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Sample records for occurring radionuclide 210po

  1. Natural occurring radionuclide 210Po in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazorenko, G. G.; Polikarpov, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    The interest to study of the behavior of naturally occurring radionuclide 2 10Po in marine ecosystem was caused by its main contribution to the doses of irradiation to hydrobionts. This work presents own data of 2 10Po concentrations determined in water, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of the Black Sea in 1998-2004. 2 10Po concentrations in water varied from 0.58 to 1.02 Bqxm - 3. Their range in bottom sediments from shelf zone and open part of the Black Sea was 11.5-496.5 Bqxkg - 1 dry weight with maximum in the North-West region. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in bottom sediments from the Eastern part of the Black Sea was 4.5-220 Bqxkg-1 dry weight. Concentration factors (CF) of 2 10Po in bottom sediments reached 10 4 -10 5 . 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea hydrobionts are reported and compared with published data in the same taxa. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mesozooplankton was 1.7-3.5 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight. It was 1.9-2.9 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight in the representative species of macro plankton community, namely the ctenophore Beroe ovata. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea fishes depend on their belonging to different ecological groups and decrease from pelagic species to demersal and bottom ones. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mollusks excluding small species Nana nerithea were on the highest levels determined in hydrobionts inhabiting in this region. Concentration factors of this radionuclide, estimated on a wet weight basis, reached values of 1.5x10 3 for macrophytes, 4x10 3 for total zooplankton, 10 3 -10 4 for the entire fishes, depending on their ecological groups affiliation and (3.0-6.7) x10 4 for mollusks. So, the ability of the Black Sea hydrobionts to accumulate natural radionuclide 2 10Po is comparable with that of similar species from others marine and oceanic areas

  2. Environmental radioactivity of radon daughter's radionuclides 210Pb-210Bi-210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide, 210 Pb(22.3 y)- 210 Bi(5.013 d)- 210 Po(138.4 d) belongs to the uranium decay chain and widely distributed in the environment. 222 Rn escaped from the earth surface is a major source of atmospheric 210 Pb. These nuclides attach with atmospheric aerosols and are removed to the ground as wet and dry depositions. The residence time of the atmospheric aerosol, thus, was obtained by activity ratios of 210 Bi/ 210 Pb and 210 Po/ 210 Pb, showing different values. The discrepancy on the residence times are explained with inputs of 210 Po to the atmosphere other than 222 Rn emanated from the earth surface. The removal of aerosol as wet deposition occupies a significant fraction, which reaches 72% on 210 Pb and 89% on 7 Be. In the ocean, the radionuclides are used as tracer to examine dynamic processes occurring in the ocean, such as removal of particulate matter from seawater column to bottom. The 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations in the ocean water collected off continent decreased from surface toward bottom, and the shortage on 210 Po content relative to that of 210 Po was observed at shallow ocean layers, however, the 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio closed to the radioactive equilibrium at deeper layers. The 210 Pb is a very good tracer to evaluate an accumulation rate of bottom sediment in ocean, lake and river. This is called as 210 Pb dating and is successfully applicable to accumulation circumstances that bottom sediment deposits at constant rate. Most of the actual cases, simultaneous 137 Cs dating is carried out, which uses 137 Cs peak in the core as originated from radioactive fallout of nuclear tests, showing the maximum in 1963. Recently new findings on source of atmospheric 210 Po are report by laboratory experiments and environmental measurements, which proves biologically supported emission of volatile Po compounds to the atmosphere. (author)

  3. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station. [/sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb levels in cattle livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Crick, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1982-11-01

    Previous measurements have shown enhanced levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb from fly ash deposited in the environment around old coal-fired power stations. Preliminary results are presented for levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb in liver samples from cattle which had grazed for two to three years in a field adjacent to a modern power station. No significant difference in the levels of these natural radionuclides was found compared to liver samples obtained from cattle in a control area.

  4. Intake of 210Po, 234U and 238U radionuclides with beer in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A.; Falandysz, J.

    2004-01-01

    238 U, 234 U and 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in beer in Poland by alpha-spectrometry with low-level activity silicon detectors. The results revealed that the mean concentrations of 238 U, 234 U and 210 Po in the analyzed beer samples were 4.63, 4.11 and 4.94 mBq x dm -3 , respectively, the highest in Tyskie (5.71 for 210 Po, 5.06 for 234 U and 6.11 for 238 U) and the lowest in Lech (2.49 for 210 Po). The effective radiation dose due to uranium and polonium ingestions by beer was calculated and were compared to the effective radiation dose from drinking water. (author)

  5. Temporal evolution of natural radionuclides distributions 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the Bransfield strait, Antarctica peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Flavia Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Research on the distribution of natural radionuclides in Antarctica is rare and thus, there is great interest in to know their occurrence and factors related to its mobilization, transference and accumulation in this extremely fragile environment. Natural radionuclides have been used intensively as tracers in the ocean, helping to better understand processes as sinking and particle resuspension, water masses mixture and oceanic circulation. 234 Th (t½ = 24.1 days) is a particle-reactive radionuclide produced continuously in seawater by the decay of its soluble precursor conservative with salinity 238 U (t½ = 4.5 10 9 years). Since 234 Th presents relatively short half-life, it is used to quantify processes that occur in temporal scale varying from days to weeks. The disequilibrium 234 Th/ 238 U in the surface ocean has been applied to estimate carbon fluxes exported via sinking material. The flux of particles biologically productive out of the euphotic zone in the Southern Ocean has special attention due to its importance in the control of CO 2 atmospheric concentrations. The radionuclides 210 Pb (t½ = 22.3 years) and 210 Po (t½ = 138 days) are also particle-reactive. The disequilibrium 210 Po/ 210 Pb has been used to estimate fluxes of particles exported in the ocean in the time scale of weeks. The long-lived Ra isotopes, 226 Ra (t½ = 1,600 years) and 228 Ra (t½ = 5.75 years) are soluble in seawater, presenting unique properties that make them excellent tracers of water masses. This research work had the aim to study the distributions of natural radionuclides 238 U, 234 Th, 22 '6Ra, 22 '8Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the Bransfield Strait during 2 samplings carried out in the 2011 Austral Summer (OPERANTAR XXIX and XXX). (author)

  6. Radionuclides (210Pb, 226Ra, 210Po e 137Cs) in the Cananeia-Iguape coastal system: environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Roberto Tatsuya

    2002-01-01

    This work was developed in the Cananeia-lguape Coastal System, coast south of the State of Sao Paulo, with the aim of monitoring the levels of some natural radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra ) and artificial ( 137 Cs) and to study the sedimentary dynamics of the area. For this, some studies and determinations were carried out, such as: sedimentation rates, concentration factors, bio-indicators and ingestion for the human population of some of these radionuclides. For the obtaining of the levels of these radionuclides, radiochemical and instrumental methodologies were developed and applied in reference samples of the International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA). After this, the methodologies were applied in samples of sediments, aquatic organisms and water of the channels collected in several points. In the sediments, the levels of ( 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 137 Cs varied from 6.1 to 167.5 Bq.kg -1 from 4.1 to 28.5 Bq.kg -1 and from MDC (0.28) to 6.1 Bq.kg -1 respectively. More significant correlations were observed among the percentage of mud (silt-clay) in the sediments and the levels of these radionuclides. These data were used for sedimentation rate studies in the points of sampling in the System. The sedimentation rates obtained with the values of unsupported ( 210 Pb and 137 Cs for the Ponta do Arrozal (T1), Ponta do Frade (T2), Valo Grande (T3) and Carapara-BOCA River (T4) were of 5.02 and 5.00 mm.a -1 , 2.30 and 3.82 mm.a -1 , 14.59 and 15.74 mm.a -1 , 3.41 and 5.00 mm.a -1 respectively. The sedimentation rates obtained with unsupported 210 Pb and the 137 Cs in the cores(T1, T2, T3 and T4) showed a good agreement. The sedimentation rates obtained along the System reflect the dynamics intern of the channels, that presents general tendency the one accentuated deposition process, with pronounced contribution of sediments of continental origin, for the drainages Mandira and Ribeira of Iguape Rivers, by the high biological production of the System as well as the

  7. Estimation of concentration of naturally occurring 210Po in dietary items collected from Tarapur site and public dose due to ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheendran, V.; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    210 Po is one of the naturally occurring radioactive (T 1/2 : 138.4 d, Energy: 5.297 MeV) member of 238 U series which delivers a significantly high natural dose through ingestion because of its high specific activity (165 TBq/g). The main source of 210 Po in atmosphere is 222 Rn. The paper presents the results of analysis of 210 Po in different terrestrial and aquatic environmental matrices like marine seafood, vegetable, drinking water, crop etc and estimation of population dose due to their consumption at Tarapur, west coast of India. The annual Committed Effective Dose (CED) received by the member of Tarapur population through consumption of these food items estimated to be 102.4 μSV which is 6.3 % of the total internal dose from natural sources. Contribution from marine food items was found to be significant (78.7%) compared to other terrestrial food items. (author)

  8. Bioassay of 210Po in human urine and internal contamination of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The deliberate poisoning of A. Litvinenko in London in late 2006 with 210 Po, attracted attention to the difficulties in identifying internal contamination with alpha emitting radionuclides and to the limited knowledge available on the cycling of many naturally occurring radioisotopes in the body and their baseline concentration values in humans. To cope with the emergency caused by the spread of high 210 Po activity, which contaminated several people and places in London, we were called upon to analyze urine samples in potentially contaminated people. A reference group of adult humans was also selected for determination of baseline 210 Po values to be used for comparative purposes. Concentrations of 210 Po in urine samples from three Portuguese citizens that have been at contaminated places, in London, ranged from 2.3 to 4.1 mBq x L -1 while in the reference group 210 Po concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 mBq x L -1 . Analytical quality of results was ensured through participation in an international inter laboratory comparison exercise on 210 Po determination in aqueous samples. Results indicated that people potentially exposed to 210 Po in London were not internally contaminated with the radionuclide used as a poisoning agent, and the levels of this radionuclide measured in the urine were similar to the naturally occurring levels in the reference group. Polonium levels in urine and in man are discussed in the light of 210 Po levels in the human diet. (author)

  9. Metabolism of 210Po in rats: Volatile 210Po from faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, B. B.; Li, C.; Wyatt, H.; Bugden, M.; Wilkinson, D.; Kramer, G.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic formation of volatile 210 Po species in a rat that was intravenously administered with 210 Po-citrate was investigated in this study. A slurry of the faecal sample was prepared in water and was bubbled with nitrogen gas in a closed system. The discharged gas was passed through a trapping device filled with liquid scintillation cocktail in order to capture any volatile 210 Po species. The amount of 210 Po trapped in the scintillation cocktail was measured by a liquid scintillation analyser that provided evidence of the presence of volatile 210 Po species in the faeces. The presence of volatile 210 Po in the faeces indicates that the metabolic formation of volatile 210 Po is likely to occur in the gut due to bacterial activity. The amount of volatile 210 Po species was compared with the daily faecal excretion of 210 Po. After 2 h of bubbling, the volatile 210 Po collected from the faeces sample was found to be between 1.0 and 1.7 % of the daily faecal excretion for the 4 d following 210 Po-citrate administration. (authors)

  10. Determinations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 210Po contents in chinese diet and estimations of internal doses due to these radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda; Wang Shouliang; Meng Wei; Wang Daoping; Zheng Xiujun; Liu Qingfen; Liu Peng

    1993-01-01

    As a part of Chinese Total Diet Survey taken place in 1990, the authors report the determined results on 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Pb and 210 Po contents in various foods of Chinese total diet. Based on obtained dietary composition and the determined contents, the Annual Intakes (AI) and Committed Dose Equivalents (CDE) for the public by ingestion were estimated. It is shown that the total CDE for 6 radionuclides is about 0.24 mSv/a. The food categories and nuclides whose relative contributions to the total are dominant were vegetables, aquatic products and cereal, and 210 Pb, 210 Po, 228 Ra, respectively. The results have updated the data from 1982 survey and have complemented important information for water consumption. The regional difference of dietary compositions and resultant internal doses are discussed as well

  11. Temporal evolution of natural radionuclides distributions {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the Bransfield strait, Antarctica peninsula; Evolucao temporal das distribuicoes dos radionuclideos naturais {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po no estreito de Bransfiel, peninsula Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Flavia Valverde

    2013-07-01

    Research on the distribution of natural radionuclides in Antarctica is rare and thus, there is great interest in to know their occurrence and factors related to its mobilization, transference and accumulation in this extremely fragile environment. Natural radionuclides have been used intensively as tracers in the ocean, helping to better understand processes as sinking and particle resuspension, water masses mixture and oceanic circulation. {sup 234}Th (t½ = 24.1 days) is a particle-reactive radionuclide produced continuously in seawater by the decay of its soluble precursor conservative with salinity {sup 238}U (t½ = 4.5 10{sup 9} years). Since {sup 234}Th presents relatively short half-life, it is used to quantify processes that occur in temporal scale varying from days to weeks. The disequilibrium {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U in the surface ocean has been applied to estimate carbon fluxes exported via sinking material. The flux of particles biologically productive out of the euphotic zone in the Southern Ocean has special attention due to its importance in the control of CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentrations. The radionuclides {sup 210}Pb (t½ = 22.3 years) and {sup 210}Po (t½ = 138 days) are also particle-reactive. The disequilibrium {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb has been used to estimate fluxes of particles exported in the ocean in the time scale of weeks. The long-lived Ra isotopes, {sup 226}Ra (t½ = 1,600 years) and {sup 228}Ra (t½ = 5.75 years) are soluble in seawater, presenting unique properties that make them excellent tracers of water masses. This research work had the aim to study the distributions of natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 22}'6Ra, {sup 22}'8Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the Bransfield Strait during 2 samplings carried out in the 2011 Austral Summer (OPERANTAR XXIX and XXX). (author)

  12. 210Po and 210Pb variations in fish species from the Aegean Sea and the contribution of 210Po to the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Çatal, Ebru; Uğur, Aysun; Özden, Banu; Filizok, Işık

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the significance of natural radionuclides, particularly 210 Po, in the marine environment. 210 Po, a naturally occurring alpha emitter, accumulates in marine organisms and reflects differences in their diets. In the literature, there is no data for 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentrations for fish species on the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea. Therefore, in this study, multiple fish species were collected from six stations seasonally on the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea and were analyzed for their 210 Po and 210 Pb content. The 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the fish samples were found to vary from undetectable levels to 499 ± 44 Bq kg −1 dry weight (dw) and from 1.0 ± 0.3 Bq kg −1 to 35 ± 4.0 Bq kg −1 (dw), respectively. There were no significant differences in the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish samples between seasons (ANOVA, P > 0.05). The highest dose contribution of 210 Po to humans was calculated to be 10,530 μSv year −1 .

  13. A Procedure for the Sequential Determination of Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum Liquid Scintillation Counting and Alpha Spectrometry for 210Po, 210Pb, 226Ra, Th and U Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the determination of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, tested and validated analytical procedures are extremely important tools for the production of such analytical data. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated, and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In this publication, a combined procedure for the sequential determination of 210Po, 210Pb, 226Ra, Th and U radioisotopes in phosphogypsum is described. The method is based on the dissolution of small amounts of phosphogypsum by microwave digestion, followed by sequential separation of 210Po, 210Pb, Th and U radioisotopes by selective extraction chromatography using Sr, TEVA and UTEVA resins. Radium-226 is separated from interfering elements using Ba(Ra)SO4 co-precipitation. Lead-210 is determined by liquid scintillation counting. The alpha source of 210Po is prepared by autodeposition on a silver plate. The alpha sources of Th and U are prepared by electrodeposition on a stainless steel plate. A comprehensive methodology for the calculation of results, including the quantification of measurement uncertainty, was also developed. The procedure is introduced as a recommended procedure and validated in terms of trueness, repeatability and reproducibility in accordance with ISO guidelines

  14. Importance of coccolithophore-associated organic biopolymers for fractionating particle-reactive radionuclides (234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and 7Be) in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Sun, Luni; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Bretherton, Laura; Quigg, Antonietta; Santschi, Peter H.

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory incubation experiments using the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi were conducted in the presence of 234Th, 233Pa, 210Pb, 210Po, and 7Be to differentiate radionuclide uptake to the CaCO3 coccosphere from coccolithophore-associated biopolymers. The coccosphere (biogenic calcite exterior and its associated biopolymers), extracellular (nonattached and attached exopolymeric substances), and intracellular (sodium-dodecyl-sulfate extractable and Fe-Mn-associated metabolites) fractions were obtained by sequentially extraction after E. huxleyi reached its stationary growth phase. Radionuclide partitioning and the composition of different organic compound classes, including proteins, total carbohydrates (TCHO), and uronic acids (URA), were assessed. 210Po was closely associated with the more hydrophobic biopolymers (high protein/TCHO ratio, e.g., in attached exopolymeric substances), while 234Th and 233Pa showed similar partitioning behavior with most activity being distributed in URA-enriched, nonattached exopolymeric substances and intracellular biopolymers. 234Th and 233Pa were nearly undetectable in the coccosphere, with a minor abundance of organic components in the associated biopolymers. These findings provide solid evidence that biogenic calcite is not the actual main carrier phase for Th and Pa isotopes in the ocean. In contrast, both 210Pb and 7Be were found to be mostly concentrated in the CaCO3 coccosphere, likely substituting for Ca2+ during coccolith formation. Our results demonstrate that even small cells (E. huxleyi) can play an important role in the scavenging and fractionation of radionuclides. Furthermore, the distinct partitioning behavior of radionuclides in diatoms (previous studies) and coccolithophores (present study) explains the difference in the scavenging of radionuclides between diatom- and coccolithophore-dominated marine environments.

  15. Levels and transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in Nordic terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Gjelsvik, R.; Roos, P.; Kalas, J.A.; Outola, I.; Holm, E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments regarding environmental impact assessment methodologies for radioactivity have precipitated the need for information on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides within and transfer to wild flora and fauna. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine activity concentrations of the main dose forming radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in biota from terrestrial ecosystems thus providing insight into the behaviour of these radioisotopes. Samples of soil, plants and animals were collected at Dovrefjell, Central Norway and Olkiluoto, Finland. Soil profiles from Dovrefjell exhibited an approximately exponential fall in 210 Pb activity concentrations from elevated levels in humus/surface soils to 'supported' levels at depth. Activity concentrations of 210 Po in fauna (invertebrates, mammals, birds) ranged between 2 and 123 Bq kg -1 d.w. and in plants and lichens between 20 and 138 Bq kg -1 d.w. The results showed that soil humus is an important reservoir for 210 Po and 210 Pb and that fauna in close contact with this media may also exhibit elevated levels of 210 Po. Concentration ratios appear to have limited applicability with regards to prediction of activity concentrations of 210 Po in invertebrates and vertebrates. Biokinetic models may provide a tool to explore in a more mechanistic way the behaviour of 210 Po in this system.

  16. Levels and transfer of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in Nordic terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.E., E-mail: justin.brown@nrpa.n [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, N-1332, Osteras (Norway); Gjelsvik, R. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, N-1332, Osteras (Norway); Roos, P. [RISO-DTU P.O. Box 49 DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Kalas, J.A. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Tungasletta 2, 7485 Trondheim (Norway); Outola, I. [STUK, Laippatie 4/P.O. BOX 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Holm, E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, N-1332, Osteras (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    Recent developments regarding environmental impact assessment methodologies for radioactivity have precipitated the need for information on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides within and transfer to wild flora and fauna. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine activity concentrations of the main dose forming radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in biota from terrestrial ecosystems thus providing insight into the behaviour of these radioisotopes. Samples of soil, plants and animals were collected at Dovrefjell, Central Norway and Olkiluoto, Finland. Soil profiles from Dovrefjell exhibited an approximately exponential fall in {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations from elevated levels in humus/surface soils to 'supported' levels at depth. Activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po in fauna (invertebrates, mammals, birds) ranged between 2 and 123 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. and in plants and lichens between 20 and 138 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. The results showed that soil humus is an important reservoir for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb and that fauna in close contact with this media may also exhibit elevated levels of {sup 210}Po. Concentration ratios appear to have limited applicability with regards to prediction of activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po in invertebrates and vertebrates. Biokinetic models may provide a tool to explore in a more mechanistic way the behaviour of {sup 210}Po in this system.

  17. Distribution of dissolved and particulate 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the Bismarck Sea and western equatorial Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, G.A.; Smith, J.D

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the dissolved ( 210 Pb and 210 Po in the particulate (>0.45 μm) phases was measured in the upper 300 m of the Bismarck Sea off the Sepik River and along the equator from 143 deg E to 152 deg E in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. 210 Pb and 210 Po occurred principally in the dissolved phase with a 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios greater than 1.0. Box model calculations yielded an average atmospheric flux of 210 Pb of 4.5 mBq cm -2 year -1 to the ocean surface. The average residence times for dissolved 210 Po and dissolved 210 Pb were 0.27 years and 8.0 years respectively (in the mixed layer) and 1.45 years and 170 years (in the deeper layer). With an average residence time of 0.08 ± 0.03 years, particulate 210 Po varied little between the layers. The difference in 210 Po and 210 Pb residence times reflects the greater particle reactivity of 210 Po. The flux of particulate organic carbon was calculated to be 104 ± 21 mg m -2 day -1 from the upper 100 m and 180 ± 22 mg m -2 day -1 from 100-300 m. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Publishing

  18. Temporal changes of 210Po in temperate coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgust, M.A.; White, K.N.; McDonald, P.

    1998-01-01

    The temporal variation of Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) was examined in coastal sea water, the mussel Mytilus edulis, the winkle Littorina littorea and green algae Ulva lactuca in order to investigate the entry of 210 Po into the marine food chain. More than 99% of 210 Po in the water column occurred in the particulate phase. Dissolved 210 Po concentrations peaked during the spring phytoplankton bloom and it is suggested this is related to preferential scavenging of 210 Po by the increased numbers of bacteria, viruses and small dissolved particulates. Changes in L. Littorea 210 Po specific activity are thought not to be related to food, but to a drop in body weight following spawning. Much of the 210 Po accumulated by M. edulis was located in the digestive gland. The specific activity of 210 Po in the digestive gland of M. edulis was shown to be strongly correlated with changes in sea water suspended particulate specific activity. Examination of other trace metal (Ag, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni Sb, Se, Sn and Zn) variations in the digestive gland revealed that class B and borderline metals had a strong positive correlation with 210 Po. On-going work is investigating whether the accumulation and loss of 210 Po is affected by the presence of metallothioneins

  19. Temporal changes of 210Po in temperate coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgust, M A; McDonald, P; White, K N

    1998-06-18

    The temporal variation of Polonium-210 (210Po) was examined in coastal sea water, the mussel Mytilus edulis, the winkle Littorina littorea and green alga Ulva lactuca in order to investigate the entry of 210Po into the marine food chain. More than 99% of 210Po in the water column occurred in the particulate phase. Dissolved 210Po concentrations peaked during the spring phytoplankton bloom and it is suggested this is related to preferential scavenging of 210Po by the increased numbers of bacteria, viruses and small dissolved particulates. Changes in L. littorea 210Po specific activity are thought not to be related to food, but to a drop in body weight following spawning. Much of the 210Po accumulated by M. edulis was located in the digestive gland. The specific activity of 210Po in the digestive gland of M. edulis was shown to be strongly correlated with changes in sea water suspended particulate specific activity. Examination of other trace metal (Ag, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Se, Sn and Zn) variations in the digestive gland revealed that class B and borderline metals had a strong positive correlation with 210Po. On-going work is investigating whether the accumulation and loss of 210Po is affected by the presence of metallothioneins.

  20. Ingestion dose from 210Po due to the consumption of packaged drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Madhu G.; Rao, D.D.; Sreejith, Sathyapriya R.; Sarka, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are chronically exposed to naturally occurring radionuclides from uranium and thorium series via inhalation and ingestion. With increased interest in radiological assessment a study was taken up for assessing natural radioactivity in drinking water. Drinking water is an important route of intake of naturally occurring 210 Po. 210 Po being a very important radionuclide from Uranium series with high specific activity causes significant internal dose. In our study 210 Po in PDW was concentrated with calcium phosphate and spontaneously deposited onto silver planchette and subsequently measured by alpha spectrometry. The concentration of 210 Po in the bottled water ranged from 0.11 mBq.l -1 to 2.9 mBq.l -1 . The highest concentration was observed in that sample that was reportedly sourced from mountain regions. Based on the concentration of 210 Po in each water sample, the annual intake rate (1.68L/d), and the Dose Coefficient (1.2 X 10 -6 Vs./Bq) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1996), the annual committed effective doses to the adult population was estimated. The annual effective doses ranged between 0.10-2.16 μSv/yr. (author)

  1. Radiochemical determination of 210 Po in tobacco and farm food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K. H.; Lee, H. P.; Cho, Y. H.; Choi, G. S.; Kim, C. K.; Lee, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for measuring 210 Po in tobacco (cigarette and leaf) and farm food has been studied by alpha- spectrometry. Polonium was separated from HCl solution in the presence of other radionuclides and ascorbic acid (reduction of Fe 3+ ) by spontaneous deposition onto a silver disc. To determine the optimum conditions for plating polonium on a disc, the effects of reducing agent, plating time etc. were investigated. In the method, the samples are spiked with 208 Po (or 209 Po) as a chemical yield tracer. Because the main sources of 210 Po in the human body are food and cigarette smoke, this procedure to determine 210 Po has been applied to tobacco and farm food samples. Analyses of 210 Po in tobacco leaves and farm food samples using this method are in progress. The concentrations of 210 Po in cigarettes were ranged from 17 to 21 mBq/g and compared with published data on this natural radionuclide

  2. Ingestion of 210Po by public residing in and around Kalpakkam through dietary source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Sivasubramanian, K.S.; Venkatraman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring radionuclide Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) activity in dietary source of Kalpakkam, Nuclear Power Plant, Tamil Nadu and its nearby region was studied. The 210 Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individuals (he/she) living in the study area of Kalpakkam (nuclear power plant) was done by 24-hr Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was done by collecting the food materials such as, cereals, fruits, nuts, leafy vegetables, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk collected from the study area. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials including the beverages consumed in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in surroundings of Kalpakkam. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide 210 Po was estimated. The mean concentration of 210 Po in DDS (n= 33) was found to be 36 mBq.kg -1 of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into 8 food groups. The mean concentration of 210 Po in 8 food groups namely leafy vegetables was 288 mBq.kg -1 (n=4), vegetables 33 mBq.kg -1 (n=12), fish 7294 mBq.kg -1 (n=5) and cereal 34 (n=1) mBq.kg -1 of fresh weight respectively. The remaining food categories such as nuts (n=1), fruits (n= 4), meat food (n= 2) and milk (n= 2) are below detection limit of 30 mBq.kg -1 fresh weight. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to 210 Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. Thereby, discussing the risk level of 210 Po ingestion to the local inhabitants in Kalpakkam region. (author)

  3. Radioactive {sup 210}Po in magnesium supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida [Gdansk Univ. (Poland). Environmental Chemistry and Radiochemistry Chair

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium {sup 210}Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between {sup 210}Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest {sup 210}Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g{sup -1} (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from {sup 210}Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year{sup -1} respectively.

  4. Radioactive 210Po in magnesium supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium 210 Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring 210 Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between 210 Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g -1 (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from 210 Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year -1 respectively.

  5. Correlation of 210Po and 210Pb enrichments in the sea-surface microlayer with neuston biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyroud, M.; Cherry, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of surface microlayer, bulk seawater from 20 cm depth and neustonic organisms inhabiting the top 5 cm of the sea, were collected at regular intervals over a period of 17 months at a site 3 km off Monaco and analysed for naturally occurring radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb. Enrichment of 210 Po in the microlayer compared with bulk seawater was observed, and found to be correlated significantly with the neuston biomass per unit volume. Enrichment of 210 Pb in the microlayer was also observed, but only under higher neuston biomass conditions. The 210 Po: 210 Pb ratio was always higher in the microlayer than in bulk seawater. Additional information was obtained from 210 Po measurements made on the bulk seawater in which the neuston had been collected and in which it had stood for periods of 2 to 4 h. These showed the neuston lost 210 Po to the water at a rate of about 1 pCi g - 1 dry biomass h - 1 . A significant flux of 210 Po from bulk seawater to the surface microlayer, and thence possibly to the atmosphere, is estimated. This flux will vary seasonally with the planktonic biomass. Under high biomass conditions a similar flux for 210 Pb may also be significant. (author)

  6. Determinations of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 226]Ra, [sup 228]Ra, [sup 210]Pb, [sup 210]Po contents in chinese diet and estimations of internal doses due to these radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongda, Zhu; Shouliang, Wang; Wei, Meng; Daoping, Wang; Xiujun, Zheng; Qingfen, Liu; Peng, Liu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin, TJ (China). Inst. of Radiomedicine

    1993-03-01

    As a part of Chinese Total Diet Survey taken place in 1990, the authors report the determined results on [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 226]Ra, [sup 228]Ra, [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po contents in various foods of Chinese total diet. Based on obtained dietary composition and the determined contents, the Annual Intakes (AI) and Committed Dose Equivalents (CDE) for the public by ingestion were estimated. It is shown that the total CDE for 6 radionuclides is about 0.24 mSv/a. The food categories and nuclides whose relative contributions to the total are dominant were vegetables, aquatic products and cereal, and [sup 210]Pb, [sup 210]Po, [sup 228]Ra, respectively. The results have updated the data from 1982 survey and have complemented important information for water consumption. The regional difference of dietary compositions and resultant internal doses are discussed as well.

  7. The effect of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA on excretion of {sup 210}PB, {sup 210}Po and stable lead in cases of chronic lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, I.; Milacic, S.; Novak, Lj.; Uzelac, V.; Nesic, V

    1998-07-01

    The study describes the effect of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA on the excretion of the naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and stable lead in workers' urine. The CaNa{sub 2}EDTA was administered intravenously to workers in the morning for five days. The results show that CaNa{sub 2}EDTA mobilises biologically active {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and stable lead, appreciably increasing their concentration in urine. (author)

  8. Spatial and depth variation of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite sand along HBRA of coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cunha, Primal; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The samples collected from high background radiation area were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in order to understand their distribution, enrichment and depth profile in the beach sand. The 210 Po and 210 Pb activities vary from 1.85 to 31.27 Bq kg -1 and 9.77 to 132.30 Bq kg -1 respectively. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb indicate that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in sand is greater than for 210 Po. The spatial variations of 210 Po and 210 Pb activities were studied in detail. (author)

  9. The Radiological Impact of 210Pb and 210Po Released from the Iron- and Steel-Making Plant ILVA in Taranto (Italy on the Environment and the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogang Jia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead-210 and 210Po are naturally occurring radionuclides. Due to volatile characteristic of lead and polonium, environmental pollution of 210Pb and 210Po released from the coal power plant, steel-making industry and refractory material industry has been an exposure problem for the members of public. In this paper studies on the activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb in the raw materials, dust particles, surficial soils and atmospheric particulate samples collected in the area of the Iron- and Steel-Making Plant ILVA Taranto (Italy were made. These data have been used to evaluate the source-term, distributions, inventories, mass balance, biological availability, ecological migration processes and public exposure risk of 210Pb and 210Po in the concerned environment.

  10. 210Po behaviour in terrestrial environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppin, F.; Roussel-Debet, S.

    2004-01-01

    This bibliographical review illustrates the behaviour of 210 polonium in the terrestrial environment. Sources of 210 Po in the atmosphere vary especially with the geographical localization and the occurrence or the absence of mining activities. In soils, polonium, because of its atmospheric origin, is concentrated in the first upper centimeters. 210 Po is rather immobile and adsorbed on mineral surfaces; it can (co)precipitate with metallic (oxi)hydroxides or in the form of sulphide. The main transfer pathway of 210 Po to vegetation is foliar deposit, which is not, or only slightly, followed by incorporation or translocation. 210 Po is transferred to animals mainly by ingestion, with relatively high transfer factors. In fresh waters, 210 Po is generally immobile in the form of insoluble Po(IV) and/or associated with the particulate or colloidal phase. Plankton, invertebrates and fish concentrate the 210 Po, especially in soft tissues. Polonium, which is an omnipresent natural radionuclide, is likely to occasion a significant exposure to man, compared with other natural or artificial radioisotopes. Nearly all studies derive from in situ measurements and are very descriptive, therefore experimental work aiming at a better knowledge and modeling of its behaviour in the terrestrial environment would be useful. (author)

  11. Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polonium-210 (210Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of 210Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of 210Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. Objectives: We summarized information on the environmental behavior, biokinetics, and toxicology of 210Po and identified the need for future research. Methods: Potential linkages between environmental exposure to 210Po and human health effects were identified in a literature review. Discussion: 210Po accumulates in the ovaries where it kills primary oocytes at low doses. Because of its radiosensitivity and tendency to concentrate 210Po, the ovary may be the critical organ in determining the lowest injurious dose for 210Po. 210Po also accumulates in the yolk sac of the embryo and in the fetal and placental tissues. Low-level exposure to 210Po may have subtle, long-term biological effects because of its tropism towards reproductive and embryonic and fetal tissues where exposure to a single alpha particle may kill or damage critical cells. 210Po is present in cigarettes and maternal smoking has several effects that appear consistent with the toxicology of 210Po. Conclusions: Much of the important biological and toxicological research on 210Po is more than four decades old. New research is needed to evaluate environmental exposure to 210Po and the biological effects of low-dose exposure to it so that public health officials can develop appropriate mitigation measures where necessary. PMID:22538346

  12. Study of 210Po and 210Pb in the riverine environments of coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Rajashekara, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured in soil and sediment samples collected from the major rivers Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi of Coastal Karnataka. The activity of these two radionuclides were determined by radiochemical separation of 210 Po and counting the activity using a ZnS(Ag) Alpha counter. The activity of 210 Pb was higher than that of 210 Po in the riverine environs. The 210 Po and 210 Pb content in sediment was found to increase with silt/clay and organic matter contents. However no significant correlation was found between the activity 210 Po and 210 Pb with pH in sediments. The activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb and influence of physico-chemical parameters on these radionuclides were studied and discussed in this paper.

  13. Occurrence of 210Po and Biological Effects of Low-Level Exposure: The Need for Research

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polonium-210 (210Po) concentrations that exceed 1 Bq/L in drinking-water supplies have been reported from four widely separated U.S. states where exposure to it went unnoticed for decades. The radionuclide grandparents of 210Po are common in sediments, and segments of the public may be chronically exposed to low levels of 210Po in drinking water or in food products from animals raised in contaminated areas. Objectives: We summarized information on the environmental behavior, bioki...

  14. 210Po in Nevada groundwater and its relation to gross alpha radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Polonium-210 (210Po) is a highly toxic alpha emitter that is rarely found in groundwater at activities exceeding 1 pCi/L. 210Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells in Lahontan Valley in Churchill County in northern Nevada, United States, ranged from 0.01 ± 0.005 to 178 ± 16 pCi/L with a median activity of 2.88 pCi/L. Wells with high 210Po activities had low dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 0.1 mg/L) and commonly had pH greater than 9. Lead-210 activities are low and aqueous 210Po is unsupported by 210Pb, indicating that the 210Po is mobilized from aquifer sediments. The only significant contributors to alpha particle activity in Lahontan Valley groundwater are 234/238U, 222Rn, and 210Po. Radon-222 activities were below 1000 pCi/L and were uncorrelated with 210Po activity. The only applicable drinking water standard for 210Po in the United States is the adjusted gross alpha radioactivity (GAR) standard of 15 pCi/L. 210Po was not volatile in a Nevada well, but volatile 210Po has been reported in a Florida well. Additional information on the volatility of 210Po is needed because GAR is an inappropriate method to screen for volatile radionuclides. About 25% of the samples had 210Po activities that exceed the level associated with a lifetime total cancer risk of 1× 10−4 (1.1 pCi/L) without exceeding the GAR standard. In cases where the 72-h GAR exceeds the uranium activity by more than 5 to 10 pCi/L, an analysis to rule out the presence of 210Po may be justified to protect human health even though the maximum contaminant level for adjusted GAR is not exceeded.

  15. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-01-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean 137 Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg -1 (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg -1 (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, 137 Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, 210 Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean 210 Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This compares with 210 Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg -1 measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for 210 Po that those of 137 Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of 137 Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic

  16. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean 137 Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg -1 (n = 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg -1 (n = 2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, 137 Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, 210 Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean 210 Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n = 5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This compares with 210 Po concentration values (n = 2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg -1 measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors-as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water-were two to three orders of magnitude higher for 210 Po that those of 137 Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of 137 Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic

  17. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-06-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ((210)Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean (137)Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, (137)Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, (210)Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean (210)Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg(-1), respectively. This compares with (210)Po concentration values (n=2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg(-1) measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for (210)Po that those of (137)Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of (137)Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  18. Concentration of 210Po in cigars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita C.S.; Santos, Pedro L.

    2000-01-01

    210 Po concentrations have been determined in 57 different cigar brands manufactured in 11 countries. Cuban and American cigars showed the lowest 210 Po content. The mean levels of 210 Po in Brazilian cigars were almost equal to those of European and Dominican cigars, and somewhat lower than cigars from Central American countries. (author)

  19. Investigation of 210Po/210Pb in terrestrial environment of uranium mineralized area of Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethy, N.K.; Jha, V.N.; Singh, S.; Sharma, B.D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Soil is the major components for evaluation of migration characteristics and distribution of radionuclides like 210 Po and 210 Pb in a terrestrial ecosystem. In this study spatial profile of 210 Po in to soil and its equilibrium status with 210 Pb in the terrestrial environment have been studied and correlated with basic soil quality parameters

  20. Accumulation of 210Po in Baltic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Falkowski, L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the 210 Po contents of Baltic marine invertebrates. The 210 Po concentrations fall within the range 11.3-78.9 Bq kg -1 (dry wt), the higher values relating to polychaeta, priapulida and malacostraca and the lower levels to bivalvia. It is demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the isopod Mesidotea entomon and the bivalve Mya arenaria. The 210 Po contents of the internal organs decreasing in the order-hepatopancreas > alimentary tract > gill > muscle. Moreover, the results indicate the dominant role of the digestive organs of these invertebrates in controlling absorption and elimination of 210 Po. (author)

  1. 210Pb and 210Po activities in French foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Pourcelot, L.; Thebault, H.; Loyen, J.; Gurriaran, R.

    2015-01-01

    The data on 210 Pb and 210 Po activities in French foodstuffs acquired during the last 15 years are numerous enough to derive reference values which will be usable to assess the dose to the French population due to the intake of these two natural radionuclides. The means and ranges are close to those observed in various countries and are most often higher than the reference values proposed by UNSCEAR. Mussels and oysters exhibit the highest 210 Po activities of all kinds of foodstuffs, with a mean value of 27 Bq.kg -1 fresh weight, followed by crustaceans and small fish species (anchovies, mullets, sardines, etc.) with 210 Po activities in the order of 3 to 10 Bq.k -1 fresh weight; cephalopods and other fish species presenting activities around 1 to 3 Bq.kg -1 fresh, close to the UNSCEAR reference value. Below these highest 210 Po activities are those of 210 Po and 210 Pb in terrestrial kinds of foodstuffs, by decreasing order: meats (around 1 Bq.kg -1 fresh), cereals (0.4 Bq.kg -1 ), leafy vegetables (0.3 Bq.kg -1 ), other vegetables and fruits (0.1 Bq.kg -1 ), and milk (from 0.03 to 0.1 Bq.L -1 ). (authors)

  2. Direct comparison of {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}Th and POC particle-size distributions and export fluxes at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gillian, E-mail: gstewart@qc.cuny.ed [Queens College, CUNY Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Moran, S. Bradley, E-mail: moran@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Lomas, Michael W., E-mail: Michael.Lomas@bios.ed [Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, GE01 (Bermuda); Kelly, Roger P., E-mail: rokelly@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Particle-reactive, naturally occurring radionuclides are useful tracers of the sinking flux of organic matter from the surface to the deep ocean. Since the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) began in 1987, the disequilibrium between {sup 234}Th and its parent {sup 238}U has become widely used as a technique to measure particle export fluxes from surface ocean waters. Another radionuclide pair, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, can be used for the same purpose but has not been as widely adopted due to difficulty with accurately constraining the {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb radiochemical balance in the ocean and because of the more time-consuming radiochemical procedures. Direct comparison of particle flux estimated in different ocean regions using these short-lived radionuclides is important in evaluating their utility and accuracy as tracers of particle flux. In this paper, we present paired {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb data from oligotrophic surface waters of the subtropical Northwest Atlantic and discuss their advantages and limitations. Vertical profiles of total and particle size-fractionated {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th activities, together with particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, were measured during three seasons at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Both {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th reasonably predict sinking POC flux caught in sediment traps, and each tracer provides unique information about the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  3. "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb varied in the range of 4.7–42.9 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) and 36.1–124 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3–63.7 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight) and 12.0–406 Bq kg"−"1 (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. - Highlights: • "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb concentrations in medicinal plants were estimated. • Concentrations are higher in leaves than in rhizome or bark. • "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb were in disequilibrium, but correlated very well. • Study helps to form database of radionuclides in medicinal plants.

  4. Concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in the diet at the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, Victor E.; Robison, William L.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb have been determined in many local foods consumed by societies residing on different atolls in the Marshall Islands. The average daily intake of these two naturally occurring radionuclides from local and imported food is estimated to be 2.18 and 0.36 Bq, respectively. Local foods contribute 87% of the 210 Po and 47% of the 210 Pb associated with the diet. The items contributing the majority of the activity to the diet are derived from the marine environment and include parts of fish, invertebrates, seabirds and eggs of seabirds. The committed effective dose from ingestion of 210 Po and 210 Pb is 2 mSv/year (200 mrem/year). This pathway now contributes 83% of the natural background irradiation received by residents in the Marshall Islands. Because the naturally occurring radionuclides are omnipresent in terrestrial and marine foods at all atolls, the annual intake and computed dose can be considered as typical values for individuals with comparable diets and inhabiting other islands in the Pacific

  5. Concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in the diet at the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L; Wong, K M

    1994-09-30

    The concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb have been determined in many local foods consumed by societies residing on different atolls in the Marshall Islands. The average daily intake of these two naturally occurring radionuclides from local and imported food is estimated to be 2.18 and 0.36 Bq, respectively. Local foods contribute 87% of the 210Po and 47% of the 210Pb associated with the diet. The items contributing the majority of the activity to the diet are derived from the marine environment and include parts of fish, invertebrates, seabirds and eggs of seabirds. The committed effective dose from ingestion of 210Po and 210Pb is approximately 2 mSv/year (200 mrem/year). This pathway now contributes 83% of the natural background irradiation received by residents in the Marshall Islands. Because the naturally occurring radionuclides are omnipresent in terrestrial and marine foods at all atolls, the annual intake and computed dose can be considered as typical values for individuals with comparable diets and inhabiting other islands in the Pacific.

  6. Natural levels of {sup 210}Po in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Manjon, G.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Since the secret agent Alexander Litvinenko was murdered in 2006 by a {sup 210}Po lethal dose, presumably ingested, there is renovated interest on the toxicity of this radionuclide in humans. {sup 210}Po is a radioactive isotope naturally found in nature, mainly incorporated by humans via food and water ingestion, as well as inhaled through its progenitor, the {sup 222}Rn. The total amount of natural {sup 210}Po in the human body can vary from person to person depending on their lifestyle: dietary habits, drinking water source, place of residence (associated with exposure to {sup 222}Rn), etc- and therefore in the concentrations of this element to be found in urine. To analyze the influence of dietary habits on the amount of {sup 210}Po excreted in urine, two volunteers in Seville had a well-defined and time-varying diet for a month, following a daily collection of their urine and determination of the concentrations therein of this radionuclide. The results obtained and the conclusions derived from them form the core of this communication. {sup 210}Po determinations were performed daily in 200 ml aliquots of urine using the technique of high resolution alpha spectrometry. This has involved the application of a single radiochemical method for the concentration and isolation {sup 210}Po, followed by its auto-deposition on copper planchets for proper measure. Daily {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in voluntary urine analyzed during the month of study show high variability with a difference of up to an order of magnitude between maximum and minimum values obtained, and a clear dependence on the diet type followed in the various stages of the experiment. The lowest concentrations obtained are associated with a diet rich in carbohydrates and proteins 'terrestrial' (pork, beef,...), while the highest concentrations were obtained in the final phase of the experiment when the diet was enriched with presence of marine products in fair correspondence with the

  7. Variation of 210Po and 210Pb Profile in the Sediment Core of Sarawak Coastal Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Che Abd Rahim Mohamed; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to observe the variation in the distribution of 210 Po and 210 Pb through their activity vertical profile and 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio in the sediment cores that were taken at some sampling stations in the Sarawak coastal waters. It was found that the distribution profile of those radionuclide in the sediment cores varied depending on the sampling location and ANOVA analysis shows significant difference at 95% confidence level for activities of 210 Po (p = 0.000), 210 Pb (p = 0.035) and 210 Po/ 210 Pb (p = 0.000) at all study locations. Generally, the measured activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb ranged from 337 to 2460 Bq/ kg, 11 to 84 Bq/ kg at SR 01; 224 to 2008 Bq/ kg, 6 to 80 Bq/ kg at SR 02; 119 to 1595 Bq/ kg, 6 to 84 Bq/ kg at SR 03; 241 to 2294 Bq/ kg, 5 to 82 Bq/ kg at SR 04 and 175 to 1340 Bq/ kg, 4 to 44 Bq/ kg at SR 05, respectively. In those range it was found that 210 Po activities were higher than 210 Pb with average of 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios at all stations were from 20 to 35. The variation in the distribution profile for the radionuclides are believed to be influenced by some environmental factors and have strong correlation between the radionuclide distribution and the sediment composition of silt ( 210 Po: r = 0.701 and 210 Pb: r = 0.648), water depth ( 210 Po: r = -0.647) and the distance from the sampling station to the main land ( 210 Po: r = 0.746 and 210 Pb: r = 0.975). Those factors are a major contributions on the variation of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the samples. (author)

  8. Dependence of 210Po activity on organic matter in the reverine environs of coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Venunathan, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the distribution of 210 Po in the river bank soil samples of three major rivers namely Bharathapuzha, Periyar and Kallada river of Kerala. The dependence of 210 Po activity on organic matter content in the samples was also studied. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for 210 Po radionuclide using standard radiochemical analytical method. Activity of 210 Po increases with increase in organic matter content in samples. Along the Bharathapuzha river bank the 210 Po activity ranges from 2.96 to 12.48 Bq kg -1 with mean 5.62 Bq kg -1 . The organic matter percentage in the samples ranges from 0.4 to 2.8 and a good correlation with correlation coefficient 0.9 was found between activity and organic matter percentage. In the Periyar river environs 210 Po activity ranges from 3.47 to 13.39 Bq kg -1 with mean value 9.27 Bq kg -1 . Organic matter percentage in these samples ranges from 1.20 to 4.10 and the correlation coefficient between 210 Po activity and organic matter percentage was found to be 0.8 In the Kallada river bank soil samples 210 Po activity ranges from 4.46 to 6.45 Bq kg -1 . The organic matter percentage ranges from 1.4 to 3. The correlation coefficient between 210 Po activity and organic matter percentage in the samples was found to be 0.9. (author)

  9. Biogeochemical factors affecting the presence of 210Po in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Cutler, Nichole; Salonen, Laina; Outola, Iisa

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → 210 Po activities in numerous domestic wells in Fallon NV exceed 500 mBq/L. → 210 Po levels in sediment are not the primary determinant on levels in groundwater. → δ 34 S measurements indicate SO 4 reduction occurred in all 210 Po contaminated wells. → 210 Po contaminated wells are anoxic, have high pH and low Ca. → Po mobilization probably involves an anaerobic S cycle in which H 2 S dissolves MnO 2 . - Abstract: The discovery of natural 210 Po enrichment at levels exceeding 500 mBq/L in numerous domestic wells in northern Nevada, USA, led to a geochemical investigation of the processes responsible for its mobilization. 210 Po activities in 63 domestic and public-supply wells ranged from below 1 mBq/L to 6590 ± 590 mBq/L, among the highest reported levels in the USA. There is little spatial or depth variability in 210 Pb activity in study-area sediments and mobilization of a few percent of the 210 Po in the sediments would account for all of the 210 Po in water. Stable-isotope measurements indicate SO 4 reduction has occurred in all 210 Po contaminated wells. Sulfide species are not accumulating in the groundwater in much of Lahontan Valley, probably because of S cycling involving microbial SO 4 reduction, abiotic oxidation of H 2 S to S 0 by Mn(IV), followed by microbial disproportionation of S 0 to H 2 S and SO 4 . The high pH, Ca depletion, MnCO 3 saturation, and presence of S 0 in Lahontan Valley groundwater may be consequences of the anaerobic S cycling. Consistent with data from naturally-enriched wells in Florida, 210 Po activities begin to decrease when aqueous sulfide species begin to accumulate. This may be due to formation and precipitation of PoS, however, Eh-pH diagrams suggest PoS would not be stable in study-area groundwater. An alternative explanation for the study area is that H 2 S accumulation begins when anaerobic S cycling stops because Mn oxides are depleted and their reduction is no longer releasing 210 Po

  10. Estimation of 210Po activity in mussel sample and its contribution in radiation dose to the public around Kanyakumari Coast, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin Rani, L.; Govindaraju, M.; Jeevanram, R.K.; Muthukumaran, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 ( 210 Po), a naturally occurring á-emitting radionuclide exists in the environment as a result of Uranium- 238 ( 238 U) decay chain. It is therefore ubiquitously distributed in the rocks, soils, making up Earths crust, in the atmosphere and in natural waters. 210 Po enters in marine organisms via adsorption, absorption and ingestion and is transferred through seafood consumption. The concentration of 210 Po in the edible portions of marine organisms may be many folds higher than that in the seawater because of biological re-concentration processes. In the present study, sampling sites were chosen to determine the difference of 210 Po concentration in bivalve mussel, an appropriate bio-indicator for radioactive contamination. The concentration of radionuclide Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) in brown mussel (Perna perna), obtained from different locations of Kanyakumari coastal area were estimated, which ranged between 76.0 ± 5.1 Bq/kg and 310.20 ± 18.4 Bq/kg. The highest activity was observed at Kalluvilai. The daily and annual intake of 210 Po from ingestion via mussel was estimated in these areas. To evaluate the internal exposure, annual committed effective dose to the adult population of this coastal area was determined and compared with the Indian and worldwide values to assess the risk status of the study area. It was observed that the average annual committed effective dose of 210 Po through ingestion is higher than the recommended dose of ICRP, 1990 (1 mSv/year) for general public due to the contribution of seafood, mussel species (3.09 mSv/year) in daily diet. (author)

  11. Evaluation of uncertainty and detection limits in 210Pb and 210Po measurement in water by alpha spectrometry using 210Po spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Pedro L.; Gómez, José; Ródenas, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    An easy and accurate method for the determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po in water using 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk is proposed and assessed for its detection capabilities according to the ISO Guide for the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) and ISO Standard 11929-7 concerning the evaluation of the characteristic limits for ionizing radiation measurements. The method makes no assumption on the initial values of the activity concentrations of 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po in the sample to be analyzed, and is based on the alpha spectrometric measurement of 210 Po in two different aliquots: the first one measured five weeks after the sampling date to ensure radioactive equilibrium between 210 Pb and 210 Bi and the second after a sufficient time for the ingrowth of 210 Po from 210 Pb to be significant. As shown, for a recommended time interval of seven months between 210 Po measurements, the applicability of the proposed method is limited to water samples with a 226 Ra to 210 Pb activity ratio C Ra /C Pb ≤4, as usual in natural waters. Using sample and background counting times of 24 h and 240 h, respectively, the detection limit of the activity concentration of each radionuclide at the sampling time for a 1 L sample typically varies between 0.7 and 16 mBq L −1 for 210 Pb in water samples with an initial activity of 210 Po in the range 0–200 mBq L −1 , and between 0.6 and 8.5 mBq L −1 for 210 Po in water samples with an initial activity of 210 Pb in the same range. - Highlights: ► 210 Pb and 210 Po measurement in water by 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto silver disks. ► 210 Pb and 210 Po determination based on 210 Po measurement in two different aliquots. ► Evaluation of characteristic limits in radioactivity measurements using ISO 11929-7. ► 10 Pb - 210 Po detection limits decrease with time elapsed between 210 Po measurements.

