Sample records for occupational task occupational

  1. Industrial Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists. (United States)

    Lake County Area Vocational Center, Grayslake, IL.

    The duties and tasks found in these task lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs for industrial occupations. The industrial occupations are divided into eight clusters. The clusters and occupations are: construction cluster (bricklayer, carpenter, building maintenance…

  2. Relationship between Occupational Maladjustment and Task ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently the present researchers motivated by this fact set out to determine the level of relationship between occupational maladjustment and task performance of civil servants in Anambra state. Three research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The design for the study is correlational survey used to ...

  3. [Physicians' tasks in the Occupational Health Services]. (United States)

    von Bülow, B A


    The aim of this study was to describe the kind of present and future tasks doctors employed in the Occupational Health Service (OHS) in Denmark carried out and to shed light on the reasons why only a moderate number of doctors are employed in the OHS. Additional aims were to map out the number of engaged part-time and full-time doctors in the OHS in Denmark compared with the number of other professionals engaged in the OHS. The study was based on questionnaires sent out to all 109 OHS units in Denmark and to all the doctors employed in the OHS. Ten persons in the OHS were strategically selected for an open interview. There were still only a very few doctors (9%) employed in the OHS in comparison to the other professionals employed in OHS, (nurses, various therapists and technicians) and the doctors were mostly engaged part-time; most of them for less than 10 hours a week. The moderate number of doctors was amongst other things explained by the relatively high cost of the doctors' salaries and the doctors having a reputation for being arrogant and dominating. The doctors were in general very experienced in occupational health matters and solved many problems which required a doctors education. A great deal of the problems they solved were in finding the causality between the workers' symptoms and the working-place conditions. The doctors suggested several future tasks for OHS, e.g. to evaluate its preventive results and to participate in a higher degree when planning working environments.

  4. Occupational Clusters. (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  5. Task Lists for Home Economics Occupations, 1988: Cluster Matrices for Home Economics Occupations. Education for Employment Task Lists. (United States)

    Below, Virginia

    This document contains information for home economics occupations in Illinois in seven sections. The first part provides lists of employability skills for the following: food preparation and service worker, fashion designer, dietetic technician, and service coordinator/consumer assistant/concierge. The second section contains task analyses for the…

  6. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.


    This book aims to review the occurrence and causes of occupational cancer and is aimed at assisting medical and safety staff, management and health and safety representatives. It is presented in the following chapters: 1) Epidemiological method 2) Agents causing occupationally induced cancer, including radiation 3) Occupations associated with risk of cancer 4) Aetiology of cancer 5) Control of occupationally induced cancer, research, prevention, legislation, national and international bodies, control of specific occupational carcinogens, including irradiation. (U.K.)

  7. Impact of Work Task-Related Acute Occupational Smoke ... (United States)

    Objective: A repeated measures study was used to assess the effect of work tasks on select proinflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Methods: Ten firefighters and two volunteers were monitored for particulate matter and carbon monoxide on workdays, January-July 2015. Before and after work-shift dried blood spots were analyzed for inflammatory mediators using the Meso Scale Discovery assay, while blood smears were used to assess leukocyte parameters. Results: Firefighters lighting with drip-torches had higher cross-work-shift increases in interleukin-8, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A compared to holding, a task involving management of fire boundaries. A positive association between interleukin-8 and segmented-neutrophil was observed. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that intermittent occupational diesel exposures contribute to cross-work-shift changes in host systemic innate inflammation as indicated by elevated interleukin-8 levels and peripheral blood segmented-neutrophils. The decision whether to perform a prescribed burn balances land use, risk of fire and potential health impacts. Understanding the latter requires a quick non intrusive assay which can be used to monitor the health of those exposed to smoke. This is first study to use blood smears to assess changes in systemic differential leukocyte cell populations following wood smoke exposure from prescribed burn. This research is useful for understandi

  8. The predictive value of general movement tasks in assessing occupational task performance. (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P


    Within the context of evaluating individuals' movement behavior it is generally assumed that the tasks chosen will predict their competency to perform activities relevant to their occupation. This study sought to examine whether a battery of general tasks could be used to predict the movement patterns employed by firefighters to perform select job-specific skills. Fifty-two firefighters performed a battery of general and occupation-specific tasks that simulated the demands of firefighting. Participants' peak lumbar spine and frontal plane knee motion were compared across tasks. During 85% of all comparisons, the magnitude of spine and knee motion was greater during the general movement tasks than observed during the firefighting skills. Certain features of a worker's movement behavior may be exhibited across a range of tasks. Therefore, provided that a movement screen's tasks expose the motions of relevance for the population being tested, general evaluations could offer valuable insight into workers' movement competency or facilitate an opportunity to establish an evidence-informed intervention.

  9. Linkage Technologies Which Enhance the Utility of Task-Based Occupational Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phalen, William


    .... It is alleged that traditional task-based occupational analysis is too labor intensive, too costly, too cumbersome, and too static to meet the emerging and rapidly changing needs of a business...

  10. Securing the future through occupational safety. A managerial task; Zukunftssicherung durch Arbeitssicherheit. Eine Managementaufgabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Opencast Mines Div.; Groener, Harald [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany). Arbeitssicherheit; Obermeyer, Bjoern [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). PHS-B Operativer Arbeitsschutz


    The significance of occupational safety has increased over recent years so that this topic is now an integral task of management. To be able to meet the tighter requirements, occupational safety has to be dealt with in the same way as other topics. Therefore, RWE Power has introduced an occupational health and safety management system (AMS) whose organizational and operational structures are described in the following. The consistent implementation of occupational safety requires issue- and target group-related programmes of emphasis to be carried out in addition to the AMS. Two of these occupational safety programmes of RWE Power, which have contributed to a successful reduction in accident numbers, are presented along with the steps involved. Further examples from several plants and mines show how occupational safety has been further developed. In a company, occupational safety can only be successful if the managerial tasks are accepted and if superiors, occupational safety officers, industrial physicians, works council members, and partners ''pull together'' and if all employees are actively involved. (orig.)

  11. Occupational rhinitis. (United States)

    Petrick, Maria M; Slavin, Raymond G


    This article aims to define occupational rhinitis, classify its various causes, review the steps in its diagnosis, and describe its nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic principles of management. Occupational rhinitis frequently coexists with asthma but also occurs alone. Although it does not have the same impact as occupational asthma, occupational rhinitis causes distress, discomfort, and work inefficiency. By concentrating on the patient's workplace, the clinician has an opportunity to practice preventive medicine: to recognize substances in the patient's micro- and macroenvironment that are causing the problems and then to intervene by altering the environment or removing the patient from the environment.

  12. Raising occupational safety - an exceptionally important top rank task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Comments on the Consulting Meeting on Safety at Work and Fire Prevention in the state association Energetika, held at the Bobov Dol coal mine on 27.7.1986. The main report, submitted by S. Mishev, manager of the state inspectorate, stated that in 1985 working conditions of 1,074 employees improved significantly and the number of accidents among workers was reduced by a coefficient of 1.92 points compared to 1984. Thirty-eight million levs were spent on improving occupational safety (reducing dust, noise and vibration levels). Measures aimed at preventing fires, in particular at the Maritsa-Iztok briquetting plant and in the Babino coal mine were improved significantly (fire-resistant support of mainroads, backfilling and isolation of goaf, application of anti-pyrogens, methane drainage, remote methane control, etc.). The number of annual inspections by safety inspectors has increased to 9,000. Coefficient of absenteeism due to bodily injury has been reduced by 40.57 points. Dust exposure of miners has also been reduced.

  13. Characterization of Cleaning and Disinfecting Tasks and Product Use Among Hospital Occupations (United States)

    Saito, Rena; Virji, M. Abbas; Henneberger, Paul K.; Humann, Michael J.; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Stanton, Marcia L.; Liang, Xiaoming; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.


    Background Healthcare workers have an elevated prevalence of asthma and related symptoms associated with the use of cleaning/disinfecting products. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize cleaning/disinfecting tasks and products used among hospital occupations. Methods Workers from 14 occupations at five hospitals were monitored for 216 shifts, and work tasks and products used were recorded at five-minute intervals. The major chemical constituents of each product were identified from safety data sheets. Results Cleaning and disinfecting tasks were performed with a high frequency at least once per shift in many occupations. Medical equipment preparers, housekeepers, floor strippers/waxers, and endoscopy technicians spent on average 108–177 min/shift performing cleaning/disinfecting tasks. Many occupations used products containing amines and quaternary ammonium compounds for > 100 min/shift. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that many occupations besides housekeeping incur exposures to cleaning/disinfecting products, albeit for different durations and using products containing different chemicals. PMID:25351791

  14. Occupational Health (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  15. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choril, A.C.; McCracken, W.J.; Dowd, E.C.; Stewart, Charles; Burton, D.F.; Dyer, D.W.


    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Workers' claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancers associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% is presently caused by occupational factors

  16. Occupational Cancer (United States)

    ... November 3, 2015 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  17. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann


    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  18. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, N.


    Cancer resulting from occupational exposure is now receiving major attention, focusing on identification, regulation, and control of cancer-causing agents. Such cancer can result from exposure to chemicals and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Extended exposure (often years) and an extended latent period of perhaps decades may intervene before tumor appearance. Although the actual extent of occupational cancer is in debate, estimates have ranged from 4 to 15 per cent of all cancer

  19. Occupational health


    Coosemans, R.


    Health at work and healthy work environments are among the most valuable assets of individuals, communities and countries. Nowadays, new broader approach is promoted, recognizing the fact that occupational health is a key, but not a unique element of workers’ health. Workers health is a public health approach to resolving the health problems of working populations including all determinants of health recognized as targets of risk management. It focuses on primary prevention of occupational an...

  20. Occupational-Specific Strength Predicts Astronaut-Related Task Performance in a Weighted Suit. (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Kotarsky, Christopher J; Bond, Colin W; Hackney, Kyle J


    Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit. The TTC for each task was recorded and summed to obtain a total TTC for the test battery. Linear regression was used to predict total TTC with two models: 1) NASA lower body strength tests; and 2) NASA lower body strength tests + occupationally specific strength tests. Total TTC of the test battery ranged from 20.2-44.5 min. The lower body strength test alone accounted for 61% of the variability in total TTC. The addition of hand drilling and wrenching strength tests accounted for 99% of the variability in total TTC. Adding occupationally specific strength tests (hand drilling and wrenching) to standard lower body strength tests successfully predicted total TTC in a performance test battery within a weighted suit. Future research should couple these strength tests with higher fidelity task simulations to determine the utility and efficacy of task performance prediction.Taylor A, Kotarsky CJ, Bond CW, Hackney KJ. Occupational-specific strength predicts astronaut-related task performance in a weighted suit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):58-62.

  1. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee; Jean-Pierre Bertrand; Jean-Pierre Meyer (and others) [Indian Institute of Technology (India). Department of Mining Engineering


    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries and significant ORs=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  2. Task profile and risk of occupational hepatitis A infection in sewerage workers. (United States)

    Nuebling, M; Hofmann, F


    The aim of the study was to assess to what extent parameters of task-related occupational exposure influence anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) seroprevalence in sewerage workers, using a new instrument for classification of exposure. A new instrument for the assessment of work-related infection hazards was developed based on expert interviews, evaluation of literature and theoretical considerations. It was included in a questionnaire for collecting detailed information on occupational exposure, safety awareness, safety behaviour and socio-demography. Anti-HAV status was assessed for all (n = 343) (non-vaccinated) study participants. Marked differences in task profile and task-related exposure within the group of sewerage workers were found, underlining the necessity of a detailed exposure analysis. In a multivariate model three risk factors that were related significantly to anti-HAV positivity were identified: age, country of origin and task-related exposure. Since task profiles and occupational exposure differ strongly within the job category of sewerage workers. evaluation of endangerment has to reflect individual task-related exposure. The task-exposure matrix developed and presented in this study is a practicable and valid instrument for exposure assessment and may be used for the exposure analysis of further biological agents in this working environment. Besides the known risk parameters age and origin, our study demonstrates a dose-response relationship between the degree of occupational exposure and the anti-HAV seroprevalence. Therefore, an effective worksite HAV-prevention programme should consider all technical, structural and educational measures that help to reduce individual exposure.

  3. Task Analysis Questionnaire Booklet, Occupational Field 60/61. (United States)


    112 " AND AbNVE MLY Th-r, I a neal fc I ’ (’ ’ 0 It , fo I [,w , n ’ ubjet:: (Thek Uioe app I I cit, I 1. ’,a 1 irvi nct lan. *,’:! Ielt .,’ ’Vn :’cv...the "TPMI S" >7" -. lumn ratin, the "TIME SPENT" in compa !-son t,, -ill other . you are required to do in your present job. ’:molelt the " TRAINING ...11h) ,o- .n. TURN TO I’T: NEXT PAGE IN T1t1’) D O ..’ AND START PART Ili, FU NOT I)NA!, TAiti7 II F. PART lII QUt’STIONNAIRE GENERAL TASKS i. Review

  4. Occupational hazards


    Paz-Fuchs, Amir; Ronen, Yaël


    This article provides an analysis and a critique of the law governing the employment relationship between Israeli employers and Palestinian employees in industries operating in the West Bank. \\ud \\ud Through an analysis of Israeli jurisprudence it highlights the intersection among different areas of law: choice of law, public international law (in particular the law of occupation), and labor law. The article explores the tensions that this intersection creates: first, between the importance t...

  5. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickson, K.


    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined

  6. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K


    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  7. Clinical and Phenomenological Characteristics of Patients with Task-Specific Lingual Dystonia: Possible Association with Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Yoshida


    Full Text Available BackgroundLingual dystonia is a subtype of oromandibular dystonia, which is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent contraction of the masticatory and/or tongue muscles. Lingual dystonia interferes with important daily activities, such as speaking, chewing, and swallowing, resulting in vocational and social disability.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between occupation and the development of lingual dystonia.MethodsPhenomenological and clinical characteristics of 95 patients [53 females (55.8% and 42 males (44.2%, mean age 48.0 years] with task-specific, speech-induced lingual dystonia were analyzed. Structured interviews were carried out to obtain information regarding primary occupation, including overtime work and stress during work. The factors that might have influenced the development of lingual dystonia were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis of the 95 patients with lingual dystonia and 95 controls [68 females (71.6% and 27 males (28.4%, mean age 47.2 years] with temporomandibular disorders.ResultsOverall, 84.2% of the patients had regular occupations; 73.8% of the patients with regular occupations reported working overtime more than twice a week, and 63.8% of them experienced stress at the workplace. Furthermore, 82.1% of the patients had engaged in occupations that required them to talk to customers or other people under stressful situations over prolonged periods of time for many years (mean: 15.6 years. The most common occupation was sales representative (17.9%, followed by telephone operator (13.7%, customer service representative (10.5%, health care worker (9.5%, waiter or waitress (5.3%, receptionist (5.3%, and cashier (5.3%. Twenty-nine patients (30.5% had tardive lingual dystonia. Logistic regression analyses revealed that frequent requirements for professional speaking (p = 0.011, odds ratio: 5.66, high stress during work

  8. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus


    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  9. What are the new challenges, goals, and tasks of occupational health in China's Thirteenth Five-Year Plan (13th FYP) period? (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Wu, Chao; Kang, Liangguo; Huang, Lang; Pan, Wei


    In recent years, the Chinese government has attached great importance to occupational health under the guidance of people-oriented concept. This paper introduces the current status and future development of occupational health in China's Thirteenth Five-Year Plan (13th FYP) period (2016-2020) to promote the cooperation and exchange on occupational health between China and other countries. We collected statistical data about occupational diseases and information addressing occupational diseases. We included all types of official reports, guidelines, policies, and relevant laws published by the Chinese government. China has carried out a series of strategies and measures to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases, and has made progress in occupational health protection. However, occupational health in China still faces severe conditions and challenges for occupational diseases that have not been prevented and controlled effectively. To actively promote the future development of occupational health during the 13th FYP period, China has issued a series of important policy documents (such as the Plan for a Healthy China 2030, the 13th FYP for Occupational Disease Prevention and Control, and the 13th FYP for Occupational Health Hazard Prevention and Control) in the last two years. The overall situation condition of occupational health in China is still serious. Occupational health in China's 13th FYP period faces a series of challenges, future tasks include plans to add the employer and regulatory levels of occupational health management, and occupational health education and publicity to the current technology-dominated approaches.

  10. The Role of Task Persistence in Young Adolescence for Successful Educational and Occupational Attainment in Middle Adulthood (United States)

    Andersson, Hakan; Bergman, Lars R.


    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the importance of task persistence in young adolescence for successful educational and occupational attainment in middle adulthood. Data from age 13 (N = 1,092) and adult age (age 43 for women, N = 569 and age 47 for men, N = 393) were taken from the Swedish longitudinal research program…

  11. Occupational hearing loss (United States)

    ... this page: // Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  12. An Organizational and Task Perspective Model Aimed at Enhancing Teachers’ Professional Development and Occupational Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Béatrice; Kreijns, Karel; Gerrichhauzen, John


    Currently, many countries, including the Netherlands, are “plagued” by severe, both quantitative and qualitative, teacher shortages that are even expected to increase in the years to come. Teachers’ occupational development, therefore, has become an important issue on the research agenda of the

  13. The role and tasks of industrial hygienists in occupational and environmental medicine and their code of ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzesik


    Full Text Available The paper considers changes in occupational medicine in the last fifty years, describes industrial hygienists tasks and the reasons why their activities grew in importance. Also the needs of compliance with their own professional Code of Ethics are discussed. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, voted and accepted by the United Nations in 1948 changed the strategic target of occupational medicine. Since then the most important task became prevention of health damage caused by work, which should enable the employees to stay healthy throughout the whole period of professional activity. Before that the main target was to restore the health of employees injured by work. To make the used preventive measures to be effective, they must be selected appropriately to professional harmfulness posing threat to employees health. This requires to reveal all factors potentially harmful to health, which occur in the work-environment, to measure their concentrations or intensity, to determine the employees exposure to those factors and to estimate the level of the health risk, caused by this complex exposure. Contemporarily occupational medicine service encompass with its preventive supervision the municipal environments, because they become seriously polluted due to emission of harmful industrial pollutants what brings about a negative impact to health of exposed dwellers. Those activities, being to a large extent outside the scope of competence and tasks of doctors – specialists of occupational medicine, are performed by industrial hygienists, who the required knowledge and skills acquired during university studies on technical and natural faculties. This caused a substantial increase of the role of industrial hygienists in the present activity of occupational medicine service and simultaneously took into consideration the ethical aspects of the work of these professionals. Evaluation of the backbone and the scope of work drew attention not only to the

  14. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas


    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  16. Marketing occupational health care. (United States)

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C


    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  17. The Heath Occupational Model. (United States)

    Heath, William E.


    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  18. Leadership and Occupational Stress (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly


    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  19. Occupational Stress among Teachers. (United States)

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.


    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  1. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod


    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  2. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H


    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) ( RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  3. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel


    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  4. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role (United States)

    Frolek Clark, Gloria


    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  5. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology


    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.


    Eren, Hakan; Huri, Meral; Bağış, Nilsun; Başıbüyük, Onur; Şahin, Sedef; Umaroğlu, Mutlu; Orhan, Kaan


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and occupational participation limitation among dental students in a dental school in Turkey. Four hundred fifty-eight dental students (females=153; males=305) were included in the study. The age range varied from 17-to-38 years. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Version (MBI-SV) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used to gather data. Descriptive analyses, t-test, and Kruskall-Wallis test for independent groups were used for data analyses. The results indicated that 26% of all the students have burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion (25%), cynicism (18%), and academic efficacy (14%). The results showed that burnout is statistically significant in relation to demographics (pstudents showed considerably decreased occupational performance and satisfaction scores, which suggested occupational participation limitations. Occupational performance and satisfaction scores were inversely correlated with emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while directly correlated with reduced academic efficacy (pburnout and occupational participation limitation can be seen among dental students. Students with burnout may also have occupational participation limitation. Enriching dental education programs with different psychological strategies may be useful for education of healthy dentists and improve the quality of oral and dental health services.

  7. Occupational risk of building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, O.N.; Topali, E.; Papazoglou, I.A.


    This paper presents the quantification of occupational risk of a building construction project. Risk assessment is based on the Occupational Risk Model (ORCA) developed under the Workgroup Occupational Risk Model project (WORM), in the Netherlands, for quantifying occupational risk. This model assesses occupational risk of a worker, by taking into account his various tasks, activities and their hazards. Risk is evaluated for three types of consequences: recoverable injury, permanent injury and death. The occupational risk model is based on a set of 63 bowties, which assess risk owing to different hazards such as fall from ladder, scaffold, roofs, falling object, struck by moving vehicle, contact by moving parts, etc. ORCA calculates the risk profile of a building construction site, consisting of thirty-eight workers in different job positions, such as operators of excavators, loaders, compaction equipment, workers in excavation and framing phases, etc. All risk profiles of workers have been quantified and jobs have been ranked according to their risk. Workers installing timber formworks have the highest fatality risk (1.57×10 −3 /yr), followed by the workers installing reinforcement (1.52×10 −3 /yr).

  8. Occupational Mortality, Background on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth


    in England and Wales from 1851 to 1979–1983, and these studies have provided key data on social inequalities in health. Death certificate studies have been used for identification of occupational groups with high excess risks from specific diseases. Follow-up studies require linkage of individual records......The study of occupational mortality involves the systematic tabulation of mortality by occupational or socioeconomic groups. Three main methods are used to conduct these studies: cross-sectional studies, death certificate studies, and follow-up studies. Cross-sectional studies were undertaken...

  9. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during work tasks at 110 kV substations in the Tampere region. (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Pääkkönen, Rauno J


    The occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during various work tasks at seven 110 kV substations in Finland's Tampere region was studied. The aim was to investigate if the action values (10 kV/m for the E-field and 500 microT for the B-field) of the EU Directive 2004/40/EC were exceeded. Electric and magnetic fields were measured during the following work tasks: (1) walking or operating devices on the ground; (2) working from a service platform; (3) working around the power transformer on the ground or using a ladder; and (4) changing a bulb from a man hoist. In work task 2 "working from a service platform" the measured electric field (maximum value 16.6 kV/m) exceeded 10 kV/m in three cases. In the future it is important to study if the limit value (10 mA/m(2)) of Directive 2004/40/EC is exceeded at 110 kV substations. The occupational 500 microT action value of the magnetic flux density field (B-field) was not exceeded in any working situation.

  10. Gossip and Occupational Ideology (United States)

    Rysman, Alexander R.


    Defines the transmission of gossip as an essential social process reflecting a shared group membership and discusses the ways in which gossip supports ideologies held by members of a specific occupation. (MH)

  11. Occupancy and Occupants’ Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Carlucci, Salvatore; Andersen, Rune


    to study, measure, and ultimately model. The categories are physiological, individual, environmental, and spatial adjustments. Third, a list of adaptive and non-adaptive triggers together with contextual factors that could influence occupant behavior is presented. Individual elements are further grouped...... into physical environmental, physiological, psychological, and social aspects. Finally, a comprehensive table of studies related to occupant behavior and the corresponding significant and non-significant predictors, based on an extensive literature review, is shown. This table highlights areas of research where......Occupants’ presence and actions within the built environment are crucial aspects related to understanding variations in energy use. Within this chapter, first, a nomenclature for the field of research dealing with occupants in buildings is defined. This nomenclature distinguishes between occupants...

