. Operative technique included pars plana vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy management, use of intraoperative perfluorocarbon liquid, retinectomy, endolaser and intraocular temponade. The main outcome was anatomic success, defined as complete retinal reattachment at four months follow up. Eighteen eyes out of the same primary group underwent second retinectomy because of anatomical failure. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.78 ± 15.11 years, 56.9% of patients were male(s). Anatomic success rate after 1st retinectomy was achieved in 68.96% (40 eyes out of 58). In eighteen eyes that underwent 2nd retinectomy, anatomic success rate was 72.22% (13 eyes out of 18). Overall success rate was 91.3% (53 eyes out of 58) in our study. Conclusions: Relaxing retinectomies for retinal shortening can improve the anatomical success rate in patients with complex RD. (author)

  14. Glaucoma associated with the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangouritsas G


    Full Text Available George Mangouritsas, Spyridon Mourtzoukos, Dimitra M Portaliou, Vassilios I Georgopoulos, Anastasia Dimopoulou, Elias Feretis Eye Clinic, General Hospital "Hellenic Red Cross", Athens, Greece Abstract: Transient or permanent elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP is a common complication following vitreoretinal surgery. Usually secondary glaucoma, which develops after scleral buckling procedures, or pars plana vitrectomy for repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, is of multifactorial origin. It is essential, for appropriate management, to detect the cause of outflow obstruction. An exacerbation of preexisting open-angle glaucoma or a steroid-induced elevation of IOP should also be considered. Scleral buckling may be complicated by congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body resulting in secondary angle closure, which can usually resolve with medical therapy. The use of intravitreal gases may also induce secondary angle-closure with or without pupillary block. Aspiration of a quantity of the intraocular gas may be indicated. Secondary glaucoma can also develop after intravitreal injection of silicone oil due to pupillary block, inflammation, synechial angle closure, or migration of emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber and obstruction of the aqueous outflow pathway. In most eyes medical therapy is successful in controlling IOP; however, silicone oil removal with or without concurrent glaucoma surgery may also be required. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation and glaucoma drainage devices constitute useful treatment modalities for long-term IOP control. Cooperation between vitreoretinal and glaucoma specialists is necessary to achieve successful management. Keywords: retinal detachment, intraocular pressure elevation, glaucoma, vitrectomy, intravitreal gas, silicone oil

  15. Detachment of particulate iron sulfide during shale-water interaction (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Kreisserman, Y.


    Hydraulic fracturing, a commonly used technique to extract oil and gas from shales, is controversial in part because of the threat it poses to water resources. The technique involves the injection into the subsurface of large amounts of fluid, which can become contaminated by fluid-rock interaction. The dissolution of pyrite is thought to be a primary pathway for the contamination of fracturing fluids with toxic elements, such as arsenic and lead. In this study, we use direct observations with atomic force microscopy to show that the dissolution of carbonate minerals in Eagle Ford shale leads to the physical detachment of embedded pyrite grains. To simulate the way fluid interacts with a fractured shale surface, we also reacted rock samples in a flow-through cell, and used environmental scanning electron microscopy to compare the surfaces before and after interaction with water. Crucially, our results show that the flux of particulate iron sulfide into the fluid may be orders of magnitude higher than the flux of pyrite from chemical dissolution. This result suggests that mechanical detachment of pyrite grains could be the dominant mode by which arsenic and other inorganic elements are mobilized in the subsurface. Thus, during hydraulic fracturing operations and in groundwater systems containing pyrite, the transport of many toxic species may be controlled by the transport of colloidal iron sulfide particles.

  16. 3D Strain Modelling of Tear Fault Analogues (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Vietor, T.


    Tear faults can be described as vertical discontinuities, with near fault parallel displacements terminating on some sort of shallow detachment. As such, they are difficult to study in "cross section" i.e. 2 dimensions as is often the case for fold-thrust systems. Hence, little attempt has been made to model the evolution of strain around tear faults and the processes of strain localisation in such structures due to the necessity of describing these systems in 3 dimensions and the problems this poses for both numerical and analogue modelling. Field studies suggest that strain in such regions can be distributed across broad zones on minor tear systems, which are often not easily mappable. Such strain is probably assumed to be due to distributed strain and to displacement gradients which are themselves necessary for the initiation of the tear itself. We present a numerical study of the effects of a sharp, basal discontinutiy parallel to the transport direction in a shortening wedge of material. The discontinuity is represented by two adjacent basal surfaces with strongly contrasting (0.5 and 0.05) friction coefficient. The material is modelled using PFC3D distinct element software for simulating granular material, whose properties are chosen to simulate upper crustal, sedimentary rock. The model geometry is a rectangular bounding box, 2km x 1km, and 0.35-0.5km deep, with a single, driving wall of constant velocity. We show the evolution of strain in the model in horizontal and vertical sections, and interpret strain localization as showing the spontaneous development of tear fault like features. The strain field in the model is asymmetrical, rotated towards the strong side of the model. Strain increments seem to oscillate in time, suggesting achievement of a steady state. We also note that our model cannot be treated as a critical wedge, since the 3rd dimension and the lateral variations of strength rule out this type of 2D approximation.

  17. Carbon distribution during plasma detachment triggered by edge magnetic island formation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, C.F.; Morita, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Oishi, T.; Goto, M.; Wang, E.H.; Huang, X.L.


    The detached plasma has been successfully achieved by applying the edge 1/1 magnetic island in Large Helical Device (LHD). Carbon, which is uniquely the dominant intrinsic impurity in general LHD discharges, is considered to be the main radiating species in the island-triggered detached plasma. The vertical profile of CIV measured from general discharges of LHD is characterized by a single edge intensity peak. In detached plasmas triggered by the edge magnetic island formation, however, the vertical profile of CIV shows a significant difference. Double edge peaks of CIV are found during the plasma detachment and the CIV radiation is also remarkably enhanced in the vicinity of X-point, whereas the vertical profile of CVI does not show any significant difference in both the attached and detached plasmas. In this proceeding the carbon distribution during the plasma detachment is presented and the results are discussed with edge magnetic field structure. (author)


    Park, Dae Hyun; Choi, Kyung Seek; Sun, Hae Jung; Lee, Sung Jin


    To evaluate preoperative factors influencing the visual outcome and postoperative factors associated with the changes in visual acuity, after reattachment surgery to treat macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. A total of 180 eyes of 180 patients who underwent reattachment surgery to treat macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and who were followed up for more than 12 months, were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative and postoperative characteristics, including optical coherence tomography findings, were comprehensively analyzed using univariate and multivariate models to evaluate preoperative factors influencing best-corrected visual acuity 12 months after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery and postoperative factors associated with changes in best-corrected visual acuity after surgery. Preoperatively, the extent of detachment (P = 0.037), macula-off duration (P macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery were the extent of detachment, macula-off duration, and external limiting membrane integrity. Postoperatively, predictive factors were the outer retinal microstructures, particularly the photoreceptor outer segment layer.

  19. A bottom-driven mechanism for distributed faulting in the Gulf of California rift (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Tan, Eh; Contreras, Juan; Lavier, Luc


    Observations of active faulting in the continent-ocean transition of the Northern Gulf of California show multiple oblique-slip faults distributed in a 200 × 70 km2 area developed some time after a westward relocation of the plate boundary at 2 Ma. In contrast, north and south of this broad pull-apart structure, major transform faults accommodate Pacific-North America plate motion. Here we propose that the mechanism for distributed brittle deformation results from the boundary conditions present in the Northern Gulf, where basal shear is distributed between the Cerro Prieto strike-slip fault (southernmost fault of the San Andreas fault system) and the Ballenas Transform Fault. We hypothesize that in oblique-extensional settings whether deformation is partitioned in a few dip-slip and strike-slip faults, or in numerous oblique-slip faults may depend on (1) bottom-driven, distributed extension and shear deformation of the lower crust or upper mantle, and (2) the rift obliquity. To test this idea, we explore the effects of bottom-driven shear on the deformation of a brittle elastic-plastic layer with the help of pseudo-three dimensional numerical models that include side forces. Strain localization results when the basal shear abruptly increases in a step-function manner while oblique-slip on numerous faults dominates when basal shear is distributed. We further explore how the style of faulting varies with obliquity and demonstrate that the style of delocalized faulting observed in the Northern Gulf of California is reproduced in models with an obliquity of 0.7 and distributed basal shear boundary conditions, consistent with the interpreted obliquity and boundary conditions of the study area.

  20. Cellular volume regulation and substrate stiffness modulate the detachment dynamics of adherent cells (United States)

    Yang, Yuehua; Jiang, Hongyuan


    Quantitative characterizations of cell detachment are vital for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of cell adhesion. Experiments have found that cell detachment shows strong rate dependence, which is mostly attributed to the binding-unbinding kinetics of receptor-ligand bond. However, our recent study showed that the cellular volume regulation can significantly regulate the dynamics of adherent cell and cell detachment. How this cellular volume regulation contributes to the rate dependence of cell detachment remains elusive. Here, we systematically study the role of cellular volume regulation in the rate dependence of cell detachment by investigating the cell detachments of nonspecific adhesion and specific adhesion. We find that the cellular volume regulation and the bond kinetics dominate the rate dependence of cell detachment at different time scales. We further test the validity of the traditional Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact model and the detachment model developed by Wyart and Gennes et al (W-G model). When the cell volume is changeable, the JKR model is not appropriate for both the detachments of convex cells and concave cells. The W-G model is valid for the detachment of convex cells but is no longer applicable for the detachment of concave cells. Finally, we show that the rupture force of adherent cells is also highly sensitive to substrate stiffness, since an increase in substrate stiffness will lead to more associated bonds. These findings can provide insight into the critical role of cell volume in cell detachment and might have profound implications for other adhesion-related physiological processes.

  1. Visual recovery after surgical repair of chronic macular detachment associated with peripheral retinoschisis


    Vaidehi S. Dedania; Devon H. Ghodasra; Mark W. Johnson


    Purpose: To report 2 cases of chronic macular detachment associated with peripheral retinoschisis in which surgical repair resulted in significant visual recovery. Observations: A 44-year-old man and 60-year-old woman were evaluated for chronic macular detachment, with a duration of 5 years and 6 months, respectively. In each case, optical coherence tomography was used to establish a diagnosis of full-thickness macular detachment resulting from peripheral retinoschisis and to confirm or ident...

  2. Enzymatic detachment of therapeutic mesenchymal stromal cells grown on glass carriers in a bioreactor. (United States)

    Salzig, Denise; Schmiermund, Alexandra; P Grace, Pablo; Elseberg, Christiane; Weber, Christian; Czermak, Peter


    Cell therapies require the in vitro expansion of adherent cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in bioreactor systems or other culture environments, followed by cell harvest. As hMSCs are strictly adherent cells, cell harvest requires cell detachment. The use of hMSCs for cell therapy requires GMP production in accordance with the guidelines for advanced therapeutic medical products. Therefore, several GMP-conform available proteolytic enzymes were investigated for their ability to promote hMSC detachment. An allogeneic hMSC cell line (hMSC-TERT) that is used in clinical trials in the form of alginate cell capsules was chosen as a model. This study investigated the influence of several factors on the outcome of proteolytic hMSC-TERT detachment. Therefore, hMSC-TERT detachment was analyzed in different cultivation systems (static, dynamic) and in combination with further cell processing including encapsulation. Only two of the commercially available enzymes (AccutaseTM, TrypZeanTM) that fulfill all process requirements (commercial availability, cost, GMP conditions during manufacturing and non-animal origin) are found to be generally suitable for detaching hMSC-TERT. Combining cell detachment with encapsulation demonstrated a high impact of the experimental set up on cell damage. It was preferable to reduce the temperature during detachment and limit the detachment time to a maximum of 20 minutes. Cell detachment in static systems was not comparable with detachment in dynamic systems. Detachment yields in dynamic systems were lower and cell damage was higher for the same experimental conditions. Finally, only TrypZeanTM seemed to be suitable for the detachment of hMSC-TERT from dynamic reactor systems.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Earthquake Stress Drop on Gofar Transform Fault, East Pacific Rise: Implications for Fault Strength (United States)

    Moyer, P. A.; Boettcher, M. S.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.


    During the last five seismic cycles on Gofar transform fault on the East Pacific Rise, the largest earthquakes (6.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.2) have repeatedly ruptured the same fault segment (rupture asperity), while intervening fault segments host swarms of microearthquakes. Previous studies on Gofar have shown that these segments of low (≤10%) seismic coupling contain diffuse zones of seismicity and P-wave velocity reduction compared with the rupture asperity; suggesting heterogeneous fault properties control earthquake behavior. We investigate the role systematic differences in material properties have on earthquake rupture along Gofar using waveforms from ocean bottom seismometers that recorded the end of the 2008 Mw 6.0 seismic cycle.We determine stress drop for 117 earthquakes (2.4 ≤ Mw ≤ 4.2) that occurred in and between rupture asperities from corner frequency derived using an empirical Green's function spectral ratio method and seismic moment obtained by fitting the omega-square source model to the low frequency amplitude of earthquake spectra. We find stress drops from 0.03 to 2.7 MPa with significant spatial variation, including 2 times higher average stress drop in the rupture asperity compared to fault segments with low seismic coupling. We interpret an inverse correlation between stress drop and P-wave velocity reduction as the effect of damage on earthquake rupture. Earthquakes with higher stress drops occur in more intact crust of the rupture asperity, while earthquakes with lower stress drops occur in regions of low seismic coupling and reflect lower strength, highly fractured fault zone material. We also observe a temporal control on stress drop consistent with log-time healing following the Mw 6.0 mainshock, suggesting a decrease in stress drop as a result of fault zone damage caused by the large earthquake.