  12. The subcellular localization of natural 210Po in the hepatopancreas of the rock lobster (Jasus lalandii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.; Dowdle, E.B.; Cherry, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular localization of the naturally occurring nuclide 210 Po in the hepatopancreas of the South African rock lobster, Jasus lalandii, has been studied using centrifugation, ultrafiltration and chromatography. Just over half of the 210 Po was found to be associated with a component in the microsomal pellet. Most of the 210 Po was tightly bound to a component of high molecular mass. Dissociation of the 210 Po from this component required incubation with sulphydryl-reducing reagents, after which the 210 Po appeared to associate with a fraction having a molecular mass of 1500 daltons or less. A search for negatively-charged, hydrophobic, sulphur-containing membrane proteins which bind 210 Po is suggested. (author)

  13. Subcellular localization of natural /sup 210/Po in the hepatopancreas of the rock lobster (Jasus lalandii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyraud, M; Dowdle, E B; Cherry, R D

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular localization of the naturally occurring nuclide /sup 210/Po in the hepatopancreas of the South African rock lobster, Jasus lalandii, has been studied using centrifugation, ultrafiltration and chromatography. Just over half of the /sup 210/Po was found to be associated with a component in the microsomal pellet. Most of the /sup 210/Po was tightly bound to a component of high molecular mass. Dissociation of the /sup 210/Po from this component required incubation with sulphydryl-reducing reagents, after which the /sup 210/Po appeared to associate with a fraction having a molecular mass of 1500 daltons or less. A search for negatively-charged, hydrophobic, sulphur-containing membrane proteins which bind /sup 210/Po is suggested.

  14. Baseline concentration of {sup 210}Po in Sargassum from the Northern Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, S.; Bebhehani, M.; Talebi, L. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of the {sup 210}Po is of enormous interest because of its large contribution to the natural radiation dose received by marine organisms and human populations consuming seafood. In fact natural {sup 210}Po is responsible for higher radiation doses to humans consuming marine products than is plutonium and other man-made radionuclides. Many marine organisms are capable of concentrating {sup 210}Po in their tissues. {sup 210}Po is an alpha emitter in the {sup 238}U series, with 138-d half-life, that is supplied to seawater from atmospheric inputs and river runoff, however, the main source of {sup 210}Po in the environment is {sup 222}Rn exhalation from the ground. Assessing the impact of radionuclides in the environment requires the establishment of baseline levels in the environmental compartments. The objective of this study was to establish baseline levels in Sargassum. Two most common species of Sargassum found in the northern Gulf were analysed for {sup 210}Po. These macro-algae were collected from three different locations during January 2013. This study sets the baseline for {sup 210}Po concentration in northern Gulf, {sup 210}Po is absorbed from water and concentrated by Phytoplankton and macro-algae. This concentrated {sup 210}Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The {sup 210}Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (4.405 - 4.952 BqKg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (p>0.084) than Sargassum oligocystum (3.838 - 4.358 BqKg{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentration in these seaweeds from the Arabian/Persian Gulf were substantially lower than those found in various Phytoplankton and macro-algae species from other regions; this may be due to the lower background {sup 210}Po concentration in the Kuwait marine waters (0.282 - 0.382 mBq l{sup -1}). The {sup 210}Po concentrations in seawater measured at the 3 stations during January 2013 were less than those reported previously from the same region

  15. Individual and collective dose rates from naturally-occurring radionuclides in seafood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Camplin, W.C.; Allington, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Although seafoods are not a large item in the UK diet, they are of interest because of the above-average quantities of naturally-occurring radionuclides which they contain -particularly shellfish. The single most important contributor is 210 Po; studies have therefore been made to examine the contribution which this nuclide makes to the dose received, both collectively and to individual high-rate consumers of shellfish. (author)

  16. Do culinary preparations influence 210Po activity concentration in fin fishes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Pole, R.P.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Rajan, M.P

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210, a member of the 238 U series, is a major source of internal radiation dose to marine organisms and human beings. This naturally occurring radionuclide is responsible for a considerable proportion of radiation exposure of humans, in particular, through consumption of seafood. Considering all these facts, many countries and various international agencies have carried out studies for assessing the levels of 210 Po globally. The volatile nature of 210 Po at high temperatures would significantly reduce its activity concentration in various culinary preparations of seafood. Some studies of fishes have shown no measurable reduction in 210 Po activity in culinary preparations and some authors have reported measurable increase. Based on this scenario, the present study was aimed at estimating 210 Po activity concentrations in different culinary preparations of fishes traditionally prevalent in the coastal region of southern Tamil Nadu. The commonly available fish species (Sardinella sp., Leiognathus sp., Katsuwonus sp., Stolephorus sp. and Chirocentrus sp.) consumed more by the people of this region were collected from nearby fish-landing centre (Kanyakumari and Manakudi). The samples were washed thoroughly with tap water and eviscerated. The fillets were divided into four groups. Fresh fillets analysed as such; A portion of the sample was subjected to oil-frying (with commonly used spices and salt); One portion of the sample was salt-dried; Another portion of the sample was boiled (curry) along with common spices and salt. Ten to twenty grams of each sample was subjected to wet-digestion using 70% conc. HNO 3 followed by the addition of 40% H 2 O 2

  17. 210Po in the marine environment with emphasis on its behaviour within the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution and behaviour of the natural-series alpha-emitter polonium-210 in the marine environment has been under study for many years primarily due to its enhanced bioaccumulation, its strong affinity for binding with certain internal tissues, and its importance as a contributor to the natural radiation dose received by marine biota as well as humans consuming seafoods. Results from studies spanning nearly 5 decades show that 210 Po concentrations in organisms vary widely among the different phylogenic groups as well as between the different tissues of a given species. Such variation results in 210 Po concentration factors ranging from approximately 10 3 to over 10 6 depending upon the organism or tissue considered. 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios in marine species are generally greater than unity and tend to increase up the food chain indicating that 210 Po is preferentially taken up by organisms compared to its progenitor 210 Pb. The effective transfer of 210 Po up the food chain is primarily due to the high degree of assimilation of the radionuclide from ingested food and its subsequent strong retention in the organisms. In some cases this mechanism may lead to an apparent biomagnification of 210 Po at the higher trophic level. Various pelagic species release 210 Po and 210 Pb packaged in organic biodetrital particles that sink and remove these radionuclides from the upper water column, a biogeochemical process which, coupled with scavenging rates of this radionuclide pair, is being examined as a possible proxy for estimating downward organic carbon fluxes in the sea. Data related to preferential bioaccumulation in various organisms, their tissues, resultant radiation doses to these species, and the processes by which 210 Po is transferred and recycled through the food web are discussed. In addition, the main gaps in our present knowledge and proposed areas for future studies on the biogeochemical behaviour of 210 Po and its use as a tracer of oceanographic

  18. 210Po content in human urine of people living in south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Francés, I.; García-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Manjón, G.

    2013-01-01

    The death of the former secret service agent Alexander Livitnenko in 2006 due to a lethal intake of 210 Po, presumably via ingestion, sparked renewed interest in the field of 210 Po toxicity to humans. 210 Po occurs widely in nature and is an important component of man' s natural radiation background. The main route of 210 Po intake by the human body is the ingestion with foodstuffs, although ingestion with drinking water especially of underground origin represents another route of 210 Po intakes. Inhalation of 222 Rn released from the soil also contributes in 210 Po body burden. However, the body burden of 210 Po in normal human body may differ from one person to another depending upon the mode life including diet habits, origin of drinking water, residence place (radon exposure rate) and also smoking habits. Therefore, many factors may affect the 210 Po intake and lead to variations in the body burden in different individuals, and consequently in their urine. To see the influence of the diet habits in the amount of 210 Po excreted by urine, some volunteers in Seville (south of Spain) follow defined diets during approximately one month, with daily urine collection followed by 210 Po determination by alpha-particle spectrometry. Depending on the type of diet ingested by the different volunteers, it was observed differences approaching even an order of magnitude in their levels of 210 Po in urine. This fact difficult enormously the adoption of a predefined value of this nuclide in urine with natural origin with the consequence difficulties for screening through urine the possible anthropogenic intake of this element. (author)

  19. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide (210)Po/(210)Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995-November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and (210)Po/(210)Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton "bloom" was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of (210)Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest (210)Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained (210)Po and (210)Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5-486 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more (210)Po and (210)Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the (210)Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  20. Modelling the relationship between zooplankton biomass and environmental variations in the distribution of 210Po during a one year cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Tateda, Yutaka; Fowler, Scott W

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the environmental kinetics of the natural radionuclide 210 Po during a one-year period (October 1995 to November 1996) in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, a modelling analysis was applied. Using 210 Po concentrations in seawater and zooplankton, the 210 Po uptake rate constant from food for zooplankton was evaluated using a biokinetics calculation involving the uptake and the excretion rate constants between seawater and zooplankton. Using the transfer constants obtained, the 210 Po concentrations in zooplankton were reconstructed and validated by observed concentrations. The simulation results were in good agreement with the measured 210 Po concentrations in zooplankton. Assuming that 210 Po fecal excretion represents the majority of the excretion of 210 Po from zooplankton, the fecal matter associated 210 Po vertical flux was calculated, and compared with the observed vertical fluxes of 210 Po measured in sediment traps. The modelling evaluation showed that fecal pellet vertical transport could not fully explain the observed sinking fluxes of particulate organic matter at 150 m depth, suggesting that other sinking biodetrital aggregates are also important components of the plankton-derived vertical flux of 210 Po. The relationship between 210 Po concentration in seawater and that in rain and dry fallout and their potential effect on 210 Po concentrations in zooplankton at this location were also examined. A similar, but diphased trend between 210 Po in zooplankton and 210 Po in rain and dry fallout deposition rate was demonstrated. 210 Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater tended to diminish as mean daily rainfall increased suggesting that rain inputs serve as a 210 Po dilution mechanism in seawater at this location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochemical behavior of 210Pb and 210Po in the nearshore waters off western Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Ching-Ling; Lin, Shiao-Yu; Wen, Liang-Saw; Sheu, David D.-D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 210 Pb and 210 Po in the nearshore waters were determined off western coast of Taiwan. ► Partitioning of the radionuclides in turbid waters was discussed. ► Removal flux of particulate organic carbon was quantified using 210 Po proxy. - Abstract: Dissolved and particulate 210 Pb and 210 Po were determined at 15 stations along the coastline off western Taiwan in April 2007. The 210 Pb activities in dissolved and particulate phases fell within a relatively small range of 2.4–5.2 dpm 100 L −1 and 1.0–3.2 dpm 100 L −1 , respectively. The dissolved and particulate 210 Po activities also fell within a small range of 0.8–3.4 dpm 100 L −1 and 1.1–2.9 dpm 100 L −1 , respectively. The correlation of the distribution coefficients (K d ) of 210 Pb and 210 Po with particle concentration in turbid waters are not as evident as in the open ocean. The mass balance calculation shows that the residence times of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to particle removal from the nearshore waters ranges from 3 to 15 days and from 14 to 125 days, respectively. The flux of particulate organic carbon was estimated by 210 Po proxy and ranged from 4.8 to 33.7 mmol-C m −2 d −1 .

  2. The determination of 210Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, W.F.; Helmkamp, R.W.; Hrynyszyn, V.; Contreras, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    To measure 210 Po present in normal human urine a technique was developed in which a 4.5 x 11cm silver foil was shaken at room temperature for 48-hr periods in each of two successive volumes of 1.7 l. of urine acidified to 0.5N with HCl. Alpha rays were counted with an ionization chamber, coupled to a vibrating reed electrometer, and capable of measuring α-ray pulses originating on both sides of the silver foil serving as a central electrode. The background α-count was less than 2/hr. Analyses of human urine spiked with 0.29 to 0.58pCi of 210 Po, together with studies of urine from dogs carrying significant body burdens of 210 Pb, indicated that the average recovery of added 210 Po from 1.7 l. volumes of spiked human urine was 72%. If it is assumed that the same percentage of 210 Po is extracted from non-spiked urine, then the average 210 Po concentration found in 13 analyses of 2 x 1.7 l. samples from 26 different pools of fresh human urine was 0.023pCi/l. Substantial additional 210 Po was generated on short aging of the urine through radioactive decay of excreted 210 Bi. (author)

  3. A study on the 210Po distribution in marine organisms around the coastal waters of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Preetha, J.; Madhuparna, D.; Narayani, K.; Vandana, P.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The near-shore environment and the surface oceans are very reactive zones with heavy geochemical and biological activity. Among the natural radionuclide, Po assumes importance as it is a good representative isotope of naturally occurring radionuclide present in the sea water which is particle reactive and high-energy alpha emitter. The source of Po is mainly from the diffusion of 222 Rn gas from its parent 238 U decay product 226 Ra. 210 Po gets accumulated in very high level in organisms and thus becomes responsible for the internal radiation dose to human. The main path for entry of the activity into human-is through consumption of marine food. This paper presents the results on the study conducted to investigate the 210 Po accumulation in the marine organism around Mumbai. The results were compared with 210 Po activity in representative marine organisms from eastern and western coastal India. Twelve different varieties of marine organisms (Fish, Crab, Prawns) consumed by the local population were collected from the catch at the shore and from the local fish markets. 210 Po was estimate in the organisms and in the sea water by standard radiochemical analysis. The edible portion of the organism were separated, freeze dried, acid digested at controlled temperature of 90℃ and the residue was extracted in 0.5M HCI. 210 Po in sea water was concentrated using Fe(OH) 3 scavenging followed by extraction by 0.5M HCI. Po was further separated from the acid extract by spontaneous deposition on to a Ag disk at 80℃. Alpha activity in the deposited sample was estimated using Alpha spectrometry. 208 Po and 209 Po tracers were used as yield monitor. 210 Po was observed to be in the range of <0.008-8.39 Bq.kg -1 in fish varieties. In prawns, activity was in the range of <0.008-1.41 Bq.kg -1 . Bioaccumulation factor was calculated and the values were compared with the IAEA reported values and discussed. (author)

  4. Levels and transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in Nordic terrestrial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J.E.; Gjelsvik, R.; Roos, Per

    2011-01-01

    concentrations of the main dose forming radionuclides 210Po and 210Pb in biota from terrestrial ecosystems thus providing insight into the behaviour of these radioisotopes. Samples of soil, plants and animals were collected at Dovrefjell, Central Norway and Olkiluoto, Finland. Soil profiles from Dovrefjell...... exhibited an approximately exponential fall in 210Pb activity concentrations from elevated levels in humus/surface soils to “supported” levels at depth. Activity concentrations of 210Po in fauna (invertebrates, mammals, birds) ranged between 2 and 123 Bq kg−1 d.w. and in plants and lichens between 20...... and 138 Bq kg−1 d.w.. The results showed that soil humus is an important reservoir for 210Po and 210Pb and that fauna in close contact with this media may also exhibit elevated levels of 210Po. Concentration ratios appear to have limited applicability with regards to prediction of activity concentrations...

  5. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W.; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide 210 Po/ 210 Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995–November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and 210 Po/ 210 Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton “bloom” was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of 210 Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest 210 Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained 210 Po and 210 Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5–486 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more 210 Po and 210 Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the 210 Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  6. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayranov, M.; Tosheva, Z.; Kies, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lead-210 and Polonium-210 are naturally occurring members of the Uranium-238 decay series. They could be found in various environmental samples, such as groundwater, fish and shellfish, contributing an important component of the human natural radiation background. For this reason the development of a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po is of a great concern. The aims of our study were to adopt procedures for radiochemical separation of these radionuclides and radioanalytical methods for their determination. The combination of electrochemical deposition, co-precipitation and extraction chromatography gives the opportunity for fast and effective radiochemical separation of the analytes. Polonium was spontaneously plated on copper disk from the stock solution. Lead was co-precipitated with Fe(OH) 3 and further purified by extraction chromatography on Sr Spec columns. Alpha spectra of polonium were collected on Canberra PIPS detectors with 900 mm 2 active surface. The activities of lead were determined by LSC (Gardian Wallac Oy). The minimum detectable activities for sample size 1000 mL and chemical yield of 88 % for the polonium and 85 % for the lead are presented. The proposed method proved to be fast, accurate and reproducible for routine determination of lead and polonium in environmental water samples. (authors)

  7. 210Po concentration analysis on tobacco and cigarettes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco or better known as the cigarette was smoked since ages. Although many efforts had been made by the Ministry of Health to prevent or reduce the cigarette problem, the smokers still consider that cigarette are not harmful to health. This work is conducted to study the concentration of radionuclides alpha in tobacco and tobacco products in Malaysia. The radionuclide sought in this study is 210Po which is an alpha emitter. The sample used are tobacco and cigarettes, the tobacco samples were taken from tobacco farms in Malaysia while the sample branded cigarettes Marlboro and Gudang Garam were bought in the supermarket. The objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of radionuclides 210Po in tobacco and tobacco products as well as to estimate the radioactivity doses contributing to the smokers in Malaysia. The results for Marlboro cigarettes and Gudang Garam were found to be on the average radionuclide concentration of 210Po is 13.3 mBq/g (Marlboro cigarettes) and 11.9 mBq/g (Gudang Garam). From the total concentration of the cigarette, the estimated annual contribution dose to smokers for every 20 cigarettes smoked per day are 111.9 ± 14.7 μSv/year for Marlboro cigarettes and 100.2 ± 3.3 μSv/year for Gudang Garam cigarettes. The average concentration of radionuclides for tobacco leaf tobacco for each area taken is 3.6 mBq / g for Bachok, 2.4 mBq / g for Tumpat and 3.1 mBq / g for Semerak district.

  8. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the important pathways that could contribute to enhance the radiation dose to man, due to the relatively large concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po found in tobacco leaves. In this work, concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in eight of the most commercialized cigarette brands produced in Brazil. The samples analyzed were bought randomly in the market. The 210 Pb was determined by counting the beta activity of the 210 Bi in a gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemical separation and precipitation of the PbCr0 4 . The 210 Po was determined by alpha spectrometry, using a surface barrier detector, after radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of Po in copper disk. The results showed concentrations ranging from 11,9 to 30,2 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210 Pb and from 10,9 to 27,4 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210 Po. (author)

  9. South African SIBEX 1 Cruise to the Prydz Bay region, 1984: Pt. 6. Preliminary report on the naturally-occurring radioactive nuclide /sup 210/Po in the survey area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, M I

    1985-01-01

    During the SIBEX 1 cruise seawater, phytoplankton, and zooplankton samples were collected in the survey area for subsequent Polonium 210 determinations. The levels of /sup 210/Po found in the samples appear to be comparable with those previously reported in samples from other oceanographic regions. The determinations are not yet complete but some pleliminary conclusions are drawn.

  10. Is ecological food also radioecological? - 210Po and 210Pb studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara; Olszewski, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Presented are results of a study on accumulation of naturally occurring 210 Po and 210 Pb in ecological and conventional farming food products in Poland: fruits, vegetables and cereals. The main idea behind this research was to determine the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in ecological and commercial food as well as calculate and compare the effective dose (radiation) connected to different origin of analyzed food products consumption. The studies showed the majority of all compared food samples contained similar 210 Po and 210 Pb activities and statistically, the consumption of organic and commercial food would give similar annual effective dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Behaviour of {sup 210}Po in fresh water ecosystem located in high rainfall area around proposed uranium mining site in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Several naturally occurring alpha or beta emitting radionuclides such as {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 228}Ra and others are frequently dissolved in water supplies and their concentrations vary over an extremely wide range, mainly depending upon the amount of radio elements present in bedrock and soil with which the water comes in contact. In Meghalaya, Kylleng-Pyndensohiong, Mawthabah (KP Mawthabah Domiasiat) in West Khasi Hills District and adjoining region receives highest rainfall, and is situated near a proposed uranium mineralization zone, therefore these regions can be considered as potential sources of naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium series to the biosphere via different media. The population of the region depends mainly on different surface water sources for drinking water and also for agricultural purposes. Under these conditions some Po can be allochthonous i.e. coming with rainwater as water supply comes from the naturally formed small storage basin between the rocks which accumulate rainwater. Apart from cultivation, the occupation of the local tribal people is production of wood charcoal. This leads to excess deforestation, escalating the erosion of soil exposing the uranium bearing rock at some places, may enhance the natural radioactivity levels in nearby water bodies. The physico chemical parameter, Fe, Mn, gross alpha and {sup 210}Po activities were estimated for radiological assessment of surface water quality and behavior of {sup 210}Po. The measurement of {sup 210}Po was carried out using the {sup 208}Po tracers. A tracer recovery of 85% was observed in the case of biological samples. Recovery in the range of 90% to 95% was observed in the case of water sample. The {sup 210}Po concentration ranged from 10 to 64 mBq L{sup -1}. The lowest concentrations of {sup 210}Po were detected in water samples from Wakhaji (10±0.03) and the highest concentration of {sup 210}Po was observed in the water bodies of Nongtynger (64±0

  12. 210Pb and 210Po Determination in Bottled Water Available on the Croatian Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogic, M.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Benedik, Lj.; Strok, M.

    2011-01-01

    An alpha emitting radionuclide 210Po and beta emitting radionuclide 210Pb are decay products of 238U. Due to their nuclear properties they are considered as radionuclides with the highest radiotoxicity and contribute significantly to the internal dose to the population received by drinking water. For radiological impact assessment 210Pb and 210Po must be measured routinely and accurately, with low detection limits. The aim of our study was determination of activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in bottled drinking and mineral waters available on Croatian market. For their determination a procedure for their simultaneous separation from the water samples was used. After addition of 209Po tracer and lead carrier, radionuclides were preconcentrated from large volume by MnO 2 and their separation from interfering elements by Sr resin was done. 210Po source for alpha-particle spectrometric measurement was prepared by selfdeposition on silver disc, while lead was precipitated as lead sulphate and the beta activity of its daughter 210Bi was counted on a beta proportional counter. The results obtained show that values for activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in all examined waters are in accordance with allowed activity concentration according to the European Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom and Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, published by WHO in 2006. (author)

  13. Inhalation of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb from cigarette smoking in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, B. E-mail: bosk@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl; Ulatowski, J.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A

    2001-07-01

    The carcinogenic effect of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The results of {sup 210}Po determination on the 14 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% of the total cigarette consumption in Poland are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobaccos, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb inhalation with the cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb each. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 {mu}Sv from {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke two packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}) in comparison with the intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and the principal pathway of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb intake of smokers in Poland.

  14. Inhalation of 210Po and 210Pb from cigarette smoking in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Ulatowski, J.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The results of 210 Po determination on the 14 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% of the total cigarette consumption in Poland are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobaccos, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb inhalation with the cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of 210 Po and 210 Pb each. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 μSv from 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke two packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 μSv yr -1 ) in comparison with the intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake of smokers in Poland

  15. Studies of the balance 210Pb - 210Po in glasses; Estudios del equilibrio 210Pb - 210Po en vidrios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre Pérez, J. de la; Martín Sánchez, A.; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.

    2014-07-01

    Retrospective dosimetry requires measurement methods allowing the determination of Radon concentration in the past. One of the such methods is based on the direct measurement of 210Po implanted on the surface of objects, whose activity concentration (Bq/m2), is directly related to the cumulative exposure due to the concentration of 222Rn (Bq/m3) for long time. These determinations are possible taking into consideration the equilibrium between 210Po (T1/2 = 138.378 days) and its parent 210Pb (T1/2 = 22.3 years), being both radionuclides from the 222Rn progeny. In previous works about the determination of the conversion factor (ratio between the concentration of 210Po in objects and the retrospective 222Rn concentration in air), Corresponding equilibria between descendants were assumed. In this work, an experimental study about the equilibrium 210Pb - 210Po in glasses, which were previously exposed to some radon concentrations, has been performed. Two scenarios were studied: a place with, and another place without, continuous cumulative 222Rn concentration. Results were compared with those reached by theoretical calculations from the (Bateman) activity evolution equations. [Spanish] La dosimetría retrospectiva requiere métodos de medida que permitan la determinación de la concentración de radón en el pasado. Uno de estos métodos está basado en la medida directa del 210Po implantado sobre la superficie de objetos, cuya concentración de actividad (Bq/m2), está directamente relacionada con la exposición acumulativa debida a la concentración de 222Rn (Bq/m3) durante largos períodos de tiempo. Estas determinaciones son posibles gracias al equilibrio entre el 210Po (T1/2 = 138,378 días) y su progenitor, el 210Pb (T1/2 = 22,3 años), siendo ambos radionúclidos descendientes del 222Rn. En trabajos anteriores sobre la determinación del factor de conversión (relación entre la concentración de 210Po en los objetos y la concentración de 222Rn retrospectivo en

  16. Determination of 210 Po in cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana Claudia; Hiromoto, Goro

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical procedure for the determination of 110 Po in cigarettes is presented. The method is based on solvent extraction, followed by spontaneous deposition on copper disks and counting by alpha spectrometry. Some commercial cigarette brands available in the national market were analysed, obtaining 210 Po concentrations ranging from 15 to 26 mBq per gram of dry tobacco. (author)

  17. Analysis of 210Pb and 210Po in Brazilian foods and diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, I.L.; Bueno, L.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Maihara, V.A.; Cozzollino, S.

    2001-01-01

    Radiochemical procedures for the analysis of 210 Pb and 210 Po in foods and diets are presented. Because of the low beta energy of 210 Pb, its analysis was based on a separation of the daughter radionuclide 210 Bi by precipitation of lead sulphate, 210 Bi ingrowing and beta counting of this nuclide. 210 Po analysis was based on wet dissolution of the sample, deposition onto silver disc and counting by alpha-spectrometry. Levels of these radionuclides in individual items and diets of selected university students were determined in order to evaluate the intakes of 210 Pb and 210 Po as well as the dose due to ingestion of foods and diets in Sao Paulo city. (author)

  18. Application of an in vitro digestion model for 210Po bioaccessibility assessment in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Carla; Desideri, Donatella; Feduzi, Laura; Ugolini, Lucia; Meli, Maria Assunta

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the bioaccessibility of 210 Po in seafood and the impact of food preparation on this radionuclide. Polonium bioaccessibility is the fraction of 210 Po mobilised from food matrices into digestive extractants when applying an in vitro digestion model. The degree of bioaccessibility of 210 Po in food has important implications for estimating ingestion doses from this radionuclide. The simulation of gastrointestinal digestion was divided into three stages through the use of synthetic saliva, gastric and bile-pancreas solutions. Following pre-treatment with a saliva solution, raw and cooked seafood samples underwent one of the following treatments: (a) simulated gastric digestion only or (b) simulated complete gastrointestinal digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in 210 Po mobility was found between samples that underwent gastric digestion compared to those that only underwent gastro-intestinal digestion. However, a significant difference (P 210 Po bioaccessibility was found between raw and cooked seafood undergoing both gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion.

  19. Intake of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po with food in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S.

    1997-01-01

    Intake with food and water of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined for an adult population in regions of central, northern and northeastern Poland. The content of radionuclides was determined in the daily diet and, in the central region, also in foodstuffs and drinking water. The annual intake with foodstuffs was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. The 226 Ra intake in northeastern Poland was approximately 17% higher than the overall average, correlating well with the higher concentration of this radionuclide in the soil. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was close to unity in the continental regions, whereas at the Baltic Sea coast it was approximately 1.5. The latter value can be ascribed to a larger consumption of fish for which the 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was found to be approximately 10. In central Poland the largest intake of 226 Ra was with flour and vegetables (contribution approx. 60%), the largest intake of 210 Pb was with flour and meat (approx. 50%) and the largest intake of 210 Po was with fish (approx. 34%). From the intake and dose coefficient, annual effective doses were calculated. The dose from 210 Pb and 210 Po was approx. 54 μSv year -1 , and the dose from 226 Ra was approx. 4 μSv year -1

  20. 210Po in the marine environment with emphasis on its behaviour within the biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    The distribution and behaviour of the natural-series alpha-emitter polonium-210 in the marine environment has been under study for many years primarily due to its enhanced bioaccumulation, its strong affinity for binding with certain internal tissues, and its importance as a contributor to the natural radiation dose received by marine biota as well as humans consuming seafoods. Results from studies spanning nearly 5 decades show that (210)Po concentrations in organisms vary widely among the different phylogenic groups as well as between the different tissues of a given species. Such variation results in (210)Po concentration factors ranging from approximately 10(3) to over 10(6) depending upon the organism or tissue considered. (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in marine species are generally greater than unity and tend to increase up the food chain indicating that (210)Po is preferentially taken up by organisms compared to its progenitor (210)Pb. The effective transfer of (210)Po up the food chain is primarily due to the high degree of assimilation of the radionuclide from ingested food and its subsequent strong retention in the organisms. In some cases this mechanism may lead to an apparent biomagnification of (210)Po at the higher trophic level. Various pelagic species release (210)Po and (210)Pb packaged in organic biodetrital particles that sink and remove these radionuclides from the upper water column, a biogeochemical process which, coupled with scavenging rates of this radionuclide pair, is being examined as a possible proxy for estimating downward organic carbon fluxes in the sea. Data related to preferential bioaccumulation in various organisms, their tissues, resultant radiation doses to these species, and the processes by which (210)Po is transferred and recycled through the food web are discussed. In addition, the main gaps in our present knowledge and proposed areas for future studies on the biogeochemical behaviour of (210)Po and its use as a tracer of

  1. An assessment of 210Pb and 210Po in terrestrial foodstuffs from regions of England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.; McKay, K.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data for nationally available foodstuffs, naturally occurring 210 Pb and 210 Po contribute significantly to the UK radiation dose from dietary intake. To provide a more complete overview of radiological implications to the public, samples of offal, cereal, fruit, root and green vegetables were collected from 11 sites, including regions of potential 210 Pb and 210 Po enhancement. Considerable variability was evident in levels of 210 Pb and 210 Po from all sites and in all food types investigated. Higher concentrations were typically found in offal and cereals. Lowest concentrations were generally found in root vegetables. Between sites, the only evidence of elevated concentrations of 210 Po occurred at Helston ( 210 Po 3.0 Bq kg -1 in bovine liver, no other offal sample exceeding 0.8 Bq kg -1 ), and Holyhead 210 Po 0.4 Bq kg -1 in blackberries, no other fruit sample exceeding 0.1 Bq kg -1 ). Other foodstuffs from these sites did not show similar enhanced levels of 210 Po. The maximum dose arising from consumption of 210 Pb and 210 Po in foods surveyed in this study is estimated to be around 120 μSv year -1 to adults. This compares with an estimated UK average consumption dose from all nuclides and foodstuffs of 300 μSv year -1 (broad range 100-1000 μSv year -1 ). (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. A review of radio chemical analysis and estimation of 210Po in soil matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sethy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring radionuclide 210Po, arising from the uranium–radium decay series, provides a considerable contribution to the radiation exposure to humans. Polonium is analyzed for a variety of purposes, including for radiological impact assessment or as a tracer of environmental processes. Losses of polonium may occur at temperatures above 100 °C, depending on conditions, requiring particular care in sample preparation and treatment. There has been little development regarding analysis of polonium in environmental samples since 1960 as radiochemical analysis of polonium is quite straight forward due to easy of source preparation through auto-deposition on to metal surfaces. In this paper a brief review of estimation of polonium in the soil samples have given emphasis.

  3. Separation and electrodeposited of 210 Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Iturbe G, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    Presently work it was determined the selective separation of the 210 Po that is in an uraniferous mineral, by means of acid leaching of the mineral and the purification was carried out by means of partition chromatography whose stationary phase is 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA), it has been possible to isolate the 210 Po of the rest of the radioactive elements that conform the family 4 N +2 , the optimal elutriation conditions of this element were settled down of manner of not dragging other radioelements. Another of the achievements presented in this communication has been the electrodeposition of this element has more than enough stainless steel discs with a superior yield to 95%. (Author)

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  5. Measurement of 210Po in vegetables of Gudalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Mugunthamanikandan, N.; Ragunath, V.M.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    1999-01-01

    Intake of 210 Po with food was determined for the population in Gudalore taluka of Nilgiri district. The content of 210 Po in different vegetable samples was determined. The annual intake of 210 Po due different vegetables was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. The intake of 210 Po varied from 0.056 to 11.97 Bq/kg. The largest intake of 210 Po was with tapioca. From the intake annual effective dose was calculated. Effective dose equivalent due to polonium in different vegetables varied between 0.0121 to 2.872 μSv/Y. (author)

  6. Ratio of 210Po and 210Pb in fresh, brackish and saline water in Kuala Selangor river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chin Siang; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Zaharuddin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Sediment cores were carried out from Kuala Selangor river to amine sea water via coastal and brackish water ambient. Sample size fraction with size less than 125 μm was spiked with tracer 209 Po and leached with mix concentrated nitric acid, perchloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and mineralized with 50 ml of 0.5M HCl. The sample solution was used for spontaneously deposit polonium on a silver disk at 80-85 degree Celsius and measured with the Alpha Spectrometry. The distribution of two radionuclides especially 210 Po, 210 Pb and 210 po/ 210 Pb were useful in identifying the origin of 210 Po. Ratio values of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the freshwater, brackish water and saline water were 3.3459, 5.8385 and 2.9831, respectively. From the high ratio of 210 Po/ 210 Pb, the widespread occurrence of excess 210 Po in Kuala Selangor river water may came from the atmosphere sources such as stratospheric aerosols, sea spray of the surface micro layer and bio-volatile 210 Po organism from productive species. (author)

  7. 210Po and 210Pb concentration of cigarettes traded in Hungary and their estimated dose contribution due to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Tibor; Somlai, Janos; Nagy, Katalin; Szeiler, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    It is known that tobacco leaves may contain 210 Pb and 210 Po in significant concentrations. The cumulative alpha-radiation dose due to the radioactive content of inhaled cigarette smoke and the increasing number of lung cancer cases explain the importance of the investigation. The present study investigated the activity concentrations of these two radionuclides in 29 Hungarian cigarette samples. The relation between 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity and nicotine/tar content of these cigarettes was also examined. 210 Po was determined by alpha spectrometry using a PIPS detector after chemical leaching and spontaneous deposition of 210 Po on a high nickel-content (25%) stainless steel disk. The 210 Pb activity was calculated from the 210 Po originated from the decay of 210 Pb after a waiting period of eight months. The 210 Po activity concentrations of the measured types of cigarettes ranged from 10.0 to 33.5 mBq/cigarette, and the activity of 210 Pb varied from 9.6 to 32.5 mBq/cigarette. The average annual committed effective dose is estimated to be 185.6±70.6μSv/y and 58.7±22.7μSv/y due to cigarette smoking (20 cigarettes/day) for 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively

  8. A cost effective method for the determination of 210Po and 210Pb in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.F.; Bradley, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The majority of the methods for the determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental materials were developed in the 1960s. However, with the advances in technology since that time, particularly in the areas of ion-exchange chromatography and instrumentation, new methods may be more appropriate to measure these radionuclides in environmental media such as foodstuffs. A review was conducted of potentially suitable methods. Four methods were selected for detailed evaluation on the basis of cost and sensitivity. A cheap, sensitive and simple method is recommended for the analysis of 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental materials

  9. Evaluation of the amount of 210Po ingested by the Spanish population and its relation to their diet habit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Francés, I.; García-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Manjón, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the contribution of 210 Po to the committed effective dose via ingestion received by the Spanish population have been evaluated, by determining the 210 Po activity concentrations in an ample set of samples which can be considered representatives of the diet consumed in Spain. The obtained results show a quit high variability, preventing the possibility to fix a representative value for the 210 Po contribution to the ingestion doses received by the Spanish population, but in general these values, due exclusively to 210 Po, are higher than the average value assigned by UNSCEAR to the annual committed effective dose received by the worldwide population due to the ingestion of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. Knowing the diet habits of the Spanish population and the 210 Po bioaccumulative behavior in the marine trophic chain, which implies enhanced concentration of 210 Po in the sea food in comparison with the obtained ones in other components of the diet, the variable and generally higher ingestion doses due to 210 Po received by the Spanish population can be associated to the variable and rich consumption of marine products. The Spanish population has the seafood as an essential component of his diet. Although the 210 Po levels in the edible parts of a great variety of marine organisms can be found in the literature in general the great majority of these determinations corresponds to raw edible products. But little is known about the effects of cooking on the 210 Po content of seafood which are normally cooked for human consumption. Then it is important to check if cooking can alter the 210 Po content in the seafood in order to refine the dose estimates to human consumers. Trying to cover this gap, and at the same time trying to confirm the key role of the seafood in the 210 Po ingestion doses received by the Spanish population, we have also analyzed the 210 Po content in the edible parts of several seafood products bought in commercial markets

  10. 210Pb and 210Po in Venice Lagoon Biota and their contribution to population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Rosamilia, S.; Blasi, M.; Sansone, U.; Belli, M.; Sepulcri, D.; Bidoli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product resulting from the processes applied in phosphoric acid or phosphate fertilizer production. The phosphate ore used in these chemical processes contains the naturally occurring radioactive materials U, and Th, along with their decay products. Large volumes of solid waste products were discharged from a phosphoric acid production plant on the edge of the Venice lagoon (Italy). Water, suspended matter, and biota were monitored in the Venice lagoon, since this aquatic environment can be considered to represent the final area of deposition for the radionuclides transported from inland. The present paper reports data on the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb determined in biota living in the lagoon, and an estimation of the contribution to internal dose to man from the ingestion of food originating in the investigated area. (orig.)

  11. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Naturally occurring radionuclides transfer factor on aquatic flora and fauna in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam near proposed uranium mining site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi

    2015-04-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive element can be found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. The present work aims to understand the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in different compartments of environment reflecting its behaviour in different tropic levels. The understanding and evaluation of the possible interactions of various naturally occurring radionuclides were done in the world's third largest man-made dam, Nagarjuna Sagar, built on river Krishna located in Andhra Pradesh, India. The naturally occurring radionuclides such as Uranium ( 238 U), Polonium ( 210 Po), Radium ( 226 Ra), and Lead ( 210 Pb) were analyzed in different matrices (i.e) sediment, water, and fish. The measurement of the naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment can be used as a reference baseline for long-term monitoring in the entire aquatic ecosystem

  13. Dose estimates to the public from 210Po ingestion via dietary sources at Kalpakkam (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, V.; Iyengar, M.A.R.; Ramesh, R.

    2001-01-01

    Distribution of one of the natural radionuclides 210 Po activity in food of plant origin such as cereals, pulses, vegetables and food of animal origin such fish, crab, prawn, chicken, egg etc. were determined in and around Kalpakkam up to a distance of 32 km radius. The general range of 210 Po activity levels in all the dietary components (excluding milk and drinking water which are reported in mBq l -1 ) ranged widely from ≤10 to 122,641 mBq kg -1 fresh, the minimum being in vegetables and maximum being in the edible portions (muscle) of crab samples. 210 Po levels in drinking water and milk samples ranged between 0.6-2.6 and 8-12 mBq l -1 respectively. 210 Po content in cereals ranged from ≤32 to 745 mBq kg -1 and in pulses it was found to vary between ≤32 and 294 mBq kg -1 . The range of 210 Po activity in different types of vegetables was found to be ≤10-653 mBq kg -1 . Among the different varieties of vegetables, 210 Po was significantly higher in leafy vegetables (28-653 mBq kg -1 ) as compared to rooty and other types of vegetables which ranged from ≤10-180 mBq kg -1 . In food of animal origin, the observed minimum activity of 210 Po was 8 mBq l -1 in milk and the maximum observed was 122,641 mBq kg -1 in the muscles of crab. It was also observed that 210 Po activity was found to be in higher levels in the food of aquatic animal origin (1414-122,641 mBq kg -1 ) than in the food of terrestrial animal origin (other than milk) which varied from 41 to 963 mBq kg -1 . It is evident from the present study that the foods of animal origin especially crab, fish and prawn deliver significantly greater dose (93-3364 μSv yr -1 ) to the public compared to foods of plant origin whose mean dose ranged 0.08-128 μSv yr -1 . The study showed evidence to suggest that the total ingestion dose due to 210 Po received by the Kalpakkam public through dietary sources is significantly higher than the ingestion dose received due to fallout sources such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr

  14. Accumulation of 210Po by spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu) in New Zealand shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, P.; Hunter, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of the natural radionuclide 210 Po in the livers of 81 individual specimens of three fish species collected from waters of the Otago continental shelf, New Zealand, have been measured: spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), 4.2 ± 1.8 Bq kg -1 wet weight (mean ± standard deviation, n=48); elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii), 136 ± 39 Bq kg -1 (n = 7); and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu), 38 ± 13 Bq kg -1 (n = 26). Separate measurements showed that only a negligible fraction of the 210 Po was supported by decay of the 210 Pb parent ( 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were 15, 134 and 5.9 respectively for the three species), indicating that direct uptake of 210 Po into the liver balances losses from excretion and radioactive decay. The radiation dose from 210 Po in the livers accounted for between 88% and 99% of the total internal absorbed dose received by the fish species. The activity of 210 Po in sea water from the study area was 0.9-2.2 mBq L -1 , yielding concentration factors for 210 Po in liver tissue in the range 3 x 103 to 100 x 103. No significant monophasic relationships were observed between the 210 Po results and the measured concentrations of the elements Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb, except that Pb and 210 Po were correlated (r = 0.511 ) in C. kumu. Copyright (1997) CSIRO Publishing

  15. Accumulation of 210 Po by spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu) in New Zealand shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Bellamy, P.; Hunter, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of the natural radionuclide 210 Po in the livers of 81 individual specimens of three fish species collected from waters of the Otago continental shelf, New Zealand, have been measured: spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), 4.2 ± 1.8 Bq kg -1 wet weight (mean ± standard deviation, n = 48); elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii), 136 ± 39 Bq kg -1 (n = 7); and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu), 38 ± 13 Bq kg -1 (n = 26). Separate measurements showed that only a negligible fraction of the 210 Po was supported by decay of the 210 Pb parent ( 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were 15, 134 and 5.9 respectively for the three species), indicating that direct uptake of 210 Po into the liver balances losses from excretion and radioactive decay. The radiation dose from 210 Po in the livers accounted for between 88% and 99% of the total internal absorbed dose received by the fish species. The activity of 210 Po in sea water from the study area was 0.9-2.2 mBq L -1 , yielding concentration factors for 210 Po in liver tissue in the range 3 x 103 to 100 x 103. No significant monophasic relationships were observed between the 210 Po results and the measured concentrations of the elements Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb, except that Pb and 210 Po were correlated (r = 0.511) in C. kumu. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Technologically enhanced 210Pb and 210Po in iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; Bakr, Wafaa F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron and steel manufacture has been ranked as the largest industrial source of environmental contamination in the USA; the wastes generated in their production processes contain heavy elements that can be a source of contamination, and natural radionuclides that can produce an occupational and/or public radiological impact. In this work the potential occupational effective dose rate (μSv/y) due to inhalation in four integrated steel-making factories from Egypt has been evaluated, by assuming a well defined scenario and with basis in the 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentrations determined in ore and wastes collected in the aforementioned factories. Activity concentrations, in Bq/kg, of 210 Pb and 210 Po, and leachable Pb and Fe were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe detector, alpha particle spectrometry based on PIPS detector, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Levels of 210 Pb and 210 Po in the range of 210 Pb and 210 Po radionuclides. → Both radionuclides are enriched through the thermal processes. → For radiation dose assessment inhalation would be the main route of exposure.

  17. Accumulation of 210Po in foodstuffs cultivated in Gudalore in South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Mugunthamanikandan, N.; Raghunath, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Gudalore is an important region on the western gate in South India. Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclides distributions in the environment of this region were undertaken to provide baseline data on the radiation levels for future use and to throw light on the basic aspects of transportation of radionuclides in the environment and their uptake by vegetation species. Radiochemical method is used to determine the activity concentration of 210 Po in number of environmental samples. 210 Po in vegetables varies from 0.015 to 0.558 Bq/Kg (wet weight). The highest content of polonium was observed in tea and the lowest in tomato. The activity concentration of 210 Po in different vegetables follows the descending order, leafy vegetables > other vegetables > tuberous vegetables. The soil to plant transfer coefficients are determined from the measured activity values. The transfer coefficient for different vegetables varies from 0.011 for papaya to 0.119 for cabbage. The major concentration in the leaf and other vegetables suggests that the accumulations of 210 Po in vegetables be due to its deposition on and absorption by their leaves. From the intake annual effective dose was calculated. Effective dose equivalent due to polonium in different vegetables varies between 0.012 and 2.446 μSv/Y. The results of these systematic investigations, which form the first report on the radionuclide distribution of Gudalore are discussed and presented in this paper. (author)

  18. {sup 210}Po in marine organisms consumed by the population of Seville; {sup 210}PO en organismos marinos consumidos por la poblacion sevillana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2011-07-01

    The natural radionuclide {sup 210}Po is one belonging to the series of uranium, which is ubiquitously present in trace quantities in the various environmental compartments (water, soil, air) and through its route along the food chain may end incorporated into the human body via food or water intake. This radionuclide is highly radio toxic, presenting the highest value for the ingestion dose coefficient for adults. The Spanish population is an important component of their diet to marine products. found higher values of ingestion dose in the Spanish population compared to other European populations where the culture of introducing fish into your diet is not so entered. The study detailed here estimates the contribution of {sup 2}10Po to the ingestion dose received by the Sevillian population due to consumption of fish, mollusks and crustaceans. The results obtained in this study will be presented and discussed in this paper. (Author)

  19. Studies on the distribution of 210Po and 210Pb in the ecosystem of Point Calimere Coast (Palk Strait), India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriyanarayanan, S.; Brahmanandhan, G.M.; Malathi, J.; Ravi Kumar, S.; Masilamani, V.; Shahul Hameed, P.; Selvasekarapandian, S.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study on the natural radionuclides such as 210 Po and 210 Pb in the environmental matrices of Point Calimere ecosystem has been undertaken to establish a baseline data on the radiation profile of Point Calimere environment. The environmental samples such as water, sediment and biota (seaweeds, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) have been subjected to analyses. It has been observed that the concentration of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the water samples of Point Calimere to be 0.5 mBq/l and 1.3 mBq/l, respectively. The soft tissues of the organisms accumulated higher 210 Po content while shells and bones contained more 210 Pb. The bivalve molluscs Meretrix casta have been identified to accumulate higher concentration of 210 Po suggesting that they could serve as bio-indicator of radionuclides like 210 Po in the Point Calimere ecosystem. The concentration factor of 210 Po for the biotic components ranged from ∼10 3 to 10 6 while for 210 Pb it ranged from ∼10 3 to 10 5

  20. Polonium ({sup 210}Po) and lead ({sup 210}Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    The determination of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10{sup -1} Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10{sup 4} Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of {sup 210}Po > {sup 210}Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that {sup 210}Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As {sup 210}Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, {sup 210}Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. {sup 210}Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased {sup 210}Po:{sup 210}Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  1. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P

    2011-05-01

    The determination of (210)Po and (210)Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10(-1) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 × 10(4) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of (210)Po > (210)Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that (210)Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As (210)Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, (210)Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. (210)Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased (210)Po:(210)Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of 210 Po and 210 Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10 -1 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10 4 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of 210 Po > 210 Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that 210 Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As 210 Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, 210 Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. 210 Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased 210 Po: 210 Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  3. Distribution and enrichment of 210Po and 210Pb in the environment of Mangalore, South West coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.; Rajashekara, K.M.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil samples of Mangalore South west coast of India. The soil samples collected from the region were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activity using radiochemical analytical techniques to understand the distribution and enrichment of those radionuclides. The 210 Po activity in soil in the environment of Mangalore varies from 1.5 Bq kg -1 to 26.9 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 12.6 Bq kg -1 and that of 210 Pb varies in the range 7.6 Bq kg -1 to 67.5 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 38.9 Bq kg -1 . The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio observed was 0.3 and it shows that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in soil is more compared to 210 Po. A good correlation exists between the activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb with correlation coefficient r = 0.7. The absorbed gamma dose in the environment of the region varies from 39.4 nGy h -1 to 78.8 nGy h -1 with a mean value of 48.2 nGy h -1 . The results of the systematic studies on the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb and the absorbed gamma dose rate in air are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Speciation of 210Po and 210Pb in air particulates determined by sequential extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Karfan, K; Khalili, H; Hassan, M

    2006-01-01

    Speciation of (210)Po and (210)Pb in air particulates of two Syrian phosphate sites with different climate conditions has been studied. The sites are the mines and Tartous port at the Mediterranean Sea. Air filters were collected during September 2000 until February 2002 and extracted chemically using different selective fluids in an attempt to identify the different forms of these two radionuclides. The results have shown that the inorganic and insoluble (210)Po and (210)Pb (attached to silica and soluble in mineral acids) portion was found to be high in both sites and reached a maximum value of 94% and 77% in the mine site and Tartous port site, respectively. In addition, only 24% of (210)Pb in air particulates was found to be associated with organic materials probably produced from the incomplete burning of fuel vehicle and similar activities. Moreover, the (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio in air particulates was higher than that in all samples at both sites and varied between 3.85 in November 2000 at Tartous port site and 20 in April 2001 at the mine area. These activity ratios were also higher than the natural levels. The (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio was also determined in each portion resulting from the selective extraction and found to be higher than that in most samples. The sources of (210)Po excess in these portions are discussed. Soil suspension, which is common in the dry climate dominant in the area, sea water spray and heating of phosphate ores were considered; polonium is more volatile than the lead compounds at even moderate temperature. Furthermore, variations in the chemical forms of (210)Po and (210)Pb during the year were also investigated. However, the results of this study can also be utilized for dose assessment to phosphate industry workers.

  5. 210Po in cigarette and the radiation dose inhaled by smoker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Chen Xingan; Pan Yingdong

    2000-01-01

    The contents of Polonium-210 in 16 brands of cigarettes from China and 4 brands of cigarettes from abroad were reported. The method that the authors used for separating Polonium-210 was electrochemical deposition method. The 210 Po contents were analyzed in whole cigarettes from freshly opened packs. The 210 Po contents of the China-made cigarettes ranged from 13.7 to 43.4 mBq/cig, from 18.0 to 67.3 mBq/g respectively, the mean values were 26.5 mBq/cig and 33.7 mBq/g respectively. The content of 210 Po in cigarettes from China is higher than that from abroad. The polonium contents of the ash, butt and main stream smoke were reported. The cigarettes were smoked with the eight-channel smoking machine for determining the concentration of the radionuclides in main stream smoke. ('Main Stream' means smoke taken into the mouth). About 15% of 210 Po contained in a cigarette was transferred into the main stream smoke, 40% of the whole 210 Po content remained in the ash and butt for filter cigarette, 60% for non-filter. The daily intake of the 210 Po from cigarette was 80 mBq, the annual dose equivalent to the lung tissue of human body was 0.46 mSv. In view of present knowledge, it is improbable that this dose is significant for the higher incidence of lung tissue of human body was 0.46 mSv. In view of present knowledge, it is improbable that this dose is significant for the higher incidence of lung cancer in smokers

  6. Leaching of 210Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, U.F.; Bari, A.; Husain, L.; Husain, L.

    2009-01-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210 Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached 210 Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users' mouth. Leaching of 210 Po from SLT in human saliva was determined for six popular US snuff brands. 210 Po was leached into human saliva for 30 min, separated radiochemically and its activity was determined by α-counting. Approximately 2-10% of 210 Po present in SLT was observed to leach. Annual exposure from leached 210 Po, based on average daily consumption of 15 g of SLT, was calculated to range from 1.1 to 3.8 Bq year -1 . (author)

  7. 210Po- and 210Pb- determination in Hungarian tobacco leaves and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, T.; Bodrogi, E.; Somlai, J.; Baranyi, A.; Dombovari, P.