  12. Occupational lung diseases. (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant


    Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to

  13. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano


    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  14. What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults' occupational performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tove Lise; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Nielsen, Claus Vinther


    critically appraised 13 of 995 detected papers. Extracted data were presented and summarised descriptively. Results Eight high-quality papers showed that occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy using cognitive, behavioural and environmental strategies may significantly improve......Abstract Title What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults’ occupational performance? A systematic review Background There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home......-based occupational therapy for older adults aimed at improving occupational performance by practicing activities and tasks. Aim This review synthesizes and discusses evidence for the effectiveness of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy for older adults at home. Material and methods Peer...

  15. Occupational choice and values.


    Kantas, A.


    It is suggested that psychological and sociological approaches to occupational choice can be linked together by employment of three concepts: work salience, values and motivation. Employing Vroom's (1964) cognitive model of motivation occupational choice was examined as a value attainment process. The subjects were 225 male pupils of two different school complexes in Athens, Greece. They were asked to respond to a work salience questionnaire and to rank order a set of ...

  16. Occupational health in Mexico. (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy


    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico.

  17. Radiation protection: occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.A.


    The basis of the occupational exposure limit of 50 mSv recommended by the ICRP is questioned. New dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the fact that the dose-response curve may be non-linear and that the relative risk model may be applicable, are some of the arguments advanced to support a reduction in the occupational exposure dose limits. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Occupational exposures. Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Annex focuses on significant changes in the pattern of occupational exposure which have appeared since the 1972 and 1962 reports, and presents information on trends or particular causes of high exposures. A further objective is to clarify the reasons for which the Committee requires data on occupational exposure, and to suggest areas in which better data collection or analysis may be performed. Data are also reviewed on accidents involving the exposure of workers to substantial radiation doses.

  19. Occupational health in Malaysia. (United States)

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Aw, Tar-Ching; Jefferelli, Shamsul Bahrin


    This article provides a detailed examination of Malaysian occupational health agencies and their roles in formulating and enforcing standards, promoting occupational health and safety (OSH), and providing advisory services. Available OSH training is described, and the need for policies and personnel in various industries is outlined. Further, the authors discuss how international models and collaboration have influenced Malaysian OSH, and how some successes can be repeated and failures remedied.

  20. Tuberculosis as occupational disease


    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo tropicalista magister en Epidemiología Clínica.


    There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupationa...

  1. Occupational stressors in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikpeyma


    Full Text Available Background and aimsNursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is  a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamworking in a variety of situations and provision  of 24-hour delivery of care .Occupational stress is a major factor of Staff sickness an  absenteeism.This study investigates the main occupational stressors in nursing profession in the  hope of identification and reducing it.MethodsIn this study a questionnaire consisting of three parts:demoghraphic data,the nurses  background and questions about occupational stress from Revised index fulfilled by 140 nurses.ResultsLack of reward for work well done(48/6%, Heavy workload(46/4% ,lack of Participation in decisions (39/3% , poor Control of work place(38/4%and lack of job  development (36/4% have been the main sources of Occupational stress for nurses.chronic  diseases, Night Shift working and working hours were positively associated with occupstional  stress.Conclusion Analysis indicated that effects of work factors on occupational stress are more than demoghraphic data. The findings of this study can assist health service organisations to provide an attractive working climate in order to decrease side effects and consequences of occupational stress. Furthermore, understanding this situation can help to develop coping strategies in order to reduce work-related stress.

  2. Occupational health in Brazil. (United States)

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C


    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  3. Population Health and Occupational Therapy. (United States)

    Braveman, Brent


    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Occupational Experience, Mobility, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane

    In this paper we present how occupational tenure relates to wage growth and occupational mobility in Danish data. We show that the Danish data produces qualitatively similar results as found in U.S. data with respect to an increase in average wages when experience in an occupation increases. In a...... also is true for workers switching occupation and rm. After ve years of experience in an occupation the average probability of switching any type of occupation, including occupation and rm switches, has fallen from 25% to 12%........ In a sample of full time private employed, the first five years of experience in an occupation increases average wages with 8% to 15%, conditional on rm and industry tenure. We further show that the probability of switching occupation declines with experience in the occupation and that the declining hazard...

  5. A Career Story Approach to Management, Business, and Financial Occupations (United States)

    Brott, Pamelia E.


    Business, management, and financial occupations are found in organizations in which individuals direct activities and perform tasks related to business and finance. The career cluster includes 144 occupational titles across 57% of the 23 major Standard Occupational Classification groups, with almost half of the occupations considered "bright…

  6. Occupational safety meets radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severitt, S.; Oehm, J.; Sobetzko, T.; Kloth, M.


    The cooperation circle ''Synergies in operational Security'' is a joint working group of the Association of German Safety Engineers (VDSI) and the German-Swiss Professional Association for Radiation Protection (FS). The tasks of the KKSyS are arising from the written agreement of the two associations. This includes work on technical issues. In this regard, the KKSyS currently is dealing with the description of the interface Occupational Safety / Radiation Protection. ''Ignorance is no defense'' - the KKSyS creates a brochure with the working title ''Occupational Safety meets radiation protection - practical guides for assessing the hazards of ionizing radiation.'' The target groups are entrepreneurs and by them instructed persons to carry out the hazard assessment. Our aim is to create practical guides, simple to understand. The practical guides should assist those, who have to decide, whether an existing hazard potential through ionizing radiation requires special radiation protection measures or whether the usual measures of occupational safety are sufficient. (orig.)

  7. Occupational Survey Report on Automotive Mechanics: Task Data from Workers and Supervisors Indicating Job Relevance and Training Criticalness. [Interim Report]. Research and Development Series No. 110. (United States)

    Ammerman, Harry L.; Pratzner, Frank C.

    The study was conducted to develop methods for using timely, firsthand occupational task information on automotive mechanics in order to identify critical performance requirements that warrant formal training. The methodology used is described in detail. A Task Inventory Questionnaire was completed by 18 auto mechanics and 12 supervisors in each…

  8. Occupational health offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, A.; Davies, F.


    The proceedings contain the 29 papers presented at the conference plus the opening address from the chair of the Health and Safety Commission. The papers in the first session were concerned with policy, strategy and leadership and included a perspective from the offshore industry advisory committee, details of a health planning tool for occupational health assurance and lessons from occupational health management in the offshore sector. The two sessions on the second day dealt with occupational health in the offshore design process and case studies involving physical, chemical and biological agents. Topics included the need to consider occupational health when designing offshore installations, the development of a human factors engineering strategy in petrochemical engineering projects, measuring occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals, implementation of the noise at work regulations, hand arm vibration syndrome and issues with potable water maintenance. The two sessions on the third day were concerned with human factors and psychological health, and well-being and fitness for duty. Topics covered included circadian adaption to shift change in offshore shift workers, managing stress in the offshore environment, the role of employee assistance programmes in organisational stress management, health care and first aid (the revised ACOP), well-being at work, the medical and physical fitness of offshore emergency response rescue team members, the impact of health surveillance and promotion of offshore accident rates, and the implication of safety and heath of the aging of the workforce ion the Norwegian offshore industry.

  9. Zoonoses as occupational diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Battelli


    Full Text Available Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region, the evaluation of damage and risks. An outline is made of the transmission of zoonoses from farm workers to animals and the biological hazards from the environment. The present situation of occupational zoonoses and related risks in industrialised and traditional farming activities are presented and the importance of some emerging and re-emerging zoonoses for the health of workers is highlighted. The author concludes by stressing that the prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and prompt reporting. It is hoped that the future will offer better inter-disciplinary collaboration and that legislation will be timely and better tailored to safeguard working health and safety.

  10. An Analysis of the Baking Occupation. (United States)

    Boyadjid, Thomas A; Paoletti, Donald J.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the baking occupation. Such tasks as choosing ingredients and the actual baking process are logical primary concerns, but also explored are the safety and sanitation factors and management problems in a…

  11. Occupational injuries in Bahrain. (United States)

    al-Arrayed, A; Hamza, A


    A study was conducted to show the problem of occupational injuries in Bahrain and try to highlight some solutions that may help to prevent or reduce workplace hazards. The data for occupational injuries between 1988 to 1991 from the social insurance records were reviewed and analysed. The data were summarized, grouped and tabulated according to age, sex, nationality, work place, type of injuries, cause and site of injury. Data were analysed statistically, frequencies were computed and results represented graphically. The study shows that there was a decline in the number of injuries in 1990 and 1991 due to a slow-down of economic activities in general in the Arabian Gulf region during the Gulf War. It also shows that Asian workers are at a high risk of occupational injuries.

  12. Measuring site occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Williamson, James


    occupancy of the modification site. We show that, on one hand, heavily modified cysteines are not necessarily involved in the response to oxidative stress. On the other hand residues with low modification level can be dramatically affected by mild oxidative imbalance. We make use of high resolution mass...... peptides corresponding to 90 proteins. Only 6 modified peptides changed significantly under mild oxidative stress. Quantitative information allowed us to determine relative modification site occupancy of each identified modified residue and pin point heavily modified ones. The method proved to be precise...... and sensitive enough to detect and quantify endogenous levels of oxidative stress on proteome-wide scale and brings a new perspective on the role of the modification site occupancy in cellular redox response....

  13. Occupation emerges in the process of therapy. (United States)

    Price, Pollie; Miner, Stephanie


    The current literature offers no cohesive definition of occupation-based practice. Current definitions emphasize intervention forms and contexts, which do not reflect the complexity of practice. This article demonstrates that the therapeutic relationship and the meanings that are created in the therapy process are central aspects of occupation-based practice. Occupation, as an idea that emerges in the therapeutic process, has aspects of both doing and becoming. The authors conducted observation sessions and interviews with an occupational therapist, Nancy, who used multiple therapeutic strategies with one child, Hannah, as they worked toward Hannah's goals of going to preschool and becoming a friend. Strategies include changing therapeutic conditions, using cognitive strategies, bridging the person-task-social context, pushing participation, and engaging in narrative micronegotiations. Occupation emerged in the therapeutic processes as the occupational therapist and client co-created meaning about the client moving toward or away from who she wanted to become.

  14. Occupational reproductive health risks. (United States)

    Filkins, K; Kerr, M J


    The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.

  15. A comparative analysis of lumbar spine mechanics during barbell- and crate-lifting: implications for occupational lifting task assessments. (United States)

    Zehr, Jackie D; Carnegie, Danielle R; Welsh, Timothy N; Beach, Tyson A C


    To compare the effects of object handled and handgrip used on lumbar spine motion and loading during occupational lifting task simulations. Eight male and eight female volunteers performed barbell and crate lifts with a pronated (barbell) and a neutral (crate) handgrip. The mass of barbells/crates lifted was identical across the objects and fixed at 11.6 and 9.3 kg for men and women, respectively. The initial heights of barbells/crates were individualized to mid-shank level. Body segment kinematics and foot-ground reaction kinetics were collected, and then input into an electromyography-assisted dynamic biomechanical model to quantify lumbar spine motion and loading. Lumbar compression and net lumbosacral moment magnitudes were 416 N and 17 Nm lower when lifting a barbell than when lifting a crate (p  0.392) or flexion/extension velocities (p > 0.085). Crate- and barbell-lifting tasks can be used interchangeably if assessing lifting mechanics based on peak spine motion variables. If assessments are based on the spine loading responses to task demands, however, then crate- and barbell-lifting tasks cannot be used interchangeably.

  16. A comparison of some of the characteristics of patients with occupational and non-occupational asthma. (United States)

    Axon, E J; Beach, J R; Burge, P S


    Occupational asthma is the most frequently diagnosed occupational lung disease reported to the SWORD (Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease) scheme. However, diagnosing occupational asthma is not straightforward, and establishing a link with work may be difficult. This study was undertaken to determine the differences between patients with occupational asthma and those with non-occupational asthma which might help in their diagnosis. Information was collected using a self-completed questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to 30 subjects aged 18-65 years at each of two clinics--one for patients with occupational asthma and one for those with cryptogenic and environmental asthma. Replies were received from 26 patients with occupational asthma (87%) and 29 patients with non-occupational asthma (97%). The age of onset was significantly higher for those with occupational asthma (42.6 vs 20.7 years). Significantly more subjects with occupational asthma reported improvement on holiday, whereas no significant difference was found in the numbers reporting worsening of symptoms on work days. Those with occupational asthma were less likely to report seasonal variation in symptoms, exacerbation by allergies, pets and stress, or a family history of asthma. Subjects with occupational asthma were more likely to become unemployed (50% vs 3%). Recognition of some of these features in a patient's history may help in the difficult task of differentiating occupational from non-occupational asthma, potentially avoiding the need for exhaustive investigations in some patients. The high prevalence of holiday improvement among subjects with non-occupational asthma suggested that domestic or environmental allergies arising outside the workplace may have been making an important contribution to ongoing symptoms in these subjects.

  17. Occupant Controlled Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta


    preferences for correlated colour temperature (CCT). The results suggest that the method of adjustment, previously used in the lighting literature, is not adequate to generalize about occupant preferences for illuminance or CCT. Factors that influence occupants’ lighting preference when applying the method...

  18. Occupational Burnout among Librarians. (United States)

    Haack, Mary; And Others


    Outlines stages of occupational burnout (enthusiasm, stagnation, frustration, apathy) and begins empirical assessment of burnout syndrome among librarians and other information professionals. Results of pilot survey conducted at one-day conference on reference service using two measures (Staff Burnout Scale for Health Professionals, projective…

  19. Occupational Therapy (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... Occupational therapists might: help kids work on fine motor skills so they ... maintain positive behaviors in all environments (e.g., instead of hitting ...

  20. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide. (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  1. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig


    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (United States)

    ... Twitter Instagram RSS Subscribe Occupational Safety and Health Administration English | Spanish MENU OSHA English | Spanish Search A ... STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800- ...

  3. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...

  4. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  5. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E


    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  6. Occupational protein contact dermatitis. (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie


    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  7. Radiation protection in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The document is a training manual for physicians entering the field of occupational medicine for radiation workers. Part 1 contains the general principles for the practice of occupational health, namely health surveillance and the role of the occupational physician in the workplace, and Part 2 provides the essential facts necessary to understand the basic principles of radiation physics, radiobiology, dosimetry and radiation effects which form the basis for occupational radiation health

  8. The perceived effects and comfort of various body armour systems on police officers while performing occupational tasks. (United States)

    Schram, B; Hinton, B; Orr, R; Pope, R; Norris, G


    The nature of police work often necessitates use of Individual Light Armour Vests (ILAVs) for officer protection. Previous research has demonstrated various biomechanical and physical performance impacts of ILAVs, however, little knowledge exists on the individual officer's perceptions of ILAV. The aim of this study was to investigate officers' perceptions of the impacts of three different ILAVs and normal station wear whilst performing police occupational tasks. A prospective, within subjects, repeated measures design was employed in which 11 serving police officers wore each of three different types of body armour (ILAV A, ILAV B or ILAV C) and normal station wear for a full day while performing tasks including a simulated victim drag, a patrol vehicle exit and a marksmanship shoot. Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS; - 10 to + 10) were used to examine officer perceptions of each ILAV. Finally, officers were asked to indicate areas of both discomfort and comfort of each ILAV on a mannequin chart. Officers perceived less effort was required for the victim drag whilst wearing ILAV B (RPE = 3.6/10) when compared to ILAV A, ILAV C and even station wear (RPE = 4.7/10, 4.0/10, 3.8/10, respectively). A positive impact on performance was perceived for ILAV B (VAS = + 0.26) when performing a patrol vehicle exit and sprint task but not for the other two ILAVs (VAS = - 3.58, - 0.55, - 0.85, respectively). Officers perceived a positive impact of ILAV B (VAS = + 2.7) and station wear (VAS = + 1.4) and a negative impact of ILAVs A and C (VAS = - 2.1, - 1.7 respectively) on marksmanship. Despite all armour types being criticized for discomfort, ILAV B received lower ratings of discomfort overall, and some positive comments regarding both comfort and performance. Officers perceived ILAV B to have positive effects on task performance. It was also rated more comfortable than the other two, possibly due to a longer

  9. Education and Occupational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnes, Geraint; Freguglia, Ricardo; Spricigo, Gisele


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the dynamic relationship between policies related to educational provision and both educational participation and occupational outcomes in Brazil, using PNAD and RAIS-Migra data. Design/methodology/approach: Outcomes are examined using: static...... multinomial logit analysis, and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach, coupled with the quality of the RAIS-Migra data source, allows the authors to evaluate the education policy impacts over time. Findings: The main results show that the education level raises the propensity...... that the individual will be in formal sector work or still in education, and reduces the probability of the other outcomes. Transition into non-manual formal sector work following education may, however, occur via a spell of manual work. Originality/value: This is the first study of occupational destination...

  10. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria


    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  11. Occupational safety motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete


    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...

  12. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent


    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  13. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L


    Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.

  14. Perspective on occupational mortality risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.


    Occupational risks to radiation workers are compared with other occupational risks on the basis of lost life expectancy (LLE) in a full working lifetime. Usual comparisons with National Safety Council accident death statistics for various industry categories are shown to be unfair because the latter average over a variety of particular industries and occupations within each industry. Correcting for these problems makes some common occupations in some industries 20-50 times more dangerous due to accidents alone than being a radiation worker. If more exposed subgroups of radiation workers are compared with more dangerous subgroups of other occupations, these ratios are maintained. Since radiation causes disease rather than acute injury, a wide range effort is made to estimate average loss of life expectancy from occupational disease; the final estimate for this is 500 days. The average American worker loses more than an order of magnitude more life expectancy from occupational disease than the average radiation worker loses from radiation induced cancer. (author)

  15. Occupational open globe injuries. (United States)

    Vasu, U; Vasnaik, A; Battu, R R; Kurian, M; George, S


    Occupational ocular trauma is an important cause of acquired monocular blindness in a rapidly industrialising country like India. Knowledge of the epidemiology of occupational eye injuries is essential to formulate viable industrial safety measures. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occupational open globe injuries between 1994 and 1998. We documented the circumstances of the injuries, their clinical findings and the use of appropriate protective eyewear at the time of the injury. The visual acuity 6 months after the injury was the final outcome measure. In this study period we examined 43 patients with open globe injuries sustained at the work place. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients were young males. The iron and steel industry accounted for 19 (44.2%) cases while 8 (18.6%) patients each were from the agricultural, mining and other small scale industrial sectors. At the time of the injury, 33 (76.7%) were not wearing the recommended protective eyewear and 6 (13.9%) were under the influence of alcohol. The injuries were mild in 6 (13.9%), moderate in 18 (41.9%) and severe in 19 (44.2%) patients. At the end of 6 months, 2 (4.7%) patients had a visual acuity of 6/12 or better, 4 (9.3%) had a visual acuity of 6/18 to 6/60 and 29 (67.4.%) had a vision of eyewear and alcohol-free environment at the work place is likely to reduce the incidence of severe occupational open globe injuries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic


    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  17. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC


    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  18. Occupational Health in Mountainous Kyrgyzstan. (United States)

    Dzhusupov, Kenesh O; Colosio, Claudio; Tabibi, Ramin; Sulaimanova, Cholpon T


    In the period of transition from a centralized economy to the market economy, occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan have survived through dramatic, detrimental changes. It is common for occupational health regulations to be ignored and for basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises and farms to be neglected. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the present situation and challenges facing occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan. The transition from centralized to the market economy in Kyrgyzstan has led to increased layoffs of workers and unemployment. These threats are followed by increased workload, and the health and safety of workers becomes of little concern. Private employers ignore occupational health and safety; consequently, there is under-reporting of occupational diseases and accidents. The majority of enterprises, especially those of small or medium size, are unsanitary, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. The low official rates of occupational diseases are the result of data being deliberately hidden; lack of coverage of working personnel by medical checkups; incompetent management; and the poor quality of staff, facilities, and equipment. Because Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country, the main environmental and occupational factor of enterprises is hypoxia. Occupational health specialists have greatly contributed to the development of occupational medicine in the mountains through science and practice. The enforcement of existing strong occupational health legislation and increased financing of occupational health services are needed. The maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, re-establishment of medical services and sanitary-hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for scientific investigations on occupational risk assessment will increase the role of occupational health services in improving the health of the working population

  19. Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Curriculum Guide. (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains guidesheets for the ornamental horticulture production occupations. Each guidesheet provides a job-relevant task; performance objective, with task, performance standard, source of standard, and conditions for performance of task; enabling objectives; a list of resources; teaching activities; a criterion-referenced…

  20. Medical Laboratory Assistant. Laboratory Occupations Cluster. (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for medical laboratory assistant is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each…

  1. Biomechanically determined hand force limits protecting the low back during occupational pushing and pulling tasks. (United States)

    Weston, Eric B; Aurand, Alexander; Dufour, Jonathan S; Knapik, Gregory G; Marras, William S


    Though biomechanically determined guidelines exist for lifting, existing recommendations for pushing and pulling were developed using a psychophysical approach. The current study aimed to establish objective hand force limits based on the results of a biomechanical assessment of the forces on the lumbar spine during occupational pushing and pulling activities. Sixty-two subjects performed pushing and pulling tasks in a laboratory setting. An electromyography-assisted biomechanical model estimated spinal loads, while hand force and turning torque were measured via hand transducers. Mixed modelling techniques correlated spinal load with hand force or torque throughout a wide range of exposures in order to develop biomechanically determined hand force and torque limits. Exertion type, exertion direction, handle height and their interactions significantly influenced dependent measures of spinal load, hand force and turning torque. The biomechanically determined guidelines presented herein are up to 30% lower than comparable psychophysically derived limits and particularly more protective for straight pushing. Practitioner Summary: This study utilises a biomechanical model to develop objective biomechanically determined push/pull risk limits assessed via hand forces and turning torque. These limits can be up to 30% lower than existing psychophysically determined pushing and pulling recommendations. Practitioners should consider implementing these guidelines in both risk assessment and workplace design moving forward.

  2. Prefrontal hemodynamic responses and the degree of flow experience among occupational therapy students during their performance of a cognitive task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Hirao


    Full Text Available Purpose: Although flow experience is positively associated with motivation to learn, the biological basis of flow experience is poorly understood. Accumulation of evidence on the underlying brain mechanisms related to flow is necessary for a deeper understanding of the motivation to learn. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between flow experience and brain function using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS during the performance of a cognitive task. Methods: Sixty right-handed occupational therapy (OT students participated in this study. These students performed a verbal fluency test (VFT while 2-channel NIRS was used to assess changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (oxygenated hemoglobin [oxy-Hb] in the prefrontal cortex. Soon after that, the OT students answered the flow questionnaire (FQ to assess the degree of flow experience during the VFT. Results: Average oxy-Hb in the prefrontal cortex had a significant negative correlation with the satisfaction scores on the FQ. Conclusion: Satisfaction during the flow experience correlated with prefrontal hemodynamic suppression. This finding may assist in understanding motivation to learn and related flow experience.

  3. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  4. Prevalence of occupational disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, M.L.


    When discussing the prevalence of occupational disease, both the prescribed diseases and the diseases where occupation has an important etiological component should be considered. Available statistics indicate that there has been a substantial improvement in the control of important prescribed diseases such as lead poisoning and pneumoconiosis. In the United Kingdom in 1900 there were 1000 cases of lead poisoning with 38 fatalities. This number decreased to 49 cases in 1956 when the number again increased due to a change from clinical diagnosis to diagnosis on biochemical evidence. The number of cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis has declined since the 1950s but the number of coal miners has also been reduced by more than /sup 1///sub 3/. Industrial dermatitis is still a considerable problem. Vibration induced white fingers was mentioned as a disease with a very large occupational component but which for a variety of reasons is not prescribed for industrial injury benefit. Illnesses due to injuries to the back, to sciatica, disc disease or lumbago cause a very large amount of sickness and are often associated with heavy manual labor particularly if an awkward posture has to be adopted for the job. The average absence after a back injury in the London Docks was 61 days. Chronic bronchitis is the biggest single cause of sickness absence. Many studies have shown that the etiology is multifactorial but that hard physical work and a dusty environment in the work place are important adverse factors. Improved control of the working environment and methods of work may influence the development of chronic disease in the older worker.