  4. Fault Management Design Strategies (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.


    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  5. Proceedings of oceans '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This volume contains the proceedings of the Oceans '91 Conference. Topics addressed include: ocean energy conversion, marine communications and navigation, ocean wave energy conversion, environmental modeling, global climate change, ocean minerals technology, oil spill technology, and submersible vehicles

  6. Evaluation of the Strategy-Structure Fit of Space and Missile Systems Center Detachment 11

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, Tommy


    ... (SBlRSl, and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The Detachment performs operational software maintenance, satellite systems engineering, space testing and evaluation, and technology master planning...

  7. Phakic retinal detachment associated with atrophic hole of lattice degeneration of the retina. (United States)

    Murakami-Nagasako, F; Ohba, N


    Forty patients with phakic nontraumatic retinal detachment caused by atrophic retinal hole of lattice degeneration were reviewed. The condition was characterized by insidious, slowly developing shallow detachment, with frequent formation of demarcation lines. Often, the patients did not recognize their visual problems until the detachment had extended to the macular region. Young patients under 40 years of age were more common than older patients. Myopic refractive errors were frequently associated. The results of surgical repair were favorable. The risk of retinal detachment in lattice degeneration with atrophic holes was estimated to be about 1 in 90 patients, and prophylactic treatment for this common anomaly is not readily recommended.

  8. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Sato, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kunio


    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified. (paper)

  9. Structural evolution and tectonic style of the Tunisian central Atlas; role of inherited faults in compressive tectonics (Ghoualguia anticline) (United States)

    Briki, Haithem; Ahmadi, Riadh; Smida, Rabiaa; Rekhiss, Farhat


    Geological mapping, field cross sections, structural analyses and new subsurface data were used to characterize the geometry and tectonic setting of the Ghoualguia structure, which is an E-W-trending anticline located between the Kalaa Khasba and Rouhia troughs of the central Tunisian Atlas. The results show an important NE-SW extensional phase during the Mesozoic, as demonstrated by synsedimentary normal faults (NW-SE and E-W) and thickness variations. In the Aouled Mdoua area, the absence of Paleocene-Eocene rocks indicates that the eastern and western parts of the Ghoualguia structure were separated by high topography. In addition, the angular unconformity observed between the Upper Cretaceous unit (Abiod Fm.) and the upper Eocene series (Souar Fm.) provide evidence of a tilted-block structure delineated by North-South faults. A major compressional phase during the middle to late Miocene created various detachment levels that originated mainly in the Triassic and Cretaceous deposits. Faults were reactivated as thrust and strike-slip faults, creating fault-related fold structures. In the core of the Ghoualguia fold, an original S-dipping normal fault underwent reverse movement as a back thrust. Fault-slip data indicate that the area records a major NE-SW extensional phase that took place during the late Miocene and Pliocene. A balanced cross section provides insight into the existence of two main detachment levels rooted in the Triassic (depth ± 6 km) and the lower Cretaceous (depth ± 2.5 km). The balanced cross section highlights a shortening of about 2.5 km along cross section and 1.5 km in the central part of the Ghoualguia anticline. This work underlines the predominant role of the inherited Mesozoic structures during the evolution of the Atlassic range and their influence on the geometry of the central Tunisian atlas.

  10. Ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubelet, Helene; Veyre, Philippe; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence


    This brief publication first recalls and outlines that ocean acidification is expected to increase, and will result in severe ecological impacts (more fragile coral reefs, migration of species, and so on), and therefore social and economic impacts. This issue is particularly important for France who possesses the second exclusive maritime area in the world. The various impacts of ocean acidification on living species is described, notably for phytoplankton, coral reefs, algae, molluscs, and fishes. Social and economic impacts are also briefly presented: tourism, protection against risks (notably by coral reefs), shellfish aquaculture and fishing. Issues to be addressed by scientific research are evoked: interaction between elements of an ecosystem and between different ecosystems, multi-stress effects all along organism lifetime, vulnerability and adaptability of human societies

  11. Accelerometer having integral fault null (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.


    An improved accelerometer is introduced. It comprises a transducer responsive to vibration in machinery which produces an electrical signal related to the magnitude and frequency of the vibration; and a decoding circuit responsive to the transducer signal which produces a first fault signal to produce a second fault signal in which ground shift effects are nullified.

  12. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa (United States)


    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart. Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and

  13. Cradle of the Earthquake: Exploring the Underwater San Andreas Fault on the R/V Pacific Storm and the SRV Derek M. Baylis between 20100910 and 20101003 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over one hundred years after the devastating Great 1906 Earthquake that nearly destroyed San Francisco, this expedition explored the Northern San Andreas Fault, the...

  14. Post-operative hospitalization in retinal detachment correlation to recurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Maria Vingolo


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate relationships between the incidence of re-detachment and postoperative days of hospitalization in patients with diagnosis of retinal detachment (RD who underwent surgery either through ab-externo approach (scleral buckling and encircling or ab-interno approach (vitrectomy and oil-gas tamponade. METHODS: This retrospective study included 268 patients (268 eyes with diagnosis of primary RD: 127 males (47% and 141 (53% females, mean age of 64.1 ± 17.3 years. 46 patients (17% underwent a surgical ab-externo approach (group A, while 222 patients (83% underwent an ab-interno surgical approach. Each RD was graded according to the "Retinal detachment grading system of Royal College of Ophthalmologists" and treated within 5 days after diagnosis. The redetachment (RT related to a surgical failure was considered within 30 days after first operation. RESULTS: In the group 1 without night hospitalization (day surgery global RT rate was 3.5% (4.17% for ab-interno technique and 0% for ab-externo techniques. In the group 2 with one day of hospitalization global RT rate was 1.33% (1.49% for ab-interno technique and 0% for ab-externo techniques. In the group 3 with 2 days of hospitalization global RT rate was 3.80% (4.62% for ab-interno techniques and 0% for ab-externo techniques. In the group 4 with 3 or more days of hospitalization global RT rate was 12.28% (14.29% for ab-interno techniques for 6.67% ab-externo techniques. The incidence of RT in group 1, day surgery, is comparable to the other groups and it is less compared to group 4 (3 or more days of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of retinal redetachment (RRD is not increased in day surgery mode. These data support outpatient management of RD patients to reduce medical cost and problems related to the hospitalization. Further studies are needed for patients' security.

  15. Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults, Boudinage and Ductile Shear at Rifted Passive Margins (United States)

    Clerc, C. N.; Ringenbach, J. C.; Jolivet, L.; Ballard, J. F.


    Deep structures resulting from the rifting of the continental crust are now well imaged by seismic profiles. We present a series of recent industrial profiles that allow the identification of various rift-related geological processes such as crustal boudinage, ductile shear of the base of the crust and low-angle detachment faulting. Along both magma-rich and magma-poor rifted margins, we observe clear indications of ductile deformation of the deep continental crust. Large-scale shallow dipping shear zones are identified with a top-to-the-continent sense of shear. This sense of shear is consistent with the activity of the Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) that accommodate the extension in the upper crust. This pattern is responsible for an oceanward migration of the deformation and of the associated syn-tectonic deposits (sediments and/or volcanics). We discuss the origin of the Continentward-Dipping Normal Faults (CDNF) and investigate their implications and the effect of sediment thermal blanketing on crustal rheology. In some cases, low-angle shear zones define an anastomosed pattern that delineates boudin-like structures that seem to control the position and dip of upper crustal normal faults. We present some of the most striking examples from several locations (Uruguay, West Africa, South China Sea…), and discuss their rifting histories that differ from the classical models of oceanward-dipping normal faults.

  16. Fault isolatability conditions for linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik


    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step. A simple example demonstrates how to turn the algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions into explicit algorithms for designing filter banks, which...

  17. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon


    We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the nuclear reactor. The Upcheon fault zone is exposed close to the Ulzin nuclear reactor. The space-time pattern of fault activity on the Upcheon fault deduced from ESR dating of fault gouge can be summarised as follows : this fault zone was reactivated between fault breccia derived from Cretaceous sandstone and tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 2 Ma, 1.5 Ma and 1 Ma ago. After those movements, the Upcheon fault was reactivated between Cretaceous sandstone and fault breccia zone about 800 ka ago. This fault zone was reactivated again between fault breccia derived form Cretaceous sandstone and Tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 650 ka and after 125 ka ago. These data suggest that the long-term(200-500 k.y.) cyclic fault activity of the Upcheon fault zone continued into the Pleistocene. In the Ulzin area, ESR dates from the NW and EW trend faults range from 800 ka to 600 ka NE and EW trend faults were reactivated about between 200 ka and 300 ka ago. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 400 ka and 50 ka. Results of this research suggest the fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor fault activity continued into the Pleistocene. One ESR date near the Youngkwang nuclear reactor is 200 ka

  18. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao


    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  19. Geophysical characterization of Range-Front Faults, Snake Valley, Nevada (United States)

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.


    In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along two profiles on the eastern flank of the Snake Range near Great Basin National Park to refine understanding of the subsurface geology. Line 1 was collected along Baker Creek, was approximately 6.7-km long, and recorded subsurface geologic conditions to approximately 800-m deep. Line 2, collected farther to the southeast in the vicinity of Kious Spring, was 2.8-km long, and imaged to depths of approximately 600 m. The two AMT lines are similar in their electrical response and are interpreted to show generally similar subsurface geologic conditions. The geophysical response seen on both lines may be described by three general domains of electrical response: (1) a shallow (mostly less than 100-200-m deep) domain of highly variable resistivity, (2) a deep domain characterized by generally high resistivity that gradually declines eastward to lower resistivity with a steeply dipping grain or fabric, and (3) an eastern domain in which the resistivity character changes abruptly at all depths from that in the western domain. The shallow, highly variable domain is interpreted to be the result of a heterogeneous assemblage of Miocene conglomerate and incorporated megabreccia blocks overlying a shallowly eastward-dipping southern Snake Range detachment fault. The deep domain of generally higher resistivity is interpreted as Paleozoic sedimentary rocks (Pole Canyon limestone and Prospect Mountain Quartzite) and Mesozoic and Cenozoic plutonic rocks occurring beneath the detachment surface. The range of resistivity values within this deep domain may result from fracturing adjacent to the detachment, the presence of Paleozoic rock units of variable resistivities that do not crop out in the vicinity of the lines, or both. The eastern geophysical domain is interpreted to be a section of Miocene strata at depth, overlain by Quaternary alluvial

  20. Detached Eddy Simulation of Flap Side-Edge Flow (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Shankar K.; Shariff, Karim R.


    Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) of flap side-edge flow was performed with a wing and half-span flap configuration used in previous experimental and numerical studies. The focus of the study is the unsteady flow features responsible for the production of far-field noise. The simulation was performed at a Reynolds number (based on the main wing chord) of 3.7 million. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed as a precursor to the DES. The results of these precursor simulations match previous experimental and RANS results closely. Although the present DES simulations have not reached statistical stationary yet, some unsteady features of the developing flap side-edge flowfield are presented. In the final paper it is expected that statistically stationary results will be presented including comparisons of surface pressure spectra with experimental data.

  1. Electron Detachment Dissociation (EDD) of Fluorescently Labeled Sialylated Oligosaccharides (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina


    We explored the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) tandem mass spectrometry to fluorescently labeled sialylated oligosaccharides. Standard sialylated oligosaccharides and a sialylated N-linked glycan released from human transferrin were investigated. EDD yielded extensive glycosidic cleavages and cross-ring cleavages in all cases studied, consistently providing complementary structural information compared to IRMPD. Neutral losses and satellite ions such as C – 2H ions were also observed following EDD. In addition, we examined the influence of different fluorescent labels. The acidic label 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) enhanced signal abundance in negative-ion mode. However, few cross-ring fragments were observed for 2-AA labeled oligosaccharides. The neutral label 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) resulted in more cross-ring cleavages compared to 2-AA labeled species, but not as extensive fragmentation as for native oligosaccharides, likely resulting from altered negative charge locations from introduction of the fluorescent tag. PMID:22120881

  2. Effect of transport on MAR in detached divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Hatayama, A.; Ishii, Y.; Miyamoto, T.; Fukano, A.


    The effect of H 2 transport on the onset of MAR in the relatively lower plasma parameter regime of a detached state (n e =1x10 19 m -3 , T e =1 eV) is investigated theoretically. The vibrationally excited molecular densities and the degree of MAR are evaluated by using a 1-D Monte Carlo method (with transport effect), and by solving time-dependent 0-D rate equations without the transport term (without transport effect), respectively. It is found that the degree of MAR with transport is smaller than that without transport under the same H 2 flow rate. Especially, the degree of MAR is negligible near the gas inlet. This smaller degree of MAR with transport is due to the lack of highly excited vibrational molecules which contribute to MAR. The hydrogen molecular density available for MAR is determined by the external hydrogen molecular source and the outflow due to transport, i.e., a 'net' confinement time

  3. Radon concentration distribution mapping in a small detached house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, Monika; Moravcsik, Attila; Holy, Karol; Hutka, Miroslav; Hola, Olga


    Radon activity concentration was investigated in an older, single storey detached house. The rooms of the house are in contact with the bedrock. The house is fitted with plastic windows and populated mostly during the summer. Integral (Raduet) and continuous (AlphaGUARD) methods were used to measure the radon activity concentration. Average radon and thoron activity concentrations in the house were 150 Bq/m 3 and 40 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The impact of the house occupancy on radon activity concentration was significant only during the summer months when a decrease of radon activity concentration was recorded due to an increased ventilation rate. In the autumn and winter months, the impact of the house occupancy on radon activity concentration was relatively small - up to 20 %. The increases in radon activity concentration after the room had been thoroughly ventilated were analysed in order to estimate the ventilation rate and the rate of radon supply into the house. (orig.)