    2003-01-01

    Because the tobacco of the cigarettes sold in Hungary are domestically grown; the aim of our investigations was to determine the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the tobacco plants coming from the different areas of Hungary. Additionally, soil samples and phosphor fertilisers as the potential sources of these radionuclides were also investigated. Special attention was given to the tobacco grown at a tailing pond of a former uranium mine under remediation and the plants grown nearby. One of the biggest tobacco plants is situated there. The 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations of the investigated tobaccos and cigarettes do not differ considerably, so during the cigarette making process the concentration of these radionuclides does not change to a great extent. The 210 Po concentrations of the phosphate fertilizers available in Hungary were not found extremely high in either case. The ( 210 Po 72-1498 mBq/g, 210 Pb 313-985 mBq/g) concentrations of the tobacco grown at the experiment plant situated at a former uranium mine (waste hip) were high, as expected. This territory is not available for agricultural purposes. Our results also indicate that it is reasonable. The samples from the totally covered (re-mediated) tailing pond are under investigation. (authors)

  8. Assessment of 210Po in foodstuffs consumed in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Woo Lee; Mun Ja Kang; Wanno Lee; Geun Sik Choi; Young Hyun Cho; Hee Reyoung Kim; Kun Ho Chung

    2009-01-01

    210 Po in the daily diet in Korea was analyzed and the ingestion dose from an intake of 210 Po was estimated by considering the dietary habit of a Korean person. The 210 Po concentrations of a leafy vegetable (0.36 Bq x kg -1 for lettuce) in the terrestrial food were higher than those of grain, whereas Chinese cabbage had a lesser 210 Po concentration (0.019 Bq x kg -1 ). The 210 Po concentration of the animal product was similar to those detected in the grain and vegetable. The 210 Po concentrations in the shell and crustaceous were high from 19.1 to 33.0 Bq x kg -1 , however, its value fell in the overall range of the reported values. The effective dose from 210 Po for an adult from the Korean population was about 269.4 μSv x y -1 . Nearly 80% of the ingestion dose from the intake of 210 Po was attributed to the consumption of seafood. It suggests that the marine food ingestion is a critical pathway for natural 210 Po to the Korean population. (author)

  9. Determination of the mean aerosol residence times in the atmosphere and additional 210Po input on the base of simultaneous determination of 7Be, 22Na, 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdalena Dlugosz-Lisiecka; Henryk Bem

    2012-01-01

    The significant differences in the activities of 210 Pb, 210 Bi, 210 Po and cosmogenic 7 Be and 22 Na radionuclides in the urban aerosol samples collected in the summers 2010 and 2011 in the Lodz city of Poland were observed. Simultaneous measurement of these radionuclides, after a simple modification of the one compartment model, allows us to calculate both: the corrected aerosol residence times in the troposphere (1 / 25 days) and in the lower stratosphere (103 / 205 days). The relative input of the additional sources (beside of the 222 Rn decay in the air) to the total activity concentrations of 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po radionuclides in the urban air, plays a substantial role (up to 97% of the total activity) only in the case of 210 Po. (author)

  10. Aspects on the analysis of 210Po.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricsson, F; Ranebo, Y; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2011-05-01

    There has been little development regarding analysis of polonium (Po) in environmental samples since the 1960 ies. This is due to the straightforward spontaneous deposition of this element on silver (Ag), nickel (Ni) or copper (Cu) without any radiochemical separation. For many years, no radiochemical yield determinant was used and it was generally supposed that the yield was 100% after two depositions. Counting was often done using ZnS scintillation counter coupled to a photomultiplier tube. However, the use of the yield determinants (208)Po and (209)Po and the development of alpha spectrometry showed that the yield was lower. Furthermore, the tendency of Po to volatilize at low temperatures constrains the sample preparation techniques; dry-ashing cannot be used. But during the wet-ashing procedure, there are still some losses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Po losses during wet-ashing by the use of a double-tracer technique. We have found that the losses were about 30% when open glass beakers were used and about 17% when the samples were digested in microwave oven. When long-necked bottles (Kjeldahl flasks) were used, a loss of about 20% was registered. It has also been observed that (210)Pb to some extent is plating out together with its daughter nuclide Po during the electrochemical deposition. This will result in a systematic error since an unknown amount of supported (210)Po will be produced from the (210)Pb decay depending on the fraction of (210)Pb being deposited on the disc and the waiting time between deposition and measurement of the sample. A further consequence of this is that in the assessment of the (210)Pb content in the sample, very often the remaining liquid is stored after deposition for build-up of (210)Po. Since some (210)Pb is lost on the disc, the result for (210)Pb will be too low. Both these systematic errors give rise to a too high (210)Po/(210)Pb ratio. The fraction of (210)Pb which is plating out has been assessed in this

  11. Bioaccumulation of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in the crustaceans of Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem, Tamil nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, P.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2017-01-01

    It was observed that the concentrations of "2"1"0Po in water and sediment were 1.64mBq/l and 5.92 Bq/kg and "2"1"0Pb in water and sediment samples 3.10 mBq/l and 2.45 Bq/kg respectively. The muscle of crabs registered a higher level of "2"1"0Po (152 Bq/kg) than that of prawns (71.87 Bq/kg) and lobster (49.3Bq/kg). Conversely the exoskeleton of crustacean species analyzed, accumulated a higher level of "2"1"0Pb (range 5.7-9.11 Bq/kg) as compared to level of accumulated "2"1"0Pb in muscle (range 1.62-2.54 Bq/kg). The study reveals the base line data on the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in the prestart environment of Pichavaram Mangrove Ecosystem with special reference to the crustaceans. (author)

  12. Potential laboratory health hazard of /sup 210/Pb and a simple procedure for separation of /sup 210/Pb from the daughters /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, J G [Arkansas Univ., Little Rock (USA). Medical Center; Blakemore, W M [The National Center for Toxicological Research, Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA

    1981-12-01

    Lead 210 (Radium D) is a naturally occurring radionuclide which is frequently used in toxicological studies due to its long half-life. The use of /sup 210/Pb in tracer studies poses two problems. First /sup 210/Pb, along with its daughters /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po, presents a significant health hazard to laboratory personnel. Second, the presence of the daughter products may interfere with the detection of /sup 210/Pb, particularly by techniques which discriminate poorly between different radioactive emissions, e.g. autoradiography. The potential laboratory health hazards of /sup 210/Pb and its daughters are briefly reviewed and a simple dithiozone extraction procedure which allows quantitative separation of /sup 210/Pb from the daughters /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Bi is described. The purified /sup 210/Pb may then be utilized to reduce the health hazard from the daughter products and to construct calibration curves for the quantitation of /sup 210/Pb in the presence of /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po by liquid scintillation counting.

  13. Assessment of the potential impact of the phosphate industry along the Syrian Coast by evaluating 210Po and 210Pb levels in sediment, seawater and selected marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, S.; Mamish, S.

    2000-12-01

    Phosphate industry is considered to be one of the potential sources of natural radionuclides in Syrian environment. Most of the phosphate ore is exported in large quantities via one of the main Syrian ports (Tartous) situated on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea (34 54 North , 35 52 East). The impact of the loading cargoes on the marine environment has been evaluated. 210 Po and 210 Pb in seawater, sediment and marine organisms have been determined. Results have shown a significant enhancement of these two radionuclides in sediment and surface water inside the port area. The highest 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations observed in sediment were found to be 170 Bq.kg -1 and 64 Bq.kg -1 respectively. While, 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations in surface water ranged from 5 to 20 m Bq.l -1 and 0.93 to 3.23 m Bq.l -1 . In addition, other naturally occurring radionuclides were also determined in the collected sediment samples and relatively higher values ( 226 Ra = 33.2 Bq.kg -1 and 234 Th = 88 Bq.kg -1 ) were observed for those samples collected from inside the port. However, the effect of loading cargoes on the near marine environment was found to be mainly related to wind direction where air particulate carrying radioactivity either being blown to lands or sea. Moreover, comparable values of 210 Po and 210 Pb for all marine organisms (algae, crab and fish) have been observed and it is not recommended to use these organisms for evaluating the effect of phosphate industry on marine environment. This is due to the fact that marine organisms accumulate 210 Po and 210 Pb in their body. Two core samples were also collected in order to investigate the history of pollution in the port. Results have shown a complex relation for unsupported 210 Pb with depth, where the constant supply dating method can not be applied. This is due to the fact that two sources for unsupported 210 Pb being observed in the port area; viz. radon gas and phosphate dust carrying radioactivity

  14. Determination of "2"1"0Po in calcium supplements and the possible related dose assessment to the consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to investigate the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of polonium "2"1"0Po in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring "2"1"0Po activity concentrations in calcium supplements, find the correlations between "2"1"0Po concentration in medicament and calcium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed calcium supplement consumption. As results showed, "2"1"0Po concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were higher than the other analyzed. Also the results of "2"1"0Po analysis obtained for inorganic forms of calcium supplements were higher. The highest "2"1"0Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks: dolomite and chalk – 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.36 ± 0.10 mBq g"−"1 respectively; while the lowest in organic calcium compounds: calcium lactate and calcium gluconate – 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mBq g"−"1. The annual effective radiation doses from supplements intake were estimated as well. The highest annual radiation dose from "2"1"0Po taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was connected to sample made from chalk – 2.5 ± 0.07 μSv year"−"1, while the highest annual radiation dose from "2"1"0Po taken with 1 g of pure calcium per day was connected to dolomite – 12.7 ± 0.70 μSv year"−"1. - Highlights: • "2"1"0Po in the most popular calcium supplements in Poland was investigated. • "2"1"0Po is present in calcium supplements and could be an additional source of "2"1"0Po for human. • Inorganic samples were richer in "2"1"0Po in comparison to organic. • Additives from sedimentary rocks, were richer in polonium in comparison to

  15. Metabolic balances of 210Pb and 210Po at natural levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Kramer, L.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic balances of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males. The intakes of the two nuclides were due to the dietary contents of these radioisotopes, inhalation from the atmosphere, and smoking of cigarettes. No additional radioisotope was given. The mean dietary intake of 210 Pb was 1.25 pCi/day and of 210 Po, 1.63 pCi/day. The major pathway of excretion of both nuclides is via the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary excretion is much lower. The total excretions of 210 Pb and 210 Po were greater than the dietary intake and the overall balances were -0.28 and -0.16 pCi/day for the two nuclides, respectively, during a low calcium intake. The 210 Pb balances did not change significantly when the calcium intake was increased 7- to 10-fold except for one patient in whom the balance became more negative. The 210 Po balance was more negative during calcium intakes of 800 and 2200 mg than during a low calcium intake of 200 mg/day. The urinary and fecal excretions of the two radionuclides were not affected by the intake of sodium fluoride, while the diuretic compound Hydrodiuril appeared to decrease the fecal 210 Pb excretion

  16. Metabolic balances of 210Pb and 210Po at natural levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Kramer, L.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic balances of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males. The intakes of the two nuclides were due to the dietary contents of these radioisotopes, inhalation from the atmosphere, and smoking of cigarettes. No additional radioisotope was given. The mean dietary intake of 210 Pb was 1.25 pCi/day and of 210 Po, 1.63 pCi/day. The major pathway of excretion of both nuclides is via the gastrointestinal tract; the urinary excretion is much lower. The total excretions of 210 Pb and 210 Po were greater than the dietary intake and the overall balances were -0.28 and -0.16 pCi/day for the two nuclides, respectively, during a low calcium intake. The 210 Pb balances did not change significantly when the calcium intake was increased 7- to 10-fold except for one patient in whom the balance became more negative. The 210 Po balance was more negative during calcium intakes of 800 and 2200 mg than during a low calcium intake of 200 mg/day. The urinary and fecal excretions of the two radionuclides were not affected by the intake of sodium fluoride, while the diuretic compound, Hydrodiuril, appeared to decrease the fecal 210 Pb excretion

  17. Separation and electrodeposited of {sup 210} Po; Separacion y electrodeposito de {sup 210} Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Iturbe G, J.L

    1991-12-15

    Presently work it was determined the selective separation of the {sup 210} Po that is in an uraniferous mineral, by means of acid leaching of the mineral and the purification was carried out by means of partition chromatography whose stationary phase is 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D{sub 2}EHPA), it has been possible to isolate the {sup 210} Po of the rest of the radioactive elements that conform the family 4 N{sup +2}, the optimal elutriation conditions of this element were settled down of manner of not dragging other radioelements. Another of the achievements presented in this communication has been the electrodeposition of this element has more than enough stainless steel discs with a superior yield to 95%. (Author)

  18. Levels of 210Po and 210Pb in cigars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, A.; Gouvea, R.C.S.; Santos, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations have been determined in 58 cigar brands manufactured in 11 countries. Cuban and American cigars showed the lowest 210 Po content. The mean levels of 210 Po in Brazilian, European and Dominican cigars were almost identical and somewhat lower than the levels observed for cigars from other Latin American countries. Cuban, American and European cigars contained low levels of 210 Pb. Cigars from the remaining countries contained twice as much 210 Pb. The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio showed an excess of polonium. In the case of one cigar-a-day smoker, the calculated annual absorbed dose due to 210 Po is ∼16 μGy. (author)

  19. Computation of radiation dose rate to non-human biota (Benthic and pelagic) from Nat.210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamat, Rupali C.K.; Suresh, Sugandhi; Joshi, Vikram; Pulhan, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors are accountable for inclusion of radioactivity into the biota (flora and fauna). Among natural radionuclides 210 Po (t 1/2 =138 days) acquires importance due to it high radiotoxicity, with alpha particle energy of 5.3 MeV. It is a main contributor (90%) to the natural radiation dose received by most marine organisms and also to critical group doses from seafood consumption. Radioprotection in the past focused only on mankind with the assumption that human protection confers protection of non-human biota. However, in recent years International Commission on Radiological Protection has focused on protection of non-human biota. Radiological dose assessment to the biota is a challenging task and is an important issue of radiation protection. In line with this, the data generated in the present work is the baseline data to examine radiation dose due to naturally occurring 210 Po to the native marine species (benthic and pelagic) of the area rich in benthic and pelagic communities

  20. Concentration of 210Po in local foodstuffs grown nearby High Background Areas (HBRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamesh Viswanathan, B.; Arunachalam, Kantha D.; Sathesh Kumar, A.; Jayakrishna, K.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    210 Po is the decay product of natural radionuclide of 238 U series. The presence of a radionuclide migrates from soil > plant > food and ingested by the humans residing in the areas of syentite rocks nearby the High Background Radiation Area's (HBRA). The food samples were studied by Market Basket Study (MBS). The average concentration of 210 Po in foodstuffs like green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, roots and tubers; fruits, fish, other flesh foods, milk and cereals were 1671 ± 163.3, 28.2 ± 7.3, 320 ± 99, 53 ± 17.5, 251.5 ± 54.5, 37 ± 14.5, 16 ± 6 and 230 ± 75 mBq. Kg -1 fresh weight. (author)

  1. 210Pb and 210Po in tobacco - with a special focus on estimating the doses of 210Po to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.

    1994-01-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke is ranked second to food as a source of 210 Pb and 210 Po exposure to man. assay of 210 Pb and 210 Po in commercially available tobacco collected from many countries have been carried out to assess the potential risk from 210 Po present in tobacco. The range of 210 Po contained in the tobacco grands varied from 10.08 to 15.0 mBq/tob or 13.0 to 20.1 mBq/g and the mean was 11.6 mBq/tob or 15.4 mBq/g. During the International Standard Smoking process about 50% of 210 Po present in tobaccos was transferred into the smoke and the other 50% remained in the ash and butt. About 10% of the total 210 Po of tobacco was inhaled by smoke through mainstream smoke. One pack-a-day smoker inhaled 24 mBq of 210 Po per day through smoking and the annual inhalation was 8.8 Bq. The risk of mortality from lung cancer caused by 210 Po in tobaccos was 18 per million persons for the above model. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  2. Mobility of 232Th and 210Po in red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Jónás, Jácint; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2018-04-01

    The valorization of industrial by-products such as red mud became a tempting opportunity, but the understanding of the risks involved is required for the safe utilization of these products. One of the risks involved are the elevated levels of radionuclides (in the 100-1300 Bq/kg range for both the 238 U and 232  Th decay chains, but usually lower than 1000 Bq/kg, which is the recommended limit for excemption or clearance according to the EU BSS released in 2013) in red mud that can affect human health. There is no satisfactory answer for the utilization of red mud; the main current solution is still almost exclusively disposal into a landfill. For the safe utilization and deposition of red mud, it is important to be able to assess the leaching behaviour of radionuclides. Because there is no commonly accepted measurement protocol for testing the leaching of radionuclides in the EU a combined measurement protocol was made and tested based on heavy metal leaching methods. The leaching features of red mud were studied by methods compliant with the MSZ-21470-50 Hungarian standard, the CEN/TS 14429 standard and the Tessier sequential extraction method for 232 Th and 210 Po. The leached solutions were taken to radiochemical separation followed by spontaneous deposition for Po and electrodeposition for Th. The 332 ± 33 Bq/kg 232 Th content was minimally mobile, 1% became available for distilled water 1% and 6% for Lakanen-Erviö solution; the Tessier extraction showed minimal mobility in the first four steps, while more than 85% remained in the residue. The 210 Po measurements had a severe disturbing effect in many cases, probably due to large amounts of iron present in the red mud, from the 310 ± 12 Bq/kg by aqua regia digestion, distilled water mobilized 23%, while Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized ∼13%. The proposed protocol is suitable for the analysis of Th and Po leaching behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural radiation dose due to 210Po and associated risk to certain fishes of Kudankulam Waters, Gulf of Mannar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Pole, R.P.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Vijayakumar, B.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on environmental protection, concern has switched over from the earlier target human being to non-human species regarding possible radiation risk. Alpha-emitter 210 Po (t 1/2 = 138.4 d) is the most important radionuclide, considering it as a potential natural source of internal radiation dose to marine organisms. Fishes are known to accumulate 210 Po to a large extent through food chains and certain marine fishes are potential bioindicators as they bioaccumulate the target radionuclide from surrounding waters. Hence it is imperative to assess the level of 210 Po and the radiological risk (risk quotient) due to the radiation dose received by different fish species collected from the coastal areas around the nuclear installation at Kudankulam

  4. Transfer analysis of 210Po and 210Pb in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb between various compartments in the terrestrial environment has been analysed by using published data. The average activity concentration of 210 Po in dry soil is 61 ± 14 Bq.kg -1 (median 44 Bq.kg -1 ). Ground water concentrations of 210 Po in drilled wells might be as high as 6.5 Bq/l. But in regular drinking water it is just about 3-5 mBq/l. The uptake of radionuclides from soil to plant is usually given as the ratio of dry matter radionuclide-activity concentrations of plant (AC plant ) and soil (AC soil ) respectively. This ratio is called the soil transfer factor: STF = AC plant /AC soil . The soil transfer factor varies widely between various types of crops with an average of about 0.056±0.003. The activity concentrations in leafy plants are, however highly affected by the atmospheric deposition of 210 Pb and 210 Po. By comparing the activity concentrations in plants grown on an open field with those grown on a field sheltered by a polyethylene tent, it has been possible to estimate a deposition transfer factor: DTF = Difference of the dry matter activity concentration (Bq.kg -1 ) of plant grown in open field and plants grown in tent shelter, divided by the atmospheric deposition during the vegetation period (Bq.m -2 ). The deposition transfer factor for 210 Pb thus estimated is in the order of 0.5-1.0 (m 2 .kg -1 dry matter) for leafy plants like grass and 0.1-0.5 for less leafy plant and straw. For various grains it is < 0.2 and for root fruits it is < 0.003 (m 2 .kg -1 dry matter). Corresponding values for 210 Po are about a factor 3 times higher. The world average activity concentration of 210 Po in fresh leafy vegetable is estimated to 320±190 mBq.kg -1 , and in cereals and grain products 240±80 mBq.kg -1 . The average activity concentration in milk products is 59 ± 13 mBq.kg -1 and in meat products about 70 ± 39 mBq.kg -1 . The dietary intake of milk and meat products is 170 kg.a - which is the highest of all food

  5. Descriptive statistics and risk assessment for the control of seasonal pollutant effects of 210Po and 210Pb in coastal waters (Canakkale, Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpil Akozcan; Fatih Kulahci

    2018-01-01

    210 Po is absorbed into the human body by seafood intake. Especially, mollusks and mussels are known to have much higher 210 Po concentration than fish among various other types of seafood and are consumed in large quantities in Aegean Sea. 210 Po and 210 Pb radionuclide concentrations are obtained in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and in the sediment samples collected from the Canakkale. The activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb are counted using alpha spectrometry. Activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in mussels are in the ranged of 227 ± 11-540 ± 38 and 17 ± 4-48 ± 5 Bq kg -1 dw (dry weight), for sediments the ranges are 23 ± 6-41 ± 3 and 15 ± 3-44 ± 1 Bq kg -1 dw, respectively. Additionally, annual committed effective dose are calculated due to consumption mussel in Canakkale coastal region. The highest effective doses of 210 Po and 210 Po are found as 3187 and 56 μSv, respectively. Finally, risk analysis assessment is recommended to determine the pollutant effects of radionuclides. The risk fractions at the concentrations are easily determined with this evaluation process. This methodology has made a great contribution to risk assessments. (author)

  6. Determination of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in cigarette tobacco; Determinacao de {sup 210}Pb e {sup 210}Po em tabaco de cigarros nacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Ana Claudia

    1999-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the important pathways that could contribute to enhance the radiation dose to man, due to the relatively large concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po found in tobacco leaves. In this work, concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in eight of the most commercialized cigarette brands produced in Brazil. The samples analyzed were bought randomly in the market. The {sup 210}Pb was determined by counting the beta activity of the {sup 210}Bi in a gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemical separation and precipitation of the PbCr0{sub 4}. The {sup 210}Po was determined by alpha spectrometry, using a surface barrier detector, after radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of Po in copper disk. The results showed concentrations ranging from 11,9 to 30,2 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for {sup 210}Pb and from 10,9 to 27,4 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for {sup 210}Po. (author)

  7. Speciation of 210Po and 210Pb in air particulates determined by sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Karfan, K.; Khalili, H.; Hassan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Speciation of 210 Po and 210 Pb in air particulates of two Syrian phosphate sites with different climate conditions has been studied. The sites are the mines and Tartous port at the Mediterranean Sea. Air filters were collected during September 2000 until February 2002 and extracted chemically using different selective fluids in an attempt to identify the different forms of these two radionuclides. The results have shown that the inorganic and insoluble 21 Po and 21 Pb (attached to silica and soluble in mineral acids) portion was found to be high in both sites and reached a maximum value of 94% and 77% in the mine site and Tartous port site, respectively. In addition, only 24% of 21 Pb in air particulates was found to be associated with organic materials probably produced from the incomplete burning of fuel vehicle and similar activities. Moreover, the 210 Po/ 21- Pb activity ratio in air particulates was higher than that in all samples at both sites and varied between 3.85 in November 2000 at Tartous port site and 20 in April 2001 at the mine area. These activity ratios were also higher than the natural levels. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio was also determined in each portion resulting from the selective extraction and found to be higher than that in most samples. The sources of 210 Po excess in these portions are discussed. Soil suspension, which is common in the dry climate dominant in the area, sea water spray and heating of phosphate ores were considered; polonium is more volatile than the lead compounds at even moderate temperature. Furthermore, variations in the chemical forms of 210 Po and 210 Pb during the year were also investigated. However, the results of this study can also be utilized for dose assessment to phosphate industry workers

  8. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in Brazilian cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, A.C.; Hiromoto, G.

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the important pathways that could contribute to enhance the radiation dose to man, due to the relatively large concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po found in tobacco leaves. In this work, concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in eight of the most commercialized cigarette brands produced in Brazil. The samples analyzed were bought randomly in the market. The 210 Pb was determined by counting the beta activity of the 210 Bi in a gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemical separation and precipitation of the PbCrO 4 . The 210 Po was determined by alpha spectrometry, using a surface barrier detector, after radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of Po in copper disk. The results showed concentrations ranging from 15,8 to 30,2 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210 Pb and from 18,8 to 27,4 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210 Po. Taking in account the experimental error of the measurements, radioactive equilibrium between 210 Pb and 210 Po is observed for all analyzed samples. This result was expected, since the delayed time from the harvest of tobacco leaves to the introduction of cigarettes in the market is enough to reach that equilibrium. Assuming a 20 cigarettes per day consumption, and a 10% of Pb and 20% of Po being inhaled by the primary smokers, it is obtained a value of yearly intake of 11,3 Bq of 210 Pb and 21,2 Bq of 210 Po, due to cigarette consumption. These values lead to an increment to the committed effective dose of 0,025 mSv year -1 and an increment to the probability of getting cancer of 1 x 10 -6 per year. (author)

  9. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwynn, Justin P.; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K and 137 Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of 210 Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of 210 Po and 40 K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate 210 Po and/or translocate 210 Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by 210 Po, while for berries, 40 K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 40 K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of 210 Po. - Highlights: ► 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were typically less than one for berries. ► 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were all greater than one for mushrooms. ► Dose rates from mushrooms were dominated by 210 Po and by 40 K for berries. ► Wild foods can give a significant contribution to total annual ingestion dose.

  10. Ingestion of polonium ((210)Po) via dietary sources in high background radiation areas of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Rao, D D; Sathyapriya, R; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kuruva, Jaya Krishna; Hari, Shanmugamsundaram

    2014-10-01

    To study the distribution of Polonium ((210)Po) activity in dietary sources in the high background radiation zone of Puttetti in southern Tamil Nadu. (210)Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individual representatives living in the high background areas by 24-h Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was performed by collecting the food samples such as, cereals, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk grown in the high background radiation zone of southern Tamil Nadu as a part of baseline study in this region. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials consumed including the beverages in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in the village of Puttetti. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide (210)Po was estimated. The average concentration of (210)Po in DDS (n = 33) was found to be 74 mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into eight food groups. The average concentration of (210)Po in the eight food groups namely leafy vegetables was 2176 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), vegetables 55 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 10), roots and tubers 251 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 4), fruits 65 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 5), fish 345 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 2), meat food 117 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), milk 20 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 1) and cereal 290 (n = 1) mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight, respectively. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to (210)Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. The overall results showed that the MBS was moderately higher than the DDS in all age groups. Moreover, a DDS approach may even be more realistic, as cooked foodstuffs are used for dietary exposure assessment. The study confirms that the current levels of (210)Po do not pose a significant radiological risk to the local inhabitants.

  11. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, G.

    2011-01-01

    The activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759 ± 277 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg -1 dry weight), and 45 ± 19 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg -1 dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210 ± 75 Bq kg -1 (dry weight) for 210 Po and 10 ± 4 Bq kg -1 (dry weight) for 210 Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of 210 Po

  12. Quantitative determination of 210Po in geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, W.; Bristow, Q.

    1984-01-01

    To test the usefulness of 210 Po in soils as a means of detecting buried U mineralization, methods for the determination of 210 Po were investigated and adapted for routine production of 210 Po data from geochemical samples. A number of conditions affecting autodeposition and detection of 210 Po were investigated. The optimum area of deposition with a 450 mm 2 solid state detector was found to be 300 mm 2 . Convenience dictated room temperature over-night deposition times, although increased temperature increased speed and efficiency of deposition. A clear inverse relationship was observed between volume of solution and deposition efficiency with stirring times of less than 2 hours. For routine analysis, soil and rock powders were dissolved by leaching 1 g samples in teflon beakers successively with conc. HNO 3 , HF, and HNO 3 -HClO 4 , evaporating the solution to dryness between leaches, and taking the residue up in 20 mL 0.5 M HCl. The 210 Po was deposited on 19 mm diameter Ni discs and counted with an alpha spectrometer system employing 450 mm 2 ruggedized surface barrier detectors. The method achieved 90 percent recovery of 210 Po from solution and a detection efficiency of 30 percent. With a counting time of 3 hours, the method is capable of detecting 0.2 pCi of 210 Po per gram of sample

  13. Transfer of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in aquatic organisms and food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaotong; Weng Detong; Chen Wenyin; Chen Xiuyun; Chen Jixi; Zhao Shimin

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To find out the transfer regularities of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po, which are natural radionuclides in the aquatic organisms and food chain. Methods: Large amount of breed of representative aquatic products and their living waters and sediments were collected and treated according to routine experimental procedures. The contents of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po were detected in each sample. Measured data were analyzed statistically and pairwise comparisons were made to determine the differences between groups. Results: 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb were mainly deposited in the bones (or shells), their concentration factors (CF) ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 ; the CF ranged only from 10 0 to 10 2 in the flesh. 210 Po was mainly deposited in the soft tissues, CF ranged from 10 2 to 10 4 ; especially in the stomachs and intestines of fishes, the value reached 10 4 . The cooking process did not impinge significantly on the transfer of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in the food chain (P>0.05), but did significantly influence the transfer of 210 Po, especially in the freshwater fishes and shrimps. Paired comparison test of the activities between raw flesh and cooked flesh showed very significant difference (P 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po. Even though the bones (or shells) of aquatic organisms contained relatively higher levels of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, the cooking process does not significantly increase the radioactive contents in the foodstuffs. However, the cooking process does significantly influence the transfer of 210 Po. It does significantly increase the content of 210 Po in foodstuffs

  14. Leachability of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. Leachability of 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for 210 Pb and 1.7% for 210 Po). The 210 Pb and 210 Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for 210 Pb and 10.0% for 210 Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for 210 Pb and 8.5% for 210 Po. For all samples the results obtained show that 210 Pb is slightly more soluble than 210 Po. (author)

  15. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, R.C.; Branco, M.E.C.; Santos, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of polonium 210 Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210 Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210 Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  16. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, I. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf Inc. D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Seitz, G. [Institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention in the precision engineering and electrical industry, D-50941 Koeln (Germany); Hartmann, M. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  17. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, I.; Seitz, G.; Hartmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  18. Distribution and biokinetic analysis of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in poultry due to ingestion of dicalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casacuberta, N., E-mail: Nuria.Casacuberta@uab.es [Departament de Fisica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Traversa, F.L. [Departament d' Electronica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J. [Departament de Fisica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Anguita, M.; Gasa, J. [Departament de Ciencia Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) is used as a calcium supplement for food producing animals (i.e., cattle, poultry and pig). When DCP is produced via wet acid digestion of the phosphate rock and depending on the acid used in the industrial process, the final product can result in enhanced {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po specific activities ({approx} 2000 Bq.kg{sup -1}). Both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po are of great interest because their contribution to the dose received by ingestion is potentially large. The aims of this work are to examine the accumulation of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in chicken tissues during the first 42 days of life and to build a suitable single-compartment biokinetic model to understand the behavior of both radionuclides within the entire animal using the experimental results. Three commercial corn-soybean-based diets containing different amounts and sources of DCP were fed to broilers during a period of 42 days. The results show that diets containing enhanced concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po lead to larger specific accumulation in broiler tissues compared to the blank diet. Radionuclides do not accumulate homogeneously within the animal body: {sup 210}Pb follows the calcium pathways to some extent and accumulates largely in bones, while {sup 210}Po accumulates to a large extent in liver and kidneys. However, the total amount of radionuclide accumulation in tissues is small compared to the amounts excreted in feces. The single-compartment non-linear biokinetic model proposed here for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the whole animal takes into account the size evolution and is self-consistent in that no fitting parameterization of intake and excretions rates is required.

  19. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb concentration of cigarettes traded in Hungary and their estimated dose contribution due to smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Tibor [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8201 Veszprem (Hungary)], E-mail: kt@almos.vein.hu; Somlai, Janos [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8201 Veszprem (Hungary); Nagy, Katalin [Department of Rheumatology, Markhot F. Heves County Hospital, Szechenyi ut 27, H-3300 Eger (Hungary); Szeiler, Gabor [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8201 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2007-11-15

    It is known that tobacco leaves may contain {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in significant concentrations. The cumulative alpha-radiation dose due to the radioactive content of inhaled cigarette smoke and the increasing number of lung cancer cases explain the importance of the investigation. The present study investigated the activity concentrations of these two radionuclides in 29 Hungarian cigarette samples. The relation between {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity and nicotine/tar content of these cigarettes was also examined. {sup 210}Po was determined by alpha spectrometry using a PIPS detector after chemical leaching and spontaneous deposition of {sup 210}Po on a high nickel-content (25%) stainless steel disk. The {sup 210}Pb activity was calculated from the {sup 210}Po originated from the decay of {sup 210}Pb after a waiting period of eight months. The {sup 210}Po activity concentrations of the measured types of cigarettes ranged from 10.0 to 33.5 mBq/cigarette, and the activity of {sup 210}Pb varied from 9.6 to 32.5 mBq/cigarette. The average annual committed effective dose is estimated to be 185.6{+-}70.6{mu}Sv/y and 58.7{+-}22.7{mu}Sv/y due to cigarette smoking (20 cigarettes/day) for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, respectively.

  20. Distribution of uranium 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the ecological cycle in mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, Z.; Horsic, E.; Kljajic, R.; Bauman, A.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the uncultivated mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia was investigated. Samples of beef (meat and bones), milk, cheese, grass and podsolic soil were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of these radionuclides in this ecologically unpolluted environment was no different from cultivated regions in other parts of the world. (UK)

  1. Levels of 210 Pb and 210 Po in Brazilian cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Pedro Lopes dos; Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos Santos; Dutra, Iedo Ramos

    1996-01-01

    210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations have been determined in 18 Brazilian cigarette samples and compared with known data on U content. U is respectively 3-fold less and 4-fold less abundant than 210 Po or 210 Pb. No correlation could be observed between U concentration and those of Po or Pb. The mean concentration of 210 Pb is higher than that of 210 Pb observed in many other plants, even in plants frown in high background areas. (author)

  2. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  3. 210Po and 210Pb in a pelagic trophic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radakovitch, O.; Strady, E.; Veron, A.; Chiffoleau, J.F.; Tronczynski, J.; Harmelin-Vivien, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ANR-COSTAS program studied the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of organic and inorganic contaminants through the trophic chains of two small pelagic fish, anchovy and sardine, on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea). 210 Po and 210 Pb were analysed at various levels of this trophic chain, as well as trace metal elements, lead isotopes and C and N isotopes which provide additional information on both biogeochemical cycles and trophic transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an entire trophic chain is analysed for these two radionuclides. Water, suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton were collected at 7 stations during two contrast seasons. Phyto and zooplankton were separated in 6 classes through size-sieving: 6-60 μm; 60-200; 200-500; 500-1000; 1000-2000 and > 2000 μm. Anchovy and sardine were collected also two times and analyses were performed on muscle and liver independently for both sexes

  4. Assessment of 210Po exposure for the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Renzetti, A.; Santori, G.; Breuer, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the data required to evaluate the 210 Po internal burden and the relative dose given to the members of the Italian general public and to those groups of subjects who are exposed in non-uranium mines and spas to high radon and daughter product air concentrations. Data on the daily intake, daily excretion, total body burden and skeletal burden of 210 Pb and 210 Po for the general public provide the components of the 210 Pb- 210 Po metabolic balance. A mathematical model has been developed on the basis of this data and can be used to evaluate the 210 Pb- 210 Po body burden of subjects exposed to high levels of radon and daughter products on the basis of their 210 Pb- 210 Po daily excretion. Data is presented for the 210 Pb- 210 Po skeletal and soft tissue burden and the yearly dose rate to the skeleton in non-smokers, smokers, non-uranium miners and spa employees. (UK)

  5. Biomonitoring of 210Po and 210Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, Emel; Ugur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Sac, Mueslim Murat; Camgoez, Berkay

    2011-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for 210 Po and 210 Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg -1 , for mosses the ranges for 210 Po and 210 Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg -1 , respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more 210 Po and 210 Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. 210 Po concentrations were found higher than 210 Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: → Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. → The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. → Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. → Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  6. Accumulation of {sup 210} Po by spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu) in New Zealand shelf waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Bellamy, P.; Hunter, K.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, (New Zealand)

    1997-09-01

    Concentrations of the natural radionuclide {sup 210} Po in the livers of 81 individual specimens of three fish species collected from waters of the Otago continental shelf, New Zealand, have been measured: spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), 4.2 {+-} 1.8 Bq kg {sup -1} wet weight (mean {+-} standard deviation, n = 48); elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii), 136 {+-} 39 Bq kg {sup -1} (n = 7); and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu), 38 {+-} 13 Bq kg {sup -1} (n = 26). Separate measurements showed that only a negligible fraction of the {sup 210} Po was supported by decay of the {sup 210} Pb parent ( {sup 210} Po/{sup 210} Pb activity ratios were 15, 134 and 5.9 respectively for the three species), indicating that direct uptake of {sup 210} Po into the liver balances losses from excretion and radioactive decay. The radiation dose from {sup 210} Po in the livers accounted for between 88% and 99% of the total internal absorbed dose received by the fish species. The activity of {sup 210} Po in sea water from the study area was 0.9-2.2 mBq L {sup -1} , yielding concentration factors for {sup 210} Po in liver tissue in the range 3 x 103 to 100 x 103. No significant monophasic relationships were observed between the {sup 210} Po results and the measured concentrations of the elements Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb, except that Pb and {sup 210} Po were correlated (r = 0.511) in C. kumu. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Enhancement of 210Po and 210Pb arising from phosphate industry in the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budeir, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphate industry is considered to be one of the potential sources of natural radionuclide in Syria. Most of the phosphate processed ore is exported in large quantities via one of the Syrian main ports (Tartous) situated on the east part of the Mediterranean Sea (34 deg. 54 N, 35 deg. 52 E). Loading activities into ships have been carried out for more than 20 years. Dust carrying radioactivity is elevated and transported to the surroundings; most of the port area is affected. The impact of these loading activities on the marine environment has been evaluated. 210 Po and other natural radionuclides in seawater, sediment and marine organisms have been determined

  8. Technologically enhanced 210Pb and 210Po in iron and steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Ashraf E M; Bakr, Wafaa F

    2011-05-01

    Iron and steel manufacture has been ranked as the largest industrial source of environmental contamination in the USA; the wastes generated in their production processes contain heavy elements that can be a source of contamination, and natural radionuclides that can produce an occupational and/or public radiological impact. In this work the potential occupational effective dose rate (μSv/y) due to inhalation in four integrated steel-making factories from Egypt has been evaluated, by assuming a well defined scenario and with basis in the (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations determined in ore and wastes collected in the aforementioned factories. Activity concentrations, in Bq/kg, of (210)Pb and (210)Po, and leachable Pb and Fe were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe detector, alpha particle spectrometry based on PIPS detector, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Levels of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the range of

  9. Transfer of 210Po, 210Pb and 238U from some medicinal plants to their essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Amin, Y.; Ibrahim, S.; Nassri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils were extracted from 35 medicinal plants used by Syrians, organic compounds were determined in these oils and concentrations of 210 Po 210 Pb and 238 U were determined in the original plants and in the essential oils. The results showed that the highest activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were found in leaves with large surfaces and in Sage were as high as 73.5 Bq kg −1 and 73.2 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The activity concentration of 238 U was as high as 4.26 Bq kg −1 in Aloe. On the other hand, activity concentrations of 210 Po ranged between 0.2 and 71.1 Bq kg −1 in extracted essential oils for Rosemary and False yellowhead, respectively. The activity concentration of 210 Pb reached 63.7 Bq kg −1 in Aloe oil. The activity concentrations of 238 U were very low in all extracted oils; the highest value was 0.31 Bq kg −1 in peel of Orange oil. The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb from plant to its oil was the highest for Eugenia; 7.1% and 5.5% for 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the transfer factor of radionuclides from plant to its essential oil and the chemical content of this oil. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides 210 Po, 210 Pb and 238 U were determined in 35 medicinal plants and their essential oils. • The highest activity concentration of 210 Po and 210 Pb were 73.5 Bq kg −1 and 73.2 Bq kg −1 in Sage, respectively. • The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb from Eugenia plant to its oil was the highest amongst other plants. • The data obtained in this study can be considered the first reported data for medicinal plants and their oils in Syria

  10. Assessment of radiation dose from 210Pb and 210Po due to chewing tobacco leaves and smoking cigarettes - an Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manu, Anitha; Thualsi Brindha, J.; Rajaram, S.; Venkataraman, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The study of 210 Pb and 210 Po content in tobacco and its products is essential because of their elevated concentrations. The cumulative alpha-radiation dose delivered to humans from inhaled 210 Po in cigarette smoke becomes significant. 210 Pb is another element of interest since it is the precursor to 210 Po in the radioactive decay chain of 238 U. Further, in India the ingestion dose due to these radionuclides becomes significant because of chewing tobacco leaves. In the present study, the concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in dried tobacco leaves and some branded cigarettes. 210 Pb was determined by counting the beta activity of 210 Bi with a low background beta counter after radiochemical separation and precipitation. 210 Po was determined by alpha counter after radiochemical separation and deposition of polonium on silver disc. 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations in dry tobacco leaves ranged from 6.0 to 30.5 mBq/g (mean 15.8 mBq/g) and 5.6 to 29.3 mBq/g (mean 12.7 mBq/g). The average annual committed effective dose for the tobacco chewers (10 g/day) was estimated to be 95.5 μSv/y (39.9 μSv/y from 210 Pb and 55.6 μSv/y from 210 Po). 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations in branded cigarettes ranged from 11.0 to 18.4 mBq/cigarette (mean 41.2 mBq/cigarette) and 10.5 to 16.6 mBq/cigarette (mean 13.1 mBq/cigarette). The average annual committed effective dose for the smokers (20 cigarettes per day) was estimated to be 149.8 μSv/y (39.8 μSv/y from 210 Pb and 110.0 μSv/y from 210 Po). (author)

  11. 210Po and 210Pb levels in mussels and fish from Slovenian market and the related dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinšek, Petra; Smodiš, Borut; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 (t 1/2 = 138 d) is a decay product of uranium-radium decay chain and consequently widely spread in the environment. It enters organisms through direct uptake, ingestion or inhalation. It is a pure alpha emitter and its radiotoxicity is connected with the fact that emits alpha particles with relatively high energy of about 5.3 MeV. It is concentrated in the soft tissues such as mussel, liver and others, where significantly contributes to the internal dose. Beta emitter lead-210 (t 1/2 = 22.17 years) is the second highest radiotoxic radionuclide from uranium-238 decay chain and decays, through bismuth- 210 (t 1/2 = 5.01 d) into 210 Po. Therefore it is necessary to determine the 21P o in foods, especially in seafood, because of its accumulation capacity. 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and fish (salmon, trout) from Slovenia market. Mussels were bought on the local market as well as from domestic producers. Fish of Slovenian origin were bought on the local market. Samples were freeze dried, homogenized and assayed for 210 Po and 210 Pb. First, radiochemical separation was performed, followed by alpha particle spectrometric measurement of 210 Po and beta counting of 210 Pb on a low background gas-flow proportional counter. The results obtained show that the activity concentrations of 210 Po in mussels varied from 0.9 to 191 Bq/kg of fresh mass and for fish from 0.3 to 2.12 Bq/kg of fresh mass, while for 210 Pb they varied from 1.5 to 6.9 Bq/k of fresh mass for mussels and in fish samples the activity concentrations were less than 1.9 Bq/kg of fresh mass. Combined annual ingestion doses due to 210 Po and 210 Pb for mussels and fish from the Slovenian market is assessed. (author)

  12. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  13. Horizontal distribution of natural radionuclides (Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, Th-232, K-40) and of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Co, Ni) in soil samples in the surroundings of a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Schmidt, W.; Winkler, R.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the specific activities of the above radionuclides in the soil within 5 km of the plant as well as the ratios Pb-210/Ra-226 and Po-210/Ra-226 did not reveal any noticeable effects on the natural concentrations of these radionuclides in the soils. The specific activities of the radionuclides in the fly ash of the plant are obviously too small to disturb the natural distribution pattern significantly. A similar behaviour was observed for the concentrations of the heavy metals in the soils around the plant, which were also within the same range of values as observed for largely unpolluted soils. Increased metal concentrations in the soils downwind of the stack of the power plant were not observable. The concentrations of these metals in the fly ash were not sufficiently high to significantly change the local distribution of the elements in the soils in the surroundings of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  14. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean 210 Pb/ 210 Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively.

  15. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Allometric relationships of 210Po and 210Pb in mussels and their application to environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, Georgeta; Vives i Batlle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from the Portuguese coast collected during several seasons of the year have shown 210 Po and 210 Pb body burdens (Bq mussel -1 ) that increased with mussels' body size but displayed significant decrease in radionuclide concentrations (Bq kg -1 ). For example, the increase of mussel size from 2.5 cm to 5.0 cm maximum shell length corresponded in average to a 50% decrease of 210 Po activity concentration in soft tissues from 1065 Bq kg -1 (dw) to 540 Bq kg -1 (dw). A similar reduction in concentration was observed for 210 Pb. The physiological condition of mussels, relating to fat and glycogen storage, had an effect on radionuclide concentrations, although the total body burden of radionuclide in mussels remained nearly constant throughout the year. These factors may play an important role in data interpretation for environmental monitoring programmes. Besides the mussel size and condition index, due to the inter-individual variation even inside narrow mussel size classes, the sample size, i.e., the number of specimens in one mussel sample is another key factor to be considered when obtaining environmentally representative radionuclide concentrations.

  17. 210Po radiation dose due to cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, Wesley S.; Subha, Vincila R.; Feroz, Khan M.

    2010-01-01

    The level of 210 Po in eight brands of cigarettes and four brands of bidis popular in and around Nagercoil town was determined to evaluate the annual effective dose. The 210 Po activity in a full cigarette ranged from 32.8±3.6 to 68.4±5.9 mBq and from 34.3±3.5 to 62.9±5.8 mBq in a bidi. In tobacco, the highest 210 Po content was recorded in the brand C4 (23.0±1.2 mBq) whereas for bidis it was the highest in the brand B2 (21.1±1.1 mBq). The activity in mainstream varied from 15.2±0.75 to 36.8±2.1 mBq in a cigarette and from 20.7±3.1 to 39.8±4.0 mBq in a bidi. With regard to 210 Po activity concentration, not much specificity was noted with respect to the tobacco brand. The data showed a relatively wide range of activity concentration of 210 Po in the different cigarette/bidi brands and even within the same brand. The bidis showed a higher activity when compared to cigarettes. The popular brands concentrated more activity than the fine brands. Smokers who smoke one pack (10 cigarettes/bidis) per day may inhale about 100-300 mBq d -1 (0.1-0.3 Bq d -1 ) of 210 Po. In this study, radiation dose values in the range of 153.5-372.9 μSv Y - '1 from cigarettes and from 209.2 to 402.7 μSvY -1 from bidis was estimated for the whole body. (author)

  18. Concentrations of 210Po in fish and shellfish from southern region of Japan and evaluation of 210Po intake from seafood for Japanese people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Sugihara, S.; Nakao, H.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of 210 Po in fish and shellfish, mostly collected from southern region of Japan were analyzed. Values ranged from 0.2 to 229 Bq/kg fresh weight and higher concentrations were observed in samples analyzed with viscera. Intake of 210 Po through fish and shellfish was evaluated at different Japanese cities based on statistical consumption data. Phytoplankton, Heterosigma akashiwo was collected during a harmful algal bloom and 210 Po was analyzed. The phytoplankton occupied only 4.4% of 210 Po in seawater and a large fraction of 210 Po was observed in the particulate form. (orig.)

  19. Speciation and behavior of 210Po and 210Pb in the riverine ecosystem of Hemavathi, a major river of south India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Kaliprasad, C.S.

    2016-01-01

    The human population is exposed to natural background radiation that is contributed by cosmic rays and terrestrial radioactivity, which derive essentially from 238 'U and 232 Th series. In 238 U series, 210 Po and 210 Pb are the final decay products and are extensively present in the environment. About 8% of human population is exposed to the natural radiation contributed by 210 Po and 211 Pb. The main natural source of Polonium in soil is radioactive decay product of 238 U chain or the atmospheric fallout of radon decay products. 210 Po is an alpha emitter (5.3 MeV) with a half-life 138.4 days and has a high radiotoxicity. Therefore 210 Po causes considerably greater biological damage compared to beta emitter 210 Pb. Therefore, it is important to study the concentration of polonium in the aquatic environment. In uranium series, the total effective dose contributed by 222 Rn, 210 Po, 210 Pb and 226 Ra through ground water drinking pathway is 99.75% and all other radionuclides including 238 U contributing only 0.25%. In riverine environment, radionuclides are widely dispersed and their accumulation is influenced by physical, biological and chemical process. In order to understand the behavior of polonium in environment, it is important to analyze the influence of physico chemical parameters like pH, organic matter and granulometric content in soil and sediment. Published data on 210 Po and 210 Pb in aquatic environs are sparse. The present study forms the part of the detailed investigation on the speciation and behavior of these radionuclides in the riverine environment. The paper discusses the detailed studies on the behavior of 210 Po and 211 Pb in soil and sediment samples in the Hemavathi river environment

  20. 210Pb and 210Po as tracers of particle transport mechanisms on continental margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S.; Biscaye, P.; Abassi, A.

    1997-01-01

    The natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb, members of the 238 U decay chain, are particularly helpful to the understanding of particle transport processes in the ocean. These isotopes were analysed on sediment trap particles collected during 3 one-year experiments on continental margins. In the Bay of Biscay (Northeastern Atlantic) and in the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) both as part of the French ECOMARGE programme, and in the Middle Atlantic Bight (Northwestern Atlantic) as part of the SEEP programme. They yielded great insights into scenarios of particle transfer at each site, mainly based on the spatial and temporal distribution of 210 Pb particulate concentrations and fluxes. (author)

  1. Assessment Activity of 210Po and 210Pb in the Edible Tissues of Cultured Seabass (Lates calcariferat Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorliza Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis levels of 210Po and 210Pb were determined in the edible tissue of sea bass (Lates calcarifer from 14 cages in the west and east coast Peninsular of Malaysia. The concentrations level in fish were found varies from 1.35 ± 0.22 to 6.20 ± 0.99 Bq/kg dry weight210Po and 3.30 ± 2.69 to 51.71 ± 19.26 Bq/kg dry weight 210Pb. The level of this radionuclide was much related to the anthropogenic activities at the sampling locations neighbouring area, differences in metabolisms of fish and food intake pattern for each cage. Then the calculated daily intake value due to fish consumption was to be 7.69 mBq/d/person210Po and 35.90 mBq/d/person210Pb, which lower than those reported in others countries. In addition, the collective doses of210Po and210Pb were estimated to be 0.001mSv/year and 0.009 mSv/year, respectively. This suggests that the dose received by Malaysian due to consumption of fish is rather small, and did not deteriorate human’s health and safe for consumption.

  2. Dissolved {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br; Caprioglio, L.; Bueno, T.O.; Lazarindo, J.R. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. 24-A No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The huge Guarani aquifer located in the South American continent is a very important resource for the region, and its drinking water quality has been investigated according to international standards, inclusive radiological parameters. This paper describes {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activity concentration data in groundwater samples collected at the Brazilian portion of Guarani aquifer, that is characterized by a great variability of temperature (18-70 deg. C), pH (4.0-9.9), sodium content (0.3-322 mg/l), bicarbonate content (0.1-318 mg/l), etc. Non-expensive alpha counting following some radiochemical steps for extracting and depositing dissolved {sup 210}Po was used. The results of the measurements for samples collected in duplicate yielded a maximum {sup 210}Po activity concentration of 3.7 mBq/L and a maximum {sup 210}Pb activity concentration of 6.7 mBq/l, that are values greatly lower than the guidance level of 0.1 Bq/l established by the WHO for their presence in drinking water. The high sensitivity of the method allowed its applicability on the identification of complexes geochemical and hydrogeological processes occurring in Guarani aquifer as well on the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of dose calculations.

  3. Dissolved 210Po and 210Pb in Guarani aquifer groundwater, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Caprioglio, L.; Bueno, T.O.; Lazarindo, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The huge Guarani aquifer located in the South American continent is a very important resource for the region, and its drinking water quality has been investigated according to international standards, inclusive radiological parameters. This paper describes 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentration data in groundwater samples collected at the Brazilian portion of Guarani aquifer, that is characterized by a great variability of temperature (18-70 deg. C), pH (4.0-9.9), sodium content (0.3-322 mg/l), bicarbonate content (0.1-318 mg/l), etc. Non-expensive alpha counting following some radiochemical steps for extracting and depositing dissolved 210 Po was used. The results of the measurements for samples collected in duplicate yielded a maximum 210 Po activity concentration of 3.7 mBq/L and a maximum 210 Pb activity concentration of 6.7 mBq/l, that are values greatly lower than the guidance level of 0.1 Bq/l established by the WHO for their presence in drinking water. The high sensitivity of the method allowed its applicability on the identification of complexes geochemical and hydrogeological processes occurring in Guarani aquifer as well on the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of dose calculations.

  4. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Fabisiak, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210 Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210 Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210 Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210 Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water

  5. Distribution of Ra isotopes and the 210Pb and 210Po balance in surface seawaters of the mid Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Dobashi, Fumi; Kato, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki

    1998-08-01

    210Po, 210Pb, 228Ra, and 226Ra were measured in surface sea waters along the 1989-1990 global traverse of the oceans using the new R.V. Hakuho-Maru. Where the traverse intersects other expedition routes, the data are generally confirmatory. In the high-productivity regimes like the Red Sea, and the Arabian Sea 210Po is removed from the mixed layer at much faster rates than 210Pb. This fractionation occurs during scavenging presumably because 210Po is strongly sorbed by organic particles, whereas 210Pb is more likely associated with inorganic detritus. The 210Po/ 210Pb activity ratios leaving the mixed layer by particulate transport can be estimated from the steady state balance of 210Pb and 210Po in the surface waters for different oceanic regions, and are compared with those in the literature obtained by sediment-trap experiments. Although this comparison appears to merge, there exist some inconsistencies, which may be attributable to one of the following possibilities: (1) the model-derived atmospheric 210Pb flux is overestimated for the North Pacific and the North Atlantic, or (2) the sediment-trap data do not represent the real 210Po/ 210Pb ratio in the vertical particulate flux due to some experimental artifacts, such as incomplete trapping and size fractionation. Further careful studies of sediment trapping including seasonal variation are needed to resolve this issue. Our Ra data confirmed that strong sources for 228Ra exist in the Bay of Bengal and the Southeast Asian continental shelf zone, whereas the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, though they are surrounded by land, are not effective sources of 228Ra in the surface water.

