WorldWideScience

Sample records for ocean temperature anomalies

  1. Retrieving Temperature Anomaly in the Global Subsurface and Deeper Ocean From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hua; Li, Wene; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving the subsurface and deeper ocean (SDO) dynamic parameters from satellite observations is crucial for effectively understanding ocean interior anomalies and dynamic processes, but it is challenging to accurately estimate the subsurface thermal structure over the global scale from sea surface parameters. This study proposes a new approach based on Random Forest (RF) machine learning to retrieve subsurface temperature anomaly (STA) in the global ocean from multisource satellite observations including sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA), and sea surface wind anomaly (SSWA) via in situ Argo data for RF training and testing. RF machine-learning approach can accurately retrieve the STA in the global ocean from satellite observations of sea surface parameters (SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, SSWA). The Argo STA data were used to validate the accuracy and reliability of the results from the RF model. The results indicated that SSHA, SSTA, SSSA, and SSWA together are useful parameters for detecting SDO thermal information and obtaining accurate STA estimations. The proposed method also outperformed support vector regression (SVR) in global STA estimation. It will be a useful technique for studying SDO thermal variability and its role in global climate system from global-scale satellite observations.

  2. The effects of sea surface temperature anomalies on oceanic coral reef systems in the southwestern tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, B. P.; Costa, M. B. S. F.; Coxey, M. S.; Gaspar, A. L. B.; Veleda, D.; Araujo, M.

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, high sea surface temperatures that were recorded in several parts of the world and caused coral bleaching and coral mortality were also recorded in the southwest Atlantic Ocean, between latitudes 0°S and 8°S. This paper reports on coral bleaching and diseases in Rocas Atoll and Fernando de Noronha archipelago and examines their relationship with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies recorded by PIRATA buoys located at 8°S30°W, 0°S35°W, and 0°S23°W. Adjusted satellite data were used to derive SST climatological means at buoy sites and to derive anomalies at reef sites. The whole region was affected by the elevated temperature anomaly that persisted through 2010, reaching 1.67 °C above average at reef sites and 1.83 °C above average at buoys sites. A significant positive relationship was found between the percentage of coral bleaching that was observed on reef formations and the corresponding HotSpot SST anomaly recorded by both satellite and buoys. These results indicate that the warming observed in the ocean waters was followed by a warming at the reefs. The percentage of bleached corals persisting after the subsidence of the thermal stress, and disease prevalence increased through 2010, after two periods of thermal stress. The in situ temperature anomaly observed during the 2009-2010 El Niño event was equivalent to the anomaly observed during the 1997-1998 El Niño event, explaining similar bleaching intensity. Continued monitoring efforts are necessary to further assess the relationship between bleaching severity and PIRATA SST anomalies and improve the use of this new dataset in future regional bleaching predictions.

  3. OceanXtremes: Scalable Anomaly Detection in Oceanographic Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Armstrong, E. M.; Chin, T. M.; Gill, K. M.; Greguska, F. R., III; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Quach, N.

    2016-12-01

    The oceanographic community must meet the challenge to rapidly identify features and anomalies in complex and voluminous observations to further science and improve decision support. Given this data-intensive reality, we are developing an anomaly detection system, called OceanXtremes, powered by an intelligent, elastic Cloud-based analytic service backend that enables execution of domain-specific, multi-scale anomaly and feature detection algorithms across the entire archive of 15 to 30-year ocean science datasets.Our parallel analytics engine is extending the NEXUS system and exploits multiple open-source technologies: Apache Cassandra as a distributed spatial "tile" cache, Apache Spark for in-memory parallel computation, and Apache Solr for spatial search and storing pre-computed tile statistics and other metadata. OceanXtremes provides these key capabilities: Parallel generation (Spark on a compute cluster) of 15 to 30-year Ocean Climatologies (e.g. sea surface temperature or SST) in hours or overnight, using simple pixel averages or customizable Gaussian-weighted "smoothing" over latitude, longitude, and time; Parallel pre-computation, tiling, and caching of anomaly fields (daily variables minus a chosen climatology) with pre-computed tile statistics; Parallel detection (over the time-series of tiles) of anomalies or phenomena by regional area-averages exceeding a specified threshold (e.g. high SST in El Nino or SST "blob" regions), or more complex, custom data mining algorithms; Shared discovery and exploration of ocean phenomena and anomalies (facet search using Solr), along with unexpected correlations between key measured variables; Scalable execution for all capabilities on a hybrid Cloud, using our on-premise OpenStack Cloud cluster or at Amazon. The key idea is that the parallel data-mining operations will be run "near" the ocean data archives (a local "network" hop) so that we can efficiently access the thousands of files making up a three decade time

  4. Influence of the sea surface temperature anomaly over the Indian Ocean in March on the summer rainfall in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Anning; Zhao, Yong; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Jing; La, Mengke

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the relationship between the sea surface temperature over the Indian Ocean (IOSST) in March and the summer rainfall in Xinjiang. In the observations, the IOSST in March significantly correlates with the summer rainfall in Xinjiang with a correlation coefficient of about 0.49 during 1961-2007. This relationship is independent from the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with a partial correlation coefficient of about 0.40-0.48 controlling for the ENSO indices from December to March. In addition to the observations, three sets of numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted with a regional climate model (RegCM4.3). The model results show that warm IOSST can excite a negative anomaly of geopotential height at 500 hPa over the Indian Ocean in March. This anomaly stays over the tropical Indian Ocean, and then propagates north to central Asia in June. Consequently, the anomalous wind associated with this geopotential height anomaly transports moisture from the Persian Gulf and the coast of Iran to Xinjiang, passing over Pakistan and the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, the warm (cold) IOSST in March tends to cause the increase (decrease) of the summer rainfall over Xinjiang, especially in the Tian Shan and Kunlun Mountains.

  5. The Role of Indian Ocean SST Anomalies in Modulating Regional Rainfall Variability and Long-term Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, C. C.; Sen Gupta, A.; England, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    In a series of atmospheric general circulation model simulations, the potential impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in modulating low- to mid-latitude precipitation around the Indian Ocean rim countries is explored. The relative importance of various characteristic tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean SST poles, both individually and in combination, to regional precipitation changes is quantified. A mechanism for the rainfall modulation is proposed, by which the SST anomalies induce changes in the thermal properties of the atmosphere, resulting in a reorganization of the large-scale atmospheric circulation across the Indian Ocean basin. Across western and southern regions of Australia, rainfall anomalies are found to be due to modulations in the meridional thickness gradient, thermal wind, and baroclinicity, leading to changes in the moisture flux onto the continent. The pattern of large-scale circulation changes over the tropical Indian Ocean and adjacent land masses is consistent with an anomalous strengthening of the Walker cell, leading to variations in precipitation of opposite sign across western and eastern regions of the basin. Links between long-term changes in Indian Ocean surface properties and regional precipitation changes in Indian Ocean rim countries are also discussed in a broader context with implications for water management and seasonal forecasting.

  6. Influences of two types of El Niño event on the Northwest Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SST anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo; Wu, Qigang; Wu, Zepeng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the HadISST1 and NCEP datasets, we investigated the influences of the central Pacific El Niño event (CP-EL) and eastern Pacific El Niño event (EP-EL) on the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies of the Tropical Indian Ocean. Considering the remote effect of Indian Ocean warming, we also discussed the anticyclone anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which is very important for the South China precipitation and East Asian climate. Results show that during the El Niño developing year of EP-EL, cold SST anomalies appear and intensify in the east of tropical Indian Ocean. At the end of that autumn, all the cold SST anomaly events lead to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. Basin uniform warm SST anomalies exist in the Indian Ocean in the whole summer of EL decaying year for both CP-and EP-ELs. However, considering the statistical significance, more significant warm SST anomalies only appear in the North Indian Ocean among the June and August of EP-EL decaying year. For further research, EP-EL accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (EPI-EL) and CP El Niño accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (CPI-EL) events are classified. With the remote effects of Indian Ocean SST anomalies, the EPI-and CPI-ELs contribute quite differently to the Northwest Pacific. For the EPI-EL developing year, large-scale warm SST anomalies arise in the North Indian Ocean in May, and persist to the autumn of the El Niño decaying year. However, for the CPI-EL, weak warm SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean maintain to the El Niño decaying spring. Because of these different SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean, distinct zonal SST gradient, atmospheric anticyclone and precipitation anomalies emerge over the Northwest Pacific in the El Niño decaying years. Specifically, the large-scale North Indian Ocean warm SST anomalies during the EPI-EL decaying years, can persist to summer and force anomalous updrafts and rainfall over the North Indian Ocean. The atmospheric

  7. Observing Crustal Magnetic Anomalies in Remote Ocean Regions: Filling in the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, B.; Kinsey, J. C.; Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.

    2016-12-01

    The use of long duration ocean observing platforms is necessary for filling in broad gaps in the observational record of magnetic anomaly measurements in the ocean basins -- observations that are necessary for understanding a variety of geophysical processes. Such an instrument would need to gather 1000s of kilometers of magnetic data untended, requiring in-situ calibration methods and minimization of energy usage. In this work an autonomous underwater glider (AUG) has been equipped with a low power flux-gate magnetic sensor. Sensor integration was tested locally in shallow water followed by deep water trials to verify the calibration procedure in June of 2016. During this cruise a 160 kilometer magnetic tow was also collected across the East Coast Shelf Anomaly to the South-East of Cape Cod. Following these tests, the AUG was deployed such that it followed the trajectory of the towed magnetic survey to provide a baseline comparison against a known methodology. For these deployments an in-situ calibration procedure was used whereby the vehicle was commanded to perform descending and ascending spirals with its actuators at various discrete locations. When combined with a temperature model for the sensor the calibrated measurements were found to be in agreement with the towed data to within several 10's of nT. These comparative measurements demonstrate the utility of using directed long duration autonomous ocean observing platforms to gather medium wavelength crustal magnetic anomaly features. This ability is especially desirable for collecting measurements in remote ocean basins, such as the Southern Ocean, where presently only a few ship tracks exist and are likely to never be sampled by conventional research vessels surveys.

  8. Axial anomaly at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Gupte, Neelima; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Jackiw-Bardeen-Adler anomaly for QED 4 and QED 2 are calculated at finite temperature. It is found that the anomaly is independent of temperature. Ishikawa's method [1984, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 53 1615] for calculating the quantised Hall effect is extended to finite temperature. (author)

  9. Spreading rate dependence of gravity anomalies along oceanic transform faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Patricia M; Lin, Jian; Behn, Mark D; Montési, Laurent G J

    2007-07-12

    Mid-ocean ridge morphology and crustal accretion are known to depend on the spreading rate of the ridge. Slow-spreading mid-ocean-ridge segments exhibit significant crustal thinning towards transform and non-transform offsets, which is thought to arise from a three-dimensional process of buoyant mantle upwelling and melt migration focused beneath the centres of ridge segments. In contrast, fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are characterized by smaller, segment-scale variations in crustal thickness, which reflect more uniform mantle upwelling beneath the ridge axis. Here we present a systematic study of the residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly of 19 oceanic transform faults that reveals a strong correlation between gravity signature and spreading rate. Previous studies have shown that slow-slipping transform faults are marked by more positive gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments, but our analysis reveals that intermediate and fast-slipping transform faults exhibit more negative gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments. This finding indicates that there is a mass deficit at intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults, which could reflect increased rock porosity, serpentinization of mantle peridotite, and/or crustal thickening. The most negative anomalies correspond to topographic highs flanking the transform faults, rather than to transform troughs (where deformation is probably focused and porosity and alteration are expected to be greatest), indicating that crustal thickening could be an important contributor to the negative gravity anomalies observed. This finding in turn suggests that three-dimensional magma accretion may occur near intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults.

  10. Anomaly transform methods based on total energy and ocean heat content norms for generating ocean dynamic disturbances for ensemble climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In our study we use the anomaly transform, a special case of ensemble transform method, in which a selected set of initial oceanic anomalies in space, time and variables are defined and orthogonalized. The resulting orthogonal perturbation patterns are designed such that they pick up typical balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables. The metric used to set up the eigen problem is taken either as the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, or the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choices of a reference state for defining the initial anomalies are such that either perturbations on seasonal timescales and or on interannual timescales are constructed. These project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the El Nino Southern Oscillation regions. An additional set of initial conditions is designed to fit in a least square sense data from global ocean reanalysis. Applying the AT produced sets of disturbances to oceanic initial conditions initialized by observations of the MPIOM-ESM coupled model on T63L47/GR15 resolution, four ensemble and one hind-cast experiments were performed. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instabilities or error growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the magnitude of the scaling amplitudes of the perturbation patterns. In contrast to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests a different source of uncertainty generation in the ocean than in the atmosphere mainly associated with changes in the density field.

  11. Upper mixed layer temperature anomalies at the North Atlantic storm-track zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Moshonkin

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Synoptic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs were determined as a result of separation of time scales smaller than 183 days. The SSTAs were investigated using daily data of ocean weather station "C" (52.75°N; 35.5°W from 1 January 1976 to 31 December 1980 (1827 days. There were 47 positive and 50 negative significant SSTAs (lifetime longer than 3 days, absolute value greater than 0.10 °C with four main intervals of the lifetime repetitions: 1. 4–7 days (45% of all cases, 2. 9–13 days (20–25%, 3. 14–18 days (10–15%, and 4. 21–30 days (10–15% and with a magnitude 1.5–2.0 °C. An upper layer balance model based on equations for temperature, salinity, mechanical energy (with advanced parametrization, state (density, and drift currents was used to simulate SSTA. The original method of modelling taking into account the mean observed temperature profiles proved to be very stable. The model SSTAs are in a good agreement with the observed amplitudes and phases of synoptic SSTAs during all 5 years. Surface heat flux anomalies are the main source of SSTAs. The influence of anomalous drift heat advection is about 30–50% of the SSTA, and the influence of salinity anomalies is about 10–25% and less. The influence of a large-scale ocean front was isolated only once in February-April 1978 during all 5 years. Synoptic SSTAs develop just in the upper half of the homogeneous layer at each winter. We suggest that there are two main causes of such active sublayer formation: 1. surface heat flux in the warm sectors of cyclones and 2. predominant heat transport by ocean currents from the south. All frequency functions of the ocean temperature synoptic response to heat and momentum surface fluxes are of integral character (red noise, though there is strong resonance with 20-days period of wind-driven horizontal heat advection with mixed layer temperature; there are some other peculiarities on the time scales from 5.5 to 13 days. Observed and

  12. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) - Global, 4 km, Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1985-2005 (NODC Accession 0044419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  13. Global Monitoring RSEM System for Crop Production by Incorporating Satellite-based Photosynthesis Rates and Anomaly Data of Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.; Sakuma, H.

    2014-12-01

    The first author has been developing RSEM crop-monitoring system using satellite-based assessment of photosynthesis, incorporating meteorological conditions. Crop production comprises of several stages and plural mechanisms based on leaf photosynthesis, surface energy balance, and the maturing of grains after fixation of CO2, along with water exchange through soil vegetation-atmosphere transfer. Grain production in prime countries appears to be randomly perturbed regionally and globally. Weather for crop plants reflects turbulent phenomena of convective and advection flows in atmosphere and surface boundary layer. It has been difficult for scientists to simulate and forecast weather correctly for sufficiently long terms to crop harvesting. However, severely poor harvests related to continental events must originate from a consistent mechanism of abnormal energetic flow in the atmosphere through both land and oceans. It should be remembered that oceans have more than 100 times of energy storage compared to atmosphere and ocean currents represent gigantic energy flows, strongly affecting climate. Anomalies of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), globally known as El Niño, Indian Ocean dipole, and Atlantic Niño etc., affect the seasonal climate on a continental scale. The authors aim to combine monitoring and seasonal forecasting, considering such mechanisms through land-ocean biosphere transfer. The present system produces assessments for all continents, specifically monitoring agricultural fields of main crops. Historical regions of poor and good harvests are compared with distributions of SST anomalies, which are provided by NASA GSFC. Those comparisons fairly suggest that the Worst harvest in 1993 and the Best in 1994 relate to the offshore distribution of low temperature anomalies and high gaps in ocean surface temperatures. However, high-temperature anomalies supported good harvests because of sufficient solar radiation for photosynthesis, and poor harvests because

  14. Magma Supply of Southwest Indian Ocean: Implication from Crustal Thickness Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiheng, L.; Jianghai, L.; Huatian, Z.; Qingkai, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is one of the world's slowest spreading ridges with a full spreading rate of 14mm a-1, belonging to ultraslow spreading ridge, which are a novel class of spreading centers symbolized by non-uniform magma supply and crustal accretion. Therefore, the crustal thickness of Southwest Indian Ocean is a way to explore the magmatic and tectonic process of SWIR and the hotspots around it. Our paper uses Residual Mantle Bouguer Anomaly processed with the latest global public data to invert the relative crustal thickness and correct it according to seismic achievements. Gravity-derived crustal thickness model reveals a huge range of crustal thickness in Southwest Indian Ocean from 0.04km to 24km, 7.5km of average crustal thickness, and 3.5km of standard deviation. In addition, statistics data of crustal thickness reveal the frequency has a bimodal mixed skewed distribution, which indicates the crustal accretion by ridge and ridge-plume interaction. Base on the crustal thickness model, we divide three types of crustal thickness in Southwest Indian Ocean. About 20.31% of oceanic crust is 9.8km thick as thick crust. Furthermore, Prominent thin crust anomalies are associated with the trend of most transform faults, but thick crust anomalies presents to northeast of Andrew Bain transform fault. Cold and depleted mantle are also the key factors to form the thin crust. The thick crust anomalies are constrained by hotspots, which provide abundant heat to the mantle beneath mid-ocean ridge or ocean basin. Finally, we roughly delineate the range of ridge-plume interaction and transform fault effect.

  15. A new dipole index of the salinity anomalies of the tropical Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junde; Liang, Chujin; Tang, Youmin; Dong, Changming; Chen, Dake; Liu, Xiaohui; Jin, Weifang

    2016-04-07

    With the increased interest in studying the sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA) of the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), an index describing the dipole variability of the SSSA has been pursued recently. In this study, we first use a regional ocean model with a high spatial resolution to produce a high-quality salinity simulation during the period from 1982 to 2014, from which the SSSA dipole structure is identified for boreal autumn. On this basis, by further analysing the observed data, we define a dipole index of the SSSA between the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO: 70°E-90°E, 5°S-5°N) and the region off the Sumatra-Java coast (SJC: 100°E-110°E, 13°S-3°S). Compared with previous SSSA dipole indices, this index has advantages in detecting the dipole signals and in characterizing their relationship to the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) dipole variability. Finally, the mechanism of the SSSA dipole is investigated by dynamical diagnosis. It is found that anomalous zonal advection dominates the SSSA in the CEIO region, whereas the SSSA in the SJC region are mainly influenced by the anomalous surface freshwater flux. This SSSA dipole provides a positive feedback to the formation of the IOD events.

  16. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 3 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2009 (NODC Accession 0068999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  17. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 2 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession 0054501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  18. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 1 - Global, 4 km, Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1985-2005 (NODC Accession 0044419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  19. Impacts of the leading modes of tropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomaly on sub-seasonal evolution of the circulation and rainfall over East Asia during boreal spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Senfeng; Duan, Anmin

    2017-02-01

    The two leading modes of the interannual variability of the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly are the Indian Ocean basin mode (IOBM) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode (IODM) from March to August. In this paper, the relationship between the TIO SST anomaly and the sub-seasonal evolution of the circulation and rainfall over East Asia during boreal spring and summer is investigated by using correlation analysis and composite analysis based on multi-source observation data from 1979 to 2013, together with numerical simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model. The results indicate that the impacts of the IOBM on the circulation and rainfall over East Asia vary remarkably from spring to summer. The anomalous anticyclone over the tropical Northwest Pacific induced by the warm IOBM is closely linked with the Pacific-Japan or East Asia-Pacific teleconnection pattern, which persists from March to August. In the upper troposphere over East Asia, the warm phase of the IOBM generates a significant anticyclonic response from March to May. In June and July, however, the circulation response is characterized by enhanced subtropical westerly flow. A distinct anomalous cyclone is found in August. Overall, the IOBM can exert significant influence on the western North Pacific subtropical high, the South Asian high, and the East Asian jet, which collectively modulate the precipitation anomaly over East Asia. In contrast, the effects of the IODM on the climate anomaly over East Asia are relatively weak in boreal spring and summer. Therefore, studying the impacts of the TIO SST anomaly on the climate anomaly in East Asia should take full account of the different sub-seasonal response during boreal spring and summer.

  20. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 5 of the Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a global, 4 km, sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics dataset for...

  1. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 2 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession Number 0054501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  2. Caldera unrest detected with seawater temperature anomalies at Deception Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocoso, M.; Prates, G.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Peci, L. M.; de Gil, A.; Rosado, B.; Páez, R.; Jigena, B.

    2018-04-01

    Increased thermal activity was detected to coincide with the onset of volcano inflation in the seawater-filled caldera at Deception Island. This thermal activity was manifested in pulses of high water temperature that coincided with ocean tide cycles. The seawater temperature anomalies were detected by a thermometric sensor attached to the tide gauge (bottom pressure sensor). This was installed where the seawater circulation and the locations of known thermal anomalies, fumaroles and thermal springs, together favor the detection of water warmed within the caldera. Detection of the increased thermal activity was also possible because sea ice, which covers the entire caldera during the austral winter months, insulates the water and thus reduces temperature exchange between seawater and atmosphere. In these conditions, the water temperature data has been shown to provide significant information about Deception volcano activity. The detected seawater temperature increase, also observed in soil temperature readings, suggests rapid and near-simultaneous increase in geothermal activity with onset of caldera inflation and an increased number of seismic events observed in the following austral summer.

  3. Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in Southeast Asia region and its relationship with atmosphere-ocean variations in Indo-Pacific sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin T. [Technology National University of Malaysia, Marine Science Program, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2005-09-01

    The Southeast Asia rainfall (SEAR) anomalies depend strongly on phases of El Nino (La Nina). Using an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis, it is shown that the dominant EEOF mode of SEAR anomalies evolves northeastward throughout a period from the summer when El Nino develops to spring the following year when the event weakens. This evolution is consistent with northeastward migration of the ENSO-related anomalous out going radiation field. During boreal summer (winter), the strong ENSO-related anomaly tends to reside in regions south (north) of the equator. The evolution of dominant mode of SEAR anomalies is in tandem with the evolution of ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The strengthening and weakening of ''boomerang-shaped'' SST in western Pacific, the changing sign of anomalous SST in Java Sea and the warming in Indian Ocean and South China Sea are all part of ENSO-related changes and all are linked to SEAR anomaly. The anomalous low-level circulation associated with ENSO-related SEAR anomaly indicates the strengthening and weakening of two off-equatorial anticyclones, one over the Southern Indian Ocean and the other over the western North Pacific. Together with patterns of El Nino minus La Nina composites of various fields, it is proposed that the northeastward evolution of SEAR anomaly is basically part of the large-scale eastward evolution of ENSO-related signal in the Indo-Pacific sector. The atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role in this evolution. (orig.)

  4. NCEI ocean heat content, temperature anomalies, salinity anomalies, thermosteric sea level anomalies, halosteric sea level anomalies, and total steric sea level anomalies from 1955 to present calculated from in situ oceanographic subsurface profile data (NCEI Accession 0164586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains ocean heat content change, oceanic temperature and salinity changes, and steric sea level change (change in volume without change in mass),...

  5. Oceanic Precondition and Evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Ueki, I.; Hase, H.; Mizuno, K.

    2008-12-01

    Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is one of the interannual climate variability in the Indian Ocean, associated with the negative (positive) SST anomaly in the eastern (western) equatorial region developing during boreal summer/autumn seasons. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been deploying TRITON buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean since October 2001. Details of subsurface ocean conditions associated with IOD events were observed by the mooring buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In the 2006 IOD event, large-scale sea surface signals in the tropical Indian Ocean associated with the positive IOD started in August 2006, and the anomalous conditions continued until December 2006. Data from the mooring buoys, however, captured the first appearance of the negative temperature anomaly at the thermocline depth with strong westward current anomalies in May 2006, about three months earlier than the development of the surface signatures. Similar appearance of negative temperature anomalies in the subsurface were also observed in 2007 and 2008, while the amplitude, the timing, and the relation to the surface layer were different among the events. The implications of the subsurface conditions for the occurrences of these IOD events are discussed.

  6. Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Currie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO are independent climate modes, which frequently co-occur, driving significant interannual changes within the Indian Ocean. We use a four-decade hindcast from a coupled biophysical ocean general circulation model, to disentangle patterns of chlorophyll anomalies driven by these two climate modes. Comparisons with remotely sensed records show that the simulation competently reproduces the chlorophyll seasonal cycle, as well as open-ocean anomalies during the 1997/1998 ENSO and IOD event. Results suggest that anomalous surface and euphotic-layer chlorophyll blooms in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in fall, and southern Bay of Bengal in winter, are primarily related to IOD forcing. A negative influence of IOD on chlorophyll concentrations is shown in a region around the southern tip of India in fall. IOD also depresses depth-integrated chlorophyll in the 5–10° S thermocline ridge region, yet the signal is negligible in surface chlorophyll. The only investigated region where ENSO has a greater influence on chlorophyll than does IOD, is in the Somalia upwelling region, where it causes a decrease in fall and winter chlorophyll by reducing local upwelling winds. Yet unlike most other regions examined, the combined explanatory power of IOD and ENSO in predicting depth-integrated chlorophyll anomalies is relatively low in this region, suggestive that other drivers are important there. We show that the chlorophyll impact of climate indices is frequently asymmetric, with a general tendency for larger positive than negative chlorophyll anomalies. Our results suggest that ENSO and IOD cause significant and predictable regional re-organisation of chlorophyll via their influence on near-surface oceanography. Resolving the details of these effects should improve our understanding, and eventually gain predictability, of interannual changes in Indian Ocean productivity, fisheries

  7. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    temperature anomalies for the above regions respectively. An analysis has shown that most of the short duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies with periods less than 4 months) are driven by the surface heat fluxes. The medium duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies...

  8. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 4 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1981-10-31 to 2010-12-31 (NODC Accession 0087989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  9. Upper mixed layer temperature anomalies at the North Atlantic storm-track zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonkin, S. N.; Diansky, N. A.

    1995-10-01

    Synoptic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) were determined as a result of separation of time scales smaller than 183 days. The SSTAs were investigated using daily data of ocean weather station C (52.75°N; 35.5°W) from 1 January 1976 to 31 December 1980 (1827 days). There were 47 positive and 50 negative significant SSTAs (lifetime longer than 3 days, absolute value greater than 0.10 °C) with four main intervals of the lifetime repetitions: 1. 4-7 days (45% of all cases), 2. 9-13 days (20-25%), 3. 14-18 days (10-15%), and 4. 21-30 days (10-15%) and with a magnitude 1.5-2.0 °C. An upper layer balance model based on equations for temperature, salinity, mechanical energy (with advanced parametrization), state (density), and drift currents was used to simulate SSTA. The original method of modelling taking into account the mean observed temperature profiles proved to be very stable. The model SSTAs are in a good agreement with the observed amplitudes and phases of synoptic SSTAs during all 5 years. Surface heat flux anomalies are the main source of SSTAs. The influence of anomalous drift heat advection is about 30-50% of the SSTA, and the influence of salinity anomalies is about 10-25% and less. The influence of a large-scale ocean front was isolated only once in February-April 1978 during all 5 years. Synoptic SSTAs develop just in the upper half of the homogeneous layer at each winter. We suggest that there are two main causes of such active sublayer formation: 1. surface heat flux in the warm sectors of cyclones and 2. predominant heat transport by ocean currents from the south. All frequency functions of the ocean temperature synoptic response to heat and momentum surface fluxes are of integral character (red noise), though there is strong resonance with 20-days period of wind-driven horizontal heat advection with mixed layer temperature; there are some other peculiarities on the time scales from 5.5 to 13 days. Observed and modelled frequency functions

  10. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  11. Effect of Warm Atlantic Waters on the Climate Anomalies in the West Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zolotokrylin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant climatic changes of oceanic and atmospheric elements and a relation of them to the ocean surface winter anomalies in North Atlantic are analyzed in the paper. Periods of «warm» ocean (2002–2012 and «cold» ocean (1960–1970 were determined. Positive anomalies of the ocean surface temperature increase the ice-free water area and, correspondingly, decrease the ice-field area. As a result of such changes in a state of the ocean surface (open water and ice, surface air temperature rises, and, consequently, atmospheric pressure in central part of a given Arctic sector drops.

  12. The Recent Atlantic Cold Anomaly: Causes, Consequences, and Related Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, Simon A.; Hirschi, Joel J.-M.; Sinha, Bablu; Duchez, Aurélie; Grist, Jeremy P.; Marsh, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context. We also discuss the potential impacts of surface temperature anomalies for the atmosphere, including the North Atlantic Oscillation and European heat waves; contrast the behavior of the Atlantic with the extreme warm surface event that occurred in the North Pacific over a similar timescale; and consider the possibility that these events represent a response to a change in atmospheric planetary wave forcing.

  13. The 2014-2015 warming anomaly in the Southern California Current System observed by underwater gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Katherine D.; Rudnick, Daniel L.

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale patterns of positive temperature anomalies persisted throughout the surface waters of the North Pacific Ocean during 2014-2015. In the Southern California Current System, measurements by our sustained network of underwater gliders reveal the coastal effects of the recent warming. Regional upper ocean temperature anomalies were greatest since the initiation of the glider network in 2006. Additional observed physical anomalies included a depressed thermocline, high stratification, and freshening; induced biological consequences included changes in the vertical distribution of chlorophyll fluorescence. Contemporaneous surface heat flux and wind strength perturbations suggest that local anomalous atmospheric forcing caused the unusual oceanic conditions.

  14. Axial anomaly at finite temperature and finite density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zhixin; Su Rukeng; Yu, P.K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The U(1) axial anomaly in a hot fermion medium is investigated by using the real time Green's function method. After calculating the lowest order triangle diagrams, we find that finite temperature as well as finite fermion density does not affect the axial anomaly. The higher order corrections for the axial anomaly are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Chiral anomalies in QED and QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Chiral anomalies (a) for QED and QCD at finite temperature are analyzed in imaginary- and real-time formalisms. Both triangle diagrams and functional methods are used. It is found that the expressions for a in terms of finite-temperature fields are formally similar to that for the zero-temperature anomaly as a function of zero-temperature fields, thereby generalizing previous work by other authors. (author). 20 refs.; 1 fig

  16. From silk to satellite: Half a century of ocean colour anomalies in the Northeast Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2014-04-23

    Changes in phytoplankton dynamics influence marine biogeochemical cycles, climate processes, and food webs, with substantial social and economic consequences. Large-scale estimation of phytoplankton biomass was possible via ocean colour measurements from two remote sensing satellites - the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, 1979-1986) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, 1998-2010). Due to the large gap between the two satellite eras and differences in sensor characteristics, comparison of the absolute values retrieved from the two instruments remains challenging. Using a unique in situ ocean colour dataset that spans more than half a century, the two satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) eras are linked to assess concurrent changes in phytoplankton variability and bloom timing over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Results from this unique re-analysis reflect a clear increasing pattern of Chl-a, a merging of the two seasonal phytoplankton blooms producing a longer growing season and higher seasonal biomass, since the mid-1980s. The broader climate plays a key role in Chl-a variability as the ocean colour anomalies parallel the oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) since 1948. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. From silk to satellite: Half a century of ocean colour anomalies in the Northeast Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Pradhan, Yaswant; Lavender, Sam; Hoteit, Ibrahim; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail L.; Reid, Philip Chris; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in phytoplankton dynamics influence marine biogeochemical cycles, climate processes, and food webs, with substantial social and economic consequences. Large-scale estimation of phytoplankton biomass was possible via ocean colour measurements from two remote sensing satellites - the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, 1979-1986) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, 1998-2010). Due to the large gap between the two satellite eras and differences in sensor characteristics, comparison of the absolute values retrieved from the two instruments remains challenging. Using a unique in situ ocean colour dataset that spans more than half a century, the two satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) eras are linked to assess concurrent changes in phytoplankton variability and bloom timing over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Results from this unique re-analysis reflect a clear increasing pattern of Chl-a, a merging of the two seasonal phytoplankton blooms producing a longer growing season and higher seasonal biomass, since the mid-1980s. The broader climate plays a key role in Chl-a variability as the ocean colour anomalies parallel the oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) since 1948. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hydrographic changes in the Lincoln Sea in the Arctic Ocean with focus on an upper ocean freshwater anomaly between 2007 and 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Steele, M.; Hansen, E.; Morison, J.; Polyakov, I.; Olsen, S.M.; Melling, H.; McLaughlin, F.A.; Kwok, R.; Smethie Jr., W.M.; Schlosser, P.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrographic data from the Arctic Ocean show that freshwater content in the Lincoln Sea, north of Greenland, increased significantly from 2007 to 2010, slightly lagging changes in the eastern and central Arctic. The anomaly was primarily caused by a decrease in the upper ocean salinity. In 2011

  19. On the Origin of Multidecadal to Centennial Greenland Temperature Anomalies Over the Past 800 yr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Kodera, K.; Box, J. E.; Nakaegawa, T.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies due to its association with sea level rise. However, the causes of multidecadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland temperatures are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine these, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA[G-NH]) over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardized northern hemispheric (NH) temperature from the standardized Greenland temperature. This decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH); polar amplification; and regional variability (GTA[G-NH]). The central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3-4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA[G-NH] explains 31-35%of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multidecadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. We found that the GTA[G-NH] has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO). Climate modeling and proxy temperature records indicate that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  20. On the origin of multidecadal to centennial Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 yr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kobashi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies due to its association with sea level rise. However, the causes of multidecadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland temperatures are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine these, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA[G-NH] over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardized northern hemispheric (NH temperature from the standardized Greenland temperature. This decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH; polar amplification; and regional variability (GTA[G-NH]. The central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3–4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA[G-NH] explains 31–35% of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multidecadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. We found that the GTA[G-NH] has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO. Climate modeling and proxy temperature records indicate that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC and associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  1. Effective Tolman temperature induced by trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eune, Myungseok; Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae

    2017-01-01

    Despite the finiteness of stress tensor for a scalar field on the four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole in the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum, the Tolman temperature in thermal equilibrium is certainly divergent on the horizon due to the infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature. The origin of this conflict is due to the fact that the conventional Tolman temperature was based on the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, which is, however, incompatible with the presence of the trace anomaly responsible for the Hawking radiation. Here, we present an effective Tolman temperature which is compatible with the presence of the trace anomaly by using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann law. Eventually, the effective Tolman temperature turns out to be finite everywhere outside the horizon, and so an infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature at the event horizon does not appear any more. In particular, it is vanishing on the horizon, so that the equivalence principle is exactly recovered at the horizon. (orig.)

  2. Effective Tolman temperature induced by trace anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eune, Myungseok [Sangmyung University, Department of Civil Engineering, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Gim, Yongwan [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sogang University, Research Institute for Basic Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Despite the finiteness of stress tensor for a scalar field on the four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole in the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum, the Tolman temperature in thermal equilibrium is certainly divergent on the horizon due to the infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature. The origin of this conflict is due to the fact that the conventional Tolman temperature was based on the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, which is, however, incompatible with the presence of the trace anomaly responsible for the Hawking radiation. Here, we present an effective Tolman temperature which is compatible with the presence of the trace anomaly by using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann law. Eventually, the effective Tolman temperature turns out to be finite everywhere outside the horizon, and so an infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature at the event horizon does not appear any more. In particular, it is vanishing on the horizon, so that the equivalence principle is exactly recovered at the horizon. (orig.)

  3. Estimating the Ocean Flow Field from Combined Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Surface Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project was part of a previous grant at MIT that was moved over to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) together with the principal investigator. The final report provided here is concerned only with the work performed at SIO since January 2000. The primary focus of this project was the study of the three-dimensional, absolute and time-evolving general circulation of the global ocean from a combined analysis of remotely sensed fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). The synthesis of those two fields was performed with other relevant physical data, and appropriate dynamical ocean models with emphasis on constraining ocean general circulation models by a combination of both SST and SSH data. The central goal of the project was to improve our understanding and modeling of the relationship between the SST and its variability to internal ocean dynamics, and the overlying atmosphere, and to explore the relative roles of air-sea fluxes and internal ocean dynamics in establishing anomalies in SST on annual and longer time scales. An understanding of those problems will feed into the general discussion on how SST anomalies vary with time and the extend to which they interact with the atmosphere.

  4. Impact of Temperature Anomalies Associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole Events on Wine Grape Maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2016-12-01

    Annual grapevine growth and development are intimately linked with growing season weather conditions. Shifts in circulation patterns resulting from atmospheric teleconnections to changes in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events can alter seasonal weather across Australia. Both ENSO and IOD events tend to peak in austral spring, when vine and berry development is especially critical and susceptible to damage. To investigate the impacts of ENSO and IOD events on the Australian wine grape growing sector, historical gridded climate data and annual vineyard grape maturity data from a variety of wine growing regions was collected and analysed. The greatest impacts on grape maturity were found when La Niña and IOD positive events occurred in tandem. During these events, significantly dry and hot conditions persist throughout the wine grape growing season, suggesting that the IOD overrides the ENSO signal. These conditions lead to a rapid, compressed growing season, which can cause logistical complications during harvest and impact grape and wine quality. Warming of equatorial SSTs in the Indian Ocean are likely to enhance the amplitude of IOD positive events, which has serious implications for wine grape production in Australia, highlighting the importance of this research.

  5. Chiral and parity anomalies at finite temperature and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisakyan, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Solganik, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Two closely related topological phenomena are studied at finite density and temperature. These are chiral anomaly and Chern-Simons term. By using different methods it is shown that μ 2 =m 2 is the crucial point for Chern-Simons term at zero temperature. So when μ 2 2 , μ influence disappears and we get the usual Chern-Simons term. On the other hand, when μ 2 >m 2 , the Chern-Simons term vanishes because of nonzero density of background fermions. It occurs that the chiral anomaly doesn't depend on density and temperature. The connection between parity anomalous Chern-Simons term and chiral anomaly is generalized on finite density. These results hold in any dimension both in Abelian and in non-Abelian cases

  6. A variant of the anomaly initialisation approach for global climate forecast models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Hawkins, Ed; Nichols, Nancy; Carrassi, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    This work presents a refined method of anomaly initialisation (AI) applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following particularities: - the use of a weight to the anomalies, in order to avoid the risk of introducing too big anomalies recorded in the observed state, whose amplitude does not fit the range of the internal variability generated by the model. - the AI of the temperature and density ocean state variables instead of the temperature and salinity. Results show that the use of such refinements improve the skill over the Arctic region, part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the North and South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea. In the Tropical Pacific the full field initialised experiment performs better. This is probably due to a displacement of the observed anomalies caused by the use of the AI technique. Furthermore, preliminary results of an anomaly nudging experiment are discussed.

  7. Global coral disease prevalence associated with sea temperature anomalies and local factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Willis, Bette L; Page, A Cathie; Weil, Ernesto; Cróquer, Aldo; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Jordan-Garza, Adán Guillermo; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Raymundo, Laurie; Harvell, C Drew

    2012-09-12

    Coral diseases are taking an increasing toll on coral reef structure and biodiversity and are important indicators of declining health in the oceans. We implemented standardized coral disease surveys to pinpoint hotspots of coral disease, reveal vulnerable coral families and test hypotheses about climate drivers from 39 locations worldwide. We analyzed a 3 yr study of coral disease prevalence to identify links between disease and a range of covariates, including thermal anomalies (from satellite data), location and coral cover, using a Generalized Linear Mixed Model. Prevalence of unhealthy corals, i.e. those with signs of known diseases or with other signs of compromised health, exceeded 10% on many reefs and ranged to over 50% on some. Disease prevalence exceeded 10% on 20% of Caribbean reefs and 2.7% of Pacific reefs surveyed. Within the same coral families across oceans, prevalence of unhealthy colonies was higher and some diseases were more common at sites in the Caribbean than those in the Pacific. The effects of high disease prevalence are potentially extensive given that the most affected coral families, the acroporids, faviids and siderastreids, are among the major reef-builders at these sites. The poritids and agaricids stood out in the Caribbean as being the most resistant to disease, even though these families were abundant in our surveys. Regional warm temperature anomalies were strongly correlated with high disease prevalence. The levels of disease reported here will provide a much-needed local reference point against which to compare future change.

  8. The relative importance of ENSO and tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies for seasonal precipitation over South America: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, L. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F. A.

    The role of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies during ENSO episodes over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) is investigated using the CPTEC/COLA Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM). Four sets of integrations are performed using SST in El Niño and La Niña (ENSO) episodes, changing the SST of the Atlantic Ocean. A positive dipole (SST higher than normal in the tropical North Atlantic and below normal in the tropical South Atlantic) and a negative dipole (opposite conditions), are set as the boundary conditions of SST in the Atlantic Ocean. The four experiments are performed using El Niño or La Niña SST in all oceans, except in the tropical Atlantic where the two phases of the SST dipole are applied. Five initial conditions were integrated in each case in order to obtain four ensemble results. The positive SST dipole over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and El Niño conditions over the Pacific Ocean resulted in dry conditions over the Nordeste. When the negative dipole and El Niño conditions over the Pacific Ocean were applied, the results showed precipitation above normal over the north of Nordeste. When La Niña conditions over Pacific Ocean were tested together with a negative dipole, positive precipitation anomalies occurred over the whole Nordeste. Using the positive dipole over the tropical Atlantic, the precipitation over Nordeste was below average. During La Niña episodes, the Atlantic Ocean conditions have a larger effect on the precipitation of Nordeste than the Pacific Ocean. In El Niño conditions, only the north region of Nordeste is affected by the Atlantic SST. Other tropical areas of South America show a change only in the intensity of anomalies. Central and southeast regions of South America are affected by the Atlantic conditions only during La Niña conditions, whereas during El Niño these regions are influenced only by conditions in the Pacific Ocean.

  9. Time series modelling of increased soil temperature anomalies during long period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Amin; Moradi, Farzad; Moosavi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Soil temperature just beneath the soil surface is highly dynamic and has a direct impact on plant seed germination and is probably the most distinct and recognisable factor governing emergence. Autoregressive integrated moving average as a stochastic model was developed to predict the weekly soil temperature anomalies at 10 cm depth, one of the most important soil parameters. The weekly soil temperature anomalies for the periods of January1986-December 2011 and January 2012-December 2013 were taken into consideration to construct and test autoregressive integrated moving average models. The proposed model autoregressive integrated moving average (2,1,1) had a minimum value of Akaike information criterion and its estimated coefficients were different from zero at 5% significance level. The prediction of the weekly soil temperature anomalies during the test period using this proposed model indicated a high correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted data - that was 0.99 for lead time 1 week. Linear trend analysis indicated that the soil temperature anomalies warmed up significantly by 1.8°C during the period of 1986-2011.

  10. Estimation of the Potential Detection of Diatom Assemblages Based on Ocean Color Radiance Anomalies in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Hélène Rêve-Lamarche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, a large number of new approaches in the domain of ocean-color have been developed, leading to a variety of innovative descriptors for phytoplankton communities. One of these methods, named PHYSAT, currently allows for the qualitative detection of five main phytoplankton groups from ocean-color measurements. Even though PHYSAT products are widely used in various applications and projects, the approach is limited by the fact it identifies only dominant phytoplankton groups. This current limitation is due to the use of biomarker pigment ratios for establishing empirical relationships between in-situ information and specific ocean-color radiance anomalies in open ocean waters. However, theoretical explanations of PHYSAT suggests that it could be possible to detect more than dominance cases but move more toward phytoplanktonic assemblage detection. Thus, to evaluate the potential of PHYSAT for the detection of phytoplankton assemblages, we took advantage of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR survey, collected in both the English Channel and the North Sea. The available CPR dataset contains information on diatom abundance in two large areas of the North Sea for the period 1998-2010. Using this unique dataset, recurrent diatom assemblages were retrieved based on classification of CPR samples. Six diatom assemblages were identified in-situ, each having indicators taxa or species. Once this first step was completed, the in-situ analysis was used to empirically associate the diatom assemblages with specific PHYSAT spectral anomalies. This step was facilitated by the use of previous classifications of regional radiance anomalies in terms of shape and amplitude, coupled with phenological tools. Through a matchup exercise, three CPR assemblages were associated with specific radiance anomalies. The maps of detection of these specific radiances anomalies are in close agreement with current in-situ ecological knowledge.

  11. Statistical averaging of marine magnetic anomalies and the aging of oceanic crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Visual comparison of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magnetic anomalies in the North Pacific suggests that older anomalies contain less short-wavelength information than younger anomalies in this area. To test this observation, magnetic profiles from the North Pacific are examined from crust of three ages: 0-2.1, 29.3-33.1, and 64.9-70.3Ma. For each time period, at least nine profiles were analyzed by 1) calculating the power density spectrum of each profile, 2) averaging the spectra together, and 3) computing a 'recording filter' for each time period by assuming a hypothetical seafloor model. The model assumes that the top of the source is acoustic basement, the source thickness is 0.5km, and the time scale of geomagnetic reversals is according to Ness et al. (1980). The calculated power density spectra of the three recording filters are complex in shape but show an increase of attenuation of short-wavelength information as the crust ages. These results are interpreted using a multilayer model for marine magnetic anomalies in which the upper layer, corresponding to pillow basalt of seismic layer 2A, acts as a source of noise to the magnetic anomalies. As the ocean crust ages, this noisy contribution by the pillow basalts becomes less significant to the anomalies. Consequently, magnetic sources below layer 2A must be faithful recorders of geomagnetic reversals.-AuthorPacific power density spectrum

  12. Comparison of full field and anomaly initialisation for decadal climate prediction: towards an optimal consistency between the ocean and sea-ice anomaly initialisation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2017-08-01

    Decadal prediction exploits sources of predictability from both the internal variability through the initialisation of the climate model from observational estimates, and the external radiative forcings. When a model is initialised with the observed state at the initial time step (Full Field Initialisation—FFI), the forecast run drifts towards the biased model climate. Distinguishing between the climate signal to be predicted and the model drift is a challenging task, because the application of a-posteriori bias correction has the risk of removing part of the variability signal. The anomaly initialisation (AI) technique aims at addressing the drift issue by answering the following question: if the model is allowed to start close to its own attractor (i.e. its biased world), but the phase of the simulated variability is constrained toward the contemporaneous observed one at the initialisation time, does the prediction skill improve? The relative merits of the FFI and AI techniques applied respectively to the ocean component and the ocean and sea ice components simultaneously in the EC-Earth global coupled model are assessed. For both strategies the initialised hindcasts show better skill than historical simulations for the ocean heat content and AMOC along the first two forecast years, for sea ice and PDO along the first forecast year, while for AMO the improvements are statistically significant for the first two forecast years. The AI in the ocean and sea ice components significantly improves the skill of the Arctic sea surface temperature over the FFI.

  13. High-resolution residual geoid and gravity anomaly data of the northern Indian Ocean - An input to geological understanding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Rajesh, S.; Majumdar, T.J.; Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Krishna, K.S.; Rajawat, A.S.

    ') geoid anomaly map of the northern Indian Ocean generated from the altimeter data obtained from Geodetic Missions of GEOSAT and ERS-1 along with ERS-2, TOPEX/POSIDEON and JASON satellites is presented. The geoid map of the Indian Ocean is dominated by a...

  14. Turbulent Mixing and Vertical Heat Transfer in the Surface Mixed Layer of the Arctic Ocean: Implication of a Cross-Pycnocline High-Temperature Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yusuke; Takeda, Hiroki

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the mixing processes in the vicinity of surface mixed layer (SML) of the Arctic Ocean. Turbulence activity and vertical heat transfer are quantitatively characterized in the Northwind Abyssal Plain, based on the RV Mirai Arctic cruise, during the transition from late summer to early winter 2014. During the cruise, noticeable storm events were observed, which came over the ship's location and contributed to the deepening of the SML. According to the ship-based microstructure observation, within the SML, the strong wind events produced enhanced dissipation rates of turbulent kinetic energy in the order of magnitude of ɛ = 10-6-10-4W kg-1. On thermal variance dissipation rate, χ increases toward the base of SML, reaching O(10-7) K2 s-1, resulting in vertical heat flux of O(10) W m-2. During the occasional energetic mixing events, the near-surface warm water was transferred downward and penetrated through the SML base, creating a cross-pycnocline high-temperature anomaly (CPHTA) at approximately 20-30 m depth. Near CPHTA, the vertical heat flux was anomalously magnified to O(10-100) W m-2. Following the fixed-point observation, in the regions of marginal and thick ice zones, the SML heat content was monitored using an autonomous drifting buoy, UpTempO. During most of the ice-covered period, the ocean-to-ice turbulent heat flux was dominant, rather than the diapycnal heat transfer across the SML bottom interface.

  15. Oceanic Channel of the IOD-ENSO teleconnection over the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Tengfei; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    The lag correlations of observations and model simulated data that participate the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5) are used to study the precursory teleconnection between the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the Pacific ENSO one year later through the Indonesian seas. The results suggest that Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) play an important role in the IOD-ENSO teleconnection. Numerical simulations using a hierarchy of ocean models and climate coupled models have shown that the interannual sea level depressions in the southeastern Indian Ocean during IOD force enhanced ITF to transport warm water of the Pacific warm pool to the Indian Ocean, producing cold subsurface temperature anomalies, which propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific and induce significant coupled ocean-atmosphere evolution. The teleconnection is found to have decadal variability. Similar decadal variability has also been identified in the historical simulations of the CMIP5 models. The dynamics of the inter-basin teleconnection during the positive phases of the decadal variability are diagnosed to be the interannual variations of the ITF associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). During the negative phases, the thermocline in the eastern equatorial Pacific is anomalously deeper so that the sea surface temperature anomalies in the cold tongue are not sensitive to the thermocline depth changes. The IOD-ENSO teleconnection is found not affected significantly by the anthropogenic forcing.

  16. Comprehensive study of temperature anomalies on of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, S.B.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Dmitropavlenko, V.N.; Ajdarkhanov, A.O.; Duchkov, A.D.; Kazantsev, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 by the space images data in the Semipalatinsk test site area a mysterious anomaly thermal zone with square about 20 thousand sq. km. with soil temperature 10-15 degrees above than on the adjacent areas was found. The results of 1996-1999 observation confirm the presence of steady temperature anomalies. A number of scientists are suggesting that the increased temperature zones are related with conducted nuclear tests. These temperature anomalies related with objects of nuclear explosions conduction and its have limited distribution the spatially attached to nuclear explosions cavities. Anomalies are the sequent of residual manifestation of long-time geothermal activity in the underground nuclear explosions epicenters. In 2001 in the frameworks of joint program 'Comprehensive study of thermal anomalies on the territory of the former Semipalatinsk test site' the direct measurements of soils on the five sections which were selected by the results of space images

  17. The relationship between sea surface temperature anomalies and atmospheric circulation in general circulation model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharin, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Several multi-year integrations of the Hamburg version of the ECMWF/T21 general circulation model driven by the sea surface temperature (SST) observed in the period 1970-1988 were examined to study the extratropical response of the atmospheric circulation to SST anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere in winter. In the first 19-years run SST anomalies were prescribed globally (GAGO run), and in two others SST variability was limited to extratropical regions (MOGA run) and to tropics (TOGA run), respectively. A canonical correlation analysis was applied to the monthly means to find the best correlated patterns of SST anomalies in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric flow. Contrary to expectation, the extratropical response in the GAGO run is not equal to the linear combination of the responses in the MOGA and TOGA runs. In the GAGO integration with globally prescribed SST the best correlated atmospheric pattern is global and is characterized by dipole structures of the same polarity in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific sectors. In the MOGA and TOGA experiments the atmospheric response is more local with main centers in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, respectively. The atmospheric modes found by the CCA were compared with the normal modes of the barotropic vorticity equation linearized about the 500 mb winter climate of the control integration driven by the climatological SST. The normal modes with smallest eigenvalues are similar to the canonical patterns of 500 mb geopotential height. The corresponding eigenvectors of the adjoint operator, which represent an external forcing optimal for exciting normal modes, have a longitudinal structure with maxima in regions characterized by enhanced high frequency baroclinic activity over both oceans. It was suggested that variability of storm tracks could play an important role in variability of the barotropic normal modes. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of Anomaly in Land Surface Temperature Using MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, K.; Kodama, T.; Kim, S.; Tachikawa, Y.; Shiiba, M.

    2011-12-01

    Atmosphere-land surface interaction plays a dominant role on the hydrologic cycle. Atmospheric phenomena cause variation of land surface state and land surface state can affect on atmosphereic conditions. Widely-known article related in atmospheric-land interaction was published by Koster et al. in 2004. The context of this article is that seasonal anomaly in soil moisture or soil surface temperature can affect summer precipitation generation and other atmospheric processes especially in middle North America, Sahel and south Asia. From not only above example but other previous research works, it is assumed that anomaly of surface state has a key factor. To investigate atmospheric-land surface interaction, it is necessary to analyze anomaly field in land surface state. In this study, soil surface temperature should be focused because it can be globally and continuously observed by satellite launched sensor. To land surface temperature product, MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 products which are kinds of MODIS products are applied. Both of them have 0.05 degree spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. The difference of them is launched satellite, MOD11C1 is Terra and MYD11C1 is Aqua. MOD11C1 covers the latter of 2000 to present and MYD11C1 covers the early 2002 to present. There are unrealistic values on provided products even if daily product was already calibrated or corrected. For pre-analyzing, daily data is aggregated into 8-days data to remove irregular values for stable analysis. It was found that there are spatial and temporal distribution of 10-years average and standard deviation for each 8-days term. In order to point out extreme anomaly in land surface temperature, standard score for each 8-days term is applied. From the analysis of standard score, it is found there are large anomaly in land surface temperature around north China plain in early April 2005 and around Bangladesh in early May 2009.