  4. Application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of posterior vitreous detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wei Wang


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the utility of ultrasound in the diagnosis of posterior vitreous detachment(PVD. METHODS: From September 2011 to September 2012, 506 eyes of 305 cases(male 191, female 114of PVD patients in our hospital were checked and analyzed with ultrasound.RESULTS: Totally, 179 eyes were diagnosed as partial PVD, the proportion was 35.4%. And 327 eyes were diagnosed as complete PVD, the proportion was 64.6%. Among the 61 eyes(12.1%with a small amount of hemorrhage of vitreous humor,retinal breaks of 26 eyes(5.1%were founded. Given the photocoagulation nicely heal to the breaks and then recovered. CONCLUSION:Ultrasonography can accurately diagnose PVD. It has non-invasive,convenience, and other characteristics, and it is worthy of clinical popularization.

  5. Current Understanding of the Genetic Architecture of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment. (United States)

    Johnston, Timothy; Chandra, Aman; Hewitt, Alex W


    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a common and potentially blinding surgical retinal disease. While the precise molecular mechanisms leading to RRD are poorly understood, there is an increasing body of literature supporting the role of heritable factors in the pathogenesis of the condition. Much work has been undertaken investigating genes important in syndromic forms of RRD (e.g., Stickler, Wagner Syndrome, etc.) and research pertaining to genetic investigations of idiopathic or non-syndromic RRD has also recently been reported. To date, at least 12 genetic loci have been implicated in the development of syndromes of which RRD is a feature. A recent GWAS identified five loci implicated in the development of idiopathic RRD.This article provides an overview of the genetic mechanisms of both syndromic and idiopathic RRD. The genetics of predisposing conditions, such as myopia and lattice degeneration, are also discussed.

  6. Compatibility of detached divertor operation with robust edge pedestal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A.W., E-mail: [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)


    The compatibility of detached radiative divertor operation with a robust H-mode pedestal is examined in DIII-D. A density scan produced low temperature plasmas at the divertor target, T{sub e} ⩽ 2 eV, with high radiation leading to a factor of ⩾4 drop in peak divertor heat flux. The cold radiative plasma was confined to the divertor and did not extend across the separatrix in X-point region. A robust H-mode pedestal was maintained with a small degradation in pedestal pressure at the highest densities. The response of the pedestal pressure to increasing density is reproduced by the EPED pedestal model. However, agreement of the EPED model with experiment at high density requires an assumption of reduced diamagnetic stabilization of edge Peeling–Ballooning modes.

  7. Arc fault detection system (United States)

    Jha, K.N.


    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  8. Arc fault detection system (United States)

    Jha, Kamal N.


    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  9. Probabilistic assessment of faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foden, R.W.


    Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is the process by which the probability (or frequency of occurrence) of reactor fault conditions which could lead to unacceptable consequences is assessed. The basic objective of a PSA is to allow a judgement to be made as to whether or not the principal probabilistic requirement is satisfied. It also gives insights into the reliability of the plant which can be used to identify possible improvements. This is explained in the article. The scope of a PSA and the PSA performed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC) for the Heysham II and Torness AGRs and Sizewell-B PWR are discussed. The NNC methods for hazards, common cause failure and operator error are mentioned. (UK)

  10. Surgical challenges and outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in albinism. (United States)

    Sinha, M K; Chhablani, J; Shah, B S; Narayanan, R; Jalali, S


    To report the outcomes and surgical difficulties during rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair in patients with albinism. Retrospective analysis of 10 eyes of 9 patients with albinism that underwent RRD repair was performed. Collected data included demographic details, preoperative examination details, surgical procedure, surgical difficulties, anatomical, and visual outcomes. Outcome measures were retinal reattachment and visual acuity at the last follow-up. Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution) 2.15 (range 0.9-3.0) with preoperative localization of causative break in six eyes. One eye had proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C1 preoperatively. Four eyes underwent scleral buckling (SB) and six underwent 20G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil injection. Intraoperative complication as iatrogenic retinal break occurred in four eyes. For retinopexy during vitrectomy, endolaser delivery was possible in three out of six eyes, whereas three eyes had cryopexy. The mean follow-up was 12 months in SB group (range 1-12; median 12 months) and 5.33 months (range 1-12; median 3 months) in PPV group. Among vitrectomized eye, two eyes had recurrence at 3 months with oil in situ. Rest of the eyes had attached retina at last follow-up. Mean BCVA at last follow-up was logMAR -1.46 (range 0.7-2.0) with mean improvement of -0.57 logMAR. Identification of break, induction of posterior vitreous detachment, and endolaser delivery may be difficult during RRD repair in patients with albinism. The incidence of PVR appeared less in these eyes. Both SB and PPV were efficacious and appear to be good surgical techniques for use in this patient population.

  11. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Ervin, Ann-Margret


    Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery. During surgery, a tamponade agent is needed to reduce the rate of recurrent retinal detachment. The objective of this review was to evaluate the benefits and adverse outcomes of surgery with various tamponade agents. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Latin America and Carribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG). There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2009. We included randomized clinical trials comparing patients treated with various tamponade agents. Two individuals screened the search results independently. One study with two trials was eligible for inclusion in the review. One study with two trials was included in the review. The first trial randomized 151 eyes to receive either silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas tamponades; the second trial randomized 271 eyes to receive either silicone oil or perfluropropane (C(3)F(8)) gas tamponades. In patients with RD associated with PVR, pars plana vitrectomy and infusion of either silicone oil or perfluropropane gas appear comparable for a broad variety of cases. Sulfur hexafluoride gas was associated with worse anatomic and visual outcomes than either silicone oil or perfluropropane gas. The use of either C(3)F(8) or silicone oil appears reasonable for most patients with RD associated with PVR. Because there do not appear to be any major differences in outcomes between the two agents, the choice of a tamponade agent should be individualized for each patient.

  12. Characteristics and pattern of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in pakistan. (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad Hannan; Farooq, Nesr; Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Jamil, Ahmed Zeeshan


    To determine the presenting characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in a consecutive series of Pakistani patients. Case series. Layton Rahmatullah Benevolent Trust (LRBT), Lahore, from June 2010 to October 2011. A total of 107 eyes underwent RRD surgery. Detailed diagrams were drawn pre-operatively for all. Other recorded details included, bio-data, age, gender, visual acuity, autorefractometery, predisposing risk factors, lens state and duration of symptoms. The data was analyzed with respect to age and gender distribution, frequency of various risk factors for RRD, duration of RRD and its various presenting characteristics. Mean age of the patients were 33.1 ± 1.5 years, 85% were males. Bilateral RRD was discovered in 2.8% patients. No identifiable risk factor for RRD was present in 28%, while in rest of the 72% eyes, the commonest risk factors were intraocular surgery, trauma and peripheral myopic degeneration in decreasing order of frequency. There were 70.1% phakic, 23.4% pseudophakic and 6.5% aphakic eyes. Majority (93.5%) presented with macula off detachment. There was an overall average time lapse of 97.24 ± 16.95 days between presenting and first occurrence of symptoms. In 31.8% of eyes no break could be found pre-operatively, while 38.3% had 1 and 29.9% eyes had ³ 2 breaks. Majority of the primary breaks were horse-shoe tears (42.1%). Total RRD was found in 35.5% eyes. Infero-temporal and supero-temporal were the most frequently involved quadrants (93.5% and 86.9% respectively). Intraocular surgery, trauma and lattice degeneration in myopia are established common risk factors for RRD. These patients deserve meticulous fundus examination with indentation indirect ophthalmoscopy by trained professionals.

  13. Grip and detachment of locusts on inverted sandpaper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Longbao; Wang Zhouyi; Ji Aihong; Dai Zhendong


    Locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis) are characterized by their strong flying and grasping ability. Research on the grasping mechanism and behaviour of locusts on sloping substrates plays an important role in elucidating the mechanics of hexapod locomotion. Data on the maximum angles of slope at which locusts can grasp stably (critical angles of detachment) were obtained from high-speed video recordings at 215 fps. The grasping forces were collected by using two sensors, in situations where all left legs were standing on one and the right legs on the other sensor plate. These data were used to illustrate the grasping ability of locusts on slopes with varying levels of roughness. The grasping morphologies of locusts' bodies and tarsi were observed, and the surface roughness as well as diameters of their claw tips was measured under a microscope to account for the grasping mechanism of these insects on the sloping substrate. The results showed that the claw tips and part of the pads were in contact with the inverted substrate when the mean particle diameter was in the range of 15.3-40.5 μm. The interaction between pads and substrates may improve the stability of contact, and claw tips may play a key role in keeping the attachment reliable. A model was developed to explain the significant effects of the relative size of claw tips and mean particle diameter on grasping ability as well as the observed increase in lateral force (2.09-4.05 times greater than the normal force during detachment) with increasing slope angle, which indicates that the lateral force may be extremely important in keeping the contact reliable. This research lays the groundwork for the probable design and development of biomimetic robotics.

  14. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik


    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results

  15. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  16. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.


    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion

  17. Subaru FATS (fault tracking system) (United States)

    Winegar, Tom W.; Noumaru, Junichi


    The Subaru Telescope requires a fault tracking system to record the problems and questions that staff experience during their work, and the solutions provided by technical experts to these problems and questions. The system records each fault and routes it to a pre-selected 'solution-provider' for each type of fault. The solution provider analyzes the fault and writes a solution that is routed back to the fault reporter and recorded in a 'knowledge-base' for future reference. The specifications of our fault tracking system were unique. (1) Dual language capacity -- Our staff speak both English and Japanese. Our contractors speak Japanese. (2) Heterogeneous computers -- Our computer workstations are a mixture of SPARCstations, Macintosh and Windows computers. (3) Integration with prime contractors -- Mitsubishi and Fujitsu are primary contractors in the construction of the telescope. In many cases, our 'experts' are our contractors. (4) Operator scheduling -- Our operators spend 50% of their work-month operating the telescope, the other 50% is spent working day shift at the base facility in Hilo, or day shift at the summit. We plan for 8 operators, with a frequent rotation. We need to keep all operators informed on the current status of all faults, no matter the operator's location.

  18. Detachment from Parents, Problem Behaviors, and the Moderating Role of Parental Support among Italian Adolescents (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla


    This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…

  19. Efficacy of ophthalmic solutions to detach adhering Pseudomonas aeruginosa from contact lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landa, AS; van der Mei, HC; van Rij, G; Busscher, HJ

    Purpose. To compare the efficacies of two all-in-one contact lens (CL) cleaning solutions and a detergent mixture on the detachment of a pathogenic bacterium adhering to two types of contact lenses in the absence and presence of a tear film. Methods. Bacterial-detachment studies were carried out in

  20. Protein changes in the retina following experimental retinal detachment in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P.; Fisher, Steven K.


    Retinal detachment leads to the widespread cellular remodeling of the retina. The purpose of this study was to identify protein changes that accompany these cellular alterations by comparing the proteomic profiles of sham and experimentally detached rabbit retina. Elucidation of the proteins most...

  1. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note


    Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Horikawa, Fernando Kendi


    In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy.

  2. Fasudil, a Clinically Used ROCK Inhibitor, Stabilizes Rod Photoreceptor Synapses after Retinal Detachment. (United States)

    Townes-Anderson, Ellen; Wang, Jianfeng; Halász, Éva; Sugino, Ilene; Pitler, Amy; Whitehead, Ian; Zarbin, Marco


    Retinal detachment disrupts the rod-bipolar synapse in the outer plexiform layer by retraction of rod axons. We showed that breakage is due to RhoA activation whereas inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK), using Y27632, reduces synaptic damage. We test whether the ROCK inhibitor fasudil, used for other clinical applications, can prevent synaptic injury after detachment. Detachments were made in pigs by subretinal injection of balanced salt solution (BSS) or fasudil (1, 10 mM). In some animals, fasudil was injected intravitreally after BSS-induced detachment. After 2 to 4 hours, retinae were fixed for immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Axon retraction was quantified by imaging synaptic vesicle label in the outer nuclear layer. Apoptosis was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. For biochemical analysis by Western blotting, retinal explants, detached from retinal pigmented epithelium, were cultured for 2 hours. Subretinal injection of fasudil (10 mM) reduced retraction of rod spherules by 51.3% compared to control detachments ( n = 3 pigs, P = 0.002). Intravitreal injection of 10 mM fasudil, a more clinically feasible route of administration, also reduced retraction (28.7%, n = 5, P ROCK, was decreased with 30 μM fasudil ( n = 8-10 explants, P ROCK signaling with fasudil reduced photoreceptor degeneration and preserved the rod-bipolar synapse after retinal detachment. These results support the possibility, previously tested with Y27632, that ROCK inhibition may attenuate synaptic damage in iatrogenic detachments.

  3. Being mindful at work and at home : Buffering effects in the stressor–detachment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haun, Verena C.; Nübold, Annika; Bauer, Anna G.

    In this daily diary study, we examined the moderating role of employee domain‐specific mindfulness within the stressor–detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 72). According to the stressor–detachment model, emotional and quantitative demands should be

  4. Round atrophic holes in lattice degeneration--an important cause of phakic retinal detachment. (United States)

    Tillery, W V; Lucier, A C


    Round atrophic holes in lattice degeneration are an important cause of phakic retinal detachment. Detachments due solely to round holes in lattice accounted for almost 2.8% of all retinal detachments treated at Wills Eye Hospital from January 1970 to August 1973. These detachments had the following important characteristics: 1. One of the patients were under the age of 30 years. 2. Over 75% of the patients had refractive errors more myopic than -3 D spherical equivalent. 3. Inferior detachments were slightly more common than superior detachments. When located inferiorly, there was a tendency for slow progression as indicated by the frequent presence of pigmented demarcation lines. 4. Surgical repair with standard scleral buckling techniques was successful in 98% of these detachments. Young, moderate to highly myopic patients with round holes in areas of lattice degeneration seem to have a greater risk of developing this type of detachment. Patients with the triad of youth, myopia, and round holes in lattice degeneration deserve close observation.