  6. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  7. Assessment of committed effective dose due to the ingestion of 210Po and 210Pb in consumed Lebanese fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, M.; El Samad, O.; Bou Khozam, R.; Lobinski, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides through seafood intake is a one of the sources contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism. In order to evaluate the internal exposure and potential risks due to 210 Po and 210 Pb associated with fish consumption, these radionuclides were measured in commonly consumed fish species from a clean area and an area subjected to the impact of a Lebanese phosphate fertilizer plant. The highest concentration of 210 Pb was 98.7 Bq/kg fresh weight while 210 Po activity concentrations varied from 3.6 Bq/kg to 140 Bq/kg. A supplementary radiation exposure was detected; the highest committed effective dose due to 210 Po and 210 Pb was found to be 1110 μSv/y and 450 μSv/y, respectively. Moreover, the average mortality and morbidity risks due to the fish consuming were estimated. - Highlights: • Enrichment in 210 Po and 210 Pb in fish affected by a phosphate fertilizer plant. • Significant human exposure associated with the ingestion of fish. • Estimation of potential risks due to 210 Po and 210 Pb via fish consumption

  8. The disequilibrium between {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in raw and drinking waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoeta, R. [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Herranz, M., E-mail: m.herranz@ehu.e [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Many countries have to monitor and control the radioactivity in drinking waters in order to ensure compliance with the requirements of their respective regulations. Among radionuclides responsible for this radioactivity there are {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, which are usually not in radioactive equilibrium in waters. This paper deals with the analysis of this disequilibrium and the way that the water treatment plants affect it. To do this, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations were measured in raw and drinking water. The measurements were performed by alpha-particle spectrometry and gas flow proportional counting and the corresponding formulae for uncertainties and detection limits are presented. The values obtained show that the Po/Pb ratio is lower in surface than in ground waters. Regarding water treatment, this ratio adopts values lower in drinking water than in raw waters. In any case, for the waters analysed in this work the committed effective doses due to these radionuclides, are negligible.

  9. 210Po and 210Pb concentration in drinking water of Bangalore and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiva Prasad, N.G.; Nagaiah, N.; Ashok, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water samples collected from different locations of Bangalore and its surrounding area were analysed for the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb by employing radiochemical analysis. The measure concentration of 210 Po varies from 0.46 to 36.46 mBq L -1 with a mean of 6.17 mBq L -1 and that of 210 Pb ranges from 1.19 to 56.95 mBq L -1 with a mean of 13.98 mBq L -1 . The activity concentrations of these radionuclides were found to be low at the place Kambasandra and high at Kalkere. The range and the mean value obtained in the present study are well within the guidance value of 100 mBq L -1 as prescribed by World Health Organization. From the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the annual effective dose was calculated for different age groups: for babies (age below 1 y), children (age from 2 to 7 y) and adults (age from 17 y and above) using IAEA dose conversion factors and the prescribed water consumption rates. The total dose received is very much less than the ICRP recommended value of 1000 μ Sv y -1 for all age groups. (author)

  10. Influence of submarine groundwater discharge on "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb bioaccumulation in fish tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Orellana, J.; López-Castillo, E.; Casacuberta, N.; Rodellas, V.; Masqué, P.; Carmona-Catot, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of the accumulation of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in fish tissues and organs in a brackish-water marshland that is characterized by high concentrations of "2"2"2Rn and "2"2"6Ra supplied by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Tissues and organs from Cyprinus carpio, Chelon labrosus and Carassius auratus in the wetland were significantly enriched by both "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po (up to 55 and 66 times, respectively) compared to blanks. The major input route of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po into the fish body seems to be through ingestion, due to the high levels of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po found in the gut content as well as in organs involved in digestion and metabolism (i.e. gut, kidney and hepatopancreas). Results showed that "2"1"0Po was more accumulated in all fish tissues and organs except for the spine, which showed a higher affinity for "2"1"0Pb, due to its capacity to replace Ca from apatite in bones. Over all the variables analyzed, fish tissues/organs and, secondarily, fish species were the most important factors explaining the concentration of radionuclides, whereas fish length and the sampling location played a minor role. The relationship of the two radionuclides varied markedly among tissues and their concentration levels were only correlated in gills, gut and, marginally, in spines. In general, the highest values of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po concentrations in tissues were found on C. labrosus tissues rather C. auratus and C. carpio. This study demonstrates that inputs of natural radionuclides supplied by SGD to coastal semi-enclosed areas (such as marshlands, lagoons or ponds) may significantly increase the contents of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po in fish tissues/organs. Thus, this study represents one of the first evidences of direct ecological effects derived from SGD. - Highlights: • Fish tissues showed high concentrations of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po. • Ingestion pointed to be the major input route of "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po into the fish.

  11. International intercomparison on glass implanted 210Po in Yugoslavian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Trotti, F.; Birovljev, A.; Bissolo, F.; Falk, R.; Mc Laughlin, J.P; Tanferi, A.; Walsh, C.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of 210 Po embedded in glass have been performed with passive detectors in houses of three rural communities of Yugoslavia. Field work has been initiated and carried out by the VINCA Institute of nuclear sciences, Belgrade, and analyses have been conducted by SSI (Sweden), UCD (Ireland), NRPA (Norway) and CRR (Italy). Based on 210 Po concentration assessments, radon retrospective estimates have been produced. Fairly good agreement amongst laboratories resulted both for polonium and radon determinations. Comparison of radon retrospective estimates with contemporary levels has identified a small number of contemporary concentrations which are certainly not representative of the past. Retrospective measurements give clear indication of higher levels for one of the three communities (Gornja Stubla). From the analysis of retrospective and contemporary levels in different rooms of a high concentration house in Gornja Stubla, less data dispersion has come out for retrospective estimates, indicating a sort of better spatial stability of these estimates. (author)

  12. Levels of 210Po in some beverages and in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, C.H.; Huquet, M.R.; Palacios, M.A.; Oliveira, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present work is the estimation of the 210 Po content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, tea leaves, their infusions and ground coffee were analyzed, as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to the annual consumption of the beverages described were found to be from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for 210 Po in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq*kg -1 to 80 Bq*kg -1 . Lung doses due to the use of tobacco vary from 75 μSv*y -1 to 600 μSv*y -1 . (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  13. Enrichment of naturally occurring radionuclides and trace elements in Yatagan and Yenikoy coal-fired thermal power plants, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Banu; Guler, Erkan; Vaasma, Taavi; Horvath, Maria; Kiisk, Madis; Kovacs, Tibor

    2018-08-01

    Coal, residues and waste produced by the combustion of the coal contain naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 40 K and trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn. In this work, coal and its combustion residues collected from Yatagan and Yenikoy coal fired thermal power plants (CPPs) in Turkey were studied to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides and trace elements, and their enrichments factors to better understand the radionuclide concentration processes within the combustion system. In addition, the utilization of coal fly ash as a secondary raw material in building industry was also studied in terms of radiological aspects. Fly ash samples were taken at different stages along the emission control system of the thermal power plants. Activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were determined with Canberra Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector BE3830-P and ORTEC Soloist PIPS type semiconductor detector. The particle size distribution and trace elements contents were determined in various ash fractions by the laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). From the obtained data, natural radionuclides tend to condense on fly ash with and the activity concentrations increase as the temperature drop in CPPs. Measured 210 Pb and 210 Po concentration varied between 186 ± 20-1153 ± 44 Bq kg -1 , and 56 ± 5-1174 ± 45 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The highest 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in fly ash taken from the temporary storage point as 1153 ± 44 Bq kg -1 and 1174 ± 45 Bq kg -1 , respectively. There were significant differences in the activity concentrations of some natural radionuclide and trace elements (Pb and Zn) contents in ash fractions among the sampling point inside both of the plants (ANOVA, p ash sample analysis showed an increase activity concentration and enrichment factors towards the

  14. Deposition Assessment Of Anthropogenic Airborne 210Po And 210Pb In The Mosses And Surface Soil At The Vicinity Of A Coal-Fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Nita Salina Abu Bakar; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic airborne depositions of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the mosses and surface soil collected at the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant were assessed. The purpose of the study was to determine activity concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb and its activity ratio ( 210 Po/ 210 Pb). Other purposes were to determine their concentration factor (CF) in relation to track the potential source of those radionuclides and to identify most suitable moss species as a biological indicator for atmospheric deposition contaminants. In this study, different species of mosses Leucobryum aduncum, Campylopus serratus, Syrrhopodon ciliates and Vesicularia montagnei were collected in May 2011 at the area around 30 km radius from Tanjung Bin coal-fired power plant located in Pontian, Johor. The activity concentrations of 210 Po 210 Pb and 210 Po/ 210 Pb in mosses were in the range of 76.81 ± 4.94 - 251.33 ± 16.33 Bqkg -1 dry wt., 54.37 ± 3.38 - 164.63 ± 11.64 Bqkg -1 dry wt. and 1.10 - 2.00, respectively. Meanwhile the ranges for those radionuclides in the surface soil were 33.53 ± 2.10 - 183.93 ± 12.01 Bqkg -1 dry wt., 17.92 ± 1.18 - 298.60 ± 23.70 Bqkg -1 dry wt. and 1.57 - 2.44, respectively. Corresponding high ability of Leucobryum aduncum to accumulate more 210 Po and 210 Pb, wide geographical distribution, most abundant and high CF, therefore, the findings can be concluded this species was the most suitable as a biological indicator for atmospheric deposition contaminants such as 210 Po and 210 Pb. Furthermore, it is clear the accumulation of 210 Po and 210 Pb in mosses might be supplied from various sources of atmospheric deposition such as coal-fired power plant operation, industrial, agriculture and fertilizer activities, burned fuel fossil and forest; and other potential sources. Meanwhile, the main source of 210 Po and 210 Pb in surface soil is supplied from the in situ decay of radon and radium. (author)

  15. The radiological impact of naturally-occurring radionuclides in foods from the wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Hammond, D.J.; Davidson, M.F.; Wilkins, B.T.; Williams, B.

    2002-01-01

    Habit surveys have been conducted to identify people who make use of foodstuffs collected from the wild (free foods) in two areas of the UK: in the area around Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire, where levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides in soil were expected to be typical of the UK, and in the vicinity of Okehampton in Devon, where levels were known to be elevated. Individuals who make regular use of these foodstuffs were specifically identified, so that an estimate of typical and higher than average consumption rates could be derived. The naturally-occurring radionuclides of interest were 210 Po, 210 Pb, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra. Samples of important foodstuffs were collected and the radionuclides of interest determined. The consumption rates were combined with the measured activity concentrations and published dose coefficients to estimate doses to average and higher than average consumers. These doses were compared with estimated doses reported in the Food Standards Agency's ongoing monitoring programme and with average doses to the population of the UK reviewed by NRPB. In total, 400 people were identified and between them they collected 54 different types of free food. Blackberries were by far the most common species collected, although various types of mushroom and nuts were also popular. On average, each collector from around Chipping Norton collected 2.1 different foods, and each from around Okehampton collected 2.2. On the basis of the habit survey, therefore, it would be reasonable to expect that any site, nuclear or otherwise, chosen for habit surveys, whether for radiological purposes or for any other contaminant, could have substantial numbers of people collecting free foods. In addition, the pattern of foods collected was very similar to previous studies, indicating similarities across England and Wales. (author)

  16. 210Po activity concentrations in mussels at Aegean Turkish Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekkin, F.; Tanbay, A.; Vener, V.

    2000-01-01

    In Turkey mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) are consumed in relatively large quantities. Therefore, analyses of mussel samples from different sampling sites in Aegean Sea were performed in order to evaluate the ingestion of 210 Po and 210 Pb by the Turkey population. Polonium analyses were performed with a complete dissolution of the sample in mineral acids. Polonium isotopes were plated onto a copper discs in 0.5 M HCl solution in the presence of ascorbic acid using a technique modified from Flynn (1968). The alpha activity measurements of polonium isotopes plated on copper discs were performed with ZnS(Ag) detector. The highest concentrations was found in Karaburun mussels as 254 Bq.kg -1 and the lowest one was at Inciralti as 18 Bq.kg -1 . Based on these 210 Po activity concentrations, annual dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in mussels would vary widely, from 136 to 10 mSv.y -1 . It is concluded that in mussels living in the Aegean Sea a wide range of internal radiation dose exists and it is essentially sustained by 210 Po food-chain transfer. (author)

  17. Assessment of 210Po and 210Pb in lichen, moss and soil around Can coal-fired power plant, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat Belivermis; Onder Kilic; Akin Caayir; Munevver Coskun; Mahmut Coskun

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with determination of 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentrations using epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme), bushy soil (fruticose) lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) and surface soil samples in the area around Can coal-fired power plant, northwest Turkey. Mean activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were found to be 303.9 and 425.8 Bq kg -1 for moss, 161.6 and 259.1 Bq kg -1 for lichen, and 79.9 and 91.5 Bq kg -1 for soil samples at dry weight, respectively. We propose that distance and altitude of sampling site may be of significant parameters of distribution of both radionuclides. (author)

  18. {sup 2}10Po in engraulis encrasilocus in the North of the Valencian community; {sup 2}10Po en Engraulis Encrasilocus en el Norte de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Belmar, V.; Camara Garcia, T.; Ferrero Calabuig, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    Within the scope of natural radiation, one of the most studied radionuclides is currently radon and their descendants. The doses due to this radionuclide are the most high and dangerous, not only in areas where there is radon this is already inhaled by the population but it also swallowed their descendants via food, contributing to a dose rate more. The objective of this work is the study of the concentration of {sup 2}10Po in anchovy (Engraulis Encrasilocus) in an area with a coastal lagoon with high concentration of {sup 2}22 Rn. (Author)

  19. Biomonitoring of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Emel, E-mail: emel.sert@mail.ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ugur, Aysun, E-mail: aysun.ugur@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozden, Banu, E-mail: banu.ozden@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sac, Mueslim Murat, E-mail: muslum.murat.sac@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Camgoez, Berkay, E-mail: berkay.camgoz@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 {+-} 7-593 {+-} 21 and 97 {+-} 5-364 {+-} 13 Bq kg{sup -1}, for mosses the ranges for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are 124 {+-} 5-1125 {+-} 38 and 113 {+-} 4-490 {+-} 17 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. {sup 210}Po concentrations were found higher than {sup 210}Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: > Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. > The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. > Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. > Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  20. Uptake of naturally occurring radioisotopes by vegetation in a region of high radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, D C; Mathewes, R W [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1983-05-01

    The accumulation of four naturally occurring radionuclides of the sup(238)U series, uranium, sup(226)Ra, sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po, in 15 species of native plants was investigated. Of the plants sampled some accumulated, but none concentrated uranium or sup(226)Ra. Grouseberry (Vaccinium scoparium Leiberg) appeared to concentrate sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po. There were marked seasonal variations in the accumulation of uranium by grass (Calamagrostis rubescens Buckl.), and of sup(210)Pb and sup(210)Po by grass and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.). High positive correlations between soil and vegetation radionuclide content were found for uranium in fireweed and grouseberry in spring, sup(226)Ra in willow (Salix scouleriana L.) in spring, and uranium in fireweed in summer.

  1. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po as tracers of particle transport mechanisms on continental margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S. [Perpignan Univ., 66 (France). Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines; Biscaye, P.; Abassi, A. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory

    1997-12-31

    The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, members of the {sup 238}U decay chain, are particularly helpful to the understanding of particle transport processes in the ocean. These isotopes were analysed on sediment trap particles collected during 3 one-year experiments on continental margins. In the Bay of Biscay (Northeastern Atlantic) and in the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) both as part of the French ECOMARGE programme, and in the Middle Atlantic Bight (Northwestern Atlantic) as part of the SEEP programme. They yielded great insights into scenarios of particle transfer at each site, mainly based on the spatial and temporal distribution of {sup 210}Pb particulate concentrations and fluxes. (author) 11 refs.

  2. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The size distribution of 210Po in the atmosphere around Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikawa, N.; Matsuoka, N.; Takashima, Y.; Syojo, N.; Imamura, H.; Fujisaki, M.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of 210 Po in particulate matters in the atmosphere were measured around the active volcano, Mt. Sakurajima in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. The samples were collected eight times at four sampling points for the period from June 1994 to January 1996. The highest concentration of 210 Po was 2940 μBq/m 3 at Akamizu located 2 km away from the crater of Mt. Sakurajima. The 210 Po concentrations decreased with the increase of distance form Mt. Sakurajima. The size distribution curves of 210 Po in the particulate matters showed that 210 Po is usually condensed to fine particles smaller than 2 μm in diameter. In addition, it was suggested that the 210 Po concentration in particulate matters collected at Akamizu was affected by the wind direction over Mt. Sakurajima. (author)

  4. Analysis of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in surface air by an α spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Hoetzl, H.; Chatterjee, B.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the concentrations of airborne 210 Pb and 210 Po. The method employs α spectrometry to measure the count rate of 210 Po present on an electrostatic filter sample at two post-sampling times. The individual air concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb can be calculated from equations given. Sensitivity of the procedure is about 0.2 fCi 210 Po per m 3 of air. The method was applied to the study of long-term variations and frequency distributions of 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in surface air at a nonpolluted location about 10 km outside of Munich, F.R.G., from 1976 through 1979. During this period the average concentration levels were found to be 14.2 fCi 210 Pb per m 3 of air and 0.77 fCi 210 Po per m 3 of air, respectively. (author)

  5. The sources and fate of (210)Po in the urban air: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The origin of (210)Po activity and its fluctuations in the air are discussed in this paper. In the case of atmospheric aerosol samples, a comparison of the (210)Po/(210)Pb and (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios makes it possible not only to determine aerosol residence times but also to appraise the contribution of the unsupported (210)Po coming from other sources than (222)Rn decay, such as human industrial activities, especially coal combustion. A simple mathematical method makes it possible to observe the seasonal fluctuations of the anthropogenic excess of (210)Po in the urban air. The average doses of (210)Po intake with food (including drinking water) and inhalation of urban aerosols are usually lower than those from (210)Po intake by cigarette smokers and negligible in comparison to total natural radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transfer of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po from soil to plant in various locations in south of Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: scientific1@aec.org.sy; Al-Akel, B.; Nashawani, A.; Amin, Y.; Khalifa, K.H.; Al-Ain, F. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2008-02-15

    Transfer factors of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po from soil to some agriculture crops in various locations in south of Syria (Dara'a and Assuwaydaa districts) have been determined. Soil and vegetable crops (green pepper, cucumber, tomato, and eggplant), legumes crops (lentil, chickpea, and broad bean), fruit trees (apple, grape, and olives) and cereals (barley and wheat) were collected and analyzed for {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po. The results have shown that higher transfer factors (calculated as Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt. plant material per Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt. soil) for {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 238}U were observed in vegetable leaves than fruits and cereals leaves; the highest values of transfer factor (TF) for {sup 238}U were found to be 0.1 for straw of chickpea. Transfer factors for {sup 210}Po varied between 2.8 x 10{sup -2} and 2 in fruits of eggplant and grain of barley, respectively. In addition, several parameters affecting transfer factors of the radionuclides were evaluated. The results can be considered as base values for TF of natural radionuclides in the region.

  7. Transfer of 40K, 238U, 210Pb, and 210Po from soil to plant in various locations in south of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Akel, B.; Nashawani, A.; Amin, Y.; Khalifa, K.H.; Al-Ain, F.

    2008-01-01

    Transfer factors of 40 K, 238 U, 210 Pb, and 210 Po from soil to some agriculture crops in various locations in south of Syria (Dara'a and Assuwaydaa districts) have been determined. Soil and vegetable crops (green pepper, cucumber, tomato, and eggplant), legumes crops (lentil, chickpea, and broad bean), fruit trees (apple, grape, and olives) and cereals (barley and wheat) were collected and analyzed for 238 U, 210 Pb, and 210 Po. The results have shown that higher transfer factors (calculated as Bq kg -1 dry wt. plant material per Bq kg -1 dry wt. soil) for 210 Po, 210 Pb and 238 U were observed in vegetable leaves than fruits and cereals leaves; the highest values of transfer factor (TF) for 238 U were found to be 0.1 for straw of chickpea. Transfer factors for 210 Po varied between 2.8 x 10 -2 and 2 in fruits of eggplant and grain of barley, respectively. In addition, several parameters affecting transfer factors of the radionuclides were evaluated. The results can be considered as base values for TF of natural radionuclides in the region

  8. Incorporation of 210Pb and 210Po to Poultry through the Addition of Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) to the Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Gasa, J.; Anguita, M.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the replacement of calcium by uranium in the phosphorite, sedimentary phosphate rock contains high concentrations of 238 U (i.e. from 1500 Bq·kg -1 in Morocco to 4000 Bq·kg -1 in Tanzania ores). Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) is produced by the wet acid digestion of the phosphorite, and is used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for livestock feed supplement. If the phosphorite acid digestion is made with hydrochloric acid, DCP may present specific activities of about 10 3 Bq·kg -1 of 238 U and some of its decay chain daughters. In particular, due to its radiological implications, the presence of 210 Pb and 210 Po in DCP is of special relevance. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential incorporation of these radionuclides to poultry through its diet. Three different diets were therefore prepared with different contents of both DCP and 210 Pb and 210 Po. Diet A was used as a blank, and had a 2.5% in weight of monocalcium phosphate (MCP); diet B, with a 5% in weight of DCP; and diet C, with a 2.5% of DCP. Concentrations of 210 Pb were 0.93, 101.4 and 51.2 Bq·kg -1 ; whereas concentrations of 210 Po were 0.92, 74 and 36 Bq·kg -1 of food for diets A, B and C, respectively. Accumulation of 210 Pb and 210 Po was analysed at several times during poultry growth in samples of bone, liver, kidney, muscle, excrements as well as entire animals, with a total of 30 broilers fed with the 3 different diets. Results showed clear enhancements in the accumulation of both 210 Pb and 210 Po in chicken for diets B and C, and in particular in liver and bone. However, total accumulation of radionuclides in chicken, and especially in edible parts, is low compared to its expulsion through excrements. These results are interpreted in terms of the potential dose through consumption of chicken

  9. Temporal annual changes of 210Po concentrations in coastal seawater at Kyushu Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmachyov, S.; Maeda, Y.; Momoshima, N.

    2001-01-01

    Polonium-210 ( 210 Po, T 1/2 =138.4 d) arises from the decay of 210 Pb (T 1/2 =22.3 yr) via intermediary 210 Bi (T 1/2 =5.03 d). Virtually, all of 210 Po in seawater is originated by in situ decay of 210 Pb, which in turn originated due to in situ decay of 226 Ra, and decay of 222 Rn in the sea and in the atmosphere followed by deposition. In seawater, 210 Po is considered an insoluble element, therefore the concentration of dissolved 210 Po is very low. The concentration levels of 210 Po in marine environmental samples are well documented, however, scanty information is available about long-scale 210 Po behavior in open oceans and/or coastal seawater. Few studies have quantified temporal variation of 210 Po concentrations with relation to environmental parameters and seasonality. Nevertheless, seasonal detail allows us to make inferences about what geochemical parameters can effected on 210 Po behavior in the marine environment that will obviously improve our present understanding of the rates and mechanisms of 210 Po scavenging from seawater column. This paper presents the results of annual observation of 210 Po concentration in the coastal seawater at Kyushu Island (Japan). Besides the 210 Po concentrations, concentration of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), which is generally used as an indicator of plankton activity, fluctuations of loaded suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration (C p ) and monthly rainfall collected at the place close to the sampling area were examined to confirm if their behavior mirrors that of 210 Po. (author)

  10. The radiological impact of naturally-occurring radionuclides in foods from the wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Hammond, D.J.; Davidson, M.F.; Wilkins, B.T.; Williams, B.

    2002-01-01

    Habit surveys have been conducted to identify people who make use of foodstuffs collected from the wild (free foods) in two areas of the UK: in the area around Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire, where levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides in soil were expected to be typical of the UK, and in the vicinity of Okehampton in Devon, where levels were known to be elevated. Individuals who make regular use of these foodstuffs were specifically identified, so that an estimate of typical and higher than average consumption rates could be derived. The naturally-occurring radionuclides of interest were 210 Po, 210 Pb, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra. Samples of important foodstuffs were collected and the radionuclides of interest determined. The consumption rates were combined with the measured activity concentrations and published dose coefficients to estimate doses to average and higher than average consumers. These doses were compared with estimated doses reported in the Food Standards Agency's ongoing monitoring programme and with average doses to the population of the UK reviewed by NRPB. In total, 400 people were identified and between them they collected 54 different types of free food. Blackberries were by far the most common species collected, although various types of mushroom and nuts were also popular. On average, each collector from around Chipping Norton collected 2.1 different foods, and each from around Okehampton collected 2.2. On the basis of the habit survey, therefore, it would be reasonable to expect that any site, nuclear or otherwise, chosen for habit surveys, whether for radiological purposes or for any other contaminant, could have substantial numbers of people collecting free foods. In addition, the pattern of foods collected was very similar to previous studies, indicating similarities across England and Wales. Doses from the consumption of free foods were estimated. The annual doses estimated to have been received by a typical

  11. Determination and distribution of 210Po in tobacco plants from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Struminska, D.I.; Ulatowski, J.; Golebiowski, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most radiotoxic elements, 210 Po in different parts of tobacco plant from Poland was determined. Investigation revealed that polonium is non-uniformly distributed within tobacco plant. Tobacco leaves constituting about 50% of the wet mass, contain 87.1% of the total burden of 210 Po. Among the analyzed leaves about 66% of polonium is located in the oldest, over-ground part. It was indicated that 210 Po is generally taken up by tobacco from the dry or wet deposition of the radioactive fall-out onto the plant. Moreover, 210 Po concentration in tobacco leaves from Poland are higher than that in the other countries. (author)

  12. 210Po and 210Pb in Forest Soil and in Wild Berries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Lehto, Jukka; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of 210 Po and 210 Pb was investigated in forests in the Southern Finland site and in the Northern Finland site. Sampling sites were in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. Maximum activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil columns were found in organic layers. According to preliminary results of wild berry samples, the lowest 210 Po concentrations were found in berries. The highest concentration of 210 Po was found in stems of the blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples

  13. Accumulation of /sup 210/Po in selected species of Baltic fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, B

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented here for the /sup 210/Po contents of selected species of Baltic fish. It is shown that /sup 210/Po is non-uniformly distributed within these fish, the highest levels being found in the digestive organs, particularly within the intestine. It is found that the proportional contribution by the digestive organs to the total accumulation of /sup 210/Po is correlated with the degree of repletion of the stomach and that this decreases if food is lacking. Moreover, it is observed that fish represent an important source of supply of /sup 210/Po to humans.

  14. Cascade ultrafiltering of 210Pb and 210Po in freshwater using a tangential flow filtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Y.; Takaku, Y.; Hisamatsu, S.; Inaba, J.; Yamamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid method was developed using ultrafilters with a tangential flow filtering system for molecular size separation of naturally occurring 210 Pb and 210 Po in a freshwater sample. Generally, ultrafiltering of a large volume water sample for measuring the nuclides was too time consuming and not practical. The tangential flow filtering system made the filtering time short enough to adapt for in-situ ultrafiltering the large volume sample. In this method, a 20 liter water sample was at first passed through the 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter immediately after sample collection to obtain suspended particle matter [>0.45 μm particulate fraction (PRT)]. Two ultrafilters (Millipore Pellicon 2 R ) were used sequentially. The nuclides in the filtrate were separated into three fractions: high molecular mass (100 kDa-0.45μm; HMM), low molecular mass (10 k-100 kDa; LMM) and ionic ( 210 Pb and 210 Po in an oligotrophic lake, Lake Towada located in the northern area of Japan. (author)

  15. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg −1 , mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles ( 210 Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m −3 , while in smoke-free air 210 Po concentration was about 30 μBq m −3 . The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from 210 Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of 210 Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons

  16. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  17. Annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po from sea food origin (Oysters and Mussels) in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bo Eum; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Suk Hyun; Lee, Hyun Mi [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ingestion of {sup 210}Po laden seafood accounts for a substantial amount of the effective dose of {sup 210}Po. Among seafood items, mollusks, especially domestically produced oysters and mussels, are highly enriched in {sup 210}Po and are consumed in large quantities in Korea. Oysters and mussels around the Korean coasts were collected from major farm areas in November 2013. Samples were spiked with an aliquot of {sup 210}Po as a yield tracer, and they were digested with 6 mol·L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The {sup 210}Po and {sup 209}Po were spontaneously deposited onto a silver disc in an acidic solution of 0.5 mol·L{sup -1} HCl and measured using an alpha spectrometer. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were decay corrected to the sampling date, accounting for the possible in-growth and decay of {sup 210}Po. {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in oysters were in a range from 41.3 to 206 Bq·(kg-ww{sup -1} and mussels in a range from 42.9 to 46.7 Bq·(kg-ww){sup -1}. The {sup 210}Po activity concentration of oysters in the turbid Western coast was higher than the Southern coast. The {sup 210}Po activity concentration of the oysters was positively correlated (R2=0.89) with those of the suspended particulate matter in the surface water. The calculated annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po from oysters and mussels consumed by the Korean population was 21-104 and 5.01-5.46 μSv·y{sup -1}. The combined effective dose due to the consumption of oysters and mussels appears to account for about 35±19% of that arising from seafood consumption in the Korean population. The annual effective dose of {sup 210}Po for oysters in the Korean population was found to be higher than other countries. The total annual effective dose of 210Po{sup 210}Po due to consumption of oysters and mussels consumed in Korea was found to be 76±42 μSv·y{sup -1}, accounting for 28±16% of the total effective dose of {sup 210}Po from food in Korea.

  18. Annual effective dose of 210Po from sea food origin (Oysters and Mussels) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bo Eum; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Suk Hyun; Lee, Hyun Mi

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion of 210 Po laden seafood accounts for a substantial amount of the effective dose of 210 Po. Among seafood items, mollusks, especially domestically produced oysters and mussels, are highly enriched in 210 Po and are consumed in large quantities in Korea. Oysters and mussels around the Korean coasts were collected from major farm areas in November 2013. Samples were spiked with an aliquot of 210 Po as a yield tracer, and they were digested with 6 mol·L -1 HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 . The 210 Po and 209 Po were spontaneously deposited onto a silver disc in an acidic solution of 0.5 mol·L -1 HCl and measured using an alpha spectrometer. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po were decay corrected to the sampling date, accounting for the possible in-growth and decay of 210 Po. 210 Po activity concentrations in oysters were in a range from 41.3 to 206 Bq·(kg-ww -1 and mussels in a range from 42.9 to 46.7 Bq·(kg-ww) -1 . The 210 Po activity concentration of oysters in the turbid Western coast was higher than the Southern coast. The 210 Po activity concentration of the oysters was positively correlated (R2=0.89) with those of the suspended particulate matter in the surface water. The calculated annual effective dose of 210 Po from oysters and mussels consumed by the Korean population was 21-104 and 5.01-5.46 μSv·y -1 . The combined effective dose due to the consumption of oysters and mussels appears to account for about 35±19% of that arising from seafood consumption in the Korean population. The annual effective dose of 210 Po for oysters in the Korean population was found to be higher than other countries. The total annual effective dose of 210Po 210 Po due to consumption of oysters and mussels consumed in Korea was found to be 76±42 μSv·y -1 , accounting for 28±16% of the total effective dose of 210 Po from food in Korea

  19. Bremsstrahlung emission probability in the α decay of 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boie, Hans-Hermann

    2009-01-01

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the α decay of 210 Po has been performed. The measured differential emission probabilities, which could be followed up to γ-energies of ∝ 500 keV, allow for the first time for a serious test of various model calculations of the bremsstrahlung accompanied α decay. It is shown that corrections to the α-γ angular correlation due to the interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole amplitudes and due to the relativistic character of the process have to be taken into account. With the experimentally derived angular correlation the measured energydifferential bremsstrahlung emission probabilities show excellent agreement with the fully quantum mechanical calculation. (orig.)

  20. Multi-year Surface Deposition of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po at Lisbon - Atmospheric Depositions of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in Lisbon, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, G. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/ Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    The long lived radon daughters {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were determined in samples of total atmospheric depositions obtained with surface collectors continuously operated during 5 years, near Lisbon. The average annual {sup 210}Pb flux was 66±12 Bq m{sup -2}, and the average annual {sup 210}Po flux was 8±3 Bq m{sup -2}, with an overall {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio of 0.15±0.06. Direct determination of the {sup 210}Pb atmospheric flux was compared with the {sup 210}Pb excess determined in soil surface layers along with atmospheric depositions of {sup 137}Cs. The deposition of atmospheric {sup 210}Pb was positively correlated with seasonal rainfall, while {sup 210}Po was mainly originated in soil particles re-suspension throughout the year and also in seasonal forest fires. Unusually high {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratios, higher than unity, were occasionally recorded in atmospheric depositions and the sources and causes are discussed. Long time-series of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po deposition fluxes, as presented herein are useful to test and constrain parameters of the atmospheric Global Circulation Models. (authors)

  1. 210Po and 210Pb activity concentration in the coral bands of Pulau Tuba, Langkawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jen Nie; Che Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Zaharuddin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in each layers of coral banding of coral skeletons. Concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in massive corals (i.e. Porites, Favites, Platygyra and Goniostrea) from Pulau Tuba, Langkawi were measured using the Alpha-Spectrometry. The concentrations of 210 Po were higher than the concentrations of 210 Pb. This may due to continuing source of 210 Po from 210 Pb. Highest concentration on 210 Po in coral banding was 48.30 ± 28.53 Bq/ kg, meanwhile for 210 Pb was 12.86 ± 5.80 Bq/ kg. The ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb were in the range of 2.21 to 5.49. The variation activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the coral bands are important to consider in using coral as retrospective study of environmental changes. The coral can represent the total of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the surrounding water for the past few years. (author)

  2. Concentration and distribution of 210Po in rats exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Peng; Yang Zhanshan; Wang Tianchang; Tong Jian; Zhou Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the concentration and distribution of 210 Po in rats exposed to radon and its daughters. Methods: Fifteen male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, including one control group and two radon exposed groups with the cumulative doses of 100 WLM (low dose) and 200 WLM (high dose), respectively. Tissue samples containing 210 Po were spontaneously deposited onto silvery discs with the diameter of 20 mm by means of wet ashing and electrodeposition. The concentration of 210 Po in tissues were measured by α spectroscopy, and tissue burden were calculated. Results: The concentrations of 210 Po were significantly different among the three dose groups in femur, liver, sex gland and hair (P 210 Po were different between the exposed groups and the control group in lung and soleus muscle (P 210 Po in lung, spleen and hair were higher than that in liver, bone and sex gland, the lowest was in intestine. The tissue burdens of liver, bone and sex gland were significantly different from those in other organs or tissues. Conclusions: 210 Po was mainly distributed in lung, liver, spleen, femur and sex gland. The concentrations of 210 Po in organs or tissues and the tissue burdens were correspondingly increased with the exposure dose of radon and its daughters. The results of this experiment provide a dosimetric basis for further studies on the carcinogenic effect of radon and its daughters. (authors)

  3. 210Po and 210Pb in food chains lichen - reindeer - man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solatie, D.; Yunttila, M.; Vesterbakka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Migration of 210 Po and its precursor 210 Pb from radioactive fallout through food chain lichen - reindeer - man is studied. Samples of lichens, leaves, grass, mushrooms, soils, and samples of reindeer tissues are selected; their specific radioactivity and ratio 210 Po/ 210 Pb are determined [ru

  4. Investigations of the potential bioavailability of 210Po in some foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, Robert A.; Ewers, Leon W.; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    Extraction of 210 Po from lamb's liver, pig's kidneys, mussel flesh and brown crabmeat with a series of solvent systems has been used to gain some insight into the uncertainty about the gastrointestinal absorption factor for Po incorporated into foodstuffs. By extracting the tissues with diethyldithiocarbamate dissolved in chloroform, and also in methanol, it has been shown that 210 Po is more effectively extracted from lamb's liver and crabmeat than it is from each of the other tissues. A similar pattern of extractability is also evident for aqueous solutions of citric acid on crabmeat and mussel flesh. Of particular note is the low extractability by dimethylsulphoxide (3%) of 210 Po in mussel flesh as opposed to 24% extractability of 210 Po from crabmeat. 210 Po-binding macromolecules of about 10 kDa have been released from crabmeat and mussel flesh by digestion with pepsin

  5. Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210 Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg -1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg -1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210 Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210 Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210 Po. (author)

  6. An evaluation of the exposure to 210Pb-210Po in italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Santori, G.; Renzetti, A.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introduction on the behaviour in the environment and in man of 210 Pb- 210 Po, experimental data are reported on 210 Pb- 210 Po exposure of the italian population. The analytical methods used to measure 210 Pb- 210 Po activity in the many biological and environmental samples analyzed are also reported. The data collected refer to the intake, excretion, internal burden and metabolism both in a group of subjects representative of the general population and in other critical groups exposed to high internal contamination of 210 Pb- 210 Po, as the radioactive spa wopkes and the miners. The absorbed dose due to 210 Pb- 210 Po has also been evaluated, on the basis of data referring to the various population groups

  7. A sequential and fast method for low level of 226Ra , 228Ra, 210Pb e 210Po in mine effluents and uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.H.T.; Taddei, J.F.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Due to biological risk and long half lives, the radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po should be frequently monitored to check for any environmental contamination around mines and uranium plants. Currently, the methods used for the determination of these radionuclides take about thirty days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of the 210 Pb and 226 Ra daughter's. The evaluation of effluent discharges and leakage of deposits to water bodies in monitoring programs, require quick answers to implement corrective measures. Thereby fast determination methods must be implemented. This work presents a fast and sequential method to, in three days, determine accurately and sensitively, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, in water and effluent samples

  8. Factors affecting {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.p [Nuclear and Technological Institute (ITN), Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, G. [Nuclear and Technological Institute (ITN), Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    The activity of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759 {+-} 277 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight), and 45 {+-} 19 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210 {+-} 75 Bq kg{sup -1} (dry weight) for {sup 210}Po and 10 {+-} 4 Bq kg{sup -1} (dry weight) for {sup 210}Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in

  9. Study on the distribution of "2"1"0Po in water and soil samples of Attur taluk, Salem district, Tamilnadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, M.; Periyasamy, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E; Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Abrass Begam, A.; Zahir Husain, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the distribution of the alpha emitting radionuclide, "2"1"0Po in the ground water and soil samples of Attur taluk of salem district, Tamilnadu and the concentration is observed between water and soil (1.9 mBq/L and 3.9 Bq/Kg) respectively which is less than that of the world standards. (author)

  10. A study on 210Po activity concentration in soil at different depths along coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primal D'Cunha; Sathyanarayana Bhat, P.; Narayana, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents systematic studies on the vertical profiles of 210 Po, an important decay product of 238 U, in soils along coastal Kerala. Soil samples collected from different depth intervals 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm were analyzed for 210 Po activity concentration by radiochemical methods. The activity 210 Po in soil samples were counted using a ZnS(Ag) alpha scintillation counting system. The mean values of activity concentrations of 210 Po in soil of various depths were found to be 8.66, 5.63 and 4.95 Bq kg -1 for depth intervals of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm, respectively. The overall activity concentration of 210 Po in soil was found to vary from 2.26 ± 0.19 to 14.02 ± 0.12 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 6.43 Bq kg -1 . Maximum activity concentration was found in soil samples of Kollam region with the mean value of 10.08 ± 0.92 Bq kg -1 . The activity of 210 Po was found to be comparatively high in surface soil. The variation of 210 Po activity concentration with organic matter contents was studied. 210 Polonium activity concentration was found to increase with increasing organic matter content. (author)

  11. Assessment of 210Po deposition in moss species and soil around coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita Salina Abu Bakar; Ahmad Saat

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the depositions of 210 Po were assessed in the surface soil and some mosses species found in the area around coal fired power plant using radiochemical deposition and alpha spectrometry counting system. The purposes of the study were to determine activity concentrations of 210 Po in mosses and surface soil collected around coal-fired power plant in relation to trace the potential source of 210 Po and to identify most suitable moss species as a bio-indicator for 210 Po deposition. In this study, different species of mosses, Orthodontium imfractum, Campylopus serratus and Leucobryum aduncum were collected in May 2011 at the area around 15 km radius from Tanjung Bin coal-fired power plant located in Pontian, Johor. The 210 Po activity concentrations in mosses and soil varied in the range 102 ± 4 to 174 ± 8 Bq/kg dry wt. and 37 ± 2 to 184 ± 8 Bq/kg dry wt., respectively. Corresponding highest activity concentration of 210 Po observed in L. aduncum, therefore, this finding can be concluded this species was the most suitable as a bio-indicator for 210 Po deposition. On the other hand, it is clear the accumulation of 210 Po in mosses might be supplied from various sources of atmospheric deposition such as coal-fired power plant operation, industrial, plantation, agriculture and fertilizer activities, burned fuel fossil and forest; and other potential sources. Meanwhile, the main source of 210 Po in surface soil is supplied from the in situ deposition of radon decay and its daughters in the soil itself. (author)

  12. Baseline concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in Sargassum from the northern Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, S.; Aba, A.; Bebhehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first baseline for 210 Po and 210 Pb in Sargassum from northern Gulf. • 210 Po concentration in Sargassum boveanum is higher than Sargassum oligocystum. • 210 Pb concentrations in two Sargassum species was not statistically significant. • The concentration factor is microalgae is slightly higher than IAEA recommended value. - Abstract: This baseline study highlights the 210 Po and 210 Pb concentration in two species of the benthic macroalgae Sargassum from northern Gulf, also known as the ROPME Sea Area (RSA). Within the marine environment, 210 Po is initially absorbed from water and concentrated by phytoplankton and macroalgae, and this concentrated 210 Po can then readily be passed along to the higher trophic level of the marine food web. The 210 Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (22.5–25.6 Bq kg −1 ) was higher than that in Sargassum oligocystum (20.2–22.5 Bq kg −1 ), but is not statistically significant (p > 0.064), where as the difference between 210 Pb concentrations in Sargassum boveanum (15.3–16.8 Bq kg −1 ) and Sargassum oligocystum (18.4–22.0 Bq kg −1 ) was statistically significant (p > 0.019). The measured concentration factor for 210 Po in Sargassum in the northern Gulf varied between 0.55 and 1.2 × 10 4 , values higher to the IAEA recommended value of 1 × 10 3 . The 210 Po enrichment is observed in both the species of Sargassum, 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was >1 at all the stations for all the samples

  13. 210Po measurement of borehole core and its significance for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    210 Po survey is a tradition method in uranium exploration and has been widely applied to ground reconnaissance survey and detailed survey of uranium. However, it is seldom applied to drilling work. 210 Po measurements of borehole core for granite-type uranium deposit in Miaoershan area indicate that there are high and large range anomaly which greatly exceeds uranium orebody in uranium mineralization area. The investigation suggests that 210 Po measurements of borehole core can judge whether or not exist buried uranium orebody under the borehole depth and its surrounding in the final exploration stage. The method may be used to the exploration of granite-type uranium deposit. (authors)

  14. Volatility of 210Po in airborne dusts in an atmosphere of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Michiko; Abe, Siro; Ikeda, Nagao.

    1976-01-01

    Volatilization behavior of 210 Po contained in airborne dusts in the temperature range of 200 - 800 0 C was investigated in an atmosphere of nitrogen. It was revealed that the volatilization of 210 Po in airborne dusts in an atmosphere of nitrogen as a function of temperature can be expressed in a stairlike shape with two steps. This tendency is similar to the previous results obtained in air. The previous and present data may suggest that 210 Po in airborne dusts consists of two or more different kinds of chemical species. (auth.)

  15. Content of [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po in main foods of Hunan province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiaquan, Yan [Hunan Inst. for Labour Hygiene, Propylaxis and Treatment of Occupational Diseases (China); Radiological Health Group collabrated

    1992-03-01

    Investigation results were reported of content of [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po in main foods of Hunan province from 1988 to early 1989. The content of [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po in 17 kinds of foods investigated ranges from 0.02 to 11.8 Bqkg[sup -1] and from 0.04 to 15.6 Bqkg[sup -1] respectively. The estimated committed dose equivalents of residents were 102.6 [mu]Sv and 29.6 [mu]Sv for [sup 210]Pb and [sup 210]Po taken through foods respectively.

  16. Content of 210Pb and 210Po in main foods of Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jiaquan

    1992-01-01

    Investigation results were reported of content of 210 Pb and 210 Po in main foods of Hunan province from 1988 to early 1989. The content of 210 Pb and 210 Po in 17 kinds of foods investigated ranges from 0.02 to 11.8 Bqkg -1 and from 0.04 to 15.6 Bqkg -1 respectively. The estimated committed dose equivalents of residents were 102.6 μSv and 29.6 μSv for 210 Pb and 210 Po taken through foods respectively

  17. Low collectivity of the first 2+ states of 212,210Po

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocheva, D.; Rainovski, G.; Jolie, J.; Pietralla, N.; Blazhev, A.; Astier, A.; Altenkirch, R.; Bast, M.; Beckers, M.; Ansari, S.; Braunroth, Th.; Cappellazzo, M.; Cortés, M. L.; Dewald, A.; Diel, F.; Djongolov, M.; Fransen, C.; Gladnishki, K.; Goldkuhle, A.; Hennig, A.; Karayonchev, V.; Keatings, J. M.; Kluge, E.; Kröll, Th.; Litzinger, J.; Moschner, K.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Petkov, P.; Rudigier, M.; Scheck, M.; Spagnoletti, P.; Scholz, Ph.; Schmidt, T.; Spieker, M.; Stahl, C.; Stegmann, R.; Stolz, A.; Vogt, A.; Stoyanova, M.; Thöle, P.; Warr, N.; Werner, V.; Witt, W.; Wölk, D.; Zamora, J. C.; Zell, K. O.; Van Isacker, P.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.

    2018-05-01

    The lifetimes of the first 2+ excited states of 212,210Po were measured in two transfer reactions 208Pb(12C,8Be)212Po and 208Pb(12C,10Be)210Po by the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method and by the Doppler Shift Attenuation method (DSAM), respectively. The derived absolute B(E2) values of 2.6(3) W.u. for 212Po and 1.83(28) W.u. for 210Po indicate low collectivity. It is shown that the properties of the yrast {2}1+, {4}1+, {6}1+ and {8}1+ states in both nuclei cannot be described consistently in the framework of nuclear shell models. It is also demonstrated in the case of 210Po that Quasi-particle Phonon Model (QPM) calculations cannot overcome this problem thus indicating the existence of a peculiarity which is neglected in both theoretical approaches.

  18. Determination of 210Po in Slovak mineral waters by sorption on ZnS(Ag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosik, M.

    2009-01-01

    In determining of 210 Po it was followed according to the Czech technical standard CSN 75 7626 Water quality - Determination of polonium-210. The aim of this work was to optimize the conditions for sorption of 210 Po on ZnS (Ag) from acidic environment from the model solutions. The effect of pH of the sample, its volume and the presence of NaCl on the sorption of 210 Po on ZnS (Ag) was studied. Three types of filters for filtering ZnS (Ag), Synpor, paper and glass fiber filters were tested. Bulk activity of 210 Po was determined in the samples of Slovak mineral waters and healing waters as well as in water samples from antimony mine (mine Rufus) near the village Poproc (rural Kosice district). (author)

  19. Sup(210)Pb and 210Po distributions and disequilibrium in the coastal and shelf waters of the southern North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizheng, Zuo; Eisma, Doeke

    1993-01-01

    Concentration profiles of 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured at 10 stations in the coastal and shelf areas of the southern North Sea. Scavenging processes in this study area are revealed by 210 Po/ 210 Pb disequilibrium and their distributions in the water column. Results for 210 Po show strong excess, relative to 210 Pb, in both dissolved and particulate forms, indicating an additional flux of 210 Po from the coastal and shelf sediment. A significant maximum of the dissolved 210 Po and 210 Pb over the fine grained depositional area (Oyster Ground) was observed to correspond with resuspension of the underlying muddy sediments. A comparison of the data between the water and sediment columns shows that the excess of 210 Po found in the water body could be balanced by only a small amount of deficit of 210 Po in the sediment, due to the characteristics of this continental shelf area. (author)

  20. Natural contents of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb, and /sup 210/Po in young human bones and teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czegledi, P

    1987-07-01

    /sup 226/Ra, /sup 210/Pb, and /sup 210/Po activity concentrations were determined in tooth and bone samples of children. The children of 0 to 13 years were residents of Budapest and died from various diseases. In respect of both /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb activity concentrations, calvaria was representative for the whole skeleton. Examining the total sample, the mean activity concentrations were found to be as follows: /sup 226/Ra 1.53 +- 0.66 mBq/g Ca/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/; /sup 210/Pb 4.34 +- 0.74 mBq/g Ca/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and /sup 210/Po 3.48 +- 0.53 mBq/g Ca/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. It is shown that the burden of the skeleton is about one order of magnitude greater in the age group 1 to 13 years for all three radionuclides.

  1. Annual dose of Taiwanese from the ingestion of 210Po in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu-wei; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-03-01

    Oysters around the coast of Taiwan were collected, dried, spiked with a (209)Po tracer for yield, digested with concentrated HNO(3) and H(2)O(2), and finally dissolved in 0.5 N HCl. The polonium was then spontaneously deposited onto a silver disc, and the activity of (210)Po was measured using an alpha spectrum analyzer equipped with a silicon barrier detector. Meanwhile, the internal effective dose of (210)Po coming from the intake of oysters by Taiwanese was evaluated. The results of the present study indicate that (210)Po average activity concentrations ranged from 23.4 ± 0.4 to 126 ± 94 Bq kg(-1) of fresh oysters. The oysters coming from Penghu island and Kinmen island regions contain higher concentrations of (210)Po in comparison with oysters from other regions of Taiwan. The value of (210)Po weighted average activity concentrations for all oyster samples studied is 25.9 Bq kg(-1). The annual effective dose of Taiwanese due to the ingestion of (210)Po in oysters was estimated to be 4.1 × 10(-2) mSv y(-1). Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Levels of lead-210 (210Pb) and polonium 210 (210Po) in Cuban Tobacco products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, F.O.; Barrerras Caballero, A.; Alvarez Rodriguez, D.; Montalvan Estrada, A.

    1999-01-01

    The release of 210Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smoker. The electroplating of polonium at two different times onto copper disks and further measurement of alpha activity was the meted used for 210 Po determination in tobacco products. The Polonium daughter is used to determine both the 210Pb and 210Po using the Baseman equations for radioactive growth and decay. A cigarette contains between 10.6 and 14.7 mBq of 210Pb with an average activity of 13.0 mBq and between 8.5 and 12.3 mBq of 210Po with an average activity of 10.4 mBq for different Cuban cigarette brands. For a person smoking a pack of 20 cigarettes a day, the values of intakes estimated range from 32 to 44 mBq for 210Pb and from 34 to 49 mBq for 210 Po with an average daily intake of 39 mBq for 210 Pb and 42 mBq for 210Po. The annual effective dose estimated due to inhalation of these nuclides contained in cigarette smoke shows a value of 66[Sv and was in correspondence with world-wide range dose, 46 - 90 mSv.year 1 - for tobacco product consumption

  3. Variation of 210Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelgye, Z.; Hyza, M.; Mihalik, J.; Rulik, P.; Skrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of 210 Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted 210 Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95 % confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of 210 Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of 210 Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of 210 Po excretion in daily urine is made. (orig.)

  4. Natural levels of {sup 2}10Po in human urine; Niveles naturales de {sup 2}10Po en orina humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J.; Manjon, G.

    2013-07-01

    The daily activity of {sup 2}10Po concentrations in the urine of a volunteer for a month analyzed studies show a high variability with a difference of up to an order of magnitude between the maximum and minimum values obtained, and a clear dependence on the type of diet followed in the various phases of the experiment. (Author)

  5. An improved method for the separation of 210Bi and 210Po from 210Pb by using solid-phase extraction disk membranes: environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, N.A.; Gaffney, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Cunningham, M.M.; Drayton, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    An improved method is described for the rapid separation of 210 Bi and 210 Po from the parent radionuclide, 210 Pb, in environmental samples. After the metals were leached from a variety of matrices, they were converted to their anionic chloride complexes by addition of 1 M HCl. These complexes can be separated by solid-phase extraction with disk extraction membranes impregnated with anionic chelating particles. This separation technique takes advantage of the differences in sorption behavior of the chloride complexes to strongly basic anion exchange groups. The extraction membranes can then be counted directly for 210 Bi and 210 Po. If sufficient time is allowed for ingrowth of the daughter, the concentration of the parent 210 Pb in the original sample can be determined from the concentration of 210 Bi. In addition, the ratios of 210 Bi/ 210 Pb and 210 Po/ 210 Pb can be obtained by immediate extraction of 210 Bi followed by ingrowth of 210 Bi for a second determination to establish 210 Pb concentration levels. This can be accomplished easily in order to estimate the residence times of atmospheric aerosols or aqueous colloidal materials. This new technique avoids the time consuming extraction, precipitation, and electroplating procedures used previously and eliminates the experimental errors associated with multiple sample manipulations. (orig.)