  19. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  20. The effects of post-accretion sedimentation on the magnetization of oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Granot, R.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of marine magnetic anomalies related to seafloor spreading is often considered a key evidence to locate the continent-ocean boundary (COB) at passive margins. Conversely, thermal demagnetization is also advocated to explain the poor shape of such oceanic anomalies under thick sedimentary cover. To investigate the effects of post-accretion sedimentation on marine magnetic anomalies, we focus our study on two conjugate regions of the southern South Atlantic Ocean (Anomalies M4 to M0) that, although formed at the same time and along the same spreading segments, reveal contrasting characters. The anomalies exhibit strong amplitudes (>400 nT) and a well-marked shape off South Africa, where the sediments are less than 3 km-thick, but become weaker ( 200 nT) and much smoother off northern Argentina, where the sedimentary cover is thicker than 5 km. We interpret this observation as reflecting thermal demagnetization of the extrusive layer and its low Curie temperature titanomagnetite. We perform a series of thermo-magnetic models (Dyment and Arkani-Hamed, Geophys. J. Int., 1995, modified to include the sedimentary cover) to simulate the acquisition and loss of remanent magnetization in the oceanic lithosphere. We assume that most of the sediments accumulated shortly after crustal accretion. We investigate a range of possible thermal demagnetization temperatures for the extrusive layer and find that 200°C to 280ºC best explains the observations, in reasonable agreement with Curie temperatures of titanomagnetite, suggesting that most of the extrusive layer may be demagnetized under sediments thicker than 5 km. Thermal demagnetization should therefore be considered while interpreting marine magnetic anomalies for the age and nature of the crust (i.e., continental versus oceanic) in regions with thick sedimentary cover.

  1. The land/ocean temperature contrast in natural variability

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, Nicholas Luke

    2017-01-01

    In global warming scenarios, global land surface temperatures (T_land) warm with greater amplitude than sea surface temperatures (SSTs), leading to a land/ocean warming temperature contrast. This land/ocean contrast is not only due to the different heat capacities of the land and ocean as it exists for transient and equilibrium scenarios. Similarly, the interannual variability of T_land is larger than the covariant interannual SST variability, leading to a land/ocean ...

  2. Interactions of the tropical oceans. Rev.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Barnett, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions of the tropical oceans on interannual time scales by conducting a series of uncoupled atmospheric and oceanic general circulation experiments and hybrid coupled model simulations. Our results illustrate the key role of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon in generating interannual variability in all three tropical ocean basins. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific force via a changed atmospheric circulation SST anomalies of the same sign in the Indian Ocean and SST anomalies of the opposite sign in the Atlantic. However, although air-sea interactions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans are much weaker than those in the Pacific, they contribute significantly to the variability in these two regions. The role of these air-sea interactions is mainly that of an amplifyer by which the ENSO induced signals are enhanced in ocean and atmosphere. This process is particularly important in the tropical Atlantic region. We investigated also whether ENSO is part of a zonally propagating ''wave'' which travels around the globe with a time scale of several years. Consistent with observations, the upper ocean heat content in the various numerical simulations seems to propagate slowly around the globe. SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean introduce a global atmospheric response which in turn forces variations in the other tropical oceans. Since the different oceans exhibit different response characteristics to low-frequency wind changes, the individual tropical ocean responses can add up coincidentally to look like a global wave, and that appears to be the situation. In particular, no evidence is found that the Indian Ocean can significantly affect the ENSO cycle in the Pacific. Finally, the potential for climate forecasts in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans appears to be enhanced if one includes, in a coupled way, remote influences from the Pacific. (orig.)

  3. Variability and Predictability of West African Droughts. A Review in the Role of Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Mohino, Elsa; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Caminade, Cyril; Biasutti, Michela; Gaetani, Marco; Garcia-Serrano, J.; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry; Xue, Yongkang; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Sahel experienced a severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s after wet periods in the 1950s and 1960s. Although rainfall partially recovered since the 1990s, the drought had devastating impacts on society. Most studies agree that this dry period resulted primarily from remote effects of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies amplified by local land surface-atmosphere interactions. This paper reviews advances made during the last decade to better understand the impact of global SST variability on West African rainfall at interannual to decadal time scales. At interannual time scales, a warming of the equatorial Atlantic and Pacific/Indian Oceans results in rainfall reduction over the Sahel, and positive SST anomalies over the Mediterranean Sea tend to be associated with increased rainfall. At decadal time scales, warming over the tropics leads to drought over the Sahel, whereas warming over the North Atlantic promotes increased rainfall. Prediction systems have evolved from seasonal to decadal forecasting. The agreement among future projections has improved from CMIP3 to CMIP5, with a general tendency for slightly wetter conditions over the central part of the Sahel, drier conditions over the western part, and a delay in the monsoon onset. The role of the Indian Ocean, the stationarity of teleconnections, the determination of the leader ocean basin in driving decadal variability, the anthropogenic role, the reduction of the model rainfall spread, and the improvement of some model components are among the most important remaining questions that continue to be the focus of current international projects.

  4. Decadal climate prediction with a refined anomaly initialisation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Hawkins, Ed; Nichols, Nancy K.

    2017-03-01

    In decadal prediction, the objective is to exploit both the sources of predictability from the external radiative forcings and from the internal variability to provide the best possible climate information for the next decade. Predicting the climate system internal variability relies on initialising the climate model from observational estimates. We present a refined method of anomaly initialisation (AI) applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following key innovations: (1) the use of a weight applied to the observed anomalies, in order to avoid the risk of introducing anomalies recorded in the observed climate, whose amplitude does not fit in the range of the internal variability generated by the model; (2) the AI of the ocean density, instead of calculating it from the anomaly initialised state of temperature and salinity. An experiment initialised with this refined AI method has been compared with a full field and standard AI experiment. Results show that the use of such refinements enhances the surface temperature skill over part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea for the first forecast year. However, part of such improvement is lost in the following forecast years. For the tropical Pacific surface temperature, the full field initialised experiment performs the best. The prediction of the Arctic sea-ice volume is improved by the refined AI method for the first three forecast years and the skill of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is significantly increased compared to a non-initialised forecast, along the whole forecast time.

  5. Mechanisms of northeastern Brazil rainfall anomalies due to Southern Tropical Atlantic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J.; Su, H.

    2004-05-01

    Observational studies have shown that the rainfall anomalies in eastern equatorial South America, including Nordeste Brazil, have a positive correlation with tropical southern Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Such relationships are reproduced in model simulations with the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model (QTCM), which includes a simple land model. A suite of model ensemble experiments is analysed using observed SST over the tropical oceans, the tropical Atlantic and the tropical southern Atlantic (30S-0), respectively (with climatological SST in the remainder of the oceans). Warm tropical south Atlantic SST anomalies yield positive precipitation anomalies over the Nordeste and the southern edge of the Atlantic marine intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Mechanisms associated with moisture variations are responsible for the land precipitation changes. Increases in moisture over the Atlantic cause positive anomalies in moisture advection, spreading increased moisture downwind. Where the basic state is far from the convective stability threshold, moisture changes have little effect, but the margins of the climatological convection zone are affected. The increased moisture supply due to advection is enhanced by increases in low-level convergence required by moist static energy balances. The moisture convergence term is several times larger, but experiments altering the moisture advection confirm that the feedback is initiated by wind acting on moisture gradient. This mechanism has several features in common with the recently published "upped-ante" mechanism for El Nino impacts on this region. In that case, the moisture gradient is initiated by warm free tropospheric temperature anomalies increasing the typical value of low-level moisture required to sustain convection in the convection zones. Both mechanisms suggest the usefulness of coordinating ocean and land in situ observations of boundary layer moisture.

  6. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GISTEMP dataset is a global 2x2 gridded temperature anomaly dataset. Temperature data is updated around the middle of every month using current data files from...

  7. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Variability of the Tropical Ocean Surface Temperatures at Decadal-Multidecadal Timescales. Part I: The Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vikram M.

    1998-09-01

    Gridded time series from the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas were analyzed with a variety of techniques to identify spatial structures and oscillation periods of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) variations at decadal timescales, and to develop physical interpretations of statistical patterns of decadal SST variations. Each time series was 110 yr (1882-1991) long. The tropical Atlantic SST variations were compared with decadal variations in a 74-yr-long (1912-85) north Nordeste Brazil rainfall time series and a 106-yr-long (1886-1991) tropical Atlantic cyclone activity index time series. The tropical Atlantic SST variations were also compared with decadal variations in the extratropical Atlantic SST.Multiyear to multidecadal variations in the cross-equatorial dipole pattern identified as a dominant empirical pattern of the tropical Atlantic SST variations in earlier and present studies are shown to be variations in the approximately north-south gradient of SST anomalies. It is also shown that there was no dynamical-thermodynamical, dipole mode of SST variations during the analysis period. There was a distinct decadal timescale (12-13 yr) of SST variations in the tropical South Atlantic, whereas no distinct decadal timescale was found in the tropical North Atlantic SST variations. Approximately 80% of the coherent decadal variance in the cross-equatorial SST gradient was `explained' by coherent decadal oscillations in the tropical South Atlantic SSTs. There were three, possibly physical, modes of decadal variations in the tropical Atlantic SSTs during the analysis period. In the more energetic mode of the North Atlantic decadal SST variations, anomalies traveled into the tropical North Atlantic from the extratropical North Atlantic along the eastern boundary of the basin. The anomalies strengthened and resided in the tropical North Atlantic for several years, then frequently traveled northward into the mid-high-latitude North Atlantic along

  9. Middle cretaceous geomagnetic field anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean and their implication to the tectonic evolution of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, M.; Ramana, M.V.

    anomalies Q1 (92 Ma) and Q2 (108 Ma) have been identified globally and proposed as internal time markers useful to trace the evolution of the world oceans. While the evolutionary history of the Indian Ocean from Late Cretaceous to present is well...

  10. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North Atlantic region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/Ca ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm Period (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm periods (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.

  11. Downscaling the climate change for oceans around Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Chamberlain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, global climate models used to project changes in climate poorly resolve mesoscale ocean features such as boundary currents and eddies. These missing features may be important to realistically project the marine impacts of climate change. Here we present a framework for dynamically downscaling coarse climate change projections utilising a near-global ocean model that resolves these features in the Australasian region, with coarser resolution elsewhere.

    A time-slice projection for a 2060s ocean was obtained by adding climate change anomalies to initial conditions and surface fluxes of a near-global eddy-resolving ocean model. Climate change anomalies are derived from the differences between present and projected climates from a coarse global climate model. These anomalies are added to observed fields, thereby reducing the effect of model bias from the climate model.

    The downscaling model used here is ocean-only and does not include the effects that changes in the ocean state will have on the atmosphere and air–sea fluxes. We use restoring of the sea surface temperature and salinity to approximate real-ocean feedback on heat flux and to keep the salinity stable. Extra experiments with different feedback parameterisations are run to test the sensitivity of the projection. Consistent spatial differences emerge in sea surface temperature, salinity, stratification and transport between the downscaled projections and those of the climate model. Also, the spatial differences become established rapidly (< 3 yr, indicating the importance of mesoscale resolution. However, the differences in the magnitude of the difference between experiments show that feedback of the ocean onto the air–sea fluxes is still important in determining the state of the ocean in these projections.

    Until such a time when it is feasible to regularly run a global climate model with eddy resolution, our framework for ocean climate change

  12. Detection of a weak meddy-like anomaly from high-resolution satellite SST maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Emelianov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable impact of meddies on climate through the long-distance transport of properties, a consistent observation of meddy generation and propagation in the ocean is rather elusive. Meddies propagate at about 1000 m below the ocean surface, so satellite sensors are not able to detect them directly and finding them in the open ocean is more fortuitous than intentional. However, a consistent census of meddies and their paths is required in order to gain knowledge about their role in transporting properties such as heat and salt. In this paper we propose a new methodology for processing high-resolution sea surface temperature maps in order to detect meddy-like anomalies in the open ocean on a near-real-time basis. We present an example of detection, involving an atypical meddy-like anomaly that was confirmed as such by in situ measurements.

  13. Black-body anomaly: analysis of temperature offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, M.; Hofmann, R.; Schwarz, M.; Giacosa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the postulate that photon propagation is governed by a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge symmetry (scale ∝10 -4 eV) we make predictions for temperature offsets due to a low-temperature (a few times the present CMB temperature) spectral anomaly at low frequencies. Temperature offsets are extracted from least-square fits of the anomalous black-body spectra to their conventional counterparts. We discuss statistical errors, compare our results with those obtained from calibration data of the FIRAS instrument, and point out that our predicted offsets are screened by experimental errors given the frequency range used by FIRAS to perform their spectral fits. We also make contact with the WMAP observation by blueshifting their frequency bands. Although our results hint towards a strong dynamical component in the CMB dipole and an explanation of low-l suppression, it is important in view of its particle-physics implications that the above postulate be verified/falsified by an independent low-temperature black-body precision experiment. (orig.)

  14. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  15. CCSM3 simulation of pacific multi-decadal climate variability: the role of subpolar North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y; Liu, Z

    2008-01-01

    Previous analyses of the CCSM3 standard integration have revealed pronounced multidecadal variability in the Pacific climate system. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the physical mechanism underlying the Pacific multidecadal variability (PMV) using specifically designed sensitivity experiments. A novel mechanism is advanced, characterized by a crucial role of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. The multidecadal signal in ocean temperature and salinity fields is found to originate from the subsurface of the subpolar North Pacific, as result of the wave adjustment to the preceding basin-scale wind curl forcing. The multidecadal signal then ascends to the surface and is amplified through local temperature/salinity convective feedback. Along the southward Oyashio current, the anomaly travels to the Kuroshio Extension (KOE) region and is further intensified through a similar convective feedback in addition to the wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature feedback. The temperature anomaly in the KOE is able to feed back to the large-scale atmospheric circulation, inducing wind curl anomaly over the subpolar region, which in turn generates anomalous oceanic circulation and causes temperature/salinty variability in the subpolar subsurface. Thereby, a closed loop of PMV is established, in the form of a subpolar delayed oscillator

  16. Magnetization of the oceanic crust: TRM or CRM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    A model was proposed in which chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) acquired within the first 20 Ma of crustal evolution may account for 80% of the bulk natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of older basalts. The CRM of the crust is acquired as the original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) is lost through low temperature alteration. The CRM intensity and direction are controlled by the post-emplacement polarity history. This model explains several independent observations concerning the magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model accounts for amplitude and skewness discrepancies observed in both the intermediate wavelength satellite field and the short wavelength sea surface magnetic anomaly pattern. It also explains the decay of magnetization away from the spreading axis, and the enhanced magnetization of the Cretaceous Quiet Zones while predicting other systematic variations with age in the bulk magnetization of the oceanic crust. The model also explains discrepancies in the anomaly skewness parameter observed for anomalies of Cretaceous age. Further studies indicate varying rates of TRM decay in very young crust which depicts the advance of low temperature alteration through the magnetized layer.

  17. Moho depth variations over the Maldive Ridge and adjoining Arabian and Central Indian Basins, Western Indian Ocean, from three dimensional inversion of gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnummal, Priyesh; Anand, S. P.; Haritha, C.; Rama Rao, P.

    2018-05-01

    Analysis of high resolution satellite derived free air gravity data has been undertaken in the Greater Maldive Ridge (GMR) (Maldive Ridge, Deep Sea Channel, northern limit of Chagos Bank) segment of the Chagos Laccadive Ridge and the adjoining Arabian and Central Indian Basins. A Complete Bouguer Anomaly (CBA) map was generated from the Indian Ocean Geoidal Low removed Free Air Gravity (hereinafter referred to as "FAG-IOGL") data by incorporating Bullard A, B and C corrections. Using the Parker method, Moho topography was initially computed by inverting the CBA data. From the CBA the Mantle Residual Gravity Anomalies (MRGA) were computed by incorporating gravity effects of sediments and lithospheric temperature and pressure induced anomalies. Further, the MRGA was inverted to get Moho undulations from which the crustal thickness was also estimated. It was found that incorporating the lithospheric thermal and pressure anomaly correction has provided substantial improvement in the computed Moho depths especially in the oceanic areas. But along the GMR, there was not much variation in the Moho thickness computed with and without the thermal and pressure gravity correction implying that the crustal thickness of the ridge does not depend on the oceanic isochrones used for the thermal corrections. The estimated Moho depths in the study area ranges from 7 km to 28 km and the crustal thickness from 2 km to 27 km. The Moho depths are shallower in regions closer to Central Indian Ridge in the Arabian Basin i.e., the region to the west of the GMR is thinner compared to the region in the east (Central Indian Basin). The thickest crust and the deepest Moho are found below the N-S trending GMR segment of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge. Along the GMR the crustal thickness decreases from north to south with thickness of 27 km below the Maldives Ridge reducing to ∼9 km at 3°S and further increasing towards Chagos Bank. Even though there are similarities in crustal thickness between

  18. First-principles investigation of elastic anomalies in niobium at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi X.; Geng, Hua Y.; Wu, Q.; Chen, Xiang R.; Sun, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Niobium does not show any structure transition up to very high pressures. Nonetheless, by using density functional theory, we demonstrate in this work that it exhibits striking softening in elastic moduli C44 and C' at a pressure from 20 to 150 GPa. A novel anomaly softening in C44 from 275 to 400 GPa is also predicted. The physics behind these two anomalies is elaborated by electronic structure calculations, which revealed that they are actually different—first one directly relates to an underlying rhombohedral distortion whereas the latter originates in an electronic topological transition. The large magnitude of the softening leads to a remarkable elastic anisotropy in both the shear and the Young's moduli of Nb. Further investigation shows that thermo-electrons have an important role in these anomalies. This effect has not been noticed before. With increased electronic temperature, it is found that all anomalies (both the elastic softening and anisotropy) in Nb are gradually diminished, effectively giving rise to a temperature-induced hardening phenomenon.

  19. An equatorial temperature and wind anomaly (ETWA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavarao, R.; Wharton, L.E.; Mayr, H.G.; Brace, L.H.; Spencer, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data obtained from the WATS (Wind and Temperature Spectrometer) and LP (Langmuir Probe) experiments on board DE-2 (Dynamic Explorer) during high solar activity show evidence of anomalous latitudinal variations in the zonal winds and temperature at low latitudes. The zonal winds exhibit a broad maximum centered around the dip equator, flanked by minima on either side around 25 degrees; while the temperature exhibits a pronounced bowl-shaped minimum at the dip equator which is flanked by maxima. The two minima in the zonal winds and the corresponding maxima in the temperature are nearly collocated with the crests of the well known Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). The maximum in the zonal winds and the minimum in the gas temperature are collected with the trough of the EIA. The differences between the maxima and minima in temperature and zonal winds, on many occasions, are observed to exceed 100 K and 100 m/s, respectively. The characteristics of this new phenomenon have eluded present day empirical models of thermospheric temperature and winds. The connection among these variables can be understood from the ion-neutral drag effect on the motions of the neutrals that in turn affect their energy balance

  20. Lateral variation in upper mantle temperature and composition beneath mid-ocean ridges inferred from shear-wave propagation, geoid, and bathymetry. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Anne Francis

    1991-01-01

    Resolution of both the extent and mechanism of lateral heterogeneity in the upper mantle constraints the nature and scales of mantle convection. Oceanic regions are of particular interest as they are likely to provide the closest glimpse at the patterns of temperature anomalies and convective flow in the upper mantle because of their young age and simple crustal structure relative to continental regions. Lateral variations were determined in the seismic velocity and attenuation structure of the lithosphere and astenosphere beneath the oceans, and these seismological observations were combined with the data and theory of geoid and bathymetry anomalies in order to test and improve current models for seafloor spreading and mantle convection. Variations were determined in mantle properties on a scale of about 1000 km, comparable to the thickness of the upper mantle. Seismic velocity, geoid, and bathymetry anomalies are all sensitive to variations in upper mantle density, and inversions were formulated to combine quantitatively these different data and to search for a common origin. Variations in mantle density can be either of thermal or compositional origin and are related to mantle convection or differentiation.

  1. Merged Land and Ocean Surface Temperature, Version 3.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The historical Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (MLOST) is derived from two independent analyses, an Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature...

  2. Ocean Chlorophyll as a Precursor of ENSO: An Earth System Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Dunne, John P.; Stock, Charles A.

    2018-02-01

    Ocean chlorophyll concentration, a proxy for phytoplankton, is strongly influenced by internal ocean dynamics such as those associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Observations show that ocean chlorophyll responses to ENSO generally lead sea surface temperature (SST) responses in the equatorial Pacific. A long-term global Earth system model simulation incorporating marine biogeochemical processes also exhibits a preceding chlorophyll response. In contrast to simulated SST anomalies, which significantly lag the wind-driven subsurface heat response to ENSO, chlorophyll anomalies respond rapidly. Iron was found to be the key factor connecting the simulated surface chlorophyll anomalies to the subsurface ocean response. Westerly wind bursts decrease central Pacific chlorophyll by reducing iron supply through wind-driven thermocline deepening but increase western Pacific chlorophyll by enhancing the influx of coastal iron from the maritime continent. Our results mechanistically support the potential for chlorophyll-based indices to inform seasonal ENSO forecasts beyond previously identified SST-based indices.

  3. Positive geothermal anomalies in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age offshore Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delisle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow measurements were carried out in 2009 offshore Kamchatka during the German-Russian joint-expedition KALMAR. An area with elevated heat flow in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age – detected ~30 yr ago in the course of several Russian heat flow surveys – was revisited. One previous interpretation postulated anomalous lithospheric conditions or a connection between a postulated mantle plume at great depth (>200 km as the source for the observed high heat flow. However, the positive heat flow anomaly – as our bathymetric data show – is closely associated with the fragmentation of the western flank of the Meiji Seamount into a horst and graben structure initiated during descent of the oceanic crust into the subduction zone offshore Kamchatka. This paper offers an alternative interpretation, which connects high heat flow primarily with natural convection of fluids in the fragmented rock mass and, as a potential additional factor, high rates of erosion, for which evidence is available from our collected bathymetric image. Given high erosion rates, warm rock material at depth rises to nearer the sea floor, where it cools and causes temporary elevated heat flow.

  4. Temperature trends with reduced impact of ocean air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansner, Frank; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    Temperature data 1900-2010 from meteorological stations across the world have been analysed and it has been found that all areas generally have two different valid temperature trends. Coastal stations and hill stations facing dominant ocean winds are normally more warm-trended than the valley sta...

  5. Temperature trends with reduced impact of ocean air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansner, Frank; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2018-01-01

    Temperature data 1900–2010 from meteorological stations across the world have been analyzed and it has been found that all land areas generally have two different valid temperature trends. Coastal stations and hill stations facing ocean winds are normally more warm-trended than the valley station...

  6. Deep Mantle Origin for the DUPAL Anomaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, S.; Weis, D.

    2002-12-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of the Dupal Anomaly, its origin remains a geochemical and geophysical enigma. This anomaly is associated with the Southern Hemisphere oceanic mantle and is recognized by basalts with geochemical characteristics such as low 206Pb/204Pb and high 87Sr/86Sr. Both mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) are affected, despite originating from melting at different depths and of different mantle sources. We compile geochemical data for both MORB and OIB from the three major oceans to help constrain the physical distribution and chemical composition of the Dupal Anomaly. There is a clear decrease in 206Pb/204Pb and an increase in 87Sr/86Sr with more southerly latitude for Indian MORB and OIB; these correlations are less obvious in the Atlantic and non-existent in the Pacific. The average* 143Nd/144Nd for Pacific and Atlantic OIB is 0.5129, but is lower for Indian OIB (0.5128). Interestingly, Pacific, Atlantic and Indian OIB all have 176Hf/177Hf averages of 0.2830. Indian MORB also record this phenomenon of low Nd with normal Hf isotopic compositions (Chauvel and Blichert-Toft, EPSL, 2001). Hf isotopes appear, therefore, to be a valid isotopic proxy for measuring the presence and magnitude of the Dupal Anomaly at specific locations. Wen (EPSL, 2001) reported a low-velocity layer at the D'' boundary beneath the Indian Ocean from which the Dupal Anomaly may originate. This hypothesis may be consistent with our compilations demonstrating that the long-lived Dupal Anomaly does not appear to be either mixing efficiently into the upper mantle or spreading to other ocean basins through time. We suggest that the Dupal source could be continually tapped by upwelling Indian Ocean mantle plumes. Plumes would then emplace pockets of Dupal material into the upper mantle and other ascending plumes might further disperse this material into the shallow asthenosphere. This could explain both the presence of the Dupal signature in MORB

  7. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  8. Long-term variabilities of meridional geostrophic volumn transport in North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Yuan, D.; Dewar, W. K.

    2016-02-01

    The meridional geostrophic volumn transport (MGVT) by the ocean plays a very important role in the climatic water mass and heat balance because of its large heat capacity which enables the oceans to store the large amount of radiation received in the summer and to release it in winter. Better understanding of the role of the oceans in climate variability is essential to assess the likely range of future climate fluctuations. In the last century the North Pacific Ocean experienced considerable climate variability, especially on decadal time scale. Some studies have shown that the North Pacific Ocean is the origin of North Pacific multidecadal variability (Latif and Barnett, 1994; Barnett et al., 1999). These fluctuations were associated with large anomalies in sea level, temperature, storminess and rainfall, the heat transport and other extremes are changing as well. If the MGVT of the ocean is well-determined, it can be used as a test of the validity of numerical, global climate models. In this paper, we investigate the long-term variability of the MGVT in North Pacific ocean based on 55 years long global ocean heat and salt content data (Levitus et al., 2012). Very clear inter-decadal variations can be seen in tropical , subtropical and subpolar regions of North Pacific Ocean. There are very consistent variations between the MGVT anomalies and the inter-decadal pacific oscillation (IPO) index in the tropical gyre with cold phase of IPO corresponding to negative MGVT anomalies and warm phase corresponding to positive MGVT anomalies. The subtropical gyre shows more complex variations, and the subpolar gyre shows a negative MGVT anomaly before late 1970's and a positive anomaly after that time. The geostrophic velocities of North Pacific Ocean show significantly different anomalies during the two IPO cold phases of 1955-1976 and 1999 to present, which suggests a different mechanism of the two cold phases. The long term variations of Sverdrup transport compares well

  9. Modes of North Atlantic Decadal Variability in the ECHAM1/LSG Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorita, Eduardo; Frankignoul, Claude

    1997-02-01

    The climate variability in the North Atlantic sector is investigated in a 325-yr integration of the ECHAM1/ LSG coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. At the interannual timescale, the coupled model behaves realistically and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies arise as a response of the oceanic surface layer to the stochastic forcing by the atmosphere, with the heat exchanges both generating and damping the SST anomalies. In the ocean interior, the temperature spectra are red up to a period of about 20 years, and substantial decadal fluctuations are found in the upper kilometer or so of the water column. Using extended empirical orthogonal function analysis, two distinct quasi-oscillatory modes of ocean-atmosphere variability are identified, with dominant periods of about 20 and 10 years, respectively. The oceanic changes in both modes reflect the direct forcing by the atmosphere through anomalous air-sea fluxes and Ekman pumping, which after some delay affects the intensity of the subtropical and subpolar gyres. The SST is also strongly modulated by the gyre currents. In the thermocline, the temperature and salinity fluctuations are in phase, as if caused by thermocline displacements, and they have no apparent connection with the thermohaline circulation. The 20-yr mode is the most energetic one; it is easily seen in the thermocline and can be found in SST data, but it is not detected in the atmosphere alone. As there is no evidence of positive ocean-atmosphere feedback, the 20-yr mode primarily reflects the passive response of the ocean to atmospheric fluctuations, which may be in part associated with climate anomalies appearing a few years earlier in the North Pacific. The 10-yr mode is more surface trapped in the ocean. Although the mode is most easily seen in the temperature variations of the upper few hundred meters of the ocean, it is also detected in the atmosphere alone and thus appears to be a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode. In both modes

  10. Gravity anomalies and associated tectonic features over the Indian Peninsular Shield and adjoining ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. C.; Arora, K.; Tiwari, V. M.

    2004-02-01

    A combined gravity map over the Indian Peninsular Shield (IPS) and adjoining oceans brings out well the inter-relationships between the older tectonic features of the continent and the adjoining younger oceanic features. The NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S Precambrian trends of the IPS are reflected in the structural trends of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal suggesting their probable reactivation. The Simple Bouguer anomaly map shows consistent increase in gravity value from the continent to the deep ocean basins, which is attributed to isostatic compensation due to variations in the crustal thickness. A crustal density model computed along a profile across this region suggests a thick crust of 35-40 km under the continent, which reduces to 22/20-24 km under the Bay of Bengal with thick sediments of 8-10 km underlain by crustal layers of density 2720 and 2900/2840 kg/m 3. Large crustal thickness and trends of the gravity anomalies may suggest a transitional crust in the Bay of Bengal up to 150-200 km from the east coast. The crustal thickness under the Laxmi ridge and east of it in the Arabian Sea is 20 and 14 km, respectively, with 5-6 km thick Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments separated by a thin layer of Deccan Trap. Crustal layers of densities 2750 and 2950 kg/m 3 underlie sediments. The crustal density model in this part of the Arabian Sea (east of Laxmi ridge) and the structural trends similar to the Indian Peninsular Shield suggest a continent-ocean transitional crust (COTC). The COTC may represent down dropped and submerged parts of the Indian crust evolved at the time of break-up along the west coast of India and passage of Reunion hotspot over India during late Cretaceous. The crustal model under this part also shows an underplated lower crust and a low density upper mantle, extending over the continent across the west coast of India, which appears to be related to the Deccan volcanism. The crustal thickness under the western Arabian Sea (west of the Laxmi ridge

  11. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  12. Magnetic anomalies in the Cosmonauts Sea, off East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Y.; Hanyu, T.; Fujii, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of magnetic anomaly lineations and fracture zone trends in the Southern Indian Ocean, are vital to understanding the breakup of Gondwana. However, the magnetic spreading anomalies and fracture zones are not clear in the Southern Indian Ocean. Magnetic anomaly lineations in the Cosmonauts Sea, off East Antarctica, are key to elucidation of separation between Sri Lanka/India and Antarctica. No obvious magnetic anomaly lineations are observed from a Japanese/German aerogeophysical survey in the Cosmonauts Sea, and this area is considered to be created by seafloor spreading during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron. Vector magnetic anomaly measurements have been conducted on board the Icebreaker Shirase mainly to understand the process of Gondwana fragmentation in the Indian Ocean. Magnetic boundary strikes are derived from vector magnetic anomalies obtained in the Cosmonauts Sea. NE-SW trending magnetic boundary strikes are mainly observed along the several NW-SE oriented observation lines with magnetic anomaly amplitudes of about 200 nT. These NE-SW trending magnetic boundary strikes possibly indicate M-series magnetic anomalies that can not be detected from the aerogeophysical survey with nearly N-S observation lines. We will discuss the magnetic spreading anomalies and breakup process between Sri Lanka/India and Antarctica in the Cosmonauts Sea.

  13. Dating of the 85 degrees E Ridge (northeastern Indian Ocean) using marine magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Michael, L.; Krishna, K.S.

    underneath the eastern Con- rad Rise on the Antarctic plate. Subsequent geophysical RESEARCH ARTICLES CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 100, NO. 9, 10 MAY 2011 1315 studies 5,8 opined that short-lived volcanic activity had ini- tiated the 85°E Ridge in Mahanadi.... Satellite-derived free-air gravity anomaly map of the north- eastern Indian Ocean 24 . Curved strip line indicates continuity of the 85°E Ridge from the Mahanadi Basin to ANS. Few bathymetry con- tours derived from ETOPO5 data are shown in the map. N...

  14. Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC), Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC) consist of time series of radiosonde-based temperature anomalies for the years...

  15. The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in surface and deep ocean temperature and salinity fields from unperturbed climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Large multidecadal fluctuations in basin-average sea-surface temperature (SST) are a known feature of observed, reconstructed and simulated variability in the North Atlantic Ocean. This phenomenon is often referred to as Multidecadal Atlantic Variability or AMV. Historical AMV fluctuations are associated with analog basin-scale changes in sea-surface salinity, so that warming corresponds to salinification and cooling to freshening [Polyakov et al., 2005]. The surface imprint of the AMV further corresponds to same-sign fluctuations in the shallow ocean and with opposite-sign fluctuations in the deep ocean for both temperature and salinity [Polyakov et al., 2005]. This out-of-phase behavior reflects the thermohaline overturning circulation shaping North Atlantic's low-frequency variability. Several processes contribute to the AMV, involving both ocean-atmosphere coupled processes and deep ocean circulation [e.g., Grossmann and Klotzbach, 2009]. In particular, recirculation in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region of salinity anomalies from Arctic freshwater export may trigger multidecadal variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and therefore may be part of the AMV [Jungclaus et al., 2005; Dima and Lohmann, 2007]. With this contribution, we aim to improve the physical interpretation of the AMV by investigating spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and salinity fields in the shallow and deep ocean. We focus on two unperturbed millennial-scale simulations performed with the Max Planck Institute Earth system model in its paleo (MPI-ESM-P) and low-resolution (MPI-ESM-LR) configurations, which provide reference control climates for assessments of pre-industrial and historical climate simulations. The two model configurations only differ for the presence, in MPI-ESM-LR, of an active module for dynamical vegetation. We use spatial-average indices and empirical orthogonal functions/principal components to track the horizontal and vertical

  16. Spring Soil Temperature Anomalies over Tibetan Plateau and Summer Droughts/Floods in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Li, W.; LI, Q.; Diallo, I.; Chu, P. C.; Guo, W.; Fu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent extreme climate events, such as droughts and floods, are important features of the climate of East Asia, especially over the Yangtze River basin. Many studies have attributed these episodes to variability and anomaly of global sea surface temperatures (SST) anomaly. In addition, snow in the Tibetan Plateau has also been considered as one of the factors affecting the Asian monsoon variability. However, studies have consistently shown that SST along is unable to explain the extreme climate events fully and snow has difficulty to use as a predictor. Remote effects of observed large-scale land surface temperature (LST) and subsurface temperature variability in Tibetan Plateau (TP) on East Asian regional droughts/floods, however, have been largely ignored. We conjecture that a temporally filtered response to snow anomalies may be preserved in the LST anomaly. In this study, evidence from climate observations and model simulations addresses the LST/SUBT effects. The Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) of observational data identifies that a pronounce spring LST anomaly pattern over TP is closely associated with precipitation anomalies in East Asia with a dipole pattern, i.e., negative/positive TP spring LST anomaly is associated with the summer drought/flood over the region south of the Yangtze River and wet/dry conditions to the north of the Yangtze River. Climate models were used to demonstrate a causal relationship between spring cold LST anomaly in the TP and the severe 2003 drought over the southern part of the Yangtze River in eastern Asia. This severe drought resulted in 100 x 106 kg crop yield losses and an economic loss of 5.8 billion Chinese Yuan. The modeling study suggests that the LST effect produced about 58% of observed precipitation deficit; while the SST effect produced about 32% of the drought conditions. Meanwhile, the LST and SST effects also simulated the observed flood over to the north of the Yangtze River. This suggests that inclusion of

  17. Why were cool SST anomalies absent in the Bay of Bengal during the 1997 Indian Ocean Dipole event?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.A.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Shetye, S.R.; Yamagata, T.

    surface temperature anomalies (C176C) (middle row) and NCEP outgoing longwave radiation anomalies (watts.m C02 ) (bottom row) during September 1997 (first column), November 1997 (middle column) and January 1998 (right column). XBT lines (in pink) whose...

  18. Impacts of the Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling on the Peru-Chile Ocean Dynamics: The Current-Induced Wind Stress Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, V.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Masson, S.; Lemarié, F.

    2018-02-01

    The ocean dynamical responses to the surface current-wind stress interaction at the oceanic mesoscale are investigated in the South-East Pacific using a high-resolution regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model. Two simulations are compared: one includes the surface current in the wind stress computation while the other does not. In the coastal region, absolute wind velocities are different between the two simulations but the wind stress remains very similar. As a consequence, the mean regional oceanic circulation is almost unchanged. On the contrary, the mesoscale activity is strongly reduced when taking into account the effect of the surface current on the wind stress. This is caused by a weakening of the eddy kinetic energy generation near the coast by the wind work and to intensified offshore eddy damping. We show that, above coherent eddies, the current-stress interaction generates eddy damping through Ekman pumping and eddy kinetic energy dissipation through wind work. This alters significantly the coherent eddy vertical structures compared with the control simulation, weakening the temperature and vorticity anomalies and increasing strongly the vertical velocity anomalies associated to eddies.

  19. Isostatic anomaly characteristics and dynamic environment of New Britain Ocean trenches and neighboring Area in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Shen, C.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the Airy-Heiskanen isostatic anomaly in the New Britain ocean trenches and its surrounding areas of Papua New Guinea using the topography model and the gravity anomaly model from Scripps Institute of Oceanography, and analyzed the characteristics of isostatic anomaly and the earthquake dynamic environment of this region. The results show that there are obviously differences in the isostatic state between each block in the region, and the crustal tectonic movement is very intense in the regions with high positive or negative isostatic gravity anomalies; A number of sub-plates in this area is driven by the external tectonic action such as plate subduction and thrust of the Pacific plate, the Indian - Australian plate and the Eurasian plate. From the distribution of isostatic gravity anomaly, the tectonic action of anti-isostatic movement in this region is the main source of power; from the isostatic gravity and the spatial distribution of the earthquake, with the further contraction of the Indian-Australian plate, the southwestern part of the Solomon Haiya plate will become part of the Owen Stanley fold belt, the northern part will enter the lower part of the Bismarck plate, eastern part will enter the front of the Pacific plate, the huge earthquake will migrate to the north and east of the Solomon Haiya plate.

  20. Anomaly of the geomagnetic Sq variation in Japan: effect from 3-D subterranean structure or the ocean effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Utada, Hisashi

    2010-12-01

    Many years ago Rikitake et al. described the anomalous behaviour of the vertical component Z of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation field at observatories in central and northern Japan - namely about 2 hr shift of the local noontime peak towards morning hours. They suggested that this anomaly is associated with the anomalous distribution of electrical conductivity in the mantle beneath central Japan. Although a few works have been done to confirm or argue this explanation, no clear answer has been obtained so far. The goal of this work is to understand the nature of this anomaly using our 3-D forward solution. The conductivity model of the Earth includes oceans of laterally variable conductance and conducting mantle either spherically symmetric or 3-D underneath. Data from six Japanese observatories at four seasons for two different years of the solar cycle are analysed. As an inducing ionospheric (Sq) current system, we use those provided by the Comprehensive Model (CM4) of Sabaka et al. Our analysis clearly demonstrates that 3-D induction in the ocean is responsible for the anomalous behaviour of Z daily variations in this region. We also show that the effects from a suite of 3-D mantle models that include mantle wedge and subducting slab are minor compared with the ocean effect.

  1. Temperature Anomalies from the AIRS Product in Giovanni for the Climate Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Hearty, Thomas J.; Wei, Jennifer; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Seiler, Edward; Meyer, David

    2018-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission began with the launch of Aqua in 2002. Over 15 years of AIRS products have been used by the climate research and application communities. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), in collaboration with NASA Sounder Team at JPL, provides processing, archiving, and distribution services for NASA sounders: the present Aqua AIRS mission and the succeeding Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) mission. We generated a Multi-year Monthly Mean and Anomaly product using 14 years of AIRS standard monthly product. The product includes Air Temperature at the Surface and Surface Skin Temperature, both in Ascending/Daytime and Descending/Nighttime mode. The temperature variables and their anomalies are deployed to Giovanni, a Web-based application developed by the GES DISC. Giovanni provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download the data. It is also a powerful tool that stakeholders can use for decision support in planning and preparing for increased climate variability. In this presentation, we demonstrate the functions in Giovanni with use cases employing AIRS Multi-year Monthly Mean and Anomaly variables.

  2. GNSS reflectometry aboard the International Space Station: phase-altimetry simulation to detect ocean topography anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Leister, Vera; Saynisch, Jan; Zus, Florian; Wickert, Jens

    2016-04-01

    An ocean altimetry experiment using Earth reflected GNSS signals has been proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA). It is part of the GNSS Reflectometry Radio Occultation Scatterometry (GEROS) mission that is planned aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Altimetric simulations are presented that examine the detection of ocean topography anomalies assuming GNSS phase delay observations. Such delay measurements are well established for positioning and are possible due to a sufficient synchronization of GNSS receiver and transmitter. For altimetric purpose delays of Earth reflected GNSS signals can be observed similar to radar altimeter signals. The advantage of GNSS is the synchronized separation of transmitter and receiver that allow a significantly increased number of observation per receiver due to more than 70 GNSS transmitters currently in orbit. The altimetric concept has already been applied successfully to flight data recorded over the Mediterranean Sea. The presented altimetric simulation considers anomalies in the Agulhas current region which are obtained from the Region Ocean Model System (ROMS). Suitable reflection events in an elevation range between 3° and 30° last about 10min with ground track's length >3000km. Typical along-track footprints (1s signal integration time) have a length of about 5km. The reflection's Fresnel zone limits the footprint of coherent observations to a major axis extention between 1 to 6km dependent on the elevation. The altimetric performance depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflection. Simulation results show that precision is better than 10cm for SNR of 30dB. Whereas, it is worse than 0.5m if SNR goes down to 10dB. Precision, in general, improves towards higher elevation angles. Critical biases are introduced by atmospheric and ionospheric refraction. Corresponding correction strategies are still under investigation.

  3. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis Forecast of Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) temperature forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface temperature anomalies. The ECCA uses Canonical...

  4. A conceptual prediction model for seasonal drought processes using atmospheric and oceanic standardized anomalies: application to regional drought processes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenchen; Lu, Guihua; He, Hai; Wu, Zhiyong; He, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Reliable drought prediction is fundamental for water resource managers to develop and implement drought mitigation measures. Considering that drought development is closely related to the spatial-temporal evolution of large-scale circulation patterns, we developed a conceptual prediction model of seasonal drought processes based on atmospheric and oceanic standardized anomalies (SAs). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is first applied to drought-related SAs at 200 and 500 hPa geopotential height (HGT) and sea surface temperature (SST). Subsequently, SA-based predictors are built based on the spatial pattern of the first EOF modes. This drought prediction model is essentially the synchronous statistical relationship between 90-day-accumulated atmospheric-oceanic SA-based predictors and SPI3 (3-month standardized precipitation index), calibrated using a simple stepwise regression method. Predictor computation is based on forecast atmospheric-oceanic products retrieved from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2), indicating the lead time of the model depends on that of CFSv2. The model can make seamless drought predictions for operational use after a year-to-year calibration. Model application to four recent severe regional drought processes in China indicates its good performance in predicting seasonal drought development, despite its weakness in predicting drought severity. Overall, the model can be a worthy reference for seasonal water resource management in China.

  5. Intraseasonal sea surface warming in the western Indian Ocean by oceanic equatorial Rossby waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    USA, 2Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch, Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi, USA, 3Department of Physics ...IO and predominantly located south of the equator. The intraseasonal currents associated with downwelling ER waves act on the temperature gradient to...yield warm anomalies in the western IO, even in the presence of cooling by surface fluxes. The SST gradient is unique to the western IO and likely

  6. Interannual rainfall variability in the Amazon basin and sea-surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and the tropical Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchail, Josyane; Cochonneau, Gérard; Molinier, Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Chaves, Adriana Goretti De Miranda; Guimarães, Valdemar; de Oliveira, Eurides

    2002-11-01

    Rainfall variability in the Amazon basin is studied in relation to sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the equatorial Pacific and the northern and southern tropical Atlantic during the 1977-99 period, using the HiBAm original rainfall data set and complementary cluster and composite analyses.The northeastern part of the basin, north of 5 °S and east of 60 °W, is significantly related with tropical SSTs: a rainier wet season is observed when the equatorial Pacific and the northern (southern) tropical Atlantic are anomalously cold (warm). A shorter and drier wet season is observed during El Niño events and negative rainfall anomalies are also significantly associated with a warm northern Atlantic in the austral autumn and a cold southern Atlantic in the spring. The northeastern Amazon rainfall anomalies are closely related with El Niño-southern oscillation during the whole year, whereas the relationships with the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies are mainly observed during the autumn. A time-space continuity is observed between El Niño-related rainfall anomalies in the northeastern Amazon, those in the northern Amazon and south-eastern Amazon, and those in northern South America and in the Nordeste of Brazil.A reinforcement of certain rainfall anomalies is observed when specific oceanic events combine. For instance, when El Niño and cold SSTs in the southern Atlantic are associated, very strong negative anomalies are observed in the whole northern Amazon basin. Nonetheless, the comparison of the cluster and the composite analyses results shows that the rainfall anomalies in the northeastern Amazon are not always associated with tropical SST anomalies.In the southern and western Amazon, significant tropical SST-related rainfall anomalies are very few and spatially variable. The precipitation origins differ from those of the northeastern Amazon: land temperature variability, extratropical perturbations and moisture advection are important rainfall factors, as well

  7. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  8. The 2014-2015 Warming Anomaly in the Southern California Current System: Glider Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, K. D.; Rudnick, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    During 2014-2015, basin-wide patterns of oceanic and atmospheric anomalies affected surface waters throughout the North Pacific Ocean. We present regional physical and biological effects of the warming, as observed by our autonomous underwater gliders in the southern California Current System (SCCS). Established in 2006, the California Glider Network provides sustained subsurface observations for monitoring the coastal effects of large-scale climate variability. Along repeat sections that extend to 350-500 km in offshore distance and 500 m in depth, Spray gliders have continuously occupied CalCOFI lines 66.7, 80, and 90 for nearly nine years. Following a sawtooth trajectory, the gliders complete each dive in approximately 3 hours and over 3 km. Measured variables include pressure, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll fluorescence, and velocity. For each of the three lines, a comprehensive climatology has been constructed from the multiyear timeseries. The ongoing surface-intensified warming anomaly, which began locally in early 2014 and persists through present, is unprecedented in the glider climatology. Reaching up to 5°C, positive temperature anomalies have been generally confined to the upper 50 m and persistent for over 20 months. The timing of the warming was in phase along each glider line but out of phase with equatorial SST anomalies, suggesting a decoupling of tropical and mid-latitude dynamics. Concurrent physical oceanographic anomalies included a depressed thermocline and high stratification. An induced biological response was apparent in the deepening of the subsurface chlorophyll fluorescence maximum. Ancillary atmospheric data from the NCEP North American Mesoscale (NAM) model indicate that a combination of surface forcing anomalies, namely high downward heat flux and weak wind stress magnitude, caused the unusual warm, downwelling conditions. With a strong El Niño event in the forecast for winter 2015-2016, our sustained glider network will

  9. Pronounced centennial-scale Atlantic Ocean climate variability correlated with Western Hemisphere hydroclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Quinn, Terrence M.; Okumura, Yuko; Richey, Julie; Partin, Judson W.; Poore, Richard Z.; Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Surface-ocean circulation in the northern Atlantic Ocean influences Northern Hemisphere climate. Century-scale circulation variability in the Atlantic Ocean, however, is poorly constrained due to insufficiently-resolved paleoceanographic records. Here we present a replicated reconstruction of sea-surface temperature and salinity from a site sensitive to North Atlantic circulation in the Gulf of Mexico which reveals pronounced centennial-scale variability over the late Holocene. We find significant correlations on these timescales between salinity changes in the Atlantic, a diagnostic parameter of circulation, and widespread precipitation anomalies using three approaches: multiproxy synthesis, observational datasets, and a transient simulation. Our results demonstrate links between centennial changes in northern Atlantic surface-circulation and hydroclimate changes in the adjacent continents over the late Holocene. Notably, our findings reveal that weakened surface-circulation in the Atlantic Ocean was concomitant with well-documented rainfall anomalies in the Western Hemisphere during the Little Ice Age.

  10. Pronounced centennial-scale Atlantic Ocean climate variability correlated with Western Hemisphere hydroclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Quinn, Terrence M; Okumura, Yuko; Richey, Julie N; Partin, Judson W; Poore, Richard Z; Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo

    2018-01-26

    Surface-ocean circulation in the northern Atlantic Ocean influences Northern Hemisphere climate. Century-scale circulation variability in the Atlantic Ocean, however, is poorly constrained due to insufficiently-resolved paleoceanographic records. Here we present a replicated reconstruction of sea-surface temperature and salinity from a site sensitive to North Atlantic circulation in the Gulf of Mexico which reveals pronounced centennial-scale variability over the late Holocene. We find significant correlations on these timescales between salinity changes in the Atlantic, a diagnostic parameter of circulation, and widespread precipitation anomalies using three approaches: multiproxy synthesis, observational datasets, and a transient simulation. Our results demonstrate links between centennial changes in northern Atlantic surface-circulation and hydroclimate changes in the adjacent continents over the late Holocene. Notably, our findings reveal that weakened surface-circulation in the Atlantic Ocean was concomitant with well-documented rainfall anomalies in the Western Hemisphere during the Little Ice Age.

  11. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Interactions between the atmosphere and ocean are mediated by the mixed layer at the ocean surface. The depth of this layer is determined by wind forcing and heating from the atmosphere. Variations in mixed-layer depth affect the rate of exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean, the capacity of the ocean to store heat and carbon and the availability of light and nutrients to support the growth of phytoplankton. However, the response of the Southern Ocean mixed layer to changes in the atmosphere is not well known. Here we analyse temperature and salinity data from Argo profiling floats to show that the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere, leads to large-scale anomalies in mixed-layer depth that are zonally asymmetric. From a simple heat budget of the mixed layer we conclude that meridional winds associated with departures of the SAM from zonal symmetry cause anomalies in heat flux that can, in turn, explain the observed changes of mixed-layer depth and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that changes in the SAM, including recent and projected trends attributed to human activity, drive variations in Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth, with consequences for air-sea exchange, ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, and biological productivity.

  12. Depth Dependent Relationships between Temperature and Ocean Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Production

    KAUST Repository

    Lønborg, Christian

    2016-06-07

    Marine prokaryotes play a key role in cycling of organic matter and nutrients in the ocean. Using a unique dataset (>14,500 samples), we applied a space-for-time substitution analysis to assess the temperature dependence of prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in epi- (0-200 m), meso- (201-1000 m) and bathypelagic waters (1001-4000 m) of the global ocean. Here, we show that the temperature dependence of PHP is fundamentally different between these major oceanic depth layers, with an estimated ecosystem-level activation energy (E) of 36 ± 7 kJ mol for the epipelagic, 72 ± 15 kJ mol for the mesopelagic and 274 ± 65 kJ mol for the bathypelagic realm. We suggest that the increasing temperature dependence with depth is related to the parallel vertical gradient in the proportion of recalcitrant organic compounds. These Ea predict an increased PHP of about 5, 12, and 55% in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic ocean, respectively, in response to a water temperature increase by 1°C. Hence, there is indication that a major thus far underestimated feedback mechanism exists between future bathypelagic ocean warming and heterotrophic prokaryotic activity.

  13. Depth Dependent Relationships between Temperature and Ocean Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Production

    KAUST Repository

    Lø nborg, Christian; Cuevas, L. Antonio; Reinthaler, Thomas; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Bates, Nicholas R.; á lvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine prokaryotes play a key role in cycling of organic matter and nutrients in the ocean. Using a unique dataset (>14,500 samples), we applied a space-for-time substitution analysis to assess the temperature dependence of prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in epi- (0-200 m), meso- (201-1000 m) and bathypelagic waters (1001-4000 m) of the global ocean. Here, we show that the temperature dependence of PHP is fundamentally different between these major oceanic depth layers, with an estimated ecosystem-level activation energy (E) of 36 ± 7 kJ mol for the epipelagic, 72 ± 15 kJ mol for the mesopelagic and 274 ± 65 kJ mol for the bathypelagic realm. We suggest that the increasing temperature dependence with depth is related to the parallel vertical gradient in the proportion of recalcitrant organic compounds. These Ea predict an increased PHP of about 5, 12, and 55% in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic ocean, respectively, in response to a water temperature increase by 1°C. Hence, there is indication that a major thus far underestimated feedback mechanism exists between future bathypelagic ocean warming and heterotrophic prokaryotic activity.

  14. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs. It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sea-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable

  15. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of Sea-Level and Ocean Climate Change in Response to CO2 Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model

  16. Air-sea interaction in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, L. J.; Steranka, J.; Holub, R. J.; Hansen, J.; Godshall, F. A.; Prabhakara, C.

    1972-01-01

    Charts of 3-month sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean were produced for the period 1949 to 1970. The anomalies along the United States and South American west coasts and in the eastern tropical Pacific appeared to be oscillating in phase during this period. Similarly, the satellite-derived cloudiness for each of four quadrants of the Pacific Ocean (130 deg E to 100 deg W, 30 deg N to 25 deg S) appeared to be oscillating in phase. In addition, a global tropical cloudiness oscillation from 30 deg N to 30 deg S was noted from 1965 to 1970, by using monthly satellite television nephanalyses. The SST anomalies were found to have a good degree of correlation both positive and negative with the following monthly geophysical parameters: (1) satellite-derived cloudiness, (2) strength of the North and South Pacific semipermanent anticyclones, (3) tropical Pacific island rainfall, and (4) Darwin surface pressure. Several strong direct local and crossequatorial relationships were noted. In particular, the high degree of correlation between the tropical island rainfall and the SST anomalies (r = +0.93) permitted the derivation of SST's for the tropical Pacific back to 1905. The close occurrence of cold tropical SST and North Pacific 700-mb positive height anomalies with central United States drought conditions was noted.

  17. Temperature fluctuations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjoello, Solfrid Saetre

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the temperature fluctuations in connection with drought in Africa, the climate in North America, the European heat waves and the frequent tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. Problems with climate modelling and some pollution aspects are mentioned

  18. Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction in Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    1999-01-01

    temperature anomalies with the cyclonic wind anomalies toward the coast. The results led to a new study which identifies decadal ocean variations in the Northeast Pacific. Three studies of oceanic responses to wind forcing caused by the seasonal change of monsoons, the passage of a typhoon, and the 1997 El Nino, were successfully conducted. Besides wind forcing, we continue to examine new techniques for estimating thermal and hydrologic fluxes, through the inverse ocean mixed-layer model, through divergence of atmospheric water transport, and by direct retrieval from radiances observed by microwave radiometers. Greenhouse warming has been linked to water vapor measured by two spaceborne sensors in two studies. In the first study, strong baroclinicity and deep convection were found to transport water vapor to the upper atmosphere and increase greenhouse trapping over the storm tracks of the North Pacific and Atlantic. In another study, the annual cycle of greenhouse warming were related to sea surface temperature (SST) and integrated water vapor, and the latitudinal dependence of the magnitudes and phases of the annual cycles were compared.