  5. Why the 2002 Denali fault rupture propagated onto the Totschunda fault: implications for fault branching and seismic hazards (United States)

    Schwartz, David P.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Dawson, Timothy E.


    The propagation of the rupture of the Mw7.9 Denali fault earthquake from the central Denali fault onto the Totschunda fault has provided a basis for dynamic models of fault branching in which the angle of the regional or local prestress relative to the orientation of the main fault and branch plays a principal role in determining which fault branch is taken. GeoEarthScope LiDAR and paleoseismic data allow us to map the structure of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection and evaluate controls of fault branching from a geological perspective. LiDAR data reveal the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection is structurally simple with the two faults directly connected. At the branch point, 227.2 km east of the 2002 epicenter, the 2002 rupture diverges southeast to become the Totschunda fault. We use paleoseismic data to propose that differences in the accumulated strain on each fault segment, which express differences in the elapsed time since the most recent event, was one important control of the branching direction. We suggest that data on event history, slip rate, paleo offsets, fault geometry and structure, and connectivity, especially on high slip rate-short recurrence interval faults, can be used to assess the likelihood of branching and its direction. Analysis of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection has implications for evaluating the potential for a rupture to propagate across other types of fault intersections and for characterizing sources of future large earthquakes.

  6. Architecture of thrust faults with alongstrike variations in fault-plane dip: anatomy of the Lusatian Fault, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coubal, Miroslav; Adamovič, Jiří; Málek, Jiří; Prouza, V.


    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2014), s. 183-208 ISSN 1802-6222 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : fault architecture * fault plane geometry * drag structures * thrust fault * sandstone * Lusatian Fault Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  7. Targeting Faulty Bearings for an Ocean Turbine Dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Vendittis


    Full Text Available A real-time, vibrations-based condition monitoring method used to detect, localize, and identify a faulty bearing in an ocean turbine electric motor is presented in this paper. The electric motor is installed in a dynamometer emulating the functions of the actual ocean turbine. High frequency modal analysis and power trending are combined to assess the operational health of the dynamometer’s bearings across an array of accelerometers. Once a defect has been detected, envelope analysis is used to identify the exact bearing containing the defect. After a brief background on bearing fault detection, this paper introduces a simplified mathematical model of the bearing fault, followed with the signal processing approach used to detect, locate, and identify the fault. In the results section, effectiveness of the methods of bearing fault detection presented in this paper is demonstrated through processing data collected, first, from a controlled lathe setup and, second, from the dynamometer. By mounting a bearing containing a defect punched into its inner raceway to a lathe and placing an array of accelerometers along the length of lathe, the bearing fault is clearly detected, localized, and identified as an inner raceway defect. Through retroactively trending the data leading to the near-failure of one of the electric motors in the dynamometer, the authors identified a positive trend in energy levels for a specific frequency band present across the array of accelerometers and identify two bearings as possible sources of the fault.

  8. Mechanisms of redox metabolism and cancer cell survival during extracellular matrix detachment. (United States)

    Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T


    Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells. Here, we review how ECM-detached cancer cells balance redox metabolism for survival. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Fault Features Extraction and Identification based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, B; Sun, G D; Zhang L Y; Wang J G; HU, J


    For the fault classification model based on extreme learning machine (ELM), the diagnosis accuracy and stability of rolling bearing is greatly influenced by a critical parameter, which is the number of nodes in hidden layer of ELM. An adaptive adjustment strategy is proposed based on vibrational mode decomposition, permutation entropy, and nuclear kernel extreme learning machine to determine the tunable parameter. First, the vibration signals are measured and then decomposed into different fault feature models based on variation mode decomposition. Then, fault feature of each model is formed to a high dimensional feature vector set based on permutation entropy. Second, the ELM output function is expressed by the inner product of Gauss kernel function to adaptively determine the number of hidden layer nodes. Finally, the high dimension feature vector set is used as the input to establish the kernel ELM rolling bearing fault classification model, and the classification and identification of different fault states of rolling bearings are carried out. In comparison with the fault classification methods based on support vector machine and ELM, the experimental results show that the proposed method has higher classification accuracy and better generalization ability. (paper)

  10. Detached Bridgman Growth of Germanium and Germanium-Silicon Alloy Crystals (United States)

    Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Croell, A.; Dold, P.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)


    Earth based experiments on the science of detached crystal growth are being conducted on germanium and germanium-silicon alloys (2 at% Si average composition) in preparation for a series of experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of the microgravity experiments includes differentiating among proposed mechanisms contributing to detachment, and confirming or refining our understanding of the detachment mechanism. Because large contact angle are critical to detachment, sessile drop measurements were used to determine the contact angles as a function of temperature and composition for a large number of substrates made of potential ampoule materials. Growth experiments have used pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) and fused silica ampoules with the majority of the detached results occurring predictably in the pBN. The contact angles were 173 deg (Ge) and 165 deg (GeSi) for pBN. For fused silica, the contact angle decreases from 150 deg to an equilibrium value of 117 deg (Ge) or from 129 deg to an equilibrium value of 100 deg (GeSi) over the duration of the experiment. The nature and extent of detachment is determined by using profilometry in conjunction with optical and electron microscopy. The stability of detachment has been analyzed, and an empirical model for the conditions necessary to achieve sufficient stability to maintain detached growth for extended periods has been developed. Results in this presentation will show that we have established the effects on detachment of ampoule material, pressure difference above and below the melt, and silicon concentration; samples that are nearly completely detached can be grown repeatedly in pBN.

  11. The influence of refractive error and lattice degeneration on the incidence of retinal detachment. (United States)

    Burton, T C


    This study indicates the feasibility of stratifying the general population into various risk pools for retinal detachment depending on a person's age, refractive status, and the presence of lattice degeneration. At first impression the risks seem at variance with the fine clinical studies of Byer, who has shown a very low detachment rate in the population with lattice degeneration. In all likelihood the vast majority of his patients were emmetropic or mildly myopic, so that very few would be expected to develop detachments during their entire lifetimes, let along during intervals of only 10 to 20 years. This study shows the futility of following, or treating prophylactically, young emmetropic individuals with lattice degeneration. Assuming that prophylaxis is actually effective, one would have to treat 1000 emmetropic lattice patients in the 30 to 39 year age group to prevent a single detachment over a 10-year period. Lattice patients with low to moderate degrees of myopia tend to develop detachments between 40 and 60 years of age caused by premature posterior vitreous separation and tractional tears. Clearly prophylaxis for this group is not warranted, since only 5% to 10% of these individuals will experience detachments in their lifetimes. On the other hand this study has verified the previous suspicions that persons with myopia exceeding -5.0 D accompanied by lattice degeneration have an extraordinarily high risk of detachment during their lifetimes. Detachments in this group tend to cluster in the second, third, and fourth decades, are typically caused by atrophic holes, are slowly progressive, and are often simultaneously bilateral. Enhanced vigilance is certainly appropriate during this time and perhaps consideration should be given to prophylactically treating this group. This would be no small task, since within a population of 1 million persons there would be about 1150 aged 10 to 39 years with myopia exceeding -5.0 D and lattice degeneration. Only 4

  12. Geochemical implications of gabbro from the slow-spreading Northern Central Indian Ocean Ridge, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Misra, S.; Banerjee, R.; Weis, D.

    ., 1989) and the dynamics of crystallization of plutonic rocks (Bloomer et al., 1989; Meyer et al., 1989). The recovery of gabbroic rocks is mostly restricted to major transform faults or fracture zones transecting mid-ocean ridges, e.g., Mid... gabbro of Indian Ocean Ridge System (Fig 1) is ODP leg 118 from SWIR (Dick et al., 2002; Coogan et al, 2001). Gabbro from Leg 179 (ODP Hole 735B from Atlantis II fracture zone, Dick et al., 2000) and Leg 179 (Hole 1105A) near Leg 118 have also been...

  13. 20 CFR 410.561b - Fault. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 410.561b Section 410.561b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.561b Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 410...

  14. Fault Detection for Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.


    Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur.......Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur....

  15. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the individual...

  16. Active fault diagnosis by temporary destabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob


    An active fault diagnosis method for parametric or multiplicative faults is proposed. The method periodically adds a term to the controller that for a short period of time renders the system unstable if a fault has occurred, which facilitates rapid fault detection. An illustrative example is given....

  17. From fault classification to fault tolerance for multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Potiron, Katia; Taillibert, Patrick


    Faults are a concern for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) designers, especially if the MAS are built for industrial or military use because there must be some guarantee of dependability. Some fault classification exists for classical systems, and is used to define faults. When dependability is at stake, such fault classification may be used from the beginning of the system's conception to define fault classes and specify which types of faults are expected. Thus, one may want to use fault classification for MAS; however, From Fault Classification to Fault Tolerance for Multi-Agent Systems argues that

  18. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Wu, Wenling; Feng, Dengguo

    CLEFIA is a new 128-bit block cipher proposed by SONY corporation recently. The fundamental structure of CLEFIA is a generalized Feistel structure consisting of 4 data lines. In this paper, the strength of CLEFIA against the differential fault attack is explored. Our attack adopts the byte-oriented model of random faults. Through inducing randomly one byte fault in one round, four bytes of faults can be simultaneously obtained in the next round, which can efficiently reduce the total induce times in the attack. After attacking the last several rounds' encryptions, the original secret key can be recovered based on some analysis of the key schedule. The data complexity analysis and experiments show that only about 18 faulty ciphertexts are needed to recover the entire 128-bit secret key and about 54 faulty ciphertexts for 192/256-bit keys.

  19. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas


    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  20. Cell boundary fault detection system (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN


    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  1. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.


    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  2. Slab detachment of subducted Indo-Australian plate beneath Sunda ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indo-Australian plate along the eastern Sunda arc ... tral Java is dominated by the collision of the oceanic Roo ... depths of around 670 km occur in the steeply dip- .... Symbols are same as in figure 4(b); Mg# (which equals to 100[Mg/(Mg+Fe)]) is calculated on a molar .... view to explain the above discrepancy for both the.

  3. Deformation around basin scale normal faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, D.


    Faults in the earth crust occur within large range of scales from microscale over mesoscopic to large basin scale faults. Frequently deformation associated with faulting is not only limited to the fault plane alone, but rather forms a combination with continuous near field deformation in the wall rock, a phenomenon that is generally called fault drag. The correct interpretation and recognition of fault drag is fundamental for the reconstruction of the fault history and determination of fault kinematics, as well as prediction in areas of limited exposure or beyond comprehensive seismic resolution. Based on fault analyses derived from 3D visualization of natural examples of fault drag, the importance of fault geometry for the deformation of marker horizons around faults is investigated. The complex 3D structural models presented here are based on a combination of geophysical datasets and geological fieldwork. On an outcrop scale example of fault drag in the hanging wall of a normal fault, located at St. Margarethen, Burgenland, Austria, data from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements, detailed mapping and terrestrial laser scanning were used to construct a high-resolution structural model of the fault plane, the deformed marker horizons and associated secondary faults. In order to obtain geometrical information about the largely unexposed master fault surface, a standard listric balancing dip domain technique was employed. The results indicate that for this normal fault a listric shape can be excluded, as the constructed fault has a geologically meaningless shape cutting upsection into the sedimentary strata. This kinematic modeling result is additionally supported by the observation of deformed horizons in the footwall of the structure. Alternatively, a planar fault model with reverse drag of markers in the hanging wall and footwall is proposed. Deformation around basin scale normal faults. A second part of this thesis investigates a large scale normal fault

  4. [Stickler's syndrome (dystrophia vitreoretinalis hereditaria). Results of surgery for retinal detachment]. (United States)

    Karel, I; Dolezalová, J; Oudová, P


    Stickler's syndrome (SS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease of the collagenous connective tissue where impaired development of the vitreous body gel and peripheral retina and detachment of the retina are associated with general manifestations. The objective of the retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term results of surgery of retinal detachment in SS. The group of patients comprised 7 patients, 6 men and 1 woman aged 4 to 45 years, average age 16.8 years. Autosomal dominant heredity was obvious in 6 members (85.7%) of two families. General manifestations of SS included abnormalities of the facial skeleton (6 patients), cleft palate (4 patients), impaired hearing (2 patients), marfanoid habitus (2 patients) and hyperextensibility of the joints (4 patients). In the eyes with SS was manifested by myopia from -1 to -9 D and a liquid vitreous body. Multiple foci of lattice degeneration supplemented the finding in 6 patients (85.7%). Detachment of the retina was a manifestation of SS in 12 of 14 eyes (85.7%). It was manifested in 5 of 7 patients concurrently or within 12 years in both eyes. The causes of retinal detachment were multiple equatorial and postequatorial tears due to lattice degeneration in 8 eyes (66.7%) or a giant tear in 4 eyes (33.3%). Advanced proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) was associated with retinal detachment in 8 eyes (66.7%) and in 6 eyes (50%) it was not possible to assess the beginning of retinal detachment. In 3 of 5 patients with bilateral retinal detachment the adverse course of retinal detachment on the first eye was followed 8 to 12 years previously in another department: two retinal detachments with giant tears were evaluated as inoperable and one inveterated detachment with advanced PVR was operated unsuccessfully. Retinal detachment was operated in 9 eyes of 7 patients, in two patients both eyes were operated simultaneously. The patients were followed up after surgery for 11 months to 15 years, on average for 65

  5. Qademah Fault Passive Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.


    OBJECTIVE: In this field trip we collect passive data to 1. Convert passive to surface waves 2. Locate Qademah fault using surface wave migration INTRODUCTION: In this field trip we collected passive data for several days. This data will be used to find the surface waves using interferometry and then compared to active-source seismic data collected at the same location. A total of 288 receivers are used. A 3D layout with 5 m inline intervals and 10 m cross line intervals is used, where we used 12 lines with 24 receivers at each line. You will need to download the file (rec_times.mat), it contains important information about 1. Field record no 2. Record day 3. Record month 4. Record hour 5. Record minute 6. Record second 7. Record length P.S. 1. All files are converted from original format (SEG-2) to matlab format P.S. 2. Overlaps between records (10 to 1.5 sec.) are already removed from these files

  6. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.