  5. Accompanied consultations in occupational health. (United States)

    Hobson, J; Hobson, H; Sharp, R


    Accompanied consultations are often reported as difficult by occupational physicians but have not been studied in the occupational health setting. To collect information about accompanied consultations and the impact of the companion on the consultation. We collected data on all accompanied consultations by two occupational physicians working in a private sector occupational health service over the course of 16 months. Accompanied consultations were matched to non-accompanied consultations for comparison. We collected data on 108 accompanied consultations. Accompanied consultations were more likely to be connected with ill health retirement (P Occupational health practitioners may benefit from better understanding of accompanied consultations and guidance on their management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Gregor Fabio


    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification...

  7. Gentrification and Occupancy Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Jakob; Wolkenstein, Fabio


    What, if anything, is wrong with gentrification? This paper addresses this question from the perspective of normative political theory. We argue that gentrification is a wrong insofar as it involves a violation of city-dwellers occupancy rights. We distinguish these rights from other forms...... of territorial rights, and discuss the different implications of the argument for urban governance. If we agree on the ultimate importance of being able to pursue one’s located life-plans, the argument goes, we must also agree on limiting the impact on gentrification on people’s lives. Limiting gentrification’s...... impact, however, does not entail halting processes of gentrification once and for all....

  8. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.


    An overview of occupational exposure is presented. Concepts and quantities used for radiation protection are explained as well as the ICRP system of dose limitation. The risks correlated to the limits are discussed. However, the actual exposure are often much lower than the limits and the average risk in radiation work is comparable with the average risk in other safe occupations. Actual exposures in various occupations are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Occupational cancer. 4. enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, M.


    In the fourth, supplementary edition work related cancer illnesses which from 1978 to 1990 were recognized by the Industrial Professional Associations as occupational diseases are described. This covers: Type of occupational disease, organs affected, causal substances, hazardous professions. In addition, for every occupational-disease, detailed data are presented, e.g. latency periods and ages at death. 16 carcinogenic substances and substance classes are considered in this catalogue including ionizing radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  10. [News on occupational contact dermatitis]. (United States)

    Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda


    Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens.

  11. [Drugs and occupational accident]. (United States)

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C


    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.

  12. The effect of occupational meaningfulness on occupational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Ivtzan


    Full Text Available Existing research lacks a scholarly consensus on how to define and validly measure ‘meaningful work’ (e.g., Rosso, Dekas & Wrzesniewski, 2010. The following correlational study highlights the value of investigating meaningfulness in the context of occupational commitment. The study hypothesizes that occupational commitment is positively correlated with occupational meaningfulness, where meaningfulness is defined as the extent to which people’s occupations contribute to personal meaning in life. One-hundred and fifty-six full-time office based UK workers completed an online questionnaire including 18 questions measuring levels of occupational commitment (Meyer, Allen & Smith, 1993, in addition to six novel items measuring occupational meaningfulness. The results supported the hypothesis and also showed that the affective sub-type of occupational commitment had the highest correlation with occupational meaningfulness. Such results exhibit the importance of finding meaning at work, as well as the relevance of this to one’s level of commitment to his or her job. This paper argues that individuals should consider OM before choosing to take a specific role, whereas organizations ought to consider the OM of their potential candidates before recruiting them into a role. Possible directions for future research directions are also discussed.

  13. Occupational Mental Health, Labor Accidents and Occupational Diseases (United States)

    Naveillan, F. Pedro


    The article discusses the relationship between mental health and labor accidents as it pertains to accident prevention, treatment of accident victims, and their rehabilitation. It also comments briefly on mental health and occupational diseases and the scope of the field of occupational mental health from a Chilean perspective. (AG)

  14. Occupation and the relevance of primatology to occupational therapy. (United States)

    Wood, W


    The adaptive functions of occupation during the phylogenetic history of the human species and the ontogenetic development of individual primates re examined through a review of relevant research of wild and captive nonhuman primates. This review suggests that the effectiveness of occupation as a therapeutic medium throughout life span development is fundamentally tied to humankind's phylogenetic history. It is accordingly argued that there is considerable justification to maintain occupational therapy's historical commitment to therapeutic occupation as the profession's primary treatment modality. To support this commitment, questions to guide practice and research are identified that emanate from the primate literature and that are highly germane to the therapeutic process in occupational therapy. These questions address: (a) the relationship between the press of the various environments in which occupational therapists practice and subsequent opportunities availed to patients for engagement in occupation; (b) the relationship between the extent to which patients are or are not empowered to exert real control over their use of time and their eventual development of disabling conditions; and (c) the therapeutic efficacy of occupation as compared with other treatment approaches that are not comparably holistic.

  15. Graphic Communications. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile. (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering graphic communications occupations. The…

  16. [Skin cancer as occupational disease]. (United States)

    Bauer, A


    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  17. Occupational Lifting Tasks and Retinal Detachment in Non-Myopics and Myopics: Extended Analysis of a Case-control Study


    Mattioli, Stefano; Curti, Stefania; De Fazio, Rocco; Cooke, Robin Mt; Zanardi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Farioli, Andrea; Violante, Francesco S.


    Objectives: Lifting heavy weights involves the Valsalva manoeuvre, which leads to intraocular pressure spikes. We used data from a case-control study to further investigate the hypothesis that occupational lifting is a risk factor for retinal detachment. Methods: The study population included 48 cases (patients operated for retinal detachment) and 84 controls (outpatients attending an eye clinic). The odds ratios (OR) of idiopathic retinal detachment were estimated with a logistic regressi...

  18. ITER SAFETY TASK NID-10A:CANDU occupational exposure experience: ORE for ITER fuel cycle and cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.


    This report contains information on TRITIUM Occupational Exposure (Internal Dose) from typical CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations. In addition to dose, airborne tritium levels are provided, as these strongly influence operational exposure. The exposure dose data presented in this report cover a period of five years of operation and maintenance experience from four CANDU Reactors and are considered representative of other CANDU reactors. The data are broken down according to occupational function ( Operators, Maintenance and Support Service etc.). The referenced systems are mainly centered on CANDU Hear Transport System, Moderator System, Tritium Removal Facility and Heavy Water (D20) Upgrading System. These systems contain the bulk part of tritium contamination in the CANDU Reactor. Because of certain similarities between ITER and CANDU systems, this data can be used as the most relevant TRITIUM OCCUPATIONAL DOSE information for ITER COOLING and FUEL CYCLE systems dose assessment purpose, if similar design and operation principles as described in the report are adopted. (author). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 13 figs

  19. Trends in occupational exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.


    The latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection were agreed in 1990. A major component was the revision of its recommended dose limits, prompted by the revised risk factors relating to exposure to ionising radiation that became available in the second half of the 1980s. But other changes were introduced which necessitated development. In particular a Task Group has been developing guidance on the implementation of the recommendations relating to the protection of workers. This guidance is intended to replace that given in Publication 35. The proposed guidance will be considered by ICRP at its meeting in Paris in November 1996. A guide on occupational radiation protection is also being prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The intention is to develop the principles given in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, account being taken of the work of the ICRP Task Group. Members States of the European Communities are obliged to comply with the requirements of a Directive dealing with the basic standards for radiation protection. This Directive has recently been revised in the light of the ICRP recommendations. This paper will discuss these developments and their possible impact on the control of occupational exposure in the UK. (author)

  20. Ideas for Office Occupations Education. (United States)

    Alverson, Ruby; And Others

    Prepared by South Carolina office occupations teachers, this booklet contains ideas for effective and motivating teaching methods in office occupations courses on the secondary school level. Besides ideas generally applicable, suggestions are included for teaching the following specific subjects: (1) accounting, (2) recordkeeping, (3) cooperative…

  1. Ageing and occupational safety (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.; Vroome, E.M.M. de


    Session 09: New work environment. The aim of this article is to look into the possible effects of an ageing workforce on occupational safety in the Netherlands, and to use this information to draw conclusions about effective age-related staff policy. The article analyzes data on occupational

  2. Spina bifida and parental occupation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatter, B.M.


    The aims of this thesis were: (1) to identify parental occupations with an increased risk of spina bifida in offspring; (2) to study whether parental occupational exposure to chemicals or radiation during or shortly before pregnancy is a risk factor for the occurrence of spina bifida. In order to

  3. Occupational radiation risk to radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.


    A review is given of the most important publications dealing with attempts to estimate the occupational radiation risk to radiologists by comparing data on their mortality from leukemia and other forms of cancer with respective data for other physicians who were not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. (author)

  4. Diagnostic guidlines for occupational epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Krawczyk-Szulc


    Full Text Available Making final decisions on the occupational etiology of musculoskeletal diseases is often difficult and problematic at every stage of the diagnostic procedure. Taking into account the need to facilitate decision-making about the causal relationship between the diagnosed disease entity and the working conditions guidelines for the recognition of work-related musculoskeletal diseases have been developed. This paper presents the guidelines for the diagnosis of occupational etiology of humeral epicondylitis, one of the most common occupational disease of the musculoskeletal system in Poland. The developed guidelines have been based on the literature data concerning occupational risk factors of humeral epicondylitis, workload classification, including repetitive movements, awkward postures, and force. Some criteria applied in ergonomic evaluation methods were also included. The presented diagnostic guidelines define approximate benchmarks for stating (after excluding non-occupational etiology that the identified humeral epicondylitis, is related to the way of working. Crucial work factors that should be analyzed include an operating time of movements overloading tendons connecting to the epicondyle, repetition and force used to perform occupational activities. The developed guidelines are aimed to facilitate occupational physicians diagnostic and certification procedures in case of humeral epicondylitis and determination whether there is a likelihood of its occupational etiology. Med Pr 2015;66(3:443–450

  5. Occupational dermatoses from cutting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alomar, A; Conde-Salazar, L; Romaguera, C


    230 patients with occupational dermatitis in the metallurgic industry were studied with standard patch test (GEIDC) and an oil series. An occupational and clinical questionnaire survey was carried out. Responses to paraphenylenediamine, chrome, cobalt in the standard series, and benzisothiazolone, triethanolamine, and Grotan BK were the main positive results.

  6. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards. (United States)

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  7. Relations of occupational stress to occupational class in Japanese civil servants : analysis by two occupational stress models


    Kawaharada, Mariko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Sato, Tetsuro; Sato, Hirokazu; Kishi, Reiko


    The aim of the present study was to identify relations between occupational stress and occupational class in Japanese civil servants, using two occupational stress models – the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model and the Job Demand-Control (JDC) Model. The subjects were employees of three local public organizations. We distributed self-administered questionnaires and assessed occupational stress by ERI and JDC. We used seven occupational categories based on the Standard Occupational Classific...

  8. An Exploration of the Role of Occupation in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice (United States)

    Benson, Jeryl DiSanti


    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…

  9. Occupational risk from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.


    In this paper, the author shows that a real and concrete elevation of cancer cases has to be expected in all groups of occupationally irradiated perons. The risk figure one should use for mortality is 0.1% per rem of whole body dose. The mean dose registered for these persons lies well below the maximum permissible dose. In Germany there are about 0.2 rem per year in medical people and below 0.5 rem per year in the nuclear industry. But there are risk groups working in situations with typical higher exposure. In medicine, these are for example nurses working with radium implants in radiotherapy units, technicians doing cardiac catheterization and cholangiogrammes, nurses and physicians holding very young patient during X-ray investigations. In the nuclear industry there are also high level and low level working areas. Highest doses are generally delivered to personnel who are engaged from outside for revision and cleaning procedures

  10. Occupational Animal Allergy. (United States)

    Stave, Gregg M


    This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace. Exposure to animal allergens can result in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Animal allergy has been most studied in the research laboratory setting, where exposure reduction can prevent the development of allergy. Similar prevention approaches need to be considered for other animal work environments and in all settings where animal allergens are present.

  11. Miscarriage and occupational activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Bonzini, Matteo


    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated that shift work, long working hours, and prevalent workplace exposures such as lifting, standing, and physical workload increase the risk of miscarriage, but the evidence is conflicting. We conducted a systematic review of original research reports......% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-1.78, N=5), while working in 3-shift schedules, working for 40-52 hours weekly, lifting >100 kg/day, standing >6-8 hours/day and physical workload were associated with small risk increments, with the pooled RR ranging from 1.12 (3-shift schedule, N=7) to 1.36 (working hours......, N=10). RR for working hours and standing became smaller when analyses were restricted to higher quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: These largely reassuring findings do not provide a strong case for mandatory restrictions in relation to shift work, long working hours, occupational lifting, standing...

  12. Occupational ergonomics in space (United States)

    Stramler, J.


    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  13. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  14. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  15. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal


    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  16. International Occupational Therapy Research Priorities. (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Coppola, Susan; Alvarez, Liliana; Cibule, Lolita; Maltsev, Sergey; Loh, Siew Yim; Mlambo, Tecla; Ikiugu, Moses N; Pihlar, Zdenka; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Baptiste, Sue; Ledgerd, Richard


    Occupational therapy is a global profession represented by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). International research priorities are needed for strategic guidance on global occupational therapy practice. The objective of this study was to develop international research priorities to reflect global occupational therapy practice. A Delphi study using three rounds of electronic surveys, distributed to WFOT member organizations and WFOT accredited universities, was conducted. Data were analyzed after each round, and priorities were presented for rating and ranking in order of importance. Forty-six (53%) out of 87 WFOT member countries participated in the Delphi process. Eight research priorities were confirmed by the final electronic survey round. Differences were observed in rankings given by member organizations and university respondents. Despite attrition at Round 3, the final research priorities will help to focus research efforts in occupational therapy globally. Follow-up research is needed to determine how the research priorities are being adopted internationally.

  17. Occupational tumors of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, T.; Mueller-Lux, A.


    It is estimated that about 4% of cancer mortality is attributed to occupational risk factors. Due to long latency periods it is often difficult to establish causal relationships. Thoracal cancer accounts for about 88% of all compensated occupational cancers in Germany. Most important exposures and diseases are asbestos-related lung cancer, asbestos-related malignant mesothelioma and radiation induced lung cancer (by Radon and its decay products). Lung cancer caused by nickel compounds, hexavalent chromium, arsenic and its compounds, coke oven gases and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are rare. Silica-dust induced lung cancer can be compensated as occupational disease if a silicosis is present. In Germany every physician is obliged to notify a suspected occupational cancer as well as other occupational diseases. (orig.) [de

  18. Image-based occupancy sensor (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile; Brackney, Larry


    An image-based occupancy sensor includes a motion detection module that receives and processes an image signal to generate a motion detection signal, a people detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a people detection signal, a face detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a face detection signal, and a sensor integration module that receives the motion detection signal from the motion detection module, receives the people detection signal from the people detection module, receives the face detection signal from the face detection module, and generates an occupancy signal using the motion detection signal, the people detection signal, and the face detection signal, with the occupancy signal indicating vacancy or occupancy, with an occupancy indication specifying that one or more people are detected within the monitored volume.

  19. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.


    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  20. Environmental and occupational allergies. (United States)

    Peden, David; Reed, Charles E


    Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Daily exposure comes from indoor sources, chiefly at home but occasionally at schools or offices. Seasonal exposure to outdoor allergens, pollens, and molds is another important source. Exposure to unusual substances at work causes occupational asthma, accounting for about 5% of asthma in adults. Indoor and outdoor air pollutants trigger airway inflammation and increase the severity of asthma. Diesel exhaust particles increase the production of IgE antibodies. Identification and reduction of exposure to allergens is a very important part of the management of respiratory allergic diseases. The first section of this chapter discusses domestic allergens, arthropods (mites and cockroaches), molds, and mammals (pets and mice). Indoor humidity and water damage are important factors in the production of mite and mold allergens, and discarded human food items are important sources of proliferation of cockroaches and mice. Means of identifying and reducing exposure are presented. The second section discusses outdoor allergens: pollens and molds. The particular plants or molds and the amount of exposure to these allergens is determined by the local climate, and local pollen and mold counts are available to determine the time and amount of exposure. Climate change is already having an important effect on the distribution and amount of outdoor allergens. The third section discusses indoor and outdoor air pollution and methods that individuals can take to reduce indoor pollution in addition to eliminating cigarette smoking. The fourth section discusses the diagnosis and management of occupational asthma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution, Appearance, and Occupational Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Little


    Full Text Available Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a “kernel of truth” in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term “task-congruent selection” to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases

  2. Occupation and multiple myeloma: an occupation and industry analysis. (United States)

    Gold, Laura S; Milliken, Kevin; Stewart, Patricia; Purdue, Mark; Severson, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Blair, Aaron; Davis, Scott; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J


    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a poorly understood etiology. The purpose of our research was to examine the relationships between lifetime occupations and MM in a relatively large case-control study. MM cases (n = 180) were identified through cancer registries in the Seattle-Puget Sound area and Detroit. Population-based controls (n = 481) were identified using random digit dialing and Medicare and Medicaid Services files. In-person interviews were conducted to ascertain occupational histories. Standard occupational classification (SOC) and standard industrial classification (SIC) codes were assigned to each job held by each participant. Unconditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between MM and having ever worked in each occupation/industry and according to duration of employment in an occupation/industry. The risk of MM was associated with several manufacturing occupations and industries, including machine operators and tenders, not elsewhere classified (SOC 76) (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.0-3.3); textile, apparel, and furnishing machine operators and tenders (SOC 765) (OR = 6.0, CI = 1.7-21); and machinery manufacturing, except electrical (SIC 35) (OR = 3.3, CI = 1.7-6.7). Several service occupations and industries, such as food and beverage preparation (SOC 521) (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.8), were also associated with MM. One occupation that has been associated with MM in several previous studies, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers (SOC 644) was associated with a non-significantly elevated risk (OR = 3.6, CI = 0.7-19). We found associations between the risk of MM and employment in several manufacturing and service-related occupations and industries. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Occupational lung diseases in Australia. (United States)

    Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser


    Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.

  4. Occupation and cancer in Britain. (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J


    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  5. Wanted: entrepreneurs in occupational therapy. (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L


    The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists.

  6. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Veien, Niels K


    BACKGROUND: Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. OBJECTIVES: To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. METHODS: Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 1995...... matched controls with contact dermatitis, registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group between January 2002 and December 2011, were analysed. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, and hairdressers were additionally tested with the hairdressing series. RESULTS: Occupational...... contact dermatitis (p dermatitis was less commonly observed among hairdressers (21.3%) than among controls (29.4%) (p 

  7. Echinococcosis: an Occupational Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farahmand


    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is a common infestation caused by Echinococcus spp. Solitary hydatid cyst of the lung is not uncommon but coexistence of two or more pulmonary cysts are less common. These cysts may drain into the bronchial tree or very rarely into the pleural cavity which causes a poor outcome. Certain people such as slaughters, tanners, stockbreeders, shepherds, butchers, veterinarians and all whose job makes them to work closely with animals are at higher risk of the infection and developing echinococcosis. Herein, we present a 14-year-old shepherd who developed severe chest pain and hydropneumothorax following a minor trauma to his chest. He had two pulmonary hydatid cysts, one of which drained to the left pleural cavity and caused the symptoms. Another cyst was complicated during his hospital course. The patient was treated surgically, received albendazole and discharged home uneventfully. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance for the correct diagnosis and treatment of hydatid disease in hyperendemic areas and in those whose occupation might put them at a higher risk of contraction of hydatid disease.

  8. Occupational cancer and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahams, D.


    There have been two High Court actions and seven inquests in the UK, with reference to the debate on occupational hazards of long term, low dose exposure. In July, 1987, two cases alleging that workers in the nuclear industry had contracted cancer due to their exposure to radiation at work had to be abandoned halfway through the trial after the judge had heard the medical evidence. A 57-year old man claimed that Hodgkin's disease had been caused by radiation while at work at Sellafield. However, medical opinion was that Hodgkin's disease had never been accepted as caused by radiation. In the second case a man who had died of stomach cancer at the age of 54 after working for UKAEA at Dounreay for 7 years, had received 190 mSv. The defendants' experts rated the likelihood of radiation as the cause at 3-6%; the plaintiffs' experts had suggested 30-50%. Seven inquest juries sitting in West Cumbria from 1983 to 1988 have brought in three verdicts of death caused by an industrial disease, three open verdicts, and one of natural causes. The men had all worked for BNFL at Sellafield for many years. (author)

  9. Executive functioning: a scoping review of the occupational therapy literature. (United States)

    Cramm, Heidi A; Krupa, Terry M; Missiuna, Cheryl A; Lysaght, Rosemary M; Parker, Kevin H


    Increasingly recognized as an important factor in the performance of complex, goal-directed tasks, executive functioning is understood in different ways across disciplines. The aim was to explore the ways in which executive functioning is conceptualized, discussed, described, and implied in the occupational therapy literature. A scoping review of the occupational therapy literature was conducted following Levac, Colquhoun, and O'Brien's (2010) recommended methodology. Executive functioning is described both as a set of performance component skills or processes and as the executive occupational performance inherent in complex occupations. Executive functioning is implicit in occupational performance and engagement, and some health conditions seem to be commonly associated with impaired executive functioning. Assessing executive functioning requires dynamic occupation- and performance-based assessment. Interventions targeting executive functioning are grounded in metacognitive approaches. Executive functioning is a complex construct that is conceptualized with considerable variance within the occupational therapy literature, creating barriers to effective service delivery.

  10. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  11. Sleep in High Stress Occupations (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin


    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  12. Practical occupational medicine in "practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann Larsen, Anders; Schmidt, Jan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis


    with few occupational health resources. This Editorial argues that family physicians are indeed in a position where they can make a major positive difference for their working patients and for the enterprises where they work. Without specialist knowledge in occupational medicine, the family physician......’s empiric knowledge in combination with a narrative approach to the patient permits the contribution from family medicine not only with regard to diagnosis and treatment, but also relating to actions targeted to optimize the patient’s future accommodation at work as well as to protect other similarly......In Denmark, the practice of occupational medicine tends to be carried out by specialists in occupational medicine and less so by family physicians. The provision of health service to workers is therefore limited. This constraint may also apply in other developed countries and even more in countries...

  13. Occupational Health and the Arts. (United States)

    Hinkamp, David L; McCann, Michael; Babin, Angela


    Work in the visual arts, performing arts, and writing can involve exposures to occupational hazards, including hazardous materials, equipment, and conditions, but few art workplaces have strong occupational health resources. Literature searches were conducted for articles that illustrate these concerns. Medical databases were searched for art-related health articles. Other sources were also reviewed, including, unindexed art-health publications, and popular press articles. Information was located that described some exposed populations, art-related hazards, and resulting disorders. Anecdotal reports were used when more complete data were not available. Health hazards in the arts are significant. Occupational health professionals are familiar with most of these concerns and understand their treatment and prevention. The occupational health approach can reduce the health hazards encountered by at-risk art workers. Additional research would benefit these efforts. Resources for further information are available.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Occupational health hazards, Industrial pollution, Quarry industry, ... fireworks and signaling apparatus and for setting blind rivets and forming ... in the air, physiological risks and psychological trauma (Ajayi & Osibanjo, 1995).