  19. Kohn anomalies in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatte, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The detailed behavior of phonon dispersion curves near momenta which span the electronic Fermi sea in a superconductor is presented. An anomaly, similar to the metallic Kohn anomaly, exists in a superconductor's dispersion curves when the frequency of the photon spanning the Fermi sea exceeds twice the superconducting energy gap. This anomaly occurs at approximately the same momentum but is stronger than the normal-state Kohn anomaly. It also survives at finite temperature, unlike the metallic anomaly. Determination of Fermi-surface diameters from the location of these anomalies, therefore, may be more successful in the superconducting phase than in the normal state. However, the superconductor's anomaly fades rapidly with increased phonon frequency and becomes unobservable when the phonon frequency greatly exceeds the gap. This constraint makes these anomalies useful only in high-temperature superconductors such as La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4

  20. Investigating the Indian Ocean Geoid Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Gollapalli, T.; Steinberger, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    The lowest geoid anomaly on Earth lies in the Indian Ocean just south of the Indian peninsula.Several theories have been proposed to explain this geoid low, most of which invoke past subduction. Some recent studies have alsoargued that high velocity anomalies in the lower mantle coupled with low velocity anomalies in the upper mantle are responsible for these negative geoidanomalies. However, there is no general consensus regarding the source of the Indian Ocean negative geoid. We investigate the source of this geoid low by using forward models of density driven mantle convection using CitcomS. We test various tomography models in our flow calculations with different radial and lateral viscosity variations. Many tomography modelsproduce a fairly high correlation to the global geoid, however none could match the precise location of the geoid low in the Indian Ocean. Amerged P-wave model of LLNL-G3DV3 in the Indian Ocean region and S40rts elsewhere yields a good fit to the geoid anomaly, both in pattern and magnitude.The source of this geoid low seems to stem from a low velocity anomaly stretching from a depth of 300 km up to 700 km in the northern Indian Ocean region.This velocity anomaly could potentially arise from material rising along the edge of the African LLSVP and moving towards the northeast, facilitated by the movementof the Indian plate in the same direction.

  1. Tropical teleconnections via the ocean and atmosphere induced by Southern Ocean deep convective events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gunn, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The current generation (CMIP5) of Earth System Models (ESMs) shows a huge variability in their ability to represent Southern Ocean (SO) deep-ocean convection and Antarctic Bottom Water, with a preference for open-sea convection in the Weddell and Ross gyres. A long control simulation in a coarse 3o resolution ESM (the GFDL CM2Mc model) shows a highly regular multi-decadal oscillation between periods of SO open sea convection and non-convective periods. This process also happens naturally, with different frequencies and durations of convection across most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al, 2014). Here we assess the impact of SO deep convection and resulting sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the tropical atmosphere and ocean via teleconnections, with a focus on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We combine analysis of our low-resolution coupled model with inter-model analysis across historical CMIP5 simulations. SST cooling south of 60S during non-convective decades triggers a stronger, northward shifted SH Hadley cell, which results in intensified northward cross-equatorial moist heat transport and a poleward shift in the ITCZ. Resulting correlations between the cross-equatorial atmospheric heat transport and ITCZ location are in good agreement with recent theories (e.g. Frierson et al. 2013; Donohoe et al. 2014). Lagged correlations between a SO convective index and cross-equatorial heat transports (in the atmosphere and ocean), as well as various tropical (and ENSO) climate indices are analyzed. In the ocean realm, we find that non-convective decades result in weaker AABW formation and weaker ACC but stronger Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) formation, likely as a result of stronger SO westerlies (more positive SAM). The signals of AABW and AAIW are seen in the tropics on short timescales of years to decades in the temperature, heat storage and heat transport anomalies and also in deep and intermediate ocean oxygen. Most

  2. The impact of Arctic and North Atlantic oscillation on temperature and precipitation anomalies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović-Berdon Nada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the Arctic Oscillations (AO and the North Atlantic Oscillations (NAO is considered as the most prominent of atmospheric oscillations in the area of the northern hemisphere from the United States to Siberia and from the Arctic to the subtropical Atlantic. The aim of this study was to determine how these fluctuations affect the temperature and precipitation in Serbia. This paper explores the impact for the period of 50 years (1958-2007 by months and in 20 synoptic stations. The influence of the AO on temperature anomalies in Serbia can be seen by the correlation coefficient, the largest in the month of January, while its impact on precipitation is the largest in the month of February. After the test of linear correlation between the NAO index and temperature anomalies for the base period 1971-2000 for 20 synoptic stations in Serbia, it has been found that the highest correlation is in the month of January. The correlation between the NAO and the precipitation anomalies for the stations mentioned above is the highest in the month of February. Spatial patterns of the AO and the NAO influence on temperature in January and on precipitation in February were obtained by applying principal component analysis.

  3. Glacial ocean circulation and stratification explained by reduced atmospheric temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Malte F

    2017-01-03

    Earth's climate has undergone dramatic shifts between glacial and interglacial time periods, with high-latitude temperature changes on the order of 5-10 °C. These climatic shifts have been associated with major rearrangements in the deep ocean circulation and stratification, which have likely played an important role in the observed atmospheric carbon dioxide swings by affecting the partitioning of carbon between the atmosphere and the ocean. The mechanisms by which the deep ocean circulation changed, however, are still unclear and represent a major challenge to our understanding of glacial climates. This study shows that various inferred changes in the deep ocean circulation and stratification between glacial and interglacial climates can be interpreted as a direct consequence of atmospheric temperature differences. Colder atmospheric temperatures lead to increased sea ice cover and formation rate around Antarctica. The associated enhanced brine rejection leads to a strongly increased deep ocean stratification, consistent with high abyssal salinities inferred for the last glacial maximum. The increased stratification goes together with a weakening and shoaling of the interhemispheric overturning circulation, again consistent with proxy evidence for the last glacial. The shallower interhemispheric overturning circulation makes room for slowly moving water of Antarctic origin, which explains the observed middepth radiocarbon age maximum and may play an important role in ocean carbon storage.

  4. The Sun is the climate pacemaker II. Global ocean temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu; Knox, Robert S.

    2015-04-17

    In part I, equatorial Pacific Ocean temperature index SST3.4 was found to have segments during 1990–2014 showing a phase-locked annual signal and phase-locked signals of 2- or 3-year periods. Phase locking is to an inferred solar forcing of 1.0 cycle/yr. Here the study extends to the global ocean, from surface to 700 and 2000 m. The same phase-locking phenomena are found. The El Niño/La Niña effect diffuses into the world oceans with a delay of about two months. - Highlights: • Global ocean temperatures at depths 0–700 m and 0–2000 m from 1990 to 2014 are studied. • The same phase-locked phenomena reported in Paper I are observed. • El Niño/La Niña effects diffuse to the global oceans with a two month delay. • Ocean heat content trends during phase-locked time segments are consistent with zero.

  5. Wagging the Pacific Dog by its Indian Tail? : A west Indian Ocean Precursor to El Niño

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieners, C.E.

    2018-01-01

    Cool Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies tend to prevail in the Seychelles Dome region (Southwest Indian Ocean, NE of Madagascar) during the Northern hemisphere summer-autumn 1.5 years before El Niño. This West Indian Ocean precursor might potentially help to predict El Niño/Southern Oscillation

  6. Cerium anomalies in the Paleo-Mesozoic pelagic sediments of the Tamba group, southwest Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musashino, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    The oceanic sediments of the Tamba group, a part of the Japanese Paleo-Mesozoic accretionary prism are geochemically examined. Based on XMA, INAA and XRF analyses, the following results were obtained. These oceanic sediments have various REE patterns which correspond to environmental change on the ocean floor. The REE pattern changes from negative Ce anomaly through LREE>HREE or MREE>LREE≥HREE pattern to positive Ce anomaly in ascending order. And each REE pattern indicates a corresponding sedimentary environment. Negative Ce anomaly indicates that chert was deposited under the influence of hydrothermal activity or diagenetic metal accumulation. Chert with a LREE>HREE or a MREE>LREE≥HREE pattern resemble the sediment with positive Ce anomaly, but the lack of Ce anomaly suggests a less oxic condition of diagenesis or less Ce content in the sea water. Positive Ce anomaly suggests that sediments accumulated at a very slow rate under oxic condition, where authigenic metal flux from sea water resulted in such an REE pattern. Cherts and siliceous shales with positive Ce anomaly are exclusively detected at the upper part of chert-siliceous shale sequences in all successions of the Tamba group. This suggests that sea water of the Panthalassa Ocean was, at least partially, enriched in Ce, resembling the modern Atlantic more than the modern Pacific Ocean. The following causes are considered. Riverine input from surrounding continents was substantial. Reductive regeneration of Ce from continental shelves was active. Ce depleted sea water did not enter from the other 'ocean'. (J.P.N.)

  7. Ecosystem Resilience to Drought and Temperature Anomalies in the Mekong River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na-U-Dom, T.; Garcia, Monica; Mo, X.

    2017-01-01

    to the temperate and wet/dry anomalies events than other regions in the basin. Drought reduced green biomass in north Laos, northeast Thailand and Myanmar, but in these tropical climate regions' the vegetation biomass was also more responsive by higher temperatures. Vegetation in northeast Thailand, Cambodia...

  8. A review on remotely sensed land surface temperature anomaly as an earthquake precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshuman; Singh, Shaktiman; Sam, Lydia; Joshi, P. K.; Bhardwaj, Akanksha; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-12-01

    The low predictability of earthquakes and the high uncertainty associated with their forecasts make earthquakes one of the worst natural calamities, capable of causing instant loss of life and property. Here, we discuss the studies reporting the observed anomalies in the satellite-derived Land Surface Temperature (LST) before an earthquake. We compile the conclusions of these studies and evaluate the use of remotely sensed LST anomalies as precursors of earthquakes. The arrival times and the amplitudes of the anomalies vary widely, thus making it difficult to consider them as universal markers to issue earthquake warnings. Based on the randomness in the observations of these precursors, we support employing a global-scale monitoring system to detect statistically robust anomalous geophysical signals prior to earthquakes before considering them as definite precursors.

  9. Evolution of anomalies of salinity of surface waters of Arctic Ocean and their possible influence on climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A.; Rubchenia, A.

    2009-04-01

    . Hydrodynamic aspects of distribution of anomalies are not clear yet. But the fact of formation and distribution of anomalies of salinity of surface waters in Arctic basin could be taken for granted. In a case when the climatic signal from the several seas simultaneously reach Greenland Sea climatically significant anomaly of fresh water of ice could appear. It capable to result in sharp change of a climatic situation. Probably, the similar situation was in 1963-1964 years when «Great Salinity Anomaly» was observed in North Atlantic. Changes of atmospheric circulation was so significant, that in Arctic regions has rather sharply increased ice cover areas and the temperature of air has gone down. In our opinion similar conditions could arise in the present period when after several years of extreme development of flaw lead polynyas extreme freshwater anomaly which reaching of Greenland Sea is possible to expect 2008-2009 should be generated. In 2008 several freshwater anomalies generated in various flaw lead polynyas in 2003-2004 years already has left to Greenland sea and in April, July and November has reached Northern Atlantic. Synoptic situations which, in our opinion, can be connected to the given phenomenon, and also reaction of the Arctic seas to the given atmospheric processes are shown. The analysis of a map of drift of anomalies allows us to conclude, that in 2009 it is necessary to expect an exit of the strong salinity anomaly generated from several large polynyas. To the given event there will correspond reduction of repeatability and reduction of areas of polynyas in the seas of the Siberian shelf, easing of carrying out concerning warm air masses to the Central Arctic regions and increase here ground atmospheric pressure in the cold period of year. In the summer period will take place strengthening of ice cover and, hence - downturn of temperature of air in Arctic regions. We could assume we are at the break point of temperature change and next year there will be

  10. Autumn atmospheric response to the 2007 low Arctic sea ice extent in coupled ocean-atmosphere hindcasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orsolini, Yvan J. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), PO BOX 100, Kjeller (Norway); Senan, Retish; Benestad, Rasmus E.; Melsom, Arne [Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met. no), Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    The autumn and early winter atmospheric response to the record-low Arctic sea ice extent at the end of summer 2007 is examined in ensemble hindcasts with prescribed sea ice extent, made with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts state-of-the-art coupled ocean-atmosphere seasonal forecast model. Robust, warm anomalies over the Pacific and Siberian sectors of the Arctic, as high as 10 C at the surface, are found in October and November. A regime change occurs by December, characterized by weaker temperatures anomalies extending through the troposphere. Geopotential anomalies extend from the surface up to the stratosphere, associated to deeper Aleutian and Icelandic Lows. While the upper-level jet is weakened and shifted southward over the continents, it is intensified over both oceanic sectors, especially over the Pacific Ocean. On the American and Eurasian continents, intensified surface Highs are associated with anomalous advection of cold (warm) polar air on their eastern (western) sides, bringing cooler temperatures along the Pacific coast of Asia and Northeastern North America. Transient eddy activity is reduced over Eurasia, intensified over the entrance and exit regions of the Pacific and Atlantic storm tracks, in broad qualitative agreement with the upper-level wind anomalies. Potential predictability calculations indicate a strong influence of sea ice upon surface temperatures over the Arctic in autumn, but also along the Pacific coast of Asia in December. When the observed sea ice extent from 2007 is prescribed throughout the autumn, a higher correlation of surface temperatures with meteorological re-analyses is found at high latitudes from October until mid-November. This further emphasises the relevance of sea ice for seasonal forecasting in the Arctic region, in the autumn. (orig.)

  11. Climate variability and predictability associated with the Indo-Pacific Oceanic Channel Dynamics in the CCSM4 Coupled System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfei

    2017-01-01

    An experiment using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a participant of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5), is analyzed to assess the skills of this model in simulating and predicting the climate variabilities associated with the oceanic channel dynamics across the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The results of these analyses suggest that the model is able to reproduce the observed lag correlation between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and those in the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean at a time lag of 1 year. This success may be largely attributed to the successful simulation of the interannual variations of the Indonesian Throughflow, which carries the anomalies of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) into the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to produce subsurface temperature anomalies, which in turn propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific to generate ENSO. This connection is termed the "oceanic channel dynamics" and is shown to be consistent with the observational analyses. However, the model simulates a weaker connection between the IOD and the interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport than found in the observations. In addition, the model overestimates the westerly wind anomalies in the western-central equatorial Pacific in the year following the IOD, which forces unrealistic upwelling Rossby waves in the western equatorial Pacific and downwelling Kelvin waves in the east. This assessment suggests that the CCSM4 coupled climate system has underestimated the oceanic channel dynamics and overestimated the atmospheric bridge processes.

  12. Can oceanic reanalyses be used to assess recent anthropogenic changes and low-frequency internal variability of upper ocean temperature?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corre, L.; Terray, L.; Weaver, A. [Cerfacs-CNRS, Toulouse (France); Balmaseda, M. [E.C.M.W.F, Reading (United Kingdom); Ribes, A. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo France-CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2012-03-15

    A multivariate analysis of the upper ocean thermal structure is used to examine the recent long-term changes and decadal variability in the upper ocean heat content as represented by model-based ocean reanalyses and a model-independent objective analysis. The three variables used are the mean temperature above the 14 C isotherm, its depth and a fixed depth mean temperature (250 m mean temperature). The mean temperature above the 14 C isotherm is a convenient, albeit simple, way to isolate thermodynamical changes by filtering out dynamical changes related to thermocline vertical displacements. The global upper ocean observations and reanalyses exhibit very similar warming trends (0.045 C per decade) over the period 1965-2005, superimposed with marked decadal variability in the 1970s and 1980s. The spatial patterns of the regression between indices (representative of anthropogenic changes and known modes of internal decadal variability), and the three variables associated with the ocean heat content are used as fingerprint to separate out the different contributions. The choice of variables provides information about the local heat absorption, vertical distribution and horizontal redistribution of heat, this latter being suggestive of changes in ocean circulation. The discrepancy between the objective analysis and the reanalyses, as well as the spread among the different reanalyses, are used as a simple estimate of ocean state uncertainties. Two robust findings result from this analysis: (1) the signature of anthropogenic changes is qualitatively different from those of the internal decadal variability associated to the Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation, and (2) the anthropogenic changes in ocean heat content do not only consist of local heat absorption, but are likely related with changes in the ocean circulation, with a clear shallowing of the tropical thermocline in the Pacific and Indian oceans. (orig.)

  13. Climatic anomaly affects the immune competence of California sea lions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Banuet-Martínez

    Full Text Available The past decades have been characterized by a growing number of climatic anomalies. As these anomalies tend to occur suddenly and unexpectedly, it is often difficult to procure empirical evidence of their effects on natural populations. We analysed how the recent sea surface temperature (SST anomaly in the northeastern Pacific Ocean affects body condition, nutritional status, and immune competence of California sea lion pups. We found that pup body condition and blood glucose levels of the pups were lower during high SST events, although other biomarkers of malnutrition remained unchanged, suggesting that pups were experiencing early stages of starvation. Glucose-dependent immune responses were affected by the SST anomaly; specifically, pups born during high SST events had lower serum concentrations of IgG and IgA, and were unable to respond to an immune challenge. This means that not only were pups that were born during the SST anomaly less able to synthesize protective antibodies; they were also limited in their ability to respond rapidly to nonspecific immune challenges. Our study provides empirical evidence that atypical climatic conditions can limit energetic reserves and compromise physiological responses that are essential for the survival of a marine top predator.

  14. Model-based temperature noise monitoring methods for LMFBR core anomaly detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaoki, Tetsuo; Sonoda, Yukio; Sato, Masuo; Takahashi, Ryoichi.

    1994-01-01

    Temperature noise, measured by thermocouples mounted at each core fuel subassembly, is considered to be the most useful signal for detecting and locating local cooling anomalies in an LMFBR core. However, the core outlet temperature noise contains background noise due to fluctuations in the operating parameters including reactor power. It is therefore necessary to reduce this background noise for highly sensitive anomaly detection by subtracting predictable components from the measured signal. In the present study, both a physical model and an autoregressive model were applied to noise data measured in the experimental fast reactor JOYO. The results indicate that the autoregressive model has a higher precision than the physical model in background noise prediction. Based on these results, an 'autoregressive model modification method' is proposed, in which a temporary autoregressive model is generated by interpolation or extrapolation of reference models identified under a small number of different operating conditions. The generated autoregressive model has shown sufficient precision over a wide range of reactor power in applications to artificial noise data produced by an LMFBR noise simulator even when the coolant flow rate was changed to keep a constant power-to-flow ratio. (author)

  15. Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006 – 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker Compton J; Small Jennifer; Chretien Jean-Paul; Anyamba Assaf; Linthicum Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. The Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/CPC) has recently issued an unscheduled El Niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the equatorial eastern Pacific may have pronounced impacts on global tropical precipitation patterns extending into the northern hem...

  16. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  17. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  18. Validation and Inter-comparison Against Observations of GODAE Ocean View Ocean Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Smith, G. C.; Lu, Y.; Hernandez, F.; Regnier, C.; Drevillon, M.; Ryan, A.; Martin, M.; Spindler, T. D.; Brassington, G. B.; Oke, P. R.

    2016-02-01

    For weather forecasts, validation of forecast performance is done at the end user level as well as by the meteorological forecast centers. In the development of Ocean Prediction Capacity, the same level of care for ocean forecast performance and validation is needed. Herein we present results from a validation against observations of 6 Global Ocean Forecast Systems under the GODAE OceanView International Collaboration Network. These systems include the Global Ocean Ice Forecast System (GIOPS) developed by the Government of Canada, two systems PSY3 and PSY4 from the French Mercator-Ocean Ocean Forecasting Group, the FOAM system from UK met office, HYCOM-RTOFS from NOAA/NCEP/NWA of USA, and the Australian Bluelink-OceanMAPS system from the CSIRO, the Australian Meteorological Bureau and the Australian Navy.The observation data used in the comparison are sea surface temperature, sub-surface temperature, sub-surface salinity, sea level anomaly, and sea ice total concentration data. Results of the inter-comparison demonstrate forecast performance limits, strengths and weaknesses of each of the six systems. This work establishes validation protocols and routines by which all new prediction systems developed under the CONCEPTS Collaborative Network will be benchmarked prior to approval for operations. This includes anticipated delivery of CONCEPTS regional prediction systems over the next two years including a pan Canadian 1/12th degree resolution ice ocean prediction system and limited area 1/36th degree resolution prediction systems. The validation approach of comparing forecasts to observations at the time and location of the observation is called Class 4 metrics. It has been adopted by major international ocean prediction centers, and will be recommended to JCOMM-WMO as routine validation approach for operational oceanography worldwide.

  19. Ocean acidification alters temperature and salinity preferences in larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat. Larval fish raised under elevated CO 2 concentrations were attracted by warmer water, but temperature had no effect on fish raised in contemporary CO 2 concentrations. In contrast, contemporary larvae were deterred by lower salinity water, where CO 2 -treated fish showed no such response. Natural estuarine water-of higher temperature, lower salinity, and containing estuarine olfactory cues-was only preferred by fish treated under forecasted high CO 2 conditions. We show for the first time that attraction by larval fish towards physicochemical cues can be altered by ocean acidification. Such alterations to perception and evaluation of environmental cues during the critical process of dispersal can potentially have implications for ensuing recruitment and population replenishment. Our study not only shows that freshwater species that spend part of their life cycle in the ocean might also be affected by ocean acidification, but that behavioural responses towards key physicochemical cues can also be negated through elevated CO 2 from human emissions.

  20. Diagnosing the leading mode of interdecadal covariability between the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature and summer precipitation in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingpeng; Ren, Hong-Li; Li, Weijing; Zuo, Jinqing

    2018-03-01

    Precipitation in southern China during boreal summer (June to August) shows a substantial interdecadal variability on the timescale longer than 8 years. In this study, based on the analysis of singular value decomposition, we diagnose the leading mode of interdecadal covariability between the observational precipitation in southern China and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean. Results indicate that there exist a remarkable southern China zonal dipole (SCZD) pattern of interdecadal variability of summer precipitation and an interdecadal Indian Ocean basin mode (ID-IOBM) of SST. It is found that the SCZD is evidently covaried with the ID-IOBM, which may induce anomalous inter-hemispheric vertical circulation and atmospheric Kelvin waves. During the warm phase of the ID-IOBM, an enhanced lower-level convergence and upper-level divergence exist over the tropical Indian Ocean, which is a typical Gill-Matsuno-type response to the SST warming. Meanwhile, the accompanied upper-level outflow anomalies further converge over the Indo-China peninsula, resulting in a lower-level anticyclone that contributes to reduction of the eastward moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal to the west part of southern China. In addition, the Kelvin wave-like pattern, as a response of the warm ID-IOBM phase, further induces the lower-level anticyclonic anomaly over the South China Sea-Philippines. Such an anticyclonic circulation is favorable for more water vapor transport from the East China Sea into the east part of southern China. Therefore, the joint effects of the anomalous inter-hemispheric vertical circulation and the Kelvin wave-like pattern associated with the ID-IOBM may eventually play a key role in generating the SCZD pattern.

  1. Low temperature specific heat anomalies in melanins and tumor melanosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, U [Carnegie--Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh; Massalski, T B; McGinness, J E; Corry, P M

    1976-02-12

    Human malignant melanoma cells obtained at autopsy were used. Data indicate that melanins exhibit a large linear term (50-200 erg g/sup -1/K/sup -2/) and that they seem to undergo a phase transition as indicated by the heat capacity near 1.9/sup 0/K. A table is presented to show low temperature specific heat data for melanin samples. The measurements include two anomalies, a transition and an unusually high linear contribution. (HLW)

  2. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensitive areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduces a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage. To separate the effects of the geometry of the anomalies and the residual stress state after introduction of the surface flaws, two V-type anomalies are studied: scratches and dents. Different studies have shown that the residual stresses beneath the anomalies seem to control the fatigue life of samples exhibiting scratches and dents. In order to monitor the crack micro-propagation, a direct current potential drop technique, coupled with heat tints is used during fatigue tests at elevated temperature. Thermal treatments releasing the residual stresses are also used to decouple the effect of crack morphology and residual stresses.

  3. Impact of a permanent El Niño (El Padre) and Indian Ocean Dipole in warm Pliocene climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sonali P.; Chandler, Mark A.; Jonas, Jeff; Sohl, Linda E.; Mankoff, Ken; Dowsett, Harry J.

    2009-01-01

     Pliocene sea surface temperature data, as well as terrestrial precipitation and temperature proxies, indicate warmer than modern conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific and imply permanent El Niño–like conditions with impacts similar to those of the 1997/1998 El Niño event. Here we use a general circulation model to examine the global-scale effects that result from imposing warm tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in both modern and Pliocene simulations. Observed SSTs from the 1997/1998 El Niño event were used for the anomalies and incorporate Pacific warming as well as a prominent Indian Ocean Dipole event. Both the permanent El Niño (also called El Padre) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) conditions are necessary to reproduce temperature and precipitation patterns consistent with the global distribution of Pliocene proxy data. These patterns may result from the poleward propagation of planetary waves from the strong convection centers associated with the El Niño and IOD.

  4. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  5. Trends in continental temperature and humidity directly linked to ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael P; O'Gorman, Paul A

    2018-05-08

    In recent decades, the land surface has warmed substantially more than the ocean surface, and relative humidity has fallen over land. Amplified warming and declining relative humidity over land are also dominant features of future climate projections, with implications for climate-change impacts. An emerging body of research has shown how constraints from atmospheric dynamics and moisture budgets are important for projected future land-ocean contrasts, but these ideas have not been used to investigate temperature and humidity records over recent decades. Here we show how both the temperature and humidity changes observed over land between 1979 and 2016 are linked to warming over neighboring oceans. A simple analytical theory, based on atmospheric dynamics and moisture transport, predicts equal changes in moist static energy over land and ocean and equal fractional changes in specific humidity over land and ocean. The theory is shown to be consistent with the observed trends in land temperature and humidity given the warming over ocean. Amplified land warming is needed for the increase in moist static energy over drier land to match that over ocean, and land relative humidity decreases because land specific humidity is linked via moisture transport to the weaker warming over ocean. However, there is considerable variability about the best-fit trend in land relative humidity that requires further investigation and which may be related to factors such as changes in atmospheric circulations and land-surface properties.

  6. Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean temperature changes using an isothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Both air-sea heat exchanges and changes in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via changes in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean temperature changes for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean temperatures above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean temperatures. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of temperature changes since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.

  7. A statistical-dynamical scheme for reconstructing ocean forcing in the Atlantic. Part I: weather regimes as predictors for ocean surface variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassou, Christophe; Minvielle, Marie; Terray, Laurent [CERFACS/CNRS, Climate Modelling and Global Change Team, Toulouse (France); Perigaud, Claire [JPL-NASA, Ocean Science Element, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The links between the observed variability of the surface ocean variables estimated from reanalysis and the overlying atmosphere decomposed in classes of large-scale atmospheric circulation via clustering are investigated over the Atlantic from 1958 to 2002. Daily 500 hPa geopotential height and 1,000 hPa wind anomaly maps are classified following a weather-typing approach to describe the North Atlantic and tropical Atlantic atmospheric dynamics, respectively. The algorithm yields patterns that correspond in the extratropics to the well-known North Atlantic-Europe weather regimes (NAE-WR) accounting for the barotropic dynamics, and in the tropics to wind classes (T-WC) representing the alteration of the trades. 10-m wind and 2-m temperature (T2) anomaly composites derived from regime/wind class occurrence are indicative of strong relationships between daily large-scale atmospheric circulation and ocean surface over the entire Atlantic basin. High temporal correlation values are obtained basin-wide at low frequency between the observed fields and their reconstruction by multiple linear regressions with the frequencies of occurrence of both NAE-WR and T-WC used as sole predictors. Additional multiple linear regressions also emphasize the importance of accounting for the strength of the daily anomalous atmospheric circulation estimated by the combined distances to all regimes centroids in order to reproduce the daily to interannual variability of the Atlantic ocean. We show that for most of the North Atlantic basin the occurrence of NAE-WR generally sets the sign of the ocean surface anomaly for a given day, and that the inter-regime distances are valuable predictors for the magnitude of that anomaly. Finally, we provide evidence that a large fraction of the low-frequency trends in the Atlantic observed at the surface over the last 50 years can be traced back, except for T2, to changes in occurrence of tropical and extratropical weather classes. All together, our

  8. The role of potential vorticity anomalies in the Somali Jet on Indian Summer Monsoon Intraseasonal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Joshi, M.; Dimri, A. P.; Turner, A. G.

    2018-06-01

    The climate of the Indian subcontinent is dominated by rainfall arising from the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during June to September. Intraseasonal variability during the monsoon is characterized by periods of heavy rainfall interspersed by drier periods, known as active and break events respectively. Understanding and predicting such events is of vital importance for forecasting human impacts such as water resources. The Somali Jet is a key regional feature of the monsoon circulation. In the present study, we find that the spatial structure of Somali Jet potential vorticity (PV) anomalies varies considerably during active and break periods. Analysis of these anomalies shows a mechanism whereby sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies propagate north/northwestwards through the Arabian Sea, caused by a positive feedback loop joining anomalies in SST, convection, modification of PV by diabatic heating and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, wind-stress curl, and ocean upwelling processes. The feedback mechanism is consistent with observed variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on timescales of approximately 20 days. This research suggests that better understanding and prediction of monsoon intraseasonal variability in the South Asian monsoon may be gained by analysis of the day-to-day dynamical evolution of PV in the Somali Jet.

  9. The role of potential vorticity anomalies in the Somali Jet on Indian Summer Monsoon Intraseasonal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Joshi, M.; Dimri, A. P.; Turner, A. G.

    2017-08-01

    The climate of the Indian subcontinent is dominated by rainfall arising from the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during June to September. Intraseasonal variability during the monsoon is characterized by periods of heavy rainfall interspersed by drier periods, known as active and break events respectively. Understanding and predicting such events is of vital importance for forecasting human impacts such as water resources. The Somali Jet is a key regional feature of the monsoon circulation. In the present study, we find that the spatial structure of Somali Jet potential vorticity (PV) anomalies varies considerably during active and break periods. Analysis of these anomalies shows a mechanism whereby sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies propagate north/northwestwards through the Arabian Sea, caused by a positive feedback loop joining anomalies in SST, convection, modification of PV by diabatic heating and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, wind-stress curl, and ocean upwelling processes. The feedback mechanism is consistent with observed variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on timescales of approximately 20 days. This research suggests that better understanding and prediction of monsoon intraseasonal variability in the South Asian monsoon may be gained by analysis of the day-to-day dynamical evolution of PV in the Somali Jet.

  10. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  11. High temperature dielectric relaxation anomaly of Y3+ and Mn2+ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shiguang; Mao, Chaoliang; Wang, Genshui; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation like dielectric anomaly is observed in Y 3+ and Mn 2+ doped barium strontium titanate ceramics when the temperature is over 450 K. Apart from the conventional dielectric relaxation analysis method with Debye or modified Debye equations, which is hard to give exact temperature dependence of the relaxation process, dielectric response in the form of complex impedance, assisted with Cole-Cole impedance model corrected equivalent circuits, is adopted to solve this problem and chase the polarization mechanism in this paper. Through this method, an excellent description to temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation anomaly and its dominated factors are achieved. Further analysis reveals that the exponential decay of the Cole distribution parameter n with temperature is confirmed to be induced by the microscopic lattice distortion due to ions doping and the interaction between the defects. At last, a clear sight to polarization mechanism containing both the intrinsic dipolar polarization and extrinsic distributed oxygen vacancies hopping response under different temperature is obtained.

  12. Air-sea heat fluxes associated to mesoscale eddies in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and their dependence on different regional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyba, Inés M.; Saraceno, Martín; Solman, Silvina A.

    2017-10-01

    Heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere largely represent the link between the two media. A possible mechanism of interaction is generated by mesoscale ocean eddies. In this work we evaluate if eddies in Southwestern Atlantic (SWA) Ocean may significantly affect flows between the ocean and the atmosphere. Atmospherics conditions associated with eddies were examined using data of sea surface temperature (SST), sensible (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. On average, we found that NCEP-CFSR reanalysis adequately reflects the variability expected from eddies in the SWA, considering the classical eddy-pumping theory: anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies cause maximum positive (negative) anomalies with maximum mean anomalies of 0.5 °C (-0.5 °C) in SST, 6 W/m2 (-4 W/m2) in SHF and 12 W/m2 (-9 W/m2) in LHF. However, a regional dependence of heat fluxes associated to mesoscale cyclonic eddies was found: in the turbulent Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region they are related with positive heat flux anomaly (ocean heat loss), while in the rest of the SWA they behave as expected (ocean heat gain). We argue that eddy-pumping do not cool enough the center of the cyclonic eddies in the BMC region simply because most of them trapped very warm waters when they originate in the subtropics. The article therefore concludes that in the SWA: (1) a robust link exists between the SST anomalies generated by eddies and the local anomalous heat flow between the ocean and the atmosphere; (2) in the BMC region cyclonic eddies are related with positive heat anomalies, contrary to what is expected.

  13. Low-Temperature Alteration of the Seafloor: Impacts on Ocean Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Laurence A.; Gillis, Kathryn M.

    2018-05-01

    Over 50% of Earth is covered by oceanic crust, the uppermost portion of which is a high-permeability layer of basaltic lavas through which seawater continuously circulates. Fluid flow is driven by heat lost from the oceanic lithosphere; the global fluid flux is dependent on plate creation rates and the thickness and distribution of overlying sediment, which acts as a low-permeability layer impeding seawater access to the crust. Fluid-rock reactions in the crust, and global chemical fluxes, depend on the average temperature in the aquifer, the fluid flux, and the composition of seawater. The average temperature in the aquifer depends largely on bottom water temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the average seafloor sediment thickness. Feedbacks between off-axis chemical fluxes and their controls may play an important role in modulating ocean chemistry and planetary climate on long timescales, but more work is needed to quantify these feedbacks.

  14. Spatial Correlations of Anomaly Time Series of AIRS Version-6 Land Surface Skin Temperatures with the Nino-4 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 data set is a valuable resource for meteorological studies. Quality Controlled earth's surface skin temperatures are produced on a 45 km x 45 km spatial scale under most cloud cover conditions. The same retrieval algorithm is used for all surface types under all conditions. This study used eleven years of AIRS monthly mean surface skin temperature and cloud cover products to show that land surface skin temperatures have decreased significantly in some areas and increased significantly in other areas over the period September 2002 through August 2013. These changes occurred primarily at 1:30 PM but not at 1:30 AM. Cooling land areas contained corresponding increases in cloud cover over this time period, with the reverse being true for warming land areas. The cloud cover anomaly patterns for a given month are affected significantly by El Nino/La Nina activity, and anomalies in cloud cover are a driving force behind anomalies in land surface skin temperature.

  15. Clustering Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Tracks by the Standard Deviational Ellipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahinoor Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard deviational ellipse is useful to analyze the shape and the length of a tropical cyclone (TC track. Cyclone intensity at each six-hour position is used as the weight at that location. Only named cyclones in the Indian Ocean since 1981 are considered for this study. The K-means clustering algorithm is used to cluster Indian Ocean cyclones based on the five parameters: x-y coordinates of the mean center, variances along zonal and meridional directions, and covariance between zonal and meridional locations of the cyclone track. Four clusters are identified across the Indian Ocean; among them, only one cluster is in the North Indian Ocean (NIO and the rest of them are in the South Indian Ocean (SIO. Other characteristics associated with each cluster, such as wind speed, lifespan, track length, track orientation, seasonality, landfall, category during landfall, total accumulated cyclone energy (ACE, and cyclone trend, are analyzed and discussed. Cyclone frequency and energy of Cluster 4 (in the NIO have been following a linear increasing trend. Cluster 4 also has a higher number of landfall cyclones compared to other clusters. Cluster 2, located in the middle of the SIO, is characterized by the long track, high intensity, long lifespan, and high accumulated energy. Sea surface temperature (SST and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR associated with genesis of TCs are also examined in each cluster. Cyclone genesis is co-located with the negative OLR anomaly and the positive SST anomaly. Localized SST anomalies are associated with clusters in the SIO; however, TC geneses of Cluster 4 are associated with SSTA all over the Indian Ocean (IO.

  16. The influence of sea surface temperature anomalies on low-frequency variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manganello, Julia V. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The influence of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) on multi-year persistence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during the second half of the twentieth century is investigated using the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) Atmospheric GCM (AGCM) with an emphasis on isolating the geographic location of the SSTA that produce this influence. The present study focuses on calculating the atmospheric response to the SSTA averaged over 1988-1995 (1961-1968) corresponding to the observed period of strong persistence of the positive (negative) phase of the decadal NAO. The model response to the global 1988-1995 average SSTA shows a statistically significant large-scale pattern characteristic of the positive phase of the NAO. Forcing with the global 1961-1968 average SSTA generates a NAO of the opposite polarity compared to observations. However, all large-scale features both in the model and observations during this period are weaker in magnitude and less significant compared to 1988-1995. Additional idealized experiments show that over the northern center of the NAO the non-linear component of the forced response appears to be quite important and acts to enhance the positive NAO signal. On the other hand, over the southern center where the model response is the strongest, it is also essentially linear. The 1988-1995 average SSTA restricted to the western tropical Pacific region produce a positive NAO remarkably similar in structure but stronger in magnitude than the model response to the global and tropical Indo-Pacific 1988-1995 forcing. A 200-hPa geopotential height response in these experiments shows a positive anomaly over the southern center of the NAO embedded in the Rossby wave trains propagating from the western tropical Pacific. Indian Ocean SSTA lead to much weaker positive NAO primarily through the effect on its northern center. SST forcing confined to the North Atlantic north of equator does not produce a response statistically different

  17. Inter-annual variability of sea surface temperature, wind speed and sea surface height anomaly over the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.

    Being land-locked at the north, the Indian Ocean and its surrounding atmosphere behave in such a way that the ocean-atmosphere interaction over this domain is different from that over the other oceans, exhibiting a peculiar dynamics. The sparse data...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1987-present, Potential Density Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Potential Density Anomaly (sigma-theta) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter Anton; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and nutr......We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (~4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment...... and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did...... cool-acclimatized kelps. A reduction in temperature sensitivity was also observed as a reduction in Q10-values from cool- to warm-acclimatized kelps for gross photosynthesis (Q10: 3.35 to 1.45) and respiration (Q10: 3.82 to 1.65). Respiration rates were more sensitive to increasing experimental...

  20. The ratio of land to ocean temperature change under global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, G.J. [Environment Canada, Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, c/o University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    The result in climate simulations, supported in the observation-based record, is that the ratio {phi}= T{sub L}/T{sub O} of land-average to ocean-average temperature change is greater than one and varies comparatively modestly as climate changes. This is investigated in results from the CMIP3 data archive of climate change simulations following the B1 and more strongly forced A1B scenarios as well as in 2 x CO{sub 2} integrations. The associated precipitation ratio {psi}=P{sub L}/P{sub O} is also considered briefly. The behaviour of {phi} is analyzed in terms of a forcing-response view of the energy balance over land and ocean regions. The analysis indicates that the value of {phi}> 1 is not maintained by separate local balances over land and ocean but by an energetic balance that also involves a change in transport between the regions. The transport change does not restrain the land warming by exporting energy to the ocean region but, rather, the reverse. The anomalous transport is from the ocean to the land region even though the ocean warms less than the land does. Feedbacks in the ocean region, especially in the equatorial Pacific, do not sufficiently counteract the forcing and the result is an excess of energy that is transported to the land. The land warms in order to radiate away both the energy from the forcing over land but also the extra energy imported from the ocean region, thereby maintaining {phi} > 1. This situation can be understood to parallel the SST-forced case in model studies where {phi} > 1 despite the forcing being confined to the ocean area. The climate system is effective in redistributing forcing so that it is the local feedbacks, rather than the pattern of the forcing, that determine the temperature response. Land and ocean averaged quantities and budgets behave in a consistent manner to provide a simplified representation of the changes in temperature and energetic processes that are occurring. The geographical distributions of the terms

  1. Delta Oxygen-18 and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from KNORR in Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 0862-01-01 to 2009-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0142201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to lack of evidence from the eastern...

  2. Role of North Indian Ocean Air-Sea Interaction in Summer Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, W.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Air-sea coupling processes over the North Indian Ocean associated with Indian summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillation (MISO) are analyzed. Observations show that MISO convection anomalies affect underlying sea surface temperature (SST) through changes in surface shortwave radiation (via cloud cover change) and surface latent heat flux (associated with surface wind speed change). In turn, SST anomalies determine the changing rate of MISO precipitation (dP/dt): warm (cold) SST anomalies cause increasing (decreasing) precipitation rate through increasing (decreasing) surface convergence. Air-sea interaction gives rise to a quadrature relationship between MISO precipitation and SST anomalies. A local air-sea coupling model (LACM) is established based on these observed physical processes, which is a damped oscillatory system with no external forcing. The period of LACM is proportional to the square root of mean state mixed layer depth , assuming other physical parameters remain unchanged. Hence, LACM predicts a relatively short (long) MISO period over the North Indian Ocean during the May-June monsoon developing (July-August mature) phase when is shallow (deep). This result is consistent with observed MISO statistics. An oscillatory external forcing of a typical 30-day period is added to LACM, representing intraseasonal oscillations originated from the equatorial Indian Ocean and propagate into the North Indian Ocean. The period of LACM is then determined by both the inherent period associated with local air-sea coupling and the period of external forcing. It is found that resonance occurs when , amplifying the MISO in situ. This result explains the larger MISO amplitude during the monsoon developing phase compared to the mature phase, which is associated with seasonal cycle of . LACM, however, fails to predict the observed small MISO amplitude during the September-October monsoon decaying phase, when is also shallow. This deficiency might be associated with the

  3. Ocean response to volcanic eruptions in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yanni

    2014-09-01

    We examine the oceanic impact of large tropical volcanic eruptions as they appear in ensembles of historical simulations from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. These models show a response that includes lowering of global average sea surface temperature by 0.1–0.3 K, comparable to the observations. They show enhancement of Arctic ice cover in the years following major volcanic eruptions, with long-lived temperature anomalies extending to the middepth and deep ocean on decadal to centennial timescales. Regional ocean responses vary, although there is some consistent hemispheric asymmetry associated with the hemisphere in which the eruption occurs. Temperature decreases and salinity increases contribute to an increase in the density of surface water and an enhancement in the overturning circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean following these eruptions. The strength of this overturning increase varies considerably from model to model and is correlated with the background variability of overturning in each model. Any cause/effect relationship between eruptions and the phase of El Niño is weak.

  4. Temperature-dependent growth and photophysiology of prokaryotic and eukaryotic oceanic picophytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.; de Vries, P.; van de Poll, W.H.; Visser, R.J.W.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that climate change will expand the open oligotrophic oceans by enhanced thermal stratification. Because temperature defines the geographic distribution of picophytoplankton in open-ocean ecosystems and regulates photophysiological responses, it is important to understand how

  5. SEG US Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEG gravity data are the product of the ad hoc Gravity Anomaly Map (GAM) Committee, sponsored by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the U.S....

  6. Phytoplankton blooms induced/sustained by cyclonic eddies during the Indian Ocean Dipole event of 1997 along the southern coasts of Java and Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Rahul Chand; Salvekar, P. S.

    2008-09-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is the gateway in the tropics connecting two oceans (Pacific and the Indian Ocean) and two continents (Asia and Australia). During the Indian Ocean Dipole 1997, record anomalous and unanticipated upwelling had occurred along the southern coasts of Java and Sumatra causing massive phytoplankton blooms. But the method/mode/process for such anomalous upwelling was not known. Using monthly SeaWifs chlorophyll-a anomalies, TOPEX Sea Surface Height (SSH) anomalies, Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and currents from a state-of-the-art OGCM, we report the presence of a series of cyclonic eddies along southern coasts of Sumatra and Java during November, December 1997 and January 1998. Upwelling caused by these cyclonic eddies, as also supported by the SSH and SST anomalies, has been responsible for the phytoplankton blooms to persist and dissipate during the 3 months (November, December 1997 and January 1998).

  7. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  8. Effects of Precipitation on Ocean Mixed-Layer Temperature and Salinity as Simulated in a 2-D Coupled Ocean-Cloud Resolving Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K-M.; Adamec, D.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional coupled ocean-cloud resolving atmosphere model is used to investigate possible roles of convective scale ocean disturbances induced by atmospheric precipitation on ocean mixed-layer heat and salt budgets. The model couples a cloud resolving model with an embedded mixed layer-ocean circulation model. Five experiment are performed under imposed large-scale atmospheric forcing in terms of vertical velocity derived from the TOGA COARE observations during a selected seven-day period. The dominant variability of mixed-layer temperature and salinity are simulated by the coupled model with imposed large-scale forcing. The mixed-layer temperatures in the coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models show similar variations when salinity effects are not included. When salinity effects are included, however, differences in the domain-mean mixed-layer salinity and temperature between coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models could be as large as 0.3 PSU and 0.4 C respectively. Without fresh water effects, the nocturnal heat loss over ocean surface causes deep mixed layers and weak cooling rates so that the nocturnal mixed-layer temperatures tend to be horizontally-uniform. The fresh water flux, however, causes shallow mixed layers over convective areas while the nocturnal heat loss causes deep mixed layer over convection-free areas so that the mixed-layer temperatures have large horizontal fluctuations. Furthermore, fresh water flux exhibits larger spatial fluctuations than surface heat flux because heavy rainfall occurs over convective areas embedded in broad non-convective or clear areas, whereas diurnal signals over whole model areas yield high spatial correlation of surface heat flux. As a result, mixed-layer salinities contribute more to the density differences than do mixed-layer temperatures.

  9. A new atlas of temperature and salinity for the North Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The most used temperature and salinity climatology for the world ocean, including the Indian Ocean, is the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) (Antonov et al 2006, 2010; Locarnini et al 2006, 2010) because of the vast amount of data used in its preparation. The WOA climatology does not, however, include all the available ...

  10. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and ... Surface air tempera- ture is one of the factors that influence monsoon variability. The distribution of surface air temper- ature over land and sea determines the locations ..... Asia, north Indian Ocean, northeast Russia and.

  11. A simple model of the effect of ocean ventilation on ocean heat uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Urban, Nathan Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-27

    Presentation includes slides on Earth System Models vs. Simple Climate Models; A Popular SCM: Energy Balance Model of Anomalies; On calibrating against one ESM experiment, the SCM correctly captures that ESM's surface warming response with other forcings; Multi-Model Analysis: Multiple ESMs, Single SCM; Posterior Distributions of ECS; However In Excess of 90% of TOA Energy Imbalance is Sequestered in the World Oceans; Heat Storage in the Two Layer Model; Heat Storage in the Two Layer Model; Including TOA Rad. Imbalance and Ocean Heat in Calibration Improves Repr., but Significant Errors Persist; Improved Vertical Resolution Does Not Fix Problem; A Series of Expts. Confirms That Anomaly-Diffusing Models Cannot Properly Represent Ocean Heat Uptake; Physics of the Thermocline; Outcropping Isopycnals and Horizontally-Averaged Layers; Local interactions between outcropping isopycnals leads to non-local interactions between horizontally-averaged layers; Both Surface Warming and Ocean Heat are Well Represented With Just 4 Layers; A Series of Expts. Confirms That When Non-Local Interactions are Allowed, the SCMs Can Represent Both Surface Warming and Ocean Heat Uptake; and Summary and Conclusions.

  12. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...

  13. Teleconnections of the tropical Atlantic to the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. A review of recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chunzai [NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States); Kucharski, Fred; Barimalala, Rondrotiana [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Earth System Physics, Section Trieste (Italy); Bracco, Annalisa [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia, Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Recent studies found that tropical Atlantic variability may affect the climate in both the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean basins, possibly modulating the Indian summer monsoon and Pacific ENSO events. A warm tropical Atlantic Ocean forces a Gill-Matsuno-type quadrupole response with a low-level anticyclone located over India that weakens the Indian monsoon circulation, and vice versa for a cold tropical Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic Ocean can also induce changes in the Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs). especially along the coast of Africa and in the western side of the Indian basin. Additionally, it can influence the tropical Pacific Ocean via an atmospheric teleconnection that is associated with the Atlantic Walker circulation. Although the Pacific El Nino does not contemporaneously correlate with the Atlantic Nino, anomalous warming or cooling of the two equatorial oceans can form an inter-basin SST gradient that induces surface zonal wind anomalies over equatorial South America and other regions in both ocean basins. The zonal wind anomalies act as a bridge linking the two ocean basins, and in turn reinforce the inter-basin SST gradient through the atmospheric Walker circulation and oceanic processes. Thus, a positive feedback seems to exist for climate variability of the tropical Pacific-Atlantic Oceans and atmospheric system, in which the inter-basin SST gradient is coupled to the overlying atmospheric wind. (orig.)

  14. Sea surface temperature predictions using a multi-ocean analysis ensemble scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jieshun; Li, Zhongxian; Chen, Haishan; Zeng, Gang

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the global sea surface temperature (SST) predictions by a so-called multiple-ocean analysis ensemble (MAE) initialization method which was applied in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). Different from most operational climate prediction practices which are initialized by a specific ocean analysis system, the MAE method is based on multiple ocean analyses. In the paper, the MAE method was first justified by analyzing the ocean temperature variability in four ocean analyses which all are/were applied for operational climate predictions either at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts or at NCEP. It was found that these systems exhibit substantial uncertainties in estimating the ocean states, especially at the deep layers. Further, a set of MAE hindcasts was conducted based on the four ocean analyses with CFSv2, starting from each April during 1982-2007. The MAE hindcasts were verified against a subset of hindcasts from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) Project. Comparisons suggested that MAE shows better SST predictions than CFSRR over most regions where ocean dynamics plays a vital role in SST evolutions, such as the El Niño and Atlantic Niño regions. Furthermore, significant improvements were also found in summer precipitation predictions over the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, for which the local SST prediction improvements should be responsible. The prediction improvements by MAE imply a problem for most current climate predictions which are based on a specific ocean analysis system. That is, their predictions would drift towards states biased by errors inherent in their ocean initialization system, and thus have large prediction errors. In contrast, MAE arguably has an advantage by sampling such structural uncertainties, and could efficiently cancel these errors out in their predictions.

  15. Temperature Data From AUSTRALIA STAR and Other Platforms From Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean From 19860929 to 19890106 (NODC Accession 8900196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data from Australia Star and other ships from Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from September 29, 1986 to January 6, 1989. The data were collected by...

  16. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  17. Effect of geomagnetic storm conditions on the equatorial ionization anomaly and equatorial temperature anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Gaurav; Bag, T.; Sunil Krishna, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the geomagnetic storm on the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and equatorial temperature anomaly (ETA) has been studied using the atomic oxygen dayglow emissions at 577.7 nm (OI 557.7 nm) and 732.0 nm (OII 732.0 nm). For the purpose of this study, four intense geomagnetic storms during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 have been considered. This study is primarily based on the results obtained using photochemical models with necessary inputs from theoretical studies and experimental observations. The latest reaction rate coefficients, quantum yields and the corresponding cross-sections have also been incorporated in these models. The volume emission rate of airglow emissions has been calculated using the neutral densities from NRLMSISE-00 and charged densities from IRI-2012 model. The modeled volume emission rate (VER) for OI 557.7 nm shows a positive correlation with the Dst index at 150 km and negative correlation with Dst at 250 and 280 km altitudes. Latitudinal profile of the greenline emission rate at different altitudes show a distinct behaviour similar to what has been observed in EIA with crests on either sides of the equator. The EIA crests are found to show poleward movement in the higher altitude regions. The volume emission rate of 732.0 nm emission shows a strong enhancement during the main phase of the storm. The changes observed in the airglow emission rates are explained with the help of variations induced in neutral densities and parameters related to EIA and ETA. The latitudinal variation of 732.0 nm emission rate is correlated to the variability in EIA during the storm period.

  18. Using an atmospheric boundary layer model to force global ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Rafael; Böning, Claus

    2014-05-01

    Current practices in the atmospheric forcing of ocean model simulations can lead to unphysical behaviours. The problem lies in the bulk formulation of the turbulent air-sea fluxes in the conjunction with a prescribed, and unresponsive, atmospheric state (as given by reanalysis products). This can have impacts both on mesoscale processes as well as on the dynamics of the large-scale circulation. First, a possible local mismatch between the given atmospheric state and evolving sea surface temperature (SST) signatures can occur, especially for mesoscale features such as frontal areas, eddies, or near the sea ice edge. Any ocean front shift or evolution of mesoscale anomalies results in excessive, unrealistic surface fluxes due to the lack of atmospheric adaptation. Second, a subtle distortion in the sensitive balance of feedback processes being critical for the thermohaline circulation. Since the bulk formulations assume an infinite atmospheric heat capacity, resulting SST anomalies are strongly damped even on basin-scales (e.g. from trends in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation). In consequence, an important negative feedback is eliminated, rendering the system excessively susceptible to small anomalies (or errors) in the freshwater fluxes. Previous studies (Seager et al., 1995, J. Clim.) have suggested a partial forcing issue remedy that aimed for a physically more realistic determination of air-sea fluxes by allowing some (thermodynamic) adaptation of the atmospheric boundary layer to SST changes. In this study a modernized formulation of this approach (Deremble et al., 2013, Mon. Weather Rev.; 'CheapAML') is implemented in a global ocean-ice model with moderate resolution (0.5°; ORCA05). In a set of experiments we explore the solution behaviour of this forcing approach (where only the winds are prescribed, while atmospheric temperature and humidity are computed), contrasting it with the solution obtained from the classical bulk formulation with a non

  19. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  20. Remote SST Forcing and Local Land-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling as Drivers of Amazon Temperature and Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, P. A.; Xu, M.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Interannual variability of climatic conditions in the Amazon rainforest is associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and ocean-atmosphere interactions in the North Atlantic. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in these remote ocean regions drive teleconnections with Amazonian surface air temperature (T), precipitation (P), and net ecosystem production (NEP). While SST-driven NEP anomalies have been primarily linked to T anomalies, it is unclear how much the T anomalies result directly from SST forcing of atmospheric circulation, and how much result indirectly from decreases in precipitation that, in turn, influence surface energy fluxes. Interannual variability of P associated with SST anomalies lead to variability in soil moisture (SM), which would indirectly affect T via partitioning of turbulent heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. To separate the direct and indirect influence of the SST signal on T and NEP, we performed a mechanism-denial experiment to decouple SST and SM anomalies. We used the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACMEv0.3), with version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model and version 4.5 of the Community Land Model. We forced the model with observed SSTs from 1982-2016. We found that SST and SM variability both contribute to T and NEP anomalies in the Amazon, with relative contributions depending on lag time and location within the Amazon basin. SST anomalies associated with ENSO drive most of the T variability at shorter lag times, while the ENSO-driven SM anomalies contribute more to T variability at longer lag times. SM variability and the resulting influence on T anomalies are much stronger in the eastern Amazon than in the west. Comparing modeled T with observations demonstrate that SST alone is sufficient for simulating the correct timing of T variability, but SM anomalies are necessary for simulating the correct magnitude of the T variability. Modeled NEP indicated that variability in carbon fluxes

  1. Spatial and Temporal Inter-Relationship between Anomalies and Trends of Temperature, Moisture, Cloud Cover and OLR as Observed by AIRS/AMSU on Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the advanced IR/MW atmospheric sounding system launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002. Products derived from AIRS/AMSU by the AIRS Science Team include surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profiled; atmospheric humidity profiles, fractional cloud clover and cloud top pressure, and OLR. Products covering the period September 2002 through the present have been derived from AIRS/AMSU using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we will show results covering the time period September 2006 - November 2008. This time period is marked by a substantial warming trend of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical land surface skin temperatures, as well as pronounced El Nino - La Nina episodes. These both influence the spatial and temporal anomaly patterns of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, as well as of cloud cover and Clear Sky and All Sky OLR. The relationships between temporal and spatial anomalies of these parameters over this time period, as determined from AIRS/AMSU observations, will be shown with particular emphasis on which contribute significantly to OLR anomalies in each of the tropics and extra-tropics. Results will also be shown to evaluate the anomalies and trends of temperature profiles and OLR as determined from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data. Global and regional trends during the 6 1/3 year time period are not necessarily indicative of what has happened in the past, or what may happen in the future. Nevertheless, the inter-relationships of spatial and temporal anomalies of atmospheric geophysical parameters with those of surface skin temperature are indicative of climate processes, and can be used to test the performance of climate models when driven by changes in surface temperatures.