    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  7. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert


    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  8. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik


    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  9. Diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Mogens; Lunze, Jan; Staroswiecki, Marcel


    Fault-tolerant control aims at a gradual shutdown response in automated systems when faults occur. It satisfies the industrial demand for enhanced availability and safety, in contrast to traditional reactions to faults, which bring about sudden shutdowns and loss of availability. The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. It also introduces design methods suitable for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers for continuous processes that are described by analytical models of discrete-event systems represented by automata. The book is suitable for engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get an overview of the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault-tolerant contro...

  10. Planet Ocean (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel


    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellʼomo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H. Stevie


    Purpose: To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the

  12. Evaluation of the macular architecture of patients operated on from macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Lopez, Meisy; Obret Mendive, Isabel; Hernandez Silva, Juan Raul


    With the support of optical coherence tomography, to evaluate the macular condition of the patients operated on from rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, with detached macula, who underwent buckling surgery and pars plana vitrectomy

  13. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.


    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  14. Passive fault current limiting device (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.


    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin


    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A ‘fault

  16. Radon, carbon dioxide and fault displacements in central Europe related to the Tohoku earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briestensky, M.; Stemberk, J.; Rowberry, M.D.; Thinova, L.; Knejflova, Z.; Praksova, R.


    Tectonic instability may be measured directly using extensometers installed across active faults or it may be indicated by anomalous natural gas concentrations in the vicinity of active faults. This paper presents the results of fault displacement monitoring at two sites in the Bohemian Massif and Western Carpathians. These data have been supplemented by radon monitoring in the Mladec Caves and by carbon dioxide monitoring in the Zbrasov Aragonite Caves. A significant period of tectonic instability is indicated by changes in the fault displacement trends and by anomalous radon and carbon dioxide concentrations. This was recorded around the time of the catastrophic M W = 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake, which hit eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. It is tentatively suggested that the Tohoku Earthquake in the Pacific Ocean and the unusual geodynamic activity recorded in the Bohemian Massif and Western Carpathians both reflect contemporaneous global tectonic changes. (authors)

  17. Postseismic deformation associated with the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China: Constraining fault geometry and investigating a detailed spatial distribution of afterslip (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongshan; Yuan, Linguo; Huang, Dingfa; Yang, Zhongrong; Chen, Weifeng


    We reconstruct two types of fault models associated with the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, one is a listric fault connecting a shallowing sub-horizontal detachment below ∼20 km depth (fault model one, FM1) and the other is a group of more steeply dipping planes further extended to the Moho at ∼60 km depth (fault model two, FM2). Through comparative analysis of the coseismic inversion results, we confirm that the coseismic models are insensitive to the above two type fault geometries. We therefore turn our attention to the postseismic deformation obtained from GPS observations, which can not only impose effective constraints on the fault geometry but also, more importantly, provide valuable insights into the postseismic afterslip. Consequently, FM1 performs outstandingly in the near-, mid-, and far-field, whether considering the viscoelastic influence or not. FM2 performs more poorly, especially in the data-model consistency in the near field, which mainly results from the trade-off of the sharp contrast of the postseismic deformation on both sides of the Longmen Shan fault zone. Accordingly, we propose a listric fault connecting a shallowing sub-horizontal detachment as the optimal fault geometry for the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the inferred optimal fault geometry, we analyse two characterized postseismic deformation phenomena that differ from the coseismic patterns: (1) the postseismic opposite deformation between the Beichuan fault (BCF) and Pengguan fault (PGF) and (2) the slightly left-lateral strike-slip motions in the southwestern Longmen Shan range. The former is attributed to the local left-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip components on the shallow BCF. The latter places constraints on the afterslip on the southwestern BCF and reproduces three afterslip concentration areas with slightly left-lateral strike-slip motions. The decreased Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) change ∼0.322 KPa, derived from the afterslip with viscoelastic influence

  18. Treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yi; Liu Jianmin; Hong Bo; Zhao Wenyuan; Huang Qinghai; Zhang Xin; Zhang Long


    Objective: To summarize the experience on endovascular treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) in 262 cases. Methods: All aneurysms were embolized with GDCs. Catheterization at both ICA was used to monitor the patency of parent arteries for patients with well-developed A1 segment of both ACAs. Microcatheter-assisted or microwire-assisted technique was undertaken to keep patency of parent arteries if the aneurysmal neck was involved with A2 segment. Thirty-four cases with multiple aneurysms had been treated successfully only in one session. Results: Complete embolization was achieved in 160 cases, while subtotal in 56 (>90%) and partial in 46 (<90%). Occlusion of parent arteries developed in 10 cases because of over-occlusion, and cerebral infarction was found in 16 cases after the procedure. Three cases with procedure-related thrombosis were revascularized by urokinase profusion. Follow-up angiograms of 3-6 months showed recanalization in 8 cases requiring a second time session. One case of recurrent aneurysm after GDC treatment was cured by surgical clipping. Conclusions: The result of endovascular treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms is fruitful and seems to be an alternative method in improving the rate of occlusion and reducing the cerebral infarction

  19. Development of Detachable IORT Table for Colorectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Se; Lee, Joon Ha


    In spite of remarkable improvement of surgical skills and anesthesia, local failure still occurred in 36-45% of locally advanced colorectal cancer after curative resection with or without pre-or post-operative irradiation. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is the ideal modality which respectable lesions are removed surgically and the remaining cancer nests are sterilized by irradiation during a surgical procedure. Therefore, the excellent local control without the damage of the adjacent normal tissues can be achieved. In IORT, judicious set up of the treatment cone on the treatment surface of the patient is required for accurate and homogenous dose distribution within treatment field, especially on the slopping surface of sacrum and pelvic sidewall which are the common sites of the local recurrence in rectal cancer. For this purpose, adequate coordination of gantry rotation and table tilting are essential. Adjusting gantry rotation is not difficult but tilting of the table is impossible inconventional treatment couch. Department of Therapeutic Radiology in Yeungnam University Medical Center developed the IORT table for colorectal cancer which is easy to set up and detach on head-down is about 30 degree which is efficient and easy-to-use, not only for IORT but also for colorectal surgery. So far, authors performed IORT with newly developed treatment table in 2 patients with rectal cancer and we found that this newly developed table could contribute in improving the dose distribution of IORT and surgical procedure for colorectal cancer

  20. Vertical detachment energies of anionic thymidine: Microhydration effects. (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Schaefer, Henry F


    Density functional theory has been employed to investigate microhydration effects on the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the thymidine anion by considering the various structures of its monohydrates. Structures were located using a random searching procedure. Among 14 distinct structures of the anionic thymidine monohydrate, the low-energy structures, in general, have the water molecule bound to the thymine base unit. The negative charge developed on the thymine moiety increases the strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the water and base units. The computed VDE values of the thymidine monohydrate anions are predicted to range from 0.67 to 1.60 eV and the lowest-energy structure has a VDE of 1.32 eV. The VDEs of the monohydrates of the thymidine anion, where the N(1)[Single Bond]H hydrogen of thymine has been replaced by a 2(')-deoxyribose ring, are greater by ∼0.30 eV, compared to those of the monohydrates of the thymine anion. The results of the present study are in excellent agreement with the accompanying experimental results of Bowen and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144304 (2010)].

  1. Documents and detachment in the figurational sociology of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy Dolan


    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological implications of using a figurational approach to the study of Gaelic games (the Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football and their organisation and governance from the late nineteenth century onwards. Following Norbert Elias, we argue that data generation guided by theories, and potentially modifying such theories, are essential components of research endeavours. The problem of generalisation or representativeness of historical documents can be addressed by treating documents as part of a fi guration of evidence, thereby constituting a mutually supporting network of data that serves as a scaffold or structure for theoretical and empirical findings. Based on the experience of using documents such as newspaper and referee reports of matches, and also organisational documents such as the minutes of meetings at various levels of governance, we contribute to the discussion concerning borders and boundary maintenance between history, sociology and historical sociology. While we elaborate on the Eliasian perspective on emotional detachment, and secondary involvement, when conducting research, we also note the dificulties in avoiding ‘preferred’ readings of national history given that Gaelic games have been intertwined with the narrative and project of national self-determination in Ireland. Researchers are compelled to recognise the theoretical significance of sports as a motor and symbol of emotional identifications, but must also create distance from their own national habitus in order to prioritise participation in intergenerational knowledge generation over further national myth-making.

  2. Success Rates of Vitrectomy in Treatment of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Helmy Mohamed


    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the anatomical success rates of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV after primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between December 2008 and October 2014 at Nagasaki University Hospital. The preoperative data recorded included the lens status, location of the retinal tear, whether a tear was visualized, presence of multiple tears, macula status, presence of peripheral lattice retinal degeneration, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. The primary outcome measures were anatomical (primary and final and functional success (visual acuity better than 6/60. Results. This study evaluated 422 eyes of 411 patients with a mean age of 57.7±11.2 years. The single-operation reattachment rate (primary anatomical success was 89.8%. The final anatomical success rate was 100% after 2–6 operations (mean = 3.14±1.03. Functional success rate after the primary reattachment operation was 96.7%, while it was 97.2% at the end of the follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the possible risk factors for the primary anatomical failure showed a significant relation with the 25 G instruments (P=0.002 and the presence of multiple tears (P=0.01. Conclusion. The primary anatomical success of PPV for primary uncomplicated RRD was 89.8% and the final anatomical success rate was 100%.

  3. Electron detachment dissociation of fluorescently labeled sialylated oligosaccharides. (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina


    We explored the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) tandem mass spectrometry to fluorescently labeled sialylated oligosaccharides. Standard sialylated oligosaccharides and a sialylated N-linked glycan released from human transferrin were investigated. EDD yielded extensive glycosidic cleavages and cross-ring cleavages in all cases studied, consistently providing complementary structural information compared with infrared multiphoton dissociation. Neutral losses and satellite ions such as C-2H ions were also observed following EDD. In addition, we examined the influence of different fluorescent labels. The acidic label 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) enhanced signal abundance in negative-ion mode. However, few cross-ring fragments were observed for 2-AA-labeled oligosaccharides. The neutral label 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) resulted in more cross-ring cleavages compared with 2-AA-labeled species, but not as extensive fragmentation as for native oligosaccharides, likely resulting from altered negative charge locations from introduction of the fluorescent tag. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.


    Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the Hα absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M 1 = 0.283 ± 0.064 M sun and M 2 = 0.274 ± 0.034 M sun , making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

  5. A geomorphic process law for detachment-limited hillslopes (United States)

    Turowski, Jens


    Geomorphic process laws are used to assess the shape evolution of structures at the Earth's surface over geological time scales, and are routinely used in landscape evolution models. There are two currently available concepts on which process laws for hillslope evolution rely. In the transport-limited concept, the evolution of a hillslope is described by a linear or a non-linear diffusion equation. In contrast, in the threshold slope concept, the hillslope is assumed to collapse to a slope equal to the internal friction angle of the material when the load due to the relief exists the material strength. Many mountains feature bedrock slopes, especially in the high mountains, and material transport along the slope is limited by the erosion of the material from the bedrock. Here, I suggest a process law for detachment-limited or threshold-dominated hillslopes, in which the erosion rate is a function of the applied stress minus the surface stress due to structural loading. The process law leads to the prediction of an equilibrium form that compares well to the shape of many mountain domes.

  6. Success Rates of Vitrectomy in Treatment of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment. (United States)

    Mohamed, Yasser Helmy; Ono, Kozue; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Uematsu, Masafumi; Tsuiki, Eiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Kitaoka, Takashi


    Aim. To investigate the anatomical success rates of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) after primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between December 2008 and October 2014 at Nagasaki University Hospital. The preoperative data recorded included the lens status, location of the retinal tear, whether a tear was visualized, presence of multiple tears, macula status, presence of peripheral lattice retinal degeneration, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The primary outcome measures were anatomical (primary and final) and functional success (visual acuity better than 6/60). Results. This study evaluated 422 eyes of 411 patients with a mean age of 57.7 ± 11.2 years. The single-operation reattachment rate (primary anatomical success) was 89.8%. The final anatomical success rate was 100% after 2-6 operations (mean = 3.14 ± 1.03). Functional success rate after the primary reattachment operation was 96.7%, while it was 97.2% at the end of the follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the possible risk factors for the primary anatomical failure showed a significant relation with the 25 G instruments (P = 0.002) and the presence of multiple tears (P = 0.01). Conclusion. The primary anatomical success of PPV for primary uncomplicated RRD was 89.8% and the final anatomical success rate was 100%.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende


    We have discovered a detached pair of white dwarfs (WDs) with a 12.75 minute orbital period and a 1315 km s -1 radial velocity amplitude. We measure the full orbital parameters of the system using its light curve, which shows ellipsoidal variations, Doppler boosting, and primary and secondary eclipses. The primary is a 0.25 M sun tidally distorted helium WD, only the second tidally distorted WD known. The unseen secondary is a 0.55 M sun carbon-oxygen WD. The two WDs will come into contact in 0.9 Myr due to loss of energy and angular momentum via gravitational wave radiation. Upon contact the systems may merge (yielding a rapidly spinning massive WD), form a stable interacting binary, or possibly explode as an underluminous Type Ia supernova. The system currently has a gravitational wave strain of 10 -22 , about 10,000 times larger than the Hulse-Taylor pulsar; this system would be detected by the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna gravitational wave mission in the first week of operation. This system's rapid change in orbital period will provide a fundamental test of general relativity.