  15. Spiritual Assessments in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hemphill


    Full Text Available Spirituality is recognized as an important concept in the study and practice of medicine, including occupational therapy. This aligns with occupational therapy’s core value of treating people holistically—mind, body, and spirit. Currently, the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Hospital Organizations ( JCAHO requires that a spiritual assessment be given to patients on admission. To conduct effective spiritual assessments, occupational therapists must distinguish between religion and spirituality. They also must be aware of their own spiritual beliefs and practices and how those might influence their clinical interactions. This article presents spiritual assessment tools that occupational therapists can use in clinical practice; they range from history taking, to questionnaires, to observation scales. Guidelines are presented for selecting among several spiritual assessments. A case study is presented in which a patient’s faith tradition is being challenged, which could affect the outcome of therapy. Finally, treatment and intervention planning and ethical considerations are discussed.

  16. Building Bridges Through Meaningful Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna


    Full Text Available Mary Block, MS, OTR/L, an occupational therapist and artist based in Illinois, provided the cover art for the Summer 2017 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. Generations is a sculpture made from concrete that measures 240 x100 in. (6.096 x 2.54 m. The piece was commissioned by Mary’s home town, the Village of Deerfield, IL. Mary always knew she wanted to be an artist. When competing paradigms altered Mary’s career path, the field of occupational therapy helped her to shape a new worldview. In uncertain times, meaningful occupation empowered Mary to start over again where she originally began

  17. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten


    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  18. Sleep as an Occupational Need. (United States)

    Tester, Nicole J; Foss, Joanne Jackson

    In the same way the human body requires food, hydration, and oxygen, it also requires sleep. Even among healthy people, the amount and quality of sleep substantially influence health and quality of life because sleep helps regulate physiological functioning. Given the impact of sleep on participation, the American Occupational Therapy Association reclassified sleep from an activity of daily living to an occupational domain. Poor sleep is a frequent medical complaint, especially among populations with neurological impairment. Occupational therapy practitioners should consider routinely screening for factors affecting their clients' sleep. By addressing such factors, as well as related routines and habits, practitioners can enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, promote health and well-being, and increase engagement and life quality. Practitioners should acknowledge the importance of sleep in practice, and the study of sleep should be prioritized by researchers in the field to meet client needs and establish evidence for interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Occupational applications of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, P.


    A large population of workers are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in various occupational environments which often necessitates protection. Since ultraviolet radiation may create other environmental problems an occupational hazard- and protection evaluation can be complicated. Threshold Limit Values adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) on ultraviolet radiation are used in most countries as guidelines for risk assessment and control measures. This review addresses the levels of ultraviolet radiation met in occupational environments, its measurement and evaluation, and discusses different protection methods. Ultraviolet lasers are beginning to find their way into industrial processes but are still limited in number and they will not be covered here. Emphasis is on broad band incoherent radiation in high risk environments such as welding, and on the evaluation of protective eyewear, see-through curtains and plastics. Other occupational risks associated with the emission of ultraviolet radiation are discussed

  20. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den


    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  1. Occupational health nursing in hungary. (United States)

    Hirdi, Henriett Éva; Hong, OiSaeng


    This article is the first about occupational health nursing in Hungary. The authors describe the Hungarian health care and occupational health care systems, including nursing education and professional organizations for occupational health nurses. The Fundamental Law of Hungary guarantees the right of every employee to healthy and safe working conditions, daily and weekly rest times and annual paid leave, and physical and mental health. Hungary promotes the exercise of these rights by managing industrial safety and health care, providing access to healthy food, supporting sports and regular physical exercise, and ensuring environmental protection. According to the law, the responsibility for regulation of the occupational health service lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. Safety regulations are under the aegis of the Ministry of National Economy. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Occupational health and the radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronach, T.


    This paper identifies some of the occupational health hazards faced by radiographers in the hospital environment. There has been very little work done in this area in the past, and as the subject is so large this paper can do little other than raise some of the issues . The hazards addressed include: radiation, ergonomics, chemical, environmental, biological, occupational injury and accident, stress. 14 refs., 2 figs

  3. Fathers' occupation and pregnancy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, A.D.; McDonald, J.C.; Armstrong, B.; Cherry, N.M.; Nolin, A.D.; Robert, D.


    Findings from a survey of 56,067 women in Montreal on maternal occupation and pregnancy outcome have been reported. Paternal occupation recorded in the same survey was analysed for spontaneous abortion in 24 occupational groups retaining the six main sectors of maternal occupation and allowing, by means of logistic regression, for seven potentially confounding variables. In only one of the 24 fathers' occupational groups was there a statistically significant excess of spontaneous abortions-mechanics, repairers, and certain assemblers (O/E = 1.10, 90% CI = 1.02-1.20); subdivision of this group suggested that this excess was mainly attributable to the large group of motor vehicle mechanics (O/E = 1.17). No significant excess of known chromosomally determined defects was found in any of the 24 occupational groups. An association of developmental defects was found with food and beverage processing (18 defects observed compared with 8.02 expected; p < 0.05); however, there was no specificity in type of food, beverage, or congenital defect, and no obvious explanatory mechanism. (author)

  4. The cost of occupational dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, A.B.; Clark, M.J.


    The optimization of radiological protection will routinely involve the balancing of public and occupational exposure, particularly within the nuclear fuel cycle. For example the reduction of public exposure from an effluent stream could lead to increases in occupational exposure from treatment, storage and disposal operations. A methodology is propased for the estimation of the cost of occupational exposure in the UK (Pound man-Sv -1 ) based on valuations of changes in risk. A variable value for the cost of the occupational man-Sv is obtained depending on per caput dose levels. The values at particular per caput dose levels are different for occupational workers and the general public, because of different demography and assumptions on risk perception and aversion. They are however approximately the same when the per caput doses are expressed as percentages of the dose limits for workers and the general public respectively. An example of the application of the derived cost of the occupational man-Sv to an optimisation problem is given. (author)

  5. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Bhatia


    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  6. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective. (United States)

    Bhatia, Riti; Sharma, Vinod Kumar


    Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars) manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks) production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  7. Engagement in occupation as an inquiring process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard; Josephsson, Staffan


    the situatedness of occupation from the perspective of how situation and occupation work together. We argue that this approach can provide a theoretical understanding of engagement in occupation as a natural inquiry process. Viewing occupation from this perspective, we suggest, reveals its transformative capacity...

  8. Development and demonstration of techniques for reducing occupational radiation doses during refueling outages. Tasks 7A/7B. Advanced outage management and radiation exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Objectives of Tasks 7A and 7B were to develop and demonstrate computer based systems to assist plant management and staff in utilizing information more effectively to reduce occupational exposures received as a result of refueling outages, and to shorten the duration of the outage. The Advanced Outage Management (AOM) Tool (Task 7A) is an automated outage planning system specifically designed to meet the needs of nuclear plant outage management. The primary objective of the AOM tool is to provide a computerized system that can manipulate the information typically associated with outage planning and scheduling to furnish reports and schedules that more accurately project the future course of the outage. The Radiation Exposure Control (REC) Tool (Task 7B) is a computerized personnel radiation exposure accounting and management system designed to enable nuclear plant management to project and monitor total personnel radiation exposure on a real-time basis. The two systems were designed to operate on the same computer system and interface through a common database that enables information sharing between plant organizations not typically interfaced. This interfacing provides outage planners with a means of incorporating occupational radiation exposure as a factor for making decisions on the course of an outage

  9. Occupational therapy practice in emergency care: Occupational therapists' perspectives. (United States)

    Spang, Lisa; Holmqvist, Kajsa


    Emergency care takes place in a complex work environment that is characterized by critically ill patients, short hospital stays, and a wide variety of different healthcare professionals. Studies of occupational therapists' (OTs) experiences of working within emergency care have shown that they often experience difficulties in explaining the essence of occupational therapy and have to justify their approaches. Much effort has been made in Sweden to help OTs dispel the notion that occupational therapy is difficult to explain, and the aim of this study was to describe how Swedish OTs perceive their work in emergency care. A qualitative descriptive approach was taken, and 14 interviews were conducted with OTs working in emergency care. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The overall theme that emerged was "Feeling established through deliberate occupation-based work". The underlying categories showed different strategies used by the OTs to provide occupational therapy in an emergency care context. Deliberate strategies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of occupational therapy and its approaches to patients and other health care professionals, and this resulted in the OTs feeling both established and needed. Unlike the OTs in previous studies, the Swedish OTs experienced no difficulties in explaining occupational therapy and could make convincing arguments for their interventions. Parallel to their clinical work, the OTs worked with on-going development to find ways to improve their approaches. In summary, these Swedish OTs seem to have been provided with a professional language and the knowledge required to establish themselves in an emergency care setting.

  10. Work management to optimise occupational radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahier, B.


    Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants worldwide have steadily decreased since the early 1990's. Regulatory pressures, technological advances, improved plant designs and operational procedures, as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) culture and information exchange have contributed to this downward trend. However, with the continued ageing and possible life extensions of nuclear power plants, ongoing economic pressures, regulatory, social and political evolutions, and the potential of new nuclear build, the task of ensuring that occupational exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable continues to present challenges to radiological protection professionals

  11. Occupational deprivation in an asylum centre:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin


    This article presents a study of three asylum-seeking men from Iran and Afghanistan. It aimed to explore how and if they experienced occupations as occupations in a Danish asylum centre and how their life experience shaped their choice and value of current occupations. In-depth narrative interviews...... explored the participants’ occupational history and its influence on their occupations in the asylum centre. A thematic analysis showed that the participants had been subjected to occupational disruption and deprivation by politically oppressive systems even before their flight. Their occupations...... in Denmark were to a certain extent influenced by their earlier occupations and the current occupational deprivation they all experienced was due to limited possibilities in the centre. Although they tried their best to fill their days and create structure, there was a loss of valued occupations...

  12. Inside Guillain-Barré Syndrome: An occupational therapist's perspective


    Brooks, Shavaughn Ashley Nikita


    Occupational Therapists working with patients with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) are tasked with collaborating with the patient to achieve maximal functional recovery. Although much has been published about recovery after GBS from a scientific perspective; this article combines occupational therapy principles with the personal experiences of an occupational therapist who herself suffered from GBS. This commentary outlines important considerations for providing intervention to patients with GB...

  13. Occupational doses and impact on fusion economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustoe, J.; Currie, I.D.; Frias, M. Pascual


    As part of the SEAFP-99 programme, water cooled and helium cooled fusion power plant design concepts were assessed with regard to occupational doses and related availability and operating costs. Different design and management measures to reduce occupational doses were considered. This task assessed the existing designs and proposed extensions or changes, where required. For each significant contributor, possible methods were specified which could reduce the operator dose and outage time. Where this was the case expected; costs or savings incurred by the improvement were estimated. Overall, the use of a system to remove particulate corrosion product activity from the primary coolant was considered essential for the water-cooled variant. In addition, application of the most up-to-date ALARA techniques could make the estimated dose for the water-cooled conceptual design appreciably lower than earlier estimated. It was concluded that the water cooled conceptual design could meet the project design target for occupational dose of 0.7 p-Sv per GW(e). A survey of occupational doses from the UK AGR plants was also carried out. From this, it is judged that the helium cooled fusion plant conceptual design could meet the project design target for occupational dose of 0.7 p-Sv per GW(e) without the need for additional plant to reduce primary coolant activity levels

  14. Does the Role Checklist Measure Occupational Participation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Bonsaksen


    Full Text Available Background: Among the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO assessments, the Role Checklist is one of the most established. In spite of its widespread use, no studies have examined role examples and their association with the three embedded levels of doing, as established in the MOHO theory. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 293 respondents from the US, the UK, Japan, Switzerland, Sweden, and Norway produced 7,182 role examples. The respondents completed Part I of the Role Checklist and provided examples of each internalized role they performed. Responses were classified as occupational skill, occupational performance, or occupational participation. Results: Thirty-three percent of the examples were classified as examples of occupational participation, whereas 65% were classified as examples of occupational performance. Four roles linked mostly with occupational participation, another four roles linked mostly with occupational performance, and the two remaining roles were mixed between occupational participation and occupational performance. Discussion: The Role Checklist assesses a person’s involvement in internalized roles at the level of both occupational participation and occupational performance. There are differences among countries with regard to how roles are perceived and exemplified, and different roles relate differently to the occupational performance and occupational participation levels of doing. There are related implications for occupational therapists.

  15. The selection of occupancy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.


    An estimate of the proportion of time that an area is occupied by radiation workers is often used in radiological protection to permit relaxation of exposure rate limits above those for continuous occupation. This proportion is known as an occupancy factor and is used most frequently in X-ray facilities. The strategy for controlling the external exposure of radiation workers must be decided before occupancy factors are selected for the design of the radiation protection facilities. When shielding has to be designed the occupancy factor effects the design objectives and permits increased exposure rates at the shield surface. It is useful to note that the selection of occupancy factors with due regard to the expected spatial variation of the exposure rate can help to reduce the range of the worker's radiation exposure because field gradients are usually steeper close to the shield. When other hazards, such as internal exposure, and other constraints, such as cost of the space consumed, are added, the selection of the optimum set of occupancy factors is more difficult. Two zone occupancy factors are discussed in this paper and proposals are made for a strategy to be used when there is more than one hazard and the designer has to meet constraints imposed by limitations of the facilities available. An important feature of the strategy is the avoidance of high radiation exposure to small groups of workers. The errors involved in assessment of the actual dose received by the radiation worker must be taken into account and in particular the selection of the higher exposure rate limits must be made with attention to the accident potential

  16. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wilczyńska


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the paper was to present basic statistical data on occupational diseases diagnosed in 2012. Material and Methods: The work was based on the data from "Occupational Disease Reporting Forms" received by the Central Register of Occupational Diseases in 2012. The data comprised information on nosologic units, gender and age of patients, duration of occupational exposure, sections of the national economy and voivodeships. The incidence was specified in terms of the number of cases in relation to paid employees or to employed people. Results: The number of occupational diseases accounted for 2402 cases. The incidence rate was 23 cases per 100 000 paid employees. In spite of the general decline in the number of cases, the incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases increased by 8.6%. The highest incidence was noted for infectious and parasitic diseases (6.8/100 000, pneumoconioses (5.5/100 000, hearing loss (2.1/100 000, diseases of: the peripheral nervous system (2/100 000, voice disorders (1.9/100 000 and the musculo-skeletal system pathologies (1.1/100 000. The pathologies specified above accounted in total for 84% of all occupational diseases. The industrial sectors of the national economy characterized by the highest incidence included mining and quarrying (288.3/100 000 and manufacturing (27.8/100 000. The highest incidence was recorded in the Silesian (46.2/100 000 and the lowest in the Opolskie (4.2/100 000 voivodeships. Conclusions: The downward trend in the incidence of occupational diseases continues. Different incidence of voice disorders among teachers in individual provinces suggests that uniform preventive, diagnostic and certification standards are missing. Med Pr 2013;64(3:317–326

  17. Extending Beyond Qualitative Interviewing to Illuminate the Tacit Nature of Everyday Occupation: Occupational Mapping and Participatory Occupation Methods. (United States)

    Huot, Suzanne; Rudman, Debbie Laliberte


    The study of human occupation requires a variety of methods to fully elucidate its complex, multifaceted nature. Although qualitative approaches have commonly been used within occupational therapy and occupational science, we contend that such qualitative research must extend beyond the sole use of interviews. Drawing on qualitative methodological literature, we discuss the limits of interview methods and outline other methods, particularly visual methods, as productive means to enhance qualitative research. We then provide an overview of our critical ethnographic study that used narrative, visual, and observational methods to explore the occupational transitions experienced by immigrants to Canada. We describe our use of occupational mapping and participatory occupation methods and the contributions of these combined methods. We conclude that adopting a variety of methods can enable a deeper understanding of the tacit nature of everyday occupation, and is key to advancing knowledge regarding occupation and to informing occupational therapy practice.

  18. Risk of injury for occupants of motor vehicle collisions from unbelted occupants. (United States)

    MacLennan, P A; McGwin, G; Metzger, J; Moran, S G; Rue, L W


    Unbelted occupants may increase the risk of injury for other occupants in a motor vehicle collision (MVC). This study evaluated the association between occupant restraint use and the risk of injury (including death) to other vehicle occupants. A population based cohort study. United States. MVC occupants (n = 152 191 unweighted, n = 18 426 684 weighted) seated between a belted or unbelted occupant and the line of the principal direction of force in frontal, lateral, and rear MVCs were sampled from the 1991-2002 National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System. Offset MVCs were not included in the study. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for injury (including death) for occupants seated contiguous to unbelted occupants compared to occupants seated contiguous to belted occupants. Risk ratios were adjusted for at risk occupant's sex, age, seating position, vehicle type, collision type, travel speed, crash severity, and at risk occupants' own seat belt use. Exposure to unbelted occupants was associated with a 40% increased risk of any injury. Belted at risk occupants were at a 90% increased risk of injury but unbelted occupants were not at increased risk. Risks were similar for non-incapacitating and capacitating injuries. There was a 4.8-fold increased risk of death for exposed belted occupants but no increased risk of death for unbelted occupants. Belted occupants are at an increased risk of injury and death in the event of a MVC from unbelted occupants.

  19. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  20. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  1. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  2. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. In 1996, the Agency published Safety Fundamentals on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 120) and International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing, Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (IAEA Safety Series No. 115), both of which were jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organisation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. These publications set out, respectively, the objectives and principles for radiation safety and the requirements to be met to apply the principles and to achieve the objectives. The establishment of safety requirements and guidance on occupational radiation protection is a major component of the support for radiation safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. The objective of the IAEA's occupational protection programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach to the optimization of occupational radiation protection, through the development and application of guidelines for restricting radiation exposures and applying current radiation protection techniques in the workplace. Guidance on meeting the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, one giving general guidance on the development of occupational radiation protection programmes and two giving more detailed guidance on the monitoring and assessment of workers' exposure due to external radiation sources and from intakes of radionuclides, respectively. These Safety

  3. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities (United States)


    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  4. Occupational skin cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifinela Raissa


    Full Text Available Occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesions are skin disorders caused by exposure to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and arsenic, or radiation, such as ultraviolet light and ionizing light in the workplace. Annual increase in skin cancer incidence is believed to be related to various factors such as frequent intense sunlight exposure (i.e. at work, recreational activities, and sun-tanning habit, ozone depletion, an increase in number of geriatric population, and an increase of public awareness in skin cancer. The most common occupational skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Examples of occupational precancerous lesion of the skin are actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. Particular diagnostic criteria to diagnose occupational diseases has been developed. Early detection of occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesion is necessary. An effective prevention program consists of primary prevention such as prevention of hazardous material exposure, secondary prevention such as early detection of disease for early intervention, and tertiary prevention such as minimizing long-term impact of the disease.

  5. Occupational burnout among nursing personel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla


    Full Text Available Background. Occupational stress and the related burnout syndrome is undoubtedly one of the most important challenges for public health. Objectives . The objective of the study was identifying occupational burnout among nurses. Material and methods . The questionnaire was responded by 408 professionally active male and female nurses, working in the territory of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. In the evaluation of occupational burnout the standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was applied. Results . Mean values of the level of occupational burnout for the study group amounted to 39.3 ± 30.9 with regard to emotional exhaustion, 30.64 ± 27.89 with respect to the depersonalization subscale and 66.26 ± 27.94 – the lowered level of job satisfaction. Conclusions . 1. The studied nursing personnel showed symptoms of occupational burnout in all dimensions of the syndrome, i.e. high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as well as low job satisfaction. 2. Individuals with higher education scored lower on the emotional exhaustion scale. 3. Emotional exhaustion is influenced by workplace and position.

  6. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  7. Occupational skin cancer: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Suellen Sena


    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. Method: A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: “neoplasias cutâneas” (DeCS, “exposição ocupacional” (DeCS, “epidemiologia” (DeCS as well as the keyword “prevenção”, and their equivalents in English. Results: After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. Discussion: We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Conclusion: Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.

  8. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation. (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  9. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le


    which might even influence their identity. Such deprivation can eventually lead to dissatisfaction with everyday life and to occupational dysfunction, i.e. a decline in ADL ability. Asylum seekers are a group who are more likely to suffer from health problems than the background population. Especially...... torture survivors suffer from ill health. Pain and psychological symptoms are among the most frequent health issues for both asylum seekers and torture survivors and may cause occupation-related problems. The overarching aim of this thesis was to investigate how staying in an asylum centre influenced...... was to assess whether torture had an influence on the occupational satisfaction and performance, and whether this had changed after ten-months. Forty-three asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria participated at baseline and ten months later 17 were available for inclusion in follow-up studies. Study I...

  10. Occupational and environmental lung disease. (United States)

    Seaman, Danielle M; Meyer, Cristopher A; Kanne, Jeffrey P


    Occupational and environmental lung disease remains a major cause of respiratory impairment worldwide. Despite regulations, increasing rates of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are being reported in the United States. Dust exposures are occurring in new industries, for instance, silica in hydraulic fracking. Nonoccupational environmental lung disease contributes to major respiratory disease, asthma, and COPD. Knowledge of the imaging patterns of occupational and environmental lung disease is critical in diagnosing patients with occult exposures and managing patients with suspected or known exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Healing Nature of Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna


    Full Text Available Moses Hamilton, an artist based in Hawaii, provided the cover art for the Spring 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Pali Kai” is a 11”x14” painting made from acrylic on canvas. When a tragic car accident left Hamilton paralyzed from the chest down, mouth painting provided an outlet for selfexpression and stress relief. Participation in a meaningful occupation helped Hamilton find his path in life. With their colorful impressionist-style, Hamilton’s paintings have brought happiness to people all over the world.

  12. Imaging of Occupational Lung Disease. (United States)

    Champlin, Jay; Edwards, Rachael; Pipavath, Sudhakar


    Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis


    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact...... of exposures from sulphites preservatives, container fumigants etc. in maritime workers. This review aims to provide an update of the current knowledge base about occupational asthma in a maritime context and to provide recommendations regarding medical surveillance of workers at risk....

  14. Occupation, hobbies, and acute leukemia in adults. (United States)

    Terry, Paul D; Shore, David L; Rauscher, Garth H; Sandler, Dale P


    Occupational and industrial exposures have been implicated in the etiology of leukemia, yet uncertainty remains regarding potential high risk occupations. We examined the associations between self-reported occupations and hobbies and acute leukemia risk using data from 811 cases and 637 controls participating in a case-control study in the U.S. and Canada. We found that several occupations may increase the risk of acute leukemia, particularly occupations related to petroleum products, rubber, nuclear energy, munitions, plastics, and electronics manufacturing. Differences were noted according to histological type. Other occupations and hobbies were not clearly associated with risk.

  15. Who will use claims data for the prevention of occupational trauma?


    Larsson, Tore J


    If claims data from the public fund workers' compensation system is merged with the relevant census data, the relative distribution of occupational injury risk in the system can be calculated. A reconstituted occupational code, made from combining the present occupational and industrial codes, can be used to differentiate occupations in relation to hazards. A four-part injury severity index, generated in the claims settling process, can be used to further differentiate occupations, tasks and ...

  16. Job-Occupation Misfit as an Occupational Stressor (United States)

    Ford, Michael T.