  2. Drift in ocean currents impacts intergenerational microbial exposure to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblin, Martina A; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-05-17

    Microbes are the foundation of marine ecosystems [Falkowski PG, Fenchel T, Delong EF (2008) Science 320(5879):1034-1039]. Until now, the analytical framework for understanding the implications of ocean warming on microbes has not considered thermal exposure during transport in dynamic seascapes, implying that our current view of change for these critical organisms may be inaccurate. Here we show that upper-ocean microbes experience along-trajectory temperature variability up to 10 °C greater than seasonal fluctuations estimated in a static frame, and that this variability depends strongly on location. These findings demonstrate that drift in ocean currents can increase the thermal exposure of microbes and suggests that microbial populations with broad thermal tolerance will survive transport to distant regions of the ocean and invade new habitats. Our findings also suggest that advection has the capacity to influence microbial community assemblies, such that regions with strong currents and large thermal fluctuations select for communities with greatest plasticity and evolvability, and communities with narrow thermal performance are found where ocean currents are weak or along-trajectory temperature variation is low. Given that fluctuating environments select for individual plasticity in microbial lineages, and that physiological plasticity of ancestors can predict the magnitude of evolutionary responses of subsequent generations to environmental change [Schaum CE, Collins S (2014) Proc Biol Soc 281(1793):20141486], our findings suggest that microbial populations in the sub-Antarctic (∼40°S), North Pacific, and North Atlantic will have the most capacity to adapt to contemporary ocean warming.

  3. Euro-African MAGSAT anomaly-tectonic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary satellite (MAGSAT) scalar magnetic anomaly data are compiled and differentially reduced to radial polarization by equivalent point source inversion for comparison with tectonic data of Africa, Europe and adjacent marine areas. A number of associations are evident to constrain analyses of the tectonic features and history of the region. The Precambrian shields of Africa and Europe exhibit varied magnetic signatures. All shields are not magnetic highs and, in fact, the Baltic shield is a marked minimum. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map shows a marked tendency for northeasterly striking anomalies in the eastern Atlantic and adjacent Africa, which is coincident to the track of several hot spots for the past 100 million years. However, there is little consistency in the sign of the magnetic anomalies and the track of the hot spots. Comparison of the radially polarized anomalies of Africa and Europe with other reduced-to-the-pole magnetic satellite anomaly maps of the Western Hemisphere support the reconstruction of the continents prior to the origin of the present-day Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era.

  4. Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of temperature and altimeter data with bias correction and application to seasonal prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Keppenne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for a poorly known geoid, satellite altimeter data is usually analyzed in terms of anomalies from the time mean record. When such anomalies are assimilated into an ocean model, the bias between the climatologies of the model and data is problematic. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF is modified to account for the presence of a forecast-model bias and applied to the assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P altimeter data. The online bias correction (OBC algorithm uses the same ensemble of model state vectors to estimate biased-error and unbiased-error covariance matrices. Covariance localization is used but the bias covariances have different localization scales from the unbiased-error covariances, thereby accounting for the fact that the bias in a global ocean model could have much larger spatial scales than the random error.The method is applied to a 27-layer version of the Poseidon global ocean general circulation model with about 30-million state variables. Experiments in which T/P altimeter anomalies are assimilated show that the OBC reduces the RMS observation minus forecast difference for sea-surface height (SSH over a similar EnKF run in which OBC is not used. Independent in situ temperature observations show that the temperature field is also improved. When the T/P data and in situ temperature data are assimilated in the same run and the configuration of the ensemble at the end of the run is used to initialize the ocean component of the GMAO coupled forecast model, seasonal SSH hindcasts made with the coupled model are generally better than those initialized with optimal interpolation of temperature observations without altimeter data. The analysis of the corresponding sea-surface temperature hindcasts is not as conclusive.

  5. Simulation of simultaneously obtaining ocean temperature and salinity using dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yin; Ma, Yong; Li, Hao; Huang, Jun; Fang, Yu; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A method for simultaneously obtaining the ocean temperature and salinity based on dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar is proposed in this letter. On the basis of the relationships between the temperature and salinity and the Brillouin shifts, a retrieval model for retrieving the temperature and salinity is established. By using the retrieval model, the ocean temperature and salinity can be simultaneously obtained through the Brillouin shifts. Simulation based on dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar is also carried out for verification of the accuracy of the retrieval model. Results show that the errors of the retrieval model for temperature and salinity are ±0.27 °C and ±0.33‰. (letter)

  6. Detection and analysis of anomalies in the brightness temperature difference field using MSG rapid scan data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťástka, J.; Radová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, SI (2013), s. 354-359 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0905 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : brightness temperature difference (BTD) * BTD anomaly * cloud-top brightness temperature (BT) * convective storm * MSG Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2013 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809512001548

  7. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean-atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towles, N.; Olson, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-07-01

    Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR) model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b), we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.

  8. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97 model....

  9. Garnet Signatures in Geophysical and Geochemical Observations: Insights into the Thermo-Petrological Structure of Oceanic Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed new physically comprehensive thermal plate models of the oceanic lithosphere which incorporate temperature- and pressure-dependent heat transport properties and thermal expansivity, melting beneath ridges, hydrothermal circulation near ridge axes, and insulating oceanic crust. These models provide good fits to global databases of seafloor topography and heat flow, and seismic evidence of thermal structure near ridge axes. We couple these thermal plate models with thermodynamic models to predict the petrology of oceanic lithosphere. Geoid height predictions from our models suggest that there is a strong anomaly in geoid slope (over age) above ~25 Ma lithosphere due to the topography of garnet-field mantle. A similar anomaly is also present in geoid data over fracture zones. In addition, we show that a new assessment of a large database of ocean island basalt Sm/Yb systematics indicates that there is an unmistakable step-like increase in Sm/Yb values around 15-20 Ma, indicating the presence of garnet. To explain this feature, we have attempted to couple our thermo-petrological models of oceanic upper mantle with an open system, non-modal, dynamic melting model with diffusion kinetics to investigate trace element partitioning in an ascending mantle column.

  10. Tropical Indian Ocean Variability Driving Southeast Australian Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, C. C.; England, M. H.; McIntosh, P. C.; Meyers, G. A.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.; Sen Gupta, A.; Taschetto, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    Variability in the tropical Indian Ocean has widespread effects on rainfall in surrounding countries, including East Africa, India and Indonesia. The leading mode of tropical Indian Ocean variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), is a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode characterized by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of opposite sign in the east and west of the basin with an associated large-scale atmospheric re-organisation. Earlier work has often focused on the positive phase of the IOD. However, we show here that the negative IOD phase is an important driver of regional rainfall variability and multi-year droughts. For southeastern Australia, we show that it is actually a lack of the negative IOD phase, rather than the positive IOD phase or Pacific variability, that provides the most robust explanation for recent drought conditions. Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called "Big Dry". The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show that the "Big Dry" and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by tropical Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of characteristic Indian Ocean temperature conditions that are conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the "Big Dry", its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent above-average temperatures. Implications of recent non-uniform warming trends in the Indian Ocean and how that might affect ocean characteristics and climate in

  11. Warm mid-Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the southern Tethys Ocean and cool high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Arctic Ocean: asymmetric worldwide distribution of dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Edwige; Desmares, Delphine; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Dealing with 87 articles and using a Geographical Information System, Masure and Vrielynck (2009) have mapped worldwide biogeography of 38 Late Albian dinoflagellate cysts and have demonstrated Cretaceous oceanic bioclimatic belts. For comparison 30 Aptian species derived from 49 studies (Masure et al., 2013) and 49 Cenomanian species recorded from 33 articles have been encountered. Tropical, Subtropical, Boreal, Austral, bipolar and cosmopolitan species have been identified and Cretaceous dinoflagellate biomes are introduced. Asymmetric distribution of Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian subtropical Tethyan species, from 40°N to 70°S, demonstrates asymmetric Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients with warm water masses in high latitudes of Southern Ocean. The SST gradients were stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. We note that Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian dinoflagellates restricted to subtropical and subpolar latitudes met and mixed at 35-40°N, while they mixed from 30°S to 70°S and from 50°S to 70°S respectively in the Southern Hemisphere. Mixing belts extend on 5° in the Northern Hemisphere and along 40° (Aptian) and 20° (Late Albian/Cenomanian) in the Southern one. The board southern mixing belt of Tethyan and Austral dinoflagellates suggest co-occurrence of warm and cold currents. We record climatic changes such as the Early Aptian cooler period and Late Aptian and Albian warming through the poleward migration of species constrained to cool water masses. These species sensitive to temperature migrated from 35°N to 55°N through the shallow Greenland-Norwergian Seaway connecting the Central Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. While Tethyan species did not migrate staying at 40°N. We suggest that the Greenland-Norwergian Seaway might has been a barrier until Late Albian/Cenomanian for oceanic Tethyan dinoflagellates stopped either by the shallow water column or temperature and salinity

  12. Alaska Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' gravity anomaly grid for Alaska is NOT the input data set used in development of the GEOID96 model. This gravity grid models the 1.1 million terrestrial...

  13. Unmelted meteoritic debris in the Late Pliocene iridium anomaly - Evidence for the ocean impact of a nonchondritic asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyte, F. T.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Ir-bearing particles have been recovered from two piston cores in the Antarctic Basin in the southeastern Pacific. In core E13-3, the particles closely correspond to the Late Pliocene Ir anomaly and have a fluence of about 100 mg/cm sq. In core E13-4, 120 km to the southwest, the particle fluence is about 4 mg/cm sq. Particles with diameters from 0.5 to 4 mm contain at least 35 percent of the Ir in this horizon. Three types of particles have been identified: (1) vesicular, (2) basaltic, and (3) metal. The vesicular particles appear to be shock-melted debris derived from the oceanic impact of a howarditic asteroid containing a minor metal component. These particles have recrystallized from a melt and impact into the ocean has resulted in the incorporation of Na, K, Cl, and radiogenic Sr from the ocean water target. The basaltic clasts appear to be unmelted fragments of the original asteroid which may have separated from the main body prior to impact. Combined vesicular and basaltic particles are believed to have formed by collisions in the debris cloud. Estimates of the diameter of the projectile range from 100 to 500 m. By many orders of magnitude, this is the most massive achondrite sampled by a single meteorite fall.

  14. Magnetic study of the low temperature anomalies in the underdoped PrBCO compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoubi, Mahieddine

    2018-05-01

    The low temperature anomalous magnetic properties of a non-superconducting PrBCO6+x compound in an underdoped oxygen state of concentration (x = 0.44) are characterized by paraprocess magnetic susceptibility χH(T) measurements carried out as a function of temperature T under different values of a DC magnetic field H up to 110 kOe. The derivatives dχH(T)/dT curves reveal a significant reduction with increasing H in the Néel temperature TN = 9 K of the Pr antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering for which the transition subsists at 100 kOe. The small anomaly at T2 = 6-7 K is confirmed at 20 kOe and the previous spin reorientation attributed to this transition temperature seems to be suppressed above 60 kOe. The well defined anomaly in the vicinity of the low-critical point Tcr = 4-5 K which occurs simultaneously, is still present when the strength of H is increased up to 100 kOe. Weak field induced phase transitions are observed between T2 and TN at a low transition-field (Ht<11 kOe) in the differential magnetic susceptibility dMT(H)/dH as a function of H deduced from the isothermal magnetizations MT(H) with H up to 21 kOe, whereas a weak ferromagnetic behavior of the Pr sublattice appears below Tcr. The magnetic field effects give rise to more evidence for the Pr-Cu(2) coupling with 'exchange-frustrated AFM' interactions and ascertain the main role of the Pr sublattice whereas the Cu(2) sublattice seems to be less efficient.

  15. Impacts of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Change on Zooxanthellae Density in Coral Stylophora pistillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, G. E.; Martínez Fernández, A.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    As ocean conditions continue to change, marine ecosystems are significantly impacted. Many calcifying organisms are being affected by the gradual changes in ocean pH and temperature that continue to occur over time. Corals are organisms that engage in a symbiotic relationship with Symbiodinium dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae). Symbiodinium are responsible for photosynthetic activity within oligotrophic waters. Corals depend on high levels of aragonite saturation state of seawater in order to build their skeletal structure. Most corals have a relatively narrow optimal range of temperature and pH in which they thrive. However, it is thought that corals residing in the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) are resilient to the effects of increasing temperature. Stylophora pistillata's response to environmental impacts was tested via a simulation of ocean conditions at a high temperature and high CO2 emission scenario (pH 7.65) and lower CO2 emission scenario (pH 7.85) that are predicted for the end of this century. We present the difference in zooxanthellae density following a short term experiment where corals were placed in seawater tanks at pH 7.65, 7.85 and 8.1 and temperature was increased by 4 degrees C above seawater temperature in order to measure the response of Stylophora pistillata to potential future ocean conditions.

  16. Oceanic response to changes in the WAIS and astronomical forcing during the MIS31 superinterglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Justino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS31, between 1085 and 1055 ka was characterized by higher extratropical air temperatures and a substantial recession of polar glaciers compared to today. Paleoreconstructions and model simulations have increased the understanding of the MIS31 interval, but questions remain regarding the role of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans in modifying the climate associated with the variations in Earth's orbital parameters. Multi-century coupled climate simulations, with the astronomical configuration of the MIS31 and modified West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS topography, show an increase in the thermohaline flux and northward oceanic heat transport (OHT in the Pacific Ocean. These oceanic changes are driven by anomalous atmospheric circulation and increased surface salinity in concert with a stronger meridional overturning circulation (MOC. The intensified northward OHT is responsible for up to 85 % of the global OHT anomalies and contributes to the overall reduction in sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere (NH due to Earth's astronomical configuration. The relative contributions of the Atlantic Ocean to global OHT and MOC anomalies are minor compared to those of the Pacific. However, sea ice changes are remarkable, highlighted by decreased (increased cover in the Ross (Weddell Sea but widespread reductions in sea ice across the NH.

  17. Anomalies, effective action and Hawking temperatures of a Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin; Zhao Zhanyue

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the universality of Hawking radiation and that of the anomaly cancellation technique as well as the effective action method, we investigate the Hawking radiation of a Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates via the cancellation of gravitational anomaly. After performing a dimensional reduction from the four-dimensional isotropic Schwarzschild metric, we show that this reduction procedure will, in general, result in two classes of two-dimensional effective metrics: the conformal equivalent and the inequivalent ones. For the physically equivalent class, the two-dimensional effective metric displays such a distinct feature that the determinant is not equal to the unity √(-g)≠1, but also vanishes at the horizon, the latter of which possibly invalidates the anomaly analysis there. Nevertheless, in this paper we adopt the effective action method to prove that the consistent energy-momentum tensor T r t is divergent on the horizon but √(-g)T t r remains finite there. Meanwhile, through an explicit calculation we show that the covariant energy-momentum tensor T-tilde t r equals zero at the horizon. Therefore the validity of the covariant regularity condition that demands that T-tilde t r = 0 at the horizon has been justified, indicating that the gravitational anomaly analysis can be safely extrapolated to the case where the metric determinant vanishes at the horizon. It is then demonstrated that for the physically equivalent reduced metric, both methods can give the correct Hawking temperature of the isotropic Schwarzschild black hole, while for the inequivalent one with the determinant √(-g) = 1 it can only give half of the correct temperature. We further exclude the latter undesired result by taking into account the general covariance of the energy-momentum tensor under the isotropic coordinate transformation

  18. Lithospheric thickness jumps at the S-Atlantic continental margins from satellite gravity data and modelled isostatic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Haas, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Isostatic equilibrium is a good approximation for passive continental margins. In these regions, geoid anomalies are proportional to the local dipole moment of density-depth distributions, which can be used to constrain the amount of oceanic to continental lithospheric thickening (lithospheric jumps). We consider a five- or three-layer 1D model for the oceanic and continental lithosphere, respectively, composed of water, a sediment layer (both for the oceanic case), the crust, the mantle lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The mantle lithosphere is defined by a mantle density, which is a function of temperature and composition, due to melt depletion. In addition, a depth-dependent sediment density associated with compaction and ocean floor variation is adopted. We analyzed satellite derived geoid data and, after filtering, extracted typical averaged profiles across the Western and Eastern passive margins of the South Atlantic. They show geoid jumps of 8.1 m and 7.0 m for the Argentinian and African sides, respectively. Together with topography data and an averaged crustal density at the conjugate margins these jumps are interpreted as isostatic geoid anomalies and yield best-fitting crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In a grid search approach five parameters are systematically varied, namely the thicknesses of the sediment layer, the oceanic and continental crusts and the oceanic and the continental mantle lithosphere. The set of successful models reveals a clear asymmetry between the South Africa and Argentine lithospheres by 15 km. Preferred models predict a sediment layer at the Argentine margin of 3-6 km and at the South Africa margin of 1-2.5 km. Moreover, we derived a linear relationship between, oceanic lithosphere, sediment thickness and lithospheric jumps at the South Atlantic margins. It suggests that the continental lithospheres on the western and eastern South Atlantic are thicker by 45-70 and 60-80 km than the oceanic lithospheres, respectively.

  19. Surface tension anomalies in room temperature ionic liquids-acetone solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Murata, Keisuke; Kiyokawa, Shota; Yoshimura, Yukihiro

    2018-05-01

    Surface tension anomalies were observed in room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL)-acetone solutions. The RTILs are 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazorium iodide with [Cnmim][I] in a [Cnmim][I]-x mol% acetone. The maximum value of the surface tension appeared at 40 mol% acetone, although density decreased monotonically with an increase in acetone concentration. A small alkyl chain length effect of the Cnmim+ cations was observed in the surface tension. By the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, it was found that I- anion-mediated surface structure became dominant above 40 mol%. In the different [Cnmim][TFSI]-acetone mixtures, normal decay of the surface tension was observed on the acetone concentration scale, where TFSI- is bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide.

  20. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU and AMSU-A Mean Layer Temperatures, UAH Version 6.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset includes monthly gridded temperature anomalies on a global 2.5 x 2.5 degree grid derived from Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave...

  1. Mesoscale Eddies in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean: Three-Dimensional Eddy Structures and Heat/Salt Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Di; Brandt, Peter; Chang, Ping; Schütte, Florian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Jinhui; Zeng, Jisheng

    2017-12-01

    The region encompassing the Kuroshio Extension (KE) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean (25°N-45°N and 130°E-180°E) is one of the most eddy-energetic regions of the global ocean. The three-dimensional structures and transports of mesoscale eddies in this region are comprehensively investigated by combined use of satellite data and Argo profiles. With the allocation of Argo profiles inside detected eddies, the spatial variations of structures of eddy temperature and salinity anomalies are analyzed. The results show that eddies predominantly have subsurface (near-surface) intensified temperature and salinity anomalies south (north) of the KE jet, which is related to different background stratifications between these regions. A new method based on eddy trajectories and the inferred three-dimensional eddy structures is proposed to estimate heat and salt transports by eddy movements in a Lagrangian framework. Spatial distributions of eddy transports are presented over the vicinity of the KE for the first time. The magnitude of eddy-induced meridional heat (freshwater volume) transport is on the order of 0.01 PW (103 m3/s). The eddy heat transport divergence results in an oceanic heat loss south and heat gain north of the KE, thereby reinforcing and counteracting the oceanic heat loss from air-sea fluxes south and north of the KE jet, respectively. It also suggests a poleward heat transport across the KE jet due to eddy propagation.

  2. Coral bleaching and ocean ''hot spots''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Global Coral Reef Alliance, Chappaqua, NY (United States)); Hayes, R.L. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). College of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    Global sea-surface temperature maps show that mass coral-reef bleaching episodes between 1983 and 1991 followed positive anomalies more than 1 deg C above long-term monthly averages (''hot spots'') during the preceding warm season. Irregular formation, movement, and disappearance of hot spots make their detailed long-term prediction impossible, but they can be tracked in real time from satellite data. Monitoring of ocean hot spots and of coral bleaching is needed if the Framework Convention of Climate Change is to meet its goal of protecting the most temperature sensitive ecosystems. 47 refs, 3 figs

  3. Geophysical Global Modeling for Extreme Crop Production Using Photosynthesis Models Coupled to Ocean SST Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change appears to have manifested itself along with abnormal meteorological disasters. Instability caused by drought and flood disasters is producing poor harvests because of poor photosynthesis and pollination. Fluctuations of extreme phenomena are increasing rapidly because amplitudes of change are much greater than average trends. A fundamental cause of these phenomena derives from increased stored energy inside ocean waters. Geophysical and biochemical modeling of crop production can elucidate complex mechanisms under seasonal climate anomalies. The models have progressed through their combination with global climate reanalysis, environmental satellite data, and harvest data on the ground. This study examined adaptation of crop production to advancing abnormal phenomena related to global climate change. Global environmental surface conditions, i.e., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. Basic streams of the concepts of modeling rely upon continental energy flow and carbon circulation among crop vegetation, land surface atmosphere combining energy advection from ocean surface anomalies. Global environmental surface conditions, e.g., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. The method of validating the modeling relies upon carbon partitioning in biomass and grains through carbon flow by photosynthesis using carbon dioxide unit in photosynthesis. Results of computations done for this study show global distributions of actual evaporation, stomata opening, and photosynthesis, presenting mechanisms related to advection effects from SST anomalies in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans on global and continental croplands. For North America, climate effects appear clearly in severe atmospheric phenomena, which have caused drought and forest fires

  4. Temperature anomalies of shock and isentropic waves of quark-hadron phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyukhov, A. V.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.; Levashov, P. R.; Likhachev, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we consider a phenomenological equation of state, which combinesstatistical description for hadron gas and a bag-model-based approach for the quark-gluon plasma. The equation of state is based on the excluded volume method in its thermodynamically consistent variant from Satarov et al [2009 Phys. At. Nucl. 72 1390]. The characteristic shape of the Taub adiabats and isentropes in the phase diagram is affected by the anomalous pressure-temperature dependence along the curve of phase equilibrium. The adiabats have kink points at the boundary of the two-phase region, inside which the temperature decreases with compression. Thermodynamic properties of matter observed in the quark-hadron phase transition region lead to hydrodynamic anomalies (in particular, to the appearance of composite compression and rarefaction waves). On the basis of relativistic hydrodynamics equations we investigate and discuss the structure and anomalous temperature behavior in these waves.

  5. Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Small, Jennifer; Tucker, Compton J; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2006-12-28

    El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. The Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/CPC) has recently issued an unscheduled El Niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the equatorial eastern Pacific may have pronounced impacts on global tropical precipitation patterns extending into the northern hemisphere particularly over North America. Building evidence of the links between ENSO driven climate anomalies and infectious diseases, particularly those transmitted by insects, can allow us to provide improved long range forecasts of an epidemic or epizootic. We describe developing climate anomalies that suggest potential disease risks using satellite generated data. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the equatorial east Pacific ocean have anomalously increased significantly during July - October 2006 indicating the typical development of El Niño conditions. The persistence of these conditions will lead to extremes in global-scale climate anomalies as has been observed during similar conditions in the past. Positive Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) anomalies, indicative of severe drought conditions, have been observed across all of Indonesia, Malaysia and most of the Philippines, which are usually the first areas to experience ENSO-related impacts. This dryness can be expected to continue, on average, for the remainder of 2006 continuing into the early part of 2007. During the period November 2006 - January 2007 climate forecasts indicate that there is a high probability for above normal rainfall in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Islands, the Korean Peninsula, the U.S. Gulf Coast and Florida, northern South America and equatorial east Africa. Taking into consideration current observations and climate forecast information, indications are that the following regions are at increased

  6. Processes controlling the surface temperature signature of the Madden-Julian oscillation in the thermocline ridge of the Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Vialard, Jerome; Lengaigne, M. [CNRS, UPMC, IRD, Case 100, Universite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, LOCEAN, Paris Cedex 05 (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); McCreary, Julian P. [University of Hawaii, International Pacific Research Centre, Hawaii (United States); Praveen Kumar, B. [National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India)

    2011-12-15

    the SST signature during 2001 and contributes significantly during 2000. Interannual variations of the subsurface thermal structure associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole or El Nino/La Nina events modulate the MJO-driven SST signature only moderately (by up to 30%), mainly by changing the temperature of water entrained into the mixed layer. The primary factor that controls year-to-year changes in the amplitude of TRIO, intraseasonal SST anomalies is hence the characteristics of intraseasonal surface flux perturbations, rather than changes in the underlying oceanic state. (orig.)

  7. Impacts of SST anomalies on the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation: a case study for the northern winter 1995/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, T.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departmento de Geofisica y Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); Mechoso, C.R.; Ma, H.Y. [University of California Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The present paper selects the northern winter of December 1995-February 1996 for a case study on the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and Western Europe. In the Atlantic, the selected winter was characterized by positive SST anomalies over the northern subtropics and east of Newfoundland, and negative anomalies along the US coast. A weak La Nina event developed in the Pacific. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low, precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa was anomalously high, and precipitation over northern Europe was anomalously low. The method of study consists of assessing the sensitivity of ensemble simulations by the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model (UCLA AGCM) to SST anomalies from the observation, which are prescribed either in the World Oceans, the Atlantic Ocean only, or the subtropical North Atlantic only. The results obtained are compared with a control run that uses global, time-varying climatological SST. The ensemble simulations with global and Atlantic-only SST anomalies both produce results that resemble the observations over the North Atlantic and Western Europe. It is suggested that the anomalous behavior of the atmosphere in the selected winter over those regions, therefore, was primarily determined by conditions within the Atlantic basin. The simulated fields in the tropical North Atlantic show anomalous upward motion and lower (upper) level convergence (divergence) in the atmosphere overlying the positive SST anomalies. Consistently, the subtropical jet intensifies and its core moves equatorward, and precipitation increases over northern Africa and southern Europe. The results also suggest that the SST anomalies in the tropical North Atlantic only do not suffice to produce the atmospheric anomalies observed in the basin during the selected winter. The extratropical SST anomalies would provide a key contribution through increased

  8. Impact of ocean model resolution on CCSM climate simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirtman, Ben P.; Rousset, Clement; Siqueira, Leo [University of Miami, Rosenstiel School for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Bitz, Cecilia [University of Washington, Department of Atmospheric Science, Seattle, WA (United States); Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; Hearn, Nathan; Loft, Richard; Tomas, Robert; Vertenstein, Mariana [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Collins, William [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kinter, James L.; Stan, Cristiana [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    interannual temperature variability is increased with the resolved eddies, and a notable increases in the amplitude of the El Nino and the Southern Oscillation is also detected. Changes in global temperature anomaly teleconnections and local air-sea feedbacks are also documented and show large changes in ocean-atmosphere coupling. In particular, local air-sea feedbacks are significantly modified by the increased ocean resolution. In the high-resolution simulation in the extra-tropics there is compelling evidence of stronger forcing of the atmosphere by SST variability arising from ocean dynamics. This coupling is very weak or absent in the low-resolution model. (orig.)

  9. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.

    2015-08-31

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate1 and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification2, 3. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs4, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production5. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145–2,099 μatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  10. The Response of a Branch of Puget Sound, Washington to the 2014 North Pacific Warm Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickett, J.; Newton, J.; Devol, A.; Krembs, C.; Ruef, W.

    2016-02-01

    The flow of the unprecedentedly-warm upper-ocean North Pacific "Blob" water into Puget Sound, Washington, caused local extreme water property anomalies that extended from the arrival of the water inshore in the fall of 2014 through 2015. Here we report on moored and seaplane observations from Hood Canal, a branch of Puget Sound, where temperature was more than 2σ above climatology for much of the year with maximum temperature anomalies at depth and at the surface +2.5 °C and +7 °C respectively. The low density of the oceanic warm "Blob" water resulted in weak deep water flushing in Hood Canal in the fall of 2014, which combined with a lack of wintertime flushing to result in anomalously-low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations at depth. Late-summer 2015 DO values were the lowest in a decade of mooring observations and more than 2σ below climatology. The anomalously low density of the deep basin water allowed a very early onset of the annually-occurring, late-summer intrusion, which first entered Hood Canal at the end of July compared to the usual arrival in early to mid-September. In late August this intrusion conspired with an early fall storm to lift the very low DO deep water to surface at the south end of Hood Canal, causing a significant fish kill event.

  11. Extreme Heat Wave over European Russia in Summer 2010: Anomaly or a Manifestation of Climatic Trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuvaev, V.; Groisman, P. Y.; Bulygina, O.; Borzenkova, I.

    2010-12-01

    Extraordinary temperature anomalies over European Russia (ER) in summer 2010 raised a legitimate question in the title of this presentation. A 60-days-long hot anticyclonic weather system with daily temperature anomalies as high as +10K and no or negligible amount of rainfall first decimated crops in the forest-steppe zone of ER, gradually dried wetlands in the forest zone and, finally, caused numerous natural and anthropogenic fires that at the time of this abstract preparation have not yet been extinguished. The extreme heat, lack of precipitation, and forest fires have caused hundreds of deaths and multimillion dollars in property losses. Indirect losses of lives due to this weather anomaly, with the ensuing fires and related air pollution, as well as the absence of air conditioning in apartments has yet to be estimated. The center of European Russia was well covered by meteorological observations for the past 130 years. These data, historical weather records (yearbooks or "letopisi" , which were carried on in the major Russian monasteries), and finally, dendroclimatological information, all show that this summer temperature anomaly was well above all known extremes in the past 1000 years. Like ocean waves and ocean tides, weather and climate variability go together strengthening (or mitigating) each other. We shall show the precursors of the current outbreak using principally the most accurate meteorological records of the past century updated to 2009 (at the Session, the 2010 data will also be presented). While a careful analyses of these records and thoughtful analyses of recent similar temperature outbreaks in Western Europe could not prevent the occurrence of this disaster, the lessons learned from these analyses (a) would warn about its increasing probability and (b) mitigation and adaptation measures could well be made to reduce its negative consequences. Among our arguments are: (1)There is a century-long tendency of reduction of equator minus pole

  12. Causes and consequences of mid–21st-century rapid ice loss events simulated by the Rossby centre regional atmosphere-ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Paquin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that the Arctic climate is undergoing important transition. One manifestation of this change is seen in the rapid sea-ice cover decrease as experienced in 2007 and 2012. Although most numerical climate models cannot adequately reproduce the recent changes, some models produce similar Rapid Ice Loss Events (RILEs during the mid–21st-century. This study presents an analysis of four specific RILEs clustered around 2040 in three transient climate projections performed with the coupled Rossby Centre regional Atmosphere-Ocean model (RCAO. The analysis shows that long-term thinning causes increased vulnerability of the Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover. In the Atlantic sector, pre-conditioning (thinning of sea ice combined with anomalous atmospheric and oceanic heat transport causes large ice loss, while in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean sea-ice albedo feedback appears important, particularly along the retreating sea-ice margin. Although maximum sea-ice loss occurs in the autumn, response in surface air temperature occurs in early winter, caused by strong increase in ocean-atmosphere surface energy fluxes, mainly the turbulent fluxes. Synchronicity of the events around 2040 in the projections is caused by a strong large-scale atmospheric circulation anomaly at the Atlantic lateral boundary of the regional model. The limited impact on land is caused by vertical propagation of the surface heat anomaly rather than horizontal, caused by the absence of low-level temperature inversion over the ocean.

  13. Role of sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region in the northeast Asia severe drought in summer 2014: month-to-month perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqing; Fan, Ke; Wang, HuiJun

    2017-09-01

    The severe drought over northeast Asia in summer 2014 and the contribution to it by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region were investigated from the month-to-month perspective. The severe drought was accompanied by weak lower-level summer monsoon flow and featured an obvious northward movement during summer. The mid-latitude Asian summer (MAS) pattern and East Asia/Pacific teleconnection (EAP) pattern, induced by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) rainfall anomalies respectively, were two main bridges between the SST anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region and the severe drought. Warming in the Arabian Sea induced reduced rainfall over northeast India and then triggered a negative MAS pattern favoring the severe drought in June 2014. In July 2014, warming in the tropical western North Pacific led to a strong WNPSM and increased rainfall over the Philippine Sea, triggering a positive EAP pattern. The equatorial eastern Pacific and local warming resulted in increased rainfall over the off-equatorial western Pacific and triggered an EAP-like pattern. The EAP pattern and EAP-like pattern contributed to the severe drought in July 2014. A negative Indian Ocean dipole induced an anomalous meridional circulation, and warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific induced an anomalous zonal circulation, in August 2014. The two anomalous cells led to a weak ISM and WNPSM, triggering the negative MAS and EAP patterns responsible for the severe drought. Two possible reasons for the northward movement of the drought were also proposed.

  14. An Arctic source for the Great Salinity Anomaly - A simulation of the Arctic ice-ocean system for 1955-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa

    1993-01-01

    The paper employs a fully prognostic Arctic ice-ocean model to study the interannual variability of sea ice during the period 1955-1975 and to explain the large variability of the ice extent in the Greenland and Iceland seas during the late 1960s. The model is used to test the contention of Aagaard and Carmack (1989) that the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA) was a consequence of the anomalously large ice export in 1968. The high-latitude ice-ocean circulation changes due to wind field changes are explored. The ice export event of 1968 was the largest in the simulation, being about twice as large as the average and corresponding to 1600 cu km of excess fresh water. The simulations suggest that, besides the above average ice export to the Greenland Sea, there was also fresh water export to support the larger than average ice cover. The model results show the origin of the GSA to be in the Arctic, and support the view that the Arctic may play an active role in climate change.

  15. Hawaiian Islands Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is NOT the input data set used in development of the GEOID96 model. This gravity grid models the...

  16. Effects of ocean acidification, temperature and nutrient regimes on the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica: a mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troedsson, Christofer; Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Lobon, Carla M.

    2012-01-01

    , temperature and nutrient levels, consistent with hypotheses concerning gelatinous zooplankton in future oceans. This suggests appendicularians will play more important roles in marine pelagic communities and vertical carbon transport under projected ocean acidification and elevated temperature scenarios....

  17. Evidences of Seasonal Variation in Altimetry Derived Ocean Tides in the Subarctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hok Sum Fok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the barotropic ocean tides in the deep ocean are well modeled to ~2 cm RMS, accurate tidal prediction in the ice-covered polar oceans and near coastal regions remain elusive. A notable reason is that the most accurate satellite altimeters (TOPEX/Jason-1/-2, whose orbits are optimized to minimize the tidal aliasing effect, have spatial coverage limited to largely outside of the polar ocean. Here, we update the assessment of tidal models using 7 contemporary global and regional models, and show that the altimetry sea surface height (SSH anomaly residual after tidal correction is 9 - 12 cm RMS in the Subarctic Ocean. We then address the hypothesis whether plausible evidence of variable tidal signals exist in the seasonally ice-covered Subarctic Ocean, where the sea ice cover is undergoing rapid thinning. We first found a difference in variance reduction for multi-mission altimeter SSH anomaly residuals during the summer and winter seasons, with the residual during winter season 15 - 30% larger than that during the summer season. Experimental seasonal ocean tide solutions derived from satellite altimetry reveals that the recovered winter and summer tidal constituents generally differ by a few cm in amplitude and tens of degrees in phase. Relatively larger seasonal tidal patterns, in particular for M2, S2 and K1 tides, have been identified in the Chukchi Sea study region near eastern Siberia, coincident with the seasonal presence and movement of sea ice.

  18. Ocean acidification and temperature increase impact mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Vittert, Liberty; Bowman, Adrian; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Phoenix, Vernon R; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification threatens organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells by potentially generating an under-saturated carbonate environment. Resultant reduced calcification and growth, and subsequent dissolution of exoskeletons, would raise concerns over the ability of the shell to provide protection for the marine organism under ocean acidification and increased temperatures. We examined the impact of combined ocean acidification and temperature increase on shell formation of the economically important edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Shell growth and thickness along with a shell thickness index and shape analysis were determined. The ability of M. edulis to produce a functional protective shell after 9 months of experimental culture under ocean acidification and increasing temperatures (380, 550, 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2, and 750, 1000 μatm pCO 2 + 2°C) was assessed. Mussel shells grown under ocean acidification conditions displayed significant reductions in shell aragonite thickness, shell thickness index, and changes to shell shape (750, 1000 μatm pCO 2) compared to those shells grown under ambient conditions (380 μatm pCO 2). Ocean acidification resulted in rounder, flatter mussel shells with thinner aragonite layers likely to be more vulnerable to fracture under changing environments and predation. The changes in shape presented here could present a compensatory mechanism to enhance protection against predators and changing environments under ocean acidification when mussels are unable to grow thicker shells. Here, we present the first assessment of mussel shell shape to determine implications for functional protection under ocean acidification.

  19. Sea level anomaly in the North Atlantic and seas around Europe: Long-term variability and response to North Atlantic teleconnection patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Lorenzo, M Nieves; Lázaro, Clara; Fernandes, M Joana; Bastos, Luísa

    2017-12-31

    Sea level anomaly (SLA), provided globally by satellite altimetry, is considered a valuable proxy for detecting long-term changes of the global ocean, as well as short-term and annual variations. In this manuscript, monthly sea level anomaly grids for the period 1993-2013 are used to characterise the North Atlantic Ocean variability at inter-annual timescales and its response to the North Atlantic main patterns of atmospheric circulation variability (North Atlantic Oscillation, Eastern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic/Western Russia, Scandinavian and Polar/Eurasia) and main driven factors as sea level pressure, sea surface temperature and wind fields. SLA variability and long-term trends are analysed for the North Atlantic Ocean and several sub-regions (North, Baltic and Mediterranean and Black seas, Bay of Biscay extended to the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, and the northern North Atlantic Ocean), depicting the SLA fluctuations at basin and sub-basin scales, aiming at representing the regions of maximum sea level variability. A significant correlation between SLA and the different phases of the teleconnection patterns due to the generated winds, sea level pressure and sea surface temperature anomalies, with a strong variability on temporal and spatial scales, has been identified. Long-term analysis reveals the existence of non-stationary inter-annual SLA fluctuations in terms of the temporal scale. Spectral density analysis has shown the existence of long-period signals in the SLA inter-annual component, with periods of ~10, 5, 4 and 2years, depending on the analysed sub-region. Also, a non-uniform increase in sea level since 1993 is identified for all sub-regions, with trend values between 2.05mm/year, for the Bay of Biscay region, and 3.98mm/year for the Baltic Sea (no GIA correction considered). The obtained results demonstrated a strong link between the atmospheric patterns and SLA, as well as strong long-period fluctuations of this variable in spatial and

  20. What is the Right Temperature Sensitivity for Foraminiferal Mg/ca Paleothermometry in Ancient Oceans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, S.; Holland, K.; Hoenisch, B.; Spero, H. J.; Allen, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mg/Ca seawater thermometry has become a cornerstone of modern paleoceanography. Laboratory experiments, seafloor core-top samples, plankton trap and tow collected materials all indicate consistent temperature sensitivity (9-10% increase in Mg/Ca per °C) for a full range of modern planktic foraminifer species. While these results demonstrate the overall robustness of Mg/Ca paleothermometry for the modern ocean, it is an empirical tool for which there is limited understanding of its bio-physio-chemical basis and its applicability to ancient oceans. We have undertaken experimental cultures of Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globigerinoides ruber (pink) across a range of seawater compositions (temperature, carbonate chemistry and Mg/Casw) that encompass modern and ancient Paleogene and Cretaceous ocean compositions (Mg/Casw 0.25x to 2x modern and pCO2 = 200 to 1500 ppmv). Our results reveal that the sensitivity of the Mg/Ca-thermometer for planktic foraminifers reduces significantly with Mg/Casw, rather than remaining constant as has been widely assumed or, increasing at lower Mg/Casw as proposed recently by Evans and Müller (2012). These results indicate that the modern sensitivity of 9-10% increase in Mg/Ca per °C cannot yet be applied to obtain reliable relative temperature change estimates to ancient oceans. These results further suggest that variations in foraminiferal Mg/Ca compositions in ancient oceans with lower Mg/Casw may correspond to larger temperature variations than in the modern ocean. Evans D. and Müller W., Paleoceanography, vol. 27, PA4205, doi:10.1029/2012PA002315, 2012

  1. Magnetization of lower oceanic crust and upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikawa, E.

    2004-05-01

    The location of the magnetized rocks of the oceanic crust that are responsible for sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies has been a long-standing problem in geophysics. The recognition of these anomalies was a key stone in the development of the theory of plate tectonics. Our present concept of oceanic crustal magnetization is much more complex than the original, uniformly magnetized model of Vine-Matthews-Morley Hypothesis. Magnetic inversion studies indicated that the upper oceanic extrusive layer (Layer 2A of 0.5km thick) was the only magnetic layer and that it was not necessary to postulate any contribution from deeper parts of oceanic crust. Direct measurements of the magnetic properties of the rocks recovered from the sea floor, however, have shown that the magnetization of Layer 2A, together with the observations that this layer could record geomagnetic field reversals within a vertical section, is insufficient to give the required size of observed magnetic anomalies and that some contribution from lower intrusive rocks is necessary. Magnetization of oceanic intrusive rocks were observed to be reasonably high enough to contribute to sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies, but were considered somewhat equivocal until late 1980Os, in part because studies had been conducted on unoriented dredged and ophiolite samples and on intermittent DSDP/ODP cores. Since ODP Leg 118 that cored and recovered continuous 500m of oceanic intrusive layer at Site 735B, Southwest Indian Ridge with an extremely high recovery of 87 percent, there have been several ODP Legs (legs 147, 153, 176, 179 and 209) that were devoted to drilling gabbroic rocks and peridotites. In terms of the magnetization intensities, all of the results obtained from these ODP Legs were supportive of the model that a significant contribution must come from gabbros and peridotites and the source of the lineated magnetic anomalies must reside in most of the oceanic crust as well as crust-mantle boundary

  2. Definition of the continent-ocean boundary of India and the surrounding oceanic regions from Magsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Rajaram, Mita; Bapat, V. J.

    1991-06-01

    Magsat studies over the Indian region and adjoining areas show that the continental-oceanic contrasts appear more distinctly in the equivalent magnetization solution than in the anomaly maps. The vertical component ( Z) is found to be more useful for the equatorial regions. It is also noted that, in general, the continental crust has a higher magnetization than the oceanic crust. Further, the continental crust seems to extend into the Arabian Sea across a part of the west coast. A similar continuation is seen in the northern part of the Bay of Bengal. The west coast result is corroborated using land and marine Bouguer gravity anomalies.

  3. U.S. Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for the conterminous United States is NOT the input data set used in development of the GEOID96 model. This gravity grid models the 1.7...

  4. PR/VI Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for the Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is NOT the input data set used in development of the GEOID96 model. This gravity grid models...

  5. Temperature affects the size-structure of phytoplankton communities in the ocean

    KAUST Repository

    López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2015-03-05

    The strong inverse correlation between resource availability and temperature in the ocean poses a challenge to determine the relative effect of these two variables on the size-structure of natural phytoplankton communities. Maranon et al (2012) compiled a dataset of concurrent temperature and resource level proxies that they claim disentangled the effect of temperature from that of resource supply. They concluded that the hypothesis that temperature per se plays a direct role in controlling phytoplankton size structure should be rejected. But our reanalysis of their data reaches a very different conclusion and suggests that they failed to separate the effects of temperature from the effects of resources. Although we obviously concur with Maranon et al (2012) in the long-known predominance of small phytoplankton cells under oligotrophic conditions, from our point of view this should not deter us from considering temperature as an important explanatory variable at a global scale since we show that, for the vast oligotrophic areas of the world\\'s oceans where chlorophyll concentrations are below <1 g L-1 temperature explains a high proportion of the variability in the size distribution of phytoplankton communities, a variability that can not be explained on the basis of the resource level proxies advocated by Maranon et al. (2012).

  6. The Effect of Warming Oceans at a Tide Gauge Station

    OpenAIRE

    Bâki Iz H.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new paradigm for assessing thermosteric effects of warming oceans at a tide gauge station. For demonstration, the trend due to the global thermosteric sea level at the Key West, FL tide gauge station was estimated using the tide gauge measurements and the global sea surface temperature anomalies that were represented by yearly distributed lags. A comparison of the estimate with the trend estimate from a descriptive model revealed that 0.7±0.1 mm/y...

  7. Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Compton J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. The Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/CPC has recently issued an unscheduled El Niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the equatorial eastern Pacific may have pronounced impacts on global tropical precipitation patterns extending into the northern hemisphere particularly over North America. Building evidence of the links between ENSO driven climate anomalies and infectious diseases, particularly those transmitted by insects, can allow us to provide improved long range forecasts of an epidemic or epizootic. We describe developing climate anomalies that suggest potential disease risks using satellite generated data. Results Sea surface temperatures (SSTs in the equatorial east Pacific ocean have anomalously increased significantly during July – October 2006 indicating the typical development of El Niño conditions. The persistence of these conditions will lead to extremes in global-scale climate anomalies as has been observed during similar conditions in the past. Positive Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR anomalies, indicative of severe drought conditions, have been observed across all of Indonesia, Malaysia and most of the Philippines, which are usually the first areas to experience ENSO-related impacts. This dryness can be expected to continue, on average, for the remainder of 2006 continuing into the early part of 2007. During the period November 2006 – January 2007 climate forecasts indicate that there is a high probability for above normal rainfall in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Islands, the Korean Peninsula, the U.S. Gulf Coast and Florida, northern South America and equatorial east Africa. Taking into consideration current observations and climate forecast information, indications

  8. Refining the Formation and Early Evolution of the Eastern North American Margin: New Insights From Multiscale Magnetic Anomaly Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, John A.; Tominaga, Masako; Miller, Nathaniel C.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Karl, Matthew R.

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the oceanic lithosphere formation and early seafloor spreading history of the North Atlantic Ocean, we examine multiscale magnetic anomaly data from the Jurassic/Early Cretaceous age Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) between 31 and 40°N. We integrate newly acquired sea surface magnetic anomaly and seismic reflection data with publicly available aeromagnetic and composite magnetic anomaly grids, satellite-derived gravity anomaly, and satellite-derived and shipboard bathymetry data. We evaluate these data sets to (1) refine magnetic anomaly correlations throughout the ENAM and assign updated ages and chron numbers to M0-M25 and eight pre-M25 anomalies; (2) identify five correlatable magnetic anomalies between the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) and Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (BSMA), which may document the earliest Atlantic seafloor spreading or synrift magmatism; (3) suggest preexisting margin structure and rifting segmentation may have influenced the seafloor spreading regimes in the Atlantic Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ); (4) suggest that, if the BSMA source is oceanic crust, the BSMA may be M series magnetic anomaly M42 ( 168.5 Ma); (5) examine the along and across margin variation in seafloor spreading rates and spreading center orientations from the BSMA to M25, suggesting asymmetric crustal accretion accommodated the straightening of the ridge from the bend in the ECMA to the more linear M25; and (6) observe anomalously high-amplitude magnetic anomalies near the Hudson Fan, which may be related to a short-lived propagating rift segment that could have helped accommodate the crustal alignment during the early Atlantic opening.

  9. Interannual variability of north Atlantic Sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, U.S.; Battisiti, D.S.; Alexander, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the midlatitude north Atlantic Ocean the pattern of sea surface temperature anomalies (ssta) is characterized by a north-south dipole. Bjerknes was the first to propose that the banded structure was associated with the interannual variability. Recently, these patterns have been studied more extensively. In this study the quantitative aspects of these patterns are examined through the use of a mixed-layer model (MLM)

  10. Global variations in gravity-derived oceanic crustal thickness: Implications on oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Zhu, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new global model of oceanic crustal thickness based on inversion of global oceanic gravity anomaly with constrains from seismic crustal thickness profiles. We first removed from the observed marine free-air gravity anomaly all gravitational effects that can be estimated and removed using independent constraints, including the effects of seafloor topography, marine sediment thickness, and the age-dependent thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere. We then calculated models of gravity-derived crustal thickness through inversion of the residual mantle Bouguer anomaly using best-fitting gravity-modeling parameters obtained from comparison with seismically determined crustal thickness profiles. Modeling results show that about 5% of the global crustal volume (or 9% of the global oceanic surface area) is associated with model crustal thickness 8.6 km and is interpreted to have been affected by excess magmatism. The percentage of oceanic crustal volume that is associated with thick crustal thickness (>8.6 km) varies greatly among tectonic plates: Pacific (33%), Africa (50%), Antarctic (33%), Australia (30%), South America (34%), Nazca (23%), North America (47%), India (74%), Eurasia (68%), Cocos (20%), Philippine (26%), Scotia (41%), Caribbean (89%), Arabian (82%), and Juan de Fuca (21%). We also found that distribution of thickened oceanic crust (>8.6 km) seems to depend on spreading rate and lithospheric age: (1) On ocean basins younger than 5 Ma, regions of thickened crust are predominantly associated with slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The relatively strong lithospheric plate at slow and ultraslow ridges might facilitate the loading of large magmatic emplacements on the plate. (2) In contrast, crustal thickness near fast and intermediately fast spreading ridges typically does not exceed 7-8 km. The relatively weak lithosphere at fast and intermediately fast ridges might make it harder for excess magmatism to accrete. We further speculate that

  11. Effect of climate-ocean changes on the abundance of Pacific saury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yeong; Suh, Young Sang

    2013-01-01

    Effects of ocean climate changes on the population structure and abundance of Pacific saury (Cololabis sira) were investigated on the basis of climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, catch and body size information from the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) region (Yellow Sea, East China Sea and East/Japan Sea) during the period 1950-2010. It is suggested that oceanic regime shifts in the early 1970s, late 1980s and late 1990s occurred in the TWC region in winter, but the regime shifts in the mid-1970s and in the late 1980s were not evident in the spring SST anomaly series. The abundance and body size of Pacific saury fluctuated in association with the winter oceanic changes in the TWC region. The catch rates and abundance of large size saury were far bellow average during their northward migrations in the TWC region in the years with abnormally cool winters (e.g., 1963, 1970, 1977, 1981-1989 and 2006) and above average in the years with warm winters. These patterns demonstrate decadal-scale variations together with large inter-annual fluctuations in the structure and abundance of Pacific saury in association with the climatic-oceanic changes. These results, along with an alternation of dominant pelagic fish species, indicate the status of the saury population in the TWC region is in good condition, similar to that in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Current (KOC) region during the warm regime after the late 1980s climate regime shift.

  12. Initial conditions and ENSO prediction using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larow, T. E.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled ocean-atmosphere initialization scheme using Newtonian relaxation has been developed for the Florida State University coupled ocean-atmosphere global general circulation model. The initialization scheme is used to initialize the coupled model for seasonal forecasting the boreal summers of 1987 and 1988. The atmosphere model is a modified version of the Florida State University global spectral model, resolution T-42. The ocean general circulation model consists of a slightly modified version of the Hamburg's climate group model described in Latif (1987) and Latif et al. (1993). The coupling is synchronous with information exchanged every two model hours. Using ECMWF atmospheric daily analysis and observed monthly mean SSTs, two, 1-year, time-dependent, Newtonian relaxation were performed using the coupled model prior to conducting the seasonal forecasts. The coupled initializations were conducted from 1 June 1986 to 1 June 1987 and from 1 June 1987 to 1 June 1988. Newtonian relaxation was applied to the prognostic atmospheric vorticity, divergence, temperature and dew point depression equations. In the ocean model the relaxation was applied to the surface temperature. Two, 10-member ensemble integrations were conducted to examine the impact of the coupled initialization on the seasonal forecasts. The initial conditions used for the ensembles are the ocean's final state after the initialization and the atmospheric initial conditions are ECMWF analysis. Examination of the SST root mean square error and anomaly correlations between observed and forecasted SSTs in the Niño-3 and Niño-4 regions for the 2 seasonal forecasts, show closer agreement between the initialized forecast than two, 10-member non-initialized ensemble forecasts. The main conclusion here is that a single forecast with the coupled initialization outperforms, in SST anomaly prediction, against each of the control forecasts (members of the ensemble) which do not include such an initialization

  13. REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEA-SURFACE-TEMPERATURE PATTERNS FOR THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEA WATER, *SURFACE TEMPERATURE, *OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA, PACIFIC OCEAN, REGRESSION ANALYSIS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, UNDERWATER EQUIPMENT, DETECTION, UNDERWATER COMMUNICATIONS, DISTRIBUTION, THERMAL PROPERTIES, COMPUTERS.