  8. Equilibrium states of nonsynchronous stars in detached binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubow, S.H.


    The effects of nonsynchronous spin on equilibrium states for the radiative envelopes of detached members of close binaries are analyzed. With the adoption of the assumption that the nonsynchronous speeds, u, are much less than the relative orbital speed, Ωd, of the component stars, the full set of stellar structure equations, generalized to include the gas dynamical and heat transport effects of spin, are analyzed to linear order in u/Ωd. For these equilibria: (2) from this velocity field isobars and hence stellar shapes can be calculated for equilibrium states of slightly nonsynchronously rotating stars. On the orbit plane these surfaces coincide with the Roche equipotentials. (3) All sightly nonsynchronous equilibria are baroclinic. Isodensities and isotherms are inclined to isobars by an angle on the order of 0 0 .3 x (u/Ωd for a star in quasi-rigid rotation that nearly fills its Roche lobe). (4) The surface flux distribution departs from the usual gravity darkening law by an amount that scales with u/Ωd. Comparisons of this work are made with the results of previous investigations, and possibilities for future investigations are discussed

  9. Absolute parameters of southern detached eclipsing binary: HD 53570 (United States)

    Sürgit, D.


    In this study, we conducted the first analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the eclipsing binary star HD 53570. Spectroscopic observations of HD 53570 were made at the Sutherland Station of the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2013 and 2014. The radial velocities of the components were determined using the cross-correlation technique. The spectroscopic mass ratio obtained for the system was 1.13 ( ± 0.07). The All Sky Automated Survey V light curve of HD 53570 was analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code combined with the Monte Carlo search method. The final model showed that HD 53570 has a detached configuration. The mass and radii of the primary and secondary components of HD 53570 were derived as 1.06 ( ± 0.07) M⊙, 1.20 ( ± 0.16) M⊙, and 1.42 ( ± 0.14) R⊙, 2.07 ( ± 0.16) R⊙, respectively. The distance of HD 53570 was computed as 248 ( ± 38) pc considering interstellar extinction. The evolutionary status of the component stars was also investigated using Geneva evolutionary models.

  10. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  11. Measuring the force of single protein molecule detachment from surfaces with AFM. (United States)

    Tsapikouni, Theodora S; Missirlis, Yannis F


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the non-specific detachment force of single fibrinogen molecules from glass surfaces. The identification of single unbinding events was based on the characteristics of the parabolic curves, recorded during the stretching of protein molecules. Fibrinogen molecules were covalently bound to Si(3)N(4) AFM tips, previously modified with 3-aminopropyl-dimethyl-ethoxysilane, through a homobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) linker bearing two hydroxysulfosuccinimide esters. The most probable detachment force was found to be 210 pN, when the tip was retracting with a velocity of 1400 nm/s, while the distribution of the detachment distances indicated that the fibrinogen chain can be elongated beyond the length of the physical conformation before detachment. The dependence of the most probable detachment force on the loading rate was examined and the dynamics of fibrinogen binding to the surface were found amenable to the simple expression of the Bell-Evans theory. The theory's expansion, however, by incorporating the concept of the rupture of parallel residue-surface bonds could only describe the detachment of fibrinogen for a small number of such bonds. Finally, the mathematical expression of the Worm-Like Chain model was used to fit the stretching curves before rupture and two interpretations are suggested for the description of the AFM curves with multiple detachment events.

  12. Cup detachment during vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery and birth outcome. (United States)

    Krispin, Eyal; Aviram, Amir; Salman, Lina; Chen, Rony; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat


    To determine the perinatal outcome associated with cup detachment during vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery (VAVD). A retrospective cohort study of all women attempting VAVD in a tertiary hospital (2012-2014). Singleton-term pregnancies were included. Antepartum fetal death and major fetal structural or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. Primary outcome was neonatal birth trauma (subgaleal hematoma, subarachnoid hematoma, subdural hematoma, skull fracture, and/or erb's palsy). Secondary outcomes were maternal complications or other neonatal morbidities. Outcomes were compared between women after ≥1 cup detachment (study group) and the rest (control group). Logistic regression analysis was utilized to adjust results to potential confounders. Overall, 1779 women attempted VAVD during study period. Of them, in 146 (8.2%), the cup detached prior to delivery; 130/146 (89%) had a single detachment. After detachment, 4 (2.7%) delivered by cesarean section, 77 (52.7%) delivered after cup reapplication, and 65 (44.6%) delivered spontaneously. Women in the study group were more likely to undergo VAVD due to prolonged second stage, and were characterized by lower rates of metal cup use. Neonates in the detachment group had higher rates of subarachnoid hematoma and composite neonatal birth trauma (2.7 vs. 0.1% and 4.8 vs. 1.8%, respectively, p Cup detachment is associated with a higher rate of adverse neonatal outcome. Cup reapplication should be considered carefully.

  13. Timing of the Cenozoic basins of Southern Mexico and its relationship with the Pacific truncation process: Subduction erosion or detachment of the Chortís block (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Hernández-Marmolejo, Yoalli Bianii; de la Rosa-Mora, Orestes Antonio; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Bonifacio-Serralde, Carlos; López-García, Nallely; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan


    In the central sector of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Southern Mexico, between approximately 36 and 16 Ma ago and in the west to east direction, a diachronic process of the formation of ∼north-south trending fault-bounded basins occurred. No tectono-sedimentary event in the period between 25 and 20 Ma is recognized in the study region. A period during which subduction erosion truncated the continental crust of southern Mexico has been proposed. The chronology, geometry and style of the formation of the Eocene Miocene fault-bounded basins are more congruent with crustal truncation by the detachment of the Chortís block, thus bringing into question the crustal truncation hypothesis of the Southern Mexico margin. Between Taxco and Tehuacán, using seven new Laser Ablation- Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages in magmatic zircons, we refine the stratigraphy of the Tepenene, Tehuitzingo, Atzumba and Tepelmeme basins. The analyzed basins present similar tectono-sedimentary evolutions as follows: Stage 1, depocenter formation and filling by clastic rocks accumulated as alluvial fans and Stage 2, lacustrine sedimentation characterized by calcareous and/or evaporite beds. Based on our results, we propose the following hypothesis: in Southern Mexico, during Eocene-Miocene times, the diachronic formation of fault-bounded basins with general north-south trend occurred within the framework of the convergence between the plates of North and South America, and once the Chortís block had slipped towards the east, the basins formed in the cortical crust were recently left behind. On the other hand, the beginning of the basins' formation process related to left strike slip faults during Eocene-Oligocene times can be associated with the thermomechanical maturation cortical process that caused the brittle/ductile transition level in the continental crust to shallow.

  14. Fault Management Guiding Principles (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan


    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  15. Bookshelf faulting and transform motion between rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland (United States)

    Green, R. G.; White, R. S.; Greenfield, T. S.


    Plate spreading is segmented on length scales from 10 - 1,000 kilometres. Where spreading segments are offset, extensional motion has to transfer from one segment to another. In classical plate tectonics, mid-ocean ridge spreading centres are offset by transform faults, but smaller 'non-transform' offsets exist between slightly overlapping spreading centres which accommodate shear by a variety of geometries. In Iceland the mid-Atlantic Ridge is raised above sea level by the Iceland mantle plume, and is divided into a series of segments 20-150 km long. Using microseismicity recorded by a temporary array of 26 three-component seismometers during 2009-2012 we map bookshelf faulting between the offset Askja and Kverkfjöll rift segments in north Iceland. The micro-earthquakes delineate a series of sub-parallel strike-slip faults. Well constrained fault plane solutions show consistent left-lateral motion on fault planes aligned closely with epicentral trends. The shear couple across the transform zone causes left-lateral slip on the series of strike-slip faults sub-parallel to the rift fabric, causing clockwise rotations about a vertical axis of the intervening rigid crustal blocks. This accommodates the overall right-lateral transform motion in the relay zone between the two overlapping volcanic rift segments. The faults probably reactivated crustal weaknesses along the dyke intrusion fabric (parallel to the rift axis) and have since rotated ˜15° clockwise into their present orientation. The reactivation of pre-existing rift-parallel weaknesses is in contrast with mid-ocean ridge transform faults, and is an important illustration of a 'non-transform' offset accommodating shear between overlapping spreading segments.

  16. Effects of low-Z and high-Z impurities on divertor detachment and plasma confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Q. Wang


    Full Text Available The impurity-seeded detached divertor is essential for heat exhaust in ITER and other reactor-relevant devices. Dedicated experiments with injection of N2, Ne and Ar have been performed in DIII-D to assess the impact of the different impurities on divertor detachment and confinement. Seeding with N2, Ne and Ar all promote divertor detachment, greatly reducing heat flux near the strike point. The upstream plasma density at the onset of detachment decreases with increasing impurity-puffing flow rates. For all injected impurity species, the confinement and pedestal pressure are correlated with the impurity content and the ratio of separatrix loss power to the l-H transition threshold power. As the divertor plasma approaches detachment, the high-Z impurity seeding tends to degrade the core confinement owing to the increased core radiation. In particular, Ar injection with up to 50% of the injected power radiating in the core cools the pedestal and core plasmas, thus significantly degrading the confinement. As for Ne seeding, medium confinement with H98∼0.8 can be maintained during the detachment phase with the pedestal temperature being reduced by about 50%. In contrast, in the N2 seeded plasmas, radiation is predominately confined in the boundary plasma, which leads to less effect on the confinement and pedestal. In the case of strong N2 gas puffing, the confinement recovers during the detachment, from ∼20% reduction at the onset of the detachment to greater than unity comparable to that before the seeding. The core and pedestal temperatures feature a reduction of 30% from the initial attached phase and remain nearly constant during the detachment phase. The improvement in confinement appears to arise from the increase in pedestal and core density despite the temperature reduction.

  17. A Meta-Analysis on Antecedents and Outcomes of Detachment from Work. (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Lohmann-Haislah, Andrea


    Detachment from work has been proposed as an important non-work experience helping employees to recover from work demands. This meta-analysis (86 publications, k = 91 independent study samples, N = 38,124 employees) examined core antecedents and outcomes of detachment in employee samples. With regard to outcomes, results indicated average positive correlations between detachment and self-reported mental (i.e., less exhaustion, higher life satisfaction, more well-being, better sleep) and physical (i.e., lower physical discomfort) health, state well-being (i.e., less fatigue, higher positive affect, more intensive state of recovery), and task performance (small to medium sized effects). However, average relationships between detachment and physiological stress indicators and work motivation were not significant while associations with contextual performance and creativity were significant, but negative. Concerning work characteristics, as expected, job demands were negatively related and job resources were positively related to detachment (small sized effects). Further, analyses revealed that person characteristics such as negative affectivity/neuroticism (small sized effect) and heavy work investment (medium sized effect) were negatively related to detachment whereas detachment and demographic variables (i.e., age and gender) were not related. Moreover, we found a medium sized average negative relationship between engagement in work-related activities during non-work time and detachment. For most of the examined relationships heterogeneity of effect sizes was moderate to high. We identified study design, samples' gender distribution, and affective valence of work-related thoughts as moderators for some of these aforementioned relationships. The results of this meta-analysis point to detachment as a non-work (recovery) experience that is influenced by work-related and personal characteristics which in turn is relevant for a range of employee outcomes.

  18. A Meta-Analysis on Antecedents and Outcomes of Detachment from Work (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Lohmann-Haislah, Andrea


    Detachment from work has been proposed as an important non-work experience helping employees to recover from work demands. This meta-analysis (86 publications, k = 91 independent study samples, N = 38,124 employees) examined core antecedents and outcomes of detachment in employee samples. With regard to outcomes, results indicated average positive correlations between detachment and self-reported mental (i.e., less exhaustion, higher life satisfaction, more well-being, better sleep) and physical (i.e., lower physical discomfort) health, state well-being (i.e., less fatigue, higher positive affect, more intensive state of recovery), and task performance (small to medium sized effects). However, average relationships between detachment and physiological stress indicators and work motivation were not significant while associations with contextual performance and creativity were significant, but negative. Concerning work characteristics, as expected, job demands were negatively related and job resources were positively related to detachment (small sized effects). Further, analyses revealed that person characteristics such as negative affectivity/neuroticism (small sized effect) and heavy work investment (medium sized effect) were negatively related to detachment whereas detachment and demographic variables (i.e., age and gender) were not related. Moreover, we found a medium sized average negative relationship between engagement in work-related activities during non-work time and detachment. For most of the examined relationships heterogeneity of effect sizes was moderate to high. We identified study design, samples' gender distribution, and affective valence of work-related thoughts as moderators for some of these aforementioned relationships. The results of this meta-analysis point to detachment as a non-work (recovery) experience that is influenced by work-related and personal characteristics which in turn is relevant for a range of employee outcomes. PMID:28133454

  19. Mantle hydration along outer-rise faults inferred from serpentinite permeability. (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Kohei; Katayama, Ikuo; Hirauchi, Ken-Ichi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi


    Recent geophysical surveys indicate that hydration (serpentinization) of oceanic mantle is related to outer-rise faulting prior to subduction. The serpentinization of oceanic mantle influences the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes and subduction water flux, thereby promoting arc volcanism. Since the chemical reactions that produce serpentinite are geologically rapid at low temperatures, the flux of water delivery to the reaction front appears to control the lateral extent of serpentinization. In this study, we measured the permeability of low-temperature serpentinites composed of lizardite and chrysotile, and calculated the lateral extent of serpentinization along an outer-rise fault based on Darcy's law. The experimental results indicate that serpentinization extends to a region several hundred meters wide in the direction normal to the outer-rise fault in the uppermost oceanic mantle. We calculated the global water flux carried by serpentinized oceanic mantle ranging from 1.7 × 10 11 to 2.4 × 10 12  kg/year, which is comparable or even higher than the water flux of hydrated oceanic crust.