    Drawing from theory on met expectations, person-environment fit, and social information processing, misfit between the pressure and autonomy experienced by workers and that which would be expected given their occupational roles was examined as a predictor of job satisfaction, perceived support, and depression. Results from a nationally (U.S.)…

  17. Occupational Asthma after Withdrawal from the Occupational Allergen Exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáčková, P.; Pelclová, D.; Lebedová, J.; Marečková, H.; Brabec, Marek


    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2006), s. 629-638 ISSN 0019-8366 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : occupational asthma * allergen exposure withdrawal Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2006

  18. Civilian law: from occupational medicine to occupational event. (United States)

    Mpotos, N; Watelet, J B

    Civilian law:from occupational medicine to occupational event. Despite the growing importance of objective measurements, the health effects of many occupational risk factors are currently not fully quantified. Occupational noise, as a widespread risk factor, is illustrative in this regard; there is a strong body of evidence linking it to an important health outcome (hearing loss), but it is less decisively associated with others (such as psychological disorders). It is also distinct from environmental noise, and therefore falls under the responsibility of employers as well as individuals. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is, at present, incurable and irreversible. However, it is preventable, if effective and global hearing conservation programmes can be implemented. These programmes should not be isolated efforts, but should be integrated into the overall hazard prevention and control programme of the workplace. Belgian law encompasses a set of provisions for prevention and the protection of the health and safety of workers within the workplace, including aspects pertaining to the hygiene of the workplace and psychosocial aspects at work (stress, violence, bullying and sexual harassment, among others). In principle, combating environmental noise is fully addressed in this country. However, other levels of policy-making also play an important role in this regard. For example, the federal government is in charge of product standards, and therefore also of noise emission standards for products. The interpretation and enforcement of Belgian legislation on well-being at work converts European directives and international agreements on well-being at work into Belgian law.


    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Alekseev, V B; Shliapnikov, D M


    In accordance with the international documents in the field of occupational safety and hygiene, the assessment and minimization of occupational risks is a key instrument for the health maintenance of workers. One of the main ways to achieve it is the minimization of occupational risks. Correspondingly, the instrument for the implementation of this method is the methodology of analysis of occupational risks. In Russian Federation there were the preconditions for the formation of the system for the assessment and management of occupational risks. As the target of the national (state) policy in the field of occupational safety in accordance with ILO Conventions it can be offered the prevention of accidents and injuries to health arising from work or related with it, minimizing the causes of hazards inherent in the working environment, as far as it is reasonably and practically feasible. Global trend ofusing the methodology of the assessment and management of occupational risks to life and health of citizens requires the improvement of national policies in the field of occupational hygiene and safety. Achieving an acceptable level of occupational risk in the formation of national policy in the field of occupational hygiene and safety can be considered as one of the main tasks.

  20. Towards inclusive occupational therapy: Introducing the CORE approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice. (United States)

    Pereira, Robert B


    Occupation is a human right and a social determinant of health. It is also taken for granted. Having access to, and participating in, occupation, is intricately linked to positive health and wellbeing. Despite theory and evidence to support the link between occupation, health and wellbeing, occupational therapists can struggle with applying an occupation focus in practice and knowing how to use occupational frameworks to enable occupation. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Capabilities, Opportunities, Resources and Environments (CORE) approach for inclusive and occupation-focused practice. It provides occupational therapists with a means of operationalising occupational enablement and facilitating social inclusion. The CORE approach is introduced by linking its main ideas to Economist and Nobel Prize Laureate Amartya Sen's capabilities approach, as well as findings from the author's doctoral research into entrenched disadvantage and social inclusion. Practical questions guided by the CORE approach's acronym are given to explore how the approach can be utilised alongside other occupational models and frameworks to encourage strategies for effective enablement through occupation for social inclusion. As experts in enabling occupation, occupational therapists can use the CORE approach to design occupation-focused interventions and promote inclusive occupational therapy. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Liu


    Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  2. Occupational Accidents And Preventive Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V


    This report presents the 2005 statistics concerning occupational accidents involving members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel. It sets out the accident frequency and severity rates and provides a breakdown of accidents by cause and injury. It also contains a summary analysis of the most serious accidents and the associated recommendations.

  3. Nuclear medicine : occupational health issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossleigh, M.


    The occupational health aspects of nuclear medicine are discussed. There is a lack of demonstrable biological effects from low level radiation. The radiation protection measures that are applied to ensure that staff are exposed to as low a level of radiation as is possible are outlined

  4. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy]. (United States)

    Pianosi, G


    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  5. Travel Agent. Occupational Simulation Kit. (United States)

    Peterson, Wayne

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the travel agent's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of what a travel…

  6. Occupational diseases of dust etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, L.I.; Shkondin, A.N.


    Detailed etiologic and clinico-roentgenological characteristics of pneumoconiosis, as widely spread occupational disease caused by different kinds of dust, are given. The course of pneumoconiosis is discussed depending on working conditions of patients after the disease had been ascertained, as well as its complications, taking into account roentgeno-morphological types of fibrosis and the stages of the disease [ru

  7. Occupational health and safety services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.; Hooftman, W.; Michiel, F.


    The position, role and aim of the protective and preventive services (article 7 of the Framework directive (89/391/EEC within the legal OSH-system will be the focus point of this article. Article 13 of the EU Treaty gives the EU the possibility to draft a legal framework on occupational safety and


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviews current literature in the field in both farm and non-farm occupations and ... One major negative effect is withdrawal of critical labour from the family farm which ... rural women to equip them with the necessary skills to work in non-farm .... stratification of roles by gender in African households, but also because the ...

  9. Imaging in occupational lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Kavakama, Jorge Issamu; Rodrigues, Reynaldo Tavares


    This chapter consists of a review of the literature regarding radiographic and tomographic characteristics of the principal occupational respiratory diseases (silicosis and asbestosis). Special attention is given to the practical relevance of high-resolution computed tomography, which is the most sensitive and specific method of identifying and quantifying the extent of pleural and parenchymal lesions related to such diseases. (author)

  10. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation ... Inc. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 5 Physical and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria ...

  11. Occupational radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, H.C.


    The following topics are discussed: occupational expossure (the ALARA principle, dose-equivalent limit, ICRP justification); radiological protection planning (general aspects, barrier estimation) and determination of the occupational expossures (individual monitoring). (M.A.) [pt

  12. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... and Events NIOSH Contact Information Related Federal Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration Mine Safety and Health Administration Follow NIOSH ...

  13. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (United States)

    ... Workplace Health & Safety Journal Awards & Recognition Occupational Health Nurses Week Member Discounts Monthly Newsletter Foundation About the ... 1, 2018. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. is the primary association for the largest ...

  14. The Danish Press during the German Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng-Jensen, Palle


    Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45......Censorship, self-censorship in Danish newspapers and Danish Radio during the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45...

  15. Occupational skin cancer may be underreported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik; Wulf, Hans Christian


    Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period.......Skin cancer may, in some cases, be caused by occupational exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and exposures leading to occupationally induced skin cancers in Denmark during a ten-year period....

  16. The U-Shapes of Occupational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane; Kircher, Philipp; Manovskii, Iourii

    Using administrative panel data on the entire Danish population we document a new set of facts characterizing occupational mobility. For most occupations, mobility is U-shaped and directional: both low and high wage earners within an occupation have a particularly large probability of leaving...... theories that are used to account for endogeneity in occupational choice, but it is shown analytically that the patterns are explained consistently within a theory of sorting under absolute advantage that includes learning about workers’ abilities....

  17. California Publicly-Owned Utilities (POUs) – LBNL ‘Beyond Widgets’ Project. Task: ambient lighting and occupancy-based plug load control. System Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alastair; Mathew, Paul A.; Regnier, Cynthia; Schwartz, Peter; Schakelford, Jordan; Walter, Travis


    This program manual contains detailed technical information for implementing an incentive program for task-ambient lighting and occupancy-based plug load control. This manual was developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in collaboration with the California Publicly-Owned Utilities (CA POUs) as a partner in the ‘Beyond Widgets’ program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office. The primary audience for this manual is the program staff of the various CA POUs. It may also be used by other utility incentive programs to help develop similar programs. It is anticipated that the content of this manual be utilized by the CA POU staff for developing related documents such as the Technical Resource Manual and other filings pertaining to the rollout of an energy systems-based rebate incentive program.

  18. Occupational therapy evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen


    performance based on self-report and observation, respectively, and to examine the relationship between measures of self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance. Methods: The quality of ADL task performance among 20 adults with depression was evaluated using the ADL Interview (ADL......-I) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Results and conclusions: Results indicated that participants both reported and demonstrated increased effort and/or fatigue, increased use of time, need for assistance, and safety problems. However, little relationship was found between measures of self......-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance, supporting the use of both self-report and observation as part of the evaluation phase outlined in the OTIPM. Key words: activities of daily living, depression, assessment, interview, OTIPM, ADL-I, AMPS...

  19. Office Machine and Computer Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition. (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on office machine and computer occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include business machine repairers,…

  20. 77 FR 27776 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety... (United States)


    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study... standard grants review and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health...

  1. 76 FR 18220 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety... (United States)


    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study... standard grants review and funding cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health...

  2. 75 FR 26266 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety... (United States)


    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In...) Public Law 92-463. Purpose: The Safety and Occupational Health Study Section will review, discuss, and... cycles pertaining to research issues in occupational safety and health, and allied areas. It is the...

  3. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition. (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  4. [Organization of occupational therapeutic service, dynamics and structure of occupational morbidity in Krasnoyarsk area]. (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Iu A; Zakharinskaia, O N


    The authors present organizational and functional structure of occupational therapeutic service in Krasnoyarsk area, major functional divisions of the territorial occupational therapeutic center and their activities. The article covers analysis of changes in levels and structure of occupational morbidity, defines main ways to optimize occupational therapeutic service for the territorial workers.

  5. Exploring occupational therapy graduates' conceptualisations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The concept of occupational justice was derived from a social justice perspective in response to a renewed commitment by the occupational therapy profession to address the occupational needs of individuals, groups and communities who experience social injustice. Accordingly, it is acknowledged that ...

  6. Assessment of occupational injuries in Tendaho Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the prevailing occupational injuries. Conclusion: Multiple factors related to the work organization and employee's behavior increased the risk of occupational injuries. Continued on the job training, sustained work place inspections and proving occupational health and safety services should get emphasis in work places.

  7. An interdisciplinary approach to occupational respiratory disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooy, G.B.G.J.


    The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide about 50 million new cases of occupational respiratory diseases emerge every year. Without preventative action, the burden of occupational diseases is expected to increase. In this thesis an alternative approach to deliver occupational health

  8. The Evaluation of Occupational Social Work. (United States)

    Googins, Bradley; Godfrey, Joline


    The evolution of occupational social work from its beginnings in welfare capitalism, through the human relations movement in the 1930s and 1940s, and into the occupational alcoholism programs and employee assistance programs of the last decade is surveyed. A broad definition of occupational social work is offered. (Author)

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Mechanical Drafting Cluster. (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the mechanical drafting cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  10. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Architectural Drafting Cluster. (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the architectural drafting cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  11. Occupational therapists in the Colombian penitentiary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Garzón-Sarmiento


    Conclusions: Occupational therapy should be strengthened in relation to the justice sector, and occupation should be recognized as a fundamental axis in re-socializing processes. Sectorial paths and related normative contents make employment visible as a strategy and indicator of changes in a population that, after transgressing the legal norms, can contribute to society through occupational and productive potential.

  12. Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety is aimed at physicians and researchers in the wide-ranging discipline of occupational and environmental health and safety. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of occupational , environmental and safety health problems; ...

  13. Marine Occupations in the Texas Coastal Zone. (United States)

    McKinnerney, Beryl; Clark, Donald L.

    Marine career information is provided, intended for use by high school students, counselors, teachers, and curriculum developers. Material was gathered from a review of occupational publications, including extended use of the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" (D.O.T.), and from interviews of persons employed in marine occupations in…

  14. Occupational health services in PR China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Youxin; Xiang Quanyong


    In China, the origin of occupational health started in the mid 1950s soon after the founding of the People's Republic of China. However, more complete concept and practice of occupational health was defined after the early 1980s, when China started her full-scale drive for economic reform and policy of openness. The integrity intends to cover occupational health, occupational medicine, industrial toxicology, industrial hygiene, occupational ergonomics, and occupational psychology as theoretical and practical components of occupational health. As a result, occupational health in China has undergone many changes and has improved over the past decades. These changes and improvements came about, most likely due to a new scheme, where a holistic approach of the recognition, regulation, and provision of occupational health services in a wider coverage is gradually formed and brought into effect. This presentation provides the current status of occupational health and safety problems, the latest legislative to occupational health and safety, and a general scenario of the organizational structure and function of occupational health services in China. It attempts to share with participants both our experience and lessons learned towards creating a more open and effective channel of ideas and information sharing

  15. Pneumoconiosis: an occupational hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsh, B.M.; Malott, J.C.


    The use of radiography to detect pneumoconiosis is a familiar task to radiographers in coal mining states. This article includes a discussion on pneumoconiosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis (black lung) as well as the radiographic findings associated with pneumoconiosis and the federal act that established the black lung program in the United States

  16. Occupational stress, mental health and coping among information technology professionals


    Rao, Jakkula V.; Chandraiah, K.


    Backround: Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. Materials and Methods : The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employee...

  17. The effectiveness of an educational programme on occupational disease reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P. B. A.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Braam, I.; Spreeuwers, D.; Lenderink, A. F.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.


    Background: Occupational diseases are under reported. Targeted education of occupational physicians (OPs) may improve their rate of reporting occupational diseases. Aim: To study the effectiveness of an active multifaceted workshop aimed at improving OPs' reporting of occupational diseases. Methods:

  18. Occupational therapy in transitioning adolescents to post-secondary activities. (United States)

    Spencer, Janet E; Emery, Lynnda J; Schneck, Colleen M


    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of special education directors on the current role of occupational therapy in high school transition programs for adolescent students with disabilities. Additionally, barriers to providing occupational therapy services and perceptions about new occupational therapy services were examined. A mailed questionnaire was administered to all special education directors in a rural state in the United States. One hundred and four (57.5%) responses were received. Descriptive statistics were generated with an emphasis on percentages to examine current occupational therapy services in high school transition programs and barriers to service delivery. In this study, occupational therapists provided less than one fifth of transition services in high schools for students with disabilities. They provided more assistive technology consults (30.3%), task or environmental modification (25.8%), and Individualized Education Plan (IEP) and Individualized Transition Plan (ITP) planning (20%) than other providers. Barriers to occupational therapy use included funding, lack of inter-agency planning, and lack of parent participation. About 35% of special education directors suggested that additional occupational therapy services were needed for adolescents with cognitive disabilities and for job performance and related work skills programming. Occupational therapists in this study provided ancillary services to high school students with disabilities with greater emphasis on technology, task or environmental modification, and IEP or ITP planning, as perceived by special evaluation directors.

  19. [Self-assessment of tasks and roles of occupational medicine service (OMS) nurses in the Polish system of workers' health protection]. (United States)

    Sakowski, Piotr


    This paper presents the results of survey performed to find out how occupational medicine service (OMS) nurses assess their tasks and roles in the Polish system of workers' health protection. The survey was carried out in a random group of 200 OMS nurses. The survey showed that OMS nurses form-an experienced professional group. According to self-assessment they have an opportunity to use their competence in its full scope. Almost half of respondents agreed that in Poland the skills of OMS nurses are properly used. There are two reasons why certain tasks are not performed by OMS nurses, first, certain tasks are assigned to other persons in the unit; second, employers are sometimes not interested in those tasks or find them not necessary. The majority of nurses assess their knowledge and preparation to perform tasks relatively well, however they want to broaden their knowledge and improve their skills. OMS nurses play an important role in the Polish system of workers' health protection. They perform many tasks, which fall within the scope of OMS activities being currently implemented. Their competences are usually properly used. There is a need to convince employers that the scope of services provided by OMS units should be extended and adequately financed. This should result in the better use of OMS nurses' competences. Nurses are well educated and skilled to perform their jobs. Nevertheless, they feel the need to broaden their knowledge. Although the programs of specialization and qualification courses are rather comprehensive, nurses declare that some areas should be enriched with additional information.

  20. Does occupational noise cause asymmetric hearing loss? (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A


    Determine whether occupational noise exposure increases audiometric asymmetry. Audiograms were performed on 2044 men from the Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey, representing four groups based on preliminary screening (for previous noise exposure, otologic history, and otoscopy) and current occupational noise exposure. The effects of current noise exposure on audiometric asymmetry were tested using ANCOVA, with binaural average thresholds as covariates. There were no significant differences in asymmetry attributable to current occupational noise exposure. Occupational noise exposure does not usually cause or exacerbate audiometric asymmetry.

  1. [Pulmonary thromboembolism in Occupational Medicine]. (United States)

    Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; Fernández-Fernández, Miguel; Capapé-Aguilar, Ana; Romero-Paredes, Carmen; Aguado-Benedí, María-José


    Occupational physicians should be familiar with the risk factors and clinical presentation of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). PTE belongs to the group ofis a cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause (40%) of death in Spanish workplaces; at present, they may be considered a work-related injury because of the doctrinal evolution in the legal interpretation of the presumption of iuris tantum. We present the case of a hypertensive and obese adult male who suffered a PTE at his workplace. The availability of a portable pulse oximeter (room air SpO2, 92%) was critical in guiding the decision to refer him urgently to the hospital, where the diagnosis was confirmed. We can conclude that, independently of whether this event is later deemed to be work-related (in this case it was not), occupational physicians must know how to correctly manage and refer affected workers. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  2. Occupational therapy's dance with diversity. (United States)

    Black, Roxie M


    As the demographics of the United States continue to change and we become a more pluralistic society, the increased diversity of the occupational therapy workforce and our consumers calls for an examination of the profession's stance on multiculturalism and diversity. Using the metaphor of dance, this article identifies the dance partners as the organization's leaders and its members. A historical review of the profession from the 1940s to the present traces the partners' steps to determine which led the dance of diversity during the profession's development. In this review, I discovered that the period when the profession most effectively and productively explored issues of diversity was during the early- to mid-1990s--a time when the organization and its members worked in harmony. At that time, occupational therapy's dance with diversity flowed with rhythm and synchronicity.

  3. Occupational injuries due to violence. (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L


    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  4. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer]. (United States)

    Nizamova, R S


    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  5. Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden. (United States)

    Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita


    Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  6. Occupational dermatoses from colophony exposure


    Aleš Christian Mihelač; Marjan Bilban


    Colophony is a resin, obtained from pine trees. It has many applications in industry as well as in products for everyday life and exposure is virtually impossible to avoid. In article, we concentrate on occupational exposure, which is frequent in workers in electronics, furniture and paper industry, production of adhesives, plastics, printing ink and synthetic rubber as well as in everyone, daily in contact with products, which contain colophony, or pine wood, like carpenters and woodworkers....

  7. Mindfulness in occupational therapy education. (United States)

    Gura, Shira Taylor


    ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of mindfulness and its role in occupational therapy education. The plethora of research on mindfulness-based stress reduction programs has shown consistent and positive results to enhance quality of life in clinical and nonclinical populations. Offering students the opportunities to learn and experience mindfulness could lead to enhanced self-awareness and care, focus and empathy, and a decrease of client judgment enhancing the success of clinical interventions.

  8. Occupational therapy and Colles' fractures


    Christensen, O.M.; Kunov, A.; Hansen, F.F.; Christiansen, T.C.; Krasheninnikoff, M.


    In this randomized trial, we enrolled 30 patients treated for a distal radius Colles' type fracture. The fractures were reduced if necessary and fixed in a below-elbow plaster cast for 5 weeks. One group consisting of 14 patients received instructions for shoulder; elbow and finger exercise and the other group consisting of 16 patients had occupational therapy. At 5 weeks, 3 and 9 months we measured the functional scores. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups ...

  9. Occupational hearing loss in farmers.


    Plakke, B L; Dare, E


    Studies have shown that there is a great deal of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss among farmers. The studies have failed, however, to differentiate farmers who have occupational noise exposure only from other potential hearing loss etiologies. This study, through extensive case history information, has isolated a farm noise-exposure group and matched its members by age with persons with no significant noise exposure. Results indicate that farmers exposed only to noise from farming ha...

  10. Occupational reproductive epidemiology: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Eve; Doyle, Pat


    The authors review the current state of knowledge about possible adverse effects of hazardous paternal workplace exposures on human reproduction is scant. The methodology for studying possible association between occupational exposures and adverse reproductive events is not well developed. More detailed laboratory and epidemiological research is clearly required, and better collaboration between these two disciplines is needed. Associations suggested in the course of epidemiological research need to be tested in the laboratory, and vice versa. (author)

  11. A case study on occupant controlled lighting in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Asta


    provided a maximum of 100 lx, starting at a low starting value. The occupants of the four person office operated the task light 65% of their working hours when provided with a low starting value and 48% of the time when provided with high starting values. The average satisfaction ratings indicated......Occupant controlled lighting is known to present opportunity for energy savings1,2,3,4 and can increase occupant satisfaction with the lit environment5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Scale model and Laboratory studies suggest that the illuminance interval and the starting value provided to occupants to adjust from......=0.5. The starting values were the minimum and the maximum of each interval and every interval with the different starting values was presented to the occupants in a randomized order for a total of one week. The CCT was 3000 K and the illuminance settings data was monitored online by collecting the DALI signals...

  12. Occupational health in Central America. (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Morgado, Hugo; Elgstrand, Kaj; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo


    The 12.4 million economically active population (EAP) of the seven Central American countries includes a large informal sector. Social security covers only 14-60%. No surveillance of occupational safety and health (OSH) hazards or accidents exists. Extrapolating the incidence of occupational accidents among insured Costa Rican workers to the Central American EAP yields two million accidents yearly, still a gross underestimate. Occupational diseases are underreported, misdiagnosed, and not recognized as such. A number of regional OSH programs aim at modernization of the labor administrations and address the formal sector, in particular textile maquila, in connection with free trade agreements. The weak role of the ministries of health is expected to strengthen under the Pan American Health Organization OSH program. Employers largely influence new policies. Workers' influence on OSH policies has been weak, with only about 10% unionization rate and scarce resources and OSH knowledge. Informal workers, however, are getting organized. OSH research is underdeveloped and not linked to policy making. Construction, agriculture, and general un/underemployment are considered priorities for intervention. The informal sector needs to be included in national and regional OSH policies. Regional collaboration and international development support are of strategic importance to achieve sustainable improvement in OSH.

  13. Occupational burnout in Birjand dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaie T


    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Occupational burnout is a psychological syndrome resulting from continuous tensions which causes absence, conflict, job changing, etc. In spite of much effort done in optimizing the work conditions and satisfying the employed persons, the dentists still suffer from this incident. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of occupational burnout in Birjand dentists and to provide an approach."nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study by the census method, 38 dentists were investigated using Maslach questionnaire. Average values were compared with chi-square and comparison among the groups was performed by Tukey test using SPSS software. P≤0.05 was considered as the level of significance."nResults: In this study, there were 68.4% men and 31.6% women with average age of 37.9 ±7.6 years and average work experience of 12.5±7.3 years, 15.8% single and 84.2% married. Frequency of exhaustion, intense depersonalization, and intense feeling of being unsuccessful was 21.1%, 81.6%, and 100%, respectively. There were no significant differences between occupation burnout dimensions and the other variable, such as gender, sports, marital status, and workday hours (P>0.05."nConclusion: Protection of this stratum, providing educational programs and creating job variations are necessary for optimizing the work environment. Future studies with more sample size are suggested to determine the effect of factors.

  14. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.


    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  15. Occupational hearing loss in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoo Sang


    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  16. [Occupational risks in grocery stores]. (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco S


    This work provides an overview of the spectrum of possible occupational risk factors in the retail grocery store/supermarket workplace. Literature on this theme, obtained consulting PubMed database and Google Scholar, was checked. We also exjlore results from the National bInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). RESULTs: Contacts with objects, use of dangerous equipment (cutter, food slicer) and falls to the same level (slips, trips and falls) are the mainly described workplace hazards. Exposure to chemical (flour dust, components of detergents or disinfectants, volatile organic compounds and contact with nickel) and physical agents (cold exposure, nonionizing radiation and whole bpdy vibration) are reported by many authors. Relations between biomechanical and ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders represent the main subjects of study. Few studies are found about biological agents (particularly among butchers). Data regarding psychosocial risks factors in this setting are still limited. Musculoskeletal disorders continue to be the most recurrent health problem between the grocery store workers (particularly low back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome among cashiers). Many technical documents and international Srecommendations are present to prevent these kinds of disorders. Psychosocial risk factors and risk of workplace violence should deserve further investigation.