  14. Is the distribution of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the oceans related to temperature?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the global natural fixation of nitrogen occurs in the oceans supporting a considerable part of the new primary production. Virtually all nitrogen fixation in the ocean occurs in the tropics and subtropics where the surface water temperature is 25°C or higher. It is attributed

  15. Experimental study of temperature sensor for an ocean-going liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, A.; Shimazaki, T.; Sekiya, M.; Shiozawa, H.; Aoyagi, A.; Ohtsuka, K.; Iwakiri, T.; Mikami, Z.; Sato, M.; Kinoshita, K.; Matsuoka, T.; Takayama, Y.; Yamamoto, K.

    2018-04-01

    The prototype temperature sensors for an ocean-going liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier were manufactured by way of trial. All of the sensors adopted Platinum 1000 (PT-1000) resistance thermometer elements. Various configurations of preproduction temperature sensors were tested in AIST's LH2 test facility. In the experiments, a PT-1000 resistance thermometer, calibrated at the National Metrology Institute of Japan at AIST, was used as the standard thermometer. The temperatures measured by the preproduction sensors were compared with the temperatures measured by the standard thermometer, and the measurement accuracy of the temperature sensors in LH2 was investigated and discussed. It was confirmed that the measurement accuracies of the preproduction temperature sensors were within ±50 mK, which is the required measurement accuracy for a technical demonstration ocean-going LH2 carrier.

  16. Ocean water temperature from data loggers from the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux (JGOFS), the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999 (NODC Accession 9900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean water temperature data were collected from data loggers attached to the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999. Data...

  17. OceanXtremes: Oceanographic Data-Intensive Anomaly Detection and Analysis Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Anomaly detection is a process of identifying items, events or observations, which do not conform to an expected pattern in a dataset or time series. Current and...

  18. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.; Woltering, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Damste, J.S.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Huber, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Stein, R.; Matthiessen, J.; Lourens, L.J.; Pedentchouk, N.; Backman, J.; Moran, K.; Clemens, S.; Cronin, T.; Eynaud, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Jordan, R.; Kaminski, M.; King, J.; Koc, N.; Martinez, N.C.; McInroy, D.; Moore, T.C.; O'Regan, M.; Onodera, J.; Palike, H.; Rea, B.; Rio, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Smith, D.C.; St John, K.E.K.; Suto, I.; Suzuki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, M. E.; Yamamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ???55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ???18??C to over 23??C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10??C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  19. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS From World-Wide Distribution from 18700101 to 19781231 (NODC Accession 8800040)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Each file contains data on Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly analyses on a 1-degree square for each calender month of the period January 1870 through December 1894 (25...

  20. Atmosphere-Ocean Variations in the Indo-Pacific Sector during ENSO Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ngar-Cheung; Nath, Mary Jo

    2003-01-01

    The influences of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on air-sea interaction in the Indian-western Pacific (IWP) Oceans have been investigated using a general circulation model. Observed monthly sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the deep tropical eastern/central Pacific (DTEP) have been inserted in the lower boundary of this model through the 1950-99 period. At all maritime grid points outside of DTEP, the model atmosphere has been coupled with an oceanic mixed layer model with variable depth. Altogether 16 independent model runs have been conducted.Composite analysis of selected ENSO episodes illustrates that the prescribed SST anomalies in DTEP affect the surface atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns in IWP through displacements of the near-equatorial Walker circulation and generation of Rossby wave modes in the subtropics. Such atmospheric responses modulate the surface fluxes as well as the oceanic mixed layer depth, and thereby establish a well-defined SST anomaly pattern in the IWP sector several months after the peak in ENSO forcing in DTEP. In most parts of the IWP region, the net SST tendency induced by atmospheric changes has the same polarity as the local composite SST anomaly, thus indicating that the atmospheric forcing acts to reinforce the underlying SST signal.By analyzing the output from a suite of auxiliary experiments, it is demonstrated that the SST perturbations in IWP (which are primarily generated by ENSO-related atmospheric changes) can, in turn, exert notable influences on the atmospheric conditions over that region. This feedback mechanism also plays an important role in the eastward migration of the subtropical anticyclones over the western Pacific in both hemispheres.

  1. Role of sea surface wind stress forcing on transport between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.

    Using an Indian-Pacific Ocean Circulation Model (IPOM) a simulation study on the Transports of between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean such as Indonesian Through flow (ITF) has been done. IPOM covered the area 25°E-70°W, 35°S-60°N. There are 31 levels in the vertical with 22 levels upper 400m in it. The horizontal resolution is 1/3° lat x 1.5° lon between 10°S and 10°N. The coastline and ocean topography of IPOM is prepared from Scripps topography data on 1x1°grid. Forcing IPOM with monthly observational wind stress in 1990-1999 the interannual variation of sea temperature has been reproduced well, not only on El Nino in the Pacific but also on Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Therefore, the oceanic circulations in the tropical ocean are reasonable. The analyses of the oceanic circulations from the simulations suggest that the transport southward through Makassar Strait is the primary route of thermocline water masses from the North Pacific to the Indonesian sea. The transport westward through Bali-Western Australian Transect (BWAT, at 117.5E) can be thought as the final output of ITF through the archipelago to Indian Ocean. The transport westward through BWAT is in 8-12S above 150m, its core centered near surface 10S, which looks like a jet. The westward velocity is more than 50 cm/s. The transport shows significant seasonal and interannual variations. The maximum is in Jul-Oct, minimum in Jan-Mar. These results are consistent with some observation basically. The correlation analyses indict that the variations of transport westward is related with the southeasterly anomaly in the east tropical Indian ocean. The transport variation lags wind anomaly about 3 months. The correlation coefficient is more than 0.6. The transport is strong during IOD, for example in 1994 and 1997. The variations are also related with the northwesterly anomaly in the center equatorial Pacific and the easterly in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The transport is strong in most ENSO

  2. Changing characteristics of streamflow in the Midwest and its relation to oceanic-atmospheric oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, B.; Pathak, P.; Kalra, A.; Ahmad, S.

    2016-12-01

    The identification of primary drivers of streamflow may prove beneficial in forecasting streamflow in the Midwestern U.S. In the past researches, streamflow in the region have been strongly correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The present study takes in to account the pre-defined Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions (e.g., ENSO, PDO, AMO) along with new regions with an intent to identify new significantly correlated regions. This study assesses the interrelationship between sea surface temperatures (SST) anomalies in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and seasonal streamflow in the Midwestern U.S. Average Pacific and Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies, were calculated for 2 different 3 month series: September-November and December-February so as to create a lead time varying from 3 to 9 months. Streamflow were averaged for three seasons: spring (April-June), spring-summer (April-August) and summer (June-August). The correlation between streamflow and SST is analyzed using singular value decomposition for a period of 1960-2013. The result of the study showed several regions-other than the known Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions- that were significantly correlated with streamflow stations. Higher correlation between the climate indices and streamflow were observed as the lead time decreased. The identification of the associations between SST and streamflow and significant SST regions in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean may enhance the skill of streamflow predictability and water management in the region.

  3. The IOD-ENSO precursory teleconnection over the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean: dynamics and long-term trends under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Hu, Xiaoyue; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Xia; Masumoto, Yukio; Han, Weiqing

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of the teleconnection between the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in the tropical Indian Ocean and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean at the time lag of one year are investigated using lag correlations between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean in fall and those in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean in the following winter-fall seasons in the observations and in high-resolution global ocean model simulations. The lag correlations suggest that the IOD-forced interannual transport anomalies of the Indonesian Throughflow generate thermocline anomalies in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean, which propagate to the east to induce ocean-atmosphere coupled evolution leading to ENSO. In comparison, lag correlations between the surface zonal wind anomalies over the western equatorial Pacific in fall and the Indo-Pacific oceanic anomalies at time lags longer than a season are all insignificant, suggesting the short memory of the atmospheric bridge. A linear continuously stratified model is used to investigate the dynamics of the oceanic connection between the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. The experiments suggest that interannual equatorial Kelvin waves from the Indian Ocean propagate into the equatorial Pacific Ocean through the Makassar Strait and the eastern Indonesian seas with a penetration rate of about 10%-15% depending on the baroclinic modes. The IOD-ENSO teleconnection is found to get stronger in the past century or so. Diagnoses of the CMIP5 model simulations suggest that the increased teleconnection is associated with decreased Indonesian Throughflow transports in the recent century, which is found sensitive to the global warming forcing.

  4. Temperature evolution and the oxygen isotope composition of Phanerozoic oceans from carbonate clumped isotope thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkes, Gregory A.; Passey, Benjamin H.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Shenton, Brock J.; Yancey, Thomas E.; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Surface temperature is among the most important parameters describing planetary climate and habitability, and yet there remains considerable debate about the temperature evolution of the Earth's oceans during the Phanerozoic Eon (541 million years ago to present), the time during which complex metazoan life radiated on Earth. Here we critically assess the emerging record of Phanerozoic ocean temperatures based on carbonate clumped isotope thermometry of fossil brachiopod and mollusk shells, and we present new data that fill important gaps in the Late Paleozoic record. We evaluate and reject the hypothesis that solid-state reordering of 13C-18O bonds has destroyed the primary clumped isotope temperature signal of most fossils during sedimentary burial at elevated temperatures. The resulting Phanerozoic record, which shows a general coupling between tropical seawater temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels since the Paleozoic, indicates that tropical temperatures during the icehouse climate of the Carboniferous period were broadly similar to present (∼25-30 °C), and suggests that benthic metazoans were able to thrive at temperatures of 35-40 °C during intervals of the early and possibly the latest Paleozoic when CO2 levels were likely 5-10× higher than present-day values. Equally important, there is no resolvable trend in seawater oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) over the past ∼500 million years, indicating that the average temperature of oxygen exchange between seawater and the oceanic crust has been high (∼270 °C) since at least the early Paleozoic, which points to mid-ocean ridges as the dominant locus of water-rock interaction over the past half-billion years.

  5. Temperature dependence of plankton community metabolism in the subtropical and tropical oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.; Holding, Johnna M.; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Paloma; Steckbauer, Alexandra; Pé rez-Lorenzo, Marí a; Navarro, Nuria; Serret, Pablo; Gasol, Josep M.; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Estrada, Marta; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Bení tez-Barrios, Veró nica; Agusti, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Here we assess the temperature dependence of the metabolic rates (gross primary production (GPP), community respiration (CR), and the ratio GPP/CR) of oceanic plankton communities. We compile data from 133 stations of the Malaspina 2010 Expedition, distributed among the subtropical and tropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. We used the in vitro technique to measured metabolic rates during 24 h incubations at three different sampled depths: surface, 20%, and 1% of the photosynthetically active radiation measured at surface. We also measured the % of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) penetrating at surface waters. GPP and CR rates increased with warming, albeit different responses were observed for each sampled depth. The overall GPP/CR ratio declined with warming. Higher activation energies (E-a) were derived for both processes (GPP(Chla) = 0.97; CRChla = 1.26; CRHPA = 0.95 eV) compared to those previously reported. The Indian Ocean showed the highest E-a (GPP(Chla) = 1.70; CRChla = 1.48; CRHPA = 0.57 eV), while the Atlantic Ocean showed the lowest (GPP(Chla) = 0.86; CRChla = 0.77; CRHPA = -0.13 eV). We believe that the difference between previous assessments and the ones presented here can be explained by the overrepresentation of Atlantic communities in the previous data sets. We found that UVB radiation also affects the temperature dependence of surface GPP, which decreased rather than increased under high levels of UVB. Ocean warming, which causes stratification and oligotrophication of the subtropical and tropical oceans, may lead to reduced surface GPP as a result of increased penetration of UVB radiation.

  6. Temperature dependence of plankton community metabolism in the subtropical and tropical oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2017-06-22

    Here we assess the temperature dependence of the metabolic rates (gross primary production (GPP), community respiration (CR), and the ratio GPP/CR) of oceanic plankton communities. We compile data from 133 stations of the Malaspina 2010 Expedition, distributed among the subtropical and tropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. We used the in vitro technique to measured metabolic rates during 24 h incubations at three different sampled depths: surface, 20%, and 1% of the photosynthetically active radiation measured at surface. We also measured the % of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) penetrating at surface waters. GPP and CR rates increased with warming, albeit different responses were observed for each sampled depth. The overall GPP/CR ratio declined with warming. Higher activation energies (E-a) were derived for both processes (GPP(Chla) = 0.97; CRChla = 1.26; CRHPA = 0.95 eV) compared to those previously reported. The Indian Ocean showed the highest E-a (GPP(Chla) = 1.70; CRChla = 1.48; CRHPA = 0.57 eV), while the Atlantic Ocean showed the lowest (GPP(Chla) = 0.86; CRChla = 0.77; CRHPA = -0.13 eV). We believe that the difference between previous assessments and the ones presented here can be explained by the overrepresentation of Atlantic communities in the previous data sets. We found that UVB radiation also affects the temperature dependence of surface GPP, which decreased rather than increased under high levels of UVB. Ocean warming, which causes stratification and oligotrophication of the subtropical and tropical oceans, may lead to reduced surface GPP as a result of increased penetration of UVB radiation.

  7. Contrasting effects of temperature and winter mixing on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the carbonate system in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dumousseaud

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate change as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is expected to strongly affect the oceans, with shallower winter mixing and consequent reduction in primary production and oceanic carbon drawdown in low and mid-latitudinal oceanic regions. Here we test this hypothesis by examining the effects of cold and warm winters on the carbonate system in the surface waters of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean for the period between 2005 and 2007. Monthly observations were made between the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay using a ship of opportunity program. During the colder winter of 2005/2006, the maximum depth of the mixed layer reached up to 650 m in the Bay of Biscay, whilst during the warmer (by 2.6 ± 0.5 °C winter of 2006/2007 the mixed layer depth reached only 300 m. The inter-annual differences in late winter concentrations of nitrate (2.8 ± 1.1 μmol l−1 and dissolved inorganic carbon (22 ± 6 μmol kg−1, with higher concentrations at the end of the colder winter (2005/2006, led to differences in the dissolved oxygen anomaly and the chlorophyll α-fluorescence data for the subsequent growing season. In contrast to model predictions, the calculated air-sea CO2 fluxes (ranging from +3.7 to −4.8 mmol m−2 d−1 showed an increased oceanic CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay following the warmer winter of 2006/2007 associated with wind speed and sea surface temperature differences.

  8. Sensitivity of Horn of Africa Rainfall to Regional Sea Surface Temperature Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu T. Segele

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP version 4.4 Regional Climate Model (RegCM4 is used to investigate the rainfall response to cooler/warmer sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA forcing in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The effect of SSTA forcing in a specific ocean basin is identified by ensemble, averaging 10 individual simulations in which a constant or linearly zonally varying SSTA is prescribed in individual basins while specifying the 1971–2000 monthly varying climatological sea surface temperature (SST across the remaining model domain. The nonlinear rainfall response to SSTA amplitude also is investigated by separately specifying +1K, +2K, and +4K SSTA forcing in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The simulation results show that warm SSTs over the entire Indian Ocean produce drier conditions across the larger Blue Nile catchment, whereas warming ≥ +2K generates large positive rainfall anomalies exceeding 10 mm·day−1 over drought prone regions of Northeastern Ethiopia. However, the June–September rainy season tends to be wetter (drier when the SST warming (cooling is limited to either the Northern or Southern Indian Ocean. Wet rainy seasons generally are characterized by deepening of the monsoon trough, east of 40°E, intensification of the Mascarene high, strengthening of the Somali low level jet and the tropical easterly jet, enhanced zonal and meridional vertically integrated moisture fluxes, and steeply vertically decreasing moist static energy. The opposite conditions hold for dry monsoon seasons.

  9. EMAG2: Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (2-arc-minute resolution)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EMAG2 is a global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. It is a significant update of our previous candidate...

  10. NODC Standard Product: Global ocean temperature and salinity profiles (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of CD-ROMs contains global ocean temperature and salinity profiles derived from NODC archive data files. It includes oceanographic station (bottle) data,...

  11. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    to Dept. of Science & Technology, New Delhi for granting the Junior Research Fel- lowship through Inspire Programme. This is NIO (CSIR) contribution no. 7132. References Aftalion M, Bowes D R, Dash B and Dempster T J 1988 Late proterozoic charnockites... anomaly map in figure 1. Keywords. Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 125, No. 3, April 2016, pp. 663–668 c© Indian Academy of Sciences 663 664 V...

  12. Unveiling non-stationary coupling between Amazon and ocean during recent extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antônio M. de T.; Zou, Yong; de Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio; Kurths, Jürgen; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2018-02-01

    The interplay between extreme events in the Amazon's precipitation and the anomaly in the temperature of the surrounding oceans is not fully understood, especially its causal relations. In this paper, we investigate the climatic interaction between these regions from 1999 until 2012 using modern tools of complex system science. We identify the time scale of the coupling quantitatively and unveil the non-stationary influence of the ocean's temperature. The findings show consistently the distinctions between the coupling in the recent major extreme events in Amazonia, such as the two droughts that happened in 2005 and 2010 and the three floods during 1999, 2009 and 2012. Interestingly, the results also reveal the influence over the anomalous precipitation of Southwest Amazon has become increasingly lagged. The analysis can shed light on the underlying dynamics of the climate network system and consequently can improve predictions of extreme rainfall events.

  13. Temperature and upwelling / downwelling irradiance data from drifting buoy in the Southern Oceans as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study/Southern Ocean (JGOFS/Southern Ocean) project, from 1994-12-25 to 1998-06-28 (NODC Accession 9900183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and upwelling / downwelling irradiance data were collected using drifting buoy in the Southern Oceans from December 25, 1994 to June 28, 1998. Data were...

  14. Is the distribution of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the oceans related to temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, Lucas J

    2009-07-01

    Approximately 50% of the global natural fixation of nitrogen occurs in the oceans supporting a considerable part of the new primary production. Virtually all nitrogen fixation in the ocean occurs in the tropics and subtropics where the surface water temperature is 25°C or higher. It is attributed almost exclusively to cyanobacteria. This is remarkable firstly because diazotrophic cyanobacteria are found in other environments irrespective of temperature and secondly because primary production in temperate and cold oceans is generally limited by nitrogen. Cyanobacteria are oxygenic phototrophic organisms that evolved a variety of strategies protecting nitrogenase from oxygen inactivation. Free-living diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the ocean are of the non-heterocystous type, namely the filamentous Trichodesmium and the unicellular groups A-C. I will argue that warm water is a prerequisite for these diazotrophic organisms because of the low-oxygen solubility and high rates of respiration allowing the organism to maintain anoxic conditions in the nitrogen-fixing cell. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are abundant in freshwater and brackish environments in all climatic zones. The heterocyst cell envelope is a tuneable gas diffusion barrier that optimizes the influx of both oxygen and nitrogen, while maintaining anoxic conditions inside the cell. It is not known why heterocystous cyanobacteria are absent from the temperate and cold oceans and seas.

  15. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  16. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Upper Ocean Heat Content Variability from Ensemble Operational Ocean Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Boyer, Tim; Ferry, Nicolas; Good, Simon; Ishikawa, Ichiro; Rienecker, Michele; Rosati, Tony; Yin, Yonghong; Kumar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Upper ocean heat content (HC) is one of the key indicators of climate variability on many time-scales extending from seasonal to interannual to long-term climate trends. For example, HC in the tropical Pacific provides information on thermocline anomalies that is critical for the longlead forecast skill of ENSO. Since HC variability is also associated with SST variability, a better understanding and monitoring of HC variability can help us understand and forecast SST variability associated with ENSO and other modes such as Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Tropical Atlantic Variability (TAV) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). An accurate ocean initialization of HC anomalies in coupled climate models could also contribute to skill in decadal climate prediction. Errors, and/or uncertainties, in the estimation of HC variability can be affected by many factors including uncertainties in surface forcings, ocean model biases, and deficiencies in data assimilation schemes. Changes in observing systems can also leave an imprint on the estimated variability. The availability of multiple operational ocean analyses (ORA) that are routinely produced by operational and research centers around the world provides an opportunity to assess uncertainties in HC analyses, to help identify gaps in observing systems as they impact the quality of ORAs and therefore climate model forecasts. A comparison of ORAs also gives an opportunity to identify deficiencies in data assimilation schemes, and can be used as a basis for development of real-time multi-model ensemble HC monitoring products. The OceanObs09 Conference called for an intercomparison of ORAs and use of ORAs for global ocean monitoring. As a follow up, we intercompared HC variations from ten ORAs -- two objective analyses based on in-situ data only and eight model analyses based on ocean data assimilation systems. The mean, annual cycle, interannual variability and longterm trend of HC have

  18. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology. (charnockites ... Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. ..... of India; J. Australian Petroleum Exploration Association. 14 29–41.

  19. Influence of Atlantic SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kestenare

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of observational data suggest that Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector in early winter and in spring. After reviewing this work and showing that the spring signal is part of a global air-sea interaction, we analyze for comparison an ensemble of simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model in T42 resolution forced by the observed distribution of SST and sea ice, and a simulation with the ECHAM4/OPA8 coupled model in T30 resolution. In the two cases, a significant influence of the Atlantic on the atmosphere is detected in the Atlantic-European sector. In the forced mode, ECHAM4 responds to SST anomalies from early spring to late summer, and also in early winter. The forcing involves SST anomalies not only in the tropical Atlantic, but also in the whole tropical band, suggesting a strong ENSO influence. The modeled signal resembles that seen in the observations in spring, but not in early winter. In the coupled mode, the Atlantic SST only has a significant influence on the atmosphere in summer. Although the SST anomaly is confined to the Atlantic, the summer signal shows some similarity with that seen in the forced simulations. However, there is no counterpart in the observations.

  20. First evaluation of MyOcean altimetric data in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    The MyOcean V2 preliminary (V2p) data set of weekly gridded sea level anomaly (SLA) maps from 1993 to 2009 over the Arctic region is evaluated against existing altimetric data sets and tide gauge data. Compared with DUACS V3.0.0 (Data Unification and Altimeter Combination System) data set, MyOcean...... V2p data set improves spatial coverage and quality as well as maximum temporal correlation coefficient between altimetry and tide gauge data. The estimated amplitude of sea level annual signal and linear sea level trend from MyOcean data set are evaluated against altimetry from DUACS and RADS (Radar...... Altimeter Database System), the SODA (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation) ocean reanalysis and tide gauge data sets from PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level). The results show that the MyOcean data set fits in-situ measurements better than DUACS data set with respect to amplitude of annual signal...

  1. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-10-29

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

  2. Sea surface temperature variability over North Indian Ocean - A study of two contrasting monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sathyendranath, S.; Viswambharan, N.K.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Using the satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1979 (bad monsoon) and 1983 (good monsoon), the SST variability for two contrasting monsoon seasons is studied. The study indicates that large negative anomalies off the Somali...

  3. 1-deg x 1-deg Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1x1 degree Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data base was...

  4. 30-min x 30-min Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 30-min x 30-min Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data base...

  5. An Experimental Real-Time Ocean Nowcast/Forecast System for Intra America Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, D. S.; Preller, R. H.; Martin, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    An experimental real-time Ocean Nowcast/Forecast System has been developed for the Intra America Seas (IASNFS). The area of coverage includes the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Straits of Florida. The system produces nowcast and up to 72 hours forecast the sea level variation, 3D ocean current, temperature and salinity fields. IASNFS consists an 1/24 degree (~5 km), 41-level sigma-z data-assimilating ocean model based on NCOM. For daily nowcast/forecast the model is restarted from previous nowcast. Once model is restarted it continuously assimilates the synthetic temperature/salinity profiles generated by a data analysis model called MODAS to produce nowcast. Real-time data come from satellite altimeter (GFO, TOPEX/Poseidon, ERS-2) sea surface height anomaly and AVHRR sea surface temperature. Three hourly surface heat fluxes, including solar radiation, wind stresses and sea level air pressure from NOGAPS/FNMOC are applied for surface forcing. Forecasts are produced with available NOGAPS forecasts. Once the nowcast/forecast are produced they are distributed through the Internet via the updated web pages. The open boundary conditions including sea surface elevation, transport, temperature, salinity and currents are provided by the NRL 1/8 degree Global NCOM which is operated daily. An one way coupling scheme is used to ingest those boundary conditions into the IAS model. There are 41 rivers with monthly discharges included in the IASNFS.

  6. Low frequency variability of the Indian Ocean from TOPEX/POSEIDON sea surface height anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    and off Sumatra present large variability on both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The SSH anomalies off Sumatra show dominant influence of warm (cold) ENSO events with peak negative (positive) anomalies coinciding with El Nino (La Nina...

  7. Surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Indian rainfall

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The time variation of the monthly mean surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean during 1982-1987 has been studied in relation to summer monsoon rainfall over India The ENSO events of 1982 and 1987 were related to a significant reduction...

  8. Microstructural and electron-structural anomalies and high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, L.; Huang, Z.J.; Bechtold, J.; Hor, P.H.; Chu, C.W.; Xue, Y.Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Meng, R.L.; Tao, Y.K.

    1989-01-01

    Microstructural and electron-structural anomalies have been found to exist in all HYSs by x-ray diffraction and positron annihilation experiments. These anomalies are induced either by doping near the metal-insulator phase boundary at 300 K, or by cooling the HTSs below T c . This has been taken as evidence for a charge transfer between the CuO 2 -layers and their surroundings, which suggests the importance of charge transfers and implies the importance of charge fluctuations in HTS. Several new compounds with the T'- and T*-phases have been found. Further implications of these observations are discussed

  9. A Review of Ocean/Sea Subsurface Water Temperature Studies from Remote Sensing and Non-Remote Sensing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Akbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oceans/Seas are important components of Earth that are affected by global warming and climate change. Recent studies have indicated that the deeper oceans are responsible for climate variability by changing the Earth’s ecosystem; therefore, assessing them has become more important. Remote sensing can provide sea surface data at high spatial/temporal resolution and with large spatial coverage, which allows for remarkable discoveries in the ocean sciences. The deep layers of the ocean/sea, however, cannot be directly detected by satellite remote sensors. Therefore, researchers have examined the relationships between salinity, height, and temperature of the oceans/Seas to estimate their subsurface water temperature using dynamical models and model-based data assimilation (numerical based and statistical approaches, which simulate these parameters by employing remotely sensed data and in situ measurements. Due to the requirements of comprehensive perception and the importance of global warming in decision making and scientific studies, this review provides comprehensive information on the methods that are used to estimate ocean/sea subsurface water temperature from remotely and non-remotely sensed data. To clarify the subsurface processes, the challenges, limitations, and perspectives of the existing methods are also investigated.

  10. Temperature Data Assimilation with Salinity Corrections: Validation for the NSIPP Ocean Data Assimilation System in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1993-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troccoli, Alberto; Rienecker, Michele M.; Keppenne, Christian L.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) has developed an Ocean data assimilation system to initialize the quasi-isopycnal ocean model used in our experimental coupled-model forecast system. Initial tests of the system have focused on the assimilation of temperature profiles in an optimal interpolation framework. It is now recognized that correction of temperature only often introduces spurious water masses. The resulting density distribution can be statically unstable and also have a detrimental impact on the velocity distribution. Several simple schemes have been developed to try to correct these deficiencies. Here the salinity field is corrected by using a scheme which assumes that the temperature-salinity relationship of the model background is preserved during the assimilation. The scheme was first introduced for a zlevel model by Troccoli and Haines (1999). A large set of subsurface observations of salinity and temperature is used to cross-validate two data assimilation experiments run for the 6-year period 1993-1998. In these two experiments only subsurface temperature observations are used, but in one case the salinity field is also updated whenever temperature observations are available.

  11. Interannual tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies teleconnection to Northern Hemisphere atmosphere in November

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Martin P.; Herceg-Bulić, Ivana; Kucharski, Fred; Keenlyside, Noel

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation anomalies associated to the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies that are related to the eastern-Pacific and central-Pacific El Nino-Southern Oscillations in the late autumn (November). This research is motivated by the need for improving understanding of the autumn climate conditions which can impact on winter climate, as well as the relative lack of study on the boreal autumn climate processes compared to winter. Using reanalysis and SST datasets available from the late nineteenth century through the recent years, we found that there are two major atmospheric responses; one is a hemispheric-wide wave number-4 pattern, another has a more annular pattern. Both of these project on the East Atlantic pattern (southward-shifted North Atlantic Oscillation) in the Atlantic sector. Which of the patterns is active is suggested to depend on the background mean flow, with the annular anomaly active in the most recent decades, while the wave-4 pattern in the decades before. This switch is associated with a change of correlation sign in the North Pacific. We discuss the robustness of this finding. The ability of two atmospheric general circulation models (ICTP-AGCM and ECHAM-AGCM) to reproduce the teleconnections is also examined. Evidence provided shows that the wave-4 pattern and the East Atlantic pattern signals can be reproduced by the models, while the shift from this to an annular response for the recent years is not found conclusively.

  12. Last millennium Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures from tree rings: Part II, spatially resolved reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Wilson, Rob; Briffa, Keith R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Cook, Edward R.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Davi, Nicole; Esper, Jan; Frank, David; Gunnarson, Björn E.; Hegerl, Gabi; Helama, Samuli; Klesse, Stefan; Krusic, Paul J.; Linderholm, Hans W.; Myglan, Vladimir; Osborn, Timothy J.; Zhang, Peng; Rydval, Milos; Schneider, Lea; Schurer, Andrew; Wiles, Greg; Zorita, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Climate field reconstructions from networks of tree-ring proxy data can be used to characterize regional-scale climate changes, reveal spatial anomaly patterns associated with atmospheric circulation changes, radiative forcing, and large-scale modes of ocean-atmosphere variability, and provide spatiotemporal targets for climate model comparison and evaluation. Here we use a multiproxy network of tree-ring chronologies to reconstruct spatially resolved warm season (May-August) mean temperatures across the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (40-90°N) using Point-by-Point Regression (PPR). The resulting annual maps of temperature anomalies (750-1988 CE) reveal a consistent imprint of volcanism, with 96% of reconstructed grid points experiencing colder conditions following eruptions. Solar influences are detected at the bicentennial (de Vries) frequency, although at other time scales the influence of insolation variability is weak. Approximately 90% of reconstructed grid points show warmer temperatures during the Medieval Climate Anomaly when compared to the Little Ice Age, although the magnitude varies spatially across the hemisphere. Estimates of field reconstruction skill through time and over space can guide future temporal extension and spatial expansion of the proxy network.

  13. Interannual to Decadal SST Variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Newman, M.; Han, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Indian Ocean has received increasing attention in recent years for its large impacts on regional and global climate. However, due mainly to the close interdependence of the climate variation within the Tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, the internal sea surface temperature (SST) variability within the Indian Ocean has not been studied extensively on longer time scales. In this presentation we will show analysis of the interannual to decadal SST variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean in observations and Linear Inverse Model (LIM) results. We also compare the decoupled Indian Ocean SST variability from the Pacific against fully coupled one based on LIM integrations, to test the factors influence the features of the leading SST modes in the Indian Ocean. The result shows the Indian Ocean Basin (IOB) mode, which is strongly related to global averaged SST variability, passively responses to the Pacific variation. Without tropical Indo-Pacific coupling interaction, the intensity of IOB significantly decreases by 80%. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode demonstrates its independence from the Pacific SST variability since the IOD does not change its long-term characteristics at all without inter-basin interactions. The overall SSTA variance decreases significantly in the Tropical Indian Ocean in the coupling restricted LIM runs, especially when the one-way impact from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean is turned off, suggesting that most of the variability in the Indian Ocean comes from the Pacific influence. On the other hand, the Indian Ocean could also transport anomalies to the Pacific, making the interaction a complete two-way process.

  14. Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperature and heat budget in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time-series data on upper-ocean temperature, Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) measured currents and surface meteorological parameters have been obtained for the first time in the southern Bay of Bengal at 7° N, 10° N, and 13° N locations along 87° E during October - November, 1998 ...

  15. Plastic anomaly of the B2 ordered Fe-40Al alloy; Anomalie plastique de l'alliage Fe-40Al ordonne B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, O

    2002-05-01

    The plastic behaviour of Fe-40Al (B2-ordered) alloys was studied. This material has the particularly of exhibiting a yield stress that increases in a given temperature range ('yield stress anomaly'). This anomaly is usually associated with a zero strain rate sensitivity in the very same temperature range. These two peculiarities can be explained as a whole by a thermally activated exhaustion of the mobile dislocations. In this work, the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of the FeAl alloys was first characterised. Then, slip geometry was studied in a large temperature range using oriented single crystals. Finally, the elementary deformation processes were studied through an analysis of dislocation structures in deformed materials using TEM post-mortem and in-situ techniques. Our results show that the yield stress anomaly stems from superdislocations exhaustion through the formation of antiphase boundary tubes, due to vacancy absorption. The number of antiphase boundary tubes produced during dislocation motion depends on vacancy concentration, that in turn increases with temperature. This is believed to be the main reason for thermally activated exhaustion. In addition, the anomaly peak and the related stress fall-off at higher temperatures can be ascribed to superdislocation decomposition, which provides the material with ordinary dislocations that cannot generate antiphase boundary tubes. Superdislocations exhaustion seems to be the catalyzing factor for decomposition. We have proposed a basis for an exhaustion/multiplication model. Considering a classical Frank-Read type multiplication mechanism, we express the yield stress as a function of temperature and we show that this results in an anomaly. Moreover, supposing that boron modifies vacancy migration energy, we suggest that the influence of boron on the stress anomaly stems from an increase of vacancy capture radius by mobile superdislocations. (authors)

  16. A database for the monitoring of thermal anomalies over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Mattar, Cristian; Sobrino, José A; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information technologies and accessibility to climate and satellite data in recent years have favored the development of web-based tools with user-friendly interfaces in order to facilitate the dissemination of geo/biophysical products. These products are useful for the analysis of the impact of global warming over different biomes. In particular, the study of the Amazon forest responses to drought have recently received attention by the scientific community due to the occurrence of two extreme droughts and sustained warming over the last decade. Thermal Amazoni@ is a web-based platform for the visualization and download of surface thermal anomalies products over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans using Google Earth as a baseline graphical interface (http://ipl.uv.es/thamazon/web). This platform is currently operational at the servers of the University of Valencia (Spain), and it includes both satellite (MODIS) and climatic (ERA-Interim) datasets. Thermal Amazoni@ is composed of the viewer system and the web and ftp sites with ancillary information and access to product download.

  17. Satellite Anomalies: Benefits of a Centralized Anomaly Database and Methods for Securely Sharing Information Among Satellite Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    is more or less prone to anomalies. The Atrium Space Insurance Corporation (ASIC) at Lloyd’s of London Insurance Market insures approximately 190...Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, 1993. As of December 6, 2012: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ stp /satellite...National Geophysical Data Center, Online Publications, undated a. As of November 1, 2013: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ stp /solar/onlinepubl.html ———, Space

  18. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Peltzer, Edward T.

    2017-08-01

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol-1, leading to a Q10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  19. Retrieval of sea surface air temperature from satellite data over Indian Ocean: An empirical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    the sea surface air temperature from satellite derived sea surface humidity in the Indian Ocean. Using the insitu data on surface met parameters collected on board O.R.V. Sagar Kanya in the Indian Ocean over a period of 15 years, the relationship between...

  20. The role of the SST-thermocline relationship in Indian Ocean Dipole skewness and its response to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming. PMID:25112717

  1. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) in the Pacific Ocean: 19860927 to 19870201 (NODC Accession 8700086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the MONTE SARMIENTO and PACPRINCESS in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 27 September 1986 to...

  2. The response of grounded ice to ocean temperature forcing in a coupled ice sheet-ice shelf-ocean cavity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Little, C. M.; Sergienko, O. V.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice shelves provide a pathway for the heat content of the ocean to influence continental ice sheets. Changes in the rate or location of basal melting can alter their geometry and effect changes in stress conditions at the grounding line, leading to a grounded ice response. Recent observations of ice streams and ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica have been consistent with this story. On the other hand, ice dynamics in the grounding zone control flux into the shelf and thus ice shelf geometry, which has a strong influence on the circulation in the cavity beneath the shelf. Thus the coupling between the two systems, ocean and ice sheet-ice shelf, can be quite strong. We examine the response of the ice sheet-ice shelf-ocean cavity system to changes in ocean temperature using a recently developed coupled model. The coupled model consists a 3-D ocean model (GFDL's Generalized Ocean Layered Dynamics model, or GOLD) to a two-dimensional ice sheet-ice shelf model (Goldberg et al, 2009), and allows for changing cavity geometry and a migrating grounding line. Steady states of the coupled system are found even under considerable forcing. The ice shelf morphology and basal melt rate patterns of the steady states exhibit detailed structure, and furthermore seem to be unique and robust. The relationship between temperature forcing and area-averaged melt rate is influenced by the response of ice shelf morphology to thermal forcing, and is found to be sublinear in the range of forcing considered. However, results suggest that area-averaged melt rate is not the best predictor of overall system response, as grounding line stability depends on local aspects of the basal melt field. Goldberg, D N, D M Holland and C G Schoof, 2009. Grounding line movement and ice shelf buttressing in marine ice sheets, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surfaces, 114, F04026.

  3. Post-1980 shifts in the sensitivity of boreal tree growth to North Atlantic Ocean dynamics and seasonal climate. Tree growth responses to North Atlantic Ocean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ols, Clémentine; Trouet, Valerie; Girardin, Martin P.; Hofgaard, Annika; Bergeron, Yves; Drobyshev, Igor

    2018-06-01

    The mid-20th century changes in North Atlantic Ocean dynamics, e.g. slow-down of the Atlantic meridional overturning thermohaline circulation (AMOC), have been considered as early signs of tipping points in the Earth climate system. We hypothesized that these changes have significantly altered boreal forest growth dynamics in northeastern North America (NA) and northern Europe (NE), two areas geographically adjacent to the North Atlantic Ocean. To test our hypothesis, we investigated tree growth responses to seasonal large-scale oceanic and atmospheric indices (the AMOC, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and Arctic Oscillation (AO)) and climate (temperature and precipitation) from 1950 onwards, both at the regional and local levels. We developed a network of 6876 black spruce (NA) and 14437 Norway spruce (NE) tree-ring width series, extracted from forest inventory databases. Analyses revealed post-1980 shifts from insignificant to significant tree growth responses to summer oceanic and atmospheric dynamics both in NA (negative responses to NAO and AO indices) and NE (positive response to NAO and AMOC indices). The strength and sign of these responses varied, however, through space with stronger responses in western and central boreal Quebec and in central and northern boreal Sweden, and across scales with stronger responses at the regional level than at the local level. Emerging post-1980 associations with North Atlantic Ocean dynamics synchronized with stronger tree growth responses to local seasonal climate, particularly to winter temperatures. Our results suggest that ongoing and future anomalies in oceanic and atmospheric dynamics may impact forest growth and carbon sequestration to a greater extent than previously thought. Cross-scale differences in responses to North Atlantic Ocean dynamics highlight complex interplays in the effects of local climate and ocean-atmosphere dynamics on tree growth processes and advocate for the use of different spatial scales in

  4. Using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS to improve the sea surface temperature predictions of the MERCATOR Ocean System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global models are generally capable of reproducing the observed trends in the globally averaged sea surface temperature (SST. However, the global models do not perform as well on regional scales. Here, we present an ocean forecast system based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, the boundary conditions come from the MERCATOR ocean system for the North Atlantic (1/6° horizontal resolution. The system covers the region of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula with a horizontal resolution of 1/36°, forced with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The ocean model results from the regional ocean model are validated using real-time SST and observations from the MeteoGalicia, INTECMAR and Puertos Del Estado real-time observational networks. The validation results reveal that over a one-year period the mean absolute error of the SST is less than 1°C, and several sources of measured data reveal that the errors decrease near the coast. This improvement is related to the inclusion of local forcing not present in the boundary condition model.

  5. Seafloor spreading anomalies and crustal ages of the Clarion-Clipperton Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Barckhausen; Meike Bagge; Douglas S. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    The Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) of the central Pacific is one of the few regions in the world’s oceans that are still lacking full coverage of reliable identifications of seafloor spreading anomalies. This is mainly due to the geometry of the magnetic lineations’ strike direction sub-parallel to the Earth’s magnetic field vector near the equator resulting in low amplitude magnetic anomalies, and the remoteness of the region which has hindered systematic surveying in the past. Following rece...

  6. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and meteorological data collected in the Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean by various countries from 20 Jul 1870 to 17 Jul 1995 (NODC Accession 0085914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and meteorological data collected in the Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean by various countries from 1870 to 1995,...

  7. Low temperature anomaly of light stimulated magnetization and heat capacity of the 1D diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffe, Chernet Amente

    2018-03-01

    This article reports magnetization and specific heat capacity anomalies in one dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors observed at very low temperatures. Based on quantum field theory double time temperature dependent Green function technique is employed to evaluate magnon dispersion and the time correlation function. It is understood that magnon-photon coupling and magnetic impurity concentration controls both, such that near absolute temperature magnetization is nearly zero and abruptly increase to saturation level with decreasing magnon-photon coupling strength. We also found out dropping of magnetic specific heat capacity as a result of increase in magnetic impurity concentration x, perhaps because of inter-band disorder that would suppress the enhancement of density of spin waves.

  8. Low temperature anomaly of light stimulated magnetization and heat capacity of the 1D diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernet Amente Geffe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports magnetization and specific heat capacity anomalies in one dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors observed at very low temperatures. Based on quantum field theory double time temperature dependent Green function technique is employed to evaluate magnon dispersion and the time correlation function. It is understood that magnon-photon coupling and magnetic impurity concentration controls both, such that near absolute temperature magnetization is nearly zero and abruptly increase to saturation level with decreasing magnon-photon coupling strength. We also found out dropping of magnetic specific heat capacity as a result of increase in magnetic impurity concentration x, perhaps because of inter-band disorder that would suppress the enhancement of density of spin waves.

  9. Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M P; Chaudhury, R

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

  10. Intra-Panthalassa Ocean subduction zones revealed by fossil arcs and mantle structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, D.G. van der; Torsvik, T.H.; Spakman, W.; Hinsbergen, D.J.J. van; Amaru, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The vast Panthalassa Ocean once surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea. Subduction has since consumed most of the oceanic plates that formed the ocean floor, so classic plate reconstructions based on magnetic anomalies can be used only to constrain the ocean’s history since the Cretaceous period, and

  11. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G; Peltzer, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol -1 , leading to a Q 10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. An objective algorithm for reconstructing the three-dimensional ocean temperature field based on Argo profiles and SST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaojie; Ding, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang; Ma, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    While global oceanic surface information with large-scale, real-time, high-resolution data is collected by satellite remote sensing instrumentation, three-dimensional (3D) observations are usually obtained from in situ measurements, but with minimal coverage and spatial resolution. To meet the needs of 3D ocean investigations, we have developed a new algorithm to reconstruct the 3D ocean temperature field based on the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) profiles and sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Argo temperature profiles are first optimally fitted to generate a series of temperature functions of depth, with the vertical temperature structure represented continuously. By calculating the derivatives of the fitted functions, the calculation of the vertical temperature gradient of the Argo profiles at an arbitrary depth is accomplished. A gridded 3D temperature gradient field is then found by applying inverse distance weighting interpolation in the horizontal direction. Combined with the processed SST, the 3D temperature field reconstruction is realized below the surface using the gridded temperature gradient. Finally, to confirm the effectiveness of the algorithm, an experiment in the Pacific Ocean south of Japan is conducted, for which a 3D temperature field is generated. Compared with other similar gridded products, the reconstructed 3D temperature field derived by the proposed algorithm achieves satisfactory accuracy, with correlation coefficients of 0.99 obtained, including a higher spatial resolution (0.25° × 0.25°), resulting in the capture of smaller-scale characteristics. Finally, both the accuracy and the superiority of the algorithm are validated.

  13. The chiral anomaly of quantum chromodynamics at high temperatures. Lattice investigation of the overlap Dirac spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the spectrum of the overlap Dirac operator has been computed and analyzed on configurations that had been created using highly improved staggered quarks. Although the overlap operator is expensive to compute, it has the advantage that it fully implements chiral symmetry in the same way as the continuum QCD Dirac operator even at finite lattice spacings. This opened the possibility to investigate chiral aspects of QCD and, in particular, the question if the axial anomaly is suppressed at the chiral transition temperature T c . The obtained results indicate that the axial anomaly is still present at T c and even at 1.5 T c as evidenced by a splitting in the integrated pion and delta susceptibilities. The spectrum shows a peak in the near-zero region consisting of zero modes and pairs of near-zero modes. The breaking of the axial symmetry was identified as being caused by these infrared modes. It was discussed how this infrared contribution might change in the thermodynamic, continuum, and chiral limits. The obtained data supports the expectation that the peak becomes narrower with decreasing quark masses, resulting in a Dirac-delta peak in the chiral limit. The area under the peak was found to decrease with decreasing lattice spacing, so in order to resolve how much of it survives the continuum limit further investigations are needed, in particular ones where already for the generation of gauge configurations chiral fermions are used. The infrared modes were investigated and found to be highly localized, supporting the picture of QCD at high temperatures as a dilute instanton gas. The instantons were found to have an average size of 0.239(4) fm and a density of 0.154(5) fm -4 at 1.5 T c . Near-zero modes were found to be induced by instanton-anti-instanton molecules, which are weakly bound. At temperatures closer to T c , this picture becomes more complicated but these features sometimes still can be recognized. In conclusion, in QCD at temperatures

  14. Land-atmosphere-ocean interactions in the southeastern Atlantic: interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2018-02-01

    Land-atmosphere-ocean interactions in the southeastern South Atlantic and their connections to interannual variability are examined using a regional climate model coupled with an intermediate-level ocean model. In austral summer, zonal displacements of the South Atlantic subtropical high (SASH) can induce variations of mixed-layer currents in the Benguela upwelling region through surface wind stress curl anomalies near the Namibian coast, and an eastward shifted SASH is related to the first Pacific-South American mode. When the SASH is meridionally displaced, mixed layer vertically-integrated Ekman transport anomalies are mainly a response to the change of alongshore surface wind stress. The latitudinal shift of the SASH tends to dampen the anomalous alongshore wind by modulating the land-sea thermal contrast, while opposed by oceanic diffusion. Although the position of the SASH is closely linked to the phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the southern annular mode (SAM) in austral summer, an overall relationship between Benguela upwelling strength and ENSO or SAM is absent. During austral winter, variations of the mixed layer Ekman transport in the Benguela upwelling region are connected to the strength of the SASH through its impact on both coastal wind stress curl and alongshore surface wind stress. Compared with austral summer, low-level cloud cover change plays a more important role. Although wintertime sea surface temperature fluctuations in the equatorial Atlantic are strong and may act to influence variability over the northern Benguela area, the surface heat budget analysis suggests that local air-sea interactions dominate.

  15. Pacific Ocean buoy temperature date - TAO/TRITON database & National Buoy Data Center database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pacific Ocean buoy temperature data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Carbone, F., M. Landis, C.N. Gencarelli, A. Naccarato, F. Sprovieri,...

  16. Climatic anomalies in Northern South China Sea during 1986-1987 El Nino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tegu (Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)); Zhou Qiang

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, the climatic anomalies in Northern South China Sea (NSCS) during 1986-1987 El Nino were analyzed according to meteorological and hydrographic observation data. The results showed that the most apparent anomalies were: (1) continuously weaker monsoon strength, (2) continuously much higher South China Sea High Pressure strength; (3) in 1987 only six typhoons occurred in NSCS (four less than normal), with the first typhoon occurring on 25 June, (about one month later than usual); (4) positive air temperature anomaly, negative annual precipitation and evaporation anomaly; (5) sea surface temperature and surface salinity anomaly was positive; (6) monthly mean sea level was 1 to 10cm lower than normal.

  17. Orbital-scale Central Arctic Ocean Temperature Records from Benthic Foraminiferal δ18O and Ostracode Mg/Ca Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, K.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G. S.; Farmer, J. R.; Poirier, R. K.; Schaller, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Orbital-scale climate variability is often amplified in the polar region, for example in changes in seawater temperature, sea-ice cover, deep-water formation, ecosystems, heat storage and carbon cycling. Yet, the relationship between the Arctic Ocean and global climate remains poorly understood due largely to limited orbital-scale paleoclimate records, the complicated nature of sea-ice response to climate and limited abundance of deep sea biological proxies. Here we reconstruct central Arctic Ocean bottom temperatures over the last 600 kyr using ostracode Mg/Ca ratios (genus Krithe) and benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Obf - I. teretis, O. tener, P. bulloides, C. reniforme, C. wuellerstorfi) in six sediment cores recovered from the Mendeleev and Northwind Ridges (700- 2726 m water depth). We examined glacial-interglacial cycles in Arctic seawater temperatures and Arctic δ18Obf chronostratigraphy to reconcile effects of changing bottom water temperature, ice volume and regional hydrography on δ18Obf records. Results show lower ( 10-12 mmol/mol) interglacial and higher ( 16-23 mmol/mol) glacial Mg/Ca ratios, signifying intermediate depth ocean warming during glacials of up to 2 ºC. These temperature maxima are likely related to a deepening of the halocline and the corresponding deeper influence of warm Atlantic water. Glacial-interglacial δ18Obf ranges are smaller in the Arctic ( 0.8-1‰ VPDB) than in the global ocean ( 1.8 ‰). However, when the distinct glacial-interglacial temperature histories of the Arctic (glacial warming) and global ocean (glacial cooling) are accounted for, both Arctic and global ocean seawater δ18O values (δ18Osw) exhibit similar 1.2-1.3 ‰ glacial-interglacial ranges. Thus, Arctic δ18Obf confirms glacial Arctic warming inferred from ostracode Mg/Ca. This study will discuss the strengths and limitations of applying paired Mg/Ca and oxygen isotope proxies in reconstructing more robust paleoceanographic changes in the

  18. Ocean heat content and ocean energy budget: make better use of historical global subsurface temperature dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Zhu, J.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean heat content (OHC) change contributes substantially to global sea level rise, also is a key metric of the ocean/global energy budget, so it is a vital task for the climate research community to estimate historical OHC. While there are large uncertainties regarding its value, here we review the OHC calculation by using the historical global subsurface temperature dataset, and discuss the sources of its uncertainty. The presentation briefly introduces how to correct to the systematic biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data, a alternative way of filling data gaps (which is main focus of this talk), and how to choose a proper climatology. A new reconstruction of historical upper (0-700 m) OHC change will be presented, which is the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) version of historical upper OHC assessment. The authors also want to highlight the impact of observation system change on OHC calculation, which could lead to bias in OHC estimates. Furthermore, we will compare the updated observational-based estimates on ocean heat content change since 1970s with CMIP5 results. This comparison shows good agreement, increasing the confidence of the climate models in representing the climate history.

  19. The prediction of surface temperature in the new seasonal prediction system based on the MPI-ESM coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, J.; Fröhlich, K.; Botzet, M.; Domeisen, D. I. V.; Kornblueh, L.; Notz, D.; Piontek, R.; Pohlmann, H.; Tietsche, S.; Müller, W. A.

    2015-05-01

    A seasonal forecast system is presented, based on the global coupled climate model MPI-ESM as used for CMIP5 simulations. We describe the initialisation of the system and analyse its predictive skill for surface temperature. The presented system is initialised in the atmospheric, oceanic, and sea ice component of the model from reanalysis/observations with full field nudging in all three components. For the initialisation of the ensemble, bred vectors with a vertically varying norm are implemented in the ocean component to generate initial perturbations. In a set of ensemble hindcast simulations, starting each May and November between 1982 and 2010, we analyse the predictive skill. Bias-corrected ensemble forecasts for each start date reproduce the observed surface temperature anomalies at 2-4 months lead time, particularly in the tropics. Niño3.4 sea surface temperature anomalies show a small root-mean-square error and predictive skill up to 6 months. Away from the tropics, predictive skill is mostly limited to the ocean, and to regions which are strongly influenced by ENSO teleconnections. In summary, the presented seasonal prediction system based on a coupled climate model shows predictive skill for surface temperature at seasonal time scales comparable to other seasonal prediction systems using different underlying models and initialisation strategies. As the same model underlying our seasonal prediction system—with a different initialisation—is presently also used for decadal predictions, this is an important step towards seamless seasonal-to-decadal climate predictions.

  20. Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Color Variability in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaty, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is a marginal sea in the Southeast Asian region whose surface circulation is driven by monsoons and whose surface currents have complex seasonal patterns. Its rich natural resources and strategic location have made its small islands areas of political dispute among the neighboring nations. This study aims to show the seasonal and interannual variability of sea surface temperature and ocean color in South China Sea. It makes use of NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data sets on sea surface temperature for the period 1981-2000 and NASA's Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite data sets on pigment concentration (ocean color) for the period 1981-1996 and 1997-2000, respectively. Transect lines were drawn along several potential hotspot areas to show the variability in sea surface temperature and pigment concentration through time. In-situ data on sea surface temperature along South China Sea were likewise plotted to see the variability with time. Higher seasonal variability in sea surface temperature was seen at higher latitudes. Interannual variability was within 1-3 Kelvin. In most areas, pigment concentration was higher during northern hemisphere winter and autumn, after the monsoon rains, with a maximum of 30 milligrams per cubic meter.

  1. EMAG2v3: Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (2-arc-minute resolution)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EMAG2v3 is a global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. It is a significant update of the previous release...

  2. Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; He Wei

    2008-01-01

    We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings

  3. Relationship between plants in Europe and surface temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean during the glacial maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Campo, M

    1984-01-01

    In Europe and North America, the deciduous forest, whether or not mixed with conifers, prevails within boundaries which coincide with the 12 and 18/sup 0/C isotherms of Ocean surface temperatures in August; within Europe this forest points to the limit of the Atlantic influence and bevels out as it is squeezed between coniferous forest to the NE (thermic boundary) and steppe to the SE (hydric boundary). During the glacial age this forest disappeared from its main European area and remained only in mountain refuges. Thus, the temperature of the eastern Atlantic surface waters, off Europe, control the nature of its vegetation. Variations in the pollen curve of pines, birches, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra are accounted for by the climatic variations in southern Europe before 13,000 yr BP. It is seen that a very arid climate culminated at about 15,000 yr BP. It corresponds to the most active iceberg calving which considerably lowered the Ocean surface temperature far to the south. In spite of the increasing summer temperatures, this temperature remained as cold as it was during the glacial maximum. The result is the lowest evaporation from the Ocean hence a minimum of clouds and a minimum of rain. The end of the first phase of the deglaciation at +/- 13,000 yr BP corresponds to a warming up of the Ocean surface bringing about increased evaporation, hence rains over the continent. The evolution of the vegetation in Europe at the end of the glacial times from south of the ice sheet down to the Mediterranean, depends as much, if not more, on rains than on temperatures.