  20. Microseismicity at the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara offshore Istanbul, NW Turkey (United States)

    Bulut, Fatih; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ellsworth, William L.; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) below the Sea of Marmara forms a “seismic gap” where a major earthquake is expected to occur in the near future. This segment of the fault lies between the 1912 Ganos and 1999 İzmit ruptures and is the only NAFZ segment that has not ruptured since 1766. To monitor the microseismic activity at the main fault branch offshore of Istanbul below the Çınarcık Basin, a permanent seismic array (PIRES) was installed on the two outermost Prince Islands, Yassiada and Sivriada, at a few kilometers distance to the fault. In addition, a temporary network of ocean bottom seismometers was deployed throughout the Çınarcık Basin. Slowness vectors are determined combining waveform cross correlation and P wave polarization. We jointly invert azimuth and traveltime observations for hypocenter determination and apply a bootstrap resampling technique to quantify the location precision. We observe seismicity rates of 20 events per month for M etermine composite focal mechanisms implementing recordings of surrounding permanent land stations. Fault plane solutions have a predominant right-lateral strike-slip mechanism, indicating that normal faulting along this part of the NAFZ plays a minor role. Toward the west we observe increasing components of thrust faulting. This supports the model of NW trending, dextral strike-slip motion along the northern and main branch of the NAFZ below the eastern Sea of Marmara.

  1. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews


    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  2. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  3. Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive engines. ... Five faults have been simulated on the MVEM, including three sensor faults, one component fault and one actuator fault. The three sensor faults ... Keywords: Automotive engine, independent RBFNN model, RBF neural network, fault detection

  4. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in an eye of retinoblastoma treated by radiation and cryocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Kawai, Masataka; Nii, Seiji; Katsura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Akihiro


    A 4-month-old female infant was diagnosed as bilateral retinoblastoma. The left eye was treated by enucleation and the right by radiation. The right eye received repeated thermochemotherapy, cryocoagulation and photocoagulation for recurrence. Total retinal detachment was detected after surgery for complicated cataract at the age of 2 years 9 months. Vitreous surgery led to the detection of posterior vitreous detachment and retinal breaks in the coagulated scar areas with vitreoretinal adhesion around the calcified tumor. During the following one year, the retina has been attached with no reoccurrence of the tumor. This case illustrates that rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a possibility in retinoblastoma treated by radiation or retinal coagulations. (author)

  5. Heat flux management via advanced magnetic divertor configurations and divertor detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolemen, E., E-mail: [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bray, B.D. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Humphreys, D.A.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Maingi, R.; Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Unterberg, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)


    The snowflake divertor (SFD) control and detachment control to manage the heat flux at the divertor are successfully demonstrated at DIII-D. Results of the development and implementation of these two heat flux reduction control methods are presented. The SFD control algorithm calculates the position of the two null-points in real-time and controls shaping coil currents to achieve and stabilize various snowflake configurations. Detachment control stabilizes the detachment front fixed at specified distance between the strike point and the X-point throughout the shot.

  6. The Role of an Electric Field in the Formation of a Detached Regime in Tokamak Plasma (United States)

    Senichenkov, I.; Kaveeva, E.; Rozhansky, V.; Sytova, E.; Veselova, I.; Voskoboynikov, S.; Coster, D.


    Modeling of the transition to the detachment of ASDEX Upgrade tokamak plasma with increasing density is performed using the SOLPS-ITER numerical code with a self-consistent account of drifts and currents. Their role in plasma redistribution both in the confinement region and in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is investigated. The mechanism of high field side high-density formation in the SOL in the course of detachment is suggested. In the full detachment regime, when the cold plasma region expands above the X-point and reaches closed magnetic-flux surfaces, plasma perturbation in a confined region may lead to a change in the confinement regime.

  7. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.


    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  8. Fault trees for diagnosis of system fault conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, H.E.; Yadigaroglu, G.


    Methods for generating repair checklists on the basis of fault tree logic and probabilistic importance are presented. A one-step-ahead optimization procedure, based on the concept of component criticality, minimizing the expected time to diagnose system failure is outlined. Options available to the operator of a nuclear power plant when system fault conditions occur are addressed. A low-pressure emergency core cooling injection system, a standby safeguard system of a pressurized water reactor power plant, is chosen as an example illustrating the methods presented

  9. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems (United States)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.


    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  10. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Wang, Xue


    Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery to restore normal anatomy and to stabilize or improve vision. PVR usually occurs in association with recurrent RD (that is, after initial retinal re-attachment surgery) but occasionally may be associated with primary RD. Either way, a tamponade agent (gas or silicone oil) is needed during surgery to reduce the rate of postoperative recurrent RD. The objective of this review was to assess the relative safety and effectiveness of various tamponade agents used with surgery for retinal detachment (RD) complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 June 2013. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of participants undergoing surgery for RD associated with PVR that compared various tamponade agents. Two review authors screened the search results independently. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. The review included 516 participants from three RCTs. One study was conducted in the USA and consisted of two trials: the first trial randomized 151 adults to receive either silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas tamponades; and the second trial randomized 271 adults to receive either

  11. Fault-tolerant architecture: Evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Kisner, R.A.


    The design and reliability of four fault-tolerant architectures that may be used in nuclear power plant control systems were evaluated. Two architectures are variations of triple-modular-redundant (TMR) systems, and two are variations of dual redundant systems. The evaluation includes a review of methods of implementing fault-tolerant control, the importance of automatic recovery from failures, methods of self-testing diagnostics, block diagrams of typical fault-tolerant controllers, review of fault-tolerant controllers operating in nuclear power plants, and fault tree reliability analyses of fault-tolerant systems

  12. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam


    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe......Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation...... to the quality of decisions given to navigators....

  13. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob


    degradation in the sense of guaranteed degraded performance. A number of fault diagnosis problems, fault tolerant control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, mainly from a fault modeling point of view. The method is illustrated on a servo example including......A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...

  14. Fault estimation - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik


    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis problems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem set-up introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis...... problems can be solved by standard optimization techniques. The proposed methods include (1) fault diagnosis (fault estimation, (FE)) for systems with model uncertainties; FE for systems with parametric faults, and FE for a class of nonlinear systems. Copyright...

  15. Recombination dominated hydrogenic emission from the detached plasmas in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.; Koenig, R.; Wenzel, U.; Thomsen, H.; McCormick, K.; Grigull, P.; Feng, Y.; Klinger, T.; John, A.


    Beyond a certain threshold average density in the High-Density H-Mode the island divertor plasma in the stellarator W7-AS undergoes partial detachment. The tomographic reconstruction of the radiated power density from the detached pulses show that the radiation profile in the triangular plane is also asymmetric. In the detached phase, the spectrometer viewing tangentially to the target tiles in the top divertor region manifests that the impurity radiation layer is close to the X-points. The spectral analysis also demonstrates the presence of a hydrogen radiation zone dominated by recombination emission close to the target tiles. This papers presents the emission from the deeply detached locations including the volume recombination in a stable discharge. (orig.)

  16. Role of Membrane Cholesterol Levels in Activation of Lyn upon Cell Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Morinaga


    Full Text Available Cholesterol, a major component of the plasma membrane, determines the physicalproperties of biological membranes and plays a critical role in the assembly of membranemicrodomains. Enrichment or deprivation of membrane cholesterol affects the activities of manysignaling molecules at the plasma membrane. Cell detachment changes the structure of the plasmamembrane and influences the localizations of lipids, including cholesterol. Recent studies showedthat cell detachment changes the activities of a variety of signaling molecules. We previously reportedthat the localization and the function of the Src-family kinase Lyn are critically regulated by itsmembrane anchorage through lipid modifications. More recently, we found that the localization andthe activity of Lyn were changed upon cell detachment, although the manners of which vary betweencell types. In this review, we highlight the changes in the localization of Lyn and a role of cholesterolin the regulation of Lyn’s activation following cell detachment.

  17. Massive Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment in a Case of Hypertensive Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalba-Pinto


    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic high blood pressure is related to a variety of retinal manifestations. We present an atypical case of hypertensive chorioretinopathy with massive bilateral serous retinal detachment. Case Report: A 26-year-old male with a genitourinary malformation and secondary grade IV chronic kidney failure as well as high blood pressure complained of acute vision loss. Dilated fundus examination evidenced a bilateral serous retinal detachment with macular involvement. The patient was unresponsive to oral antihypertensive therapy and dialysis treatment. The serous retinal detachment progressively decreased after the restoration of dialysis and antihypertensive therapy. The final visual acuity was 0.50 in both eyes. Discussion: In cases of serous macular detachment, it is mandatory to rule out different systemic and ocular diseases. The presence of uncontrolled high blood pressure may produce aggressive bilateral retinal changes, thus hypertension must be under early and strict control in order to improve the visual outcomes.

  18. Massive Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment in a Case of Hypertensive Chorioretinopathy (United States)

    Villalba-Pinto, Luis; Hernández-Ortega, M. Ángeles; de los Mozos, F. Javier Lavid; Pascual-Camps, Isabel; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Arevalo, J. Fernando; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto


    Introduction Systemic high blood pressure is related to a variety of retinal manifestations. We present an atypical case of hypertensive chorioretinopathy with massive bilateral serous retinal detachment. Case Report A 26-year-old male with a genitourinary malformation and secondary grade IV chronic kidney failure as well as high blood pressure complained of acute vision loss. Dilated fundus examination evidenced a bilateral serous retinal detachment with macular involvement. The patient was unresponsive to oral antihypertensive therapy and dialysis treatment. The serous retinal detachment progressively decreased after the restoration of dialysis and antihypertensive therapy. The final visual acuity was 0.50 in both eyes. Discussion In cases of serous macular detachment, it is mandatory to rule out different systemic and ocular diseases. The presence of uncontrolled high blood pressure may produce aggressive bilateral retinal changes, thus hypertension must be under early and strict control in order to improve the visual outcomes. PMID:25120474

  19. Single- and double-electron detachment in collisions of two negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, F.; Schulze, R.; Kruedener, S.; Meuser, S.; Salzborn, E.


    Employing the crossed-beams technique in conjunction with a beam-pulsing method, we have measured absolute cross sections σ tot for the process H - + H - → H O +... for CM energies between 2.5 and 100 keV. Combining the present results with our previously measured cross sections for double-electron detachment (σ OO ) and triple-electron detachment (σ 0+ ), we obtain cross sections σ 0- for the single electron detachment process from the relation σ 0- = σ tot -σ 00 -σ 0+ . The experimental data of single- and double-electron detachment are well described by theoretical results based on the non-stationary tunnelling approach. Both cross sections are calculated for CM energies between 0.15 and 300 keV. A new two-electron simultaneous transition mechanism is introduced. The importance of this process for the theoretical assessment of the experimental results is discussed. (Author)

  20. Integrated fault tree development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.


    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use

  1. Visualization of intermittent blobby plasma transport in attached and detached plasmas of the NAGDIS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Furuta, Katsuhiro; Takamura, Shuichi


    We investigated the intermittent convective plasma transport in a attached and/or detached plasma condition of the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. Images taken by a fast-imaging camera clearly show that in attached plasmas, blobs are peeled off the bulk plasma, and propagate outward with an azimuthal motion. In detached plasmas, plasma turbulence observed near the plasma recombining region drives strong intermittent radial plasma transport, which could broaden the radial density profile. (author)

  2. Assessment of X-point target divertor configuration for power handling and detachment front control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Umansky


    Full Text Available A study of long-legged tokamak divertor configurations is performed with the edge transport code UEDGE (Rognlien et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 196, 347, 1992. The model parameters are based on the ADX tokamak concept design (LaBombard et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 053020, 2015. Several long-legged divertor configurations are considered, in particular the X-point target configuration proposed for ADX, and compared with a standard divertor. For otherwise identical conditions, a scan of the input power from the core plasma is performed. It is found that as the power is reduced to a threshold value, the plasma in the outer leg transitions to a fully detached state which defines the upper limit on the power for detached divertor operation. Reducing the power further results in the detachment front shifting upstream but remaining stable. At low power the detachment front eventually moves to the primary X-point, which is usually associated with degradation of the core plasma, and this defines the lower limit on the power for the detached divertor operation. For the studied parameters, the operation window for a detached divertor in the standard divertor configuration is very small, or even non-existent; under the same conditions for long-legged divertors the detached operation window is quite large, in particular for the X-point target configuration, allowing a factor of 5–10 variation in the input power. These modeling results point to possibility of stable fully detached divertor operation for a tokamak with extended divertor legs.