  17. [Occupational epidemiology: some methodological considerations]. (United States)

    Alvear-Galindo, María Guadalupe; del Pilar Paz-Román, María


    During the last decade, occupational epidemiology has gained a great importance, not only because of the increase of pollutants and their noxiousness, but also because it has gone from the descriptive to the analytic level. The purpose of this work is to present what has been reported on epidemiological studies, different ways of characterizing and measuring occupational exposure, by emphasizing slants of exposure and selection measurement. In the reviewed studies, an interest in improving the exposure evaluation has been shown. The mainly reported measurement slants are the ways of measuring and classifying the exposure. The main designs were transversal with the use of matrixes to improve the evaluation of exposure. Conditions of hygiene and security were considered in order to control the quality of the information. This information was analyzed with different criteria. Some of the elements that hinder the research on occupational epidemiology are a mixed exposure, small populations, lack of exposure data, low levels of exposure and long periods of illness latency. Some breakthroughs in the strategies of epidemiological analysis and some other areas of knowledge have made possible a better understanding of work and health conditions of workers.

  18. Job satisfaction of occupational medicine nurses in Poland. (United States)

    Sakowski, Piotr


    The study aimed at assessment of the Polish occupational medicine service system after over ten years of functioning in the current shape, made by occupational nurses. The article focuses on the job satisfaction level among Polish occupational medicine nurses. The survey was performed among 600 randomly selected occupational medicine nurses, registered in the regional occupational medicine centers. A questionnaire, designed by the research team, containing several questions concerning different aspects of OMS system assessment, including a part dedicated to job satisfaction assessment, was sent to the selected occupational nurses. The response rate was 33.3% (200 questionnaires). The survey shows a relatively high satisfaction level in case of five out of eleven investigated job aspects, and a very low satisfaction level in case of two of them ("Possibility of professional promotion", "Salary"). 26% of the OMS nurses had considered going abroad to work as a nurse in the general health care system, and 17% in the OHS system. Almost 25% of them would not choose a profession of an occupational nurse once again, including 10% who would not choose a nurse job at all. There is a statistically significant correlation between the general job satisfaction and satisfaction with other aspects of nursing work. A strong correlation was observed in case of "Scope of performed tasks" and "Cooperation with employers (clients of the occupational medicine service units)". There is a statistically significant correlation of average strength between the decision concerning choosing an occupational nurse job in case of taking a decision on professional carrier once again and "General job satisfaction". Polish occupational nurses are satisfied with their job, however only 26% are fully satisfied. In their work there is place for improvement. The areas which definitely need attention and improvement are "Possibility of professional promotion" and "Salary". Improvements in cooperation

  19. A Second Look at the Process of Occupational Feminization and Pay Reduction in Occupations. (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas


    Using the IPUMS-USA data for the years 1960-2015, this study examines trends in the effect of occupational feminization on occupational pay in the U.S. labor market and explores some of the mechanisms underlying these trends. The findings show that the (negative) association between occupational feminization and occupational pay level has declined, becoming insignificent in 2015. This trend, however, is reversed after education is controlled for at the individual as well as the occupational level. The two opposite trends are discussed in light of the twofold effect of education: (1) the entry of women into occupations requiring high education, and (2) the growing returns to education and to occupations with higher educational requirements. These two processes have concealed the deterioration in occupational pay following feminization. The findings underscore the significance of structural forms of gender inequality in general, and occupational devaluation in particular.

  20. The Portrayal of Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science in Canadian Newspapers: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing-Yee (Emily Chai


    Full Text Available The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life. The demand for occupational therapists in Canada is expected to grow sharply at an annual growth rate of 3.2%, compared to 0.7% for all occupations. At the same time, it is believed by occupational therapists in Canada that the Canadian public does not understand the role of occupational therapy. Occupational science is an emerging basic science field that supports the practice of occupational therapy. Given that newspapers are one source the public uses to obtain information and that newspapers are seen to shape public opinions, the purpose of this study is to investigate how “occupational therapy” is covered in Canadian newspapers from the term’s first appearance in 1917 until 2016 and how “occupational science” is covered from the term’s first appearance in 1989 to 2016. We interrogated the findings through the lens of three non-newspaper sources—two academic journals: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy (CJOT and Journal of Occupational Science (JOS; and one Canadian magazine: Occupational Therapy Now (OTN. We found that medical terms were prevalent in the newspaper articles covering occupational therapy similar to the presence of medical terms in the CJOT and OTN. However, the newspapers missed contemporary shifts in occupational therapy as evident in the CJOT, OTN and JOS—such as the increased engagement with enablement, occupational justice and other occupational concepts. The newspapers also failed to portray the societal issues that occupational therapy engages with on behalf of and with their clients, and the newspapers did not cover many of the client groups of occupational therapy. Occupational science was only mentioned in n = 26 articles of the nearly 300 Canadian newspapers covered with no concrete content linked to occupational science. The scope of occupational therapy presented in Canadian

  1. Occupational Accidents: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauha Hussain Ali


    Full Text Available It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of fatalities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occuptional accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents & their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method. The findings of this research show that ?fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite? are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as ?fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool? are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper

  2. Participation and occupation in occupational therapy models of practice: A discussion of possibilities and challenges. (United States)

    Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nyman, Anneli


    Occupation has been the focus in occupational therapy practice to greater or lesser degrees from a historical viewpoint. This evokes a need to discuss whether concepts that are added to our field will enhance or blur our focus on occupation. To explore how the concept of participation in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is related to the concept of occupation by reviewing and comparing its use in three models of practice within occupational therapy. The aim was also to generate discussion on possibilities and challenges concerning the relationship of participation and occupation. The models reviewed were The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) and the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM). The concept of participation was related to occupation in different ways in these models. Based on the review some challenges and considerations for occupational therapy were generated. Relating the concept of participation from the ICF to the concept of occupation in models of practice can be challenging. At the same time, relating the concepts can be a resource to develop occupational therapy and the understanding of occupational issues in society.

  3. [Appraisal of occupational stress and work ability]. (United States)

    Yang, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiming; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Mianzhen


    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress and work ability. A test of occupational stress and work ability was carry out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index(WAI) for 2270 workers. (1) The occupational stress and strain in male was significantly higher than those in female, but self-care and social support in female werehigher than in male(P < 0.01). The level of occupational stress, strain except interpersonal strain increased with age, while work ability decreased(P < 0.05). (2) Among 6 items of occupational role questionnaire, the score of role boundary and responsibility were obviously higher in college education (P < 0.05). The score of occupational role, psychological strain, physical strain was higher in maried, divorce than unmarried(P < 0.05). (3) The score of occupational role, strain in good work ability category was significantly lower than others, but personal resources were higher(P < 0.05). (4) The correlation of work ability and occupational stress, strain, personal resources were significant(P < 0.01), occupational role and personal strain were positively correlated, both of which correlated negatively to the personal resources(P < 0.01). (5) The major influential factors of personal strain were age, recreation, self-care, social support, rational/cognitive, role insufficiency, role ambiguity and role boundary.

  4. Impact of Work Task-Related Acute Occupational Smoke Exposures on Select Proinflammatory Immune Parameters in Wildland Firefighters (United States)

    Objective: A repeated measures study was used to assess the effect of work tasks on select proinflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Methods: Ten firefighters and two volunteers were monitored for particulate matter and carbon monoxide on workdays, ...

  5. Occupational rhinitis and occupational asthma; one airway two diseases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, M J; Gittins, M; De Vocht, F; Agius, R M.


    The concept of 'one airway, one disease' refers to the frequent comorbidity of asthma and rhinitis. However, only limited research has been done on this association for the diverse range of occupational respiratory sensitisers. The relative frequency of rhinitis was determined for the 15 respiratory sensitisers reported to cause at least 10 cases of rhinitis or asthma to The Health and Occupation Reporting (THOR) network between 1997 and 2006. Of 1408 cases, 1190 were sole diagnoses of asthma, 138 sole diagnoses of rhinitis and in 80 cases asthma coexisted with rhinitis. The six sensitisers for which rhinitis featured in over 15% of cases were all particulates and known to cause release of mast cell mediators, either directly or through IgE antibodies. Four of the other nine sensitisers often exist as vapours and only two have been consistently associated with IgE-mediated disease mechanisms. Particle size did not appear to correlate with the relative frequency of rhinitis. Despite its limitations this study would support the hypothesis that there are at least two mechanistic categories of respiratory sensitisation with rhinitis being relatively more common where the mechanism is IgE-mediated. Particulate nature may be another important factor to consider in future studies.

  6. Integrating occupations: Changing occupational sex segregation in the U.S. from 2000 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Roos


    Full Text Available Background: Declining occupational sex segregation in the late 20th century helped to usher in unprecedented occupational and economic advancement for women. As the 21st century dawned, that advancement stalled. Objective: We examine how occupational integration occurred in the early decades of the 21st century by focusing on (1 the extent of occupational feminization and masculinization and (2 occupational succession. More broadly we examine how the representation of women in detailed occupational categories changed between 2000 and 2014, regardless of whether they were historically 'male' or 'female,' and how sociodemographic characteristics contributed to uneven shifts in occupational integration. Methods: We use Integrated Public Use Microdata Series data to estimate the percentage point female at the detailed occupation level, specifically the 5Š census microdata sample for 2000, and two 1Š American Community Survey (ACS samples for 2013 and 2014. Results: Despite a stall in overall integration, there was much fluctuation within detailed occupations. Moreover, occupational inroads have been uneven in the post-2000 period. Women gained entry into the same types of professional and managerial occupations they entered between 1970 and 2000, especially in the health professions. Men increased their representation in lower-level, nonprofessional occupations. Contribution: Rather than focus solely on predominantly male or female occupations, we focus more broadly on how occupations feminize and masculinize. More occupations masculinized than previously. Moreover, those in feminizing occupations are more likely to be advantaged (e.g., white, citizens, and educated, while those in masculinizing occupations are more likely to be disadvantaged (e.g., black, Hispanic, and poor English speakers.

  7. The Global Burden of Occupational Disease. (United States)

    Rushton, Lesley


    Burden of occupational disease estimation contributes to understanding of both magnitude and relative importance of different occupational hazards and provides essential information for targeting risk reduction. This review summarises recent key findings and discusses their impact on occupational regulation and practice. New methods have been developed to estimate burden of occupational disease that take account of the latency of many chronic diseases and allow for exposure trends and workforce turnover. Results from these studies have shown in several countries and globally that, in spite of improvements in workplace technology, practices and exposures over the last decades, occupational hazards remain an important cause of ill health and mortality worldwide. Major data gaps have been identified particularly regarding exposure information. Reliable data on employment and disease are also lacking especially in developing countries. Burden of occupational disease estimates form an important part of decision-making processes.

  8. Introducing disability studies to occupational therapy students. (United States)

    Block, Pamela; Ricafrente-Biazon, Melissa; Russo, Ann; Chu, Ke Yun; Sud, Suman; Koerner, Lori; Vittoria, Karen; Landgrover, Alyssa; Olowu, Tosin


    This article is a work of collaborative ethnography about teaching and learning disability studies within the context of an occupational therapy graduate program. In spring 2004,14 occupational therapy students were introduced to disability studies by their cultural anthropologist (nonoccupational therapist) course instructor. During the one-credit course, they were expected to complete readings, watch films, attend guest lectures, and make a site visit. The occupational therapy students were required to write a journal to record personal reactions and new insights gained from these experiences. This article focuses on a thematic analysis of the students' journaled responses to the film "Dance Me to My Song," and a site visit to a local Independent Living Center. Students were expected to analyze these experiences from both disability studies and occupational therapy perspectives. The article addresses philosophical and practical differences between occupational therapy and disability studies and identifies opportunities for collaboration between occupational therapists and independent living specialists.

  9. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health. (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B


    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety.

  10. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities. (United States)

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan


    Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: "Occupational injuries" and "workplace" between 1984 and 2014. Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  11. Annual report on occupational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A report is given on the occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for the year 1984 and the results compared to those obtained in 1983. Data are presented for each of the Company's Sites on whole body exposures, accidental deaths and major injuries and nuclear and non-nuclear incidents. The results show that the Company average body dose continues to be less than 5mSv, there were no accidental deaths but 15 major injuries. One nuclear incident and 9 non-nuclear incidents were notified to the Health and Safety Executive. (UK)

  12. Occupational radiation safety in mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.


    The first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Safety in Mining was held three years ago in Golden, Colorado, U.S.A., and it provided an excellent forum for an exchange of information on the many scientific, technical and operational aspects of radiation safety in mining. I am aware of the broad spectrum of epidemiological, engineering and related studies which have been pursued during the past three years with a view to achieving further improvements in radiation protection and I expect that the information on these studies will contribute significantly to a wider understanding of subject, and in particular, the means by which radiation safety measures in mining can be optimized

  13. Radiation protection and occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.; Carter, M.W.


    This paper examines trends in occupational and public health standard setting including those which apply to radiation protection practices. It is the authors' contention that while regulators, unions and employees demand higher standards of radiation protection and industry attempts to comply with tight controls of radiation exposure in the workplace, these standards are out of step with standards applied to health away from the workplace, recreational activity and other areas of industrial hygiene. The ultimate goal of an improvement in the health of the nation's workforce may no longer be visible because it has been submerged beneath the predominating concern for one aspect of health in the workplace. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Occupational therapy and Colles' fractures. (United States)

    Christensen, O M; Kunov, A; Hansen, F F; Christiansen, T C; Krasheninnikoff, M


    In this randomized trial, we enrolled 30 patients treated for a distal radius Colles' type fracture. The fractures were reduced if necessary and fixed in a below-elbow plaster cast for 5 weeks. One group consisting of 14 patients received instructions for shoulder; elbow and finger exercise and the other group consisting of 16 patients had occupational therapy. At 5 weeks, 3 and 9 months we measured the functional scores. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at any time. It seems that for non-surgically treated patients with a distal radius fracture only instructions are necessary.

  15. Laboratory Approaches to Studying Occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Andreas; Andersen, Rune; Zhang, Hui


    is high and a large number of physical, physiological, and psychological quantities can be monitored. This chapter gives an overview of various types of test facilities in the world and their main features in terms of experimental opportunities. It then presents typical technical equipment and sensor......Laboratories offer the possibility to study occupant behavior in a very detailed manner. A wide range of indoor environmental scenarios can be simulated under precisely controlled conditions, and human subjects can be selected based on pre-defined criteria. The degree of control over experiments...

  16. Human capital formation from occupations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pleijt, Alexandra M.; Weisdorf, Jacob L.


    -quality workmen’ deemed necessary by Mokyr and others to facilitate the Industrial Revolution, including machine erectors and operators. But we also find remarkable growth in the share of unskilled workers, rising from 20 % in the late sixteenth century to nearly 40 % in the early nineteenth century, caused...... mainly by falling shares of semi-skilled, blue-collar workers. Close inspection of the occupational structures within the main sectors of production suggests that deskilling occurred in agriculture and industry alike, prompted by land concentration in agriculture and workshop-to-factory changes...... in industry....

  17. Occupational accidents: a perspective of pakistan construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, T.H.; Khahro, S.H.; Memon, F.A.


    It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of facilities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occupational accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents and their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method. The findings of this research show that fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper identify that what type of occupational accidents occur at the work place in construction industry of pakistan, in order to develop the corrective actions which should be adequate enough to prevent the re-occurrence of such accidents at work site. (author)

  18. Cooperation between the occupational health insurance and physicians practicing occupational dermatology: optimization potential in quality assurance. (United States)

    Elsner, Peter; Aberer, Werner; Bauer, Andrea; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Drexler, Hans; Fartasch, Manigé; John, Swen Malte; Schuhmacher-Stock, Uta; Wehrmann, Wolfgang; Weisshaar, Elke


    Quality assurance is a task of the medical profession, but it is also a duty of the occupational health insurance (OHI). Data on the interaction quality between physicians practicing occupational dermatology and the OHI are limited. An online survey was performed in 854 German members of the Working Group on Occupational and Environmental Dermatology in October 2013. Items included demographic data, a judgment on the cooperation between the dermatologists and OHI companies, an economic grading of the current compensation scheme, and prioritization of optimization tasks. 182 members (21.3 % of the invited population) participated in the survey. The cooperation with the OHI companies was judged as "very good" by 10.8 %, as "good" by 56.7  %, as "satisfactory" by 24.2 %, as "sufficient" by 7.0 % and as "inadequate" by 1.3 %. 93.4 % of the interviewed mentioned problems and improvement potentials in the cooperation of their practice or clinic with OHI companies. Main points of criticisms were reimbursement (44.7 %), followed by impairments of the treatment options (36.5 %) and the delay or scope of the treatment in the dermatologist's procedure (29.4 %). While most physicians practicing occupational dermatology give a positive judgment of their cooperation with OHI companies, quality optimization potentials exist regarding the reimbursement of dermatological services, especially regarding time-intensive counselling in the prevention of occupational skin diseases, in the enablement of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures according to current guidelines and in a timely preventive intervention to use the therapeutic window before chronification of skin diseases may occur. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Occupational Therapy Interventions for Adults With Cancer. (United States)

    Braveman, Brent; Hunter, Elizabeth G; Nicholson, Jennifer; Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah

    This Evidence Connection describes a case report of a man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent an allogenic stem cell transplant. The occupational therapy assessment and treatment processes for an outpatient rehabilitation setting are described. Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. Hotel housekeeping occupational stressors in Norway


    Yap, Matthew H. T.


    Stress is evident in the Norwegian hotel industry and requires urgent attention as portrayed in Annbjørg’s housekeeping managerial occupation. Annbjørg’s occupational stressors derived from weak control of and support for demanding jobs in the housekeeping department and possibly under-reward in comparison to her tireless efforts. Hence, this case study provides a platform for educators, trainers, managers, students and learners to critically examine, discuss and argue managerial occupational...

  1. Occupational Therapy Home Safety Intervention via Telehealth


    Lori E. Breeden


    Photography can be an effective addition for education-based telehealth services delivered by an occupational therapist.  In this study, photography was used as antecedent to telehealth sessions delivered by an occupational therapist focused on narrative learning about home safety.  After taking photographs of past home safety challenges, six participants experienced three web-based occupational therapy sessions each.  Sessions were recorded and transcribed.  Data were examined using content ...

  2. Gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation


    Wrohlich, Katharina


    The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male dominated professions. This is one of the reasons for the gender pay gap. However, there are also large differences in earnings between men and women within occupations. These profession-specific gender pay gaps are smaller in professions with a high proportion of employees in the public sector. This finding indicat...

  3. The Occupational Wellbeing of People Experiencing Homelessness


    Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, M.; McGinty, S.


    This paper reports findings of a study that utilised an occupational perspective to explore how wellbeing was achieved and sustained by the occupations of people experiencing homelessness in Australia. Thirty three in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with homeless individuals in a regional city in Australia. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed to understand the relationship between wellbeing, as defined by the individual, and the occupations engaged in by people exp...

  4. An Elective Course Exploring Occupational Justice Through Occupational Storytelling and Story Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bednarski


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether second-year Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT students who enroll in the elective course “Occupation in Long-Term Care (LTC” would be able to apply concepts of occupational justice in the nursing home environment through engaging residents in occupational storytelling and story making in order to facilitate resident self-advocacy for participation in a valued occupation. The occupational therapy elective course was developed and implemented with students alternating between the classroom and the nursing home environments. Outcome evaluation measurements included analysis of student reflective journaling to obtain qualitative data. The researcher found that students are able to understand the concepts and issues of occupational justice in the nursing home population and apply knowledge to facilitate the resident’s participation in meaningful occupations.

  5. Teachers’ occupational attributes and their psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Korpershoek, Hanke; Wang, Hui; Morin, Alexandre J.S.

    Little is known about the determinants of teachers' psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions. In this paper, teachers' occupational attributes (i.e. professional and personal characteristics) were investigated as determinants. Henceforth, the

  6. Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey 2007 (MVOSS) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Survey data the agency uses to track changes in public attitude, knowledge, and behavior related to occupant protection. The MVOSS also collects information related...

  7. Occupational safety in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, W


    The original technique-oriented accident prevention today has grown to a comprehensive occupational workers protection system. Modern occupational safety requires latest strategies. Side by side with technical and organizational measures we see duties for all superiors directed to plant related occupational safety. These new principles of leadership on the basis of occupational safety policies from top management require equivalent tactics to cause change in behaviour of the employees. Such a not only formulated but also accepted safety strategy is extremely clear by its positive results in the petroleum industry.

  8. Definition and denomination of occupations in libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Gazvoda


    Full Text Available In the first part of the article, the author presents the modern definition of occupation as defined in the ISCO-88 standard, and consecutively in the Slovenian Standard Classification of Occupations; occupations in the field of library and information science are then placed in a wider frame of information occupations which are present in ali spheres of activities. The following part of the article is focused on information occupations in libraries, especially on their contents definitions and denominations.Based on the analysis of job descriptions in three Slovenian libraries (National and University Library, University Library of Maribor and Central Technical Library,the author came to the following conclusion: the existent practice in libraries shows that the contents and denominations of occupations in library and information jobs are defined too loosely. In most cases, the contents of occupation is defined by the contents of the job, while for its denomination the required educational title of the employee is often used. Therefore, the author proposes the establishment of a work force which would define the contents and design denominations to library and information occupations according to the principles contained in the Standard Classification of Occupations.

  9. The U-Shapes of Occupational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane Naja; Kircher, Philipp; Manovskii, Iourii


    Using administrative panel data on the entire Danish population we document a new set of facts characterizing occupational mobility. For most occupations, mobility is U-shaped and directional: not only low but also high wage earners within an occupation have a particularly large probability...... to leave. The facts conflict with several existing theories that are used to account for endogeneity in occupational choice, but it is shown analytically that the patterns are explained consistently within a theory of vertical sorting under absolute advantage that includes learning about workers' abilities....

  10. Occupant Protection Data Mining and Modeling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) occupant protection standards and requirements are based on extrapolations of biodynamic models, which...

  11. Synthetic biology and occupational risk. (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul


    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  12. Occupational dose trends in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Nyanda, A.M.; Ngaile, J.E.; Lema, U.S.


    This paper describes the present status of occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers in Tanzania from 1986 to 1997. The analysis of dose records observes over this period, a fluctuating trend both in the individual and collective doses. The trend is more related to the fluctuations of the number of radiation workers than to the possible radiation safety changes of the working conditions. It has been found that, the maximum annual dose for the worker in all work categories was about 18 mSv y -1 . This suggests that the occupational radiation exposure in all practices satisfies the current dose limitation system. The national exposure summary shows that, the highest collective dose of 12.8 man-Sv which is 90% of the total collective dose, was due to medical applications. The applications in industry and research had a contribution of nearly 0.8 and 0.7 man-Sv respectively. From the professional point of view, the medical diagnostic radiographers received the highest collective dose of 11.2 man-Sv. Although the medical physicists recorded the minimum collective dose of nearly 0.07 man-Sv, the data shows that this profession received the highest mean dose of about 33 mSv in 12 years. Some achievements of the personnel monitoring services and suggestions for future improvement are pointed out. (author)

  13. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.