  4. Anomaly observed in Moessbauer spectra near the neel temperature of FeBr sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Naili Di

    2003-01-01

    In several decades, iron(II) bromide (FeBr sub 2) has been investigated as a typical Ising-type antiferromagnet by several kinds of experimental techniques. By the Moessbauer measurements, it was normally observed that only the magnetic spectrum appeared just below Neel temperature in FeBr sub 2. However, we found the anomalous spectra, in which paramagnetic component coexisted with magnetic one near Neel temperature. For two kinds of single crystal FeBr sub 2 samples, IM and IIM, we determined the Moessbauer parameters of the observed spectra by the computer analyses: the relative absorption intensity I sub p of the paramagnetic component to the total absorption area of the best fitting spectrum and the value of the hyperfine field H sub h sub f of the magnetic component and values of the quadrupole splitting 1/2 centre dot e sup 2 qQ of the magnetic and the paramagnetic components. The temperature variation of H sub h sub f is unique and the same as that observed for the sample in which the anomaly was not ...

  5. Coherent climate anomalies over the Indo-western Pacific in post-El Niño summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.; DU, Y.; Hu, K.; Chowdary, J. S.; Huang, G.

    2016-12-01

    El Niño typically peaks in boreal winter, and the associated equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) signal dissipates before subsequent summer. Its impact, however, outlasts until boreal summer in the Indo-western Pacific, featuring basin-wide Indian Ocean warming and tropical Northwestern Pacific cooling accompanied by the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern with surface anomalous anticyclone (AAC) extending from the Philippine Sea to the northern Indian Ocean. Two formation mechanisms have been proposed for these climate anomalies in post-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) summer. One hypothesis invokes the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback in the tropical Northwestern Pacific, while the other points to inter-basin feedback between the Indian Ocean and tropical Northwestern Pacific. Based on a coupled model experiment, we propose an ocean-atmosphere coupled mode that synthesizes the two mechanisms. This Indo-western Pacific Ocean capacitor (IPOC) mode evolves seasonally from spring to summer under seasonal migration of background state. In spring, the WES feedback is operative in association with the tropical Northwestern Pacific cooling, while in summer the Indian Ocean warming and the inter-basin interaction maintains the AAC. While the IPOC mode is independent of ENSO in mechanism, ENSO can drive this mode in its decay phase. This excitation, however, has undergone substantial interdecadal modulations, depending on ENSO amplitude and persistence of Indian Ocean warming. The ENSO-IPOC correlation is high after the mid-1970s and at the beginning of the 20th century, but low in between.

  6. A three-stage hybrid model for regionalization, trends and sensitivity analyses of temperature anomalies in China from 1966 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feifei; Yang, XiaoHua; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-06-01

    Temperature anomalies have received increasing attention due to their potentially severe impacts on ecosystems, economy and human health. To facilitate objective regionalization and examine regional temperature anomalies, a three-stage hybrid model with stages of regionalization, trends and sensitivity analyses was developed. Annual mean and extreme temperatures were analyzed using the daily data collected from 537 stations in China from 1966 to 2015, including the annual mean, minimum and maximum temperatures (Tm, TNm and TXm) as well as the extreme minimum and maximum temperatures (TNe and TXe). The results showed the following: (1) subregions with coherent temperature changes were identified using the rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis and K-means clustering algorithm. The numbers of subregions were 6, 7, 8, 9 and 8 for Tm, TNm, TXm, TNe and TXe, respectively. (2) Significant increases in temperature were observed in most regions of China from 1966 to 2015, although warming slowed down over the last decade. This warming primarily featured a remarkable increase in its minimum temperature. For Tm and TNm, 95% of the stations showed a significant upward trend at the 99% confidence level. TNe increased the fastest, at a rate of 0.56 °C/decade, whereas 21% of the stations in TXe showed a downward trend. (3) The mean temperatures (Tm, TNm and TXm) in the high-latitude regions increased more quickly than those in the low-latitude regions. The maximum temperature increased significantly at high elevations, whereas the minimum temperature increased greatly at middle-low elevations. The most pronounced warming occurred in eastern China in TNe and northwestern China in TXe, with mean elevations of 51 m and 2098 m, respectively. A cooling trend in TXe was observed at the northwestern end of China. The warming rate in TNe varied the most among the subregions (0.63 °C/decade).

  7. Attribution of the variability of typhoon landfalls in China coasts to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Chen, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, D.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The typhoon (TY) landfall activity along China coasts during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variations during 1965-2010. Three typical episodes for TY landfall activities in JAS along the China coasts during 1965-2010 can be identified, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (period I) and 1998-2010 (period III), and less during 1982-1995 (period II). We found that the interdcadal variations might be related to the combined effects of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase change and the sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific (IO-WP). During negative PDO phase of periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP) inducing easterly flow at its north, favoring TY landfall along eastern China coast. Due to Gill-pattern responses, warm SST anomalies over tropical IO-WP induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP, with southeasterly wind dominating in the northern SCS and WNP (10o-20o N), which favors TY reaching along southern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TY landfall during period III than that of period I, which shows SST cooling in tropical IO-WP.

  8. Spatial Patterns of Variability in Antarctic Surface Temperature: Connections to the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode and the Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ron; Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The 17-year (1982-1998) trend in surface temperature shows a general cooling over the Antarctic continent, warming of the sea ice zone, with moderate changes over the oceans. Warming of the peripheral seas is associated with negative trends in the regional sea ice extent. Effects of the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation (SO) on surface temperature are quantified through regression analysis. Positive polarities of the SAM are associated with cold anomalies over most of Antarctica, with the most notable exception of the Antarctic Peninsula. Positive temperature anomalies and ice edge retreat in the Pacific sector are associated with El Nino episodes. Over the past two decades, the drift towards high polarity in the SAM and negative polarity in the SO indices couple to produce a spatial pattern with warmer temperatures in the Antarctic Peninsula and peripheral seas, and cooler temperatures over much of East Antarctica.

  9. Longitudinal biases in the Seychelles Dome simulated by 35 ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagura, Motoki; Sasaki, Wataru; Tozuka, Tomoki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Behera, Swadhin K.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    Seychelles Dome refers to the shallow climatological thermocline in the southwestern Indian Ocean, where ocean wave dynamics efficiently affect sea surface temperature, allowing sea surface temperature anomalies to be predicted up to 1-2 years in advance. Accurate reproduction of the dome by ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) is essential for successful seasonal predictions in the Indian Ocean. This study examines the Seychelles Dome as simulated by 35 CGCMs, including models used in phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Among the 35 CGCMs, 14 models erroneously produce an upwelling dome in the eastern half of the basin whereas the observed Seychelles Dome is located in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The annual mean Ekman pumping velocity in these models is found to be almost zero in the southern off-equatorial region. This result is inconsistent with observations, in which Ekman upwelling acts as the main cause of the Seychelles Dome. In the models reproducing an eastward-displaced dome, easterly biases are prominent along the equator in boreal summer and fall, which result in shallow thermocline biases along the Java and Sumatra coasts via Kelvin wave dynamics and a spurious upwelling dome in the region. Compared to the CMIP3 models, the CMIP5 models are even worse in simulating the dome longitudes.

  10. Characteristics of Winter Surface Air Temperature Anomalies in Moscow in 1970-2016 under Conditions of Reduced Sea Ice Area in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukurov, K. A.; Semenov, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of observational data on daily mean surface air temperature (SAT) and sea ice concentration (SIC) in the Barents Sea (BS), the characteristics of strong positive and negative winter SAT anomalies in Moscow have been studied in comparison with BS SIC data obtained in 1949-2016. An analysis of surface backward trajectories of air-particle motions has revealed the most probable paths of both cold and warm air invasions into Moscow and located regions that mostly affect strong winter SAT anomalies in Moscow. Atmospheric circulation anomalies that cause strong winter SAT anomalies in Moscow have been revealed. Changes in the ways of both cold and warm air invasions have been found, as well as an increase in the frequency of blocking anticyclones in 2005-2016 when compared to 1970-1999. The results suggest that a winter SIC decrease in the BS in 2005-2016 affects strong winter SAT anomalies in Moscow due to an increase in the frequency of occurrence of blocking anticyclones to the south of and over the BS.

  11. New constraints on the age and style of continental breakup in the South Atlantic from magnetic anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Jenny S.; McDermott, Carl; Warner, George; Gyori, Noemi; Schnabel, Michael; McDermott, Ken; Horn, Brian W.

    2017-11-01

    We present new constraints on the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean from a joint interpretation of marine magnetic anomaly grids and forward modelling of conjugate profiles. We use 45,000 km of recently collected commercial ship track data combined with 561,000 km of publically available data. The new data cover the critical ocean-continental transition zones and allow us to identify and downgrade some poorly navigated older ship tracks relied upon in earlier compilations. Within the final grids the mean cross-over error is 14 nT computed from 8,227 ship track intersections. The forward modelling used uniformly magnetised bodies whose shapes were constrained from coincident deep-seismic reflection data. We find the oldest magnetic anomalies to date from M10r (134.2 Ma, late Valanginian) north of the Falkland-Agulhas Fracture Zone and M3 (129.3 Ma, Barremian) south of the Rio Grande Fracture Zone. Hence, assuming the GPTS used is correct, continental breakup was contemporaneous with the Parana and Etendeka continental flood basalts. Many of the landward linear anomalies overlap seismically mapped Seaward Dipping Reflectors (SDRs). We interpret this to mean that a significant portion of the SDRs overlay crust formed by subaerial seafloor spreading. Here crustal accretion is envisaged to be similar to that at mid-ocean ridges, but sheet lava flows (that later form the SDRs) rather than pillow basalts form the extrusive component. Segmentation of the linear anomalies generated implies that this stage of continental breakup is organised and parallels the seafloor spreading centre that follows. Our results call into question the common assumption that at volcanic continental margins the first linear magnetic anomalies represent the start of conventional (submarine) oceanic crustal generation.

  12. A simple model of the effect of ocean ventilation on ocean heat uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiga, Balu; Urban, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    Transport of water from the surface mixed layer into the ocean interior is achieved, in large part, by the process of ventilation-a process associated with outcropping isopycnals. Starting from such a configuration of outcropping isopycnals, we derive a simple model of the effect of ventilation on ocean uptake of anomalous radiative forcing. This model can be seen as an improvement of the popular anomaly-diffusing class of energy balance models (AD-EBM) that are routinely employed to analyze and emulate the warming response of both observed and simulated Earth system. We demonstrate that neither multi-layer, nor continuous-diffusion AD-EBM variants can properly represent both surface-warming and the vertical distribution of ocean heat uptake. The new model overcomes this deficiency. The simplicity of the models notwithstanding, the analysis presented and the necessity of the modification is indicative of the role played by processes related to the down-welling branch of global ocean circulation in shaping the vertical distribution of ocean heat uptake.

  13. Trends of coastal and oceanic ST along the Western Iberian Peninsula over the period 1975- 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; deCastro, M.; Álvarez, I.; Sousa, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    anomaly was also calculated from 1975 to 2006 in terms of temperature anomaly The heat content for the upper 700m, showed a sharp increase from coastal (0.46 Wm-2 at 9.75°W) to ocean locations (1.59 Wm-2 at 12.25°W). The heat content anomaly shows a sharp trend increase ~1.1 -1018J dec-1at ocean locations and a smoother increase ~0.6-1018J dec-1 at coastal locations. Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, H. E. Garcia, and A. V. Mishonov (2009), Global ocean heat content 1955-2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL037155. Santos F., Gomez-Gesteira, M., and deCastro, M., 2011. Coastal and Oceanic SST variability along the western Iberian Peninsula. Continental shelf Research, doi:10.1016/j.crs.2011.10.005 Santos F., Gomez-Gesteira, M., deCastro, M., and Álvarez, I., 2012. Differences in coastal and oceanic SST trends due to the strengthening of coastal upwelling along the Benguela Current System, Continental shelf Research 34, 79-86. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2011.12.004.

  14. Predictable patterns of the May-June rainfall anomaly over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-02-01

    During early summer (May-June, MJ), East Asia (EA) subtropical front is a defining feature of Asian monsoon, which produces the most prominent precipitation band in the global subtropics. Here we show that dynamical prediction of early summer EA (20°N-45°N, 100°E-130°E) rainfall made by four coupled climate models' ensemble hindcast (1979-2010) yields only a moderate skill and cannot be used to estimate predictability. The present study uses an alternative, empirical orthogonal function (EOF)-based physical-empirical (P-E) model approach to predict rainfall anomaly pattern and estimate its potential predictability. The first three leading modes are physically meaningful and can be, respectively, attributed to (a) the interaction between the anomalous western North Pacific subtropical high and underlying Indo-Pacific warm ocean, (b) the forcing associated with North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly, and (c) the development of equatorial central Pacific SST anomalies. A suite of P-E models is established to forecast the first three leading principal components. All predictors are 0 month ahead of May, so the prediction here is named as a 0 month lead prediction. The cross-validated hindcast results demonstrate that these modes may be predicted with significant temporal correlation skills (0.48-0.72). Using the predicted principal components and the corresponding EOF patterns, the total MJ rainfall anomaly was hindcasted for the period of 1979-2015. The time-mean pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) score reaches 0.38, which is significantly higher than dynamical models' multimodel ensemble skill (0.21). The estimated potential maximum attainable PCC is around 0.65, suggesting that the dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve. Limitations and future work are discussed.

  15. Combined effects of ocean acidification and temperature on planula larvae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Sun, Tingting

    2018-08-01

    Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric CO 2 have caused two environmental stressors, ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases, which represent major abiotic threats to marine organisms. Here, we investigated for the first time the combined effects of ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases on the behavior, survival, and settlement of the planula larvae of Aurelia coerulea, which is considered a nuisance species around the world. Three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3) and two temperature levels (24 °C and 27 °C) were used in the present study. There were no interactive effects of temperature and pH on the behavior, survival, and settlement of planula larvae of A. coerulea. We found that the swimming speed and mortality of the planula larvae of A. coerulea were significantly affected by temperature, and low pH significantly affected settlement. Planula larvae of A. coerulea from the elevated temperature treatment moved faster and showed higher mortality than those at the control temperature. The settlement rate of A. coerulea planulae was significantly higher at the pH level of 7.3 than at other pH levels. These results suggest that seawater temperature increase, rather than reduced pH, was the main stress factor affecting the survival of A. coerulea planulae. Overall, the planula larvae of the common jellyfish A. coerulea appeared to be resistant to ocean acidification, but may be negatively affected by future seawater temperature increases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid global ocean-atmosphere response to Southern Ocean freshening during the last glacial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Chris S M; Jones, Richard T; Phipps, Steven J; Thomas, Zoë; Hogg, Alan; Kershaw, A Peter; Fogwill, Christopher J; Palmer, Jonathan; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Adolphi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Hughen, Konrad A; Staff, Richard A; Grosvenor, Mark; Golledge, Nicholas R; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Hutchinson, David K; Haberle, Simon; Lorrey, Andrew; Boswijk, Gretel; Cooper, Alan

    2017-09-12

    Contrasting Greenland and Antarctic temperatures during the last glacial period (115,000 to 11,650 years ago) are thought to have been driven by imbalances in the rates of formation of North Atlantic and Antarctic Deep Water (the 'bipolar seesaw'). Here we exploit a bidecadally resolved 14 C data set obtained from New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) to undertake high-precision alignment of key climate data sets spanning iceberg-rafted debris event Heinrich 3 and Greenland Interstadial (GI) 5.1 in the North Atlantic (~30,400 to 28,400 years ago). We observe no divergence between the kauri and Atlantic marine sediment 14 C data sets, implying limited changes in deep water formation. However, a Southern Ocean (Atlantic-sector) iceberg rafted debris event appears to have occurred synchronously with GI-5.1 warming and decreased precipitation over the western equatorial Pacific and Atlantic. An ensemble of transient meltwater simulations shows that Antarctic-sourced salinity anomalies can generate climate changes that are propagated globally via an atmospheric Rossby wave train.A challenge for testing mechanisms of past climate change is the precise correlation of palaeoclimate records. Here, through climate modelling and the alignment of terrestrial, ice and marine 14 C and 10 Be records, the authors show that Southern Ocean freshwater hosing can trigger global change.

  17. Sensitivity of ocean oxygenation to variations in tropical zonal wind stress magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Nina N.; England, Matthew H.

    2014-09-01

    Ocean oxygenation has been observed to have changed over the past few decades and is projected to change further under global climate change due to an interplay of several mechanisms. In this study we isolate the effect of modified tropical surface wind stress conditions on the evolution of ocean oxygenation in a numerical climate model. We find that ocean oxygenation varies inversely with low-latitude surface wind stress. Approximately one third of this response is driven by sea surface temperature anomalies; the remaining two thirds result from changes in ocean circulation and marine biology. Global mean O2 concentration changes reach maximum values of +4 μM and -3.6 μM in the two most extreme perturbation cases of -30% and +30% wind change, respectively. Localized changes lie between +92 μM under 30% reduced winds and -56 μM for 30% increased winds. Overall, we find that the extent of the global low-oxygen volume varies with the same sign as the wind perturbation; namely, weaker winds reduce the low-oxygen volume on the global scale and vice versa for increased trade winds. We identify two regions, one in the Pacific Ocean off Chile and the other in the Indian Ocean off Somalia, that are of particular importance for the evolution of oxygen minimum zones in the global ocean.

  18. Temperature profile data collected using XBT from the CHAIN from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project, 1975-01-22 to 1975-02-02 (NODC Accession 7601423)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from CHAIN in the Atlantic Ocean from January 22, 1975 to February 2, 1975. Data were...

  19. Estimation of the Ocean Skin Temperature using the NASA GEOS Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Akella, Santha; Todling, Ricardo; Suarez, Max

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the status of the development of a sea surface temperature (SST) analysis for the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Version-5 atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS). Its implementation is part of the steps being taken toward the development of an integrated earth system analysis. Currently, GEOS-ADAS SST is a bulk ocean temperature (from ocean boundary conditions), and is almost identical to the skin sea surface temperature. Here we describe changes to the atmosphere-ocean interface layer of the GEOS-atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) to include near surface diurnal warming and cool-skin effects. We also added SST relevant Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations to the GEOS-ADAS observing system. We provide a detailed description of our analysis of these observations, along with the modifications to the interface between the GEOS atmospheric general circulation model, gridpoint statistical interpolation-based atmospheric analysis and the community radiative transfer model. Our experiments (with and without these changes) show improved assimilation of satellite radiance observations. We obtained a closer fit to withheld, in-situ buoys measuring near-surface SST. Evaluation of forecast skill scores corroborate improvements seen in the observation fits. Along with a discussion of our results, we also include directions for future work.

  20. The last frontier? High-resolution, near-bottom measurements of the Hawaiian Jurassic magnetic anomaly sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivey, M.; Tominaga, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Jurassic sequence of marine magnetic anomalies i.e. older than M29 remain the last part of the marine magnetic anomaly sequence of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) that can be gleaned from the ocean crustal record. While Jurassic crust is present in several areas of the world's ocean basins, the oldest and arguably best preserved sequence is in the western Pacific where three lineations sets (Japanese, Hawaiian and Phoenix) converge on the oldest remaining ocean crust on the planet (i.e. crust that has not been subducted). The magnetic anomalies in these 3 lineation sets are marked by low amplitude, relatively indistinct anomalies (tiny wiggles) that collectively have been called the Jurassic quiet Zone (JQZ). Over the past 20 years we have been working on resolving the character and origin of these anomalies with various technologies to improve our resolution of this period. Following an aeromagnetic survey that revealed the possible presence of lineated anomalies older than M29 in the Japanese lineations, we conducted a deeptow magnetometer survey of the Japanese sequence in 1992. In 2002/03 we extended and confirmed this deeptow record with a deeptowed sidescan and magnetometer survey of the Japanese lineation sequence by tying in ODP Hole 801C and extending the anomaly sequence between M29 and M44. These surveys reveal remarkably fast reversals that are lineated and decrease in intensity back in time until M38, prior to which the sequence becomes somewhat confused (the LAZ or low amplitude zone) before recovering in both amplitude and lineated character around Hole 801C (M42). These results are partially supported by recently reported terrestrial magnetostratigraphy records that show the existence of reversals back to M38. A Jurassic GPTS was constructed from this Japanese anomaly sequence, but the overall global significance of the reversal sequence and systematic field intensity changes require confirmation from crustal records created at

  1. Derivation and Error Analysis of the Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid at 2 arc min Resolution Version 3 (EMAG2v3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B.; Chulliat, A.; Saltus, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid at 2 arc min resolution version 3, EMAG2v3, combines marine and airborne trackline observations, satellite data, and magnetic observatory data to map the location, intensity, and extent of lithospheric magnetic anomalies. EMAG2v3 includes over 50 million new data points added to NCEI's Geophysical Database System (GEODAS) in recent years. The new grid relies only on observed data, and does not utilize a priori geologic structure or ocean-age information. Comparing this grid to other global magnetic anomaly compilations (e.g., EMAG2 and WDMAM), we can see that the inclusion of a priori ocean-age patterns forces an artificial linear pattern to the grid; the data-only approach allows for greater complexity in representing the evolution along oceanic spreading ridges and continental margins. EMAG2v3 also makes use of the satellite-derived lithospheric field model MF7 in order to accurately represent anomalies with wavelengths greater than 300 km and to create smooth grid merging boundaries. The heterogeneous distribution of errors in the observations used in compiling the EMAG2v3 was explored, and is reported in the final distributed grid. This grid is delivered at both 4 km continuous altitude above WGS84, as well as at sea level for all oceanic and coastal regions.

  2. SST Anomaly, NOAA POES AVHRR, Casey and Cornillon Climatology, 0.1 degrees, Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes SST anomaly data using a combination of the POES AVHRR Global Area Coverage data, and data from a climatological database by Casey and...

  3. Plastic anomaly of the B2 ordered Fe-40Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calonne, O.

    2002-05-01

    The plastic behaviour of Fe-40Al (B2-ordered) alloys was studied. This material has the particularly of exhibiting a yield stress that increases in a given temperature range ('yield stress anomaly'). This anomaly is usually associated with a zero strain rate sensitivity in the very same temperature range. These two peculiarities can be explained as a whole by a thermally activated exhaustion of the mobile dislocations. In this work, the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of the FeAl alloys was first characterised. Then, slip geometry was studied in a large temperature range using oriented single crystals. Finally, the elementary deformation processes were studied through an analysis of dislocation structures in deformed materials using TEM post-mortem and in-situ techniques. Our results show that the yield stress anomaly stems from superdislocations exhaustion through the formation of antiphase boundary tubes, due to vacancy absorption. The number of antiphase boundary tubes produced during dislocation motion depends on vacancy concentration, that in turn increases with temperature. This is believed to be the main reason for thermally activated exhaustion. In addition, the anomaly peak and the related stress fall-off at higher temperatures can be ascribed to superdislocation decomposition, which provides the material with ordinary dislocations that cannot generate antiphase boundary tubes. Superdislocations exhaustion seems to be the catalyzing factor for decomposition. We have proposed a basis for an exhaustion/multiplication model. Considering a classical Frank-Read type multiplication mechanism, we express the yield stress as a function of temperature and we show that this results in an anomaly. Moreover, supposing that boron modifies vacancy migration energy, we suggest that the influence of boron on the stress anomaly stems from an increase of vacancy capture radius by mobile superdislocations. (authors)

  4. Air-sea interaction over the Indian Ocean due to variations in the Indonesian throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajsowicz, R. C.

    The effects of the Indonesian throughflow on the upper thermocline circulation and surface heat flux over the Indian Ocean are presented for a 3-D ocean model forced by two different monthly wind-stress climatologies, as they show interesting differences, which could have implications for long-term variability in the Indian and Australasian monsoons. The effects are determined by contrasting a control run with a run in which the throughflow is blocked by an artificial land-bridge across the exit channels into the Indian Ocean. In the model forced by ECMWF wind stresses, there is little impact on the annual mean surface heat flux in the region surrounding the throughflow exit straits, whereas in the model forced by SSM/I-based wind stresses, a modest throughflow of less than 5 ×106 m3s-1 over the upper 300 m induces an extra 10-50 Wm-2 output. In the SSM/I-forced model, there is insignificant penetration of the throughflow into the northern Indian Ocean. However, in the ECMWF-forced model, the throughflow induces a 5-10 Wm-2 reduction in heat input into the ocean, i.e., an effective output, over the Somali Current in the annual mean. These differences are attributed to differences in the strength and direction of the Ekman transport of the ambient flow, and the vertical structure of the transport and temperature anomalies associated with the throughflow. In both models, the throughflow induces a 5-30 Wm-2 increase in net output over a broad swathe of the southern Indian Ocean, and a reduction in heat output of 10-60 Wm-2 in a large L-shaped band around Tasmania. Effective increases in throughflow-induced net output reach up to 40 (60) Wm-2 over the Agulhas Current retroflection in the ECMWF (SSM/I)-forced model. Seasonal variations in the throughflow's effect on the net surface heat flux are attributed to seasonal variations in the ambient circulation of the Indian Ocean, specifically in coastal upwelling along the south Javan, west Australian, and Somalian coasts

  5. Mass coral mortality under local amplification of 2 °C ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarlo, Thomas M.; Cohen, Anne L.; Wong, George T. F.; Davis, Kristen A.; Lohmann, Pat; Soong, Keryea

    2017-03-01

    A 2 °C increase in global temperature above pre-industrial levels is considered a reasonable target for avoiding the most devastating impacts of anthropogenic climate change. In June 2015, sea surface temperature (SST) of the South China Sea (SCS) increased by 2 °C in response to the developing Pacific El Niño. On its own, this moderate, short-lived warming was unlikely to cause widespread damage to coral reefs in the region, and the coral reef “Bleaching Alert” alarm was not raised. However, on Dongsha Atoll, in the northern SCS, unusually weak winds created low-flow conditions that amplified the 2 °C basin-scale anomaly. Water temperatures on the reef flat, normally indistinguishable from open-ocean SST, exceeded 6 °C above normal summertime levels. Mass coral bleaching quickly ensued, killing 40% of the resident coral community in an event unprecedented in at least the past 40 years. Our findings highlight the risks of 2 °C ocean warming to coral reef ecosystems when global and local processes align to drive intense heating, with devastating consequences.

  6. Submesoscale features and their interaction with fronts and internal tides in a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tommy G.; Shulman, Igor; Wijesekera, Hemantha W.; Anderson, Stephanie; Ladner, Sherwin

    2018-03-01

    Large freshwater fluxes into the Bay of Bengal by rainfall and river discharges result in strong salinity fronts in the bay. In this study, a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model with comprehensive physics is used to model the weather, ocean circulation, and wave field in the Bay of Bengal. Our objective is to explore the submesoscale activity that occurs in a realistic coupled model that resolves mesoscales and allows part of the submesoscale field. Horizontal resolution in the atmosphere varies from 2 to 6 km and is 13 km for surface waves, while the ocean model is submesoscale permitting with resolutions as high as 1.5 km and a vertical resolution of 0.5 m in the upper 10 m. In this paper, three different cases of oceanic submesoscale features are discussed. In the first case, heavy rainfall and intense downdrafts produced by atmospheric convection are found to force submesoscale currents, temperature, and salinity anomalies in the oceanic mixed layer and impact the mesoscale flow. In a second case, strong solitary-like waves are generated by semidiurnal tides in the Andaman Sea and interact with mesoscale flows and fronts and affect submesoscale features generated along fronts. A third source of submesoscale variability is found further north in the Bay of Bengal where river outflows help maintain strong salinity gradients throughout the year. For that case, a comparison with satellite observations of sea surface height anomalies, sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll shows that the model captures the observed mesoscale eddy features of the flow field, but in addition, submesoscale upwelling and downwelling patterns associated with ageostrophic secondary circulations along density fronts are also captured by the model.

  7. Geophysical Investigation of Upper Mantle Anomalies of the Australian-Antarctic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. H.; Choi, H.; Kim, S. S.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Australian-Antarctic Ridge (AAR) is situated between the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (PAR) and Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR), extending eastward from the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD). Much of the AAR has been remained uncharted until 2011 because of its remoteness and harsh weather conditions. Since 2011, four multidisciplinary expeditions initiated by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) have surveyed the little-explored eastern ends of the AAR and investigated the tectonics, geochemistry, and hydrothermal activity of this intermediate spreading system. Recent isotope studies using the new basalt samples from the AAR have led to the new hypothesis of the Southern Ocean mantle domain (SOM), which may have originated from the super-plume activity associated with the Gondwana break-up. In this study, we characterize the geophysics of the Southern Ocean mantle using the newly acquired shipboard bathymetry and available geophysical datasets. First, we computed residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomalies (RMBA), gravity-derived crustal thickness, and residual topography along the AAR in order to obtain a geological proxy for regional variations in magma supply. The results of these analyses revealed that the southern flank of the AAR is associated with shallower seafloor, more negative RMBA, thicker crust, and/or less dense mantle in comparison to the conjugate northern flank. Furthermore, this north-south asymmetry becomes more prominent toward the central ridge segments of the AAR. Interestingly, the along-axis depths of the entire AAR are significantly shallower than the neighboring ridge systems and the global ridges of intermediate spreading rates. Such shallow depths are also correlated with regional negative geoid anomalies. Furthermore, recent mantle tomography models consistently showed that the upper mantle (< 250 km) below the AAR has low S-wave velocities, suggesting that it may be hotter than the nearby ridges. Such regional-scale anomalies of the

  8. Advection and diffusion in random media implications for sea surface temperature anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Piterbarg, Leonid I

    1997-01-01

    The book presents the foundations of the theory of turbulent transport within the context of stochastic partial differential equations. It serves to establish a firm connection between rigorous and non-rigorous results concerning turbulent diffusion. Mathematically all of the issues addressed in this book are concentrated around a single linear equation: stochastic advection-diffusion (transport) equation. There is no attempt made to derive universal statistics for turbulent flow. Instead emphasis is placed on a statistical description of a passive scalar (tracer) under given velocity statistics. An application concerning transport of sea surface temperature anomalies reconciles the developed theory and a highly practical issue of modern physical oceanography by using the newly designed inversion techniques which take advantage of powerful maximum likelihood and autoregressive estimators. Audience: Graduate students and researchers in mathematics, fluid dynamics, and physical oceanography.

  9. 3D Density Structure of Oceanic Lithosphere Affected by A Plume: A Case Study from the Greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland Region (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Sippel, J.; Breivik, A. J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Meeßen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the density structure of the oceanic lithosphere north of Iceland is key for understanding the effects of the Iceland Plume on the mid-ocean ridges of the greater Jan Mayen-East Greenland Region. We use a data-integrative approach for 3D gravity modeling to develop new insights into the crust and upper mantle density structure of this region. First, we obtain the 3D density structure of the sediments and crust from interpretations of regional reflection and refraction seismic lines. Then, the temperature and density structure of the mantle between 50 and 250 km are derived from a published shear-wave velocity (Vs) tomography model. To assess the density configuration between the Moho and 50 km depth, we follow a combined forward and inverse 3D gravity modeling approach. The Vs tomography and derived density of the deeper mantle (>50 km depth) reveal that the low-density anomaly related to the Iceland plume gets weaker with increasing distance from the plume, i.e. from the strongly influenced Middle Kolbeinsey Ridge (MKR) to the Mohn's Ridge. The West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone is identified as a main mantle density contrast, indicative of differences in the thermal evolution of the ridge systems it separates. Beneath the MKR region, the low-density anomaly at depths of >50 km continues upwards into the uppermost mantle, where its lateral dimensions narrow considerably. This elongated density anomaly is consistent with a basement high and indicates a channelization of the Iceland plume effects. The NE-SW elongated mantle anomaly does not, however, coincide with the topographical NNE-SSW striking ridge axis. Thus, the modelled plume-affected oceanic lithosphere reveals discrepancies with the half-space cooling model. We discuss the 3D density model in terms of such spatial relations between deeper mantle anomalies and the shallow crustal structure.

  10. Linear magnetic anomalies and tectonic development of the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    -By analyzing the magnetic anomalies, the linear magnetic anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough are identified. It means that the crust along the spreading axis is broken, and new oceanic crust is formed. Geophysical data have revealed that a model of three extensive episodes occurs in the Okinawa Trough, which can be named as "doming episode" from the Middle to Late Miocene (Phase I), the episode from the Pliocence to Early Pleistocene (Phase Ⅱ ), and the recent "spreading episode" (Phase Ⅲ ). The magnetic anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough are very similar to those found in the middle Red Sea, indicating that the Okinawa Trough is developing towards the "Red Sea stage". Similar to the Red Sea, there are a "main trough" and a "axial trough" in the Okinawa Trough.

  11. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MELVILLE from the Indian Ocean for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Geochemical Ocean Section Study (IDOE/GEOSECS) project, 06 December 1977 to 21 April 1978 (NODC Accession 8200055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MELVILLE from the Indian Ocean from December 6, 1977 to April 21, 1978. Data were...

  12. Temperature profile data collected using XBT casts from the CHAIN from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project, 1975-05-25 to 1975-06-07 (NODC Accession 7601261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from CHAIN in the Atlantic Ocean from May 25, 1973 to June 7, 1973. Data were submitted...

  13. Heavy Rainfall Episodes in the Eastern Northeast Brazil Linked to Large-Scale Ocean-Atmosphere Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves K. Kouadio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between simultaneous occurrences of distinctive atmospheric easterly wave (EW signatures that cross the south-equatorial Atlantic, intense mesoscale convective systems (lifespan > 2 hour that propagate westward over the western south-equatorial Atlantic, and subsequent strong rainfall episodes (anomaly > 10 mm·day−1 that occur in eastern Northeast Brazil (ENEB are investigated. Using a simple diagnostic analysis, twelve cases with EW lifespan ranging between 3 and 8 days and a mean velocity of 8 m·s−1 were selected and documented during each rainy season of 2004, 2005, and 2006. These cases, which represent 50% of the total number of strong rainfall episodes and 60% of the rainfall amount over the ENEB, were concomitant with an acceleration of the trade winds over the south-equatorial Atlantic, an excess of moisture transported westward from Africa to America, and a strengthening of the convective activity in the oceanic region close to Brazil. Most of these episodes occurred during positive sea surface temperature anomaly patterns over the entire south-equatorial Atlantic and low-frequency warm conditions within the oceanic mixing layer. A real-time monitoring and the simulation of this ocean-atmosphere relationship could help in forecasting such dramatic rainfall events.

  14. Temperature profile and other data collected from XBT casts in Indian Ocean and N / S Pacific Ocean from ICEBIRD and other platforms from 02 January 1993 to 01 January 1994 (NODC Accession 9400207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from ICEBIRD and other platforms in Indian Ocean and North / South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  15. Waterlike anomalies in a two-dimensional core-softened potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, José Rafael; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the structural, thermodynamic, and dynamic behavior of a two-dimensional (2D) core-corona system using Langevin dynamics simulations. The particles are modeled by employing a core-softened potential which exhibits waterlike anomalies in three dimensions. In previous studies in a quasi-2D system a new region in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram of structural anomalies was observed. Here we show that for the two-dimensional case two regions in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram with structural, density, and diffusion anomalies are observed. Our findings indicate that, while the anomalous region at lower densities is due the competition between the two length scales in the potential at higher densities, the anomalous region is related to the reentrance of the melting line.

  16. Can we detect oceanic biodiversity hotspots from space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Silvia; Soccodato, Alice; Alvain, Séverine; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the variability of marine biodiversity is a central issue in microbiology. Current observational programs are based on in situ studies, but their implementation at the global scale is particularly challenging, owing to the ocean extent, its temporal variability and the heterogeneity of the data sources on which compilations are built. Here, we explore the possibility of identifying phytoplanktonic biodiversity hotspots from satellite. We define a Shannon entropy index based on patchiness in ocean color bio-optical anomalies. This index provides a high resolution (1 degree) global coverage. It shows a relation to temperature and mid-latitude maxima in accordance with those previously evidenced in microbiological biodiversity model and observational studies. Regional maxima are in remarkable agreement with several known biodiversity hotspots for plankton organisms and even for higher levels of the marine trophic chain, as well as with some in situ planktonic biodiversity estimates (from Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise). These results encourage to explore marine biodiversity with a coordinated effort of the molecular, ecological and remote sensing communities.

  17. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; Duarte, Gustavo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; E Castro, Clovis Barreira; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the

  18. Tropical Ocean Evaporation/SST Sensitivity and It's Link to Water and Energy Budget Variations During ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Marshall, Susan; Oglesby, Robert; Roads, John; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The continuing debate over feedback mechanisms governing tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and tropical climate in general has highlighted the diversity of potential checks and balances within the climate system. Competing feedbacks due to changes in surface evaporation, water vapor, and cloud long- and shortwave radiative properties each may serve critical roles in stabilizing or destabilizing the climate system. It is also intriguing that even those climate variations having origins internal to the climate system - changes in ocean heat transport for example, apparently require complementary equilibrating effects by changes in atmospheric energy fluxes. Perhaps the best observational evidence of this is the relatively invariant nature of tropically averaged net radiation exiting the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) as measured by broadband satellite sensors over the past two decades. Thus, analyzing how these feedback mechanisms are operating within the context of current interannual variability may offer considerable insight for anticipating future climate change. In this paper we focus primarily on interannual variations of ocean evaporative fluxes and their significance for coupled water and energy cycles within the tropical climate system. In particular, we use both the da Silva estimates of surface fluxes (based on the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set, COADS) and numerical simulations from several global climate models to examine evaporation sensitivity to perturbations in SST associated with warm and cold ENSO events. The specific questions we address are as follows: (1) What recurring patterns of surface wind and humidity anomalies are present during ENSO and how do they combine to yield systematic evaporation anomalies?, (2) What is the resulting tropical ocean mean evaporation-SST sensitivity associated with this climate perturbation?, and (3) What role does this evaporation play in tropical heat and water balance over tropical oceanic regions? We

  19. Geological isotope anomalies as signatures of nearby supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Schramm, David N; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D; Schramm, David N

    1996-01-01

    Nearby supernova explosions may cause geological isotope anomalies via the direct deposition of debris or by cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the mass of material deposited terrestrially by these two mechanisms, showing the dependence on the supernova distance. A number of radioactive isotopes are identified as possible diagnostic tools, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-53, Fe-60, and Ni-59, as well as the longer-lived I-129, Sm-146, and Pu-244. We discuss whether the 35 and 60 kyr-old Be-10 anomalies observed in the Vostok antarctic ice cores could be due to supernova explosions. Combining our estimates for matter deposition with results of recent nucleosynthesis yields, we calculate the expected signal from nearby supernovae using ice cores back to \\sim 300 kyr ago, and we discuss using deep ocean sediments back to several hundred Myr. In particular, we examine the prospects for identifying isotope anomalies due to the Geminga supernova explosion, and signatures of the possibility...

  20. Evidence for cosmic ray modulation in temperature records from the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, E. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Dept. de Geofisica; Federal do Pampa Univ., Cacapava do Sul (Brazil); Pacca, I.G. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Dept. de Geofisica; Pereira-Filho, A.J. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Atmosfericas; Rampelloto, P.H. [Federal do Pampa Univ., Sao Gabriel (Brazil); Rigozo, N.R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil). Div. de Geofisica Espacial

    2013-11-01

    Possible direct or indirect climatic effects related to solar variability and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were investigated in the southern Brazil region by means of the annual mean temperatures from four weather stations 2 degrees of latitude apart over the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) region. Four maximum temperature peaks are evident at all stations in 1940, 1958, 1977 and 2002. A spectral analysis indicates the occurrence of periodicities between 2 and 7 yr, most likely associated with ENSO, and periodicities of approximately 11 and 22 yr, normally associated with solar variability. Cross-wavelet analysis indicated that the signal associated with the 22 yr solar magnetic cycle was more persistent in the last decades, while the 11 yr sunspot cycle and ENSO periodicities were intermittent. Phase-angle analysis revealed that temperature variations and the 22 yr solar cycle were in anti-phase near the SAMA center. Results show an indirect indication of possible relationships between the variability of galactic cosmic rays and climate change on a regional scale.

  1. Potential impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-Western Pacific on the variability of typhoon landfall on the China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The landfall activity of typhoons (TYs) along the coast of China during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variation during 1965-2010. We identify three sub-periods of TY landfall activity in JAS along the China coast in this period, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (Period I) and 1998-2010 (Period III), and less during 1982-1995 (Period II). We find that the interdecadal variation might be related to the combined effects of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase changes and sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (IO-WP). During the negative PDO phase in Periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP), inducing easterly flow in its northern part, which favors TY landfall along the eastern China coast. Warm SST anomalies over the tropical IO-WP during Period III induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP through both the Gill-pattern response to the warm SST in the tropical IO and the anomalous meridional circulation induced by the warm SST in the tropical WNP. As a result, the northern South China Sea and WNP (10°-20° N) are dominated by southeasterly flow, which favors TYs making landfall on both the southern and eastern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TYs making landfall along the China coast during Period III than during Period I, which shows cool SST anomalies in the tropical IO-WP.

  2. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-12-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  3. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sanz-Martí n, M.; Mesa, E.; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, M.; Hendriks, I.  E.; Garcí a-Corral, L. S.; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A.; Delgado, A.; Reigstad, M.; Wassmann, P.; Agusti, Susana

    2015-01-01

    production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range

  4. Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability during 2014 and 2015 and associated Indo-Pacific upper ocean temperature patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakatkar, Rashmi; Gnanaseelan, C.; Chowdary, J. S.; Parekh, Anant; Deepa, J. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, factors responsible for the deficit Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall in 2014 and 2015 and the ability of Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology-Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (IITM-GODAS) in representing the oceanic features are examined. IITM-GODAS has been used to provide initial conditions for seasonal forecast in India during 2014 and 2015. The years 2014 and 2015 witnessed deficit ISM rainfall but were evolved from two entirely different preconditions over Pacific. This raises concern over the present understanding of the role of Pacific Ocean on ISM variability. Analysis reveals that the mechanisms associated with the rainfall deficit over the Indian Subcontinent are different in the two years. It is found that remote forcing in summer of 2015 due to El Niño is mostly responsible for the deficit monsoon rainfall through changes in Walker circulation and large-scale subsidence. In the case of the summer of 2014, both local circulation with anomalous anticyclone over central India and intrusion of mid-latitude dry winds from north have contributed for the deficit rainfall. In addition to the above, Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) sea surface temperature (SST) and remote forcing from Pacific Ocean also modulated the ISM rainfall. It is observed that Pacific SST warming has extended westward in 2014, making it a basin scale warming unlike the strong El Niño year 2015. The eastern equatorial Indian Ocean is anomalously warmer than west in summer of 2014, and vice versa in 2015. These differences in SST in both tropical Pacific and TIO have considerable impact on ISM rainfall in 2014 and 2015. The study reveals that initializing coupled forecast models with proper upper ocean temperature over the Indo-Pacific is therefore essential for improved model forecast. It is important to note that the IITM-GODAS which assimilates only array for real-time geostrophic oceanography (ARGO) temperature and salinity profiles could capture most of the

  5. Differential Heating in the Indian Ocean Differentially Modulates Precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahriar Pervez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  6. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  7. Deep structure of the Tristan-Gough plume revealed by geoid anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Flamme, J.; Cadio, C.; Lalancette, M. F.; Metivier, L.; Pajot-Métivier, G.; Diament, M.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of the hotspot Tristan da Cunha located at the southwestern end of Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean is still a controversial topic. We especially question on the nature of the involved geodynamical processes and on their origin depth. The latest results based on local seismic and magnetic data (Schlömer et al., 2016; Baba et al., 2016; Geissler et al., 2016) suggest the existence of a plume coming from the mid-mantle in the southwest of the archipelago. Here we give a regional view of mantle dynamics patterns in the area by using the high-quality satellite geoid data. To extract the mantle signature, we estimate the crustal and lithospheric signals of the ocean basin and South American and African continents, which contribute to mid- and long-wavelengths in the total geoid. We pay particular attention to the modeling of continental margins and their effects on the residual geoid signal. In addition, we explore a large density values set derived from petrological and geochemical studies in the calculation of the lithospheric geoid model. After subtracting the lithospheric signature to the EGM2008 geoid, we apply a multi-scale analysis, which unfolds the different components of the geoid residual signal. The analysis underlines a set of positive anomalies at 200-400 km in the study area, notably in north and west of Tristan de Cunha, and a positive anomaly at 700-1100 km scale in the southwest of the archipelago. These patterns do not change by using different lithospheric geoid models, which allow us to evaluate the reliability of the residual geoid anomalies. These results indicate the existence of small-scale density anomalies in the upper mantle and a larger scale density anomaly in the mid-mantle. Our study suggests that a large dome toped by plume clusters could be a good candidate to explain the volcanism of Tristan da Cunha.Schlömer et al., 2016 Hunting for the Tristan mantle plume..., EPSL, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.028Baba et

  8. Occurrence and Detectability of Thermal Anomalies on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Paul O.; Christensen, Philip R.; Spencer, John R.; Abramov, Oleg; Howett, Carly; Mellon, Michael; Nimmo, Francis; Piqueux, Sylvain; Rathbun, Julie A.

    2017-10-01

    Endogenic activity is likely on Europa, given its young surface age of and ongoing tidal heating by Jupiter. Temperature is a fundamental signature of activity, as witnessed on Enceladus, where plumes emanate from vents with strongly elevated temperatures. Recent observations suggest the presence of similar water plumes at Europa. Even if plumes are uncommon, resurfacing may produce elevated surface temperatures, perhaps due to near-surface liquid water. Detecting endogenic activity on Europa is one of the primary mission objectives of NASA’s planned Europa Clipper flyby mission.Here, we use a probabilistic model to assess the likelihood of detectable thermal anomalies on the surface of Europa. The Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS) investigation is designed to characterize Europa’s thermal behavior and identify any thermal anomalies due to recent or ongoing activity. We define “detectability” on the basis of expected E-THEMIS measurements, which include multi-spectral infrared emission, both day and night.Thermal anomalies on Europa may take a variety of forms, depending on the resurfacing style, frequency, and duration of events: 1) subsurface melting due to hot spots, 2) shear heating on faults, and 3) eruptions of liquid water or warm ice on the surface. We use numerical and analytical models to estimate temperatures for these features. Once activity ceases, lifetimes of thermal anomalies are estimated to be 100 - 1000 yr. On average, Europa’s 10 - 100 Myr surface age implies a resurfacing rate of ~3 - 30 km2/yr. The typical size of resurfacing features determines their frequency of occurrence. For example, if ~100 km2 chaos features dominate recent resurfacing, we expect one event every few years to decades. Smaller features, such as double-ridges, may be active much more frequently. We model each feature type as a statistically independent event, with probabilities weighted by their observed coverage of Europa’s surface. Our results

  9. Satellite gravity anomalies and crustal features of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Grinko, B.N.

    -air anomalies due to volcanic constructs that trend in arcuate shape from north to south parallel to 82.5 degrees E are noted as southern continuity of the 85 degrees E Ridge, which terminates at the Afanasy Nikitin seamount. Change in rheology of the crustal...

  10. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT from the CHAIN from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project, 1973-06-06 to 1973-06-13 (NODC Accession 7400724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using BT and XBT casts from CHAIN in the Atlantic Ocean from June 6, 1973 to June 13, 1973. Data were submitted by Harvard...

  11. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the CHAIN from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 01 April 1973 to 30 June 1973 (NODC Accession 7400161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from the CHAIN in the Atlantic Ocean from April 1, 1973 to June 30, 1973. Data were submitted by Woods Hole...

  12. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  13. Arctic surface temperatures from Metop AVHRR compared to in situ ocean and land data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dybkjær

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ice surface temperature (IST is an important boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean and sea ice models and for coupled systems. An operational ice surface temperature product using satellite Metop AVHRR infra-red data was developed for MyOcean. The IST can be mapped in clear sky regions using a split window algorithm specially tuned for sea ice. Clear sky conditions prevail during spring in the Arctic, while persistent cloud cover limits data coverage during summer. The cloud covered regions are detected using the EUMETSAT cloud mask. The Metop IST compares to 2 m temperature at the Greenland ice cap Summit within STD error of 3.14 °C and to Arctic drifting buoy temperature data within STD error of 3.69 °C. A case study reveals that the in situ radiometer data versus satellite IST STD error can be much lower (0.73 °C and that the different in situ measurements complicate the validation. Differences and variability between Metop IST and in situ data are analysed and discussed. An inter-comparison of Metop IST, numerical weather prediction temperatures and in situ observation indicates large biases between the different quantities. Because of the scarcity of conventional surface temperature or surface air temperature data in the Arctic, the satellite IST data with its relatively good coverage can potentially add valuable information to model analysis for the Arctic atmosphere.

  14. Temperature profile and other data collected using current meter from the CHAIN from the Atlantic Ocean in part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment from 12 February 1969 to 16 March 1972 (NODC Accession 7601355)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, current meter, and wind speed/direction data were collected using current meter from the TRIDENT, KNORR, and BILLIE 2 in the Atlantic Ocean from...

  15. Measuring coral calcification under ocean acidification: methodological considerations for the 45Ca-uptake and total alkalinity anomaly technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Cohen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the oceans become less alkaline due to rising CO2 levels, deleterious consequences are expected for calcifying corals. Predicting how coral calcification will be affected by on-going ocean acidification (OA requires an accurate assessment of CaCO3 deposition and an understanding of the relative importance that decreasing calcification and/or increasing dissolution play for the overall calcification budget of individual corals. Here, we assessed the compatibility of the 45Ca-uptake and total alkalinity (TA anomaly techniques as measures of gross and net calcification (GC, NC, respectively, to determine coral calcification at pHT 8.1 and 7.5. Considering the differing buffering capacity of seawater at both pH values, we were also interested in how strongly coral calcification alters the seawater carbonate chemistry under prolonged incubation in sealed chambers, potentially interfering with physiological functioning. Our data indicate that NC estimates by TA are erroneously ∼5% and ∼21% higher than GC estimates from 45Ca for ambient and reduced pH, respectively. Considering also previous data, we show that the consistent discrepancy between both techniques across studies is not constant, but largely depends on the absolute value of CaCO3 deposition. Deriving rates of coral dissolution from the difference between NC and GC was not possible and we advocate a more direct approach for the future by simultaneously measuring skeletal calcium influx and efflux. Substantial changes in carbonate system parameters for incubation times beyond two hours in our experiment demonstrate the necessity to test and optimize experimental incubation setups when measuring coral calcification in closed systems, especially under OA conditions.

  16. Temperature profile data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the KNORR from the Atlantic Ocean for the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Geochemical Ocean Section Study (IDOE/GEOSECS) project, 24 July 1972 to 30 March 1973 (NODC Accession 8500008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data and temperature profile and other data were collected using bottle and CTD casts from KNORR in the Atlantic Ocean from July 24, 1972 to...

  17. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the KNORR and other platforms from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade Of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project, 23 March 1972 to 20 December 1976 (NODC Accession 7617996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using SDT/CDT casts from KNORR and other platforms in the Atlantic Ocean from March 23, 1972 to December 20,...

  18. Parameterization of typhoon-induced ocean cooling using temperature equation and machine learning algorithms: an example of typhoon Soulik (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Jiang, Guo-Qing; Liu, Xin

    2017-09-01

    This study proposed three algorithms that can potentially be used to provide sea surface temperature (SST) conditions for typhoon prediction models. Different from traditional data assimilation approaches, which provide prescribed initial/boundary conditions, our proposed algorithms aim to resolve a flow-dependent SST feedback between growing typhoons and oceans in the future time. Two of these algorithms are based on linear temperature equations (TE-based), and the other is based on an innovative technique involving machine learning (ML-based). The algorithms are then implemented into a Weather Research and Forecasting model for the simulation of typhoon to assess their effectiveness, and the results show significant improvement in simulated storm intensities by including ocean cooling feedback. The TE-based algorithm I considers wind-induced ocean vertical mixing and upwelling processes only, and thus obtained a synoptic and relatively smooth sea surface temperature cooling. The TE-based algorithm II incorporates not only typhoon winds but also ocean information, and thus resolves more cooling features. The ML-based algorithm is based on a neural network, consisting of multiple layers of input variables and neurons, and produces the best estimate of the cooling structure, in terms of its amplitude and position. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the typhoon-induced ocean cooling is a nonlinear process involving interactions of multiple atmospheric and oceanic variables. Therefore, with an appropriate selection of input variables and neuron sizes, the ML-based algorithm appears to be more efficient in prognosing the typhoon-induced ocean cooling and in predicting typhoon intensity than those algorithms based on linear regression methods.

  19. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT from the HUNT from the Atlantic Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project, 1973-05-25 to 1973-06-01 (NODC Accession 7400623)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using BT and XBT casts from HUNT in the Atlantic Ocean from May 25, 1973 to June 1, 1973. Data were submitted by US...