  3. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of subretinal bands associated with chronic retinal detachments


    Kothari, Nikisha; Kuriyan, Ajay E; Flynn, Harry W


    Nikisha Kothari, Ajay E Kuriyan, Harry W Flynn JrDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: We report three patients with subretinal bands associated with retinal detachment in chronic retinal detachments who underwent successful retinal reattachment. Subretinal bands before and after surgery can be identified on clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Removal of subr...

  4. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note (United States)

    Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Horikawa, Fernando Kendi


    In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy. PMID:23853472

  5. Dissecting the roles of ROCK isoforms in stress-induced cell detachment


    Shi, Jianjian; Surma, Michelle; Zhang, Lumin; Wei, Lei


    The homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are involved in stress fiber assembly and cell adhesion and are assumed to be functionally redundant. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ROCK1 ?/? and ROCK2?/? mice, we have recently reported that they play different roles in regulating doxorubicin-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment: ROCK1 is involved in destabilizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell detachment, whereas ROCK2 is required for stabilizing the actin...

  6. [Functional results of cryosurgical procedures in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region - our experience]. (United States)

    Chrapek, O; Sín, M; Jirková, B; Jarkovský, J; Rehák, J


    Aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively functional results of cryosurgical treatment of uncomplicated, idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region in phakic patients operated on at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, E.U., during the period 2002 -2013, and to evaluate the significance of the macula detachment duration for the final visual acuity. In the study group were included 56 eyes of 56 patients operated in the years 2003 - 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc. All patients were phakic and in all of them, the retinal detachment including the macula region was diagnosed. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 8,75 months. The initial and final visual acuity testing were performed. Comparing the initial and final visual acuity we rated the level of the visual acuity change. The result was stated as improved, if the visual acuity improved by 1 or more lines on the ETDRS chart. The result was rated as stabilized, if the visual acuity remained the same or it changed by 1 line of the ETDRS chart only. The result was evaluated as worsened, if the visual acuity decreased by 1 or more lines of the ETDRS chart. In the followed-up group, the authors compared visual acuity levels in patients with the macula detachment duration 10 days and 11 days. For the statistical evaluation of achieved results, the Mann - Whitney U test was used. The visual acuity improved in 49 (87 %), did not changed in 5 (9 %) and worsened in 2 (4 %) patients. The patients with macula detachment duration 10 days achieved statistically significant better visual acuity than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days. Patients with macula detachment duration 10 days have better prognosis for functional result than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days.

  7. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Hitoshi Shinohara


    Full Text Available In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy.

  8. Adoption, Cynical Detachment, and New Age Beliefs in Juno and Kung Fu Panda


    Chen, Fu-jen


    In his article "Adoption, Cynical Detachment, and New Age Beliefs in Juno and Kung Fu Panda" Fu-Jen Chen situates his study within today's prevailing climate of global consumption to argue that the 2007 film Juno—featuring an unconventional portrayal of the adoption triad and a cynical detachment from public values—not only trivializes and depoliticizes the practice of adoption but also serves as an ideological supplement to today's global capitalism. Furthermore, Kung Fu Panda 1 & 2 (2008; 2...

  9. Sedimentary record of relay zone evolution, Central Corinth Rift (Greece): Role of fault propagation and structural inheritance. (United States)

    Hemelsdaël, Romain; Ford, Mary; Meyer, Nicolas


    characterised by the successive deposition of the northward prograding Platanos Gilbert-type delta (Middle group; deposited in hangingwall of the Pirgaki-Mamoussia fault) and the NE to E prograding Akrata Gilbert-type delta (Upper group). The Akrata Gilbert-type delta records progressive rotation and lengthening of the relay ramp as the East Helike fault and Derveni fault propagated laterally (from around 0.8 Ma) and started to overlap. The relay ramp was then breached by the Krathis fault (around 0.45 Ma) and the latter reactivated a NW-SE oriented inherited structure. Onshore-offshore correlation and profile restoration of the Upper group demonstrate the presence of this pre-existing structure (detachment fault?) below the Akrata relay zone that was responsible for significant eastward thickening in early rift sediments (Lower to Middle group). Our evolution model is consistent with the 'isolated fault' model where a fault array initially develops from growth of kinematically independent fault segments and fault displacement gradually accumulates during pre- and post-linkage stages. Despite the prominent control of pre-existing fabrics on the location of the transfer zone, lateral fault propagation and interaction can be well documented.

  10. Ocean Prediction Center (United States)

    Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Weather Analysis & Forecasts of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis

  11. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair


    also resulted in the formation of the overlying Maitai continental margin fore-arc basin (possibly related to rollback or a decrease in dip of the remaining subduction zone).Very coarse clastic material (up to ca. 700 m thick) including detached blocks of basaltic and gabbroic rocks, up to tens or metres in size (or more), was shed down fault scarps from relatively shallow water into a deeper water setting by gravity flow processes, ranging from rock fall, to debris flow, to turbidity currents. In addition, relatively fine-grained volcaniclastic-terrigenous sediment was input from an E Gondwana continental margin arc in the form of distal gravity flows, as indicated by geochemical data (e.g. Rare Earth Element analysis of sandstones and shales). The lowest part of the overlying Maitai fore-arc sequence in some areas is represented by hundreds of metres-thick sequences of mixed carbonate-volcaniclastic-terrigenous gravity flows (Wooded Peak Fm.), which are interpreted to have been derived from the E Gondwana continental margin and which finally accumulated in fault-controlled depocentres. Input of shallow-water carbonate material later waned and the Late Permian-Triassic Maitai fore-arc basin was dominated by gravity flows that were largely derived from a contemporaneous continental margin arc (partially preserved in present SE Australia). Subsequent tectonic deformation included on-going subduction, strike-slip and terrane accretion. The sedimentary covers of comparable accreted ophiolites elsewhere (e.g. Coast Range ophiolite, California) may reveal complementary evidence of fundamental terrane accretion processes. Acknowledgements: Hamish Campbell, Dave Craw, Mike Johnson, Chuck Landis, Nick Mortimer, Dhana Pillai and other members of the South Island geological research community

  12. Application of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility to large-scale fault kinematics: an evaluation (United States)

    Casas, Antonio M.; Roman-Berdiel, Teresa; Marcén, Marcos; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; Soto, Ruth; Garcia-Lasanta, Cristina; Calvin, Pablo; Pocovi, Andres; Gil-Imaz, Andres; Pueyo-Anchuela, Oscar; Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Vernet, Eva; Santolaria, Pablo; Osacar, Cinta; Santanach, Pere; Corrado, Sveva; Invernizzi, Chiara; Aldega, Luca; Caricchi, Chiara; Villalain, Juan Jose


    Major discontinuities in the Earth's crust are expressed by faults that often cut across its whole thickness favoring, for example, the emplacement of magmas of mantelic origin. These long-lived faults are common in intra-plate environments and show multi-episodic activity that spans for hundred of million years and constitute first-order controls on plate evolution, favoring basin formation and inversion, rotations and the accommodation of deformation in large segments of plates. Since the post-Paleozoic evolution of these large-scale faults has taken place (and can only be observed) at shallow crustal levels, the accurate determination of fault kinematics is hampered by scarcely developed fault rocks, lack of classical structural indicators and the brittle deformation accompanying fault zones. These drawbacks are also found when thick clayey or evaporite levels, with or without diapiric movements, are the main detachment levels that facilitate large displacements in the upper crust. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) provides a useful tool for the analysis of fault zones lacking fully developed kinematic indicators. However, its meaning in terms of deformational fabrics must be carefully checked by means of outcrop and thin section analysis in order to establish the relationship between the orientation of magnetic ellipsoid axes and the transport directions, as well as the representativity of scalar parameters regarding deformation mechanisms. Timing of faulting, P-T conditions and magnetic mineralogy are also major constraints for the interpretation of magnetic fabrics and therefore, separating ferro- and para-magnetic fabric components may be necessary in complex cases. AMS results indicate that the magnetic lineation can be parallel (when projected onto the shear plane) or perpendicular (i.e. parallel to the intersection lineation) to the transport direction depending mainly on the degree of shear deformation. Changes between the two end-members can

  13. Update: San Andreas Fault experiment (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.


    Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

  14. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults (United States)

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.


    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  15. A case of traction retinal detachment in a patient with Gaucher disease. (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Gekka, Tamaki; Arai, Kota; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi


    This is the first report of vitreous surgery for traction retinal detachment in a patient with type III Gaucher disease with multiple vitreous opacities. A 16-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Gaucher disease at age two and was undergoing enzyme replacement therapy presented with numerous white opacities of varying sizes in the vitreous bodies of both eyes. Visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye and 20/2000 in the left eye. The retina of the left eye was completely detached, and vitreous surgery was performed. Liquefaction of the vitreous body was advanced, and the central part of the vitreous cavity contained almost no vitreous humor. The macular region was successfully aspirated with a vitreous cutter to form a posterior vitreous detachment. From the optic disk to the nasal side, however, posterior vitreous detachment formation was prevented by strong adhesions between the retina and the vitreous body. The traction retinal detachment of the posterior fundus improved after vitreous body resection alone. Traction retinal detachment may occur as a result of severe vitreous liquefaction in cases of Gaucher disease with numerous vitreous opacities.

  16. Risk of serous retinal detachment in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shin Chang

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study was to investigate the association of serous retinal detachment with having end-stage renal disease (ESRD while on dialysis. The cohort study included 94,024 patients with ESRD on dialysis registered between January 2000 to December 2009 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. An age- and sex-matched control group comprised 94,024 patients selected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Information for each patient was collected from the index date until December 2011. Twenty-seven ESRD patients and 11 controls developed serous retinal detachment (P < 0.001 during follow-up, demonstrating a significantly increased risk of serous retinal detachment in patients with ESRD on dialysis compared with controls (incidence rate ratio = 3.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-6.83. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients were 3.86 times more likely to develop serous retinal detachment than the full cohort (adjusted HR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.15-12.96. In conclusion, patients with ESRD on dialysis demonstrate an increased risk of serous retinal detachment. Interdisciplinary collaboration between nephrologists and ophthalmologists is important to deal with serous retinal detachment in patients with ESRD on dialysis and prevent impairments of visual acuity.

  17. Postoperative recovery of visual function after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. (United States)

    van de Put, Mathijs A J; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M; Japing, Wouter J; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I


    To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Macular detachment was present for 2-32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p = 0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity) (p = 0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p = 0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p = 1.7×10(-4) and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p = 0.0034). Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. NTR839.

  18. [Clinical Characteristics of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in Highly Myopic and Phakic Eyes]. (United States)

    Orihara, Tadashi; Hirota, Kazunari; Yokota, Reiji; Kunita, Daisuke; Itoh, Yuji; Rii, Tosho; Koto, Takashi; Hiraoka, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Hirakata, Akito


    To evaluate clinical characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in high myopic and phakic eyes. The subjects were 1174 eyes of phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment detected in 1199 eyes that underwent initial vitreoretinal surgery between April 2006 and March 2011. Eyes with macular hole retinal detachment or secondary retinal detachment were excluded. The 486 eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -6.0 D or axial length ≥ 26.5 mm) and the 688 eyes with non-high myopia were compared. The mean age was significantly younger in the high myopia group (42.7 ± 14.2 years old, p lattice degeneration were more frequent (16.7%, 20.4%, respectively). The incidences of the retinal detachment in younger age and those caused by retinal holes were higher in the high myopia group. Higher incidence of retinal detachment and lattice degeneration in the fellow eyes of the high myopia group indicated that careful observation also in the fellow eyes was recommended.

  19. Effects of temporal muscle detachment and coronoidotomy on facial growth in young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Engelberg Fernandes Gomes


    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of unilateral detachment of the temporal muscle and coronoidotomy on facial growth in young rats. Thirty one-month-old Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: detachment, coronoidotomy and sham-operated. Under general anesthesia, unilateral detachment of the temporal muscle was performed for the detachment group, unilateral coronoidotomy was performed for the coronoidotomy group, and only surgical access was performed for the sham-operated group. The animals were sacrificed at three months of age. Their soft tissues were removed, and the mandible was disarticulated. Radiographic projections-axial views of the skulls and lateral views of hemimandibles-were taken. Cephalometric evaluations were performed, and the values obtained were submitted to statistical analyses. There was a significant homolateral difference in the length of the premaxilla, height of the mandibular ramus and body, and the length of the mandible in all three groups. However, comparisons among the groups revealed no significant differences between the detachment and coronoidotomy groups for most measurements. It was concluded that both experimental detachment of the temporal muscle and coronoidotomy during the growth period in rats induced asymmetry of the mandible and affected the premaxilla.

  20. Macular detachment associated with an optic pit: optical coherence tomography patterns and surgical outcomes. (United States)

    Skaat, Alon; Moroz, Iris; Moisseiev, Joseph


    To describe the different optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns in macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit and their long-term evolution following vitrectomy.
 The data of 5 patients (9-43 years of age) with unilateral macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, who had at least 1 year of follow-up, were compiled. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with gas tamponade was performed as the primary procedure in all patients. The OCT scans, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and anatomic outcomes were documented.
 Two main OCT patterns were identified: a multilayer schisis pattern and a serous detachment pattern. Patients with multilayer schisis pattern were older and demonstrated worse mean preoperative (20/160) and postoperative (20/50) BCVA compared to serous detachment pattern patients (20/30 and 20/20, respectively). An average of 2.3 procedures per patient was needed in the multilayer schisis pattern compared to just one procedure in the serous detachment pattern. In 3 patients, additional pneumatic retinopexy was performed with full resolution of the subretinal fluid achieved.
 Two distinct OCT patterns were observed in eyes with macular detachments with an optic pit, with different clinical features and prognoses. Excellent final visual acuity was obtained in all eyes, including those that required several surgical procedures.