    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  14. [Occupational allergy in health personnel]. (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Bagnato, Emma


    Health care workers are exposed to many agents that can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. In nurses with eczema of the hands latex sensitivity can play an important role in the occurrence of urticaria, rhinitis and asthma. To determine the prevalence of irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria and the role of skin sensitization to common and occupational haptens and allergens in a group of health care workers with skin problems. Retrospective review of 204 health care workers assessed by prick and patch testing in an occupational health clinic. The diagnoses included 35.3% with irritant contact dermatitis, 64.7% with allergic contact dermatitis and 7.3% with contact urticaria to latex. Three workers complained of asthma and 5 complained of rhinitis related to latex sensitization. At present 12.9% of atopic subjects were sensitized to latex by skin prick against 21.9% in 1998, so sensitization showed a decline in the years considered. Contact dermatitis and sensitization to natural rubber latex is a significant problem and nurses should be tested for both types of hypersensitivity, as well as being patch tested to standard, rubber and disinfectants series. The need is stressed for preventive measures to prevent the onset of contact dermatitis and to avoid latex exposure.

  15. Health promotion in occupational health. (United States)

    Kaijser, C F O


    To describe a Swedish approach to occupational health and its implications for health promotion. We start business with a new customer by creating a health policy for the whole company. Every year a follow-up is presented to top management where decisions are taken on what to do for the coming period. The result from a paper mill is presented where cost savings were five times more than expected. We have found that close follow-up and the use of personalized reminders is very useful for individuals. We have also found the importance of working more with "the softer side" i.e. looking into a person's total life situation. Management training activities are essential. This training includes for instance personality, communication and conflict handling seminars and every manager has to go through those seminars. The focus is moved from sick care to health improvement. The result is measured in long-term health for individuals. To reach that level you have to be healthy and have no absences for at least two years. The Swedish occupational health system is a unique system for creating health. With a specially trained staff including MDs, nurses, physiotherapists, psychologists, management consultants and engineers, and working from prevention to treatment, they can create a total view of both individual health and customer company wealth. Working closely together in teams and in close cooperation with customers, they can initiate great changes in both these dimensions.

  16. Radiation hormesis at occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharieva, E.; Georgieva, R.


    Full text: The aim of our work was to find appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals to prove radiation hormesis. Blood samples were taken from a group of irradiated persons, and from a control group. For each worker we estimated a parameter arbitrarily called by us 'mean annual dose' as a quotient of cumulated dose and length of service. DNA repair synthesis in leucocytes before and after in vitro exposure to a challenge dose of 2.0 Gy gamma rays was determined by the level of incorporation of radioactively labeled nucleotides, level of DNA damage in lymphocytes was analyzed by single cell gel electrophoresis and level of lipid peroxidation processes was evaluated by malonedialdehyde concentration in blood plasma. A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage in persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/y was found, compared to the control group. The highest repair capacity after a challenging dose of 2.0 Gy gamma rays as well as a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress determined in the blood plasma was evaluated for persons from the same group. The present investigation of occupationally exposed workers showed that annual doses no higher than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase cellular resistance and decrease oxidative stress

  17. Analysis of tasks of occupational health services accomplished in Poland, 1997–2014. Do we exploit the full potential of prophylactic examinations of workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marcinkiewicz


    Full Text Available Background: Mandatory medical reports can be used to evaluate the scope of activity of occupational health services (OHS, including the number and kind of services. Material and Methods: The analysis comprised data for the period 1997–2014, derived from mandatory reports MZ-35A submitted by OHS units. Results: During the analyzed period the number of occupational medicine physicians decreased from 8507 to 6741, while the number of OHS units – responsible for prophylactic care – increased from 4967 to 6261. In the years under report 3,961 million mandatory health check-ups were performed, of which 99.3% resulted in issuing fitness for work certificates. Pre-employment examinations made 38.8%, while periodical ones – 52.8% and control ones – 6.7% of all check-ups. Moreover, 336 700 examinations of apprentices, students, vocational courses attendants and Ph.D. students were performed to evaluate any contradictions for vocational training. In 2014, there were 1871 workers provided with preventive care per 1 occupational physician. It was estimated that despite legal obligation, only 22.2% of employers had signed agreements with OHS units. Conclusions: The analysis of the number and kind of services provided by OHS units revealed high but not fully exploited potential for efficient prophylaxis of both directly occupational work-related and indirectly work-exacerbated diseases. Med Pr 2017;68(1:105–119

  18. [Appraisal of occupational stress and its influential factors in nurses]. (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Wang, Zhi-ming; Wang, Mian-zhen; Lan, Ya-jia


    To assess the occupational stress and its influential factors in nurses. A test of occupational stress, its influential factors, work ability were carried out for 248 nurses and 319 controls with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index (WAI). The scores of personal cope resource (131.266 +/- 17.176) and work ability index (32.581 +/- 3.158) in nurse group were significantly higher than those in control group (126.931 +/- 19.108, 31.840 +/- 4.069) (P < 0.05). The main occupational stressors scores (role insufficiency, role clash, and responsibility) in nurses were higher than those in controls (P < 0.05). The stress response of interpersonal relationship in nurses was also higher. The items of personal cope resource, such as recreation, self-care and social support of nurses were superior to those of controls (P < 0.05). Stress response was positively correlated with occupational role (r = 0.512, P < 0.01), and negatively correlated with the personal cope resource (r = -0.475, P < 0.01). The primary influential factors of personal stress were recreation, social support, rational conduct, role insufficiency, role clash, responsibility, and poor work environment. To strengthen social support, to improve work condition for nurses, so as to reduce the occupational stress and to enhance the work ability of nurses are important task in occupational health field.

  19. Human rights in occupational therapy education: A step towards a more occupationally just global society. (United States)

    Crawford, Emma; Aplin, Tammy; Rodger, Sylvia


    Education on human rights will place occupational therapists in a strong position to address societal inequities that limit occupational engagement for many client groups. The imminent changes to the Minimum Standard for the Education of Occupational Therapists engender efforts towards social change and will require university-level human rights education. This education might enhance the profession's influence on disadvantaging social structures in order to effect social change. To contribute to the evidence base for social change education in occupational therapy, this research aims to understand the knowledge, skills, confidence and learning experiences of occupational therapy students who completed a human rights course. Final year occupational therapy students responded to questionnaires which included listing human rights, a human rights scale measuring knowledge and confidence for working towards human rights, and open questions. Numbers of rights listed, knowledge scores and confidence scores were calculated. Responses to the open questions were thematically analysed. After completing a human rights course, students had good knowledge and moderate confidence to work with human rights. Three themes were identified including 'learning about human rights', 'learning about structural, societal and global perspectives on occupational engagement' and 'learning how occupational therapists can work with groups, communities and populations: becoming articulate and empowered'. Human rights education fosters the development of occupational therapists who are skilled, knowledgeable, confident and empowered to address occupational injustices, according to these research findings. To develop a more occupationally just global society, education that considers iniquitous social structures and human rights is necessary. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  20. Entry-Level Doctorate for Occupational Therapists: An Assessment of Attitudes of Occupational Therapists and Occupational Therapy Assistants (United States)

    McCombie, Randy P.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) on their attitudes toward a possible move to the entry-level doctorate as the mandated singular point of entry into the profession for OTs. Method: The study surveyed a random sample of 600 OTs and 600 OTAs from two…

  1. Occupational exposure to electric fields and induced currents associated with 400 kV substation tasks from different service platforms. (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Elovaara, Jarmo A; Kuisti, Harri A


    The aim of the study was to investigate the occupational exposure to electric fields, average current densities, and average total contact currents at 400 kV substation tasks from different service platforms (main transformer inspection, maintenance of operating device of disconnector, maintenance of operating device of circuit breaker). The average values are calculated over measured periods (about 2.5 min). In many work tasks, the maximum electric field strengths exceeded the action values proposed in the EU Directive 2004/40/EC, but the average electric fields (0.2-24.5 kV/m) were at least 40% lower than the maximum values. The average current densities were 0.1-2.3 mA/m² and the average total contact currents 2.0-143.2 µA, that is, clearly less than the limit values of the EU Directive. The average values of the currents in head and contact currents were 16-68% lower than the maximum values when we compared the average value from all cases in the same substation. In the future it is important to pay attention to the fact that the action and limit values of the EU Directive differ significantly. It is also important to take into account that generally, the workers' exposure to the electric fields, current densities, and total contact currents are obviously lower if we use the average values from a certain measured time period (e.g., 2.5 min) than in the case where exposure is defined with only the help of the maximum values. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Play and play occupation: a survey of paediatric occupational therapy practice in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Moore


    Full Text Available Purpose - Play occupation has been identified as an essential part of children’s lives, and it subsequently features in paediatric occupational therapy. However, few studies address the current place of play and play occupation in occupational therapy practice. This study aims to address this gap in knowledge by exploring paediatric occupational therapists’ perspectives on the place of play and play occupation in occupational therapy practice in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach - A cross-sectional online survey was conducted to gather data about the current use of play in the occupational therapy for children under 12 years. Convenience sampling and snowball recruitment techniques were used to recruit paediatric occupational therapists. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Findings - In total, 65 therapists responded to the survey (estimated response rate, 32%. Results are organised into four sections: demographics and practice context, play assessment practices, use of play in practice and perceived barriers to play-centred practice. Respondents reported that they valued play as a childhood occupation. However, the survey findings identified that the primary focus was on play as a means to an end. Lack of education on play (research, theory and interventions and pressures in the workplace have been identified as barriers to play-centred practice. Research limitations/implications - Findings indicate that there is a mismatch between therapists valuing play as an occupation and how play is used in occupational therapy practice. Unless clarifications are made about play occupation as being different to skills acquisition in childhood, play occupation will continue to get overlooked as an authentic concern of occupation-centred practice. Thus, play as occupation deserves further attention from educators, researchers and practitioners as a means of strengthening occupation-centred practice, in


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    over a six month period from January 2002 to June 2002 at a rural outreach eye ... occupational group and their patronage and choice of eye care services led to ... hypothesis that there was no difference in use of services between patients of different occupations. ... Table 1: Age by sex distribution of patients interviewed.

  4. Discussing the transformative functioning of occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsson, Staffan; Madsen, Jacob Østergaard; Aldrich,, Rebecca M.

    ), Narrative - in – action (Ricoeur, Bruner and Mattingly) Personal construct theory (eg Kelly, Sarbin, Little and Baumeister) Intrinsic motivation theory (e g,White, Bandura, Deci & Ryan, etc), and Developmental theory (Piaget, Erikson, Baltes, etc), Importance to occupational science: Occupation is used...

  5. An Analysis of the Real Estate Occupation. (United States)

    Harestad, Clifford E.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the real estate occupation. It represents an accounting of what must be done, but not how the entire cycle of a residential sale is completed through the services of a real estate person and the…

  6. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn


    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  7. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar


    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  8. Criminal Justice. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile. (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  9. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. Objective: To ...

  10. [Role of the occupational health nurse]. (United States)

    Rauch, Nadine


    The missions of occupational health nurses are exclusively preventive, except in the event of emergency situations. They are involved in the prevention of occupational stress, the assessment of psychosocial risks and the improvement of quality of life at work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The occupational health of Santa Claus


    Straube, Sebastian; Fan, Xiangning


    Previous publications in the field of Santa studies have not focused on health and safety issues arising from Santa?s workplace activities. However, it should be acknowledged that unique occupational hazards exist for Santa Claus. Major occupational health issues affecting Santa are discussed, along with suggestions for future research directions.

  12. Career Counseling and Occupational Preferences Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Career Counseling and Occupational Preferences Among Secondary School Students in Cross River State, Nigeria. ... Annals of Modern Education ... senatorial district of Cross River State, Nigeria to investigate the implication of career counseling on the occupational preferences of senior secondary school students.

  13. Outsourcing occupational health services. Critical elements. (United States)

    Dyck, Dianne


    Successful management of an outsourcing relationship produces a highly interactive, flexible relationship between two organizations. The unique skills and resources of the service provider can be leveraged by the purchasing organization to achieve its business goals. Occupational and environmental health nurses can orchestrate this process and implement this important management tool in the provision of quality occupational health services.

  14. An Analysis of the Payroll Clerking Occupation. (United States)

    Peal, Sharyn; Rose, Virginia

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the payroll clerk occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Ten duties are broken down into a number of…

  15. Errors and untimely radiodiagnosis of occupational diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, L.I.; Shkondin, A.N.; Sergienko, N.S.; Doroshenko, A.N.; Shumakov, A.V.


    Most errors in the diagnosis of occupational diseases occur due to hyperdiagnosis (37%), because data of dynamic clinico-roentgenological examination were not considered (23%). Defects in the organization of prophylactic fluorography results in untimely diagnosis of dust-induced occupational diseases. Errors also occurred because working conditions were not always considered atypical development and course were not always analyzed

  16. Occupational Sequences: Auto Engines 1. AT 121. (United States)

    Korb, A. W.; And Others

    In an attempt to individualize an automotive course, the Vocational-Technical Division of Northern Montana College has developed Occupational Sequences for an engine rebuilding course. Occupational Sequences, a learning or teaching aid, is an analysis of numbered operations involved in engine rebuilding. Job sheets, included in the book, provide a…

  17. Evacuation of bedridden occupants : experimental research outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, N.; van Herpen, R.; Zeiler, W.


    Bedridden building occupants in hospitals and nursing homes who are not able to rescue themselves in case of a fire emergency require assistance during an evacuation. A building emergency team usually fulfils this function and will have to remove the occupants from the room. The speed at which such




  19. Occupational Segregation by Sex: Determinants and Changes. (United States)

    Beller, Andrea H.


    This study found that occupational sex segregation began to diminish during the 1970s, in conjunction with enforcement of the equal employment opportunity laws against sex discrimination in employment. The success of these laws suggests that discrimination was originally a determinant of occupational segregation. (Author/SK)

  20. Cultural Relativism: Occupation and Independence Reconsidered. (United States)

    Whiteford, Gail Elizabeth; Wilcock, Ann Allart


    A study focused on the experiences of 22 occupational therapy students working with people from different social and cultural backgrounds in New Zealand over a 3-year period. Results highlight issues about how occupation and independence are conceptualized across cultures. (Contains 102 references.) (JOW)

  1. Employment of Handicapped People in Leisure Occupations. (United States)

    Compton, David M.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    In response to the need for up-to-date information on employment opportunities for handicapped people in the leisure occupations, a national survey was conducted to determine both existing levels of employment and employer practices. The survey was sent to 500 agencies and businesses representing four leisure occupational subclusters: travel,…

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Curriculum Manual. (United States)

    Gourley, Frank A., Jr., Comp.

    With the enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, the need for manpower development in the field of industrial safety and hygiene has resulted in the development of a broad based program in Occupational Safety and Health. The manual provides information to administrators and instructors on a program of study in this field for…

  3. Individual susceptibility to occupational contact dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kezic, Sanja; Visser, Maaike J.; Verberk, Maarten M.


    Occupational Contact Dermatitis (OCD) is one of the most common work-related diseases. High risk occupations are in health care, hairdressing, food sector and metal industry. OCD tends to become chronic; persistent OCD often results in impaired quality of life and loss of work ability. The purpose

  4. 75 FR 23834 - Occupational Information System (United States)


    ... Development and Research, Occupational Information Development Project, Social Security Administration, 3-E-26... the unit's emerging and ongoing ideas, research, and methods. 5. Need for Basic & Applied Research The... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2010-0018] Occupational Information System AGENCY...

  5. Occupational variation in incidence of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; MacLeod, Jill; Demers, Paul A.


    -years. In the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), 8170 cases were observed during the follow-up of 36.7 million person-years. Standardised incidence ratios with 95% CI were estimated for 53 occupations in the NOCCA cohort and HR with 95% CIs were estimated for 42 occupations in the CanCHEC. Results...

  6. Occupational adjustment of immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.


    This article examines the speed of the occupational adjustment of immigrants using Labour Force Surveys 2004 and 2005 from Statistics Netherlands. The analysis provides new evidence that immigrants start with jobs at the lower levels of skill distribution. Their occupational achievement improves

  7. Husbands' return migration and wives' occupational choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahe, Clotilde


    Exploiting the documented effect of migration on occupational choice upon return to their origin country with data from Egypt, we establish a link between return migration of men and their wives' time use through within-couple occupational interdependence. Seemingly Unrelated Regression model

  8. Academic and Occupational Performance: A Quantitative Synthesis. (United States)

    Samson, Gordon E.; And Others


    A synthesis of results from 35 studies of the association between academic and occupational performance in various fields indicated that academic indicators such as grades and test scores account for only 2.4 percent of the variance in occupational performance criteria such as income, job satisfaction, and effectiveness ratings. (Author/BW)

  9. Occupational Mobility of Low Income Workers. (United States)

    Slifman, Lawrence

    This dissertation is primarily concerned with assessing the impact of changes in the aggregate labor supply-demand balance on the upward occupational mobility of lower income workers. The empirical analysis indicates that the size of inter-occupational flows is cyclically sensitive, given relative wages. As the labor market tightens, the…

  10. An Analysis of the Alteration Specialist Occupation. (United States)

    Buerkel, Elaine; Rehling, Joseph H.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the textile service occupation. The industry needs properly trained alteration specialists, bushelmen and dressmakers, in the repairing, remodeling, altering or renovating of garments. Their personal…

  11. Occupational radiation exposure in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.; Cabanekova, H.


    Recently are 2 nuclear power plants in operation in the Slovak republic. Apart from nuclear facilities there are 450 licensed undertakings with monitored workers. The majority of the licensed undertakings are active in health care. In Slovak republic are five dosimetry services performing assessments on personal doses due to external exposure and two dosimetry services are approved to carry out monitoring of internal exposure. Dosemeters used for the monitoring of external individual exposure include: personal whole-body film dosemeters, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSL) for measurements of beta and gamma radiation; TLD for measurements of neutron radiation and TLD for extremities. The measured operational dose quantities are Hp(10), Hp(3) and Hp(0.07). Approved dosimetry service reports the measured dose data to the employers and to the Central register of occupational doses (CROD). Annually are monitored about 12500 - 16200 active workers. Average effective doses per one monitored worker are presented. (author)

  12. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito


    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  13. Prognosis of occupational hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvetkovski, Rikke Skoet; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Hans Henrik


    OBJECTIVE: To identify prognostic risk factors in patients with occupational hand eczema (OHE). DESIGN: Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. SETTING: Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries Registry. PATIENTS: All patients with newly recognized OHE (758 cases) from October 1, 2001, through...... it. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Persistently severe or aggravated OHE, prolonged sick leave, and loss of job after 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 25% of all patients with OHE had persistently severe or aggravated disease, 41% improved, and 34% had unchanged minimal or mild...... to moderate disease. Patients with atopic dermatitis fared poorly compared with other patients. Patients younger than 25 years fared clearly better than older groups. Furthermore, severe OHE, age 40 years or greater, and severe impairment of quality of life at baseline appeared to be important predictors...

  14. The neurological basis of occupation. (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Schindler, Victoria P


    The purpose of the present paper was to survey the literature about the neurological basis of human activity and its relationship to occupation and health. Activities related to neurological function were organized into three categories: those that activate the brain's reward system; those that promote the relaxation response; and those that preserve cognitive function into old age. The results from the literature review correlating neurological evidence and activities showed that purposeful and meaningful activities could counter the effects of stress-related diseases and reduce the risk for dementia. Specifically, it was found that music, drawing, meditation, reading, arts and crafts, and home repairs, for example, can stimulate the neurogical system and enhance health and well-being, Prospective research studies are needed to examine the effects of purposeful activities on reducing stress and slowing the rate of cognitive decline.

  15. Automating occupational protection records systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Martin, J.B.


    Occupational protection records have traditionally been generated by field and laboratory personnel, assembled into files in the safety office, and eventually stored in a warehouse or other facility. Until recently, these records have been primarily paper copies, often handwritten. Sometimes, the paper is microfilmed for storage. However, electronic records are beginning to replace these traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for making the transition to automated record keeping and retrieval using modern computer equipment. This paper describes the types of records most readily converted to electronic record keeping and a methodology for implementing an automated record system. The process of conversion is based on a requirements analysis to assess program needs and a high level of user involvement during the development. The importance of indexing the hard copy records for easy retrieval is also discussed. The concept of linkage between related records and its importance relative to reporting, research, and litigation will be addressed. 2 figs

  16. Initial occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forni, A.; Cambiaghi, G.; Secchi, G.C.


    Serial chromosome and biochemical studies were carried out in 11 subjects before and during initial occupational exposure to moderate quantities of lead fumes in a storage battery plant. The rate of abnormal metaphases, mostly with chromatid and one-break chromosome aberrations, was approximately doubled after one month of work; it further increased after two months of work; remained in this range up to seven months of exposure; and then tended to decrease somewhat. Blood lead levels increased progressively in the first few months, then reached a steady state. Urinary lead and coproporphyrin levels increased sharply after one month of work, while urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) levels increased moderately. The ALA dehydratase (ALAD) activity of red blood cells (RBCs) was reduced to almost 50 percent of the initial values after one month, decreased further in subsequent months, and remained decreased through the remainder of the study.

  17. Occupant behaviour and robustness of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buso, Tiziana; Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm


    in a dynamic building energy simulation tool (IDA ICE). The analysis was carried out by simulating 15 building envelope designs in different thermal zones of an Office Reference Building in 3 climates: Stockholm, Frankfurt and Athens.In general, robustness towards changes in occupants' behaviour increased......Occupant behaviour can cause major discrepancies between the designed and the real total energy use in buildings. A possible solution to reduce the differences between predictions and actual performances is designing robust buildings, i.e. buildings whose performances show little variations...... with alternating occupant behaviour patterns. The aim of this work was to investigate how alternating occupant behaviour patterns impact the performance of different envelope design solutions in terms of building robustness. Probabilistic models of occupants' window opening and use of shading were implemented...

  18. Trends in occupational hygiene in Finland. (United States)

    Pääkkönen, Rauno; Koponen, Milja


    The aim of this work is to evaluate and describe the current status of, and prospects for, the future of occupational hygiene in Finland. The main sources of information include a seminar held in the annual meeting of Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society and interviews with different stakeholders. Nanotechnology and other new materials, changing work environments, circular economy including green jobs, new medical methods and advances of construction methods were recognized as future challenges. Future work opportunities for occupational hygiene experts included exposure assessments in indoor air surveys, private consulting and entrepreneurship in general, international activities and product safety issues. Unclear topics needing more attention in the future were thought to be in new exposures, sensitive persons, combined effects, skin exposures and applicability of personal protective equipment. Occupational hygiene should broaden its view; occupational hygienists should have to cooperate with other specialists and grasp new challenges.

  19. Empowerment and occupation: A new perspective. (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley


    The idea of empowerment permeates the occupational therapy literature yet has received little critical reflection from occupational therapy's theorists. This paper aims to explore the concept of empowerment and highlight a recent definition that resonates with occupational therapists' core values. Empowerment is generally understood to be a process of bestowing power and giving ability to someone deficient in both. However, a new definition provides a framework for understanding how empowerment might enhance people's capabilities. The World Bank's depiction of empowerment fits well with occupational therapists' beliefs in the importance of the ability and opportunity to "do," providing a framework for action. This framework focuses on people's capabilities: their freedom-or opportunity-to choose what they wish to do and to be and their ability to act on these wishes. Moreover, the World Bank's assertion that empowered people have freedom of both choice and action suggests empowerment is a relevant concept for occupational therapists.

  20. Occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Juhl, Mette


    OBJECTIVES: Pelvic pain during pregnancy is a common ailment, and the disease is a major cause of sickness absence during pregnancy. It is plausible that occupational lifting may be a risk factor of pelvic pain during pregnancy, but no previous studies have examined this specific exposure. The aim...... of this study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy. METHODS: The study comprised 50 143 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in the period from 1996-2002. During pregnancy, the women provided information on occupational lifting...... (weight load and daily frequency), and six months post partum on pelvic pain. Adjusted odds ratios for pelvic pain during pregnancy according to occupational lifting were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Any self-reported occupational lifting (>1 time/day and loads weighing >10 kg...