  6. Enrichment of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in ash samples from oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozden, B. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics/Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Estonia); Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu,Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Energy production in Estonia is largely dependent on the oil shale industry. Oil shale is a fossil fuel typically characterized by relatively high mineral composition, modest organic fraction (varying between 10 and 65%), high ash content (usually 45% to 50%), and average lower heating value of 8.4 MJ/kg{sup -1}. Oil shale-fired power plants account for 85% of Estonian electricity production and produce up to 6 million tons of oil shale ash annually. This ash contains elevated amounts of natural radionuclides (from the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K), which were bound to oil shale during its formation. These radionuclides become enriched in ash fractions during the combustion process and are partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. Oil shale-fired electricity production is foreseen to remain a dominant trend in Estonia, suggesting that the radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere will continue in the future. The natural radionuclides {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, with half-lives of 138 days and 22.3 years respectively, originate from the radioactive decay of radionuclides of {sup 238}U series present in the earth's crust. These radionuclides are also built up artificially in the environment due to waste discharge from phosphate, oil, and gas industries, combustion of fossil fuels and other energy production as technically enhanced natural radionuclides. There are few studies on oil shale power plants influence on the levels of natural radioactivity in the surrounding areas. Realo, et al. reported that the annual doses from fly ash depositions over a 30 year period are in the range 90 - 200 μSv a{sup -1}. A study previously initiated by the University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (IPh) evaluated enrichment in the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in ash samples collected from Eesti Power Plant's circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. According

  7. Modelling the behaviour of 210Po in high temperature processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, J.C.; Robles, B.; Corbacho, J.A.; Gasco, Catalina; Gazquez, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    In several Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) industries, relatively high temperatures are used as part of their industrial processes. In coal combustion, as occur in other high temperature processes, an increase of the activity concentration of every natural radioisotope is produced both, in residues and by-products. An additional increase can be observed in the activity concentration of radionuclides of elements with low boiling point. This work is centred in the increase of polonium, more precisely in its radioisotope Po-210, present in the natural chains, and with a half-life long enough to be considered for radiation protection purposes. This additional increase appears mainly in the residual particles that are suspended in the flue gases: the fly-ashes. Besides, scales, with a high concentration of this radioisotope, were observed. These scales are produced on surfaces with a temperature lower than the boiling point of the chemical element. Both, the accumulation in particles and the production of scales are attributed to condensation effects. When effective doses for the public and the workers are evaluated, taking into account these increases in activity concentrations, the use of theoretical models is necessary. In this work a theoretical description of those effects is presented. Moreover, a verification of the predictions of the model was performed by comparing them with measurements carried on in coal-fired power plants. The same description here presented is applicable in general to the behaviour of Po-210 in other NORM industries where high temperature processes involving raw materials are used, as can be ceramic, cement production, tiles production or steel processing.

  8. Unusual 210Po/210Pb ratios in the surface water of the Gulf of Lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S.; Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb have been measured in sea water collected in the Grand Rhone Canyon. Concentrations of 210 Pb are at similar levels to those found in other Mediterranean sea water samples, and are at the levels which would be expected in comparison with global sea water data. The same applies to the 210 Po concentrations in samples from below 100 m depth. Surface samples from above 100 m have 210 Po at levels rather higher than expected, and their 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios are about 1 or more as compared with the usual open ocean ratio 0.5. These data can be interpreted as indicating another source of supply of 210 Po to the surface layer in addition to the normal atmospheric input. We suggest that an episodic advective particulate input, probably originating in the output of the Rhone river and perhaps involving resuspension of fine particulates from the bottom sediments as a result of storm conditions, is he most likely candidate for this additional source. (authors)

  9. /sup 210/Po in marine organisms: a wide range of natural radiation dose domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F P

    1988-01-01

    Marine biota is able to concentrate /sup 210/Po to high levels, as 10/sup 3/-10/sup 5/ relative to sea water concentration. /sup 210/Po concentrations in mixed zooplankton reaches 34-51 Bq.kg/sup -1/ (fresh wt), special groups such as copepods reaching even higher concentrations /similar to/ 90 Bq.kg/sup -1/, whereas gelatinous zooplankton display /similar to/ 1 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Epipelagic teleosts feeding on plankton displayed the highest concentrations found in fish muscle, 2-21 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Contrasting with this, demersal teleosts and elasmobranchs display lower /sup 210/Po concentrations, in the ranges 0.5-7 Bq.kg/sup -1/ and 0.2-1.7 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. Much higher concentrations can, however, be measured in fish liver, gonad, bone and piloric caecca, and small mesopelagic fish can reach /similar to/ 800 Bq.kg/sup -1/ on a whole-body basis. Due to these /sup 210/Po activity concentrations, dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in marine organisms can vary widely, from 0.4 mSv.y/sup -1/ in gelatinous plankton up to 5.6 x 10/sup 3/ mSv.y/sup -1/ in the gut wall of sardines. It is concluded that in organisms living in the same ocean layer a wide range of internal radiation doses exists and it is essentially sustained by /sup 210/Po food-chain transfer. (author).

  10. Bioaccumulation of polonium ({sup 210}Po) and uranium ({sup 234}U, {sup 238}U) in plants around phosphogypsum waste heap in Wislinka (northern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borylo, A.; Skwarzec, B. [Gdansk Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    In the study the activities of polonium {sup 210}Po and uranium {sup 234}U, {sup 238}U in plants, collected near phosphogypsum waste heap in Wis'linka (northern Poland), were determined by using the alpha spectrometry. The obtained results revealed that the concentrations of {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}U, and {sup 238}U in the analyzed plants were differentiated. In the analyzed flora organisms the highest amounts of polonium and uranium were found in ruderal plant samples as well as willow samples (Salix viminalis) from protection zone of phosphogypsum waste heap. The concentrations of {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U in the analyzed plants were higher in roots than in green parts of plants. The higher concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 238}U radionuclides were estimated for hydrophyte (common sedge Carex nigra Reichard), the favourite habitat of which is particularly wet meadow and for plants collected in the vicinity of phosphogypsum waste heap. The major source of polonium and uranium in analyzed plants is root system. The values of {sup 234}U/ {sup 238}U activity ratio in all analyzed plants are closed to one, what indicated that source of uranium in analyzed plants is phosphogypsum. The highest uranium and polonium concentrations were characterized for plants, which are covered with tomentose. The comparability polonium and uranium contents were confirmed in edible plants, but higher accumulation was determined in ripe species than immature species of vegetables. The higher polonium and uranium concentrations were noticed in green parts of plant, the lower in roots. Polonium concentration in cultivated plants samples was not species diverse. Therefore, the significant source of polonium and uranium in analyzed plants is wet and dry atmospheric falls gathering the soil and air dust from phosphogypsum waste dump. The maximum {sup 210}Po and {sup 238}U radionuclides concentrations were found in green parts of red beet (Beta vulgaris esculenta), the

  11. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10 6 /yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs

  12. Unusually large 210Po deficiencies relative to 210Pb in the Kuroshio Current of the East China and Philippine seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiyuki Nozaki; Naoko Ikuta; Mayumi Yashima

    1990-01-01

    Three vertical water profiles of 210 Pb and 210 Po have been measured in the East China and Philippine seas. All the profiles show a large 210 Po deficiency of ∼ 8 dpm/cm 2 relative to 210 Pb in the top ∼ 1,000 m of the water column. Based on the 210 Po deficiency, the steady state flux for 210 Po removal from the surface water is estimated to be 14 dpm cm -2 /yr. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of sinking particles will be too high unless an additional source of 210 Pb into the surface is accounted for. Thus the large 210 Po deficit is probably caused by the increased atmospheric input of 210 Pb without any significant 210 Po, which is focused in the Kuroshio region by isopycnal transport, and the preferential scavenging of 210 Po relative to 210 Pb by settling particles. The transient model calculations indicate that the model can account for the observed high excess 210 Pb inventory and large 210 Po deficiency in the water column if focusing of atmospherically derived 210 Pb in the Kuroshio water is a factor of 2-3 more than the local input. Such lateral redistribution by the western North Pacific gyre circulation is not inconsistent with the deeper penetration and the high water column inventories of anthropogenic substances observed in this region

  13. 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po disequilibria in the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Y.; Isunogai, S.

    1976-01-01

    226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured in oceanic profiles at two stations near the Bonin and Kurile trenches. 210 Po is depleted by 50% on average relative to 210 Pb in the surface water. In the deep water, 210 Pb is about 25% deficient relative to 226 Ra. Based on the deficiency, 210 Pb residence time with respect to removal by particulate matter was estimated to be less than 96 years in the deep water. 210 Pb deficiency in the bottom water was significantly greater than that of the adjacent deep water, indicating more effective removal near or at the bottom interface. 210 Pb, 210 Po and Th appear to have similar overall rate constants of particulate removal throughout the water column. (Auth.)

  14. Spectroscopy and measurement of electromagnetic moments in sup(198,200,210)Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    The quadrupole coupling constants for the 210 Po Isup(π)=8 + , 11 - , 13 - isomers in Bi have been measured, and Q(11 - )=82(2) fm 2 and Q(13 - )=90(2) fm 2 normalized to Q( 210 Po8 + )=57 fm 2 are deduced. In beam γ-spectroscopy of sup(198,) 200 Po showed the (πh 2 sub(9/2) 8 + ) π(hsub(9/2)isub(13/2) 11 - ) and (visub(13/2) 12 + ) isomers. The B(E2 8 + ->6 + ) and Q(8 + ) in 198 Po to 210 Po are discussed, a sudden drop is found for the B(E2) in 198 Po. The B(E3, 11 - ->8 + ) rises very steeply in the light Po isotopes. (orig.)

  15. Accumulation of polonium 210Po in tissues and organs of deer carvidae from Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Prucnal, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on accumulation of polonium in tissues and organs of deer carvidae in order to assess the potential transport of this element via food-chain to game meat consumers. Livers, kidneys and muscles of large herbivorous animals belonging to three species: roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in Northern Poland, were the subject of the present investigation. Activities of (210)Po were determined by means of alpha spectrometry along with relevant radiochemical procedures. The concentration of (210)Po in analyzed animals decreased in the order kidney > liver > muscle tissue. The average activity concentrations of (210)Po ranged between 0.02 +/- 0.01 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in muscles and 7.15 +/- 0.12 Bq. kg(- 1) w.w. in kidneys. Levels of polonium were not influenced by sampling location, sex, age and species of animals.

  16. Improvements in radon retrospective assessments based on analysis of 210Po embedded in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotti, F.; Lanciai, M.; Mozz, P.; Panepinto, V.; Poli, S.; Predicatori, F.; Righetti, F.; Tacconi, A.; Tanferi, A.

    1998-01-01

    In epidemiological studies into the connection between lung cancer and indoor radon, an important uncertainty factor comes from the assessment of radon exposure. Past radon concentrations can be estimated from measurements of 210 Po embedded in surfaces in the dwellings. In the paper the technique is highlighted based on 210 Po detection using CR-39 detectors applied to glass surfaces and on subsequent spectroscopic analysis with an image analyzer. Actual application of the technique is described and examples of the results are presented. (A.K.)

  17. Levels of {sup 210} Pb and {sup 210} Po in Brazilian cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Pedro Lopes dos; Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos Santos; Dutra, Iedo Ramos [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral

    1996-12-01

    {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb concentrations have been determined in 18 Brazilian cigarette samples and compared with known data on U content. U is respectively 3-fold less and 4-fold less abundant than {sup 210} Po or {sup 210} Pb. No correlation could be observed between U concentration and those of Po or Pb. The mean concentration of {sup 210} Pb is higher than that of {sup 210} Pb observed in many other plants, even in plants frown in high background areas. (author) 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Determination of 210Pb e 210Po in marine samples and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Roberto Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    In this work the methodologies for 210 Pb e 210 Po analyses in marine samples, such as fish, seaweed, sediment, and aerosol samples are presented. The 210 Pb levels in the samples were obtained by both 210 Bi and 210 Po ingrowth. The 210 Pb analysis via 210 Bi presents the following steps: 210 Pb leaching from samples with 8 M nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide; lead sulphate precipitation; conversion to carbonate; dissolution; lead sulphate precipitation; gravimetric analysis of lead; waiting of time to reach radioactive equilibrium and 210 Bi beta counting by employing a Geiger-Mueller detector with a low background radiation. The 210 Pb analysis via 210 Po presents the following steps: 210 Pb and 210 Po leaching from samples with 8 M nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid elimination by heating and hydrochloric acid addition; spontaneous deposition onto silver disc and alpha counting of polonium in silicon surface-barrier detector. In order to determine 210 Pb activity, the solution was percolated in the Dowex AG 1-X 8 anion exchange resin; preconditioned with 8 M nitric acid; the lead was eluted by 8 M hydrochloric acid; the solution was gently evaporated to dryness and diluted with 0.5 N hydrochloric acid. After 3-6 months a second 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto silver disc was carried out. The methodology for 210 Pb analysis via 210 Bi showed lead recoveries from 63 to 100%. In the method via 210 Po the polonium recoveries were varied from 39 to 63% under manual agitation, and from 60 to 100% under mechanical agitation. The radiochemical methods for 210 Po and 210 Pb analyses were applied in reference samples from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the results obtained showed the good precision and accuracy of the established methods. The analysis of marine sediment samples of Antarctica presented 210 Pb and Po levels from 8 to 60 Bq.kg -1 , and fish samples from Sao Paulo Coast presented 210 Po levels from 0.5 to 5.3 Bq.kg -1 . These

  19. Development and validation of a fast combined analysis method for the determination of the natural radioisotopes Pb-210, Po-210, Ra-226, Ra, 228, U-234 and U-238 in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The guiding value of the effective dose for the consumption of drinking water is 0.1 mSv per calendar year. For the purpose of dose assessment the intake of all relevant radio nuclides via drinking water has to be determined. Some analysis methods for the determination of relevant natural occurring radio nuclides are published but they need complete different and time consuming analysis methods for each radionuclide. This study shows an analysis method which is able to determine the radio nuclides 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 238 U and 234 U quantitatively within a justifiable time scale. It is based on a chromatography method which has been validated for determination of 90 Sr and 89 Sr in milk, vegetable food and human and animal bones respectively. Applying this method the elution ranges for lead and polonium are so different from uranium and radium that a combined separation with high chemical yield is possible, even by miniaturization the chromatography column which means significant time saving. The activity concentration of 228 Ra and 226 Ra is determined applying gamma-spectrometry and that of 210 Pb, 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U by LSC. The chemical yield of 210 Pb is calculated with a stable lead applying AAS and that of the radium isotopes with 223 Ra. Therefor 223 Ra is separated of a 227 Ac standard solution. The method is validated by a interlaboratory test for the determination of natural radio nuclides in drinking water which was released by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz. For the analysis only about four litres of drinking water are necessary to realize the required limit of detection. The method is very efficient, enough specific and allows the determination of dose relevant radio nuclides.

  20. 210Pb and 210Po in sediments and suspended matter in the Tagus estuary, Portugal: Local enhancement of natural levels by wastes from phosphate ore processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    1994-01-01

    Results of analyses of uranium series radionuclides in phosphate ore and in wastes released by the phosphate fertilizer industry confirm their potential for the enhancement of environmental radioactivity levels. Therefore, concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured in bottom sediments and suspended matter in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, to assess the enhancement of radioactivity due to wastes from the phosphate industry. The concentration of 210 Pb in surface sediments in the estuary increased inversely with sediment grain-size; conversely, increased percentage of sand has a dilution effect on the concentration of 210 Pb measured in bulk sediment samples. By normalizing the data to the 210 Pb in sediments was found to be 68 ± 19 Bq kg -1 (dry wt.) in background sediments. Higher 210 Pb levels, up to 1580 Bq kg -1 (dry wt.), were measured in some bulk sediment samples. It was verified that this radionuclide has been introduced by the discharge of wastes from a phosphate fertilizer plant but enhanced concentrations are localized near the point of discharge. In other zones of the estuary, the concentrations of 210 Pb in sediments and suspended matter were generally below those measured in the zone of phosphatic releases at the Barreiro Peninsula. Concentrations higher than the predicted average concentration of unsupported 210 Pb from natural sources (atmospheric deposition, river input) were also measured in the upper estuary, both in bottom sediments and in suspended matter. It is suggested that these relatively elevated concentrations are due to the highly efficient scavenging of soluble naturally-occurring unsupported 210 Pb onto suspended matter and to co-precipitation with iron-manganese hydroxides in the fresh water-salt water mixing zone

  1. Improved analytical procedure for the determination of 210Pb and 210Po using alpha-spectrometric isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnezis, P.W.; Holtzman, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    An isotope dilution method has been incorporated into the 210 Pb- 210 Po analysis. A known amount of 209 Po is added to the sample before analysis. Then both 209 Po and 210 Po are deposited on a silver planchet which is assayed in an alpha spectrometer to determine the activities of each isotope. The recoveries generally range from 70% to 90%

  2. Transfer factors of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po from NORM-contaminated oil field soil to some Atriplex species, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masria, M.S.; Mukalallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer factors of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po from soil contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil fields to some grazing plants were determined using pot experiments. Contaminated soil was collected from a dry surface evaporation pit from a Syrian oil field in the Der Ezzor area. Five types of plants (Atriplex halimus L., Atriplex canescens, Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass) were grown and harvested three times over two years. The results show that the mean transfer factors of 226 Ra from the contaminated soil to the studied plant species were 1.6 x 10 -3 for Atriplex halimus L., 2.1 x 10 -3 for Atriplex canescens, 2.5 x 10 -3 for Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, 8.2 x 10 -3 for Bermuda grass, and the highest value was 1.7 x 10 -2 for Alfalfa. Transfer factors of 210 Pb and 210 Po were higher than 226 Ra TFs by one order of magnitude and reached 7 x 10 -3 , 1.1 x 10 -2 , 1.2 x 10 -2 , 3.2 x 10 -2 and 2.5 x 10 -2 for Atriplex halimus, Atriplex canescens, Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, Bermuda grass and Alfalfa, respectively. The results can be considered as base values for transfer factors of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in semiarid regions. (authors)

  3. Exposures to 222Rn and its progeny derived from implanted 210Po activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    The Jacobi room model was applied to study the relative contributions from the unattached and attached fractions to the implanted activity of 210 Po. It was found that under normal conditions, about 85% of the implantation was due to the unattached fraction. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most important factors that influence the deposition and implantation of radon progeny. The main factors affecting the incorporation of 210 Po are the attachment rate, deposition rate of unattached progeny and the surface to volume ratio of the room. The calibration curves, which related the 210 Po activity per unit surface area to the concentrations of 222 Rn and of the radon progeny, were determined as functions of exposure times. The implanted activity is found to distribute close to a lognormal distribution. For an exposure of 20 years, the distribution has a geometric standard deviation of 2.2 and a geometric mean of 0.023Bq/m 2 /(Bq/m 3 ). The last value is considered as the calibration coefficient of the glass response in terms of the implanted 210 Po activity per unit surface area per unit concentration of 222 Rn for an exposure period of 20 years

  4. Hair and feathers as indicator of internal contamination of 210Po and 210Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (ed.); Gwynn, J.; Zaborska, A.; Gaefvert, T. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Henricsson, F. (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The activities of the NKS-B HAIRPOL project is summarised in this report. The objective was to investigate if hair and feathers were suitable matrices for the estimation of the intake of 210Po. Human hair from people of different sex and age was analysed for 210Po showing concentrations between 0.4 to 11 Bq/kg dry weight. Samples from horses, mane, fur and tail showed concentration from 6 to 17 Bq/kg with no significant difference between the different sample types. Musk ox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations since the animal has to graze a large surface. In fur the concentration was 260 Bq/kg. A considerable fraction of the total 210Po in this animal is contained in the hair. Also different organs were analysed and the highest concentration was found in kidney, 2 700 Bq/kg. The 210Pb concentration in hair was estimated to about 20 Bq/kg. Three different seabirds from Svalbard were analysed. Feathers from all three seabird species show increasing activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb from the base to the tip of the feather, but it was difficult to relate feather concentrations to muscle concentrations due to a number of complicating factors. (author)

  5. Increase of {sup 210}Po levels in human semen fluid after mussel ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.co [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programs in Environmental Science and Marine Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos Santos [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) radioactive concentrations were determined in human semen fluid of vasectomized non-smoker volunteers. The {sup 210}Po levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.39 mBq g{sup -1} (mean: 0.23 {+-} 0.08 mBq g{sup -1}). This value decreased to 0.10 {+-} 0.02 mBq g{sup -1} (range from 0.07 to 0.13 mBq g{sup -1}) after two weeks of a controlled diet, excluding fish and seafood. Then, volunteers ate during a single meal 200 g of the cooked mussel Perna perna L., and {sup 210}Po levels were determined again, during ten days, in semen fluid samples collected every morning. Volunteers continued with the controlled diet and maintained sexual abstinence through the period of the experiment. A 300% increase of {sup 210}Po level was observed the day following mussel consumption, with a later reduction, such that the level returned to near baseline by day 4.

  6. Hair and feathers as indicator of internal contamination of 210Po and 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Henricsson, F.

    2010-03-01

    The activities of the NKS-B HAIRPOL project is summarised in this report. The objective was to investigate if hair and feathers were suitable matrices for the estimation of the intake of 210 Po. Human hair from people of different sex and age was analysed for 210 Po showing concentrations between 0.4 to 11 Bq/kg dry weight. Samples from horses, mane, fur and tail showed concentration from 6 to 17 Bq/kg with no significant difference between the different sample types. Musk ox from Greenland showed much higher concentrations since the animal has to graze a large surface. In fur the concentration was 260 Bq/kg. A considerable fraction of the total 210 Po in this animal is contained in the hair. Also different organs were analysed and the highest concentration was found in kidney, 2 700 Bq/kg. The 210 Pb concentration in hair was estimated to about 20 Bq/kg. Three different seabirds from Svalbard were analysed. Feathers from all three seabird species show increasing activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb from the base to the tip of the feather, but it was difficult to relate feather concentrations to muscle concentrations due to a number of complicating factors. (author)

  7. Dosimetry of 210Po in humans, caribou, and wolves in northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effective doses from 210 Po intake with caribou meat were determined for human residents in Baker Lake and Snowdrift in the Northwest Territories of Canada and compared to doses calculated from reported 210 Po tissue activities in Alaskan and British residents. Effective doses were calculated to separate body tissues, using ICRP 60 human weighting factors and the ICRP 30 metabolic model for 210 Po. Baker Lake and Alaskan effective doses were similar at 0.4 mSv y -1 and slightly higher than Snowdrift doses (0.3 mSv y -1 ). Alaskan tissue activities indicated higher effective doses to liver, bone surfaces and red marrow and lower doses to spleen than the 210 Po metabolic model (ICRP 1979a) predicts. Effective doses to Baker Lake and Snowdrift caribou and wolves, calculated from tissue activities, ranged from 7-20 mSv y -1 using human weighting factors for comparison to human doses only. Effective doses to northern Canadians and wildlife were, respectively, 7-11% and 1.8-5 times an estimated human background of 4 mSv y - from all sources. 51 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210Po in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2012-01-01

    An improved laboratory technique for measurement of polonium-210( 210 Po) in environmental samples has been developed in Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. To further improve this technique, a study with the objectives to determine the optimum conditions for 210 Po deposition and; evaluate the accuracy and precision results for the determination of 210 Po in environmental samples was carried-out. Polonium-210 which is an alpha emitter obtained in acidic solution through total digestion and dissolution of samples has been efficiently plated onto one side of the silver disc in the spontaneous plating process for measurement of its alpha activity. The optimum conditions for deposition of 210 Po were achieved using hydrochloric acid (HCl) media at acidity of 0.5 M with the presence of 1.0 gram hydroxyl ammonium chloride and the plating temperature at 90 degree Celsius. The plating was carried out in 80 ml HCl solution (0.5 M) for 4 hours. The recorded recoveries obtained using 209 Po tracers in the CRM IAEA-385 and environmental samples were 85 % - 98% whereby the efficiency of the new technique is a distinct advantage over the existing techniques. Therefore, optimization of deposition parameters is a prime importance to achieve accuracy and precision results as well as economy and time saving. (author)

  9. Glass implanted 210Po as a method of determination of long term exposure to radon: First experiments in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Lang, B.; Even, O.; Asael, Y.; Shamai, Y.; Margaliot, M.; Shirav, M.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas ( 222 Rn) is known to be the major contributor of the total exposure of the population to ionizing radiation. Retrospective assessment techniques have been developed to estimate long term exposures to ( 222 Rn and its progeny in epidemiological studies. Measurements of implanted 210 Po on glass panes surfaces characterize room radon concentration or habitant characterization.Various methods for retrospective radon measurement are described in the literature. The surface trap method is based on the 210 Po implanted on glass or other vitreous objects, measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The volume trap method is based on measurements of 210 Po in spongy, porous materials ( 210 Po volume traps). Other approach is in-vivo measurements of 210 Pb in the human skeleton. The present study uses the surface trap retrospective technique for the first time in Israel, coupled with an approach to estimate the 210 Po concentration in glasses exposed to 222 Rn using alpha spectrometry

  10. High 210Po atmospheric deposition flux in the subtropical coastal area of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Iwao, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition fluxes of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured at three coastal regions of Japan, the Pacific Ocean coastal area of the Japanese mainland (Odawa Bay), the Chinese continental side of Japanese coastal area (Tsuyazaki), and an isolated island near Okinawa (Akajima). Wet and dry fallout collectors were continuously deployed from September 1997 through August 1998 for periods of 3 to 31 days depending on the frequency of precipitation events. Annual 210 Pb deposition fluxes at Odawa Bay (35 o N 139 o E), Tsuyazaki (33 o N 130 o E) and Akajima (26 o N 127 o E) were 73.3 ± 8.0, 197 ± 35 and 78.5 ± 8.0 Bq m -2 y -1 , respectively. Higher 210 Pb deposition was observed at the Chinese continental side of Japanese coast than at the Pacific Ocean coastal site. The high 210 Pb atmospheric flux at the Chinese continental side coast was thought to be attributable to 222 Rn-rich air-mass transport from the Chinese continent during the winter monsoon. In contrast, the annual 210 Po deposition fluxes at the three study sites were 13.0 ± 2.3 (Odawa Bay), 21.9 ± 4.4 (Tsuyazaki) and 58.4 ± 7.7 (Akajima) Bq m -2 y -1 , respectively, indicating unusual high 210 Po deposition at Akajima during winter. Anomalous unsupported 210 Po input was observed during summer 1997, suggesting unknown source of 210 Po at this area

  11. The speciation and determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Liu Senlin; Xu Changheng; Xiao Xuefu; Chen Ling; Yang Hetao; Maria Belli; Umberto Sansone; Silvia Rosamilia; Stefania Gaudino

    2005-01-01

    A method for speciation and determination of 21 0Pb and 210 Po in soil samples was developed. The speciation was carried out by fractionating the soil samples into 5 fractions which are water soluble or exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and bound to residue. After mineralisation, 10% solution of each fraction was used to spontaneously deposit polonium on a silver disk at 85-90 degree C and pH 1.5 and 210 Po was measured by α-spectrometry; the remain solution was used to separate lead by anion-exchange resin and purified by precipitation as PbS and PbSO 4 , and 210 Pb was determined by a low background β-counter. IAEA-327 reference material (soil) has been studied for 210 Pb and 210 Po speciation. The results show that: (1) the average yields are 88.7±6.4% for 210 Pb and 93.8±8.2% for 210 Po; (2) if compared to the total 210 Pb activity in the sample, 210 Pb fractions are 0.95% in exchangeable form, 10.6% bound to carbonates, 14.3% bound to Fe-Mn oxides, 7.00% bound to organic matter, and 67.2% bound to residue or acid soluble, and the corresponding values for 210 Po are 0.17%, 0.97%, 21.0%, 0.47% and 77.4%, respectively; and (3) the obtained 210 Pb concentration is in good agreement with the recommended value given by IAEA.

  12. /sup 210/Po in the western Indian Ocean: Distributions, disequilibria and partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.; Finkel, R.

    1988-05-01

    Seven GEOSECS stations in the western Indian Ocean were measured for dissolved /sup 210/Po, and five of these were also measured for particulate /sup 210/Po. Dissolved phase /sup 210/Po is lower than /sup 210/Pb in the deep water north of Madagascar, with values in the Arabian Sea being lower by about 4 dpm/100 kg (approx. = 30%) for almost the entire water column. South of Madagascar, /sup 210/Po is essentially in equilibrium with /sup 210/Pb in the deep water, but with /sup 210/Po excess in subsurface water south of the Crozet basin. In the benthic boundary layer, /sup 210/Po is consistently lower than /sup 210/Pb for all the stations. In the particulate phase /sup 210/Po shows a general increase with depth and is highest in the benthic boundary layer. In general, /sup 210/Po is lower than /sup 210/Pb in the particulate phase, but at the one Somali basin station where data are available, deep water /sup 210/Po is systematically higher than /sup 210/Pb. A mid-depth maximum of particulate /sup 210/Pb is generally associated with that of dissolved /sup 210/Pb. The partition of /sup 210/Po between the particulate and dissolved phases is not significantly different from that of /sup 210/Pb. The activities of the two nuclides in the particulate phase are generally less than 10% of those in the dissolved phase. The range is from 1% to 60%. High particulate and low dissolved activities are observed in the deep water, especially in the benthic boundary layer.

  13. Variationas of 210Po Activity in Mussels (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and Its Contribution to Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntepkasemsan, B; Srisuksawad, K.; Permnamtip, V.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of 210 Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from mussel farming area at the Samut Sakhon province during the period of 2012-2013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured on its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209 Po as an internal tracer. The 210 Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq.kg-1 wet weight. The 210 Po concentration was higher in smaller sized classes (>35 mm) and lowest in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirms that larger mussels have lower 210Po levels on a weight basis. The 210 Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210 Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller sized mussels (>35 mm) and the higher in larger sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210 Po concentrations are interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210 Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 μSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210 Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for intake.

  14. Variations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in various marine organisms from Western English Channel: contribution of {sup 210}Po to the radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRC, Rue Max Pol Fouchet, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)], E-mail: olivier.connan@irsn.fr; Germain, P.; Solier, L.; Gouret, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRC, Rue Max Pol Fouchet, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)

    2007-10-15

    Measurements of {sup 210}Po were carried out in various marine matrices (mussels, oysters, seaweed, fish, and abalones) and in seawater at several points along the French coast, over a period of 2 years (2003-2005). These measurements contribute to a better knowledge of this element, since few recent data exist for the French coast. Marked seasonal variations have been revealed in some species and there are differences according to the way of life of these species. Activities in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are similar and varying between 90 and 600 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.). Activities in macroalgae (Fucus serratus) are lowest, between 4 and 16 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.). In oyster, abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) and fish (Solea solea, Sparus sp.), the strongest activities are measured in the digestive glands, the gills and the gonads. {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratios in all cases have values of more than one for all species. From a significant number of measurements, CFs were calculated for seaweed (between 4.6 x 10{sup 3} and 5.0 x 10{sup 3}) and for molluscs, with highest CFs (>10{sup 5}) found for the digestive gland and gills of the oysters, the digestive gland of the abalones and the liver of fish. Finally, the activities measured have made it possible to estimate the internal dose from chronic exposure due to {sup 210}Po received by the marine organisms (0.05 {mu}G h{sup -1} for macroalgae, between 0.70 and 1.5 {mu}G h{sup -1} for mussels and oyster), and the contribution of seafood to the dose received by humans (46-129 {mu}Sv y{sup -1})

  15. Variations of 210Po and 210Pb in various marine organisms from Western English Channel: contribution of 210Po to the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connan, O.; Germain, P.; Solier, L.; Gouret, G.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of 210 Po were carried out in various marine matrices (mussels, oysters, seaweed, fish, and abalones) and in seawater at several points along the French coast, over a period of 2 years (2003-2005). These measurements contribute to a better knowledge of this element, since few recent data exist for the French coast. Marked seasonal variations have been revealed in some species and there are differences according to the way of life of these species. Activities in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are similar and varying between 90 and 600 Bq kg -1 (d.w.). Activities in macroalgae (Fucus serratus) are lowest, between 4 and 16 Bq kg -1 (d.w.). In oyster, abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) and fish (Solea solea, Sparus sp.), the strongest activities are measured in the digestive glands, the gills and the gonads. 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios in all cases have values of more than one for all species. From a significant number of measurements, CFs were calculated for seaweed (between 4.6 x 10 3 and 5.0 x 10 3 ) and for molluscs, with highest CFs (>10 5 ) found for the digestive gland and gills of the oysters, the digestive gland of the abalones and the liver of fish. Finally, the activities measured have made it possible to estimate the internal dose from chronic exposure due to 210 Po received by the marine organisms (0.05 μG h -1 for macroalgae, between 0.70 and 1.5 μG h -1 for mussels and oyster), and the contribution of seafood to the dose received by humans (46-129 μSv y -1 )

  16. A study on distribution of natural radionuclide polonium-210 in a pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the distribution of 210 Po in Mutharasanallur pond ecosystem. It has been demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the ecosystem. The results of the study show a dissolved 210 Po concentration in pond water of 1.4mBql -1 . The sediment sample recorded a 210 Po activity of 59.9 Bqkg -1 . The aquatic organism showed differential accumulation of the radionuclide with enhanced bioaccumulation in soft tissues and muscle. The 210 Po activity in the biota fell within the range of 1.2-53.3 Bqkg -1 (wet weight). The bivalve mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate higher concentration of 210 Po in soft tissues, suggesting that these organisms could serve as a bio-monitor of 210 Po radionuclide in a freshwater system. The concentration factors of 210 Po for the biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 2 - ∼ 10 4 . Analyses of the results indicate that prawn and fish represent an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans via dietary intake. Results of 210 Po activity in the abiotic and biotic components of the pond ecosystem were higher when compared with those of Cauvery river system, the primary water source of the pond. (author)

  17. The content of 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po and 40K on tobacco of some cigarette brands were sold in Bandung, West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putu Sukmabuana

    2016-01-01

    This study on the measurements of 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 40 K natural radionuclides contained in tobacco smoke, in order to estimate the effective dose received by smoker has been carried out. The samples have been measured covering 14 brands of cigarettes are commonly sold and consumed in Indonesia. After the tobacco is dried and mashed, the concentration of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 40 K counted using γ-ray spectrometry, for 80,000 seconds. It was obtained that the average concentration of 226 Ra was 4.18 ± 0.67 Bq/kg, for 210 Pb was 4.71 ± 0.82 Bq/kg, while the average concentration of 40 K was 26.50 ± 2.08 Bq/kg. 210 Po calculated based on radioactive equilibrium, the result was 4.09 ± 0.71 Bq/kg. By using a dose coefficients given by ICRP, the estimated annual effective dose received by the smoker was calculated. The average annual effective dose for 226 Ra was 80.46 ± 12.93 µSv/year, for 210 Pb was 28.47 ± 4.96 µSv/year, and 210 Po was 74.31 ± 12.96 µSv/year. Estimated effective dose for 40 K radionuclide can not be done because the dose coefficients for 40 K is not available in ICRP 71. By summing the average dose of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po, obtained total effective dose estimated annual average was 183.24 µSv/year or around 14,5 % of the dose limit for radiation exposure by inhalation in the world (1260 µSv/year). In summary the effective dose above is still relatively small, but nevertheless when radioactive substances and chemicals in cigarette smoke enters the bloodstream it can affect the entire body. This is why smoking causes so many diseases, including cancer, heart disease and various lung diseases. (author)

  18. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in El-Sin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Rayyes, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides levels have been determined in El-Sin water for the period of 1995 and 1996. water samples were collected from four sites, which are the main drinking water sources of the area. Radon concentration was found to vary between 0.88 Bq/1 in Lattakia main water supply site and 8.4 Bq/1 in El-Sin springs.The highest values found for other radionuclides were 51.6 mBq/1, 18.6 mB/1 and 24.8 mBq/1 for sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra, sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and total uranium (sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U) respectively. These levels are much lower than the maximum permissible levels in drinking water set by international organization.(author)

  19. Study of distribution of 210Po and 210Pb in the environmental matrices of Chikmagalur, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasheelan, A.; Sannappa, J.; Umeshareddy, K.; Ningappa, C.; Manjunatha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Polonium-210 and lead-210 are amongst the more radiotoxic nuclides and their concentration in soil and drinking water is very important from a radiological point of view. 210 Po is produced from the decay of 222 Rn gas in the atmosphere from which it is deposited on the earth's surface. 210 Po and 210 Pb in natural environment provide considerable radiation exposure to humans. In the present study, the concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the environment of Tumkur were studied. Soil and water samples were collected from ten Taluks of Tumkur and 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined by wet ashing method. Samples containing polonium was digested using conc. nitric acid and later converted into chloride medium with HCL. Polonium is deposited on the surface of the silver planchet and the activity on both sides were counted in a low background alpha counting system. The sample solution after estimation of 210 Po was preserved for 6-8 months for sufficient growth of 210 Po from 210 Pb. Then the 210 Po was re-estimated to determine the 210 Pb concentration by knowing its growth factor. The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soils of different Taluks varied from 13.6 BqKg -1 and 26.8 to 113.4 BqKg -1 respectively. The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in water was low compared to soil, they varied 0.12 Bql -1 to 0.54 Bql -1 and 0.42 Bql -1 to 1.12 Bql -1 . (author)

  20. Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Solatie, Dina; Aro, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    The activity concentrations and distribution of 210 Pb and 210 Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of 210 Po/ 210 Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and especially 210 Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of 210 Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg -1 d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg -1 d.w.). The 210 Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg -1 d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg -1 d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of 210 Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of 210 Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of 210 Po were higher than those of 210 Pb. 210 Po and 210 Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by 137 Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  1. Distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, Kaisa, E-mail: Kaisa.Vaaramaa@Helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Solatie, Dina [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, FI-96500 Rovaniemi (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), Parkano Research Unit, FI-39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The activity concentrations and distribution of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in wild berries and edible mushrooms were investigated in Finnish forests. The main study areas were located in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in southern and northern Finland. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) samples decreased in the order: stems > leaves > berries (i.e. fruits). The activity ratios of {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb in the wild berry samples were mainly higher than one, indicating elevated activity concentrations of polonium in the samples. In mushrooms the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and especially {sup 210}Po were higher than in fruits of the wild berries. The highest activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb was detected in Cortinarius armillatus L. (16.2 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.) and the lowest in Leccinum vulpinum L. (1.38 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w.). The {sup 210}Po activity concentrations of the whole fruiting bodies ranged from 7.14 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (Russula paludosa L.) to 1174 Bq kg{sup -1} d.w. (L. vulpinum L.). In general, the highest activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were recorded in boletes. The caps of mushrooms of the Boletaceae family showed higher activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared to the stipes. In most of the mushrooms analyzed, the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were higher than those of {sup 210}Pb. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb dominate the radiation doses received via ingestion of wild berries and mushrooms in northern Finland, while in southern Finland the ingested dose is dominated by {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl fallout.

  2. The γ-decays of 210Po-levels from the (3He,d*γγ)-reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Tiesler, H.; Meise, H.; Fitzler, A.; Dewald, A.; Thomas, H.G.; Weisshaar, D.; Brentano, P. von

    1999-01-01

    An in-beam experiment with the subcoulomb reaction 209 Bi( 3 He,d * γγ) 210 Po at 20.5 MeV was performed with two EUROBALL CLUSTER detectors in Cologne. It closed the gap between the low energy levels of the level-scheme and the high energy levels found in 209 Bi( 3 He,d) 210 Po and 208 Pb( 4 He,t) 210 Po particle experiments. New branchings have been found and the ( 3 He, d * γγ) reaction below the coulomb-barrier has been used successfully. (orig.)

  3. Plutonium-239, 240Pu and 210Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 239 Pu and 240 Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the 210 Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of 210 Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers

  4. Levels of [sup 210]Po in some beverages and in tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, C H; Huquet, M R; Palacios, M A; Oliveira, A A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Gerencia de Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear

    1992-10-12

    The objective of the present work is the estimation of the [sup 210]Po content in some beverages and in tobacco, in order to assess the corresponding collective doses to the population in Argentina. Yerba mate, tea leaves, their infusions and ground coffee were analyzed, as well as tobacco. Collective doses due to the annual consumption of the beverages described were found to be from 6 man.Sv to 1200 man.Sv. Results for [sup 210]Po in tobacco ranged from 10 Bq*kg[sup -1] to 80 Bq*kg[sup -1]. Lung doses due to the use of tobacco vary from 75 [mu]Sv*y[sup -1] to 600 [mu]Sv*y[sup -1]. (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs.

  5. Discharge of 210Po and 210Pb in coastal groundwater to the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Intae; Kim, Tae-hoon; Kim, Guebuem

    2013-01-01

    The activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured for the truly dissolved (<10 kDa) and colloidal (10 kDa - 0.45 ìm) phases in coastal ground water in 2010 and 2011. The sampling sites include the coast of a large tidal flat (Hampyeong Bay) and a volcanic island, Jeju, Korea, where submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) were reported to be higher than typical continental margins. The total dissolved fraction was separated into the colloidal and truly dissolved fractions using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system (PLCGC Pellicon). The total 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in ground water were 1.0 - 18.2 dpm/100L (9.7±7.6 dpm/100L) an 2.9 - 29.1 dpm/100L (16.8±10.7 dpm/100L) in the Hampyeong Bay and Jeju Island samples, respectively. The total 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in groundwater were similar to or even slightly lower than those in the typical seawater. These lower activities seem to be due to the rapid adsorption of Po and Pb on to particles in the subterranean estuary. The proportions of the truly dissolved and colloidal phases were, respectively, 73±5% and 27±5% for 210 Po, and 60±5% and 40±5% for 210 Pb. This result is consistent with the earlier study that more than half of the some dissolved trace metals in coastal ground water are in the colloidal form. Thus, our result implies that the colloidal forms are important in controlling the behaviour of Po, Pb, and other trace metals in the subterranean estuary and SGD-associated fluxes to the ocean. (author)

  6. Uptake and kinetics of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in big sage brush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Root uptake of 226 Pb and 210 Po by mature sage brush was studied using a soil injection method for spiking the soil with minimal root disturbance. The main objective was to measure vegetation concentrations and determine concentration ratios (CR's) due to root uptake as a function of time in mature big sage brush. Concentration ratios obtained in mature vegetation and in steady-state situations may be valuable in assessing the impact of uranium mining and milling. The vegetation was sampled approximately every 3 mo for A 2 y period. Significant levels of activity were detected in the vegetation beginning at the first sampling (81 d after soil injection for 226 Ra, 28 d for 210 Pb and 210 Po). There was an exponential decrease in concentration to an apparent steady state value. Mean values (geometric) of the data pooled over the second year period indicated that steady-state Cr's for 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po, as determined in mature sage brush, were 0.04, 0.009, and 0.08, respectively. Investigations were also carried out to verify the suitability of soil injection for uptake studies and to evaluate the time dependence of 226 Ra leaching from sage brush leaves. The soil injection method was determined to produce, on the average, uptake equivalent to that produce by a uniform soil distribution, however, the variety of uptake for plants growing in injected soil was higher than for plants growing in uniformly contaminated soil. A three compartment mathematical model was formulated to help understand mechanisms of plant uptake and to predict, if possible, the concentration of 226 Ra, 210 Po in vegetation as a function of time after soil spiking

  7. Uptake and kinetics of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in big sagebrush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Root uptake of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po by mature sagebrush was studied using a soil injection method for spiking the soil with minimal root disturbance. The main objective was to measure vegetation concentrations and determine concentration ratios (CR's) due to root uptake as a function of time in mature big sagebrush. Concentration ratios obtained in mature vegetation and in steady-state situations may be valuable in assessing the impact of uranium mining and milling. The vegetation was sampled approximately every 3 months for a 2 year period. Significant levels of activity were detected in the vegetation beginning at the first sampling (81 days after soil injection for 226 Ra, 28 days for 210 Pb and 210 Po). There was an exponential decrease in concentration to an apparent steady-state value. Mean values (geometric) of the data pooled over the second year period indicated that the steady-state CR's for 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po, as determined in mature sagebrush, were 0.04, 0.009, and 0.08, respectively. A three compartment mathematical model was formulated to help understand mechanisms of plant uptake and to predict, if possible, the concentration of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in vegetation as a function of time after soil spiking. A numerical solution was determined by 'calibrating' the general model solution with constants determined from regressions of concentrations in vegetation, soil leaching and leaf leaching data. Validation of the model is currently not possible because of an absence of similar time-dependent uptake studies. 168 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  8. Variability of excretion rates of 210Pb and 210Po of humans at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Ilcewicz, F.H.; Kramer, L.

    1977-01-01

    Variability of the excretion rates of the nuclides 210 Pb and 210 Po at natural levels was studied in a group of samples collected from men maintained under the carefully controlled conditions of a metabolic ward. They consumed only the standard diet of the ward in which they had been resident for at least several months prior to this study. The mean urinary rates were about 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/day for both 210 Pb and 210 Po, while fecal rates ranged from 1 to 2.7 pCi/day for the two nuclides. For urinary 210 Pb the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) for three subjects ranged from 19 to 45 percent for eight continuous 24-hr samples compared to 11 to 13 percent for subsequently collected multiday samples (4 to 9 days each) for each subject. However, the standard errors of the means for the one day collections were about equal to the standard deviations of the pooled samples. Similar variability was noted for the 210 Po data. Six day fecal collections from these time periods exhibited higher variabilities than did the urine, from about 12 percent to 50 percent for each of the nuclides. Multiday collections for 12 subjects showed mean coefficients of variation of about 16 percent for 210 Pb and 13 percent for the 210 Po for urine and 21 and 25 percent, respectively, in fecal collections. Since dietary intake was maintained fairly constant, excreta collections were carefully controlled, and the analytical precision was about 5 percent, these variabilities appear to be due to biological variations and are characteristic of the individuals studied. Some possible causes of these effects are discussed

  9. Reference Material IAEA 434: Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. In addition, phosphogypsum can be used to make several building materials and it is used in agriculture as a conditioner to maintain soil productivity in areas where soils are poor and erode easily. A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA-434 will assist laboratories in the IAEA Member States in validating their analytical methods for the determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum and to control the quality of the produced analytical results. Reference values for the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties were established for: Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. During sample production and certification, the requirements for reference material production and certification as stated in ISO guides 34 and 35 were taken into account. This report summarizes the preparation and certification process

  10. Estimation of past radon exposure to indoor radon from embedded 210Po in household glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusain, G. S.; Rautela, B. S.; Ramola, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, the surface-deposited polonium activities were measured in houses in the Ukhimath region of Garhwal Himalaya (India)). The surface-deposited 210 Po activity concentrations were found to vary from 0.7 to 15.40 Bq m -2 with an average of 5.95 Bq m -2 . The radon concentration estimated on the basis of 210 Po activity was found to vary from 0.29 to 700 Bq m -3 with an average value 242 Bq m -3 . The contemporary radon concentration in the area was found to vary from 13 to 181 Bq m -3 with an average of 46 Bq m -3 . The annual effective dose due to 210 Po activity in houses in the Garhwal Himalaya region was found to vary from 0.61 to 13.33 mSv with an average of 5.15 mSv. Some worldwide studies have shown the relation between the increased risk of lung cancer and smoking habits. Data on smoking have also been collected from the same dwellings. The significance of this work is also discussed in detail from a radiation protection point of view. (authors)

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of 210Po in sediments from Thane Creek Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, G.G.; Bhangare, R.C.; Tiwari, M.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2013-01-01

    The study of sediments in coastal areas has great importance for the understanding of the interaction between human activities and marine systems. The Polonium-210 activity has been commonly used as environmental tracer in many environmental studies especially in determination of the age of sediments in the aquatic systems. The determination of age of the sediments provides the chronological profile of contamination of the marine environment over the period of time. The temporal and spatial distribution of 210 Po in Thane creek sediments was observed in this study. The allochthonous activity of 210 Po in surface sediments across different locations was observed to be the highest amongst different layers which ranged between 22.5-56.3 Bq/kg. The total 210 Po activity in different layers of the sediments ranged between 15.3 to 88.9 Bq/kg. The two modeling approaches CRS and CIC were applied to determine age of the sediment at four locations in the creek. (author)

  12. {sup 210}Po concentration in Perna perna mussels: looking for radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, J.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP: 21780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: jmgodoy@ird.gov.br; Oliveira, Monica S. de; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo B. de; Carvalho, Zenildo L. de; Silva, Eliza R. da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP: 21780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Flavio da Costa [Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira, Marinha do Brasil, Arraial do Cabo, RJ (Brazil); Pitanga, Fernanda L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP: 21780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Danelon, Olga M. [Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira, Marinha do Brasil, Arraial do Cabo, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    Twenty ropes with 400 Perna perna mussels seeds (3 cm shell size) were set-up on floating structures at Cabo Frio Island, Arraial do Cabo, approximately 100 km northeast of Rio de Janeiro city. A rope was taken out on a monthly basis, and the shell sizes of 100 seeds were measured. The haemolymph of 10 male and 10 female individuals was taken, and the same individuals were separated for {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb determination. After one year of monthly sampling, no clear correlation was observed between the {sup 210}Po concentration, mussel's age and weight. A mean {sup 210}Po concentration of 155 Bq kg{sup -1} wet weight basis, was obtained, which is comparable with data reported in the literature. The radiation dose did not have any observable effect on the micronuclei frequency and DNA breaks in the mussels. This was probably due to the low dose rate, 0.02 mGy d{sup -1}, in comparison with the suggested potential dose limit of 10 mGy d{sup -1}.

  13. 210Pb and 210Po determination in environmental samples using liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Sanchez, D.; Martin Sanchez, A.; Jurado Vargas, M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple radiochemical procedure has been developed to determine 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental samples from the same matrix. Sediment samples are decomposed by leaching with mineral acids or by microwave digestion, while water samples are pre-concentrated. One part of the resulting solution, spiked with 209 Po, is used for 210 Po determination by spontaneous deposition onto nickel disks (a-spectrometry). The other part is assayed for 210 Pb, separating the Pb either by anion-exchange (sediment samples), or by solvent extraction (water samples). The 210 Pb source is finally prepared by precipitation as oxalate and the chemical recovery determined by gravimetry. The 210 Pb activity concentration is determined by liquid scintillation. A standard sediment sample supplied by IAEA and spiked water samples were analysed to check the procedure. The 210 Pb and 210 Po measurements agreed well with the certifications, deviations being less than 10%. The mean recoveries for Pb and Po were (70±12)% and (77±8)% for sediments, and (70±10)% and (81±7)% for waters, respectively. (author)

  14. Levels of 210Po in blood, urine and hair of some Saudi smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arifi, M.N.; Alkarfy, K.M.; Al-Suwayeh, S.A.; Al-Dhuwaili, A.A.; Al-Hassan, M.I.; Aleissa, K.A.; Shabana, E.I.