  20. The Southern Oscillation and northern hemisphere temperature variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropelewski, C.F.; Halpert, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Southern Oscillation (SO) is the best defined and understood mode of interannual climate variability. The extreme phases of the SO have been identified with global-scale variations in the atmosphere/ocean circulation system and with the modulation of monsoon precipitation on the global scale. While SO-related precipitation has been the subject of several studies, the magnitude of the SO-related temperature variability on the global scale has not been well documented. In this paper the authors provide an estimate of the SO-related temperature variability in the context of monitoring global warming related to the increase in greenhouse gases. This analysis suggested that traditional time series of hemispheric and global temperature anomalies for the calendar year may confuse interannual temperature variability associated with the SO and perceived climate trend. Analyses based on calendar-year data are likely to split the effects of the SO-related temperature variability over two years. The Northern Hemisphere cold season (october through March) time series may be more appropriate to separate the SO-related effects on the hemispheric temperature from other modes of variability. mean interannual temperature anomaly differences associated with the extremes of the So are estimated to be 0.2 C for the October-to-March season in the Northern Hemisphere. In areas directly linked to the SO, the mean interannual differences amount to over 0.5 C. The So cannot account for all the variability in the hemispheric times series of surface temperature estimates, but the SO signal must be properly accounted for if these time series are to be understood

  1. Splitting of Atlantic water transport towards the Arctic Ocean into the Fram Strait and Barents Sea Branches - mechanisms and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Skagseth, Øystein; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Walczowski, Waldemar; Lien, Vidar

    2016-04-01

    The heat content in the Arctic Ocean is to a large extent determined by oceanic advection from the south. During the last two decades the extraordinary warm Atlantic water (AW) inflow has been reported to progress through the Nordic Seas into the Arctic Ocean. Warm anomalies can result from higher air temperatures (smaller heat loss) in the Nordic Seas, and/or from an increased oceanic advection. But the ultimate fate of warm anomalies of Atlantic origin depends strongly on their two possible pathways towards the Arctic Ocean. The AW temperature changes from 7-10°C at the entrance to the Nordic Seas, to 6-6.5°C in the Barents Sea opening and 3-3.5°C as the AW leaving Fram Strait enters the Arctic Ocean. When AW passes through the shallow Barents Sea, nearly all its heat is lost due to atmospheric cooling and AW looses its signature. In the deep Fram Strait the upper part of Atlantic water becomes transformed into a less saline and colder surface layer and thus AW preserves its warm core. A significant warming and high variability of AW volume transport was observed in two recent decades in the West Spitsbergen Current, representing the Fram Strait Branch of Atlantic inflow. The AW inflow through Fram Strait carries between 26 and 50 TW of heat into the Arctic Ocean. While the oceanic heat influx to the Barents Sea is of a similar order, the heat leaving it through the northern exit into the Arctic Ocean is negligible. The relative strength of two Atlantic water branches through Fram Strait and the Barents Sea governs the oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean. According to recently proposed mechanism, the Atlantic water flow in the Barents Sea Branch is controlled by the strength of atmospheric low over the northern Barents Sea, acting through a wind-induced Ekman divergence, which intensifies eastward AW flow. The Atlantic water transport in the Fram Strait Branch is mainly forced by the large-scale low-pressure system over the eastern Norwegian and

  2. Mechanism for the recent ocean warming events on the Scotian Shelf of eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, D.; Hebert, D.; Wang, Z.

    2018-03-01

    In 2012, 2014, and 2015 anomalous warm events were observed in the subsurface waters in the Scotian Shelf region of eastern Canada. Monthly output from a high resolution numerical ocean model simulation of the North Atlantic ocean for the period 1990-2015 is used to investigate this phenomenon. It is found that the model shows skill in simulating the anomaly fields derived from various sources of data, and the observed warming trend over the last decade. From analysis of the model run it is found that the anomalies originate from the interaction between the Gulf Stream and the Labrador Current at the tail of the Grand Banks (south of Newfoundland). This interaction results in the creation of anomalous warm/salty (or cold/fresh) eddies that travel east-to-west along the shelfbreak. These anomalies penetrate into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, onto the Scotian Shelf, and into the Gulf of Maine via deep channels along the shelfbreak. The observed warming trend can be attributed to an increase in the frequency of creation of warm anomalies during the last decade. Strong anomalous events are commonly observed in the data and model, and thus should be considered as part of the natural variability of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system.

  3. Detection and variability of the Congo River plume from satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jo; Lucas, Marc; Dufau, Claire; Sutton, Marion; Lauret, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    The Congo River in Africa has the world's second highest annual mean daily freshwater discharge and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial organic carbon into the oceans. It annually discharges an average of 1,250 × 109 m3 of freshwater into the southeast Atlantic producing a vast fresh water plume, whose signature can be traced hundreds of kilometres from the river mouth. Large river plumes such as this play important roles in the ocean carbon cycle, often functioning as carbon sinks. An understanding of their extent and seasonality is therefore essential if they are to be realistically accounted for in global assessments of the carbon cycle. Despite its size, the variability and dynamics of the Congo plume are minimally documented. In this paper we analyse satellite derived sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean colour and sea level anomaly to describe and quantify the extent, strength and variability of the far-field plume and to explain its behaviour in relation to winds, ocean currents and fresh water discharge. Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis reveals strong seasonal and coastal upwelling signals, potential bimodal seasonality of the Angola Current and responses to fresh water discharge peaks in all data sets. The strongest plume-like signatures however were found in the salinity and ocean colour where the dominant sources of variability come from the Congo River itself, rather than from the wider atmosphere and ocean. These two data sets are then analysed using a statistically based water mass detection technique to isolate the behaviour of the plume. The Congo's close proximity to the equator means that the influence of the earth's rotation on the fresh water inflow is relatively small and the plume tends not to form a distinct coastal current. Instead, its behaviour is determined by wind and surface circulation patterns. The main axis of the plume between November and February, following peak river discharge, is oriented northwest, driven

  4. Response of Southern Ocean circulation to global warming may enhance basal ice shelf melting around Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattermann, Tore; Levermann, Anders [Potsdam University, Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the large-scale oceanic features determining the future ice shelf-ocean interaction by analyzing global warming experiments in a coarse resolution climate model with a comprehensive ocean component. Heat and freshwater fluxes from basal ice shelf melting (ISM) are parameterized following Beckmann and Goosse [Ocean Model 5(2):157-170, 2003]. Melting sensitivities to the oceanic temperature outside of the ice shelf cavities are varied from linear to quadratic (Holland et al. in J Clim 21, 2008). In 1% per year CO{sub 2}-increase experiments the total freshwater flux from ISM triples to 0.09 Sv in the linear case and more than quadruples to 0.15 Sv in the quadratic case after 140 years at which 4 x 280 ppm = 1,120 ppm was reached. Due to the long response time of subsurface temperature anomalies, ISM thereafter increases drastically, if CO{sub 2} concentrations are kept constant at 1,120 ppm. Varying strength of the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) is crucial for ISM increase, because southward advection of heat dominates the warming along the Antarctic coast. On centennial timescales the ACC accelerates due to deep ocean warming north of the current, caused by mixing of heat along isopycnals in the Southern Ocean (SO) outcropping regions. In contrast to previous studies we find an initial weakening of the ACC during the first 150 years of warming. This purely baroclinic effect is due to a freshening in the SO which is consistent with present observations. Comparison with simulations with diagnosed ISM but without its influence on the ocean circulation reveal a number of ISM-related feedbacks, of which a negative ISM-feedback, due to the ISM-related local oceanic cooling, is the dominant one. (orig.)

  5. Impacts of dynamical ocean coupling in MJO experiments using NICAM/NICOCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, T.

    2016-12-01

    The cloud-system resolving atmosphereic model NICAM has been successfull in producing Madden-Julian Oscillations(MJOs), having it's prediction skill estimated to be about 4 weeks in a series of hindcast experiments for winter MJO events during 2003-2012 (Miyakawa et al. 2014). A simple mixed-layer ocean model has been applied with nudging towards a prescribed "persistent anomaly SST", which maintains the initial anomaly with a time-varying climatological seasonal cycle. This setup enables the model to interact with an ocean with reasonably realistic SST, and also run in a "forecast mode", without using any observational information after the initial date. A limitation is that under this setup, the model skill drops if the oceanic anomaly rapidly changes after the initial date in the real world. Here we run a recently developed, full 3D-ocean coupled version NICAM-COCO (NICOCO) and explore its impact on MJO simulations. Dynamical ocean models can produce oceanic waves/currents, but will also have a bias and drift away from reality. In a sub-seasonal simulation (an initial problem), it is essential to compare the merit of having better represented oceanic signals and the demerit of bias/drift. A test case simulation series featuring an MJO that triggered the abrupt termination of a major El Nino in 1998 shows that the abrupt termination occurs in all 9 simulation members, highlighting the merit of ocean coupling. However, this is a case where oceanic signals are at its extremes. We carried out an estimation of MJO prediction skill for a preliminary 1-degree mesh ocean version of NICOCO in a similar manner to Miyakawa et al. (2014). The MJO skill was degraded for simulations that was initialized at RMM phases 1 and 2 (corresponding to the Indian Ocean), while those initialized at phase 8 (Africa) was not strongly affected. The tendency of the model ocean to overestimate the Maritime Continent warm pool SST possibly delays the eastward propagation of MJO convective

  6. Spatial patterns of sea surface temperature influences on East African precipitation as revealed by empirical orthogonal teleconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eAppelhans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available East Africa is characterized by a rather dry annual precipitation climatology with two distinct rainy seasons. In order to investigate sea surface temperature driven precipitation anomalies for the region we use the algorithm of empirical orthogonal teleconnection analysis as a data mining tool. We investigate the entire East African domain as well as 5 smaller sub-regions mainly located in areas of mountainous terrain. In searching for influential sea surface temperature patterns we do not focus any particular season or oceanic region. Furthermore, we investigate different time lags from zero to twelve months. The strongest influence is identified for the immediate (i.e. non-lagged influences of the Indian Ocean in close vicinity to the East African coast. None of the most important modes are located in the tropical Pacific Ocean, though the region is sometimes coupled with the Indian Ocean basin. Furthermore, we identify a region in the southern Indian Ocean around the Kerguelen Plateau which has not yet been reported in the literature with regard to precipitation modulation in East Africa. Finally, it is observed that not all regions in East Africa are equally influenced by the identified patterns.

  7. Gravity and magnetic anomalies of the Cyprus arc and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, M.; Okay, S.; Sari, C.; Oral, E. Z.

    2003-04-01

    In present day, eastern Mediterranean is controlled by the collision of the African and Eurasian plates and displacements of Arabian, Anatolian and Aegean micro-plates. The boundary between African and Eurasian plates is delineated by the Hellenic arc and Pliny-Strabo trench in the west and the Cyprus arc and a diffuse fault system of the Eastern Anatolian Fault zone in the east. The available gravity and magnetic data from the easternmost Mediterranean allow to subdivide this basin into three provinces: the northeastern Mediterranean north of the Cyprus Arc; the Levant Basin south of the Cyprus Arc and east of the line that roughly continues the Suez rift trend toward the Gulf of Antalya, between Cyprus and Anaximander Mountains; and the Mediterranean Ridge, Herodotus Basin west of this line. High anomalies observed in Cyprus and the sea region at the south is prominent in the gravity data. The Bouguer gravity anomaly reaches its maximum values over Cyprus, where it is most probably caused by high dense Troodos ophiolites. The uplifted oceanic crust causes high Bouguer anomaly also seen in the vicinity of Eratosthenes Seamount. Another result obtained from gravity data is that the crust under Herodotos and Rhodes basins is somehow oceanic and Anaximander, Eratosthenes and Cyprus are continental fragments. There are no linear magnetic anomalies in the Mediterranean. But there are magnetic anomalies over the Eratosthenes seamount and as well as from Cyprus to the Antalya basin due to the ophiolitic bodies. In Cyprus, the last compressional deformations were defined near the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. The extensional deformation associated with the Antalya basin appears to be separated by a zone of the Florence rise and Anaximander Mountains affected by differential tectonic movements. Eratosthenes Seamount is a positive crustal feature in the process of collision with Cyprus along an active margin; there is clearly a potential tectonic relationship to the onland

  8. Oceanographic temperature and salinity measurements collected using drifting buoys in the Arctic Ocean from 2003 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0014672)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic temperature and salinity measurements collected using drifting buoys in the Arctic Ocean. Data from JAMSTEC drifting buoys which were deployed both as...

  9. Ice-Tethered Profiler observations: Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen, and ocean velocity from an Ice-Tethered Profiler buoy system

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains repeated vertical profiles of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, as well as oxygen and velocity for some instruments. Data were...

  10. Potential ocean–atmosphere preconditioning of late autumn Barents-Kara sea ice concentration anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. King

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have revealed the importance of the climatic state in November on the seasonal climate of the subsequent winter. In particular, it has been shown that interannual variability of sea ice concentration (SIC over the Barents-Kara (BK seas in November is linked to winter atmospheric circulation anomaly that projects on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Understanding the lead–lag processes involving the different components of the climate system from autumn to winter is therefore important. This note presents dynamical interpretation for the ice-ocean–atmosphere relationships that can affect the BK SIC anomaly in late autumn. It is found that cyclonic (anticyclonic wind anomaly over the Arctic in October, by Ekman drift, can be responsible for positive (negative SIC in the BK seas in November. The results also suggest that ocean heat transport via the Barents Sea Opening in September and October can contribute to BK SIC anomaly in November.

  11. Connecting anomaly and tunneling methods for the Hawking effect through chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The role of chirality is discussed in unifying the anomaly and the tunneling formalisms for deriving the Hawking effect. Using the chirality condition and starting from the familiar form of the trace anomaly, the chiral (gravitational) anomaly, manifested as a nonconservation of the stress tensor, near the horizon of a black hole, is derived. Solution of this equation yields the stress tensor whose asymptotic infinity limit gives the Hawking flux. Finally, use of the same chirality condition in the tunneling formalism gives the Hawking temperature that is compatible with the flux obtained by anomaly method.

  12. Analytical study of a gas of gluonic quasiparticles at high temperature: Effective mass, pressure, and trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacosa, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamical properties of a pure Yang-Mills theory SU(N) is described by a gas of gluonic quasiparticles with temperature-dependent mass m(T) and a bag function B(T). The analytic behavior of m(T) and the pressure p in the temperature range 2.5-5T c are derived and constraints on the parameters defining B(T) are discussed. The trace anomaly θ=ρ-3p is evaluated in the high T domain: it is dominated by a quadratic behavior θ=nKT 2 , where n=2(N 2 -1) is the number of degrees of freedom and K is an integration constant which does not depend on the bag function B(T). The quadratic rise of θ is in good agreement with recent lattice simulations.

  13. On the nature of anomalies in temperature dependence of the OKh18N1OT steel yield strength after thermal cycling in the low temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, E.M.; Lavrent'ev, F.F.; Kurmanova, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were structural transformations in 0Kh18N10T steel as a result of heating and cooling and of deformation within the range of temperatures between 300 and 77 K, the quantity relationships between the said transformations and the variation of the yield limit with the temperature. The studies were conducted by metallography and mechanical test methods. It was shown that an increase in the number of heating and cooling cycles correlates with a loss in strength of the steel while deformation at 77 K. This anomaly in the temperature relationship of the yield limit is related to the appearance in the course of deformation of α-martensite with a BCC lattice. Deformation at 300 K increases the amount ea of epsilon-martensite, a decrses the effectve size of grain and, in consequence, increases the yield limit. The relationship between the yield limit and the grain size at the temperature of 300 K is described adequately by the Hall-Petch equation

  14. ENSO regimes and the late 1970's climate shift: The role of synoptic weather and South Pacific ocean spiciness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Oke, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    South Pacific subtropical density compensated temperature and salinity (spiciness) anomalies are known to be associated with decadal equatorial variability, however, the mechanisms by which such disturbances are generated, advect and the degree to which they modulate the equatorial thermocline remains controversial. During the late 1970's a climate regime transition preceded a period of strong and sustained El Nino events. Using an ocean general circulation model forced by the constituent mechanical and thermodynamic components of the reanalysed atmosphere we show that the late 1970's transition coincided with the arrival of a large-scale, subsurface cold and fresh water anomaly in the central tropical Pacific. An ocean reanalysis for the period 1990–2007 that assimilates subsurface Argo, XBT and CTD data, reveals that disturbances occur due to the subduction of negative surface salinity anomalies from near 30° S, 100° W which are advected along the σ=25–26 kgm −3 isopycnal surfaces. These anomalies take, on average, seven years to reach the central equatorial Pacific where they may substantially perturb the thermocline before the remnants ultimately ventilate in the region of the western Pacific warm pool. Positive (warm–salty) disturbances, known to occur due to late winter diapycnal mixing and isopycnal outcropping, arise due to both subduction of subtropical mode waters and subsurface injection. On reaching the equatorial band (10° S–0° S) these disturbances tend to deepen the thermocline reducing the model's ENSO. In contrast the emergence of negative (cold–fresh) disturbances at the equator are associated with a shoaling of the thermocline and El Nino events. Process studies are used to show that the generation and advection of anomalous density compensated thermocline disturbances critically depend on stochastic forcing of the intrinsic ocean by weather. We further show that in the absence of the inter-annual component of the atmosphere

  15. Ocean water temperature from data loggers from FIXED PLATFORMS from 1997-01-12 to 1998-04-30 (NODC Accession 9800117)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean water temperature data were collected from data loggers attached to FIXED PLATFORMS. Data were collected by University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) from 12 January...

  16. An investigation of thermal anomalies in the Central American volcanic chain and evaluation of the utility of thermal anomaly monitoring in the prediction of volcanic eruptions. [Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground truth data collection proves that significant anomalies exist at 13 volcanoes within the test site of Central America. The dimensions and temperature contrast of these ten anomalies are large enough to be detected by the Skylab 192 instrument. The dimensions and intensity of thermal anomalies have changed at most of these volcanoes during the Skylab mission.

  17. Heat flow anomalies and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.; Rybach, Ladislaus

    1985-12-01

    More than 10,000 heat flow determinations exist for the earth and the data set is growing steadily at about 450 observations per year. If heat flow is considered as a surface expression of geothermal processes at depth, the analysis of the data set should reveal properties of those thermal processes. They do, but on a variety of scales. For this review heat flow maps are classified by 4 different horizontal scales of 10 n km (n = 1, 2, 3 and 4) and attention is focussed on the interpretation of anomalies which appear with characteristic dimensions of 10 (n - 1) km in the respective representations. The largest scale of 10 4 km encompasses heat flow on a global scale. Global heat loss is 4 × 10 13 W and the process of sea floor spreading is the principal agent in delivering much of this heat to the surface. Correspondingly, active ocean ridge systems produce the most prominent heat flow anomalies at this scale with characteristic widths of 10 3 km. Shields, with similar dimensions, exhibit negative anomalies. The scale of 10 3 km includes continent wide displays. Heat flow patterns at this scale mimic tectonic units which have dimensions of a few times 10 2 km, although the thermal boundaries between these units are sometimes sharp. Heat flow anomalies at this scale also result from plate tectonic processes, and are associated with arc volcanism, back arc basins, hot spot traces, and continental rifting. There are major controversies about the extent to which these surface thermal provinces reflect upper mantle thermal conditions, and also about the origin and evolution of the thermal state of continental lithosphere. Beginning with map dimensions of 10 2 km thermal anomalies of scale 10 1 km, which have a definite crustal origin, become apparent. The origin may be tectonic, geologic, or hydrologic. Ten kilometers is a common wavelength of topographic relief which drives many groundwater flow systems producing thermal anomalies. The largest recognized continental

  18. On the relationship between Indian summer monsoon withdrawal and Indo-Pacific SST anomalies before and after 1976/1977 climate shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabeerali, C.T.; Rao, Suryachandra A. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India); Ajayamohan, R.S. [University of Victoria, Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC (Canada); Murtugudde, Raghu [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    A clear shift in the withdrawal dates of the Indian Summer Monsoon is observed in the long term time series of rainfall data. Prior (posterior) to the 1976/1977 climate shift most of the withdrawal dates are associated with a late (an early) withdrawal. As a result, the length of the rainy season (LRS) over the Indian land mass has also undergone similar changes (i.e., longer (shorter) LRS prior (posterior) to the climate shift). In this study, probable reasons for this significant shift in withdrawal dates and the LRS are investigated using reanalysis/observed datasets and also with the help of an atmospheric general circulation model. Reanalysis/observational datasets indicate that prior to the climate shift the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Arabian Sea exerted a strong influence on both the withdrawal and the LRS. After the climate shift, the influence of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean SST has decreased and surprisingly, the influence of the Arabian Sea SST is almost non-existent. On the other hand, the influence of the southeastern equatorial Indian Ocean has increased significantly. It is observed that the upper tropospheric temperature gradient over the dominant monsoon region has decreased and the relative influence of the Indian Ocean SST variability on the withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon has increased in the post climate shift period. Sensitivity experiments with the contrasting SST patterns on withdrawal dates and the LRS in the pre- and post- climate shift scenarios, confirm the observational evidences presented above. (orig.)

  19. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  20. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  1. Consensuses and discrepancies of basin-scale ocean heat content changes in different ocean analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongjie; Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Li, Chongyin

    2018-04-01

    Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison between the analyses. Here we compare the OHC changes in three ocean analyses (Ishii, EN4 and IAP) to investigate the uncertainty in OHC in four major ocean basins from decadal to multi-decadal scales. First, all products show an increase of OHC since 1970 in each ocean basin revealing a robust warming, although the warming rates are not identical. The geographical patterns, the key modes and the vertical structure of OHC changes are consistent among the three datasets, implying that the main OHC variabilities can be robustly represented. However, large discrepancies are found in the percentage of basinal ocean heating related to the global ocean, with the largest differences in the Pacific and Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, we find a large discrepancy of ocean heat storage in different layers, especially within 300-700 m in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, the near surface analysis of Ishii and IAP are consistent with sea surface temperature (SST) products, but EN4 is found to underestimate the long-term trend. Compared with ocean heat storage derived from the atmospheric budget equation, all products show consistent seasonal cycles of OHC in the upper 1500 m especially during 2008 to 2012. Overall, our analyses further the understanding of the observed OHC variations, and we recommend a careful quantification of errors in the ocean analyses.

  2. Dissolved iron anomaly in the deep tropical-subtropical Pacific: Evidence for long-range transport of hydrothermal iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingfeng; Wells, Mark L.; Rember, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved iron profiles along a north-south transect along 158°W in the tropical Pacific show evidence of two deepwater anomalies. The first extends from Station ALOHA (22.78°N) to the equator at ˜1000-1500 m and lies below the maximum apparent oxygen utilization and nutrient (N, P) concentrations. The feature is not supported by vertical export processes, but instead corresponds with the lateral dilution field of δ 3He derived from the Loihi seamount, Hawaii, though a sediment source associated with the Hawaiian Island Chain cannot be entirely ruled out. The second, deeper (2000-3000 m) anomaly occurs in tropical South Pacific waters (7°S) and also does not correlate with the depths of maximum nutrient concentrations or apparent oxygen utilization, but it does coincide closely with δ 3He emanating from the East Pacific Rise, more than 5000 km to the east. We hypothesize that these anomalies represent the long-range (>2000 km) transport of hydrothermal iron residuals, stabilized against scavenging by complexation with excess organic ligands in the plume source regions. Such trace leakage of hydrothermal iron to distal plume regions would have been difficult to identify in most hydrothermal vent mapping studies because low analytical detection limits were not needed for the proximal plume regions. These findings suggest that hydrothermal activity may represent a major source of dissolved iron throughout the South Pacific deep basin today, as well as other regions having high mid-ocean spreading rates in the geologic past. In particular, we hypothesize that high spreading rates along the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean mid-oceanic ridges, combined with the upwelling ventilation of these distal hydrothermal plumes, may have increased ocean productivity and carbon export in the Southern Ocean. Assessing the magnitude and persistence of dissolved hydrothermal iron in basin scale deep waters will be important for understanding the marine biogeochemistry of iron

  3. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia, a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C. Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  4. Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-10-01

    Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.

  5. Water mass characteristic in the outflow region of the Indonesian throughflow during and post 2016 negative Indian ocean dipole event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhaqi, A.; Iskandar, I.; Surinati, D.; Budiman, A. S.; Wardhana, A. K.; Dirhamsyah; Yuan, D.; Lestari, D. O.

    2018-05-01

    Strong El Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events in 2015/2016 followed by relatively strong negative Indian Ocean Dipole (nIOD) and weak La Niña in 2016 events have affected hydrography conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) region. Two research cruises were conducted using RV Baruna Jaya VIII in August and November 2016. These cruises aim to evaluate possible impact of those two climate mode events on the water mass characteristic in the outflow region of the ITF. Hydrographic data from those two cruises were combined with the sea surface temperature (SST) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and surface wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results showed that in the 2016 anomaly year, the cooler sea surface temperature was observed during the negative IOD (nIOD) event while the warmer temperature was found in the post of nIOD event. The observed water mass characteristics in the outflow region of the ITF revealed that the upper layer was dominated by the Indian Ocean water mass, while the Pacific Ocean water mass was observed in the deeper layer. The observed current data across the Sumba Strait showed that the South Java Coastal Current (SJCC) was observed in the upper layer, propagating eastward toward the Savu Sea. A few days later, the observed currents in the upper layer of the Ombai Strait revealed the ITF flow towards the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, the lower layer showed an eastward flow towards the Ombai Strait.

  6. Temperature profile data from profiling drifter in the Indian, Southern, and Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 9700028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using the ALACE (Autonomous LAgrangian Circulation Explorer), which is a profiling drifter in the Indian, Southern, and...

  7. Effects of Northern Hemisphere Sea Surface Temperature Changes on the Global Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The roles of regional sea surface temperature (SST) variability on modulating the climate system and consequently the air quality are investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform SST anomalies of +/- 1 °C are superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian Oceans individually. Ignoring the response of natural emissions, our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability of surface O3 and PM2.5 concentrations in response to SST anomalies, especially during boreal summers. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv while increases the anthropogenic PM2.5 concentrations from 0.5 to 3 µg m-3. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing air pollutant perturbations in most cases. During boreal summers, the increase in tropical SST over different ocean basins enhances deep convection, which significantly increases the air temperature over the upper troposphere and trigger large-scale subsidence over nearby and remote regions. These processes tend to increase tropospheric stability and suppress rainfall at lower mid-latitudes. Consequently, it reduces the vertical transport of O3 to the surface while facilitating the accumulation of PM2.5 concentrations over most regions. In addition, this regional SST warming may also considerably suppress intercontinental transport of air pollution as confirmed with idealized CO-like tracers. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST variability and regional air quality, which can help local air quality management.

  8. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Western Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oE-180o (western equatorial...

  9. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Eastern Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oW-120oW (eastern...

  10. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Central Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 175oW-140oW (central...

  11. Mantle temperature under drifting deformable continents during the supercontinent cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting continents during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable continents and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50 °C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the continent is within +10 °C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50 °C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The periodic assembly and dispersal of continental fragments, referred to as the supercontinent cycle, bear close relation to the evolution of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Supercontinent formation involves complex processes of introversion, extroversion or a combination of these in uniting dispersed continental fragments, as against the simple opening and closing of individual oceans envisaged in Wilson cycle. In the present study, I evaluate supercontinent processes in a realistic mantle convection regime. Results show that the assembly of supercontinents is accompanied by a

  12. A modelling study of the influence of anomalous wind forcing over the Barents Sea on the Atlantic water flow to the Arctic Ocean in the period 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Jakub; Schlichtholz, Pawel; Maslowski, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    anomalies in the Murman/West Novaya Zemlya current system on the eastern side of the Barents Sea. These anomalies affect sea ice in the eastern Barents Sea 1-3 months later, but are not completely lost on the interactions with the sea ice and local atmosphere. Statistically significant subsurface temperature anomalies driven by anomalous winds over the Barents Sea join, on their exit to the Arctic Ocean through St. Anna Trough, the Arctic Slope Current, in which they persist for several years.

  13. CEOS Ocean Variables Enabling Research and Applications for Geo (COVERAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Vazquez, J.; Zlotnicki, V.

    2017-12-01

    The CEOS Ocean Variables Enabling Research and Applications for GEO (COVERAGE) initiative seeks to facilitate joint utilization of different satellite data streams on ocean physics, better integrated with biological and in situ observations, including near real-time data streams in support of oceanographic and decision support applications for societal benefit. COVERAGE aligns with programmatic objectives of CEOS (the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) and the missions of GEO-MBON (Marine Biodiversity Observation Network) and GEO-Blue Planet, which are to advance and exploit synergies among the many observational programs devoted to ocean and coastal waters. COVERAGE is conceived of as 3 year pilot project involving international collaboration. It focuses on implementing technologies, including cloud based solutions, to provide a data rich, web-based platform for integrated ocean data delivery and access: multi-parameter observations, easily discoverable and usable, organized by disciplines, available in near real-time, collocated to a common grid and including climatologies. These will be complemented by a set of value-added data services available via the COVERAGE portal including an advanced Web-based visualization interface, subsetting/extraction, data collocation/matchup and other relevant on demand processing capabilities. COVERAGE development will be organized around priority use cases and applications identified by GEO and agency partners. The initial phase will be to develop co-located 25km products from the four Ocean Virtual Constellations (VCs), Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level, Ocean Color, and Sea Surface Winds. This aims to stimulate work among the ocean VCs while developing products and system functionality based on community recommendations. Such products as anomalies from a time mean, would build on the theme of applications with a relevance to CEOS/GEO mission and vision. Here we provide an overview of the COVERAGE initiative with an

  14. Data-Model Comparison of Pliocene Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H. J.; Foley, K.; Robinson, M. M.; Bloemers, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    The mid-Piacenzian (late Pliocene) climate represents the most geologically recent interval of long-term average warmth and shares similarities with the climate projected for the end of the 21st century. As such, its fossil and sedimentary record represents a natural experiment from which we can gain insight into potential climate change impacts, enabling more informed policy decisions for mitigation and adaptation. We present the first systematic comparison of Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST) between an ensemble of eight climate model simulations produced as part of PlioMIP (Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project) and the PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping) Project mean annual SST field. Our results highlight key regional (mid- to high latitude North Atlantic and tropics) and dynamic (upwelling) situations where there is discord between reconstructed SST and the PlioMIP simulations. These differences can lead to improved strategies for both experimental design and temporal refinement of the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Scatter plot of multi-model-mean anomalies (squares) and PRISM3 data anomalies (large blue circles) by latitude. Vertical bars on data anomalies represent the variability of warm climate phase within the time-slab at each locality. Small colored circles represent individual model anomalies and show the spread of model estimates about the multi-model-mean. While not directly comparable in terms of the development of the means nor the meaning of variability, this plot provides a first order comparison of the anomalies. Encircled areas are a, PRISM low latitude sites outside of upwelling areas; b, North Atlantic coastal sequences and Mediterranean sites; c, large anomaly PRISM sites from the northern hemisphere. Numbers identify Ocean Drilling Program sites.

  15. Association between mean and interannual equatorial Indian Ocean subsurface temperature bias in a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Prasad, K. V. S. R.; Karmakar, Ananya; Parekh, Anant

    2018-03-01

    In the present study the association between mean and interannual subsurface temperature bias over the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) is investigated during boreal summer (June through September; JJAS) in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) hindcast. Anomalously high subsurface warm bias (greater than 3 °C) over the eastern EIO (EEIO) region is noted in CFSv2 during summer, which is higher compared to other parts of the tropical Indian Ocean. Prominent eastward current bias in the upper 100 m over the EIO region induced by anomalous westerly winds is primarily responsible for subsurface temperature bias. The eastward currents transport warm water to the EEIO and is pushed down to subsurface due to downwelling. Thus biases in both horizontal and vertical currents over the EIO region support subsurface warm bias. The evolution of systematic subsurface warm bias in the model shows strong interannual variability. These maximum subsurface warming episodes over the EEIO are mainly associated with La Niña like forcing. Strong convergence of low level winds over the EEIO and Maritime continent enhanced the westerly wind bias over the EIO during maximum warming years. This low level convergence of wind is induced by the bias in the gradient in the mean sea level pressure with positive bias over western EIO and negative bias over EEIO and parts of western Pacific. Consequently, changes in the atmospheric circulation associated with La Niña like conditions affected the ocean dynamics by modulating the current bias thereby enhancing the subsurface warm bias over the EEIO. It is identified that EEIO subsurface warming is stronger when La Niña co-occurred with negative Indian Ocean Dipole events as compared to La Niña only years in the model. Ocean general circulation model (OGCM) experiments forced with CFSv2 winds clearly support our hypothesis that ocean dynamics influenced by westerly winds bias is primarily

  16. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and pressure measurements collected using moored buoy in the Indian Ocean from 2001-2006 (NODC Accession 0002733)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity measurements in the Equatorial Indian from 2001 to 2006 from the TRITON (TRIANGLE TRANS-OCEAN BUOY NETWORK); JAPAN AGENCY FOR MARINE-EARTH...

  17. Temperature profile data from EBT casts in the Indian Ocean from 13 February 1986 to 01 January 1989 (NODC Accession 0000210)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using EBT casts in the Indian Ocean from the MYS OSTROVSKOGO, IGNAT PAVLYUCHENKOV, ZVEZDA AZOVA, and KARA-DAG from February...

  18. Separation of atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological polar motion excitation mechanisms based on a combination of geometric and gravimetric space observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttl, F.; Schmidt, M.; Seitz, F.; Bloßfeld, M.

    2015-04-01

    The goal of our study is to determine accurate time series of geophysical Earth rotation excitations to learn more about global dynamic processes in the Earth system. For this purpose, we developed an adjustment model which allows to combine precise observations from space geodetic observation systems, such as Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Doppler Orbit determination and Radiopositioning Integrated on Satellite, satellite altimetry and satellite gravimetry in order to separate geophysical excitation mechanisms of Earth rotation. Three polar motion time series are applied to derive the polar motion excitation functions (integral effect). Furthermore we use five time variable gravity field solutions from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment to determine not only the integral mass effect but also the oceanic and hydrological mass effects by applying suitable filter techniques and a land-ocean mask. For comparison the integral mass effect is also derived from degree 2 potential coefficients that are estimated from SLR observations. The oceanic mass effect is also determined from sea level anomalies observed by satellite altimetry by reducing the steric sea level anomalies derived from temperature and salinity fields of the oceans. Due to the combination of all geodetic estimated excitations the weaknesses of the individual processing strategies can be reduced and the technique-specific strengths can be accounted for. The formal errors of the adjusted geodetic solutions are smaller than the RMS differences of the geophysical model solutions. The improved excitation time series can be used to improve the geophysical modeling.

  19. Crustal processes of the Mid-Ocean Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard D.; Craig, H.; Edmond, J.; Einaudi, M.; Holcomb, R.; Holland, H.D.; Hopson, C.A.; Luyendyk, B.P.; Macdonald, K.; Morton, J.; Orcutt, J.; Sleep, N.

    1981-01-01

    Independent geological and geophysical investigations of the Mid-Ocean Ridge system have begun to focus on the nature of the magma chamber system underlying its central axis. Thermal models predict the existence of a steady-state chamber beneath a thin crustal lid ranging in thickness from 2 to 13 kilometers. The only aspect of the system that these models fail to account for is the extremely slow spreading rates. Seismological studies reveal the existence of a low-velocity zone beneath segments of the East Pacific Rise, which is thought to correspond to a chamber system having a half-width of approximately 5 to 10 kilometers. These estimates compare favorably with those derived separately through petrological investigations of deep-sea drilling results, various sampling programs, and field and laboratory studies of ophiolites. The chamber is thought to be wing-shaped and to remain continuously open; it is thought to be fed from the center while simultaneously solidifying at the sides as spreading carries the two halves apart. Progressive fractionation occurs by crystal settling coupled with repeated replenishment and magma mixing in an open steady-state system. Near-bottom studies reveal that the zone of extrusion above the chamber is narrow, but its eruptive history is cyclic in nature, in conflict with the predictions of a steady-state model. On-bottom gravity data at 21 ??N on the East Pacific Rise reveal a negative gravity anomaly that may be related to the uppermost part of the chamber. The anomaly is only 2 kilometers wide and 1 kilometer below the sea floor. This feature may be associated with a short-term upper magma reservoir. The cyclic volcanic activity is directly related to the active phase of hydrothermal circulation responsible for the observed negative thermal anomaly. The volume of water associated with this circulation is equal to the entire ocean volume passing through the accretion zone approximately every 8 million years. This is about 0

  20. Crustal processes of the mid-ocean ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-03

    Independent geological and geophysical investigations of the Mid-Ocean Ridge system have begun to focus on the nature of the magma chamber system underlying its central axis. Thermal models predict the existence of a steady-state chamber beneath a thin crustal lid ranging in thickness from 2 to 13 kilometers. The only aspect of the system that these models fail to account for is the extremely slow spreading rates. Seismological studies reveal the existence of a low-velocity zone beneath segments of the East Pacific Rise, which is thought to correspond to a chamber system having a half-width of approximately 5 to 10 kilometers. These estimates compare favorably with those derived separately through petrological investigations of deep-sea drilling results, various sampling programs, and field and laboratory studies of ophiolites. The chamber is thought to be wing-shaped and to remain continuously open; it is thought to be fed from the center while simultaneously solidifying at the sides as spreading carries the two halves apart. Progressive fractionation occurs by crystal settling coupled with repeated replenishment and magma mixing in an open steady-state system. Near-bottom studies reveal that the zone of extrusion above the chamber is narrow, but its eruptive history is cyclic in nature, in conflict with the predictions of a steady-state model. On-bottom gravity data at 21 degrees N on the East Pacific Rise reveal a negative gravity anomaly that may be related to the uppermost part of the chamber. The anomaly is only 2 kilometers wide and 1 kilometer below the sea floor. This feature may be associated with a short-term upper magma reservoir. The cyclic volcanic activity is directly related to the active phase of hydrothermal circulation responsible for the observed negative thermal anomaly. The volume of water associated with this circulation is equal to the entire ocean volume passing through the accretion zone approximately every 8 million years. This is about 0

  1. Anomalies of hydrological cycle components during the 2007 heat wave in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircheva, Biliana; Tsekov, Milen; Meyer, Ulrich; Guerova, Guergana

    2017-12-01

    Heat waves have large adverse social, economic and environmental effects which include increased mortality, transport restrictions and a decreased agricultural production. The estimated economic losses of the 2007 heat wave in South-east Europe exceed 2 billion EUR with 19 000 hospitalisation in Romania only. Understanding the changes of the hydrological cycle components is essential for early forecasting of heat wave occurrence. Valuable insight of two components of the hydrological cycle, namely Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) and Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA), is now possible using observations from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. In this study anomalies of temperature, precipitation, IWV and TWS in 2007 are compared to 2003-2013 period for Sofia, Bulgaria. In 2007, positive temperature anomalies are observed in January, February and July. There are negative IWV and precipitation anomalies in July 2007 that coincides with the heat wave in Bulgaria. TWSA in 2007 are negative in January, May and from July to October being largest in August. Long-term trends of: 1) temperatures have a local maximum in March 2007, 2) TWSA has a local minimum in May 2007, 3) IWV has a local minimum in September 2007, and 4) precipitation has a local maximum in July 2007. The TWSA interannual trends in Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland show similar behaviour as indicated by cross correlation coefficients of 0.9 and 0.7 between Bulgaria and Hungary and Bulgaria and Poland respectively. ALADIN-Climate describes the anomalies of temperature and IWV more successfully than those of precipitation and TWS.

  2. Support for global climate reorganization during the ''Medieval Climate Anomaly''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, N.E. [Hydrologic Research Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ammann, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Fleitmann, D. [University of Bern, Institute of Geological Sciences, Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climatic Change Research, Bern (Switzerland); Cobb, K.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Luterbacher, J. [Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Widely distributed proxy records indicate that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; {proportional_to}900-1350 AD) was characterized by coherent shifts in large-scale Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation patterns. Although cooler sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific can explain some aspects of medieval circulation changes, they are not sufficient to account for other notable features, including widespread aridity through the Eurasian sub-tropics, stronger winter westerlies across the North Atlantic and Western Europe, and shifts in monsoon rainfall patterns across Africa and South Asia. We present results from a full-physics coupled climate model showing that a slight warming of the tropical Indian and western Pacific Oceans relative to the other tropical ocean basins can induce a broad range of the medieval circulation and climate changes indicated by proxy data, including many of those not explained by a cooler tropical Pacific alone. Important aspects of the results resemble those from previous simulations examining the climatic response to the rapid Indian Ocean warming during the late twentieth century, and to results from climate warming simulations - especially in indicating an expansion of the Northern Hemisphere Hadley circulation. Notably, the pattern of tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) change responsible for producing the proxy-model similarity in our results agrees well with MCA-LIA SST differences obtained in a recent proxy-based climate field reconstruction. Though much remains unclear, our results indicate that the MCA was characterized by an enhanced zonal Indo-Pacific SST gradient with resulting changes in Northern Hemisphere tropical and extra-tropical circulation patterns and hydroclimate regimes, linkages that may explain the coherent regional climate shifts indicated by proxy records from across the planet. The findings provide new perspectives on the nature and possible causes of the MCA

  3. A possible cause of the AO polarity reversal from winter to summer in 2010 and its relation to hemispheric extreme hot summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Otomi, Yuriko; Nakamura, Tetsu

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, the Northern Hemisphere, in particular Russia and Japan, experienced an abnormally hot summer characterized by record-breaking warm temperatures and associated with a strongly positive Arctic Oscillation (AO), that is, low pressure in the Arctic and high pressure in the midlatitudes. In contrast, the AO index the previous winter and spring (2009/2010) was record-breaking negative. The AO polarity reversal that began in summer 2010 can explain the abnormally hot summer. The winter sea surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic Ocean showed a tripolar anomaly pattern—warm SST anomalies over the tropics and high latitudes and cold SST anomalies over the midlatitudes—under the influence of the negative AO. The warm SST anomalies continued into summer 2010 because of the large oceanic heat capacity. A model simulation strongly suggested that the AO-related summertime North Atlantic oceanic warm temperature anomalies remotely caused blocking highs to form over Europe, which amplified the positive summertime AO. Thus, a possible cause of the AO polarity reversal might be the "memory" of the negative winter AO in the North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting an interseasonal linkage of the AO in which the oceanic memory of a wintertime negative AO induces a positive AO in the following summer. Understanding of this interseasonal linkage may aid in the long-term prediction of such abnormal summer events.

  4. A possible cause of the AO polarity reversal from winter to summer in 2010 and its relation to hemispheric extreme summer weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otomi, Yuriko; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Tetsu

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, the Northern Hemisphere, in particular Russia and Japan, experienced an abnormally hot summer characterized by record-breaking warm temperatures and associated with a strongly positive Arctic Oscillation (AO), that is, low pressure in the Arctic and high pressure in the midlatitudes. In contrast, the AO index the previous winter and spring (2009/2010) was record-breaking negative. The AO polarity reversal that began in summer 2010 can explain the abnormally hot summer. The winter sea surface temperatures (SST) in the North Atlantic Ocean showed a tripolar anomaly pattern—warm SST anomalies over the tropics and high latitudes and cold SST anomalies over the midlatitudes—under the influence of the negative AO. The warm SST anomalies continued into summer 2010 because of the large oceanic heat capacity. A model simulation strongly suggested that the AO-related summertime North Atlantic oceanic warm temperature anomalies remotely caused blocking highs to form over Europe, which amplified the positive summertime AO. Thus, a possible cause of the AO polarity reversal might be the "memory" of the negative winter AO in the North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting an interseasonal linkage of the AO in which the oceanic memory of a wintertime negative AO induces a positive AO in the following summer. Understanding of this interseasonal linkage may aid in the long-term prediction of such abnormal summer events.

  5. La prospection geothermique de surface au Maroc: hydrodynamisme, anomalies thermiques et indices de surfaceGeothermal prospecting in Morocco: hydrodynamics, thermal anomalies and surface indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarhloule, Y.; Lahrache, A.; Ben Abidate, L.; Khattach, D.; Bouri, S.; Boukdir, A.; Ben Dhia, H.

    2001-05-01

    Shallow geothermal prospecting ( < 700 m) has been performed in four zones in Morocco for which few deep data are available: northwestern basin, northeastern basin, Tadla Basin and Agadir Basin. These areas are different geologically and hydrogeologically. The temperature data from 250 wells at depths between 15 and 500 m have been analysed in order to estimate the natural geothermal gradient in these areas, to determine the principal thermal anomalies, to identify the main thermal indices and to characterise the recharge, discharge and potential mixing limits of the aquifers. The hydrostratigraphical study of each basin revealed several potential reservoir layers in which the Turonian carbonate aquifer (Tadal and Agadir Basins) and Liassic acquifer (Moroccan northwestern and northeastern basins) are the most important hot water reservoirs in Morocco. The recharge zones of each aquifer are characterised by high topography, high water potential, shallow cold water, low geothermal gradient and negative anomalies. The discharge zones are characterized by low topography, low piezometric level, high geothermal gradient, high temperature with hot springs and positive anomalies. The main thermal indices and the principal thermal anomalies that coincide with the artesian zones of the Turonian and Liassic aquifers have been identified.

  6. Gravitational anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutwyler, H; Mallik, S

    1986-12-01

    The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in dless than or equal to4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions.

  7. Magnetic anomalies in SmMn2Ge2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, R.; Sampathkumaran, E.V.; Paulose, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    The results of electrical resistance (ρ), magnetoresistance (Δρ/ρ) and magnetization (M) measurements are reported for polycrystalline SmMn 2 Ge 2 . Sharp variations in ρ at 108 and 142 K attributable to well-known magnetic transitions from Mn sublattice are noted. Sign of the ρ across these transitions exhibits anomalies. Δρ/ρ data indicate the existence of a hitherto unrecognized magnetic anomaly near 30 K, presumably of ferrimagnetic type as revealed by isothermal M data at low temperatures. (orig.)

  8. The 30-60-day Intraseasonal Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea dur1ing May-September

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiangyu; Wang, Ming

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the structure and propagation of intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the South China Sea (SCS) on the 30-60-day timescale during boreal summer (May-September). TRMM-based SST, GODAS oceanic reanalysis and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis datasets from 1998 to 2013 are used to examine quantitatively the atmospheric thermodynamic and oceanic dynamic mechanisms responsible for its formation. Power spectra show that the 30-60-day SST variability is predominant, accounting for 60% of the variance of the 10-90-day variability over most of the SCS. Composite analyses demonstrate that the 30-60-day SST variability is characterized by the alternate occurrence of basin-wide positive and negative SST anomalies in the SCS, with positive (negative) SST anomalies accompanied by anomalous northeasterlies (southwesterlies). The transition and expansion of SST anomalies are driven by the monsoonal trough-ridge seesaw pattern that migrates northward from the equator to the northern SCS. Quantitative diagnosis of the composite mixed-layer heat budgets shows that, within a strong 30-60-day cycle, the atmospheric thermal forcing is indeed a dominant factor, with the mixed-layer net heat flux (MNHF) contributing around 60% of the total SST tendency, while vertical entrainment contributes more than 30%. However, the entrainment-induced SST tendency is sometimes as large as the MNHF-induced component, implying that ocean processes are sometimes as important as surface fluxes in generating the 30-60-day SST variability in the SCS.

  9. Coarsening in 3D nonconserved Ising model at zero temperature: Anomaly in structure and slow relaxation of order-parameter autocorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Das, Subir K.

    2017-09-01

    Via Monte Carlo simulations we study pattern and aging during coarsening in a nonconserved nearest-neighbor Ising model, following quenches from infinite to zero temperature, in space dimension d = 3. The decay of the order-parameter autocorrelation function appears to obey a power-law behavior, as a function of the ratio between the observation and waiting times, in the large ratio limit. However, the exponent of the power law, estimated accurately via a state-of-the-art method, violates a well-known lower bound. This surprising fact has been discussed in connection with a quantitative picture of the structural anomaly that the 3D Ising model exhibits during coarsening at zero temperature. These results are compared with those for quenches to a temperature above that of the roughening transition.

  10. Spatial and temporal Teleconnections of Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Indices to regional Climate Variations across Thailand - a Pathway to understanding the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejranonda, Werapol; Koch, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    (ENSO) events in the Pacific Ocean, if such teleconnections exist, one would have would have a powerful tool at hand to forecast extreme seasonal climate pattern across Thailand over a limited time period. Eventually, such a predictive tool would help to better manage the availability and adequate supply of surface water resources to the various water users in this country. In the present study the spatial and temporal relationships between the global climate circulation system and the regional weather in Thailand are assessed by various techniques of stochastic time series analysis. More specifically, the time series of the sea surface temperature (SST) and various ocean indices of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, as well as the time series of 121 meteorological stations from 5 regions across Thailand which include humidity, evaporation, temperature and rainfall during 1950-2007 are examined using autocorrelation, ARIMA, Wavelet Transform methods. Possible teleconnections between the behaviour of the ocean states and the climate variations at meteorological stations in eastern Thailand which frequently suffers from water shortage problems are analyzed using regression, cross-correlation and the Wavelet cross-correlation method. In addition to the time series of the observed ocean and meteorological variables, 1961-2000 CGCM3 predictors of the macro-scale regional climate variations for this study area are analyzed by the methods above and correlated with the ocean indices as well. Rainfall and temperatures at selected stations are forecasted up to year 2007 using the teleconnection- relationships found by multiple linear regression with the CGCM3 predictors. In addition, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models of these climate variable are set up that are eventually extended to include the ocean indices as external regressors. The results of these various statistical techniques show that the El-Niño 1.2 SST anomaly indice of the Pacific Ocean, which

  11. Geothermal Anomaly Mapping Using Landsat ETM+ Data in Ilan Plain, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hai-Po; Chang, Chung-Pai; Dao, Phuong D.

    2018-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an increasingly important component of green energy in the globe. A prerequisite for geothermal energy development is to acquire the local and regional geothermal prospects. Existing geophysical methods of estimating the geothermal potential are usually limited to the scope of prospecting because of the operation cost and site reachability in the field. Thus, explorations in a large-scale area such as the surface temperature and the thermal anomaly primarily rely on satellite thermal infrared imagery. This study aims to apply and integrate thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing technology with existing geophysical methods for the geothermal exploration in Taiwan. Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery is used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) in Ilan plain. Accuracy assessment of satellite-derived LST is conducted by comparing with the air temperature data from 11 permanent meteorological stations. The correlation coefficient of linear regression between air temperature and LST retrieval is 0.76. The MODIS LST product is used for the cross validation of Landsat derived LSTs. Furthermore, Landsat ETM+ multi-temporal brightness temperature imagery for the verification of the LST anomaly results were performed. LST Results indicate that thermal anomaly areas appear correlating with the development of faulted structure. Selected geothermal anomaly areas are validated in detail by field investigation of hot springs and geothermal drillings. It implies that occurrences of hot springs and geothermal drillings are in good spatial agreement with anomaly areas. In addition, the significant low-resistivity zones observed in the resistivity sections are echoed with the LST profiles when compared with in the Chingshui geothermal field. Despite limited to detecting the surficial and the shallow buried geothermal resources, this work suggests that TIR remote sensing is a valuable tool by providing an effective way of mapping

  12. Evidence for ice-ocean albedo feedback in the Arctic Ocean shifting to a seasonal ice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwase, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Kay I; Nihashi, Sohey; Eicken, Hajo

    2017-08-15

    Ice-albedo feedback due to the albedo contrast between water and ice is a major factor in seasonal sea ice retreat, and has received increasing attention with the Arctic Ocean shifting to a seasonal ice cover. However, quantitative evaluation of such feedbacks is still insufficient. Here we provide quantitative evidence that heat input through the open water fraction is the primary driver of seasonal and interannual variations in Arctic sea ice retreat. Analyses of satellite data (1979-2014) and a simplified ice-upper ocean coupled model reveal that divergent ice motion in the early melt season triggers large-scale feedback which subsequently amplifies summer sea ice anomalies. The magnitude of divergence controlling the feedback has doubled since 2000 due to a more mobile ice cover, which can partly explain the recent drastic ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean.

  13. Ocean acidification alleviates low-temperature effects on growth and photosynthesis of the red alga Neosiphonia harveyi (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olischläger, Mark; Wiencke, Christian

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to examine interactive effects between ocean acidification and temperature on the photosynthetic and growth performance of Neosiphonia harveyi. N. harveyi was cultivated at 10 and 17.5 °C at present (~380 µatm), expected future (~800 µatm), and high (~1500 µatm) pCO2. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, net photosynthesis, and growth were measured. The state of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) was examined by pH-drift experiments (with algae cultivated at 10 °C only) using ethoxyzolamide, an inhibitor of external and internal carbonic anhydrases (exCA and intCA, respectively). Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acetazolamide (an inhibitor of exCA) and Tris (an inhibitor of the acidification of the diffusive boundary layer) on net photosynthesis was measured at both temperatures. Temperature affected photosynthesis (in terms of photosynthetic efficiency, light saturation point, and net photosynthesis) and growth at present pCO2, but these effects decreased with increasing pCO2. The relevance of the CCM decreased at 10 °C. A pCO2 effect on the CCM could only be shown if intCA and exCA were inhibited. The experiments demonstrate for the first time interactions between ocean acidification and temperature on the performance of a non-calcifying macroalga and show that the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis can be alleviated by increasing pCO2. The findings indicate that the carbon acquisition mediated by exCA and acidification of the diffusive boundary layer decrease at low temperatures but are not affected by the cultivation level of pCO2, whereas the activity of intCA is affected by pCO2. Ecologically, the findings suggest that ocean acidification might affect the biogeographical distribution of N. harveyi.

  14. Tropical Indian Ocean warming contributions to China winter climate trends since 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qigang; Yao, Yonghong; Liu, Shizuo; Cao, DanDan; Cheng, Luyao; Hu, Haibo; Sun, Leng; Yao, Ying; Yang, Zhiqi; Gao, Xuxu; Schroeder, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates observed and modeled contributions of global sea surface temperature (SST) to China winter climate trends in 1960-2014, including increased precipitation, warming through about 1997, and cooling since then. Observations and Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations with prescribed historical SST and sea ice show that tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warming and increasing rainfall causes diabatic heating that generates a tropospheric wave train with anticyclonic 500-hPa height anomaly centers in the TIO or equatorial western Pacific (TIWP) and northeastern Eurasia (EA) and a cyclonic anomaly over China, referred to as the TIWP-EA wave train. The cyclonic anomaly causes Indochina moisture convergence and southwesterly moist flow that enhances South China precipitation, while the northern anticyclone enhances cold surges, sometimes causing severe ice storms. AMIP simulations show a 1960-1997 China cooling trend by simulating increasing instead of decreasing Arctic 500-hPa heights that move the northern anticyclone into Siberia, but enlarge the cyclonic anomaly so it still simulates realistic China precipitation trend patterns. A separate idealized TIO SST warming simulation simulates the TIWP-EA feature more realistically with correct precipitation patterns and supports the TIWP-EA teleconnection as the primary mechanism for long-term increasing precipitation in South China since 1960. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) experiments simulate a reduced TIO SST warming trend and weak precipitation trends, so the TIWP-EA feature is absent and strong drying is simulated in South China for 1960-1997. These simulations highlight the need for accurately modeled SST to correctly attribute regional climate trends.