    2006-01-01

    The activity concentration of 210 Po was investigated in blood, urine and hair samples of some non-smokers, cigarette-smokers (tobacco-smokers) and shisha smokers (jurak- and mehassel-smokers). The results indicated that 210 Po concentration was variable within each group of volunteers and fluctuated within certain range. The activity concentration in the blood of the non-smokers, the cigarette-smokers and the shisha-smokers was found to be ranged from 7-77, 17-86 and 22-92 mBq/l, respectively. These values were ranged from 1.5-10, 3.3-15.9 and 2.2-19.6 mBq/l in the urine samples of the same volunteers, respectively. The 210 Po activity concentration in their hair was found to be ranged from 1.9-4.8, 1.9-6.4 and 2-6.5 Bq/kg, respectively. The obtained results are discussed and some conclusions, based upon the average values, were drawn. (author)

  15. 210Po concentration in Perna perna mussels: looking for radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Oliveira, Monica S. de; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo B. de; Carvalho, Zenildo L. de; Silva, Eliza R. da; Fernandes, Flavio da Costa; Pitanga, Fernanda L.; Danelon, Olga M.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty ropes with 400 Perna perna mussels seeds (3 cm shell size) were set-up on floating structures at Cabo Frio Island, Arraial do Cabo, approximately 100 km northeast of Rio de Janeiro city. A rope was taken out on a monthly basis, and the shell sizes of 100 seeds were measured. The haemolymph of 10 male and 10 female individuals was taken, and the same individuals were separated for 210 Po/ 210 Pb determination. After one year of monthly sampling, no clear correlation was observed between the 210 Po concentration, mussel's age and weight. A mean 210 Po concentration of 155 Bq kg -1 wet weight basis, was obtained, which is comparable with data reported in the literature. The radiation dose did not have any observable effect on the micronuclei frequency and DNA breaks in the mussels. This was probably due to the low dose rate, 0.02 mGy d -1 , in comparison with the suggested potential dose limit of 10 mGy d -1

  16. 210Po concentration in Perna Perna mussels: looking for radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Oliveira, Monica S. de; Almeida, Carlos E.B. de; Carvalho, Zenildo L. de; Silva, Eliza R. da; Pitanga, Fernanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Twenty ropes with 400 Perna perna mussels seeds (3 cm shell size) were set-up on floating structures at Cabo Frio Island, Arraial do Cabo, approximately 100 km Northeast of Rio de Janeiro city. A rope was taken out on a monthly basis, and the shell sizes of one hundred seeds were measured. The haemolymph of ten male and ten female individuals was taken, and the same individuals were separated for 210 Po/ 210 Pb determination. After one year of monthly sampling, no clear correlation was observed between the 210 Po concentration, mussel's age and weight. A mean 210 Po concentration of 155 Bq kg -1 , wet weight basis, was obtained, which is comparable with data reported in the literature. The radiation dose did not have any observable effect on the micronuclei frequency and DNA breaks in the mussels. This was probably due to the low dose rate, 0.02 mGy d -1 , in comparison with the suggested potential dose limit of 10 mGy d -1 . (author)

  17. Public Health Goal for Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.; Omar, H.A.; El-Baset, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring and man-made radionuclide in groundwater may have a health hazardous to some residents. The objective of this work is to provide criteria for safety of drinking-water with respect to the chemical parameters and the radionuclide content. The annual effective dose for the consumption of drinking water was considered. Ground water samples were selected from different sites in Egypt, that have the most population, it were taken from aquifer regions along Giza sites in Egypt. Chemical analyses for the major anions, cations, and the radiological analyses were tested . Activity concentrations (Bq/l) of the gross alpha and the gross beta activities of our investigated samples were compared with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of the world health organization (WHO). Some of the water samples were found to have a higher of gross beta and alpha particles than the MCL. Alpha activity were found depending on to the total dissolved solids (TDS) content of the water samples. Gamma activity concentrations were analyzed using low background germanium detector, the higher of activity values was found in some investigated samples is due to increasing of 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities. Tritium activity concentrations also were measured using soft beta liquid scintillation counter, it was found lower than the MCL. Our investigated samples were found to have a higher concentrations of the phosphate, nitrites, iron, and manganese contents than the maximum permissible limit, all the ground water samples were found to have a higher of silica and alumina content. Commercial carbon powder and natural clay materials were tested as ion exchangers for the removal of inorganic contaminants in the ground water samples. Clay materials was found to have a higher selectivity than activated carbon for the removal of radionuclides, phosphates, nitrites, and manganese content at the ground water samples

  18. Activity Levels of 210Po in the Coastal Area of Kapar, Malaysia, Close to a Coal-Fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asnor Azrin Sabuti; Che Abd Rahim Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentration of 210 Po from six different samples consisting of raw charcoal, surface sediment, rainwater (suspended solids (SSrw) and dissolved phase (Drw) and estuarine water (suspended solids (SSew) and dissolved phase (Dew)), were analyzed. The activity concentration of 210 Po in solid samples was between 7.63 ± 0.67 and 744.28 ± 21.12 Bqkg -1 and in dissolved samples varied between 0.34 ± 0.03 and 86.33 ± 6.51 mBqL -1 . On average, 210 Po activity in SSrw sample was the highest, at nearly three times its original form (charcoal). SSew and surface sediment samples were similarly distributed between 15 th March and 1 st August samplings, but were relatively lower than charcoal and SSrw samples. The natural meteorological variability also enhanced 210 Po distribution and dispersion to a few kilometers from the coal-fired power plant. (author)

  19. Determination of 210Po in leafy vegetables and annual effective dose assessment to the inhabitants of Mumbai city, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, J.S.; Sahoo, S.K.; Mohapatra, S.; Patra, A.C.; Lenka, P.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Nair, A.

    2014-01-01

    Present study deals with the measurement of activity concentration of 210 Po in leafy vegetable of Mumbai city and corresponding ingestion dose assessment to the population. 210 Po activity levels ranged from 44.5-183.3 with an average value of 81.8 mBq/kg. Minimum activity of 210 Po was found in shepu and maximum in methi. The concentration reported here is slightly more than the UNSCEAR value. The estimated total effective dose was found to vary from 0.3 - 1.4 with an average value of 0.6 μSv/y, which is about 1% of global average total ingestion dose due to 210 Po. (author)

  20. Polonium 210Po activities in human blood of patients with ischaemic heart disease from Gda?sk in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bory?o, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Roma?czyk, Grzegorz; Siebert, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The determination of polonium 210Po in human blood samples is presented and discussed in this paper. The human blood samples were collected from patients of Medical University of Gda?sk with ischaemic heart disease (morbus ischaemicus cordis, MIC). The polonium concentrations in analyzed human blood samples are very differentiated. 210Po is of particular interest in public health and although is present in the environment in extremely low amounts, it is easily bioaccumulated to the human body...

  1. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238 U ( 226 Ra), 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 40 K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg −1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg −1 . The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg −1 for 238 U ( 226 Ra), 0.16 Bq kg −1 for 232 Th ( 228 Ra) and 18 Bq kg −1 for 40 K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg −1 , 0.16 Bq kg −1 and 23 Bq kg −1 . Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226 Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228 Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40 K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values. - Highlights: ► Activity concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides were assessed for shellfish. ► 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K intake via shellfish showed several times higher than world averages. ► Committed effective doses due to the ingestions of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K are the first report in Malaysia. ► Estimated committed effective dose also showed higher values than the world average

  2. /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in liver and kidneys of cattle. 1. Animals from an area with little traffic or industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K; Kracke, W [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Kreuzer, W

    1979-09-01

    The concentrations of /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po and stable lead were determined in liver and kidneys of 40 animals from a mainly agricultural region with little traffic or industry. Median liver concentrations of 18.0 pCi /sup 210/Pb and 33.3 pCi /sup 210/Po per wet tissue, and median kidney concentrations of 44.0 pCi /sup 210/Pb and 178.5 pCi /sup 210/Po/kg wet tissue were observed. The specific activity of /sup 210/Pb was 161 and 132 nCi /sup 210/Pb/g Pb in liver and kidneys, respectively. On the average, the kidneys contained 2.37 more /sup 210/Pb, 5.05 more /sup 210/Po and 2.89 more Pb than the livers. The ratio /sup 210/Po//sup 210/Pb was 2.18 in the liver and 3.95 in the kidneys. Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between /sup 210/Po in liver and kidneys, Pb in liver and kidneys, /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb in kidneys, /sup 210/Pb and Pb in liver, /sup 210/Pb and Pb in kidneys, /sup 210/Po and Pb in liver, as well as /sup 210/Po and Pb in kidneys. No significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of either /sup 210/Po or /sup 210/Pb in liver or kidneys and the age of the animals.

  3. 210Pb and 210Po determination in environmental samples using liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, D.P.; Sanchez, A.M.; Vargas, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    A simple radiochemical procedure has been developed to determine 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental samples. After adding 209 Po tracer and Pb carrier, an aliquot of the sample is decomposed by microwave digestion or by evaporation with mineral acids (depending on the expected activity of the sample). Part of the leaching solution must be used for 210 Po determination, preparing a polonium source by spontaneous deposition onto a nickel disk. The quantitative recoveries are determined using a standard 209 Po tracer, and the activity concentration is determined by isotopic dilution alpha spectrometry. The remaining part of the leaching solution is used for 210 Pb determination by means of two alternative methods: lead can be retained from 1.5 M HCl by the DOWEX 1 X 8, Cl - form resin in a chromatographic column, and stripped with deionised water, or it can be separated by solvent extraction as a lead bromide complex with the organic compound ALIQUAT-336 in toluene (this second method is used preferably in water samples). The Pb source for measurement is prepared by precipitation as oxalate and the chemical recovery determined by gravimetry. The activity concentration of 210 Pb is calculated from the spectra measured with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Several certified material samples supplied by IAEA were analysed to check the procedure. The measured values for 210 Pb and 210 Po were in good agreement with the certified values presenting deviations lower than 5%. Several environmental samples (river and well waters and also sediments) from zones impacted by Uranium mine exploitation were analysed using the described procedure. The mean yields of Pb and Po were (70 ± 10)% and (81 ± 7)% for waters and (70 ± 12)% and (77 ± 8)% for sediments. (author)

  4. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Torri, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination of 21 Pb and 21 Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices. The samples were first fused with Na 2 CO 3 and Na 2 O 2 at 600 o C for pre-treatment and then 210 Pb and 210 Po were sequentially leached out at 200-250 o C with HNO 3 +HF, HClO 4 and HCl. About 10% of the leaching solution was used for 21 Po determination, carried out by spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disc from a weakly acidic solution that contained hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and 209 Po tracer, measurement being made by α-spectrometry. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of 21 Pb, conducted by precipitation as sulphate, purification with Na 2 S as PbS in 6 M ammonium acetate, separation from α-emitters by an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO 4 , and measurement with a β-counter. The procedure has been checked with two certified IAEA reference materials, showing good agreement with the recommended values. The lower limits of detection for 1 g of analysed soil or rock samples were found to be 0.75 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po and 2.2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. A variety of solid sample species analysed through use of the procedure gave average yields of 90.0±9.8% for 210 Po and 88.4±7.1% for 210 Pb

  5. Distribution of 226Ra-210Pb-210Po in marine biota and surface sediments of the Red Sea, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirelkhatim, D.A.; Sam, A.K.; Hassona, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Activity concentration levels and ratios of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po are presented in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of PortSudan harbour, Sudan. The analyses were performed adopting alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting techniques. Surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to their progenitor 226 Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (3.03 ± 1.79) and 210 Po/ 226 Ra (2.23 ± 1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/kg and 21.9 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of 210 Po was met in Favites at 38.7 Bq/kg followed by brown algae, Cystoseria sp., at 32.6 Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for 210 Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, Favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88 Bq/kg). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by 210 Po: 226 Ra activity ratio with Cystoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, 210 Po: 210 Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species Favites (9.97) and the brown algae Sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate 210 Po over 210 Pb, while in the rest of species; this ratio is less than unity

  6. The role of 210Po and 210Pb in low radioactivity experiments and ultrapure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giammarch, Marco G.

    2013-01-01

    210 Po and 210 Pb isotopes constitute a major background for low background nuclear physics experiments searching for rare events. Searches for solar neutrinos, double beta decay, dark matter and other rare phenomena need to control and monitor radioactivity from Po and Pb through measurements and purification processes. Ultrapure water is often used in these experiments; therefore the issue of minimizing Po and Pb content in water will also be discussed. Finally, the role of 214 Po and 212 Po in low background experiments will be briefly recalled. (author)

  7. Transfer of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in a forest canopy of Japanese cedar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Tagawa, Y.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Inokura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be, 210 Pb and 210 Po of ca. 60 parts of a whole tree of Japanese cedar and of underlying litter and soil samples were determined for studying their transfer in a forest canopy. The results suggest that the mean residence times of 7 Be and 210 Pb in the forest canopy were ca. 20 and 900 days, respectively, and the dry deposition rate of 7 Be on the forest canopy was about a half of the total deposition rate. (author)

  8. Unusual {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratios in the surface water of the Gulf of Lions; Rapports {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb inhabituels dans l`eau superficielle du golfe du Lion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S. [Universite de Perpignan, 66 (France). Laboratoire de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines]|[Cerege, Europole de l`Arbois, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France); Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Physics

    1998-05-01

    Concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb have been measured in sea water collected in the Grand Rhone Canyon. Concentrations of {sup 210}Pb are at similar levels to those found in other Mediterranean sea water samples, and are at the levels which would be expected in comparison with global sea water data. The same applies to the {sup 210}Po concentrations in samples from below 100 m depth. Surface samples from above 100 m have {sup 210}Po at levels rather higher than expected, and their {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratios are about 1 or more as compared with the usual open ocean ratio 0.5. These data can be interpreted as indicating another source of supply of {sup 210}Po to the surface layer in addition to the normal atmospheric input. We suggest that an episodic advective particulate input, probably originating in the output of the Rhone river and perhaps involving resuspension of fine particulates from the bottom sediments as a result of storm conditions, is he most likely candidate for this additional source. (authors) 47 refs.

  9. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  10. Uranium Series Radionuclides in the Water Column of the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. P. [Nuclear and Technological Institute, Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Sacavem (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, namely {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po and {sup 232}Th, were analysed in water samples from ocean vertical profiles in three major abyssal basins of the NE Atlantic (Porcupine, Iberia and Tejo Basins), from the surface to the deep sea water layer. Concentrations were determined in the dissolved and particulate phases. The profiles of uranium isotopes in the water column, mostly in dissolved phase, showed nearly homogenized concentrations with {sup 238}U averaging 37{+-}4 mBq/Land {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios averaging 1.13{+-}0.04, while {sup 226}Ra concentrations were 2-3 times higher in the bottom than at the ocean surface. {sup 230}Th activity concentrations were four orders of magnitude lower than {sup 234}U, confirming rapid Th scavenging from solution by the particulate matter. {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in the soluble phase were much lower than dissolved {sup 226}Ra. Modelling the distribution of these radionuclides in the water column leads to an average residence time of dissolved {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the upper layer of 5 a and 1 a, respectively, and 0.6 a in the particulate phase for both radionuclides. In the deep water layer, soluble {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po mean residence times were 42{+-}20 a and 2 a, respectively. The calculated {sup 210}Pb deposition flux at the abyssal sea floor is comparable with the flux derived from the {sup 210}Pb-excess inventory measured in sediments, and about 100 Bq.m-2.a{sup -1}. The {sup 210}Pb atmospheric deposition flux at the ocean surface in this region was estimated at about 74 Bq.m{sup -2}a{sup -1} and the {sup 210}Pb sink in the Northeast Atlantic is discussed. (author)

  11. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg -1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210 Po and 210 Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 210 Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210 Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  12. 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in the Venice lagoon ecosystem (Italy) and the potential radiological impact to the local public and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guogang Jia; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Rosamilia, S.; Blasi, M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local public and environment from a phosphogypsum stockpile, 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in river water, lagoon water, suspended matter, superficial sediment, algae and bivalves samples collected in Venice lagoon area have been investigated. The results show that the mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in river water are 1.42 ± 0.36 mBq x l -1 and 1.46 ± 0.39 mBq x l -1 with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 0.98 ± 0.17 and about 60% of them are associated with the particulate; 210 Po and 210 Pb contribution from the phosphogypsum stockpile to the river water is negligible. Higher 210 Po (2.61-5.67 mBq x l -1 ) and 210 Pb (1.31-3.62 mBq x l -1 ) concentrations in the lagoon waters have been observed if compared with the literature values. About 60% of 210 Po and 210 Pb are found in the soluble form with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 1.79 ± 1.47. 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in 28 out 37 sediment samples ranged from 26 to 45 Bq x kg -1 (dry weight), only 9 sediments with 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations greater than 45 Bq x kg -1 are found and most of them are located 1-4 km near the phosphogypsum stockpile. The elevated 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the sediments may be due to the contamination from the phosphogypsum stockpile. The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio (0.986 ± 0.049) in the sediments shows that 210 Po and 210 Pb exist in nearly secular equilibrium. 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in algae vary with different species. The mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in Gracilaria compress and Ulva laetevirens which show a similar behavior, are 3.18 ± 1.23 Bq x kg -1 and 2.42 ± 1.26 Bq x kg -1 (fresh weight), respectively, with a mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio of 1.45 ± 0.34. The mean concentration factors with respect to the filtered water are 1096 ± 424 for 210 Po and 1299 ± 680 for 210 Pb. The mean 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations in the soft part of Mytilus edulis are 23.2 ± 9.7 Bq

  13. 210Po, 210Pb, 226Ra in aquatic ecosystems and polders, anthropogenic sources, distribution and enhanced radiation doses in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, H.W.; Marwitz, P.A.; Berger, G.W.; Weers, A.W. van; Hagel, P.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of Dutch waters show that the Oosterschelde estuary and regular fresh waters have the lowest levels of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 226 Ra. Elsewhere effluents from phosphates and iron ore processing industries cause nearby enhancements. At a distance of 50-100 km, enhancements of 210 Po in edible parts of mussels and shrimps are of the order of 100 Bq.kg -1 dry weight. Estimates indicate that high consumption rates of seafood from specific waters may result in dose enhancements of 0.1-0.3 mSv.y -1 which probably affect a group of less than 1000 anglers and an unknown number of frequent mussel and shrimp consumers. Harbour sludge, with probably enhanced activity levels due to the phospho-gypsum effluents, has been used as landfill in polders around Rotterdam. Here enhanced doses of 0.3-1 mSv.y -1 may occur from consumption of local livestock produce and from inhalation of enhanced indoor radon. Further research is indicated to obtain information on effluent emissions, their associated environmental enhancements and risks. (author)

  14. [sup 210]Po, [sup 210]Pb, [sup 226]Ra in aquatic ecosystems and polders, anthropogenic sources, distribution and enhanced radiation doses in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, H W; Marwitz, P A [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Berger, G W [Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research, Den Burg (Netherlands); Weers, A.W. van [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hagel, P [National Inst. of Fisheries Research (RIVO-DLO), Ijmuiden (Netherlands); Nieuwenhuize, J [Centre for Estuarine and Coastal Ecology, Yerseke (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of Dutch waters show that the Oosterschelde estuary and regular fresh waters have the lowest levels of [sup 210]Po, [sup 210]Pb and [sup 226]Ra. Elsewhere effluents from phosphates and iron ore processing industries cause nearby enhancements. At a distance of 50-100 km, enhancements of [sup 210]Po in edible parts of mussels and shrimps are of the order of 100 Bq.kg[sup -1] dry weight. Estimates indicate that high consumption rates of seafood from specific waters may result in dose enhancements of 0.1-0.3 mSv.y[sup -1] which probably affect a group of less than 1000 anglers and an unknown number of frequent mussel and shrimp consumers. Harbour sludge, with probably enhanced activity levels due to the phospho-gypsum effluents, has been used as landfill in polders around Rotterdam. Here enhanced doses of 0.3-1 mSv.y[sup -1] may occur from consumption of local livestock produce and from inhalation of enhanced indoor radon. Further research is indicated to obtain information on effluent emissions, their associated environmental enhancements and risks. (author).

  15. Polonium 210Po activities in human blood of patients with ischaemic heart disease from Gdansk in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicja Borylo; Bogdan Skwarzec; Grzegorz Romanczyk; Janusz Siebert

    2013-01-01

    The determination of polonium 210 Po in human blood samples is presented and discussed in this paper. The human blood samples were collected from patients of Medical University of Gdansk with ischaemic heart disease (morbus ischaemicus cordis, MIC). The polonium concentrations in analyzed human blood samples are very differentiated. 210 Po is of particular interest in public health and although is present in the environment in extremely low amounts, it is easily bioaccumulated to the human body. The study shows that the amount of 210 Po that is incorporated into the human body depends on the food habits and some difference in its levels could be observed between smokers and non-smokers. (author)

  16. Polonium 210Po activities in human blood of patients with ischaemic heart disease from Gdańsk in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Romańczyk, Grzegorz; Siebert, Janusz

    The determination of polonium 210 Po in human blood samples is presented and discussed in this paper. The human blood samples were collected from patients of Medical University of Gdańsk with ischaemic heart disease ( morbus ischaemicus cordis , MIC ). The polonium concentrations in analyzed human blood samples are very differentiated. 210 Po is of particular interest in public health and although is present in the environment in extremely low amounts, it is easily bioaccumulated to the human body. The study shows that the amount of 210 Po that is incorporated into the human body depends on the food habits and some difference in its levels could be observed between smokers and non-smokers.

  17. 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po levels in marine biota and surface coastal sediments from the Red sea, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Sam, A. K.; Hassona, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents data on 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentration levels in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (flamingo bay) of Port Sudan harbour. The analyses were performed adopting a simple time efficient method combining alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting technique. generally speaking, surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported form different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to their progenitor 226 Ra as it is evident form the activity ratios of 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (3.03±1.79) and 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (2.23±1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/kg and 21.9 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of 210 Po was met in the favites at 38.7 Bq/kg followed by brown algae, cytoseria sp., at 32.6 Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for 210 Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by 210 Po: 226 Ra activity ratio with cytoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, 210 Po: 220 Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species favites (9.97) and the brown algae sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate 210 Po over 220 Pb, while in the rest of the species; this ratio is less than unity. (Author)

  18. The behavior of scavenged isotopes in marine anoxic environments: 210Pb and 210Po in the water column of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.L.; Murray, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Vertical profiles of dissolved and particulate 210 Pb and 210 Po were determined at two stations in the Black Sea in June 1988. Vertical fluxes of 210 Pb and 210 Po were also measured in the upper 150 m, using floating sediment traps. The fractionation of 210 Pb between dissolved and particulate phases in the Black Sea is strongly influenced by the redox conditions in the water column. Dissolved 210 Pb dominates in the oxic zone, while particulate 210 Pb is the major form in the deep sulfide-rich anoxic zone. The distribution of 210 Pb across the suboxic zone appears to be mainly controlled by redox cycling of manganese and iron. In the sulfide-rich layer coprecipitation of lead with iron sulfide is probably the dominant scavenging mechanism. A simple scavenging model was used to calculate the residence times of dissolved and particulate 210 Pb in the oxic, suboxic, and anoxic zones. The residence times of dissolved 210 Pb relative to scavenging by particles are 0.5-1, 2-3, and 3.5 years in the oxic, suboxic, and anoxic layers, respectively. The corresponding residence times of particulate 210 Pb relative to particle removal processes in the same layers are 0.1, 1.5-2.5, and 8.5 years, respectively. A particle settling velocity of about 40 m y -1 was derived from the 210 Pb/ 226 Ra disequilibrium in the deep Black Sea. The relatively short residence times of 210 Pb support the hypothesis that anoxic basins are important sites for boundary scavenging of 210 Pb. The 210 Po profiles indicate that biological rather than inorganic particles are the major carrier phases for Po in the Black sea. Based on the magnitude of distribution coefficients, the relative partitioning of Pb, Po, and Th to particles found in the oxic and anoxic layers of the Black Sea are Po > Th > Pb and Po = Pb > Th, respectively. Colloidal phases may be important for the scavenging of these radionuclides

  19. 210Po/210Pb Activity Ratios as a Possible `Dating Tool' of Ice Cores and Ice-rafted Sediments from the Western Arctic Ocean - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, K.; Baskaran, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    We have collected and analyzed a suite of surface snow samples, ice cores, ice-rafted sediments (IRS) and aerosol samples from the Western Arctic for Po-210 and Pb-210 to examine the extent of disequilibrium between this pair to possibly use 210Po/210Pb activity ratio to date different layers of ice cores and time of incorporation of ice-rafted sediments into the sea ice. We have earlier reported that the activity concentrations of 210Pb in IRS vary over an order of magnitude and it is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of the benthic sediments (1-2 dpm/g in benthic sediments compared to 25 to 300 dpm/g in IRS). In this study, we have measured 210Po/210Pb activity ratios in aerosols from the Arctic Ocean to constrain the initial 210Po/210Pb ratio at the time of deposition during precipitation. The 210Po activity concentration in recent snow is compared to surface ice samples. The `age' of IRS incorporation can be calculated as follows: [210Po]measured = [210Po]initial + [210Pb] (1 - exp(-λt)) (1) where λ is the decay constant of 210Po, 138.4 days, and `t' is the in-growth time period. From this equation, `t' can be calculated as follows: t = (-1/λ) [ln (1- ((210Po/210Pb)measured - (210Po/210Pb)initial)] (2) The assumption involved in this approach are: i) there is no preferential uptake of 210Po (highly biogenic - S group); and iii) both 210Po and 210Pb remain as closed system. The calculated age using equation (2) will be discussed and presented.

  20. [sup 210] Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, [sup 210]Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.'' In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

  1. Branching ratio to the 803 keV level in 210Poα decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, A.; Weissman, L.; Aviv, O.; Eisen, Y.; Brandis, M.; Paul, M.; Plompen, A.; Tessler, M.; Vaintraub, S.

    2018-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the branching ratio in the α decay of 210Po is important for accurate measurement of the 209Bi(n ,γ )Big210 cross section, the reaction involved in the termination of the astrophysical s process. The branching ratio was determined from independent measurements of α and γ spectra of bismuth samples simultaneously irradiated by neutrons near the core of the Soreq research reactor (IRR1). The branching ratio was found to be (1.15 ±0.09 ) ×10-5 , consistent with the results of several measurements performed six decades ago. As a by-product value the 209Bi(n ,γ )Big210 thermal cross section was measured to be 21.6 ±1.1 mb.

  2. Bremsstrahlung emission probability in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boie, Hans-Hermann

    2009-06-03

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed. The measured differential emission probabilities, which could be followed up to {gamma}-energies of {proportional_to} 500 keV, allow for the first time for a serious test of various model calculations of the bremsstrahlung accompanied {alpha} decay. It is shown that corrections to the {alpha}-{gamma} angular correlation due to the interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole amplitudes and due to the relativistic character of the process have to be taken into account. With the experimentally derived angular correlation the measured energydifferential bremsstrahlung emission probabilities show excellent agreement with the fully quantum mechanical calculation. (orig.)

  3. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from {sup 210}Pb-supported {sup 210}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyedepo, A.C

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ({sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. {sup 210}Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed <5 g each. TASTRAK alpha-particle autoradiography was used to assess the bone activity concentration and spatial microdistribution of {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g{sup -1} wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g{sup -1} at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg{sup -1} with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 {+-} 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1} for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 {+-} 0.04 Bq kg{sup -1} for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0

  4. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from 210Pb-supported 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedepo, A.C.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ( 210 Pb/ 210 Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. 210 Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed 210 Pb/ 210 Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g -1 wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g -1 at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone 210 Pb/ 210 Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg -1 with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 ± 0.05 Bq kg -1 for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0.0046 Bq g -1 of Ca. 6) A decreasing Ca content of adult vertebrae with increasing age from 40 - 95 years, from ∼ 14 to 5 g 100 g-1, but no correlation with age for adult rib Ca content of 10 - 30 g

  5. [sup 210] Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, [sup 210]Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.'' In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

  6. Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using 210 Po et le 210 Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radakovitch, O.

    1995-01-01

    210 Po and 210 Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of 210 Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, 210 Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than 210 Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a 210 Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of 210 Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. 210 Po and 210 Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, 210 Po and 210 Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on 210 Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author)

  7. Concentrations and temporal variations of /sup 210/Po, /sup 210/Pb, and Al in the surf zone ecosystem of Copalis Beach, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J T; Carpenter, R

    1979-01-01

    Surf diatoms monitored during a 21-month period at Copalis Beach, Washington, contained elevated concentrations of Al, /sup 210/Pb, and supported /sup 210/Po compared to net phytoplankton from Washington coastal waters and Puget Sound. Aluminum concentrations of several percent dry weight found in the surf diatoms were not a reflection of contamination by discrete inorganic particulate matter but were the result of a natural coating of clay-sized particles on Chaetoceros armatum, the predominant diatom in the surfblooms. A high correlation between Al and /sup 210/Pb in the surf diatoms suggests /sup 210/Pb and supported /sup 210/Po were also associated with the clay-sized particles. During fall through spring, the unsupported /sup 210/Po concentrations in the surf diatoms were correlated with the input of /sup 210/Po by precipitation. A summer maximum in unsupported /sup 210/Po concentrations in the surf diatoms may reflect upwelling that causes higher dissolved /sup 210/Po concentrations in the summer surf relative to those of late spring and early fall. The consumers of the surf diatoms exhibited larger /sup 210/Po-activity-to-/sup 210/Pb-activity ratios than their food, indicating /sup 210/Po was preferentially accumulated in the higher trophic level.

  8. Effect of excitation energy and angular momentum on the characteristics of 208Po and 210Po compound nucleus fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkis, M.G.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Okolovich, V.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Tolstikov, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    To study characteristics of fissioning nucleus fragments, investigated were reactiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiH8Pt+ 12 C → 210 Po in the 12 C ion energy range of 86-110.5 MeV, of 192 Os+ 16 O → 208 Po in 90-131 MeV range, 204 Pb+ 3 He → 207 Po, 206 Pb+ 3 He → 209 Po, 207 Pb+ 3 He → 210 Po with 60 MeV 3 He ion energy. Using a correlation technique for measuring energies of two fragments mass and energy distributions of fission fragments of 208 Po and 210 Po compound nuclei produced in the reactions have been studied. Mass and energy distributions of fragments from fission of 208 Po and 210 Po in the reactions with ions 16 O, 12 C and 3 He were investigated in an ample energy range, using the correlational techniques for measurement of energies of two fragments. An increase in the total kinetic energy with rise of the angular momentum was observed, the fact indicating a weak coupling of one-particle and collective modes of motion in the fissile nucleus resulting in that the rolational energy is transfered mainly to translation energies of the fragments

  9. Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins; Etude du transfert et du depot du materiel particulaire par le {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application aux marges continentales du Golfe de Gascogne (NE Atlantique) et du Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranee)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radakovitch, O

    1995-07-07

    {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of {sup 210} Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, {sup 210} Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than {sup 210} Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a {sup 210} Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of {sup 210} Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on {sup 210} Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author). 243 refs.

  10. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton–zooplankton–anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strady, Emilie; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Veron, Alain; Tronczynski, Jacek; Radakovitch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of 210 Po and 210 Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on 210 Po, 210 Pb activity concentrations and 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that 210 Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while 210 Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and 210 Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence 210 Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. - Highlights: • 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentrations in plankton vary up to a factor of two in the Gulf of Lion (East vs West). • 210 Po and 210 Pb variability is connected to local specific pelagic habitats. • Bio-magnification of 210 Po is evidenced in anchovy/sardine foodwebs

  11. Baseline data of naturally occurring radionuclides in some native vegetables and fruits in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Sriploy, P.; Pornnumpa, C.; Kritsananuwat, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the baseline data information on natural radioactivities in vegetables and fruits produced and consumed locally in the areas of potential nuclear power plant sites in Thailand. Four provinces (Prajuab-Kirikhan, Chumphon, Surat-Thani and Nakhon-Si-thammarat) were selected for collection of native vegetables and fruits samples, together with their corresponding soils. The activities of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K and 210 Po were determined in all these samples. The obtained results for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K and 210 Po for all vegetable and fruit samples were in the range of 1-34, 1-108, 32-4392 and 0.2-47 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which were much lower than those obtained for their corresponding soils. (authors)

  12. Activity concentration of 210Po and 210Pb, its contribution to the radiation dose and distribution coefficient in aquatic ecosystem of major rivers of coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekara, K.M.; Prakash, V.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers are the major pathways for the transport of weathered materials from the land to the oceans. The geochemical studies on river waters provide an insight into the weathering process that control the distribution of elements in dissolved and particulate phases and their fluxes to the estuaries. Concentrations of natural series radionuclide in fresh water bodies are liable to be much more variable than those in the marine environment since they are heavily influenced by the local geochemistry of the watershed. The concentrations of radioactive materials vary from region to region and this variation is found to be significantly high in some areas. Some of the regions are rich with the flow of major rivers and estuaries of these rivers, and investigations of these riverine and estuarine aquatic environments would throw light on the transportation, distribution and enrichment mechanism of radionuclides. In this context, the activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured in different matrices of aquatic ecosystem of the major rivers namely, Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi river of Coastal Karnataka

  13. Nuclear decay data for radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1977-08-01

    This report gives tabulations of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted by 240 radionuclides. Most of the radionuclides are those expected to occur in routine releases of effluents from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. For each radionuclide are given the half-life and recommended values for the energies, intensities, and equilibrium absorbed-dose constants for each of the atomic and nuclear radiations. Also given are the daughter radionuclides produced and recommended values for decay branching ratios, where applicable. The radioactivity decay chains and branching ratios are displayed in diagram form.

  14. Nuclear decay data for radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1977-08-01

    This report gives tabulations of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted by 240 radionuclides. Most of the radionuclides are those expected to occur in routine releases of effluents from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. For each radionuclide are given the half-life and recommended values for the energies, intensities, and equilibrium absorbed-dose constants for each of the atomic and nuclear radiations. Also given are the daughter radionuclides produced and recommended values for decay branching ratios, where applicable. The radioactivity decay chains and branching ratios are displayed in diagram form

  15. Radicaesium 210Po and 210Pb in wolves (Canis lupus), Lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolverine (Gulo gulo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Gjeisvik, R.; Kålås, J.A.; Persson, B.; Henricsson, F.; Samuelsson, C.; Åsbrink, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland and also several other countries. Concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been analysed in muscle, liver and kidney samples of 28 wolves from Sweden and liver from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway collected during the years 2010 and 2011. For example the activity concentrations of 210 Po in liver from wolf, lynx, wolverine and wolf varied from 20-500, 22-211 Bq kg -1 , and 17-160 Bq kg - respectively. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal dose to liver of wolves is estimated to 3.5 mGy per year. Polonium-210 is accumulated to a large extent than it precursor 210 Pb. Activity ratios, 210 Po/ 210 Pb, in liver for example ranged from 9 to 56. Radiocaesium in liver shows for example a very larger variation ranging from 40-13000 Bq kg -1 in lynx. This is mainly due to the large variability in deposition from the Chernobyl accident. For wolves the 137 Cs concentration in muscle varied from 70 to 8000 Bq kg -1 d.w. The maximal dose to muscle for wolves from 137 Cs is estimated to 3.6 mGy per year. Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland and also several other countries. Concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been analysed in liver samples of 28 wolves from Sweden and 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway collected during the years 2010 and 2011. The activity concentrations of 210 Po in liver from lynx, wolverine and wolf varied from 22- 211 Bq kg -1 , 17-160 Bq kg -1 d.w. and 20-523 Bq kg -1 d.w., respectively and did not differ between species. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal dose to liver is estimated to 3.5 mGy per year. Polonium-210 is accumulated to a larger extent than it precursor 210 Pb. Activity ratios, 210 Po/ 210 Pb, in liver for example ranged from 9 to 56. Radiocaesium in liver show a very larger variation ranging from 20-13000 Bq kg in lynx. This is mainly due to

  16. Correlation of 210Po implanted in glass with radon gas exposure: sensitivity analysis of critical parameters using a Monte-Carlo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, C; McLaughlin, J P

    2001-05-14

    In recent years, 210Po implanted in glass artefacts has been used as an indicator of the mean radon gas concentration in dwellings in the past. Glass artefacts have been selected in many dwellings and the alpha-recoil implanted 210Po concentration has been measured using various techniques. Some of these retrospective techniques use a model to estimate the retrospective radon gas on the basis of this surface 210Po activity. The accumulation of 210Po on glass surfaces is determined by the deposition regime over the exposure period. The 210Po activity is determined not only by the radon progeny deposition velocities, but by other room parameters such as ventilation rate, aerosol conditions and the surface to volume ratio of the room. Up to now in using room models, a nominal or 'base-case' scenario is used, i.e. a single value is chosen for each input parameter. In this paper a Monte-Carlo analysis is presented in which a probability distribution for each parameter is chosen, based on measurements quoted in the literature. A 210Po surface activity is calculated using a single value drawn from each of the parameter distributions using a pseudo-random number generator. This process is repeated n times (up to 20,000), producing n independent scenarios with corresponding 210Po values. This process permits a sensitivity analysis to be carried out to see the effect of changes in inputs on the model output.

  17. Occurrence of 210Po in periwinkle (Littorina undulata, Gray, 1839) collected from Kudankulam (Gulf of Mannar (GOM), Southeast coast of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunith Shine, S.R.; Feroz Khan, M.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Polonium-210 was quantified in the periwinkle Littorina undulata. • Smaller-sized periwinkles displayed higher Polonium-210. • Marked variation in 210 Po activity between season and sampling site. • The internal dose rate estimated using ERICA Assessment Tool. • The daily intake and committed effective dose estimated. -- Abstract: Polonium-210 activity concentration was analysed in the whole body tissue of periwinkle Littorina undulata collected from intertidal rocky shore along Kudankulam coast. We carried out the study for a period of 12 months (2011–2012) focusing on three seasons. 210 Po was found non-uniformly distributed among the periwinkles depending on the allometry. The 210 Po accumulation showed a significant difference between seasons (p 210 Po compared to larger ones (p 210 Po varied from 13.5 to 58.9 Bq/kg (wet). The activity of 210 Po was also quantified in seawater and intertidal sediments to calculate the biological concentration factor (BCF) and radiation dose rate. The dose rate to the winkles was performed using ERICA Assessment Tool and it was within the prescribed limit. The intake of 210 Po through periwinkles delivered an effective dose in the range of 2.2–9.6 μSv/y to human beings

  18. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton-zooplankton-anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, Emilie; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Veron, Alain; Tronczynski, Jacek; Radakovitch, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    The transfer of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on (210)Po, (210)Pb activity concentrations and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that (210)Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while (210)Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and (210)Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence (210)Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 238U-series radionuclides in Finnish groundwater-based drinking water and effective doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, P.

    2005-09-01

    than water in drilled wells inland. 210 Pb and 210 Po occur in untreated groundwater as ions, molecules, complexes and bound to particles of different sizes depending on the chemical quality of the water. In Finnish groundwater, the majority of 210 Pb was bound to the large particle fraction. Compared to 210 Pb, 210 Po was bound more to the intermediate and small particle fraction. Anion exchange was found to be an efficient removal method for 234 U and 238 U. In most cases, the removal efficiency was over 95%. The removal of 234 U and 238 U from drinking water reduced the annual effective dose by 0.8 mSv on average, and at maximum by 1.4 mSv. Since the removal efficiency of 210 Pb and 210 Po varies greatly, their presence in different particle-size fractions was studied. The ion exchange unit more efficiently removed 210 Pb and 210 Po bound to the small particle fraction than those radionuclides in the large particle fraction. The efficiency of activated carbon units in removing 210 Pb and 210 Po was independent of the particle size fraction. In Finland, about 10% of the population (500 000) permanently uses water from private wells for daily drinking and household requirements. This group receives nearly half (77.4 manSv) of the annual collective effective dose of all Finnish people due to natural radioactivity in drinking water. The average annual effective dose from natural radionuclides was estimated to be 0.4 mSv for drilled well users and 0.05 mSv for users of wells dug in soil. According to earlier studies, the maximum effective dose due to natural radioactivity in drinking water has been as high as 70 mSv. In this work, the maximum doses were 6.8 mSv for drilled well users and 0.6 mSv for users of wells dug in soil. For the users of drilled wells over 90% of the dose is caused by 222 Rn (75%), 210 Po (12%) and 210 Pb (5%). An efficient way to detect high doses is to perform 222 Rn measurement in all drilled wells. In new houses, natural radionuclides in

  20. Polonium (210Po) and uranium (234U, 238U) in water, phosphogypsum and their bioaccumulation in plants around phosphogypsum waste heap at Wislinka (nothern Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Borylo, A.; Kosinska, A.; Radzajewska, S.

    2010-01-01

    The principal sources of polonium and uranium radionuclides the Wislinka area waste dump are phosphorites and phosphogypsum produced by the Phosphoric Fertilizers Industry of Gdansk. The values of uranium and polonium concentration in water with immediate surroundings of waste heap are considerably higher than in the waters of the Martwa Wisla river. The activity ratio 234 U/ 238 U is approximately about one in the phosphogypsum (0.97±0.06 and 0.99±0.04) and in the water of a retention reservoir and a pumping station (0.92±0.01 and 0.99±0.04), while in the water from the Martwa Wisla river is slightly higher than one (1.00±0.07 and 1.06±0.02). The leaching process of uranium and polonium from the phosphogypsum waste heap is responsible for the maximum uranium concentration (1097±6 μg·dm -3 and 1177±6 μg·dm -3 ) and the high 210 Po concentration (131.4±0.9 mBq·dm -3 and 165.7±1.4 mBq·dm -3 ) in the retention reservoir. The major source of polonium and uranium in plants are wet and dry atmospheric falls gathering soil and air dust from the phosphogypsum waste dump and root system. The highest uranium and polonium concentrations were found in older part of grasses (yellow oatgrass, meadow foxtail, moneywort), exposed to atmospheric falls for a long time. The maximum concentrations of 210 Po were characterized for samples of plant root collected at the retention reservoir (150.50±4.97 and 108.55±3.95 Bq·kg -1 dry mass). Polonium and uranium concentrations in water samples of the Martwa Wisla river are relatively low in comparison with the value in the retention reservoir and pumping station near the phosphogypsum waste heap. This suggests that the radionuclides could be leached from the dumping site to the surrounding environment. (authors)

  1. 210Pb and 210Po concentrations determined in Nicotiana tabacum L., Burley variety, cultivated in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Rocha, Rique J.; Da Silva, Carolina F.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco products are extensively used throughout the world and the most consumed are cigarettes cigars and narghile. The damaging effects that these products cause to human health are discussed worldwide and many researches are performed with the aim of relating the use of these products with various illnesses. Brazil is the largest exporter and second largest producer of tobacco worldwide, according to the crop year 2009/2010 production. The tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is used to manufacture all derivatives and the chemical composition of the resulting tobacco varies with the type of tobacco leaves, how they are grown, the region where they are cultivated, the characteristics of preparation (compression, filter and paper) and the temperature variation resulting from the incomplete combustion of tobacco. There is lack of information about the chemical and radiological characterization of the tobacco plant both in international and Brazilian literature. Thus a project was established with the objectives of characterizing chemically and radiologically the three varieties most cultivate in Brazil of Nicotiana tabacum L.; this paper presents the preliminary results of 210 Pb and 210 Po concentration for the Burley variety. Plants from this variety cultivated in open air, both in pots with special soil and fertilizer; and in small farms in natural conditions. The whole plant was analyzed; root, steam, leaves and flowers. The results obtained presented higher values for 210 Pb in leaves when compared with the other parts of the plant. (author)

  2. Determination of 210Po concentration in commercially available infant formulae and assessment of daily ingestion dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K. Prabhath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to estimate the concentration of natural radioactive polonium in commercially available packaged infant food formulae available in Mumbai, India and the corresponding daily dose normalized based on its shelf life. Eleven most popular international brands of infant formulae were sourced from market and three aliquots from each sample were analysed for concordant results. Autodeposition method onto a silver planchet from hot dilute acid solution followed by alpha spectrometry was performed for estimation of polonium. Radiochemical recovery was ascertained by the addition of 209Po tracer. Radiochemical recovery of 209Po tracer was ranged from 14.7 to 98.1 %. The 210Po concentration in the samples was in the range of 0.08–0.23 Bq kg−1 on measured date and the corresponding daily dose, calculated on normalized date which is at mid-point of the shelf life of the sample, was ranged from 0.04 to 0.89 μSv d−1 as per the recommended daily consumption. The annual committed effective dose estimated based on the average of daily dose was found to be 150 μSv.

  3. Biogeochemistry of (210)Pb and (210)Po in fresh waters and sediments. Doctoral thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, G.

    1988-06-01

    The geochemical cycling of (210)Pb in a Massachusetts lake was studied. A mass balance for the epilimnion showed that (210)Pb inputs by precipitation were matched by outputs on settling particles, so direct uptake by bottom sediments was inconsequential. Below the epilimnion, vertical mixing was very low because of a steep temperature/density gradient, and this limited vertical transport. Anoxic conditions caused remobilization of iron and (210)Pb, which reprecipitated at the oxycline and returned to the bottom via settling. Below the zone of precipitation, (210)Pb and iron distributions resulted from constant release from anoxic sediments and dilution in the water column. Sediment (210)Pb distributions were caused by sedimentation and Fickian transport. The Fickian component was equal to the pore water diffusive flux. In pore waters, (210)Pb and (210)Po were 100 times greater that in overlying water and had steep concentration gradients, unlike Fe, Mn, S(-II), and alkalinity. (210)Pb partition coefficients decreased from 15000 to 1500 with depth controlled by sorption on iron oxides. Remobilization to the water column comes from a thin layer of iron-rich floc near the sediment/water interface. Deeper in the cores, diffusive transport can cause redistribution of (210)Pb to an extent that can affect (210)Pb dating

  4. Radiation resistant PIDECα cell using photon intermediate direct energy conversion and a 210Po source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles L; Schott, Robert J; Prelas, Mark A; Wisniewski, Denis A; Rothenberger, Jason B; Lukosi, Eric D; Oh, Kyuhak

    2018-02-01

    Radiation damage is a significant concern with both alphavoltaic and betavoltaic cells because their performance degrades, especially with high-energy - (>200keV) beta and alpha particles. Indirect excitation methods, such as the Photon Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC) framework, can protect the transducer from radiation. A nuclear battery using a 90 Sr beta source was constructed by the author's research group, which demonstrated the radiation resistance of a PIDEC cell driven by beta particles (PIDECβ cell). Use of alpha sources to drive nuclear batteries would appear to be much more attractive than beta sources due to higher potential power density. However, they are also subject to higher rates of radiation damage. This paper describes the successful incorporation of alpha particles into the PIDEC framework using the alpha emitter 210 Po to form a PIDECα cell. The PIDECα cell transducer was exposed to alpha particles for over one year without experiencing adverse effects from radiation damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 210Po determination in estuarine sediments from Baixada Santista, SP - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Guilherme da F.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Mazzilli, Barbara P.; Damatto, Sandra R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to determine 210 Po activity concentration in estuarine sediments from Baixada Santista. The area comprehends nine cities in the Brazilian coast (Bertioga, Guaruja, Santos, Sao Vicente, Cubatao, Praia Grande, Mongagua, Itanhaem and Peruibe). It is one of the most important industrial areas in Brazil due to the large number of industries operating in Cubatao, such as steel, petrochemical and fertilizer industries. That, together with a large population, causes a negative impact on marine biota. The cores were obtained from Sao Vicente and Bertioga by extracting profiles up to 1 meter depth with a Piston core sampler. The samples were prepared and treated with both physical and chemical processes. The physical processes include drying, grinding and sieving. The chemical preparation consists of a series of acid digestion till total dissolution and destruction of organic matter. After the acid digestion, the samples were filtered and evaporated till dryness. The residue was then dissolved in HCl 6.25 M. Po was spontaneously deposited in mirror finished silver disc, for 2 hours at 90 deg C and constant agitation. The disc was then counted in a surface barrier alpha detector for 200,000 seconds. Three cores were analyzed so far, two from Sao Vicente and one from Bertioga. (author)

  6. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Pottery, Ceramic and Glasswares Produced in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.I.; Reaz, Rafia; Kamal, M.; Alam, M.N.; Mustafa, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured using gamma spectrometry in the finished products of pottery, glass, ceramic and tiles. Ceramic and pottery utensils, tiles, basin and glassware contained naturally occurring radionuclides. Pottery is produced from local clay materials, but ceramic, tiles, basin and glassware's are made from both local and imported raw materials. Radium and thorium radionuclides are concentrated during the making of pottery from the clay materials due to calcination. Radionuclides concentrated more in the highly calcined pottery products than the low calcined products. Glassware products contained very low quantities of radionuclides comparing with the ceramic and pottery products. Study on radioactivity in the pottery, ceramic and glassware products is important in the assessment of possible radiological hazards to human health. The knowledge is essential for the development of standards and guidelines for the use and management of these materials. (author)

  7. Content of naturally occurring radionuclides in samples taken from world historical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.; Jankovic, M.; Todorovic, D.; Sarap, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation of naturally occurring radionuclides content in different samples taken from the historical sites in Iran, China, Syria and Jordan. Samples contained different natural materials used in masonry, for making artefacts for personal use as well as water, sand and mud from the Dead sea. The aim was to ascertain the content of naturally occurring radionuclides, calculation of hazard indexes and their comparison to the values recommended and obtained in modern days materials [sr

  8. 226Ra-210Pb-210Po Levels in Marine Biota and Surface Coastal Sediments from the Red Sea, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirelkhatim, D.A.; Sam, A.K.; Hassona, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents data on 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentration levels in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of Port sudan harbour. The analyses were performed adopting a simple time efficient method combining alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting technique. Generally speaking, surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of 210 Pb and 210 Po with respect to their progenitor 226 Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of 210 Pb/ 226 Ra (3.03±1.79) and 210 Po/ 226 Ra (2.23±1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/KXg and 21.9 Bq/KXg dry weight, respectively

  9. A laboratory and field study of 210Po depuration by edible winkles (Littorina littorea L.) from the Cumbrian coast (north-eastern Irish Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.J.; Smith, D.L.; Allington, D.J.; Winpenny, K.

    1995-01-01

    Edible winkles from Saltom Bay, Cumbria (north-eastern Irish Sea) had flesh 210 Po concentrations in excess of 200 Bq kg -1 (wet). This came from liquid waste discharged under authorisation from a chemical plant producing phosphoric acid. This labelling of the winkles under natural conditions was exploited to determine the 210 Po depuration rate and biological half-time. Winkles transferred to Lowestoft and depurated in flowing seawater had biological half-times ranging from 82 to 119 days depending on temperature. After the chemical plant was shut, changes in Saltom Bay winkle flesh contents of 210 Po, 210 Pb and cadmium were followed by monthly samples. The biological half-time in the environment for the decrease in 210 Po after the plant closed was estimated at about 92 days. (author)

  10. Bioaccumulation of 210Po and 210Pb in cephalopods collected from Kudankulam (Southeastern coast of Gulf of Mannar (India)) and assessment of dose in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. F.; Wesley, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb in various tissues of two common species of cephalopod molluscs (cuttlefishes) of Kudankulam coast were studied. Of all the tissues, 210 Po and 210 Pb were found accumulated more in the digestive gland, shell gland and intestine. Urotheuthis duvauceli accumulated more 210 Po and 210 Pb in certain organs when compared with Sepiella inermis. The activity ratio of 210 Po/ 210 Pb fell within the range of 0.6-29.3 in the organs. The biological concentration factor for the organs ranged from 1.2x10 3 to 2x10 5 for 210 Po and 3.6x10 2 to 7.6x10 4 for 210 Pb. A significant variation in the accumulation of 210 Po and 210 Pb was noted between species, organs and seasons (p > 0.05). The whole-body internal dose rate due to 210 Po was 1.24 and 0.83 μGy h -1 and it was 2x10 -3 and 3x10 -3 μGy h -1 due to 210 Pb for both the species. The effective dose in humans due to 210 Po intake ranged from 96.3 to 376.6 μSv y -1 and that of 210 Pb ranged from 35.2 to 105.7 μSv y -1 , respectively. The data generated will act as a reference database for these organisms of this coast in which a nuclear power station is under construction. (authors)

  11. Standardization of sequential separation of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Madhu G.; Rao, D.D.; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Human are constantly exposed to radiation originating from natural or manmade sources. The main contribution for internal dose is due to radionuclides from uranium and thorium series in drinking water. The distribution of these elements varies depending on the geological and physiological characteristics of the aquifer. With increased concern for radiological safety of public, it is necessary to evaluate the naturally occurring radionuclides in the drinking water

  12. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Radioactivity in papers: the concentration and source of naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Asaya

    2005-01-01

    The radioactivities of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K) in papers such as magazines, newspapers, and copying papers produced in Japan were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry to obtain information on radioactivity level of papers. The X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples was also carried out to elucidate the source of radionuclides contained in them. The average 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K contents of pocket-sized books were 6.4, 21.5, 23.7, and 18.8 Bq kg -1 , respectively, and those of other kinds of samples were near to or less than the values. The 228 Th content was generally somewhat higher than the 228 Ra content. Possibly 228 Ra was leached from the raw materials of the papers to water during their production in preference to 228 Th. The concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides were correlated to each other. The X-ray diffraction study showed that kaolinite, talc, and calcite were contained in the papers. The kaolinite content of the samples was correlated to the concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides, indicating that the naturally occurring radionuclides in the paper samples were mainly brought with kaolinite used as filler or coating pigment in the papers. The regression analysis of the data showed that the natural radioactivity content of filler kaolinite was higher than that of pigment kaolinite. (author)

  14. 210Po and 210Pb emissions to air from the thermal phosphorus plant in Europe: measurements in the environment and dose assessment for regulatory purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.; Knetsch, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 1983 in The Netherlands, an environmental survey at a river estuary revealed elevated radionuclide concentrations above the background level. The source was identified as an industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus, by means of a thermal process. Within a few years a permit for emissions of radionuclides to the environment was requested under the prevailing Nuclear Energy Act, and granted. Since 1987 the industry reports its emission data to the mandated Ministry. This phosphorus plant contributes the highest release of 210 Po and 210 Pb to air in the Netherlands. The difficulty of identifying the enhanced activity due to the elemental phosphorus through environmental measurement is here illustrated by showing, by means of an air dispersion model, that the radioactivity added by the phosphorus plant to the environment is comparable to the natural background level. The estimate of the excess air concentration given exclusively by a continuous annual emission of 500 GBq, bound to aerosols of size less than 1 micron, varies from 450 to 750 micro Bq/m 3 at a distance of 3.5 km from the phosphorus plant, depending on yearly weather variations. This may be compared to the natural background level as it is measured at a distance of over 100 km inland from the phosphorus plant, at RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The yearly average measured 210 Pb activity concentration in air is 363±5 micro Bq/m 3 in 2009 which is within range of other years. At the coastal site where the phosphorus plant is located, the natural background will be lower. The gross beta activity concentration near the phosphorus plant is 296 micro Bq/m 3 in 2009: this includes the emissions to air from the sintering process. The emission to air for the year 2009 reported by the phosphorus plan is 80 GBq/y of 210 Pb

  15. Separation of 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po by ion exchange and their liquid scintillation standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Jimenez, A.; Grau, A.

    1996-01-01

    We applied the CIEMAT/NIST method and alpha/beta discrimination to ''210 Pb samples in equilibrium with its daughters, by preparing homogeneous and gel samples. The stability of samples was tested in different available cocktails, HiSafe''tm II, HiSafe''tmIII, Ultima-Gold''tm, Ultima-Gold''tmXR, Ultima-Gold''tmAB, Insta-Gel and e Insta-Gel II. Also we analyzed the disequilibrium of the radioactive chain ''210Pb+''210Bi+''210Po, achieving and excellent agreement between the results of the spectrum unfolding method and the experimental values. (Author) 13 refs

  16. Separation of 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po by ion exchange and their Iiquid scintillation standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Jimenez, A.; Grau, A.

    1996-01-01

    We applied the CIEMAT/NIST method and alpha/beta discrimination to ''210Pb samples in equilibrium with its daughters, by preparing homogeneous and gel samples. The stability of samples was tested in different available cocktails, HiSafe''TM II, HiSafe''TM III, Ultima-Gold''TM, Ultima-Gold''TM XR, Ultima-Gold''TM AB, Insta-Gel''R and e Insta-Gel''R lI. Also we analyzed the disequilibrium of the radioactive chain 210Pb+210Bi+210Po, achieving an excellent agreement between the results of the spectrum unfolding method and the experimental values. (Author) 13 refs

  17. Evaluation of food emergency response laboratories' capability for 210Po analysis using proficiency test material with verifiable traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongyu Wu; Zhichao Lin; Mackill, P.; Cong Wei; Noonan, J.; Cherniack, J.; Gillis-Landrum, D.

    2009-01-01

    Measurement capability and data comparability are essential for emergency response when analytical data from cooperative laboratories are used for risk assessment and post incident decision making. In this study, the current capability of food emergency response laboratories for the analysis of 210 Po in water was evaluated using a proficiency test scheme in compliance with ISO-43 and ILAC G13 guidelines, which comprises a test sample preparation and verification protocol and an insightful statistical data evaluation. The results of performance evaluations on relative bias, value trueness, precision, false positive detection, minimum detection limit, and limit of quantification, are presented. (author)

  18. 137Cs And 210Po Dose Assessment Due To Consumption Of Red Sea Coral Reef Fishes Collected From The Local Market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassona, R. K.; Sam, A. K.; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea area) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Activity concentrations of 210 Po and 137 Cs were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. for 210 Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.3 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 137 Cs which are several times lower than those of 210 Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μ Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for 137 Cs, this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μ Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 137 Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po. (Authors)

  19. DOSE210, A Semi-empirical Model for Prediction of Organ Distribution and Radiation Doses from Long Term Exposure to 210Pb and 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, P.L.; Bondarenko, O.A.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The DOSE210 model is an internal dosimetric model for 210 Pb and 210 Po which is based on current ICRP generic models. It is constrained and validated by reference to up-to-date published biokinetic data for both nuclides. The model has been validated primarily in regard to the relation between levels of chronic lifetime intake and organ concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po. To this end some adjustments to current ICRP biokinetic parameters have been made. The most substantial changes have been made to bone surface biokinetics of 210 Pb and 210 Po to reflect recent experimental studies on the microdistribution and radioactive equilibrium of these nuclides in bone, as well as measurements in biopsied human red bone marrow. An important dosimetric prediction of DOSE210 is a substantially lower dose to skeletal tissues from internal 210 Pb and 210 Po than that predicted by the current ICRP model. The most significant dose component predicted from lifetime environmental exposure to 210 Pb and 210 Po is the alpha dose to liver and kidney in infancy. Recycling of historic intakes of 210 Pb in the adult, principally from bone, is calculated to account for 22% of 210 Pb present in the plasma. (author)

  20. The rapid determination of 210Po in uranium ores by TRPO extraction-α inner-scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Tianxia

    1993-02-01

    Ores are treated with HF to remove Si, then 210 Po is leached out by HCl + H 2 O 2 solution. The solution is extracted by TRPO and re-extracted with 5% H 2 C 2 O 4 solution. Ti(SO 4 ) 2 is added to the re-extraction solution and the pH value of solution is adjusted with NaOH, then the solution is evenly mixed with ZnS(Ag) and filtered. After the filter has dried the activity is measured by alpha counting of inner-scintillation method. When the sample has prepared the measurement can immediately carry out. The measurement are not interfered by α-radiators from 238 U, 235 U and 2 '3'2Th as well as daughters of Pb and Bi. The recovery of whole chemical process is 98%. The detecting efficiency is (95+-1)%. The precision is better than +- 4%. The α-4π detect in limitation depends on the background counting of Ti(SO 4 ) 2 . For the CP reagent, the value is (7 ∼ 23) x 10 -3 Bq/6 mg Ti 4+ . It can be reduced greatly after purification. The analytical period is 12 samples/8 h (activity of 210 Po ≥ 1 Bq/g

  1. Determination of ''2''1''0Po in fertilizers by electrochemical deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezalp, N.; Sac, M.; Tanbay, A.; Yener, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, activities of radioactive polonium and natural radionuclide concentrations in fertilizer most consumed in agricultural lands in Turkey were measured. Fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium increase yield and quality. But, they contain some radionuclides. These radionuclides dissolve in water and first transport into plants and then transport from plants to humans. In the latest years, artificial fertilizing has replaced natural fertilizing in agriculture. Therefore, fruits and vegetables contain radionuclides those are found in artificial fertilizers. In this study, electrochemical deposition technique with alpha counting method was used for determining the radioactivity level of polonium in fertilizers. Radium, potassium and thorium concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. TSP, MAP, DSP,MKP, (15-15-15), (18-18-18), (20-20-20) compost fertilizers consumed at most has been analyzed and the results were evaluated with respect to human health

  2. A revised B(E2; 2{sup +}{sub 1} → 0{sup +}{sub 1}) value in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 210}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocheva, D.; Rainovski, G.; Djongolov, M.; Gladnishki, K.; Stoyanova, M. [St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Faculty of Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jolie, J.; Blazhev, A.; Altenkirch, R.; Ansari, S.; Braunroth, T.; Dewald, A.; Diel, F.; Fransen, C.; Hennig, A.; Karayonchev, V.; Kluge, E.; Litzinger, J.; Mueller-Gatermann, C.; Rudigier, M.; Scholz, P.; Spieker, M.; Thoele, P.; Warr, N.; Woelk, D.; Zell, K.O. [Universitaet Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Pietralla, N.; Cortes, M.L.; Stahl, C.; Stegmann, R.; Werner, V.; Witt, W.; Ponomarev, V.Yu. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Astier, A. [CSNSM, IN2P3/CNRS et Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Keatings, J.M.; Scheck, M.; Spagnoletti, P. [University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering and Computing, Paisley (United Kingdom); Petkov, P. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France)

    2017-09-15

    The lifetimes of the 2{sup +}{sub 1}, the 2{sup +}{sub 2} and the 3{sup -}{sub 1} states of {sup 210}Po have been measured in the {sup 208}Pb({sup 12}C,{sup 10}Be){sup 210}Po transfer reaction by the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The result for the lifetime of the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state is about three times shorter than the adopted value. However, the new value still does not allow for a consistent description of the properties of the yrast 2{sup +}{sub 1}, 4{sup +}{sub 1}, 6{sup +}{sub 1}, and 8{sup +}{sub 1} states of {sup 210}Po in the framework of nuclear shell models. Quasi-particle Phonon Model (QPM) calculations also cannot overcome this problem thus indicating the existence of a peculiarity which is neglected in both theoretical approaches. (orig.)

  3. The three-spinned stickleback (Gasterosteus Aguleatus) as potential biomonitor of 210Po content at two sampling sites of coastal area of the Gulf of Gdansk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goral, M.; Bojanowski, R.; Szefer, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of presented study was to evaluate the three-spinned stickleback (Gasterosteus Aguleatus) as potential biomonitor of 210 Po content in the vicinity of mouth of the Vistula River and yacht port in Gdynia. The three-spinned stickleback was collected from the above areas. Fish was caught, samples were weighted and their total lengths was measured. The fish age was determined using sagittal otoliths. The 210 Po content was determined by α-spectrometry, following radiochemical separation. The U Mann-Whitney's test showed insignificant differences in 210 Po activity in samples originated from two various geographic regions. Based on the results of both U Mann-Whitney's test Spearman's rank correlations it seems that stickleback could be useful tool for monitoring because of the lack of the sex- and age-dependent influence on polonium concentration in the fish analysed

  4. A revised B(E2; 2+1 → 0+1) value in the semi-magic nucleus 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocheva, D.; Rainovski, G.; Djongolov, M.; Gladnishki, K.; Stoyanova, M.; Jolie, J.; Blazhev, A.; Altenkirch, R.; Ansari, S.; Braunroth, T.; Dewald, A.; Diel, F.; Fransen, C.; Hennig, A.; Karayonchev, V.; Kluge, E.; Litzinger, J.; Mueller-Gatermann, C.; Rudigier, M.; Scholz, P.; Spieker, M.; Thoele, P.; Warr, N.; Woelk, D.; Zell, K.O.; Pietralla, N.; Cortes, M.L.; Stahl, C.; Stegmann, R.; Werner, V.; Witt, W.; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Astier, A.; Keatings, J.M.; Scheck, M.; Spagnoletti, P.; Petkov, P.; Van Isacker, P.

    2017-01-01

    The lifetimes of the 2 + 1 , the 2 + 2 and the 3 - 1 states of 210 Po have been measured in the 208 Pb( 12 C, 10 Be) 210 Po transfer reaction by the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The result for the lifetime of the 2 + 1 state is about three times shorter than the adopted value. However, the new value still does not allow for a consistent description of the properties of the yrast 2 + 1 , 4 + 1 , 6 + 1 , and 8 + 1 states of 210 Po in the framework of nuclear shell models. Quasi-particle Phonon Model (QPM) calculations also cannot overcome this problem thus indicating the existence of a peculiarity which is neglected in both theoretical approaches. (orig.)

  5. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Po concentrations and {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Jose-Maria, E-mail: jmabril@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, EUITA, Ctra Utrera Km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael, E-mail: gtenorio@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, ETSA, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain); Manjon, Guillermo, E-mail: manjon@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, ETSA, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its {sup 226}Ra content and to the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km{sup 2} from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged {sup 226}Ra concentrations for the stack were 730 {+-} 60 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1}. {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with {sup 226}Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  6. An assessment of the 210Po ingestion dose due to the consumption of agricultural, marine, fresh water and forest foodstuffs in Gudalore (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentration of 210 Po in cereals, pulses, food materials of animal origin, vegetables and spices collected from Gudalore (India) has been estimated by radiochemical method. The activity concentration of 210 Po in cereals is found to vary from 124 to 604 mBq kg −1 . Raw rice registered the highest mean activity 504 ± 61 mBq kg −1 . In pulses 210 Po activity concentration varies from 42 to 320 mBq kg −1 and the highest activity is found in black lentil with the average value of 172 ± 38 mBq kg −1 . Leafy vegetables registered the highest 210 Po activity concentration (662–7336 mBq kg −1 ) and are followed by tuber vegetables (390–1269 mBq kg −1 ) and then by other vegetables (75–595 mBq kg −1 ). The higher concentration of 210 Po observed in leafy vegetables may be attributed to the dry deposition of 210 Po and other daughter products of 222 Rn on large leaf surfaces from the air. Among animal products fish of marine origin registered the highest 210 Po activity concentration 36,850–48,964 mBq kg −1 . The mean 210 Po activity concentration in coffee has been estimated as 7500 mBq kg −1 . The activity concentration of 210 Po in leaf and bark of tree Cinnamom zeylanicum, a popular spice, is found to vary from 3500 to 11,100 mBq kg −1 and 1600–3400 mBq kg −1 . The consumption of marine and fresh water fish contribute 60.7% (506.1 μSv y −1 ) to the total ingestion dose received. Cereals being consumed in a large scale, contribute 23.4% (194.9 μSv y −1 ) of the total ingestion dose received. The contribution from spices and leafy vegetables consumed is 5.8% (48.1 μSv y −1 ) and 6.5% (54.3 μSv y −1 ), respectively. The remaining 3.6% (30.0 μSv y −1 ) contribution to the total ingestion dose comes from other food materials and vegetables. - Highlights: • The activity concentration of 210 Po in different spices grown in the study area has been estimated. • The study

  7. 238U–230Th–226Ra–210Pb–210Po disequilibria constraints on magma generation, ascent, and degassing during the ongoing eruption of Kīlauea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Guillaume; Reagan, Mark K.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Thornber, Carl; Waters, Christopher L.; Phillips, Erin H.

    2017-01-01

    differentiated, suggesting decadal timescales of magma storage in shallow conduits or reservoirs that were not degassing. Lava and spatter samples erupted in the East Rift Zone and at the summit had (210Po) ∼0 at the time of eruption, which results from efficient partitioning of Po into the CO2- and SO2-rich gas phases during and prior to eruption. Summit ash and Pele’s hair samples from 2008 differ from lava and lapilli samples in that they have elevated initial (210Po), (210Pb/226Ra), and Pb concentrations because of Po condensation on tephra particles, and incorporation of fumarolic Po and Pb into erupted tephra fragments during quenching.

  8. A novel technique for the simultaneous determination of 210Pb and 210Po using a crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; LaRosa, J.; Zeisler, R.; Danesi, P.; Kis-Benedek, Gy.

    1997-01-01

    A simple radiochemical procedure has been developed to separate lead and polonium simultaneously from different environmental and biological materials. After adding 208 Po tracer and lead carrier, samples are decomposed using mineral acids. Lead and polonium are selectively retained from 2M HCl solution by the bis-4,4'(5')-t-butyl-cyclohexano-18-crown-6-ether; polonium is stripped with 6 M HNO 3 while lead is stripped with 6 M HCL solution. A polonium source is prepared by spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk. The activity concentration of 210 Po is determined by isotope dilution alpha spectrometry. Lead is precipitated as oxalate; the chemical recovery is determined by gravimetry. The activity concentration of 210 Pb is calculated from the liquid scintillation spectrum. (author)

  9. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in scales produced in oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M S; Ali, A F; Kitue, M; Kawash, A [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-04-01

    Scales produced by Oil production operations contain relatively high concentrations of natural radionuclides especially radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228, Ra-224) and their daughters. These scales deposit in oil surface equipment such as separator tanks, tubular, and storage tanks. In this work, naturally occurring radionuclides and radiation exposure levels in some Syrian oil lines have been determined. Radiation measurements have shown high radiation exposure in some production sites and reached about 23 {mu}Sv/hr (production wellhead) which is higher than the normal background (0.09 - 012 {mu}Sv/hr). The highest value of the exposure around storage tanks was about o.5 {mu}Sv/hr. Moreover, the highest concentration of radionuclides in scales were found to be 47000 Bq/Kg and 55000 Bq/Kg for Ra-226 and Ra-228 respectively while in sludge samples, the Ra-226 concentration was about 24.2 Bq/Kg, a relatively very low activity. In addition, results have shown that soil contamination can occur by disposal of produced water to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, the present paper shows some of protection procedures, which should be followed by workers for radiation protection. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Radionuclides in marine mammals off the Portuguese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, Margarida; Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2011-01-01

    Radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the Portuguese west coast during January-July 2006. Tissues were collected from seven dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (Globicephala sp.). Samples were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb by alpha spectrometry and for 137 Cs and 40 K by gamma spectrometry. Po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (D. delphis) averaged 56 ± 32 Bq kg -1 wet weight (w.w.), while 210 Pb averaged 0.17 ± 0.07 Bq kg -1 w.w., 137 Cs averaged 0.29 ± 0.28 Bq kg -1 w.w., and 40 K 129 ± 48 Bq kg -1 w.w. Absorbed radiation doses due to these radionuclides for the internal organs of common dolphins were computed and attained a 1.50 μGy h -1 on a whole body basis. 210 Po was the main contributor to the weighted absorbed dose, accounting for 97% of the dose from internally accumulated radionuclides. These computed radiation doses in dolphins are compared to radiation doses from 210 Po and other radionuclides reported for human tissues. Due to the high 210 Po activity concentration in dolphins, the internal radiation dose in these marine mammals is about three orders of magnitude higher than in man. - Highlights: → In marine mammals the highest activity concentrations were those of 40 K and 210 Po. → Absorbed radiation doses in dolphin tissues attained 1.50 mGy h -1 on a whole body basis. → Po-210 was the main contributor (97%) to the internal absorbed radiation dose. → The high 210 Po concentration in the marine mammal's tissues is due to food chain transfer. → The absorbed radiation dose in dolphins is three orders of magnitude higher than in man.

  12. Distribution of {sup 226}Ra-{sup 210}Pb-{sup 210}Po in marine biota and surface sediments of the Red Sea, Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirelkhatim, D.A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Environmental Monitoring, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)], E-mail: rifaatk@hotmail.com; Sam, A.K.; Hassona, R.K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Environmental Monitoring, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)

    2008-12-15

    Activity concentration levels and ratios of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po are presented in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of PortSudan harbour, Sudan. The analyses were performed adopting alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting techniques. Surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po with respect to their progenitor {sup 226}Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra (3.03 {+-} 1.79) and {sup 210}Po/{sup 226}Ra (2.23 {+-} 1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2 Bq/kg and 21.9 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of {sup 210}Po was met in Favites at 38.7 Bq/kg followed by brown algae, Cystoseria sp., at 32.6 Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for {sup 210}Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, Favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88 Bq/kg). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by {sup 210}Po:{sup 226}Ra activity ratio with Cystoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, {sup 210}Po:{sup 210}Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species Favites (9.97) and the brown algae Sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate {sup 210}Po over {sup 210}Pb, while in the rest of species; this ratio is less than unity.

  13. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test: Determination of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the world wide proficiency tests organised every year by the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory. This series of PTs is designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member State laboratories to maintain their accreditation and to provide a forum for discussions regarding the analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides. The range of sample types available for analysis has been mainly at environmental levels. In this PT, the test item set consisted of six samples: one phosphogypsum (the IAEA-434 reference material) and five water samples spiked with natural radionuclides. The main task of the participating laboratories was to identify and traceably quantify the activity levels of radionuclides present in these matrices. The tasks of the IAEA were to prepare and distribute the samples to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret analysis results and to compile a comprehensive report. The certified massic activity values of all radionuclides used in this PT were traceable to international standards of radioactivity. In this PT, 1800 test items (reference materials) were prepared and distributed to 300 laboratories from 76 countries in November 2008. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set at 15 May 2009. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse Ra-226, U-234 and U-238 in water samples 01 and 02, and gross alpha/beta in water samples 03, 04 and 05. In the phosphogypsum sample number 06 the participants were asked to analyse Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were compared with the reference values assigned to the reference materials, and a rating system was applied. Three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) and six expert

  14. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples of Ayranci, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Osman; Eke, Canel; Boztosun, Ismail; Emin Korkmaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    The specific activity, radiation hazard index and the annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K) were determined in soil samples collected from 12 different locations in Ayranci region by using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in studied soil samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries and the internationally reported values. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  15. Radiochemical techniques for determining some naturally occurring radionuclides in marine environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C W [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Fisheries Lab.

    1984-06-15

    The determination of some of the naturally-occurring, alpha-emitting radionuclides in marine environmental materials, is of interest for several reasons. Radium and radon nuclides are potentially useful as oceanographic tracers. Lead and thorium nuclides may be used to study sedimentation rates, mixing processes and bioturbation in sediments. Radium and polonium nuclides are incorporated into food chains and the data may provide a perspective against which to assess the significance, for marine organisms, of exposure to radiation in a marine radioactive waste disposal situation. This paper discusses the manner in which samples are taken, and the radiochemical methods which have been employed to measure the nuclides, together with some data produced.

  16. Assessment of radiological significance of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil and rock matrices around Kakrapar environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, A.K.; Jaison, T.J.; Baburajan, A.; Hegde, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The activity and gamma-absorbed dose rate due to the naturally occurring radionuclides in the terrestrial environment such as 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were determined in soil and rock samples collected around Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant site, using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean concentration levels measured in Kakrapar soil from naturally occurring radioisotopes such as 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are lower than the corresponding global average values obtained in worldwide soil. The external hazard index (Hex) and absorbed gamma dose rate in air outdoors is observed to be 0.04-0.18 and 3.1-14.1 nGy h -1 , respectively. (authors)

  17. Sinking fluxes of 210Pb and 210Po in the deep basin of the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Ling; Chia, Chao-Yuan; Chou, Wen-Chen; Lee, Wen-Huei

    2017-08-01

    Vertical fluxes of total mass (F mass ), particulate organic carbon (F POC ), particulate inorganic carbon (F PIC ), 210 Pb (F Pb-210 ), and 210 Po (F Po-210 ) were determined by sediment traps deployed at two depths, 2000 m and 3500 m, at SEATS (South East Asian Time-series Study, 116°00°E, 18°00°N) in the northern South China Sea during June 2008-June 2009. The F mass ranges from 12.2 to 55.1 mg m -2  d -1 and from 89.3 to 250.8 mg m -2  d -1 , at 2000 m and 3500 m, respectively, and shows seasonal and inter-annul variation. The temporal variation of F POC , F PIC , and F Pb-210 were in phase with the F mass , which was coupled with the seasonal cycles of primary production in the euphotic layer. The F Pb-210 ranges from 5 to 48 dpm m -2 d -1 and from 38 to 105 dpm m -2 d -1 , at 2000 m and 3500 m, respectively. Contrasting with 210 Pb, the F Po-210 shows poor correlation with F mass . The F Po-210 ranges from 3 to 146 dpm m -2 d -1 and from 50 to 309 dpm m -2 d -1 , at 2000 m and 3500 m, respectively. Episodic events of the settling of biological particles from the surface layer and the regeneration processes the deep layer control the 210 Po removal in the water column of the South China Sea. Strong correlations of the flux and source ratio of 210 Pb, (F/P) Pb-210 , and the particulate carbon fluxes were found, which give relationships of F POC (μg cm -2 y -1 ) = 26.8 + 371.0 (F/P) Pb-210 and F PIC (μg cm -2 y -1 ) = -1.4 + 533.1 (F/P) Pb-210 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anthropogenic emissions of 210Po, 210Pb and 226Ra in an estuarine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Aguirre, A.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Gasco, C.; Travesi, A.

    1996-01-01

    An extensive study on the distribution of natural radionuclides in an estuarine ecosystem located in Southwestern Spain is presented. This environment is highly affected by the wastes released by a phosphoric acid industry which uses phosphate rocks raw material for fertilizer production. This rock has generally high concentrations of U and its daughters. The estuary is formed by two rivers. Odiel and Tinto, which have a common mouth into the Atlantic Ocean and a salt marsh (Odiel marsh) affected by the income of Odiel riverwaters. This river receives directly the liquid and part of the solid (gypsum) wastes released from the industries. Besides that, most of the phosphogypsum wastes are stored in uncovered piles at the right margin of the Tinto river. The study has concluded that the wastes from such industries are the cause of the enhanced concentrations found at the bed of both river channels as well as the enhancement found in surface soils in certain zones of the Odiel wet marshland. Indeed, the Northern marsh and the Mojarrera channel at the Odiel marsh seem to be the main sinks of the contaminant released by the phosphoric acid industry. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  20. A study of naturally occurring, radionuclide bearing deposits at Portland Creek, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A small uraniferous peat deposit located near Portland Creek, Newfoundland was investigated as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program (NUTP). The purpose of the investigation was to provide data on naturally occurring uranium series radionuclides at a surface location that could be used to compare with the predictions of mathematical models. The investigation was carried out between August 18 and 30, 1984 by CBCL Limited with the assistance of Golder Associates, SENES Consultants Limited, Environmental Design Group and Monenco Analytical Laboratories. The investigation involved the determination of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the deposit site and collection of soil, water and biological samples. The samples were analyzed for major element chemistry, uranium and its various decay series radionuclides including radium-226 and the ratio of uranium-234 to uranium-238. The uranium mineralization was found to be associated with a peat deposit that has accumulated in post-glacial time. The deposit is situated within a groundwater discharge zone at the toe of a granitic talus pile that extends downward from the Long Range Mountains. The concentration of uranium within the peat deposit was found to vary from 100 to 28000 ppm, however, the activities of the uranium decay series radionuclides were comparatively very low. Radium-226 activities were found to vary from 0.5 Bq/g to 15.0 Bq/g. Little influence from the deposit was noted in the surrounding water bodies, fish samples and vegetation. Based on the results of the study the uranium mineralization within the peat is considered to be the result of precipitation or adsorption from groundwater that had previously leached uranium from the granitic talus which forms the groundwater recharge zone. The major geochemical mechanism for deposition is considered to be associated with the strong reducing conditions encountered within the peat. Being a recent deposit (i.e. less than 10,000-15,000 years old

  1. Shell correction approach to nuclear state densities and the competition between fission and neutron emission of 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, P.A.; Ledergerber, T.

    Starting from the Hartree-Fock approximation to the grand-canonical partition function we formulate a consistent renormalization of the ground state energy and the intrinsic state density as a function of deformation. The relationship to recent selfconsistent temperature dependent calculations is discussed. The competition between fission and neutron emission, GAMMA sub(f)/GAMMA sub(n)(E), of 210 Po is studied within the framework of the statistical theory as an example. Calculations using renormalized state densities are compared with usual shell model calculations and experimental data. It is found that the usual calculations reflect the incorrect uniform deformation dependence of the shell model spectral function. Important changes due to renormalization are found: a rapid change of the shape of the transition state at approximately 45 MeV excitation energy, GAMMA sub(f)/GAMMA sub(n)(E) remains smaller than unity for all excitation energies and the deformation of the transition state increases after the 'shape transition' at 45 MeV monotonically towards the liquid drop saddle point deformation with a tendency towards slightly larger deformations. (author)

  2. Study of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po distributions in environmental samples by CR-39 track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.; Szilagyi, S. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1984-01-01

    Activity concentration distributions of long-lived alpha-emitters in aerosol samples are analysed by high-resolution autoradiography in CR-39. A study of the alpha-activity attached to aerosols of different particulate sizes separated by a cascade impactor is also performed. It is found that, in the majority of samples, the alpha-activity can be dominantly related to the presence of /sup 210/Po produced by its beta-active precursor /sup 210/Pb. In our studies we have applied the following methods: 1) analysis of alpha-decay properties by means of autoradiographs taken at different post-sampling times, 2) spectroscopical study of individual alpha-tracks and track clusters by a method developed by us for high-resolution alpha-energy determination. In the second method the parameters to be measured are the major axis of surface track opening, the diameter of etched out track end, the total length measurable on the surface along the projected track, and the thickness of layer etched away from the detector surface.

  3. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in selected rocks from Hetaunda area, Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallova, G.

    2010-01-01

    The specific activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K were measured in rock samples from the Hetaunda area, central Nepal, by using gamma spectrometry. The specific activities were found to be in the range of 17 - 95 Bq.kg -1 for 238 U, 24 - 260 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th and 32 - 541 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. From these data absorbed dose rates in air and annual effective doses were calculated and compared with respective data from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) compilation. The results from our study open the door to the safe applicability of most of the investigated materials as a cheep building material. (author)

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides of paper ashes and their effect in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, Asaya

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K) in ashes of papers such as magazines and newspapers were determined from the nuclide concentrations in the papers and the ash contents of the papers. The average 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K concentrations in the 34 ashes were respectively 27, 68, 75, and 75Bq kg -1 . The radium equivalent activities of the ashes were calculated to evaluate the hazard of γ-ray radiation from the ashes in the environment. A copying paper sample showed a high radium equivalent activity of 602Bq kg -1 . However, the average radium equivalent activity was 140Bq kg -1 and was lower than the level that causes an environmental health problem. (author)

  5. Gamma ray doses proceeding from natural occurring radionuclides in closed environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Vitor Angelo P. de; Medina, Nilberto H.; Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli da; Moreira, Ramon H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report on the application of gamma-ray spectrometry in the study of the effective dose coming from terrestrial natural elements present in building materials such as sand, cement, lime (CaO) and milled granitic stones. The major contribution to annual gamma-ray radiation effective dose is due to the natural occurring radionuclides 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U. Two spectrometry systems were employed to measure the gamma radiation: one with a 60% efficient GeHP detector and the second one with a 2''x2'' NaI(Tl) scintillator. The estimated effective dose coming from the three reference rooms assumed is 0.63 mSv/yr, proceeding from terrestrial natural elements. The principal gamma radiation sources are cement, sand and bricks. (author)

  6. Review of research on impacts to biota of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides in produced water to the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Ali; Brown, Justin E.; Gwynn, Justin P.; Dowdall, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Produced water has been described as the largest volume waste stream in the exploration and production process of oil and gas. It is accompanied by discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides raising concerns over the potential radiological impacts of produced water on marine biota. In the Northern European marine environment, radioactivity in produced water has received substantial attention owing to the OSPAR Radioactive Substances Strategy which aims at achieving ‘concentrations in the environment near background values for naturally occurring radioactive substances’. This review provides an overview of published research on the impacts to biota from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water by the offshore oil and gas industry. In addition to summarising studies and data that deal directly with the issue of dose and effect, the review also considers studies related to the impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. The review clearly illustrates that only a limited number of studies have investigated possible impacts on biota from naturally occurring radionuclides present in produced water. Hence, although these studies indicate that the risk to the environment from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water is negligible, the substantial uncertainties involved in the assessments of impact make it difficult to be conclusive. With regard to the complexity involved in the problem under consideration there is a pressing need to supplement existing data and acquire new knowledge. Finally, the present work identifies some knowledge gaps to indicate future research requirements. -- Highlights: ► Produced water from offshore oil industry contains naturally occurring radionuclides. ► Published research on the impacts to biota from these radionuclides is reviewed. ► Review includes impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. ► Studies indicate negligible risk to biota

  7. Determination of natural occurring radionuclide and heavy metals in drinking water in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Suraya Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclide and selected heavy metals selected mineral and drinking waters sample in Malaysia. The activity concentration of natural radionuclide (mBq/ L) was determined by Gamma Spectroscopy Systems while the concentration of heavy metal (mg/ L) was determined by the Induces Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mineral and drinking water samples used in this study were Segar UKM, Giant, Ice Mountain (600 ml), Ice Mountain (1600 ml), Spritzer, Reverse Osmosis, and fresh tap water. The results of the study found 3 natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) found for example - U-238, Ra-226 and Ra-228. The activity concentration determined was 0.00 mBq/ L to 1.71 mBq/ L for U-238, 0.00 - 32.46 mBq/ L for Ra-226 and 0.00 - 12.01 mBq/ L for Ra-228 respectively. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Fe, As, Cl, Mn, Cu and Pb determined in this study were in the range of 0.000 - 0.003 mg/ L, 0.002-0.018 mg/ L, 0.000 - 0.007 mg/ L, 6.152 - 57.724 mg/ L, 0.000 - 0.016 μg/ L, 0.058 - 0.766 μg/ L and 0.000 - 0.380 μg/ L respectively. In general, the result of this study indicate that the activity concentration NORM and selected heavy metals in the studied mineral and drinking water samples were low and not exceed the limit set by World Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Food Regulations 1985. Thus, all the studied water samples complying the Malaysian drinking standard and safe to be consumed. (author)

  8. Populational exposure to 210Pb and 210Po in two cities with various industrial activities in the south-west of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margocsy, N.; Popescu, D.; Toro, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the present work, we proposed to estimate the contribution of the thermal power plants (TPP) relying in fossil fuel to the modification of the natural radioactive background and implicitly to the population's exposure in two urban centers - district residences - Timisoara and Deva. In the range of natural radioelements released in the atmosphere we considered as critical, 220 Pb and 210 Po for the following reasons: (i) radiolead is one of the long lived daughters of 222 Rn in secular equilibrium with its daughter 210 Bi. It is a beta active hard element, generator of Typo, an alpha active element with high energy. 210 Pb, and 210 Po are in the group of very high radiotoxicity; 210 Bi high radiotoxicity; (ii) during the technological process of coal combustion of thermal power plants, there take place an accumulation of radiolead in the fly ash by a concentration rate of about 3 to 50. (author)

  9. The influence of the primary solutes in the study of the yield of alpha/beta discrimination in 241 Am and 210 Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Grau Carles, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the yields in efficiency and alpha/beta discrimination for two commercial cocktails, Ultima-Gold''TM AB and Insta-Gel and three laboratory-made mixtures made of Insta-Gel and naphthalene, pyrene or 9,10-diphenylanthracene. Also, we have tested the samples made of radioactive solutions of ''241 Am and ''210 Po in HNO 3 of different concentrations in all scintillator solutions. (Author)

  10. Accumulation of sup 210 Po in foodstuffs cultivated in farms around the Brazilian mining and milling facilities on Pocos de Caldas plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P L; Gouvea, R C; Dutra, I R [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Gouvea, V A [Brazilian Energy Commission, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Int. of Radioprotection and Dosimetry

    1990-01-01

    Several sample types from the environment of the uranium mining and milling facilities of Pocos de Caldas plateau (CIPC) in Minas Gerais state, Brazil have been assayed for their concentrations of uranium and its daughters. This paper presents the data for {sup 210}Po in food, soils and fertilizers in the CIPC region and, for comparison, the corresponding results from a vegetable garden in a control region in Joinville, in the state of Santa Catarina. The results show that vegetables from two gardens near the CIPC region have no significance differences in Po content, despite the closeness of one of the sites to a uranium mine. For some species of vegetables, however, nearsite values were twice those in the control region. Superphosphate fertilizers influence the accumulation of {sup 210}Po by plants, as well as the concentrations in soils, and their contribution is more evident than the local deposition. The major concentration in the leaf and stem suggests that the accumulation of {sup 210}Po in vegetables is due chiefly to its deposition on and absorption by their leaves. (author).

  11. Almera Proficiency Test Determination of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on a regular basis by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory. These proficiency tests are designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member States laboratories to maintain their preparedness and to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. In this PT, the test item set consisted of six samples: one phosphogypsum (the IAEA-434 reference material) and five water samples spiked with natural radionuclides. The main task of the participating laboratories was to identify and quantify the activity levels of radionuclides present in these matrices. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the samples to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret analysis results and to compile a comprehensive report. The certified massic activity values of all radionuclides used in this PT were fulfilling the requirements of metrological traceability to international standards of radioactivity. In this PT, 306 test items (reference materials) were prepared and distributed to 52 participants from 40 countries in November 2008. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set to15 May 2009. For gross alpha/beta results the deadline was one working day from the date of sample delivery. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse Ra-226, U-234 and U-238 in water

  12. Impact of northern and southern air mass transport on the temporal distribution of atmospheric (210)Po and (210)Pb in the east coast of Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuti, Asnor Azrin; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2016-09-01

    Concentration activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 were determined to discuss their distribution and chemical behavior in relation to meteorological parameters especially in air mass transport during monsoon events. Marine aerosol samples were collected between January 2009 and December 2010 at the coastal region of Mersing, which is located in the southern South China Sea and is about 160 km northeast of Johor Bahru, as part of the atmosphere-ocean interaction program in Malaysia. About 47 PM10 samples were collected using the Sierra-Andersen model 1200 PM10 sampler over a 2-year sampling campaign between January 2009 and December 2010. Samples were processed using acid digestion sequential extraction techniques to analyze various fractions such as Fe and Mn oxides, organic matter, and residual fractions. While, (210)Pb and (210)Po activities were measured with the Gross Alpha/Beta Counting System model XLB-5 Tennelec® Series 5 and the Alpha Spectrometry (model Alpha Analyst Spectroscopy system with a silicon-surface barrier detector), respectively. The distribution activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 samples were varied from 162 to 881 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 347 ± 170 μBq/m(3) and from 85 to 1009 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 318 ± 202 μBq/m(3), respectively. The analysis showed that (210)Po activity in our samples lies in a border and higher range than global distribution values due to contributions from external sources injected to the atmosphere. The speciation of (210)Pb and (210)Po in marine aerosol corresponds to transboundary haze; e.g., biomass burning especially forest fires and long-range air mass transport of terrestrial dust has enriched concentrations of particle mass in the local atmosphere. The monsoon seems to play an important role in transporting terrestrial dust from Indo-China and northern Asia especially during the northeast monsoon, as well as biogenic pollutants originating from Sumatra and the southern

  13. Radionuclide concentration in drinking water from public supplies in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, N.P.; Amaral, R.S.; Silva, C.M.; Hazin, C.A.; Lima, R.A.; Valentim, E.

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern with the assessment of human exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides as they account for around 70% of the total dose received by the population. Most of the exposure derived from natural terrestrial sources comes from the radionuclides in the uranium series, which is headed by the long-lived isotope 238 U. Radionuclides pertaining to this decay chain, such as, 226 Ra, 222 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po are the most important to be studied, as far as the dose to the population is concerned. In order to verify if the levels of radioactive contaminants in the water from public supplies are in compliance with the limits set by the Ministry of Health, a survey has been carried out in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. This paper reports the results of this survey for both, superficial and groundwater supplies. Water samples collected from 107 sampling points were analyzed to determine their content of natural uranium, 226 Ra, 222 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po. Uranium concentrations were determined by fluorimetry after extraction with an organic solvent and deposition in LiF/NaF pellets, which were fused at 1000degC. Radium-226 was determined by the emanation technique, whereas 222 Rn was determined by liquid scintillation counting. Polonium-210, on the other hand, was determined by alpha spectrometry, following its spontaneous plating in copper disks immersed in the water samples. Measured concentrations ranged from 43 to 1330 mBq/L for natural uranium, 5.3 to 83.7 Bq/L for 222 Rn and from below the MDL (22 mBq/L) to 337 mBq/L for 210 Po. The annual intake of each radionuclide was calculated by considering an ingestion of 2L of water per day. The dose to each organ considered important to the ingestion pathway was calculated by using the masses given in the ICRP 23 for the standard man and by applying the appropriate dose conversion factors. (author)

  14. Incorporation monitoring, above all for naturally occuring radionuclides; Inkorporationsueberwachung, vor allem bei natuerlichen radioaktiven Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung; Buchholz, Werner [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). FB Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit; Burow, Mechthild [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich ' ' Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz' ' ; and others

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of the main topic deals with further development of ICRP-models and standardization of regulations in the field of incorporation monitoring. Natural radionuclides, medically used radionuclides and quality assurance, will be discussed. The planning and realization of a shielding chamber for a whole body counter is presented.

  15. Ocean disposal option for bulk wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides: an assessment case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, E.A.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    There are 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes (36 pCi/g radium-226) currently stored at the US Department of Energy's Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), near Lewiston, New York. These wastes resulted from the cleanup of soils that were contaminated above the guidelines for unrestricted use of property. An alternative to long-term management of these wastes on land is dispersal in the ocean. A scenario for ocean disposal is presented for excavation, transport, and emplacement of these wastes in an ocean disposal site. The potential fate of the wastes and impacts on the ocean environment are analyzed, and uncertainties in the development of two worst-case scenarios for dispersion and pathway analyses are discussed. Based on analysis of a worst-case pathway back to man, the incremental dose from ingesting fish containing naturally occurring radionuclides from ocean disposal of the NFSS wastes is insignificant. Ocean disposal of this type of waste appears to be a technically promising alternative to the long-term maintenance costs and eventual loss of containment associated with management in a near-surface land burial facility

  16. Previous management practices for naturally occurring radionuclide wastes: current radiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, W.A.; Crawford, D.J.; Haywood, F.F.; Leggett, R.Q.

    1979-01-01

    Many installations used during the early days of the United States atomic energy program have been released in recent years for unrestricted private uses. These installations include lands and buildings used for the storage of radioactive wastes resulting from refining and processing of uranium and thorium. Waste management practices at these sites in the 1940's and 1950's were not conducted with today's emphasis on as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles. Consequently, many of these older waste storage areas are contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides in concentrations which are orders of magnitude greater than those found ordinarily in the earth's crust. current and potential elevated human exposures at fifteen of these sites are due primarily to radon daughters and external-gamma radiation. A wide variety of exposure conditions may be found at these sites - ranging from slightly above background to more than thirty times the guidelines recommended for the public. Remedial actions are contemplated for a number of these sites where contamination levels or radiaion exposures exceed current guidelines

  17. Distribution of anthropogenic and naturally occurring radionuclides in soils and lakes of Central Spitsbergen (Arctic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokas, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    This work provides the first results on activity concentrations, inventories and activity ratios of the artificial and natural fallout ("1"3"7Cs, "2"3"8Pu, "2"3"9"+"2"4"0Pu, "2"4"1Am, "2"1"0Pb) and lithogenic radionuclides ("2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra, "4"0K) in soils and lake sediments of the inland Spitsbergen. The depths of activity peaks of the artificial radionuclides point to accumulation of up to 10 cm thick deposits during last 50 years. The activity ratios of the radionuclides suggest global fallout as their source. Despite low annual precipitation the inventories of fallout radionuclides in sites not affected by the secondary deposition agree with those reported from the more humid areas of Spitsbergen. (author)

  18. Studies on distribution coefficient (Kd) of naturally occurring radionuclides in geological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of fate and transport of toxic and radioactive metals in the subsurface of uranium tailing pond sites is critical to the assessment of environmental impact and to the development of effective remediation technologies. The mobility of radionuclides and toxic metals is enhanced by acidification of tailings due to sulphide oxidation catalysed by microbial activity. Due to infiltration of water, there is a possibility of leaching of these radionuclides and toxic metals from the tailings pond to the ground water. Sorption onto mineral surfaces is an important mechanism for reducing radionuclide concentrations along ground water flow paths and retarding radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Reactive transport of ground water contaminants often assume that the reaction governing the retardation of a particular contaminant or radionuclide can be described by simple partitioning constant, K d . This constant is assumed to account for all the reversible sorption processes affecting transport of the contaminant. Experimental determination of site-specific K d values is absolutely essential for the accurate estimation of reactive transport of these contaminants. The results of such studies would be helpful to model migration of these pollutants and to estimate the radiation dose to members of the public through groundwater drinking pathway at different distances from the tailings pond. In the present study it is clearly observed that K d values of most of the radionuclides are strongly dependent on different soil and ground water parameters. The relationships generated between distribution coefficient values of different radionuclides and different soil and ground water parameters can be used to generate look up table. And these relationships can also be used for the prediction of K d values of different radionuclides by using the different physico-chemical parameters of soil and ground water of the particular location

  19. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Lauria, Dejanira da; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Godoy, Maria Luisa D.P.; Santos, Eliane E.; Hacon, Sandra S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for 210 Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. 228 Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena. (orig.)

  20. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-08-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 232Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232Th, 228Ra and 40K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

  1. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-01-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40 K, 235 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 232 Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose

  2. Radionuclides and selected trace elements in marine protein concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T M; Jokela, T A; Eagle, R J

    1971-12-01

    The concentrations of various trace elements and radionuclides have been measured in marine protein concentrates prepared from surface feeding fishes. As with concentrates prepared from benthic fishes, the /sup 210/Pb-/sup 210/Po pair are the most significant radionuclides present. Concentrations of stable Pb, Co and Ag in certain concentrates are sufficiently high to contribute substantially to estimated current intakes of these elements.

  3. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Po dose assessment due to consumption of red sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassona, R K; Sam, A K; Sirelkhatim, D A [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan); Osman, O I [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Larosa, J [Marine Environment Laboratory, IAEA (Monaco)

    2004-12-15

    Assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Activity concentration of 2{sup 10P}o and 1{sup 37C}s were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For {sup 210}Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh w. For 1{sup 37C}s which are several times lower than those of 2{sup 10P}o. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 ({mu}Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively for {sup 137}Cs this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for {sup 210}Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 ({mu}Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of {sup 13}'7Cs is negligible compared to {sup 210}Po.(Author)

  4. 137Cs and 210Po dose assessment due to consumption of red sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassona, R. K.; Sam, A. K.; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2004-12-01

    Assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Activity concentration of 2 10P o and 1 37C s were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 210 Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh w. For 1 37C s which are several times lower than those of 2 10P o. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively for 137 Cs this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 13 '7Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po.(Author)

  5. Uptake of some radionuclides by woody plants growing in the rainforest of Western Ghats in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P.K.; Chandar Shekar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K, and the fallout radionuclide 210 Po to different wild plant species in the rainforest of Western Ghats was analyzed. A number of physiologically different plants from the top storey and understorey, such as shrubs and epiphytes, were compared. The concentrations of these radionuclides in the plants and soil were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer and an alpha counter, and were found to vary widely within plants and between species. The soil-plant ratios also varied between species while Elaeocarpus oblongus and epiphytic plants exhibited preferential uptake of these radionuclides. As a result, the dust particles trapped in the root systems of epiphytes could be used as bioindicators of fallout radionuclides in the Western Ghats. - Highlights: • Predominant plants species of the region were selected for analysis. • CR Model was employed to these plants spices. • Two plants were indicated preferential uptake of these radionuclides. • Bioindicator was identified in the Western Ghats Environment

  6. Detection of 210Po on filter papers 16 years after use for the collection of short-lived radon progeny in a room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Radon gas was allowed to accumulate in its radium source and then injected into a 36 m 3 test room, resulting in an initial radon concentration of 15 kBq m -3 . Filter papers were used to collect the short-lived radon progeny and thus to measure the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) in-situ in the year 1984 at different times and conditions according to the experimental design. The radon progeny collected on the filter papers were studied as a function of aerosol particle concentration ranging from 10 2 -10 5 particles cm -3 in three different experiments. The highest aerosol particle concentration was generated by indoor cigarette smoking. Those filters were stored after the experiment, and were used after 16 years to study the activity of the radon long-lived alpha emitter progeny, 210 Po (T 1/2 =138 days). This isotope is separated from the short-lived progeny by 210 Pb beta emitter with 22.3 years half-life. After 16 years' storage of these filters, each filter paper was sandwiched and wrapped between two CR-39 nuclear track detectors, to put the detectors in contact with the surfaces of different filters, for 337 days. Correlation between the PAEC measured using filter papers in the year 1984 and the activity of long-lived alpha emitter 210 Po on the same filter papers measured in the year 2000 were studied. The results of the 210 Po activity showed a very good correlation of 0.92 with the PAEC 16 years ago. The results also depict that the PAEC and 210 Po activity in indoor air increased with the increase of aerosol particle concentration, which shows the attachment of short-lived radon progeny with the aerosol particles. The experiment proves that indoor cigarette smoking is a major source of aerosol particles carrying radon progeny and, thus, indoor cigarette smoking is an additional source of internal radiation hazard to the occupants whether smoker or non-smoker

  7. Detection of {sup 210}Po on filter papers 16 years after use for the collection of short-lived radon progeny in a room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F. E-mail: falah.abujarad@aramco.com; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-07-01

    Radon gas was allowed to accumulate in its radium source and then injected into a 36 m{sup 3} test room, resulting in an initial radon concentration of 15 kBq m{sup -3}. Filter papers were used to collect the short-lived radon progeny and thus to measure the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) in-situ in the year 1984 at different times and conditions according to the experimental design. The radon progeny collected on the filter papers were studied as a function of aerosol particle concentration ranging from 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} particles cm{sup -3} in three different experiments. The highest aerosol particle concentration was generated by indoor cigarette smoking. Those filters were stored after the experiment, and were used after 16 years to study the activity of the radon long-lived alpha emitter progeny, {sup 210}Po (T{sub 1/2}=138 days). This isotope is separated from the short-lived progeny by {sup 210}Pb beta emitter with 22.3 years half-life. After 16 years' storage of these filters, each filter paper was sandwiched and wrapped between two CR-39 nuclear track detectors, to put the detectors in contact with the surfaces of different filters, for 337 days. Correlation between the PAEC measured using filter papers in the year 1984 and the activity of long-lived alpha emitter {sup 210}Po on the same filter papers measured in the year 2000 were studied. The results of the {sup 210}Po activity showed a very good correlation of 0.92 with the PAEC 16 years ago. The results also depict that the PAEC and {sup 210}Po activity in indoor air increased with the increase of aerosol particle concentration, which shows the attachment of short-lived radon progeny with the aerosol particles. The experiment proves that indoor cigarette smoking is a major source of aerosol particles carrying radon progeny and, thus, indoor cigarette smoking is an additional source of internal radiation hazard to the occupants whether smoker or non-smoker.

  8. Decision making algorithm of the rehabilitation of agricultural lands contaminated with heavy natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutyinyin, Yu.V.; Yivanov, Yu.O.; Kirichenko, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    Problem of rehabilitation of agricultural land contaminated with heavy natural radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U) was considered. Algorithm of decision making support on advisability of rehabilitation of mentioned land was suggested. Proposed algorithm was tested on the base of agricultural farmlands located in the affected zone of Pridneprovsky Chemicals Plant and its tailing dumps

  9. Effects of urban and coal mine environment as well as smoking on 210Pb- and 210Po-content of teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Lakatosne Novotny, S.; Peter, J.; Szabo, J.; Berta, I.

    1982-01-01

    Stable 0.5 cph backgrounds were obtained by using air-tight measuring capsules. The minimum measurable 210 Po content of teeth was found to be 0.5 mBqxg - 1 . 210 Po contents of 343 teeth and 210 Pb concentrations of 303 teeth were determined. The distribution of concentrations was logarithmic normal. The contents were investigated in relation to urban and coal mine environment, smoking, age and sex of patients, the presence or absence of enamel and whether the teeth were vital or non-vital. There was a 80 percent higher 210 Pb content in teeth of urban as compared to rural (country) population. Both coal mine environment and smoking enhanced the concentrations in teeth. Estimation of the cumulative radon daughter exposure (WLM) of miners, based on 210 Pb content of teeth is described. The WLM/mBqxg - 1 conversion factors, necessary for the estimation are given. The WLM value could be estimated within a factor of 2-3, at the present level of our knowledge. (author)

  10. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to "2"1"0Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of "2"1"0Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of "2"1"0Po. (orig.)

  11. Potential human health risk by 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" reservoir (Northern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Porres, M. Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, M. A.; Herrera-Peraza, E.; Cabral-Lares, M.; Renteria-Villalobos, M.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E.

    2014-07-01

    The Conchos River is one of the most important in northern Mexico and the main surface waterway in the arid state of Chihuahua. The Luis L. Leon dam produces the Luis L. Leon Reservoir, which is the last major reservoir before the Conchos River enters the Rio Grande at the Texas-Chihuahua border. Activity concentrations (AC) of 234,238U and 210Po in fillet and liver of three stocked fish species (Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus), as well as in water from the Luis L. Leon reservoir were determined. 238U and 234U ACs in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus species, present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bqṡkg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues respect to their concentrations in water was determined. Lepomis cyanellus species showed the highest BAF for total uranium in fillet, with value 1.5. The annual effective dose for uranium in adults by fish consumption in this work ranged from 4.46×10-3 to 3.68×10-2 μSvṡyear-1. The difference in concentrations of uranium in fillet among the studied species is likely primarily due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  12. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to {sup 210}Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph [Health Canada, National Internal Radiation Assessment Section, Radiation Protection Bureau, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yusuf, Hamdi [Carleton University, Department of Chemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Hamada, Nobuyuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Radiation Safety Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of {sup 210}Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of {sup 210}Po. (orig.)

  13. Physico-chemical forms of natural radionuclides in drilled well waters and their removal by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaaramaa, K.

    2003-01-01

    Appreciable concentrations of natural uranium and its daughter radionuclides may occur in drinking water obtained from drilled wells when the bedrock contains these nuclides. Effective methods are needed to remove these radionuclides. A wide range of ion exchange materials, both organic and inorganic, were evaluated for the removal of 234,238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb from ground waters. Screenin tests were carried out, in which distribution coefficients (KD) were determined for the ion exchangers. The ion exchangers that gave the highest KD's were tested in column-mode experiments for the removal of the radionuclides from drilled well water. The most efficient exchanger for the removal of U from neutral and slightly alkaline waters was the strong base anion resin. The chelating aminophosphonate resin removed uranium very efficiently from slightly acidic water. As well, it was an efficient exchanger for the removal of toxic and harmful transition metals from drilled well waters. The strong and weak acid cation resins and zeolite A removed radium most efficiently. Large fractions of the total activity of polonium and lead were found to adsorb on equipment in the ion exchange studies. In investigation of this, the well waters were filtered through membranes to determine the soluble and particle-bound forms of 234,238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb. Eight of the waters were of Ca type and two were of Na-Cl type. Some of the waters also had high concentrations of Fe, Mn and humic substances. Uranium was present entirely in soluble form, probably as uranyl ion in soluble carbonate complexes. 226 Ra was in soluble form in the waters with low concentrations of Fe and Mn, but 10% of the total radium activity was bound to particles in Fe-Mn-rich waters. The speciation of Po is complex in natural waters; polonium was present in both soluble and particle-bound forms. A correlation was observed between the fractions of particle-bound 210 Po and the concentrations of iron in

  14. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A previous assessment of the radiological consequences of the emission of natural radionuclides from coal-fired power stations had indicated that 210 Pb was the main contributor to the maximum individual dose. This dose arose from the consumption of foodstuffs particularly cattle liver contaminated by deposited fly ash. Uncertainty surrounded some of the factors used in the assessment, and a limited environmental monitoring programme was recommended to improve it. An experiment has been performed to measure the specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region have been measured for comparison. The specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil and grass samples from both areas have also been measured at three-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the 210 Pb and 210 Po levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station. Transfer coefficients for 210 Pb from forage to liver were about two orders of magnitude less than that used in the original assessment, and the transfer coefficients for 210 Po about a factor a two less. (orig.)