  15. Holonomy anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs

  16. Spontaneous abrupt climate change due to an atmospheric blocking-sea-ice-ocean feedback in an unforced climate model simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Gleeson, Emily; Dijkstra, Henk A; Livina, Valerie

    2013-12-03

    Abrupt climate change is abundant in geological records, but climate models rarely have been able to simulate such events in response to realistic forcing. Here we report on a spontaneous abrupt cooling event, lasting for more than a century, with a temperature anomaly similar to that of the Little Ice Age. The event was simulated in the preindustrial control run of a high-resolution climate model, without imposing external perturbations. Initial cooling started with a period of enhanced atmospheric blocking over the eastern subpolar gyre. In response, a southward progression of the sea-ice margin occurred, and the sea-level pressure anomaly was locked to the sea-ice margin through thermal forcing. The cold-core high steered more cold air to the area, reinforcing the sea-ice concentration anomaly east of Greenland. The sea-ice surplus was carried southward by ocean currents around the tip of Greenland. South of 70 °N, sea ice already started melting and the associated freshwater anomaly was carried to the Labrador Sea, shutting off deep convection. There, surface waters were exposed longer to atmospheric cooling and sea surface temperature dropped, causing an even larger thermally forced high above the Labrador Sea. In consequence, east of Greenland, anomalous winds changed from north to south, terminating the event with similar abruptness to its onset. Our results imply that only climate models that possess sufficient resolution to correctly represent atmospheric blocking, in combination with a sensitive sea-ice model, are able to simulate this kind of abrupt climate change.

  17. Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    Anomalies have a diverse impact on many aspects of physical phenomena. The role of anomalies in determining physical structure from the amplitude for π 0 decay to the foundations of superstring theory will be reviewed. 36 refs

  18. Potential Predictability of the Sea-Surface Temperature Forced Equatorial East Africa Short Rains Interannual Variability in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Gizaw, G.; Kucharski, F.; Diro, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the predictability of the 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) forced East African short rains variability is analyzed using observational data and ensembles of long atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. To our knowledge, such an analysis for the whole 20th century using a series of AGCM ensemble simulations is carried out here for the first time. The physical mechanisms that govern the influence of SST on East African short rains in the model are also investigated. It is found that there is substantial skill in reproducing the East African short rains variability, given that the SSTs are known. Consistent with previous recent studies, it is found that the Indian Ocean and in particular the western pole of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) play a dominant role for the prediction skill, whereas SSTs outside the Indian Ocean play a minor role. The physical mechanism for the influence of the western Indian Ocean on East African rainfall in the model is consistent with previous findings and consists of a gill-type response to a warm (cold) anomaly that induces a westerly(easterly) low-level flow anomaly over equatorial Africa and leads to moisture flux convergence (divergence) over East Africa. On the other hand, a positive El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly leads to a spatially non-coherent reducing effect over parts of East Africa, but the relationship is not strong enough to provide any predictive skill in our model. The East African short rains prediction skill is also analyzed within a model-derived potential predictability framework and it is shown that the actual prediction skill is broadly consistent with the model potential prediction skill. Low-frequency variations of the prediction skill are mostly related to SSTs outside the Indian Ocean region and are likely due to an increased interference of ENSO with the Indian Ocean influence on East African short rains after the mid-1970s climate shift.

  19. Driving Roles of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Thermal Anomalies in Intensification and Persistence of the Arctic Superstorm in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Fu, Yunfei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-10-01

    Intense synoptic-scale storms have been more frequently observed over the Arctic during recent years. Specifically, a superstorm hit the Arctic Ocean in August 2012 and preceded a new record low Arctic sea ice extent. In this study, the major physical processes responsible for the storm's intensification and persistence are explored through a series of numerical modeling experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. It is found that thermal anomalies in troposphere as well as lower stratosphere jointly lead to the development of this superstorm. Thermal contrast between the unusually warm Siberia and the relatively cold Arctic Ocean results in strong troposphere baroclinicity and upper level jet, which contribute to the storm intensification initially. On the other hand, Tropopause Polar Vortex (TPV) associated with the thermal anomaly in lower stratosphere further intensifies the upper level jet and accordingly contributes to a drastic intensification of the storm. Stacking with the enhanced surface low, TPV intensifies further, which sustains the storm to linger over the Arctic Ocean for an extended period.

  20. Severe haze in Hangzhou in winter 2013/14 and associated meteorological anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yini; Zhu, Zhiwei; Luo, Ling; Zhang, Jiwei

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol pollution over eastern China has worsened considerably in recent years, resulting in heavy haze weather with low visibility and poor air quality. The present study investigates the characteristics of haze weather in Hangzhou city, and aims to unravel the meteorological anomalies associated with the heavy haze that occurred over Hangzhou in winter 2013/14. On the interannual timescale, because of the neutral condition of tropical sea surface temperature anomalies during winter 2013/14, no significant circulation and convection anomalies were induced over East Asia, leading to a stable atmospheric condition favorable for haze weather in Hangzhou. Besides, the shift of the polar vortex, caused by changes in surface temperature and ice cover at high latitudes, induced a barotropic anomalous circulation dipole pattern. The southerly anomaly associated with this anomalous dipole pattern hindered the transportation of cold/clear air mass from Siberia to central-eastern China, leading to abnormal haze during winter 2013/14 in Hangzhou. On the intraseasonal timescale, an eastward-propagating mid-latitude Rossby wave train altered the meridional wind anomaly over East Asia, causing the intraseasonal variability of haze weather during 2013/14 in Hangzhou.

  1. Seasonal dynamics of surface chlorophyll concentration and sea surface temperature, as indicator of hydrological structure of the ocean (by satellite data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, Anatoly; Vysotskaya, Galina

    Continuous monitoring of phytopigment concentrations and sea surface temperature in the ocean by space-borne methods makes possible to estimate ecological condition of biocenoses in critical areas. Unlike land vegetation, hydrological processes largely determine phytoplank-ton dynamics, which may be either recurrent or random. The types of chlorophyll concentration dynamics and sea surface temperature can manifest as zones quasistationary by seasonal dynamics, quasistationary areas (QSA). In the papers of the authors (A. Shevyrnogov, G. Vysotskaya, E. Shevyrnogov, A study of the stationary and the anomalous in the ocean surface chlorophyll distribution by satellite data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 25, No.7-8, pp. 1383-1387, April 2004 & A. P. Shevyrnogov, G. S. Vysotskaya, J. I. Gitelson, Quasistationary areas of chlorophyll concentra-tion in the world ocean as observed satellite data Advances in Space Research, Volume 18, Issue 7, Pages 129-132, 1996) existence of zones, which are quasi-stationary with similar seasonal dynamics of chlorophyll concentration at surface layer of ocean, was shown. Results were obtained on the base of processing of time series of satellite images SeaWiFS. It was shown that fronts and frontal zones coincide with dividing lines between quasi-stationary are-as, especially in areas of large oceanic streams. To study the dynamics of the ocean for the period from 1985 through 2012 we used data on the temperature of the surface layer of the ocean and chlorophyll concentration (AVHRR, SeaWiFS and MODIS). Biota of surface oceanic layer is more stable in comparison with quickly changing surface tem-perature. It gives a possibility to circumvent influence of high-frequency component (for exam-ple, a diurnal cycle) in investigation of dynamics of spatial distribution of surface streams. In addition, an analyses of nonstable ocean productivity phenomena, stood out time series of satellite images, showed existence of areas with

  2. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-11-24

    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include

  3. Oceanic Transport of Surface Meltwater from the Southern Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Castelao, Renato M.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Bracco, Annalisa; Yager, Patricia L.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has undergone accelerating mass losses during recent decades. Freshwater runoff from ice melt can influence fjord circulation and dynamic1 and the delivery of bioavailable micronutrients to the ocean. It can also have climate implications, because stratification in the adjacent Labrador Sea may influence deep convection and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Yet, the fate of the meltwater in the ocean remains unclear. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model to show that only 1-15% of the surface meltwater runoff originating from southwest Greenland is transported westwards. In contrast, up to 50-60% of the meltwater runoff originating from southeast Greenland is transported westwards into the northern Labrador Sea, leading to significant salinity and stratification anomalies far from the coast. Doubling meltwater runoff, as predicted in future climate scenarios, results in a more-than-double increase in anomalies offshore that persists further into the winter. Interannual variability in offshore export of meltwater is tightly related to variability in wind forcing. The new insight that meltwaters originating from the west and east coasts have different fates indicates that future changes in mass loss rates and surface runoff will probably impact the ocean differently, depending on their Greenland origins.

  4. A dipole pattern in the Indian and Pacific oceans and its relationship with the East Asian summer monsoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates a robust relationship between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean dipole (IPOD) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using observational datasets and sensitivity tests from the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The IPOD, which is a significant pattern of boreal summer SSTA in the Indian and Pacific oceans characterized by positive (negative) sea-surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the North Pacific and negative (positive) SSTA in the IPWP, appears around May, intensifies in the following months, and weakens in September. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with the axis of the WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (letter)

  5. Anomaly-free models for flavour anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Tunney, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    We explore the constraints imposed by the cancellation of triangle anomalies on models in which the flavour anomalies reported by LHCb and other experiments are due to an extra U(1)^' gauge boson Z^' . We assume universal and rational U(1)^' charges for the first two generations of left-handed quarks and of right-handed up-type quarks but allow different charges for their third-generation counterparts. If the right-handed charges vanish, cancellation of the triangle anomalies requires all the quark U(1)^' charges to vanish, if there are either no exotic fermions or there is only one Standard Model singlet dark matter (DM) fermion. There are non-trivial anomaly-free models with more than one such `dark' fermion, or with a single DM fermion if right-handed up-type quarks have non-zero U(1)^' charges. In some of the latter models the U(1)^' couplings of the first- and second-generation quarks all vanish, weakening the LHC Z^' constraint, and in some other models the DM particle has purely axial couplings, weakening the direct DM scattering constraint. We also consider models in which anomalies are cancelled via extra vector-like leptons, showing how the prospective LHC Z^' constraint may be weakened because the Z^' → μ ^+ μ ^- branching ratio is suppressed relative to other decay modes.

  6. Temperature, salinity, and other data from CTD casts in the Indian Ocean and other locations from 19890901 to 19910831 (NODC Accession 9700263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and other data were collected from CTD casts in the Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, and other locations from 01 September 1989 to 31 August...

  7. North Atlantic atmospheric and ocean inter-annual variability over the past fifty years - Dominant patterns and decadal shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Tristan; Demirov, Entcho; Zhu, Jieshun; Yashayaev, Igor

    2015-03-01

    positive over the eastern SPNA. The long term impact of the weather regimes on the regional climate is characterized by their distribution; i.e. the frequency of occurrence and persistence in time of each of them. Four typical distributions of the weather regimes are identified in this study which are associated with four dominant spatial interannual patterns representing the phases of two asymmetrical "modes". The first two patterns have the spatial structures of positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The third and fourth patterns, here referred to as G+ and G-, define the opposite phases of a mode, that has a spatial structure defined by three centers found over Florida, south of Greenland and over Scandinavia. The NAO+ interannual patterns are associated with negative anomalies of the surface downward heat flux and ocean heat content over the SPNA. The NAO- and G+ are associated with positive anomalies of heat flux and ocean heat content. In the 1960s the dominant NAO- and G+ interannual patterns favored warmer than normal atmospheric and ocean temperatures over the SPNA. The winters in the late 1980s and early 1990s over the SPNA were colder than normal. This decadal shift in the atmospheric state between 1970s and 1980s was associated with a change in the dominant interannual patterns towards NAO+ and G- in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The recent warming of the SPNA since the mid-1990s was related to dominance of the G+/G- interannual patterns in the distribution of interannual patterns probability membership. Our analysis suggests that this decadal variability was associated with long term shifts in atmospheric behavior over the SPNA that can be described by a change in the 1980s of the distribution of membership probabilities for the interannual patterns. Within the interannual pattern phase space, this change is characterized with a shift from the NAO-/G+/G- subspace in the 1950 and 1960s, towards NAO+/G+/G- since the mid 1980s.

  8. Deep-Water Acoustic Anomalies from Methane Hydrate in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren T.; Barth, Ginger A.; Scholl, David W.; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina

    2015-01-01

    A recent expedition to the central Bering Sea, one of the most remote locations in the world, has yielded observations confirming gas and gas hydrates in this deep ocean basin. Significant sound speed anomalies found using inversion of pre-stack seismic data are observed in association with variable seismic amplitude anomalies in the thick sediment column. The anomalously low sound speeds below the inferred base of methane hydrate stability indicate the presence of potentially large quantities of gas-phase methane associated with each velocity-amplitude anomaly (VAMP). The data acquired are of such high quality that quantitative estimates of the concentrations of gas hydrates in the upper few hundred meters of sediment are also possible, and analyses are under way to make these estimates. Several VAMPs were specifically targeted in this survey; others were crossed incidentally. Indications of many dozens or hundreds of these features exist throughout the portion of the Bering Sea relevant to the U.S. extended continental shelf (ECS) consistent with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 

  9. Decadal climate predictability in the southern Indian Ocean captured by SINTEX-F using a simple SST-nudging scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Yushi; Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin K

    2018-01-26

    Decadal climate variability in the southern Indian Ocean has great influences on southern African climate through modulation of atmospheric circulation. Although many efforts have been made to understanding physical mechanisms, predictability of the decadal climate variability, in particular, the internally generated variability independent from external atmospheric forcing, remains poorly understood. This study investigates predictability of the decadal climate variability in the southern Indian Ocean using a coupled general circulation model, called SINTEX-F. The ensemble members of the decadal reforecast experiments were initialized with a simple sea surface temperature (SST) nudging scheme. The observed positive and negative peaks during late 1990s and late 2000s are well reproduced in the reforecast experiments initiated from 1994 and 1999, respectively. The experiments initiated from 1994 successfully capture warm SST and high sea level pressure anomalies propagating from the South Atlantic to the southern Indian Ocean. Also, the other experiments initiated from 1999 skillfully predict phase change from a positive to negative peak. These results suggest that the SST-nudging initialization has the essence to capture the predictability of the internally generated decadal climate variability in the southern Indian Ocean.

  10. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  11. Full-field initialized decadal predictions with the MPI earth system model: an initial shock in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Jürgen; Pohlmann, Holger; Sienz, Frank; Marotzke, Jochem; Baehr, Johanna; Köhl, Armin; Modali, Kameswarrao; Polkova, Iuliia; Stammer, Detlef; Vamborg, Freja S. E.; Müller, Wolfgang A.

    2017-12-01

    Our decadal climate prediction system, which is based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model, is initialized from a coupled assimilation run that utilizes nudging to selected state parameters from reanalyses. We apply full-field nudging in the atmosphere and either full-field or anomaly nudging in the ocean. Full fields from two different ocean reanalyses are considered. This comparison of initialization strategies focuses on the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (SPG) region, where the transition from anomaly to full-field nudging reveals large differences in prediction skill for sea surface temperature and ocean heat content (OHC). We show that nudging of temperature and salinity in the ocean modifies OHC and also induces changes in mass and heat transports associated with the ocean flow. In the SPG region, the assimilated OHC signal resembles well OHC from observations, regardless of using full fields or anomalies. The resulting ocean transport, on the other hand, reveals considerable differences between full-field and anomaly nudging. In all assimilation runs, ocean heat transport together with net heat exchange at the surface does not correspond to OHC tendencies, the SPG heat budget is not closed. Discrepancies in the budget in the cases of full-field nudging exceed those in the case of anomaly nudging by a factor of 2-3. The nudging-induced changes in ocean transport continue to be present in the free running hindcasts for up to 5 years, a clear expression of memory in our coupled system. In hindcast mode, on annual to inter-annual scales, ocean heat transport is the dominant driver of SPG OHC. Thus, we ascribe a significant reduction in OHC prediction skill when using full-field instead of anomaly initialization to an initialization shock resulting from the poor initialization of the ocean flow.

  12. Crustal Magnetic Field Anomalies and Global Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storetvedt, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    A wide variety of evidence suggests that the ruling isochron (geomagnetic polarity versus age) hypothesis of marine magnetic lineations has no merit - undermining therefore one of the central tenets of plate tectonics. Instead, variable induction by the ambient geomagnetic field is likely to be the principal agent for mega-scale crustal magnetic features - in both oceanic and continental settings. This revitalizes the fault-controlled susceptibility-contrast model of marine magnetic lineations, originally proposed in the late 1960s. Thus, the marine magnetic 'striping' may be ascribed to tectonic shearing and related, but variable, disintegration of the original iron-oxide mineralogy, having developed primarily along one of the two pan-global sets of orthogonal fractures and faults. In this way, fault zones (having the more advanced mineral alteration) would be characterized by relatively low susceptibility, while more moderately affected crustal sections (located between principal fault zones) would be likely to have less altered oxide mineralogy and therefore higher magnetic susceptibility. On this basis, induction by the present geomagnetic field is likely to produce oscillating magnetic field anomalies with axis along the principal shear grain. The modus operandi of the alternative magneto-tectonic interpretation is inertia-driven wrenching of the global Alpine age palaeo-lithosphere - triggered by changes in Earth's rotation. Increasing sub-crustal loss to the upper mantle during the Upper Mesozoic had left the ensuing Alpine Earth in a tectonically unstable state. Thus, sub-crustal eclogitization and associated gravity-driven delamination to the upper mantle led to a certain degree of planetary acceleration which in turn gave rise to latitude-dependent, westward inertial wrenching of the global palaeo-lithosphere. During this process, 1) the thin and mechanically fragile oceanic crust were deformed into a new type of broad fold belts, and 2) the continents

  13. ANALISA ANOMALI GAYABERAT TERHADAP KONDISI TATANAN TEKTONIK ZONA SUBDUKSI SUNDA MEGATHRUST DI SEBELAH BARAT PULAU SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Thea Saraswati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aktivitas tektonik yang terjadi di bumi merupakan hal yang masih terus diteliti sampai sekarang. Sumatera yang terletak pada area Sunda Megathrust, yang merupakan zona subduksi Lempeng Indo-Australia dan Lempeng Eurasia, mengakibatkan daerah ini rentan dengan aktivitas seismogenic. Salah satu akibat dari adanya pergerakan kedua lempeng ini adalah terbentuknya tatanan tektonik di wilayah Sumatera. GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer menawarkan metode yang cepat dengan cakupan global untuk mendapatkan data gayaberat bumi. Dengan memanfaatkan hitungan dari spherical harmonic coeffisien (SHC serta dilengkapi dengan data Digital Elevation Model (DEM, dapat diketahui nilai anomali gayaberat pada suatu wilayah. Distribusi anomali gayaberat mampu mencerminkan kondisi tektonik di suatu area. Variasi spasial dari anomali gayaberat menunjukkan bahwa pada palung yang terbentuk akibat subduksi kedua lempeng memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat negatif dengan nilai rata-rata sebesar -42.8729 mgal. Forearc ridge yang terbentuk akibat konvergensi lempeng memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat positif, sedangkan forearc basin yang merupakan cekungan diantara backarc dan forearc ridge, memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat negatif yang lebih kuat daripada yang terdapat pada Sunda Megathrust. Variasi temporal yang teramati menunjukkan bahwa distribusi anomali gayaberat positif yang terdapat pada prisma akresi di kedua tepian palung bergerak semakin mendekati Sunda Megathrust pada tiap seri pengamatannya, sedangkan distribusi anomali gayaberat negatif pada palung laut dan forearc basin membentuk suatu  pola distribusi yang semakin menyempit sehingga menyebabkan semakin curamnya gradient anomali gayaberat pada area di sekitarnya.

  14. How autumn Eurasian snow anomalies affect east asian winter monsoon: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have found that snow Eurasian anomalies in autumn can affect East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), but the mechanisms remain controversial and not well understood. The possible mechanisms by which Eurasian autumn snow anomalies affect EAWM are investigated by numerical experiments with a coupled general circulation model and its atmospheric general circulation model component. The leading empirical orthogonal function mode of the October-November mean Eurasian snow cover is characterized by a uniform anomaly over a broad region of central Eurasia (40°N-65°N, 60°E-140°E). However, the results from a 150-ensemble mean simulation with snow depth anomaly specified in October and November reveal that the Mongolian Plateau and Vicinity (MPV, 40°-55°N, 80°-120°E) is the key region for autumn snow anomalies to affect EAWM. The excessive snow forcing can significantly enhance EAWM and the snowfall over the northwestern China and along the EAWM front zone stretching from the southeast China to Japan. The physical process involves a snow-monsoon feedback mechanism. The excessive autumn snow anomalies over the MPV region can persist into the following winter, and significantly enhance winter snow anomalies, which increase surface albedo, reduce incoming solar radiation and cool the boundary layer air, leading to an enhanced Mongolian High and a deepened East Asian trough. The latter, in turn, strengthen surface northwesterly winds, cooling East Asia and increasing snow accumulation over the MPV region and the southeastern China. The increased snow covers feedback to EAWM system through changing albedo, extending its influence southeastward. It is also found that the atmosphere-ocean coupling process can amplify the delayed influence of Eurasian snow mass anomaly on EAWM. The autumn surface albedo anomalies, however, do not have a lasting "memory" effect. Only if the albedo anomalies are artificially extended into December and January, will the EAWM be

  15. Impact of Air Temperature and SST Variability on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit

    2010-05-01

    The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the temperature, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface temperature. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate variability. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air temperature has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate variability has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual temperature time series: Regional scale: a) Air temperature for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface temperature, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air temperature anomaly; b) Sea surface temperature anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following

  16. Diagnosing low earth orbit satellite anomalies using NOAA-15 electron data associated with geomagnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nizam; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Djamaluddin, Thomas; Usui, Hideyuki; Miyake, Yohei

    2018-05-01

    A satellite placed in space is constantly affected by the space environment, resulting in various impacts from temporary faults to permanent failures depending on factors such as satellite orbit, solar and geomagnetic activities, satellite local time, and satellite construction material. Anomaly events commonly occur during periods of high geomagnetic activity that also trigger plasma variation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. In this study, we diagnosed anomalies in LEO satellites using electron data from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-15 satellite. In addition, we analyzed the fluctuation of electron flux in association with geomagnetic disturbances 3 days before and after the anomaly day. We selected 20 LEO anomaly cases registered in the Satellite News Digest database for the years 2000-2008. Satellite local time, an important parameter for anomaly diagnosis, was determined using propagated two-line element data in the SGP4 simplified general perturbation model to calculate the longitude of the ascending node of the satellite through the position and velocity vectors. The results showed that the majority of LEO satellite anomalies are linked to low-energy electron fluxes of 30-100 keV and magnetic perturbations that had a higher correlation coefficient ( 90%) on the day of the anomaly. The mean local time calculation for the anomaly day with respect to the nighttime migration of energetic electrons revealed that the majority of anomalies (65%) occurred on the night side of Earth during the dusk-to-dawn sector of magnetic local time.

  17. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

    2014-11-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  18. ADMAP-2: The next-generation Antarctic magnetic anomaly map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom; Damaske, Detlef; Blankenship, Don; Holt, Jack; Young, Duncan; Ivanov, Sergey; Kiselev, Alexander; Jokat, Wilfried; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme; Bell, Robin; Armadillo, Egidio; Bozzo, Emanuelle; Caneva, Giorgio; Finn, Carol; Forsberg, Rene; Aitken, Alan

    2017-04-01

    The Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project compiled the first international magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic region south of 60°S (ADMAP-1) some six years after its 1995 launch (Golynsky et al., 2001; Golynsky et al., 2007; von Frese et al., 2007). This magnetic anomaly compilation provided new insights into the structure and evolution of Antarctica, including its Proterozoic-Archaean cratons, Proterozoic-Palaeozoic orogens, Palaeozoic-Cenozoic magmatic arc systems, continental rift systems and rifted margins, large igneous provinces and the surrounding oceanic gateways. The international working group produced the ADMAP-1 database from more than 1.5 million line-kilometres of terrestrial, airborne, marine and satellite magnetic observations collected during the IGY 1957-58 through 1999. Since the publication of the first magnetic anomaly map, the international geomagnetic community has acquired more than 1.9 million line-km of new airborne and marine data. This implies that the amount of magnetic anomaly data over the Antarctic continent has more than doubled. These new data provide important constraints on the geology of the enigmatic Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and Prince Charles Mountains, Wilkes Land, Dronning Maud Land, and other largely unexplored Antarctic areas (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Aitken et al., 2014¸ Mieth & Jokat, 2014, Golynsky et al., 2013). The processing of the recently acquired data involved quality assessments by careful statistical analysis of the crossover errors. All magnetic data used in the ADMAP-2 compilation were delivered as profiles, although several of them were in raw form. Some datasets were decimated or upward continued to altitudes of 4 km or higher with the higher frequency geological signals smoothed out. The line data used for the ADMAP-1 compilation were reprocessed for obvious errors and residual corrugations. The new near-surface magnetic data were corrected for the international geomagnetic reference field

  19. Oceanographic profile Biomass, temperature salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from Alpha Helix in the Pacific Ocean from 1976 (NODC Accession 0002070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the ALPHA HELIX in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 06...

  20. Co-occurring Synechococcus ecotypes occupy four major oceanic regimes defined by temperature, macronutrients and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohm, Jill A; Ahlgren, Nathan A; Thomson, Zachary J; Williams, Cheryl; Moffett, James W; Saito, Mak A; Webb, Eric A; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2016-02-01

    Marine picocyanobacteria, comprised of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, are the most abundant and widespread primary producers in the ocean. More than 20 genetically distinct clades of marine Synechococcus have been identified, but their physiology and biogeography are not as thoroughly characterized as those of Prochlorococcus. Using clade-specific qPCR primers, we measured the abundance of 10 Synechococcus clades at 92 locations in surface waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. We found that Synechococcus partition the ocean into four distinct regimes distinguished by temperature, macronutrients and iron availability. Clades I and IV were prevalent in colder, mesotrophic waters; clades II, III and X dominated in the warm, oligotrophic open ocean; clades CRD1 and CRD2 were restricted to sites with low iron availability; and clades XV and XVI were only found in transitional waters at the edges of the other biomes. Overall, clade II was the most ubiquitous clade investigated and was the dominant clade in the largest biome, the oligotrophic open ocean. Co-occurring clades that occupy the same regime belong to distinct evolutionary lineages within Synechococcus, indicating that multiple ecotypes have evolved independently to occupy similar niches and represent examples of parallel evolution. We speculate that parallel evolution of ecotypes may be a common feature of diverse marine microbial communities that contributes to functional redundancy and the potential for resiliency.

  1. Seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Bhattacharya, G.C; Rao, D.G.

    . A new geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J. Geophys. Res., 97: 13,917-13,951. Cande, S.C., La Brecque, J.L., Larson, R.L., Pitman, W.C., Golovchenko, X. and Haxby, W.F., 1989. Magnetic linea- tions of the world....O., Herron, E.M., Pitman, W.C. and Le Pichon, X., 1968. Marine magnetic anomalies, geomagnetic field reversals, and motions of the ocean floor and continents. J. Geophys. Res., 73: 2119-2136. McKenzie, D.P. and Sclater, J.G., 1971. The evolution...

  2. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) at selected coral reef locations across the Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  3. Evaporation/SST Sensitivity Over the Tropical Oceans During ENSO Events as Estimated from the da Silva, Young, Levitus Surface Marine Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Fitzjarrald, D. E.; Sohn, B.-J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The da Silva, Young and Levitus Surface Marine Atlas, based on observations from the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) Release 1, has been used to investigate the relationship between evaporation and sea-surface temperature (SST) over the global oceans. For the period 1950 to 1987 SST, surface latent heat flux, and other related variables have been filtered to minimize data uncertainties and to focus upon interannual variations associated with warm (El Nino) and cold (La Nina) ENSO events. Compositing procedures have enabled identification of systematic variations in latent heat fluxes accompanying these events and the relationship to spatial anomalies in ocean surface wind speed and humidity. The evaporation response associated with ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) variability is systematic in nature and composed of offsetting contributions from the surface wind and humidity variations. During warm events exceeding 1.0 S.D. delta SST, increases in the surface humidity deficit, delta(qs-qa), between the surface and 2m height dominate regions of positive SST anomalies and lead to increases in evaporation of almost 2 Wm (exp -2) at deltaSST = 0.23 K. Despite the increases in specific humidity, relative humidity decreases slightly in regions of elevated SSTs. For the most part, variations in wind speed are consistent with previous investigations. Weakening of the equatorial easterlies (and generation of westerlies) between 160 degrees E and 140 degrees W dominates during the early phases of warm events. Elevated wind speeds in adjacent subtropical regions and in the eastern equatorial Pacific subsequently develop too. The net contribution of these winds, which reflect adjustments in Hadley and Walker circulation components is toward reduced evaporation. Results for cold periods are approximately similar, but opposite in sign to warm events, though evidence of different temporal evolution is noted.

  4. Influence of Atlantic on the warming and reduction of sea ice in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Alekseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of anomalies of the sea surface temperature (SST in low latitudes of the North Atlantic on the sea ice cover and the near-surface air temperature in the marine Arctic is discussed in the article. Data on the SST in the Atlantic Ocean from the HadISST dataset, climatic series of the water temperature at the section along the Kola meridian together with mean monthly data on the sea ice extent and the air surface temperature in the Maritime Arctic and the Northern hemisphere were analyzed. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis was applied to determine the maximum correlation coefficients between the SST anomalies, climate characteristics and their corresponding delays within time limits of 33 to 38 months. Existence of intimate link had been found between changes of the Atlantic SST in low latitudes and the sea ice extent in the Arctic with correlation coefficients up to 0.90 and delays up to 3 years. A mechanism of formation of the remote influence of low-latitude SST anomalies on the sea ice anomalies in the Arctic Ocean is proposed. The interpretation of this mechanism includes into consideration the interaction between atmospheric and oceanic circulation modes.

  5. Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data from bottle in South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989 (NODC Accession 0000196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data were collected using bottle in the South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989. Data were collected...

  6. Characteristics of coupled atmosphere-ocean CO2 sensitivity experiments with different ocean formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, W.M.; Meehl, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research has been coupled to a simple mixed-layer ocean model and to a coarse-grid ocean general circulation model (OGCM). This paper compares the responses of simulated climate to increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in these two coupled models. Three types of simulations were run: (1) control runs with both ocean models, with CO 2 held constant at present-day concentrations, (2) instantaneous doubling of atmospheric CO 2 (from 330 to 660 ppm) with both ocean models, and (3) a gradually increasing (transient) CO 2 concentration starting at 330 ppm and increasing linearly at 1% per year, with the OGCM. The mixed-layer and OGCM cases exhibit increases of 3.5 C and 1.6 C, respectively, in globally averaged surface air temperature for the instantaneous doubling cases. The transient-forcing case warms 0.7 C by the end of 30 years. The mixed-layer ocean yields warmer-than-observed tropical temperatures and colder-than-observed temperatures in the higher latitudes. The coarse-grid OGCM simulates lower-than-observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropics and higher-than-observed SSTs and reduced sea-ice extent at higher latitudes. Sensitivity in the OGCM after 30 years is much lower than in simulations with the same atmosphere coupled to a 50-m slab-ocean mixed layer. The OGCM simulates a weaker thermohaline circulation with doubled CO 2 as the high-latitude ocean-surface layer warms and freshens and the westerly wind stress decreases. Convective overturning in the OGCM decreases substantially with CO 2 warming

  7. Characteristics of coupled atmosphere-ocean CO2 sensitivity experiments with different ocean formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, W.M.; Meehl, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research has been coupled to a simple mixed-layer ocean model and to a coarse-grid ocean general circulation model (OGCM). This paper compares the responses of simulated climate to increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in these two coupled models. Three types of simulations were run: (1) control runs with both ocean models, with CO 2 held constant at present-day concentrations, (2) instantaneous doubling of atmospheric CO 2 (from 330 to 660 ppm) with both ocean models, and (3) a gradually increasing (transient) CO 2 concentration starting at 330 ppm and increasing linearly at 1% per year, with the OGCM. The mixed-layer and OGCM cases exhibit increases of 3.5 C and 1.6 C, respectively, in globally averaged surface air temperature for the instantaneous doubling cases. The transient-forcing case warms 0.7 C by the end of 30 years. The mixed-layer ocean yields warmer-than-observed tropical temperatures and colder-than-observed temperatures in the higher latitudes. The coarse-grid OGCM simulates lower-than-observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the tropics and higher-than-observed SSTs and reduced sea-ice extent at higher latitudes. Sensitivity in the OGCM after 30 years is much lower than in simulations with the same atmosphere coupled to a 50-m slab-ocean mixed layer. The OGCM simulates a weaker thermohaline circulation with doubled CO 2 as the high-latitude ocean-surface layer warms and freshens and the westerly wind stress decreases. Convective overturning in the OGCM decreases substantially with CO 2 warming. 46 refs.; 20 figs.; 1 tab

  8. On the relationship between the early spring Indian Ocean's sea surface temperature (SST) and the Tibetan Plateau atmospheric heat source in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Cheng, Qiuming; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tingchen; San Liang, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of springtime Indian Ocean's sea surface temperature (SST) on the Tibetan Plateau's role as atmospheric heat source (AHS) in summer. The SST data of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set (HadISST) and the reanalysis data of the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for 33 years (from 1979 to 2011) were used to analyze the relationship between the Indian Ocean SST and the Tibetan Plateau's AHS in summer, using the approaches that include correlation analysis, and lead-lag analysis. Our results show that some certain strong oceanic SSTs affect the summer plateau heat, specially finding that the early spring SSTs of the Indian Ocean significantly affect the plateau's ability to serve as a heat source in summer. Moreover, the anomalous atmospheric circulation and transport of water vapor are related to the Plateau heat variation.

  9. A New Paradigm for New Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.; Doré, A. G.; Franke, D.; Geoffroy, L.; Gernigon, L.; Hole, M.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Julian, B. R.; Kusznir, N.; Martinez, F.; Natland, J. H.; Peace, A.; Petersen, K. D.; Schiffer, C.; Stephenson, R.; Stoker, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The original simple theory of plate tectonics had to be refined to accommodate second-order geological features such as back-arc basins and continental deformation zones. We propose an additional refinement that is required by complexities that form and persist in new oceans when inhomogeneous continental lithosphere/tectosphere disintegrates. Such complexities include continual plate-boundary reorganizations and migrations, distributed continental material in the ocean, propagating and dying ridges, and sagging, flexing and tilting in the oceans and at continent-ocean boundary zones. Reorganizations of stress and motion persist, resulting in variable orientations over short distances, tectonic reactivations, complex plate boundary configurations including multiple triple junctions, and the formation and abandonment of oceanic microplates. Resulting local compressions and extensions are manifest as bathymetric anomalies, vertical motions, and distributed volcanism at various times and places as the new ocean grows. Examples of regions that exhibit some or all of these features include the North Atlantic, the Rio Grande Rise/Walvis Ridge region of the South Atlantic, and the Seychelles-Mauritius region in the Indian Ocean. We suggest that these complexities arise as a result of the formation of new spreading plate boundaries by rifts propagating through continental lithosphere/tectosphere that is anisotropic as a result of inherited structure/composition and/or a sub-lithospheric mantle destabilized by lithospheric-controlled processes. Such scenarios result in complicated disintegration of continents and local persistent dynamic instability in the new ocean.

  10. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank synoptic-scale events and their relation to Weather Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Gimeno, L.; Nieto, R.; Añel, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Several methods have been developed to rank meteorological events in terms of severity, social impact or economic impacts. These classifications are not always objective since they depend of several factors, for instance, the observation network is biased towards the densely populated urban areas against rural or oceanic areas. It is also very important to note that not all rare synoptic-scale meteorological events attract significant media attention. In this work we use a comprehensive method of classifying synoptic-scale events adapted from Hart and Grumm, 2001, to the European region (30N-60N, 30W-15E). The main motivation behind this method is that the more unusual the event (a cold outbreak, a heat wave, or a flood), for a given region, the higher ranked it must be. To do so, we use four basic meteorological variables (Height, Temperature, Wind and Specific Humidity) from NCEP reanalysis dataset over the range of 1000hPa to 200hPa at a daily basis from 1948 to 2004. The climatology used embraces the 1961-1990 period. For each variable, the analysis of raking climatological anomalies was computed taking into account the daily normalized departure from climatology at different levels. For each day (from 1948 to 2004) we have four anomaly measures, one for each variable, and another, a combined where the anomaly (total anomaly) is the average of the anomaly of the four variables. Results will be analyzed on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. Seasonal trends and variability will also be shown. In addition, and given the extent of the database, the expected return periods associated with the anomalies are revealed. Moreover, we also use an automated version of the Lamb weather type (WT) classification scheme (Jones et al, 1993) adapted for the Galicia area (Northwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula) by Lorenzo et al (2008) in order to compute the daily local circulation regimes in this area. By combining the corresponding daily WT with the five anomaly

  12. Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean's surface mixed layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jeremy W; Lin, Yajuan; Gainer, P Jackson; Post, Anton F; Johnson, Zackary I; Zinser, Erik R

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of the phytoplankton communities in surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean are numerically dominated by one of two ecotypes of Prochlorococcus, eMIT9312 or eMED4. In this study, we surveyed large latitudinal transects in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean to determine if these ecotypes discretely partition the surface mixed layer niche, or if populations exist as a continuum along key environmental gradients, particularly temperature. Transitions of dominance occurred at approximately 19-21°C, with the eMED4 ecotype dominating the colder, and eMIT9312 ecotype dominating the warmer regions. Within these zones of regional dominance, however, the minority ecotype was not competed to extinction. Rather, a robust log-linear relationship between ecotype ratio and temperature characterized this stabilized coexistence: for every 2.5°C increase in temperature, the eMIT9312:eMED4 ratio increased by an order of magnitude. This relationship was observed in both quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in pyrosequencing assays. Water column stratification also contributed to the ecotype ratio along the basin-scale transects, but to a lesser extent. Finally, instances where the ratio of the eMED4 and eMIT9312 abundances did not correlate well with temperature were identified. Such occurrences are likely due to changes in water temperatures outpacing changes in community structure. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and plankton measurements collected using bottle from the Parizeau in the North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 0002242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, oxygen and other profile data received at NODC on 09/09/04 by Sydney Levitus from the Institute of Ocean Sciences (Sidney, B.C.), digitized...

  14. 2012/13 abnormal cold winter in Japan associated with Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation and Local Sea Surface Temperature over the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Y.; Ogi, M.; Tachibana, Y.

    2013-12-01

    On Japan, wintertime cold wave has social, economic, psychological and political impacts because of the lack of atomic power stations in the era of post Fukushima world. The colder winter is the more electricity is needed. Wintertime weather of Japan and its prediction has come under the world spotlight. The winter of 2012/13 in Japan was abnormally cold, and such a cold winter has persisted for 3 years. Wintertime climate of Japan is governed by some dominant modes of the large-scale atmospheric circulations. Yasunaka and Hanawa (2008) demonstrated that the two dominant modes - Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) pattern - account for about 65% of the interannual variation of the wintertime mean surface air temperature of Japan. A negative AO brings about cold winter in Japan. In addition, a negative WP also brings about cold winter in Japan. Looking back to the winter of 2012/13, both the negative AO and negative WP continued from October through December. If the previous studies were correct, it would have been extremely very cold from October through December. In fact, in December, in accordance with previous studies, it was colder than normal. Contrary to the expectation, in October and November, it was, however, warmer than normal. This discrepancy signifies that an additional hidden circumstance that heats Japan overwhelms these large-scale atmospheric circulations that cool Japan. In this study, we therefore seek an additional cause of wintertime climate of Japan particularly focusing 2012 as well as the AO and WP. We found that anomalously warm oceanic temperature surrounding Japan overwhelmed influences of the AO or WP. Unlike the inland climate, the island climate can be strongly influenced by surrounding ocean temperature, suggesting that large-scale atmospheric patterns alone do not determine the climate of islands. (a) Time series of a 5-day running mean AO index (blue) as defined by Ogi et al., (2004), who called it the SVNAM index. For

  15. Temperature profile data from XBT and BT casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1987-04-02 to 1987-11-24 (NODC Accession 8800007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South...

  16. An Updated Geophysical Model for AMSR-E and SSMIS Brightness Temperature Simulations over Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Zabolotskikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we considered the geophysical model for microwave brightness temperature (BT simulation for the Atmosphere-Ocean System under non-precipitating conditions. The model is presented as a combination of atmospheric absorption and ocean emission models. We validated this model for two satellite instruments—for Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E onboard Aqua satellite and for Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS onboard F16 satellite of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP series. We compared simulated BT values with satellite BT measurements for different combinations of various water vapor and oxygen absorption models and wind induced ocean emission models. A dataset of clear sky atmospheric and oceanic parameters, collocated in time and space with satellite measurements, was used for the comparison. We found the best model combination, providing the least root mean square error between calculations and measurements. A single combination of models ensured the best results for all considered radiometric channels. We also obtained the adjustments to simulated BT values, as averaged differences between the model simulations and satellite measurements. These adjustments can be used in any research based on modeling data for removing model/calibration inconsistencies. We demonstrated the application of the model by means of the development of the new algorithm for sea surface wind speed retrieval from AMSR-E data.

  17. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, and oxygen measurements collected from BLUE FIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1988 to 1993 (NODC Accession 0002230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from the BLUE FIN in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 26 September 1988 to 18...

  18. Chemical and temperature profile data from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 9700022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and temperature profile data were collected from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean. Data were submitted by the Japan...

  19. Magnetic Mineralogy of a Complete Oceanic Crustal Section (IODP hole 1256D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasa, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Acton, G.; Rodriguez Durand, S.

    2008-12-01

    Oceanic crust is the carrier of the marine magnetic anomalies and is therefore a valuable archive of geomagnetic information. Hole 1256D, which was drilled during ODP leg 206 and IODP expeditions 309 and 312, was the first to retrieve a core comprising of an entire sequence of oceanic crust down to the gabbro. This provides a unique opportunity to study the carriers of the marine magnetic anomalies. We used reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis in addition to rock magnetic measurements to study the grain size, morphology, composition, and alteration state of the magnetic minerals. This comprehensive data set allows us not only to understand the magnetic stability of the minerals but also the mode and timing of remanence acquisition. The extrusive layer contains dendritic, low-temperature (LT) oxidized titanomagnetites (TMs) typical for mid- ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). The initial composition of these is close to previously reported values for MORB TMs with an ulvöspinel content of about 60%. The degree of LT oxidation remains fairly constant across the whole extrusive part of the section with an oxidation parameter z=0.6. Therefore, the increase in Curie temperature from 200C at the top to about 500C at the bottom of the extrusives cannot be accounted for by LT oxidation alone. Instead, we favor a model involving submicron inversion of LT oxidized TMs to an intergrowth of TMs and nonmagnetic phases, where the Ti-content of the TM phase is continuously decreasing with depth due to higher inversion temperatures. In the underlying sheeted dykes and gabbros, TMs precipitated as the primary opaque phase, as well. Due to the slower cooling rate, these particles are in most cases oxy-exsolved and form lamellar intergrowths of Ti- poor TMs and ilmenite. After emplacement, these minerals were altered to a much higher degree than the extrusive lavas. Secondary minerals frequently replace the original TMs, and the

  20. Temperature profile data collected using XBT from the KANA KEOKI from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1979-02-06 to 1980-06-14 (NODC Accession 8100518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, and other data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KANA KEOKI in the Pacific Ocean from February 6, 1979 to June 14, 1980....

  1. Temperature, pressure, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean from 29 April 1975 to 26 January 1976 (NODC Accession 7700668)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, pressure, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected by the Massachusetts Institute of...

  2. Temperature profile data collected using current meter, mooring, thermistor casts from the Atlantic Ocean in part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment from 11 March 1973 to 01 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7700106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using current meter, mooring, thermistor casts from March 11, 1973 to July 1, 1973. Data were submitted by Woods Hole Oceanographic...

  3. Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.

    2007-01-01

    The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value

  4. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 22 February to 1975-05-27 (NODC Accession 7800703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MOANA WAVE in the Pacific Ocean from February 22, 1975 to May 27, 1975. Data were...

  5. Turtle carapace anomalies: the roles of genetic diversity and environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Velo-Antón

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic anomalies are common in wild populations and multiple genetic, biotic and abiotic factors might contribute to their formation. Turtles are excellent models for the study of developmental instability because anomalies are easily detected in the form of malformations, additions, or reductions in the number of scutes or scales.In this study, we integrated field observations, manipulative experiments, and climatic and genetic approaches to investigate the origin of carapace scute anomalies across Iberian populations of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The proportion of anomalous individuals varied from 3% to 69% in local populations, with increasing frequency of anomalies in northern regions. We found no significant effect of climatic and soil moisture, or climatic temperature on the occurrence of anomalies. However, lower genetic diversity and inbreeding were good predictors of the prevalence of scute anomalies among populations. Both decreasing genetic diversity and increasing proportion of anomalous individuals in northern parts of the Iberian distribution may be linked to recolonization events from the Southern Pleistocene refugium.Overall, our results suggest that developmental instability in turtle carapace formation might be caused, at least in part, by genetic factors, although the influence of environmental factors affecting the developmental stability of turtle carapace cannot be ruled out. Further studies of the effects of environmental factors, pollutants and heritability of anomalies would be useful to better understand the complex origin of anomalies in natural populations.

  6. Predictability over the North Atlantic ocean in hindcast ensembles of MPI-ESM initialized by EnKF and three nudging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Holger; Düsterhus, Andre; Kröger, Jürgen; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    We investigate hindcast skill for surface air temperature and upper ocean heat content (0-700m) in the North Atlantic for yearly mean values from 1960 to 2014 in four prediction systems based on the global coupled Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We find that in the North Atlantic and within the four prediction systems under consideration only the EnKF initialized hindcasts reproduce the variability of the reference data well both in terms of anomaly correlation and representation of the probability density function. The systems under consideration only differ in the method how they incorporate surface and sub-surface oceanic temperatures and salinities during assimilation: ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), anomaly nudging of ORA reanalysis (BS-1), full field nudging of ORA and GECCO reanalysis, respectively (PT-ORA, PT-GEC). We assess the hindcast skill of each prediction system with reference to HadCRUT4 near surface air temperature data (Morice et al. 2012) and NOAA OC5 upper ocean heat content data (Levitus et al. 2012) using anomaly correlation (ACC) and by analysing the interquartile range (IQR) of the probability density function (PDF). Firstly, we calculate hindcast skill in terms of ACC and IQR against reference data over the whole time period. Here, the hindcast skills of EnKF and BS-1 are better for both ACC and IQR in lead years 2 to 5 when compared to PT-ORA and PT-GEC, their hindcast skill drops off after lead year 1. Secondly, the PDF of the reference data is not uniformly distributed over time. We therefore calculate ACC and IQR for a 20 year moving window. We find hindcast skill in terms of ACC for EnKF and BS-1 in the 1960s and from the 1990s onwards, up to eight lead years in advance, with almost no skill for the time period inbetween. In contrast, there is no skill for PT-ORA and PT-GEC in any period after lead year one. The IQR of reference data is best captured by the EnKF, in the 1960s and 1990s up to lead year

  7. Processes of 30–90 days sea surface temperature variability in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vialard, J.; Jayakumar, A; Gnanaseelan, C.; Lengaigne, M.; Sengupta, D.; Goswami, B.N.

    Temperature (SST) signature of this atmospheric variability, using a combination of observational datasets and Ocean General Circulation Model sensitivity experiments. In addition to the previously reported intraseasonal SST signature in the Bay of Bengal...

  8. NODC Standard Product: Experimental Compact Disk NODC-01 Pacific Ocean Temperature-Salinity Profiles (1900-1988) (NODC Accession 0086259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) created a compact disk containing over 1.3 million temperature-depth and salinity-depth profiles taken in the Pacific...

  9. Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Haug, Gerald H

    2004-03-04

    The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature is reduced as temperature approaches the freezing point, with potential consequences for global ocean circulation under cold climates. Here we present deep-sea records of biogenic opal accumulation and sedimentary nitrogen isotopic composition from the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean. These records indicate that vertical stratification increased in both northern and southern high latitudes 2.7 million years ago, when Northern Hemisphere glaciation intensified in association with global cooling during the late Pliocene epoch. We propose that the cooling caused this increased stratification by weakening the role of temperature in polar ocean density structure so as to reduce its opposition to the stratifying effect of the vertical salinity distribution. The shift towards stratification in the polar ocean 2.7 million years ago may have increased the quantity of carbon dioxide trapped in the abyss, amplifying the global cooling.

  10. Alternating Si and Fe deposition caused by temperature fluctuations in Precambrian oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole; Hegler, Florian; Konhauser, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    and geochemical modelling to study the potential for a microbial mechanism in the formation of alternating iron–silica bands. We find that the rate of biogenic iron(III) mineral formation by iron-oxidizing microbes reaches a maximum between 20 and 25 °C. Decreasing or increasing water temperatures slow microbial......Precambrian banded iron formations provide an extensive archive of pivotal environmental changes and the evolution of biological processes on early Earth. The formations are characterized by bands ranging from micrometre- to metre-scale layers of alternating iron- and silica-rich minerals. However...... iron mineral formation while promoting abiotic silica precipitation. We suggest that natural fluctuations in the temperature of the ocean photic zone during the period when banded iron formations were deposited could have led to the primary layering observed in these formations by successive cycles...

  11. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  12. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  13. Coupled ocean-atmosphere surface variability and its climate impacts in the tropical Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, B.; Janicot, Serge; Roucou, P.

    This study examines time evolution and statistical relationships involving the two leading ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability in the tropical Atlantic and some climate anomalies over the tropical 120°W-60°W region using selected historical files (75-y near global SSTs and precipitation over land), more recent observed data (30-y SST and pseudo wind stress in the tropical Atlantic) and reanalyses from the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis System on the period 1968-1997: surface air temperature, sea level pressure, moist static energy content at 850 hPa, precipitable water and precipitation. The first coupled mode detected through singular value decomposition of the SST and pseudo wind-stress data over the tropical Atlantic (30°N-20°S) expresses a modulation in the thermal transequatorial gradient of SST anomalies conducted by one month leading wind-stress anomalies mainly in the tropical north Atlantic during northern winter and fall. It features a slight dipole structure in the meridional plane. Its time variability is dominated by a quasi-decadal signal well observed in the last 20-30 ys and, when projected over longer-term SST data, in the 1920s and 1930s but with shorter periods. The second coupled mode is more confined to the south-equatorial tropical Atlantic in the northern summer and explains considerably less wind-stress/SST cross-covariance. Its time series features an interannual variability dominated by shorter frequencies with increased variance in the 1960s and 1970s before 1977. Correlations between these modes and the ENSO-like Nino3 index lead to decreasing amplitude of thermal anomalies in the tropical Atlantic during warm episodes in the Pacific. This could explain the nonstationarity of meridional anomaly gradients on seasonal and interannual time scales. Overall the relationships between the oceanic component of the coupled modes and the climate anomaly patterns denote thermodynamical

  14. Temperature profile and nutrients data from bottle casts in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 19 April 1971 to 30 March 1994 (NODC Accession 0000225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ORION and EASTWARD in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 19...

  15. Last nine-thousand years of temperature variability in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seppä

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The threat of future global warming has generated a major interest in quantifying past climate variability on centennial and millennial time-scales. However, palaeoclimatological records are often noisy and arguments about past variability are only possible if they are based on reproducible features in several reliably dated datasets. Here we focus on the last 9000 years, explore the results of 36 Holocene pollen-based July mean and annual mean temperature reconstructions from Northern Europe by stacking them to create summary curves, and compare them with a high-resolution, summary chironomid-based temperature record and other independent palaeoclimate records. The stacked records show that the "Holocene Thermal Maximum" in the region dates to 8000 to 4800 cal yr BP and that the "8.2 event" and the "Little Ice Age" at 500–100 cal yr BP are the clearest cold episodes during the Holocene. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the last 5000 years pinpoints centennial-scale climate variability with cold anomalies at 3800–3000 and 500–100 cal yr BP, a long, warmer period around 2000 cal yr BP, and a marked warming since the mid 19th century. The colder (warmer anomalies are associated with increased (decreased humidity over the northern European mainland, consistent with the modern high correlation between cold (warm and humid (dry modes of summer weather in the region. A comparison with the key proxy records reflecting the main forcing factors does not support the hypothesis that solar variability is the cause of the late-Holocene centennial-scale temperature changes. We suggest that the reconstructed anomalies are typical of Northern Europe and their occurrence may be related to the oceanic and atmospheric circulation variability in the North Atlantic – North-European region.

  16. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1987-05-20 to 1992-04-19 (NODC Accession 9200105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South...

  17. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle from the Iselin Columbus in the Indian Ocean (Somalia Coast) (NODC Accession 0002225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN in the Indian Ocean. Data were collected from 26 February 1979 to...

  18. Wind and temperature data from current meter in the TOGA - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS), 28 May 1994 to 21 March 1995 (NODC Accession 9800041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and temperature data were collected using current meter in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from May 28, 1994 to March 21, 1995. Data were submitted...

  19. Mercury Anomaly in the Okinawa Trough Sediments—An Indicator of Modern Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一阳; 鄢明才

    1995-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is located between the shelf-sea area of the East China Sea and the deep-sea area of western Pacific Ocean.More than 60 chemical elements in the sediments from the shelf area of the East China Sea,the Okinawa Trough and western Pacific Ocean were determined by advanced techniques including neutron acti-vation analysis,X-ray fluorescence spectrometry,atomic fluorescence spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry.Quantitative comparisons of the element abundances of the sediments were made in terms of the enrichment coefficients(K) of the elements.K>1.5 indicates enrichment (K=1.5-2, weak enrichment;K=2-4,strong enrichment) and K>4,anomalous enrichment.The results show that the Okinawa Trough sediments are characterized by Hg anomaly and the enrichment of such elements as Au,Ag,Se,Te,Sb,Cd,Mn,Mo,etc.Detailed studies show that the excess Hg comes from hydrothermal solutions rather than from the continent,sea water ,marine organisms,cosmic dust or vol-canic rocks.Attributed to modern hydrothermal activities on the sea floor ,Hg anomaly can be used as a geochemical indicator of modern seafloor hydrothermal activity.

  20. Interpretation of free-air gravity anomaly data for determining the crustal structure across the continental margins and aseismic ridges: Some examples from Indian continental margins and deep-sea basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 202 Interpretation of free-air gravity anomaly data for determining the crustal structure across the continental margins and aseismic ridges: Some examples from Indian continental margins and deep... will undertake either regional, reconnaissance or detail gravity surveys. We generally deal with free air gravity anomalies in oceans. The free air gravity anomalies mostly mimic the seabed configuration and at times, the deviation observed in the free air...