  15. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbadago, J K; Darko, E O [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, PO Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Faanhof, A [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Schandorf, C, E-mail: jgbada@yahoo.com [School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana)

    2011-09-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment.

  16. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbadago, J K; Darko, E O; Faanhof, A; Schandorf, C

    2011-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment.

  17. Radionuclides in resident and migratory fishes of a wedge bank region: Estimation of dose to human beings, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroz Khan, M.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 137 Cs, 210 Po and 210 Pb accumulation in 47 species of marine fishes. ► Baseline data for Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project. ► Assessment of daily intake and committed effective dose. - Abstract: Baseline activity concentration of 137 Cs, 210 Po and 210 Pb was determined for 25 resident and 22 migratory fish species collected in a so-called wedge bank region in the extreme south of India. A nuclear power station is now under construction at Kudankulam near the target region and the data provide background information on the radionuclide activity concentration in the region. Three-way ANOVA revealed no significant variation in the concentrations of 137 Cs, 210 Po and 210 Pb between species based on feeding habit, habitat and migratory pattern except the effect of feeding habit on 210 Po concentration (p 137 Cs was negligibly small while those due to 210 Po and 210 Pb varied from 1.2 to 36.9 and 0.2 to 2.9 μSv yr −1 , respectively.

  18. Statistical methods for determination of background levels for naturally occuring radionuclides in soil at a RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Taylor, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    It is critical that summary statistics on background data, or background levels, be computed based on standardized and defensible statistical methods because background levels are frequently used in subsequent analyses and comparisons performed by separate analysts over time. The final background for naturally occurring radionuclide concentrations in soil at a RCRA facility, and the associated statistical methods used to estimate these concentrations, are presented. The primary objective is to describe, via a case study, the statistical methods used to estimate 95% upper tolerance limits (UTL) on radionuclide background soil data sets. A 95% UTL on background samples can be used as a screening level concentration in the absence of definitive soil cleanup criteria for naturally occurring radionuclides. The statistical methods are based exclusively on EPA guidance. This paper includes an introduction, a discussion of the analytical results for the radionuclides and a detailed description of the statistical analyses leading to the determination of 95% UTLs. Soil concentrations reported are based on validated data. Data sets are categorized as surficial soil; samples collected at depths from zero to one-half foot; and deep soil, samples collected from 3 to 5 feet. These data sets were tested for statistical outliers and underlying distributions were determined by using the chi-squared test for goodness-of-fit. UTLs for the data sets were then computed based on the percentage of non-detects and the appropriate best-fit distribution (lognormal, normal, or non-parametric). For data sets containing greater than approximately 50% nondetects, nonparametric UTLs were computed

  19. Validity of the determination of 210Po and 210Pb in human urine to check for possible contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Sanz, B.; Fernandez, E.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The alga spectrometry technique for the analysis of 2 10Po/ 2 10Pb is effective for the analysis of radionuclides in urine. has the disadvantage that the measurement of 2 10Pb is deferred and can not be done at the time of contamination, but the 2 10Po analyzed 6 days included in the count. (Author)

  20. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements Pattern in Weathered Japanese Soil Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hosoda, M.; Takahashi, H.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    From the viewpoint of radiation protection, determination of natural radionuclides e.g. thorium and uranium in soil samples are important. Accurate methods for determination of Th and U is gaining importance. The geochemical behavior of Th, U and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most of the environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways that can lead to sources of exposure of man. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K in soils have been measured using a g γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The thorium, uranium and REEs were determined from the same sample using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Granitic rocks contain higher amounts of Th, U and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils, as soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water and gases. In this paper, we have discussed about distribution pattern of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures in Japan: 1. Gifu and 2. Okinawa. (author)

  1. Radionuclides in marine mammals off the Portuguese coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malta, Margarida [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Radionuclide analyses were performed in tissue samples including muscle, gonad, liver, mammary gland, and bone of marine mammals stranded on the Portuguese west coast during January-July 2006. Tissues were collected from seven dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Stenella coeruleoalba) and one pilot whale (Globicephala sp.). Samples were analyzed for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb by alpha spectrometry and for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K by gamma spectrometry. Po-210 concentrations in common dolphin's muscle (D. delphis) averaged 56 {+-} 32 Bq kg{sup -1} wet weight (w.w.), while {sup 210}Pb averaged 0.17 {+-} 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w., {sup 137}Cs averaged 0.29 {+-} 0.28 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w., and {sup 40}K 129 {+-} 48 Bq kg{sup -1} w.w. Absorbed radiation doses due to these radionuclides for the internal organs of common dolphins were computed and attained a 1.50 {mu}Gy h{sup -1} on a whole body basis. {sup 210}Po was the main contributor to the weighted absorbed dose, accounting for 97% of the dose from internally accumulated radionuclides. These computed radiation doses in dolphins are compared to radiation doses from {sup 210}Po and other radionuclides reported for human tissues. Due to the high {sup 210}Po activity concentration in dolphins, the internal radiation dose in these marine mammals is about three orders of magnitude higher than in man. - Highlights: {yields} In marine mammals the highest activity concentrations were those of {sup 40}K and {sup 210}Po. {yields} Absorbed radiation doses in dolphin tissues attained 1.50 mGy h{sup -1} on a whole body basis. {yields} Po-210 was the main contributor (97%) to the internal absorbed radiation dose. {yields} The high {sup 210}Po concentration in the marine mammal's tissues is due to food chain transfer. {yields} The absorbed radiation dose in dolphins is three orders of magnitude higher than in man.

  2. A study of nuclear structure for 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artun, Ozan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we intend to extend the nuclear data of 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery technology, because, these nuclei are quite important for space investigations in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and for microelectronic technologies in betavoltaic batteries. Therefore, the nuclear structure properties of nuclei such as separation energies, neutron skin thicknesses, proton, charge and neutron density distributions as a function of radius, the root mean square (rms) proton, charge and neutron radii, binding energies per particle, have been investigated by Hartree-Fock with eight different Skyrme forces. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental data in literature and relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) results.

  3. Physiological studies of environmental pollutants. Progress report, September 1, 1975--May 31, 1976. [/sup 210/Po, /sup 203/Pb, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 207/Bi, /sup 65/Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengemann, F W; Wentworth, R A

    1976-01-01

    In the past year we have looked at the transfer of some members of the actinide decay series into milk of goats. These were /sup 210/Po, /sup 203/Pb, /sup 201/Tl and /sup 207/Bi. All of these appeared in milk after oral ingestion but at levels less than 1 percent per liter. In addition we have looked at the transfer of /sup 65/Zn into milk of goats after oral and I.V. doses; the experiments are incomplete at this time. In controlled temperature studies it was found that 6.6 times as much radioiodine was secreted into milk when goats were at 33/sup 0/ as opposed to 5/sup 0/C. When radioiodine is put into the mammary gland the transfer from milk to body is rapid; more rapid than is the case for /sup 65/Zn. The analysis of these data indicate the need for a model capable of handling expansion of a compartment.

  4. Proliferative and morphological changes in the pulmonary epithelium of the Syrian golden hamster during carcinogenesis initiated by 210Po alpha alpha-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shami, S.G.; Thibodeau, L.A.; Kennedy, A.R.; Little, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The role of cellular proliferation in a two-stage model of carcinogenesis in the hamster lung was investigated. Syrian golden hamsters were treated intratracheally with either one instillation of 0.2 microCi of 210Po (Po-0 group), seven weekly instillations of BP (0-BP group), or 0.2 microCi 210Po followed 15 weeks later by either seven instillations of 0.9% NaCl solution (Po-Sal group) or seven instillations of BP (Po-BP group). All BP instillations were 3 mg each of BP:ferric oxide (1:1, w/w) carrier particles). Serial sacrifices were performed for up to 85 weeks. Two hr before sacrifice, each animal was given i.p. injections of 200 microCi of [3H]thymidine. Glycol methacrylate section autoradiographs (1 micrometer) were prepared. Labeling indices in the alveolar region, labeling of terminal bronchiolar cells, and morphological changes were examined. Equal numbers of Po-Sal and Po-BP animals developed lung tumors. No tumors were found in Po-0 or 0-BP animals. Tumor development was preceded by the appearance of hyperplastic areas of bronchiolar-type cells in the alveolar region and by changes in morphology of bronchiolar cells. Labeling indices in the alveolar region of the treated groups were slightly increased relative to untreated controls. Labeling of terminal bronchiolar cells was highest in the Po-BP and 0-BP groups and was associated with much inflammation. A single 0.9% NaCl solution instillation also increased proliferation of bronchiolar cells. We conclude that 0.9% NaCl solution instillations may potentiate carcinogenesis in the hamster lung by acting as a nonspecific stimulus to proliferation; in addition, we conclude that not all hyperplasia progresses on to form lung tumors in the Po-BP and Po-Sal groups

  5. Sequential determination of U and Th isotopes, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po in mushroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Dias, Fabiana F.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, mushroom samples were collected in Brazil at the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region and at the Pocos de Caldas Plateau (PC; a region of elevated natural radioactivity, which houses the first Brazilian uranium mine). This paper discusses a sequential methodology to determine natural series radionuclides in mushrooms, such as uranium ( 238 U and 234 U) and thorium ( 232 Th, 230 Th, and 228 Th) isotopes, radium-226, radium-228, as well as lead-210 and polonium-210; using Alpha Spectrometry, Gamma Spectrometry, and Total Alpha and Beta Counting. The method involves total sample dissolution in a closed system in order to avoid loss of Polonium and employment of specific chromatographic resins for radionuclide purification. A subsequent interpretation of the results can provide information on pollutants present in mushrooms and infer possible contamination in the areas sampled as well as allow an association of measured concentrations to radioactive anomalies in the Plateau. (author)

  6. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk

  7. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14 C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210 Po and 210 Pb followed by 226 Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14 C, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 226 Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit's black shale (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, C.; Mougin, L.; Nourreddine, A.; Fakhi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Attention has been recently focused on the use of Moroccan's black shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbents. The purpose of the present work was to characterize a black shale specimen, collected in the region of Timahdit, in terms of the total uranium and thorium contents, measurements of some geochemically important elements (Al, Fe, Si, K, Mn, P, Ca), and XRD/SEM analysis. Selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and alpha-counting, was also performed to assess the distribution of 238 U, 234 U, 235 U, 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th in the main structures. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz, clays constitute the main bulk composition of inorganic matrix. Organic matter counts for at least 15 wt. % of the sample. As in most other organic rich rocks, uranium is highly enriched in the black shale. It was interpreted to have been concentrated over a long period of time under anaerobic environment. This actinide is associated predominantly with humic acids, the precursor of kerogen. An integrated isotopic approach points out its mobilization from these humic acids to carbonates and apatite phases. The radionuclide that is the less mobile in this environment is 232 Th, as was expected from its chemical properties, and in agreement with the most common view in the literature. It is partitioned between silicate minerals (49%), pyrite and kerogen (51%). Speciation, chemical behaviour of uranium and thorium and alpha decay related processes are widely responsible for disequilibria in the uranium decay series. (author)

  9. Radiological impact of drinks intakes of naturally occurring radionuclides on adults of central zone of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawalbeh, A.A.; Samat, S.B.; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Muhamat Omar

    2012-01-01

    Fifty three samples of different types of imported and locally produced drinks consumed in central zone of Malaysia were analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry system. The measurement was conducted for 12 hours using a Canberra p-type high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer with 30 % relative efficiency resolution of 1.8 keV at 1.33 MeV. The detector was connected to a computer with MCA card (Accuspec B) and Genie-2000 Analysis software of Canberra Industries, USA. The geometric means of daily intakes of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were 0.05, 0.08 and 27.23 respectively. Also the values give annual committed effective doses of 0.8, 6.5 and 61.53 μSv yr -1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively for population in central zone of Malaysia. The net radiological impact of these radionuclides is 68.83 μSv yr -1 . This value gives cancer risk factor of 1.72 x 10 -7 . Also the value of net radiological impact gives loss of life expectancy of 0.43 days only. Whereas ICRP cancer risk factor for general public is 2.5 x 10 -3 and total risk involve from the all natural radiation sources based on global average annual radiation dose of 2.4 mSv yr -1 is 6.0 x 10 -3 . The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase of cancer risk from daily Malaysian drinks is only a minor fraction of ICRP values. Therefore the drink samples investigated here does not pose any significant health hazard and is considered radiologically safe for human consumption. (author)

  10. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional North Australian aboriginal foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.S.; Johnston, A.; Hancock, G.J.; Martin, P.

    1997-01-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 227 Ac were measured in edible flesh of traditional Aboriginal food items from the Magela and Cooper Creek systems in the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. Fish, buffalo, pig, magpie goose, filesnake, goanna, turtle, freshwater shrimp and freshwater crocodile were studied. Activity concentrations in water were also measured to enable the calculation of concentration ratios (CRs).For most edible flesh samples, activity concentrations followed the approximate order: 210 Po>> 226210 [ 234 Usimilar 238 [ 230 Thsimilar 232 Th]. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratio was particularly high (greater than 100) for pig flesh. CRs for fish species fall into two groups. Group 1 (bony bream and sleepy cod) had CRs about five times higher than for group 2 (eight other species). CRs for turtle flesh were similar to those for fish in group 1, while those for turtle liver were about a factor of 10 higher. CRs for magpie goose, filesnake, freshwater shrimp, goanna and crocodile flesh were also of the same order as for fish in groups 1 or 2.Calculations of dose resulting from release of wastewaters from uranium mining operations in the region show that the dominant pathway would be uptake of radionuclides, especially 226 Ra, by freshwater mussels, followed by radionuclide uptake by fish. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Water-sediment distribution and behaviour of Polonium ("2"1"0Po) in a shallow coastal area with high concentration of dissolved organic matters in water, North Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thi Van; Nguyen Duc Tam; Dang Duc Nhan; Nguyen Quang Long; Duong Van Thang; Bui Duy Cam

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour and water-sediment distribution of particle-reactive Polonium-210 in the marine environment with high concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP) and dissolved organic matters (DOC) along the coast of the Tonkin Gulf (North Vietnam) were investigated. It was revealed that the water-sediment distribution coefficient, K_d(s), of "2"1"0Po varied from 2.39x10"3 to 1.9x10"4 (L kg"-"1) and from 7x10"3 to 2.5x10"5 (L kg"-"1), respectively, in the rainy and dry season. This implies that in the aquatic environment "2"1"0Po tends to be of high affinity to suspended particulates. The "2"1"0Po K_d(s) was positively correlated with salinity in both rainy and dry seasons. With DOC the K_d(s) was positively correlated in the rainy season, but in the dry season the relationship tended to be reverse. This behaviour of "2"1"0Po in the coastal region was explained by the variation of pH of seawater and by the complexation of the isotope with DOC. The K_d(s) found in this study was in an order lower compared to that reported by Malaysian researchers for the Thailand Gulf. The most important source of "2"1"0Po was suggested to be from in-situ generation by the decay of its grand-parent "2"1"0Pb which mainly derived from the atmospheric fall-out. (author)

  12. Radiation doses to aquatic organisms from natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J E; Jones, S R; Saxen, R; Thoerring, H; Batlle, J Vives i

    2004-01-01

    A framework for protection of the environment is likely to require a methodology for assessing dose rates arising from naturally occurring radionuclides. This paper addresses this issue for European aquatic environments through a process of (a) data collation, mainly with respect to levels of radioactivity in water sediments and aquatic flora and fauna, (b) the use of suitable distribution coefficients, concentration factors and global data where data gaps are present and (c) the utilisation of a reference organism approach whereby a finite number of suitable geometries are selected to allow dose per unit concentration factors to be derived and subsequent absorbed dose calculations (weighted or unweighted) to be made. The majority of the calculated absorbed dose, for both marine and freshwater organisms, arises from internally incorporated alpha emitters, with 210 Po and 226 Ra being the major contributors. Calculated doses are somewhat higher for freshwater compared to marine organisms, and the range of doses is also much greater. This reflects both the much greater variability of radionuclide concentrations in freshwater as compared to seawater, and also variability or uncertainty in concentration factor values. This work has revealed a number of substantial gaps in published empirical data especially for European aquatic environments

  13. Determination of distribution coefficient (Kd's) of some artificial and naturally occurring radionuclide in fresh and marine coastal water sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S; Haleem, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Distribution coefficients of artificial and natural radionuclides in fresh and marine water sediment are used in modeling radionuclide dispersion in water system, and the radiation risk and environmental investigating of impact of radioactive emissions, due to routine operations of nuclear plants or disposal and burial of radioactive waste in the environment. In the present work, distribution coefficient of uranium, lead, polonium, radium (naturally occurring radionuclides that may be emitted into the Syrian environment by the phosphate and oil industry with relatively high concentrations) and caesium 137 and strontium 85, in fresh water sediment (Euphrates River, Orantos River and Mzzerib Lake) and marine coastal water (Lattakia, Tartous and Banias). Distribution coefficients were found to vary between (5.8-17.18)*10 3 , (2.2-8.11)*10 3 , (0.22-2.08)*10 3 , (0.16-0.19)*10 3 , (0.38-0.69)*10 3 and 49-312 for polonium, lead, uranium, radium, cesium and strontium respectively. Results have indicated that most measurement distribution coefficients in the present study were lower than those values reported in IAEA documents for marine coastal sediment. In addition, variations of Kd's with aqueous phase composition and sediment elemental and mineralogical composition and its total organic materials content have been studied, where liner correlation coefficients for each isotope with different parameters have been determined. The obtained data reported in this study can be used for radioactive contaminants dispersion and transfer in Syrian river, lake and coast to assess risks to public due to discharges of the phosphate and oil industry into the Syrian environment. (Authors)

  14. Automation of a gamma spectrometric analysis method for naturally occuring radionuclides in different materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzocchi, Olaf

    2009-06-01

    This work presents an improvement over the standard analysis routine used in the Physikalisches Messlabor to detect gamma peaks in spectra from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The new routine introduces the use of custom libraries of known gamma peaks, in order to ease the work of the software than can therefore detect more peaks. As final result, the user performing the analysis has less chances of making errors and can also analyse more spectra in the same amount of time. A new software, with an optimised interface able to further enhance the productivity of the user, is developed and validated. (orig.)

  15. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils of the southern districts of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M. I.; Kamal, M.; Alam, M. N.; Yeasmin, S.; Mostafa, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil samples of an elevated radiation background area of nine southern districts of Bangladesh were determined using gamma-ray spectrometry with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity. The outdoor and indoor external effective dose rates and the radiation hazard indices from the soil activity were evaluated with an aim of minimising the harmful effects of ionising radiation to the population of the area concerned. The activity of 137 Cs was measured and observed in some of the locations. (authors)

  16. Natural radionuclides in Syrian diet and their daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Khalili, H.; Hassan, M.; Assaf, H.; Amin, Y.; Nashawati, A.

    2004-01-01

    More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels of 210 Po being observed in fish, vegetables, mushrooms, herbs and flowers. The daily intakes of the radionuclides studied have been evaluated. Relatively high values, in comparison with some countries, were found for 210 Po (1.9 Bq/day). This is due to high content of 210 Po in wheat (2.3 Bq/kg) consumed by Syrians, the daily consumption of wheat by Syrians is about 526 g. In addition, natural and artificial radionuclides in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milk were collected from the local market and their radioactivity analyzed. 210 Po activity concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/kg dry wt. in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/kg dry wt. Other radionuclide concentrations were below the limit of detection of 3 Bq/kg dry wt. and 4 Bq/kg dry wt. for 22' 6Ra and 228 Ra, respectively, while uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 μg/kg dry wt. in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 μg/kg dry wt. in other food samples. (author)

  17. Naturally occurring radionuclides in brown coal and copper shale mining waste and its impact on landscape mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Neitzel, P.L.; Hurst, S.; Osenbrueck, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Extensive uranium mining and processing was widely spread in the former socialist European countries, especially former G.D.R., Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria. The exploration and the use of other radioactive contaminated mining products for energetic purposes, e.g. hard coal for uranium extraction in Eastern Germany and highly radium contaminated coal in Upper Silesia (Poland) was also a common practice. Besides uranium and coal mining activities naturally occurring radioactivity was also observed in copper shale mining. All these mining activities led to the accumulation of vast amounts of wastes and to the contamination of large areas. The wastes usually contain not only elevated concentrations of radionuclides like uranium, thorium and the relevant daughter nuclides but also other toxic chemical elements. Now these polluted areas are a permanent source of ground and surface water contamination in the mining districts. For reasons of environmental security and to avoid the uncontrolled spread of radioactive pollution, a permanent cost effective monitoring of the pollution levels is necessary as long as the wastes are deposited in interim disposal sites. With regard to the new German Radiation Protection Law established in August 2001, new waste management concepts based on in-situ mitigation are needed for these normally low radioactive contaminated wastes. Besides improved management concepts the in-situ treatment of contaminated waters is of major importance. Passive water treatment systems are possible methods for a long term cost effective treatment of waters from mine sites with naturally occurring radioactivity. For the treatment of surface waters internationally mainly constructed wetlands are in practice worldwide. On the other hand a few groundwater contaminations have been equipped with permeable walls consisting of zero valent iron. Hydrogeochemical and biogeochemical research on reactive materials is restricted on laboratory scale and there

  18. Distribution of 210-Po and 210-Bi Radon Daughters in the Brain Proteins of a Subject who Suffered from Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momcilovic, B.; Lykken, G. I.

    2003-01-01

    lateral to the Hippocampus, thus far has been associated with the emotions and this is the first published work known to the authors that imply the involvement of the Amygdala in the memory process and to the AD. Our results are also the first to show that the deep subcortical structures of the brain, i.e., Substantia Nigra, Locus Ceruleus and Nucleus Basalis, are not involved in the AD as much as the brain cell membrane proteins are concerned. It remains to be elucidated why the RAD in the Gray brain matter proteins of Hippocampus and Nucleus Amygdale was considerably higher of that in the Gray brain matter proteins The possible damaging role of high-energy alpha particle has been reviewed recently. It was shown that a high-energy alpha particle like that released from the RAD 210Po can damage the DNA even when it misses the cell nucleus. In other words, the classical assumption on alpha particle destructive penetration into the living cell should be upgraded from the current 20-30 μm to almost 50 μm; the later is equivalent to the diameter of the two nerve cells of average size laid one next to the other. Both Hippocampus and Nucleus Amygdala are small brain structures less than 2 cm in diameter and less than 6 cm long at the most, i.e., not more then 25 cm 3 in the worst case scenario. If we assume that approximately 64 brain cells can be found in the one mm 3 , then we may expect 64 000 cells per cm 3 . Thus, we will have a population of about 1 600 00 cells exposed to the high energy RAD 2 10P o at a rate of 2906 and 1737 μBq g -1 in the Hippocampus and Nucleus Amygdala, respectively. Evidently, this simple microdosimetry showed that increased RAD are an important factor, if not in the etiology of AD, but then certainly in its clinical progress towards the dementia. (author)

  19. Safe Management of natural Occurring radionuclides Materials (NORM) from Petroleum Industry in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hussany, B.S.

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of radioactive waste from the environment becomes a real problem need to solve in the last half century. Waste management system is created for safe isolation of the waste. Radioactive waste management including all activities, administrative and operational, That are involved in the handling, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. In petroleum and gas industries there are many wastes containing natural occurring radioactive waste (NORM). The concentration of NORM is increased during the different processes. Accumulation of NORM in these areas makes hazard effects on the workers and on the environment. In Egypt, there are many oil and gas industries in different areas of the republic. Most of these exploration sites containing large amounts of NORM waste. The management of this waste is remained unclear for many companies. Some companies have storage designs for the waste. Others are stored the waste on the working site on land without barriers. Additionally final destination of these wastes is not decided. The improper management of this waste lead to hazard effects to workers in the present time and to public in the future. The present work studies the NORM waste management, from petroleum industry, in Egypt. Strategy of NORM is proposed. NORM waste management steps (system) is also proposed, Incineration and deoiling processes for the treatment of NORM waste are compered. Also in this study, human intrusion scenarios were studied for two NORM storage designs, A) above-ground and B) under-ground bunkers

  20. Activity concentration and population dose from natural occurring radionuclide (40K) due to consumption of fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, M.K.; Patra, A.K.; Jaison, T.J.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of natural occurring radionuclide ( 40 K) in different fresh water fish collected from Moticher lake near Kakrapar, Gujarat. The three types of commonly available fresh water fish in Moticher lake are Notopterus sps, Ophiocephalus sps. and Tor sps. The 40 K activity (Bq/kg flesh wt.) was found to be in the range of 38-100 (Notopterus sps.), 33-123 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 80-116 (Tor sps.) respectively. The ingestion dose (μSv/y) to the adult population around Kakrapar was estimated due to the consumption of fresh water fish and found to be in the range of 7.7-20.5 (Notopterus sps.), 6.8-25.0 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 16.0-24.0 (Tor sps.) respectively. (author)

  1. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides activity concentration in East Malaysian marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yii, M.W. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)], E-mail: yii@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Zaharudin, A.; Abdul-Kadir, I. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2009-04-15

    Studies of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) distribution of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in East Malaysia were carried out as part of a marine coastal environment project. The results of measurements will serve as baseline data and background reference level for Malaysia coastlines. Sediments from 21 coastal locations and 10 near shore locations were collected for analyses. The samples were dried, finely ground, sealed in a container and stored for a minimum of 30 days to establish secular equilibrium between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra and their respective radioactive progenies. They were counted using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometer covering the respective progeny energy peak. For {sup 40}K, the presence of this was measured directly via its 1460 keV energy peak. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in samples obtained from coastal Sarawak ranged between 23 and 41 (mean 30{+-}2) Bq/kg, 27 and 45 (mean 39{+-}4) Bq/kg and 142 and 680 (mean 462{+-}59) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K for samples obtained from coastal Sabah ranged between 16 and 30 (mean 23{+-}2) Bq/kg, 23 and 45 (mean 35{+-}4) Bq/kg and 402 and 842 (mean 577{+-}75) Bq/kg, respectively. For the Sarawak near shore stations, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K ranged between 11 and 36 (mean 22{+-}2) Bq/kg, 21 and 65 (mean 39{+-}5) Bq/kg and 149 and 517 (mean 309{+-}41) Bq/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K for samples obtained from Sabah ranged between 9 and 31 (mean 14{+-}2) Bq/kg, 10 and 48 (mean 21{+-}3) Bq/kg and 140 and 580 (mean 269{+-}36) Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated external hazard values of between 0.17 and 0.33 (less than unity) showed that there is little risk of external hazard to the workers handling the sediments.

  2. Effects of processing on radionuclide content of food -implications for radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    Published information on the effects of processing on the radionuclide content of food has been reviewed. Data are scarce: the majority of the available information concerns 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I, with some dealing with 35 S, 210 Pb and 210 Po. For broad assessments of doses to critical groups from controlled releases, processes that can be carried out on a domestic or local scale are of greatest relevance. In this case, food can be prepared in various ways and cooking liquors can also be consumed, either directly or in the form of sauces. Consequently, when making estimates of intakes of activity, it would be reasonable to assume that, that for the majority of food items and most radionuclides, effectively no loss occurs as a result of processing, provided that the activity concentrations in the foodstuff relate to the edible portion. More information on the behaviour of potentially volatile radionuclides during cooking would however be useful. Recommendations are made about the presentation of data on food processing. (Author)

  3. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Knight, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Schultz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional drilling (the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) to extract oil and natural gas is expanding rapidly around the world. The rate of expansion challenges scientists and regulators to assess the risks of the new technologies on drinking water resources. One concern is the potential for subsurface drinking water resource contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials co-extracted during unconventional drilling activities. Given the rate of expansion, opportunities to test drinking water resources in the pre- and post-fracturing setting are rare. This pilot study investigated the levels of natural uranium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in private drinking wells within 2000 m of a large-volume hydraulic fracturing operation – before and approximately one-year following the fracturing activities. Observed radionuclide concentrations in well waters tested did not exceed maximum contaminant levels recommended by state and federal agencies. No statistically-significant differences in radionuclide concentrations were observed in well-water samples collected before and after the hydraulic fracturing activities. Expanded monitoring of private drinking wells before and after hydraulic fracturing activities is needed to develop understanding of the potential for drinking water resource contamination from unconventional drilling and gas extraction activities. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in ground water near unconventional drilling operations were investigated. • Natural uranium ( nat U), lead-210 ( 210 Pb), and polonium-210 ( 210 Po) levels are described. • No statistically significant increases in natural radioactivity post-drilling were observed

  4. Assessment of trace elements, POPs, 210Po and stable isotopes (15N and 13C) in a rare filter-feeding shark: The megamouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jailson Fulgencio de; Merico, Agostino; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Silva, Josilene; Seixas, Tércia Guedes; Godoy, José Marcus de Oliveira; Saint’Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pollutants were analyzed in a megamouth shark found stranded in Brazilian coast. • Stable isotopes analyzes revealed a pelagic and filter-feeding habits of the shark. • Low levels of pollutants seem to be linked with the trophic ecology of the species. - Abstract: With less than 60 records being reported worldwide, the megamouth (Megachasma pelagios) is today one of the least known shark species inhabiting our oceans. Therefore, information concerning the biology and ecology of this enigmatic organism is very scarce and limited to feeding behaviour and preferred habitat. The present work reports new data on the concentrations of trace elements, organic mercury, POPs and 210 Po in hepatic and muscular tissues of a specimen found stranded in the southeastern coast of Brazil. Additionally, we provide new evidence based on stable isotope analysis (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) confirming the preference for the pelagic habitat and the zooplanktivorous feeding behaviour of the megamouth. These results are consistent with the low concentrations of organic pollutant compounds and other elements measured in our samples

  5. Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in heavy mineral-rich beach sands of Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Sulaiman, Abdullah Fadil Bin; Bradley, D A; Isinkaye, Matthew Omoniyi

    2018-02-01

    Study is made of the radioactivity in the beach sands of Langkawi island, a well-known tourist destination. Investigation is made of the relative presence of the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K and the natural-series indicator radionuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th, the gamma radiation exposure also being estimated. Sample quantities of black and white sand were collected for gamma ray spectrometry, yielding activity concentration in black sands of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K from 451±9 to 2411±65Bqkg -1 (mean of 1478Bqkg -1 ); 232±4 to 1272±35Bqkg -1 (mean of 718Bqkg -1 ) and 61±6 to 136±7Bqkg -1 (mean of 103Bqkg -1 ) respectively. Conversely, in white sands the respective values for 226 Ra and 232 Th were appreciably lower, at 8.3±0.5 to 13.7±1.4Bqkg -1 (mean of 9.8Bqkg -1 ) and 4.5±0.7 to 9.4±1.0Bqkg -1 (mean of 5.9Bqkg -1 ); 40 K activities differed insubstantially from that in black sands, at 85±4 to 133±7Bqkg -1 with a mean of 102Bqkg -1 . The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 232 Th in black sands are comparable with that of high background areas elsewhere in the world. The heavy minerals content gives rise to elevated 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations in all of black sand samples. Evaluation of the various radiological risk parameters points to values which in some cases could be in excess of recommendations providing for safe living and working. Statistical analysis examines correlations between the origins of the radionuclides, also identifying and classifying the radiological parameters. Present results may help to form an interest in rare-earth resources for the electronics industry, power generation and the viability of nuclear fuels cycle resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Benmansour, M.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239þ240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values...... for 12 other radionuclides (90Sr, 99Tc, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation...

  7. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.L.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M.; Pineda, J. Alfredo Rodriguez; Dinsmoor, J.; Mitchell, A.

    2005-01-01

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ( 228 Ra, 224 Ra and 223 Ra) and activity ratios of 224 Ra/ 228 Ra and 224 Ra/ 223 Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the 210 Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high 210 Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 ± 0.02) x 10 3 at PB, (1.68 ± 0.08) x 10 3 at Pozos, and (1.19 ± 0.08) x 10 3 at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 (micro)m at PB, 0.37 (micro)m at Posos, and 4.0 (micro)m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that in addition to alpha recoil, decay of 226 Ra from the adsorbed

  8. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell

    2005-07-11

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that

  9. Natural and man-made radionuclide concentrations in marine sediments of Gokova Bay, Aegean Turkish coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanbay, A.U.; Yener, G.; Mulsow, S.; Fowler, S.W.; Duman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define a baseline study of selected radionuclides (natural and man made) on sediments collected along Goekova Bay. A total of six sediment cores (gravity corer) were collected, each sediment core was sliced in sections and 210 Po, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am were determined for each layer of sediment

  10. High levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinbanks, D D; Shirayama, Y

    1986-03-27

    The paper concerns the high levels of natural radionuclides in a deep-sea infaunal xenophyophore from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench. Measured /sup 210/Po activities and barium contents of various parts of Occultammina profunda and the surrounding sediment are given, together with their estimated /sup 210/Pb and /sup 226/Ra activities. The data suggest that xenophyphores are probably subject to unusually high levels of natural radiation.

  11. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Robert Hans

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radiation is a natural phenomenon and radionuclides occur naturally. The first man-made spread of concentrated radioactivity occurred some 100,000 years ago when the first fireplace was lit, with fallout as a later consequence. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected nuclide in fuels. Its activity concentration in Bq kg-1 normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from potassium in the emission is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to humans are the U- and Th-isotopes and also 210Pb and 210Po. Of fission products in fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests and after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approximately a few μSv from inhalation only can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 person Sv a-1.

  12. Rapid determination of radionuclide activity concentrations in contaminated drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, P.; Ryan, B.; Bollhofer, A.; Martin, P.; International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

    2007-01-01

    As a result of an incident at the Ranger Uranium mine in which drinking water was contaminated with process water, it was necessary to perform quick analysis for naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclide activity concentrations, including 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, U and Th isotopes. The methods which were subsequently used are presented here. The techniques used were high-resolution gamma spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and high-resolution alpha spectrometry. Routine methods were modified to allow for rapid analyses on priority samples in 1-2 days, with some results for highest priority samples available in less than 1 day. Comparison of initial results obtained through standard procedures, is discussed. An emphasis is placed on high-resolution alpha spectrometry of major alpha-emitting nuclides, specifically 226Ra, 230Th and 238U. The range of uranium concentrations in the samples investigated was from background levels to 6.6ppm. Implications for radiological dose assessment in contamination incidents involving process water are presented. The worst-case scenario for the incident at Ranger Uranium Mine indicates that the maximum committed effective dose to workers was well below the ICRP limit for worker-related dose and below the dose limit for a member of the public, with 230Th being the highest contributor

  13. Radiochemical determination of 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarence, J.

    1961-04-01

    By spontaneous deposition of Po onto silver, and with the use of Po 208 as a tracer, the accurate spectrographic measurements are made possible. Quantitative recovery of Po 210 from radioactive cellulose filters is obtained by burning of samples in a golden lined calorimetric bomb. (author) [fr

  14. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M. K.; van Beek, P.; Carvalho, F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified...... radionuclides include: 40K, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 238U, 239Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am for IAEA-410 and 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 239+240Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes...

  15. Natural radionuclides in certain intertidal biota and the radiotoxicological concerns, Gulf of Mannar, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroz Khan, M.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Sunith Shine, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of non-human biota from ionizing radiation, especially in the vicinity of nuclear installations is a very important aspect for nuclear engineers and ecologists. In order to ensure that certain limits of contamination are not exceeded, for the absolute protection of biota and humans is mandatory for nuclear agencies. 210 Po (t 1/2 = 138.4 days) and 210 Pb (t 1/2 = 22 years), in marine food has received much interest from the marine scientific community because of the high toxicity and radioactive dose they deliver to marine organisms and human beings when compared to anthropogenic radionuclides released into coastal waters. The present study focused on determining 210 Po and 210 Pb in some intertidal biota such as crustaceans and mollusks and the exposure risk assessment performed. The study was carried out along the coast of Kudankulam. Samples were processed and analysed as per the standard protocol of IAEA. A portion of 10 g dried fish sample with 0.2 Bq 208 Po tracer was wet-digested using a mixed solution of HNO 3 , H 2 O 2 and HCl. After the resultant solutions were evaporated to dryness, each residue was dissolved in 0.5 N HCL of 50 ml for plating Polonium. Polonium was spontaneously deposited on both sides of a silver disc from the solution for plating for 6 h at a temperature of 80-90 deg C. Both sides of the silver disc are counted with an alpha-ray counter (RC 605A, Nucleonix; efficiency of 35% for a 241 Am standard; minimum detectable limit is 0.02 Bq), and the results were combined. After plating, the solution was stored for 6 months in glass bottles to allow the growth of 210 Po from 210 Pb. Subsequent determination of the ingrown 210 Po was carried out as described above for the determination of 210 Pb. The average 208 Po recovery of 93 ± 2% was obtained by this method. The concentration of both the radionuclides was noticed higher in the organs associated with digestion and metabolism. Filter feeding bivalve molluscs registered the

  16. Determination of distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides (U, Ra, Pb, Po) between different types of Syrian soils and their solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, distribution coefficients of some natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po) between different types of soils in Syria and their solutions were determined. The distribution coefficients values ranged from (164-1933, 280-1722, 350-4749 and 101-117) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 4.0. While, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (207-6706, 673-2397, 149-2147 and 103- 292) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 5.5. In addition, the distribution coefficients values ranged from (167-1707, 126- 1239, 44-1122 and 125-1475) l kg - 1 for 226 Ra, U, 210 Pb and 210 Po, respectively at pH = 7.0. Moreover, the results showed that 210 Po distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 7. While 210 Pb distribution coefficients had the minimum values at same pH. In addition to, U distribution coefficients had the maximum values at pH 5.5. On the other hand, the effect of soil mineral content, CEC, ECE, pH and soluble ions on the distribution coefficients were investigated. In general, the results showed that there are logarithmic relationships between studied radionuclide activity in the soil and their distribution coefficients in all soil types (R 2 ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 at pH 4.0). On the other hand, there were no relationships between the distribution coefficients and soil pH. (authors)

  17. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of stable elements and naturally occurring radionuclides. (2) Rice collected in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Hirai, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    The critical paths of radionuclides and the critical foods in Japan are different from those in European and North American countries because agricultural products and food customs are different. Consequently, safety assessment in Japan is required to consider rice and vegetables as the critical foods. In this study, we measured soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) for rice using naturally existing elements as analogues of radionuclides under equilibrium conditions. Rice and associated soil samples were collected from 50 sampling sites throughout Japan and TFs of 36 and 34 elements for brown rice and white rice, respectively, were calculated on dry weight basis. Probability distributions of TFs of elements for brown rice and white rice were a log normal type. Except for As and Mo, the TFs for brown rice were usually lower than those for wheat and barley especially for K, Fe, Sr (t-test: p 90 Sr and 137 Cs observed in field experiments. Thus, the TFs of naturally existing elements can be used as TFs of those radionuclides which have been in contact with the environment for a long time and have reached equilibrium conditions. (author)

  18. Infant doses from the transfer of radionuclides in mothers' milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.; Smith, T.J.; Phipps, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Assessments of potential internal exposures of the child following radionuclide intakes by the mother require consideration of transfers during lactation as well as during pregnancy. Current ICRP work on internal dosimetry includes the estimation of radiation doses to newborn infants from radionuclides ingested in mothers' milk. Infant doses will be calculated for maternal intakes by ingestion or inhalation of the radionuclides, radioisotopes of 31 elements, for which fetal dose coefficients have been published. In this paper, modelling approaches are examined, concentrating on models developed for iodine, caesium, polonium, alkaline earth elements and the actinides. Comparisons of model predictions show maximum overall transfer to milk following maternal ingestion during lactation of about 30% of ingested activity for 131 I, 20% for 45 Ca and 137 Cs, 10% for 90 Sr, 1% for 210 Po and low values of less than 0.01% for 239 Pu and 241 Am. The corresponding infant doses from milk consumption are estimated in preliminary calculations to be about two to three times the adult dose for 45 Ca and 131 I, 70-80% of the adult dose for 90 Sr, about 40% for 137 Cs, 20% for 210 Po, and 239 Pu and 241 Am. Infant doses from radionuclides in breast milk are compared with doses to the offspring resulting from in utero exposures during pregnancy. (author)

  19. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional North Australian aboriginal foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, A.S.; Johnston, A.; Hancock, G.J.; Martin, P. [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS), Jabiru (Australia)

    1997-07-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 227}Ac were measured in edible flesh of traditional Aboriginal food items from the Magela and Cooper Creek systems in the tropical Northern Territory of Australia. Fish, buffalo, pig, magpie goose, filesnake, goanna, turtle, freshwater shrimp and freshwater crocodile were studied. Activity concentrations in water were also measured to enable the calculation of concentration ratios (CRs).For most edible flesh samples, activity concentrations followed the approximate order: {sup 210}Po>>{sup 226210}[{sup 234}Usimilar{sup 238}[{sup 230}Thsimilar{sup 232}Th]. The {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio was particularly high (greater than 100) for pig flesh. CRs for fish species fall into two groups. Group 1 (bony bream and sleepy cod) had CRs about five times higher than for group 2 (eight other species). CRs for turtle flesh were similar to those for fish in group 1, while those for turtle liver were about a factor of 10 higher. CRs for magpie goose, filesnake, freshwater shrimp, goanna and crocodile flesh were also of the same order as for fish in groups 1 or 2.Calculations of dose resulting from release of wastewaters from uranium mining operations in the region show that the dominant pathway would be uptake of radionuclides, especially {sup 226}Ra, by freshwater mussels, followed by radionuclide uptake by fish. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Natural radionuclide dose and lifetime cancer risk due to ingestion of fish and water from fresh water reservoirs near the proposed uranium mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Selvaraj, Rajaram

    2017-06-01

    Ten sampling locations in Nagarjuna Sagar Dam have been selected to assess the suitability of the reservoir water for human consumption. The sediment, water, and fish samples were collected and analyzed for radionuclide ( 238 U, 232 Th, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and physicochemical parameters like pH, TOC, total hardness, alkalinity, DO, cation exchange capacity, and particle size. The spatial variations among the radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) in water and bottom sediments of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam were determined. The uranium concentration in the sediment and water was in BDL (water samples of the analyzed radionuclides are 238 U-10 Bq/l, 210 Po-0.1 Bq/l, 226 Ra-1 Bq/l, and 210 Pb-0.1 Bq/l. The radionuclides in our water samples were approximately 50 times far below the recommended limit. The ingestion of water and fish would not pose any significant radiological impact on health or cancer risk to the public, implicating that the fishes from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam reservoir are safe for human consumption except the fisherman community.

  1. Fluctuation contents of phosphorus and natural radionuclide in the water column of the Mersing river, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saili, Noor Affizah Bujang; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Studies on natural radionuclides such as 210 Po and 210 Pb with the concentration of phosphorus in water column related to suspended particulate matter (SPM) were carried out at the Mersing River, Johor, Malaysia. Sixteen water samples were collected from nine stations on the 4 th July 2010. 210 Po and 210 Pb activities varied between 0.76 to 2.24 mBq/L and 0.16 to 1.60 mBq/L respectively. The phosphorus concentrations, comprising total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), were within the ranges of 6.06 to 23.31 μg/L, 2.24 to 13.42 μg/L and 0.47 to 16.10 μ/L, respectively. The concentration of TDP and salinity shows weak positive correlation (r = 0.39), perhaps due to the shallow depth of the Mersing River. There is a high positive correlation (r = 0.85) of 210 Po activity with SPM concentration and a moderately positive correlation (r =0.59) of 210 Po and TDP in water. The K d values in suspended particulate matter are much higher compare to that in dissolved phase, proving that the adsorption of radionuclides to particles is more dominant. This implies that SPM significantly influences the variation of the P compound and both radionuclides in the Mersing River. This corresponds with agricultural activities from palm oil estates; erosion of the river bank due to river runoff; advection of suspended particulates from surface sediment due to boat and ferry traffic at the jetties; sedimentation; domestic sewage from nearby terrestrial areas; and natural processes; all of which might have resulted in their introduction to the Mersing River. (author)

  2. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese, who have ever been confronted with atomic bombs, are said to be very sensitive to the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on. However, the peaceful uses of the nuclear power are closely related to our daily lives. Consequently, we should recognize correctly the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on, without refusing emotion-ally or admitting uncritically. Many marine organisms have abilities to accumulate radionuclides to very high concentrations. But, the levels of man-made radioactivity of marine organisms in the sea around Japan have been decreased in recent years compared with those in the past. So, the annual internal dose equivalent for Japanese from seafood (marine organisms) are originated mainly from the natural radionuclides like 210 Po, 210 Pb and 40 K. Nevertheless, study on the marine radioecology must be progressed against the inadvertent radioactive contamination of the surrounding sea, due to the increase of nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons. (author)

  3. Proposed training program for construction personnel involved in remedial action work at sites contaminated by naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.; Schiager, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Many sites used during the early days of the US atomic energy program are contaminated with radionuclides of the primordial decay chains (uranium, thorium, and actinium series). This contamination consists of residues resulting from refining and processing uranium and thorium. Preparation of these sites for release to unrestricted private use will involve the assistance of construction workers, many of whom have limited knowledge of the hazards associated with radioactive materials. Therefore, there is a need to educate these workers in the fundamentals of radioactive material handling to minimize exposures and possible spread of contamination. This training should disseminate relevant information at an appropriate educational level and should instill a cautious, common-sense attitude toward the handling of radioactive materials. The training should emphasize basic information concerning environmental radiation within a context of relative risk. A multi-media format, including colorful visual aids, demonstration, and discussion, should be used to maximize motivation and retention. A detailed, proposed training program design is presented

  4. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of stable elements and naturally occurring radionuclides. (1) Upland field crops collected in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Hirai, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    In long-term dose assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, an important exposure pathway to humans is via ingestion of contaminated foods. In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radionuclides under equilibrium conditions, naturally existing elements were measured as analogues of radionuclides. Crops grown in upland fields and associated soil samples were collected from 62 sampling sites throughout Japan. The total concentrations of 52 elements in the crops and 54 elements in the soil samples were measured. The TFs of 40 elements (Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Pb, Th and U) were calculated on a dry weight basis. Among all the TF data, K showed the highest TF with a geometric mean (GM) of 2.1, followed by P. The GMs of TFs for rare earth elements, Th and U were on the order of 10 -4 . Most of the TF-GMs for green vegetables were higher than GMs of all crops for the elements. The obtained TFs of some elements for green vegetables and potatoes were compared with those in the technical report series-364 (TRS-364) compiled by IAEA in 1994. The TF-GMs were usually lower than the best estimates (expected values) listed in TRS-364; however, the GMs of TF for La and TF for Th observed for potatoes were slightly higher than the expected values. (author)

  5. Uranium-series radionuclides in native fruits and vegetables of northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, B.; Martin, P.; Iles, M.

    2005-01-01

    Wild fruits and vegetables play an important part in a traditional Aboriginal diet in northern Australia. Radionuclide uptake by these foods is important for radiological impact assessment of uranium mining operations in the region, particularly after minesite rehabilitation. Data are presented for concentrations in several fruits and root vegetables, and associated soils. In terms of radiological dose, 210 Po, 226 Ra and, to a lesser extent, 210 Pb were found to be of greater importance than the uranium and thorium isotopes. Other important factors that have emerged include food preparation and consumption habits of Aboriginal people which could potentially affect radionuclide intake estimates. (author)

  6. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-352 radionuclides in tuna fish flesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Lopez, J.J.; Noshkin, V.

    1990-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sample of tuna fish flesh from the Mediterranean Sea, IAEA-352, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 63 laboratories from 31 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (Reference data: 1 January 1989): 137 Cs 2.7 Bq kg -1 , 90 Sr 0.2 Bq Kg -1 , 40 K 391 Bq Kg -1 , 210 Pb 0.6 Bq Kg -1 , 210 Po 2.2 Bq Kg -1 . Tabs

  7. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helariutta, K.; Rantavaara, A.; Lehtovaara, J.

    2000-06-01

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation ( 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K) and radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium ( 210 Pb, 210 Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of 210 Pb and 210 Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to 137 Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  8. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele Wallner; Tania Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210 Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228 Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels. (author)

  9. Activity size distributions of some naturally occurring radionuclides 7Be, 40K and 212Pb in indoor and outdoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.

    2005-01-01

    The activity size distributions of natural radionuclides 7 Be and 40 K were measured outdoor in El-Minia city, Egypt by means of gamma spectroscopy. A low-pressure Berner cascade impactor was used as a sampling device. The activity size distribution of both 7 Be and 40 K was described by one log-normal distribution, which was represented by the accumulation mode. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 7 Be and 40 K was determined to be 530 and 1550nm with a relative geometric standard deviation (δ, which was defined as the dispersion of the peak) of 2.4 and 2, respectively. The same sampling device (Berner impactor) and a screen diffusion battery were used to measure the activity size distribution, activity concentration and unattached fraction (f P ) of 212 Pb in indoor air of El-Minia City, Egypt. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of the accumulation mode for attached 212 Pb was determined to be 250nm with a mean geometric standard deviation (δ) of 2.6. The mean value of the specific concentration of 212 Pb associated with that mode was determined to be 460+/-20mBqm -3 . The activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) of unattached 212 Pb was determined to be 1.25nm with δ of 1.4. A mean unattached fraction (f p ) of 0.13+/-0.02 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 1.8x10 3 cm -3 . The mean activity concentration of unattached 212 Pb was found to be 19+/-3mBqm -3 . It was found that the aerosol concentration played an important role in varying the unattached, attached activity concentration and unattached fraction (f P )

  10. Identification of key processes ruling environmental behaviour of naturally occurring radionuclides on example of Polish Observatory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Developing a sufficient understanding of environmental processes and exposure pathways that permit observations to be explained and robust predictions to be made over spatial and temporal scales is a clear challenge that radioecology needs to address. This scientific challenge has been developed as a separate section of the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) a document produced by the STAR Network of Excellence in Radioecology that outlines a suggested prioritisation of research topics in radioecology. Reality is that in order to bring the SRA to fruition, besides considerable resources and time, an available proving ground is required. The sole sources of such data are areas affected by nuclear accidents but the conditions provided do not follow requirements for scientific experiment. On the other hand, it is hard to imagine anyone deliberately releasing substantial amount of radioactivity into environment in order to observe what would happen- Some of coal mines at Upper Silesia Coal Basin have discharged radium reach brines continuously for many years. The total amount of radium released to inland water is quite well known and varies with time or exploitation conditions. This phenomenon has been observed for more than 30 years and many contaminated sites being in different state were identified. Natural radionuclides (mainly radium isotopes) present in mine water after its release into the environment are subject to different chemical and/or physical processes influencing their final fate. The processes of concern are e.g. precipitation, sedimentation, adsorption, absorption, ion exchange, desorption, leaching, erosion, sequential decay etc. Based on physical and chemical rules, available data and real environmental conditions the key processes that govern radium and its progeny behaviour after discharge with mine water, associated transfers among environmental compartments and resulting exposures of both non-human and humans populations have been identified. The

  11. Modelling the Transfer of Radionuclides from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). Report of the NORM Working Group of EMRAS Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This working group was established to improve the modelling of the transfer of radionuclides from residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) for the purposes of radiological assessment. Almost all naturally occurring materials contain radionuclides from the primordial decay chains (for example, uranium-238, uranium-235, thorium-232 and their daughter products radium-226 and radium-228), plus some individual long-lived radionuclides such as potassium-40. Extraction and/or processing of minerals containing these materials results waste containing such radionuclides. Often the processing can enhance the concentration of the NORM in the waste as compared with the original material. The extraction and processing of minerals usually involves large volumes of material and the resulting waste is also present in large volumes which are usually left on the earth's surface. Human exposure to radionuclides from such waste piles can occur as a result of gaseous emanation from the waste (radon-222) or as a result of the leaching by rainfall of radionuclides from the waste into water courses and, possibly, food chains. There are a variety of situations involving NORM that require potential radiation doses to be assessed, they include: (1) surface storage of residues from the extraction and processing of minerals; (2) remediation of NORM-containing waste piles; and (3) the use of NORM-containing waste for backfilling, building materials, road construction etc. In all of these situations there is a need to understand the present and future behaviour of the radionuclides which may be released from NORM so that steps can be taken to ensure that humans are adequately protected from exposure to radiation. Because of the long-lived nature of many of the radionuclides, the assessments must be carried out over long times into the future. This is the first time that the modelling of NORM-containing radionuclides has been examined in this IAEA format and the working

  12. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guar