  1. Occupational exposure in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.J.; Lee, K.Y.; Cha, S.H.; Kang, Y.K.; Kim, H.J.; Oh, H.J.


    This study was conducted to survey of radiation safety control and to measure occupational radiation exposure dose of staff in interventional radiology in Korea. Interventioanl radiology requires the operator and assisting personnel to remain close to the patient, and thus close to primary beams of radiation. Therefore exposure doses of these personnel are significant from a radiological protection point of view. We surveyed the status of radiation safety on interventional radiology of 72 hospitals. The result were that 119 radiation equipments are using in interventional radiology and 744 staffs are composed of 307 radiologists, 116 residents of radiology, 5 general physicians, 171 radiologic technologists and 145 nurses. 81.4% and 20.2 % of operating physicians are using neck collar protector and goggle respectively. The average radiation dose was measured 0.46±0.15 mSv/10 hours fluoroscopy inside examination room in radiation protection facilities. Occupational radiation exposure data on the staff were assessed in interventional radiology procedures from 8 interventional radiology equipments of 6 university hospitals. The dose measurements were made by placing a thermoluminesent dosimeter(TLD) on various body surface of operation and assistant staff during actual interventional radiology. The measured points were the corner of the eyes, neck(on the thyroid) , wrists, chest(outside and inside of the protector), and back. Average radiation equivalent dose of the corner of left eye and left wrist of operating physicians were 1.19 mSv(0.11∼4.13 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy and 4.32 mSv(0.16∼11.0 mSv)/100 minutes fluoroscopy respectively. Average exposure dose may vary depending on the type of procedure, personal skills and the quality of equipment. These results will be contributed to prepare the guide line in interventional radiology in Korea

  2. Occupation-based practices and homelessness: A scoping review. (United States)

    Roy, Laurence; Vallée, Catherine; Kirsh, Bonnie H; Marshall, Carrie Anne; Marval, Rebecca; Low, Alissa


    Persons experiencing or at risk of homelessness have occupational needs that are seldom addressed in the Canadian system of care. The lack of documented evidence on occupational therapy practices in this field hinders the development of the profession. This article identifies current and potential practices that aim to enable or support the occupations of persons experiencing or at risk of homelessness. A scoping review was conducted, including evidence from both occupational therapy and non-occupational therapy sources. One hundred and seventy-eight papers were selected in the areas of occupational performance skills training, enrichment of occupational repertoire, employment/education, physical rehabilitation services, child/family services, community building, occupational transition from homeless to housed, literacy, and disaster relief. Occupational therapists can build environments and create opportunities that facilitate occupational engagement of individuals experiencing homelessness. Gaps in knowledge include the evaluation of occupational therapy practices, the Canadian context of family homelessness, and the cultural safety of occupational therapy interventions.

  3. Priority Setting for Occupational Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters


    Full Text Available Background: Selecting priority occupational carcinogens is important for cancer prevention efforts; however, standardized selection methods are not available. The objective of this paper was to describe the methods used by CAREX Canada in 2015 to establish priorities for preventing occupational cancer, with a focus on exposure estimation and descriptive profiles. Methods: Four criteria were used in an expert assessment process to guide carcinogen prioritization: (1 the likelihood of presence and/or use in Canadian workplaces; (2 toxicity of the substance (strength of evidence for carcinogenicity and other health effects; (3 feasibility of producing a carcinogen profile and/or an occupational estimate; and (4 special interest from the public/scientific community. Carcinogens were ranked as high, medium or low priority based on specific conditions regarding these criteria, and stakeholder input was incorporated. Priorities were set separately for the creation of new carcinogen profiles and for new occupational exposure estimates. Results: Overall, 246 agents were reviewed for inclusion in the occupational priorities list. For carcinogen profile generation, 103 were prioritized (11 high, 33 medium, and 59 low priority, and 36 carcinogens were deemed priorities for occupational exposure estimation (13 high, 17 medium, and 6 low priority. Conclusion: Prioritizing and ranking occupational carcinogens is required for a variety of purposes, including research, resource allocation at different jurisdictional levels, calculations of occupational cancer burden, and planning of CAREX-type projects in different countries. This paper outlines how this process was achieved in Canada; this may provide a model for other countries and jurisdictions as a part of occupational cancer prevention efforts. Keywords: cancer prevention, carcinogen exposure, occupational health

  4. Occupational Disease Registries-Characteristics and Experiences. (United States)

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniat; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Hosseini, Narges Shams; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza


    Due to growth of occupational diseases and also increase of public awareness about their consequences, attention to various aspects of diseases and improve occupational health and safety has found great importance. Therefore, there is the need for appropriate information management tools such as registries in order to recognitions of diseases patterns and then making decision about prevention, early detection and treatment of them. These registries have different characteristics in various countries according to their occupational health priorities. Aim of this study is evaluate dimensions of occupational diseases registries including objectives, data sources, responsible institutions, minimum data set, classification systems and process of registration in different countries. In this study, the papers were searched using the MEDLINE (PubMed) Google scholar, Scopus, ProQuest and Google. The search was done based on keyword in English for all motor engines including "occupational disease", "work related disease", "surveillance", "reporting", "registration system" and "registry" combined with name of the countries including all subheadings. After categorizing search findings in tables, results were compared with each other. Important aspects of the registries studied in ten countries including Finland, France, United Kingdom, Australia, Czech Republic, Malaysia, United States, Singapore, Russia and Turkey. The results show that surveyed countries have statistical, treatment and prevention objectives. Data sources in almost the rest of registries were physicians and employers. The minimum data sets in most of them consist of information about patient, disease, occupation and employer. Some of countries have special occupational related classification systems for themselves and some of them apply international classification systems such as ICD-10. Finally, the process of registration system was different in countries. Because occupational diseases are often

  5. Sampling scales define occupancy and underlying occupancy-abundance relationships in animals. (United States)

    Steenweg, Robin; Hebblewhite, Mark; Whittington, Jesse; Lukacs, Paul; McKelvey, Kevin


    Occupancy-abundance (OA) relationships are a foundational ecological phenomenon and field of study, and occupancy models are increasingly used to track population trends and understand ecological interactions. However, these two fields of ecological inquiry remain largely isolated, despite growing appreciation of the importance of integration. For example, using occupancy models to infer trends in abundance is predicated on positive OA relationships. Many occupancy studies collect data that violate geographical closure assumptions due to the choice of sampling scales and application to mobile organisms, which may change how occupancy and abundance are related. Little research, however, has explored how different occupancy sampling designs affect OA relationships. We develop a conceptual framework for understanding how sampling scales affect the definition of occupancy for mobile organisms, which drives OA relationships. We explore how spatial and temporal sampling scales, and the choice of sampling unit (areal vs. point sampling), affect OA relationships. We develop predictions using simulations, and test them using empirical occupancy data from remote cameras on 11 medium-large mammals. Surprisingly, our simulations demonstrate that when using point sampling, OA relationships are unaffected by spatial sampling grain (i.e., cell size). In contrast, when using areal sampling (e.g., species atlas data), OA relationships are affected by spatial grain. Furthermore, OA relationships are also affected by temporal sampling scales, where the curvature of the OA relationship increases with temporal sampling duration. Our empirical results support these predictions, showing that at any given abundance, the spatial grain of point sampling does not affect occupancy estimates, but longer surveys do increase occupancy estimates. For rare species (low occupancy), estimates of occupancy will quickly increase with longer surveys, even while abundance remains constant. Our results

  6. [Concept of occupational pathology service development in Kazakhstan]. (United States)

    Amanbekova, A U; Sakiev, K Z; Dzhakupbekova, G M; Ibrayeva, L K


    Improvement of occupational medical care management is aimed to preserve workers' health through better prevention, early diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational diseases. Strategic directions of occupational pathology service development are improvement of legislation base on occupational diseases, modernization of occupational pathology service, development of personnel resources system, advancement of research activity in medical ecology, industrial hygiene and occupational pathology and increased efficiency of intra-sectoral and inter-agency interactions about workers' health preservation.

  7. Occupational monitoring in intracavitary radium therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de


    In Brazil, the highest incidence of cancer in females is in the uterine cervix, in which Bracytherapy treatment plays a very important role. The majority of our Clinics use 226 Ra or 137 Cs tubes to perform this therapy. As many of these Clinics do not use the afterloading technique, we investigated the occupational exposure for the staffs belonging to two big Hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, where the working conditions are very different. For this, besides the normal film badge, placed in the upper part of the trunk, each person has been provided with seven additional thermoluminescent dosimeters (chips - 7 LiF) placed at: left ring finger, right ring finger, forehead (between the eyes), over the thyroid, in the midle of the back and the front of the trunk, and over the gonadal region. In Hospital A, where the staff is composed of 1 medical doctor and 1 nurse, they treat about 13 patients per month. In Hospital B, the staff was composed of 12 medical doctors, 2 technicians and 7 murses, and about 20 patients are treated monthly. The occupational exposures have been investigated separately for each step of the 226 Ra routine. From these results we could easily identify that: the nurses working in the infermary do not use the lateral lead protection of beds to clean the patients; in Hospital B, where there are perfect conditions for storage and manipulation of the radioactive sources, the technician in charge of these tasks, together with the transport of the applicator, except in his hands, suffers no exposure at all. Besides that, we could also see that in Hospital A, where the nurse plays also the role of that technician, and the local protection conditions are not correct, the estimated annual exposures are still below the annual limits according to ICRP N 0 . 26/1977. This analysis has been completed with measures of occupational exposures in Clinics using the after loading technique. (author) [pt

  8. 76 FR 2189 - Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel (United States)


    ...; (b) disability evaluation, vocational rehabilitation, forensic vocational assessment, and physical or occupational therapy; (c) occupational or physical rehabilitation medicine, psychiatry, or psychology; and (d...

  9. Review of Occupational Therapy Intervention Research in the Practice Area of Children and Youth 2009–2013 (United States)

    Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Huang, Yu Yun; Lim, Yoonjeong


    PURPOSE. We conducted a systematic review examining the extent to which pediatric intervention research recently published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy reflects occupational therapy’s holistic occupation-based tenets. METHOD. We surveyed 10 systematic reviews and analyzed 38 single effectiveness studies for intervention approach, type, level of environmental targeting, level of occupational task and participation practice, and measures used. RESULTS. Of the 38 single effectiveness studies, 12 (32%) explicitly incorporated both environmental targets of intervention and practice of complex or in vivo occupational tasks, with steady increases during the 2009–2013 time frame. CONCLUSION. In the area of children and youth, occupational therapy is making steady gains in reflecting and demonstrating the effectiveness of the profession’s holistic, occupation-based tenets. Occupational therapy researchers must be mindful to ensure that despite the reductionist nature of intervention research, interventions reflect the profession’s holistic understanding of the interplay between the child, environment, and occupations. PMID:24581415

  10. Icelandic occupational therapists' attitudes towards educational issues. (United States)

    Asmundsd ttir, ELIN EBBA; Kaplan, SUSAN


    The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of occupational therapists in Iceland to accept a professional as opposed to a technical view of the profession. Most Icelandic occupational therapists were educated in other countries, with little emphasis on liberal arts, sciences and research. The first Icelandic occupational therapy programme, a university-level programme, was founded in 1997. All Icelandic occupational therapists were surveyed. Eighty-seven questionnaires were sent out and 80 (92%) were returned and used for statistical analysis. The results of the study showed that Icelandic occupational therapists valued academic skills over technical skills, emphasizing occupational therapy theory unique to the profession and research to validate practice. More recognition among other health professionals was considered the most needed change in the profession. The results of the study showed that the clinicians' attitudes confirmed in general what is emphasized in the curriculum and in students' fieldwork. Further research is needed to explore whether the Icelandic occupational therapy profession succeeds in promoting research and recognition by other health professions.

  11. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan


    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  12. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders. (United States)

    Vilkman, E


    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  13. Evaluation of Occupational Closed Globe Eye Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Akova-Budak


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate closed glob injuries related to occupational accidents of patients who had official occupational accident records. Material and Method: The medical records of patients with ocular injuries who referred to Department of Ophthalmology or emergency of Uludag University, School of Medicine between January 2010 and December 2013 with official occupational accident report were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with closed globe injuries following trauma were included. Age, sex, the injured eye, the cause of the trauma, whether the precautions were taken or not by the patient, the damage due to trauma were recorded. Results: According to the official records, 108 patients referred to our clinic with closed globe injury related to occupational accident. One hundred twenty eyes of 108 patients ( 2 females, 106 males were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 33±8.6 years. The most frequent cause of injury was foreign bodies on the ocular surface followed by blunt trauma. The mean age of the patients injured with foreign bodies was found to be significantly lower than the patients injured with blunt objects (p=0.039. Thirteen patients reported that they had used preventive equipment. Discussion: It is of utmost importance that the awareness of the workers should be raised and they should be educated about the use of preventive equipment to prevent the occupational eye injuries. The education of particularly the younger patients about the occupational injuries when they begin to work may decrease the rate of occupational accident related eye injuries.

  14. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study. (United States)

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M


    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The values of occupational therapy: Perceptions of occupational therapists in Quebec. (United States)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie


    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the values of occupational therapy and the values held by occupational therapists. A wide range of values has been reported in the literature. Furthermore, despite the fact that values are an important part of professional identity, empirical studies have demonstrated that several occupational therapists possess an ambiguous professional identity. This study was undertaken to explore the values of Canadian occupational therapists, specifically French-speaking occupational therapists in Quebec. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 occupational therapists. Their narratives were subject to hermeneutic analysis, a method of textual analysis common in philosophical research. A total of 16 values were identified in the discourses of the occupational therapists interviewed: autonomy; human dignity; occupational participation; social justice and equity; professionalism; holism; partnership, environment, or ecological approach; quality of life; solicitude; honesty; integrity; health; creativity; professional autonomy; effectiveness; and spirituality. The results of this study are, in general, consistent with those reported in the few other empirical studies that have documented the values perceptions of occupational therapists. Finally, the explanation of the values of occupational therapists may reinforce their professional identity and favour best, or at least desirable, professional practices related to ethics and culture.

  16. Dose level of occupational exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, L.; Ju, Y.


    This paper discusses the dose level of Chinese occupational exposures during 1986-2000. Data on occupational exposures from the main categories in nuclear fuel cycle (uranium enrichment and conversion, fuel fabrication, reactor operation, waste management and research activity, except for uranium mining and milling because of the lack of data), medical uses of radiation (diagnostic radiation, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and industrial uses of radiation (industrial radiography and radioisotope production) are presented and summarised in detail. These are the main components of occupational exposures in China. In general, the average annual effective doses show a steady decreasing trend over periods: from 2.16 to 1.16 mSv in medical uses of radiation during 1990-2000; from 1.92 to 1.18 mSv in industrial radiography during 1990-2000; from 8.79 to 2.05 mSv in radioisotope production during the period 1980-2000. Almost all the average annual effective doses in discussed occupations were lower than 5 mSv in recent years (except for well-logging: 6.86 mSv in 1999) and no monitored workers were found to have received the occupational exposure exceeding 50 mSv in a single year or 100 mSv in a five-year period. So the Chinese protection status of occupation exposure has been improved in recent years. However, the average annual effective doses in some occupations, such as diagnostic radiology and coal mining, were still much higher than that of the whole world. There are still needs for further improvement and careful monitoring of occupational exposure to protect every worker from excessive occupational exposure, especially for the workers who were neglected before. (authors)

  17. Occupational balance: exploring the relationships among daily occupations and their influence on well-being. (United States)

    Backman, Catherine L


    In this lecture, I have reviewed theoretical discussions and definitions of occupational balance, findings from selected studies, and highlighted some methods for measuring aspects of occupational balance. Are any of these ideas directly applicable to occupational therapy practice, education and research? Consider the hassles of everyday life, and add the complicating factors of illness, injury, disability, and limited income. Life, and the pursuit of necessary, desirable and obligatory occupations, can become overwhelming. Given that occupational therapists aim to enable individuals, regardless of ability, to successfully engage in a range of occupations, the answer to the question is yes. Furthering our understanding of occupational balance can improve our ability to serve individual clients and society. In 2001, Fearing stated in her Muriel Driver Memorial Lecture: We will not only recognize and value the skill of maintaining balance, our own and that of our clients, but we will live it. Balance will not be viewed as a set of scales that has equal parts such as work on one side and play on the other but rather the kind of balance that comes from being centred so that we act from a stable base. From that stable base, we will gain a keen sensitivity to rhythm--knowing when to move and when to let go. (Fearing, 2001 pp. 214-215) Perhaps these reflections have added a little coherence to the study of occupational balance. Occupational balance is a relative state, recognizable by a happy or pleasant integration of life activities and demands. There are indicators of imbalance, more so than tangible ways to measure it, and once recognized occupational therapists have the strategies to help restore a sense of occupational balance. Given our collective history and skill in client-centred practice, occupational therapists are capable of both advancing this line of inquiry and attaining occupational balance for ourselves and our clients.

  18. Occupational stress, mental health and coping among information technology professionals. (United States)

    Rao, Jakkula V; Chandraiah, K


    Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employees collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex of Hyderabad City. A well developed sub-scales of Occupational Stress indicator like Mental Health, and Coping behavior were used in the present study. The shop floor workers experiencing more job stress and lower mental health. But these two groups did not differ in their coping behaviour. The executives are better with work home balance.

  19. Occupational radiation exposures in canada-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.


    This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  20. [Occupational dermatitis in health care personnel]. (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick


    Occupational dermatosis are frequent among healthcare workers. Irritant hand dermatitis is more common than allergic contact dermatitis. It is enhanced by the exposure to irritants: water, detergents, disinfectants and a history of atopic dermatitis. Natural rubber latex contained in rubber gloves can induce contact urticaria or generalized immediate allergic reactions. Contact eczema can be induced by rubber accelerators such as thiurams, disinfectants (glutaraldehyde, dodecyldimethylammonium). Nurses can become sensitized to handled drugs (antibiotics, propacetamol...). These occupational allergies have to be diagnosed, because sensitized nurses can develop severe generalized cutaneous adverse drug reactions if they are systemically exposed to the same drug than those that has previously induced an occupational contact allergy.

  1. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.


    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  2. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing. (United States)

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F


    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks.

  3. Expanding beyond individualism: Engaging critical perspectives on occupation. (United States)

    Gerlach, Alison J; Teachman, Gail; Laliberte-Rudman, Debbie; Aldrich, Rebecca M; Huot, Suzanne


    Perspectives that individualize occupation are poorly aligned with socially responsive and transformative occupation-focused research, education, and practice. Their predominant use in occupational therapy risks the perpetuation, rather than resolution, of occupational inequities. In this paper, we problematize taken-for-granted individualistic analyses of occupation and illustrate how critical theoretical perspectives can reveal the ways in which structural factors beyond an individual's immediate control and environment shape occupational possibilities and occupational engagement. Using a critically reflexive approach, we draw on three distinct qualitative research studies to examine the potential of critical theorizing for expanding beyond a reliance on individualistic analyses and practices. Our studies highlight the importance of addressing the socio-historical and political contexts of occupation and demonstrate the contribution of critical perspectives to socially responsive occupational therapy. In expanding beyond individualistic analyses of occupation, critical perspectives advance research and practices towards addressing socio-political mediators of occupational engagement and equity.

  4. Occupational radiation exposures in Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplanis, Prodromos A; Christofides, Stelios [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, 1450 Nicosia (Cyprus)


    For the first time ever the occupational radiation exposure data of all the radiation workers of Cyprus, as obtained by the personnel monitoring service of the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Medical Physics Department of the Ministry of Health, is published and compared with that of other countries. The presented data shows a systematic trend of improvement both with regards to the methodology of monitoring and data recording. The efforts of the past few years in educating and training the users of ionising radiation with regards to the importance of the personnel monitoring service and the hazards of ionising radiation, has paid off and this is evident from the doses recorded in the past three years which are compared favourably with those of other countries, as given by the UNSCEAR 1993 report. The introduction of extremity monitoring, promises even better improvement in the methodology of monitoring the doses received by personnel working in Interventional Radiology, as well as other groups whose hands, unavoidably, come close to radiation sources. (authors) 3 refs., 12 tabs.

  5. Occupational carprofen photoallergic contact dermatitis. (United States)

    Kerr, A C; Muller, F; Ferguson, J; Dawe, R S


    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen was used in humans in the 1980s, before its withdrawal due to adverse effects. It re-emerged for veterinary uses, for which it is still widely prescribed, in the 1990s. There has been one previous report published of photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) in a pharmaceutical factory worker exposed to carprofen. Investigation of carprofen as a cause of PACD in pharmaceutical factory workers presenting with facial dermatitis. Photopatch testing to carprofen dilutions in two pharmaceutical factory workers and three healthy volunteer controls using the European consensus methodology. This was followed by testing of eight further employees, referred by occupational health services, in the same factory. The index patient suspected a problem with carprofen and was found to have PACD to carprofen. The second patient presented with a widespread, although especially photoexposed site, dermatitis and was initially labelled as having an 'unclassified dermatitis'. Only subsequently was her exposure (indirect; she did not work in the packaging section of the factory like the first patient) to carprofen recognized and testing confirmed both contact allergy and PACD to carprofen. One of three healthy volunteer controls had an active photoallergy sensitization event to carprofen starting 10 days after photopatch testing. Three of eight factory employees subsequently referred because of skin problems had carprofen PACD. Carprofen is a potent photoallergen. These cases emphasize the importance of photopatch testing, and considering agents not included in standard series, when investigating patients presenting with a photoexposed site dermatitis.

  6. Occupational dermatoses from colophony exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Christian Mihelač


    Full Text Available Colophony is a resin, obtained from pine trees. It has many applications in industry as well as in products for everyday life and exposure is virtually impossible to avoid. In article, we concentrate on occupational exposure, which is frequent in workers in electronics, furniture and paper industry, production of adhesives, plastics, printing ink and synthetic rubber as well as in everyone, daily in contact with products, which contain colophony, or pine wood, like carpenters and woodworkers. Main allergens are oxidation products of abietic-type acids, but cross-reactivity with fragrances, wood resins, Balsam of Peru, wood tar and oil of turpentine is also possible. Exposure to colophony manifests itself on skin in allergic patients mainly as allergic contact dermatitis. The diagnosis is based on history of exposure, clinical presentation and epicutaneous testing. Although the only effective treatment is complete avoidance of exposure, it is difficult to avoid colophony. Consequently, prophylaxis is essential and concentrates on safe working practices, personal hygiene and protection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  8. Radioactive isotopes in occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favino, Angelo.


    It is highly desirable today to know and use for industrial medicine purposes all scientific and technological data available in the field of nuclear medicine. The present textbook is an inventory of all possibilities given to occupational doctors in order to pronounce a judgement of ability to work on the occasion of preemployment or routine medical examinations. Such applications require a high degree of competence in radiological protection and also require observation of the basic Safety Standards of Euratom and of the recommendations of the International Committee on Radiological Protection, the same safety principles having been incorporated in all the legislations of the Member States of the Community. In this book a number of chapters are devoted to the description of the basic principles for maximum permissible doses, dosimetric surveillance, medical supervision of workers exposed to ionizing radiations, and medical treatments to be used after a radioactive contamination. In addition a small number of preventive measures are described for all utilisations of radioactive substances for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes

  9. Occupational hazards to dental staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Ayatollahi


    Full Text Available Dental professionals are predisposed to a number of occupational hazards. These include exposure to infections (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus and viral hepatitis; percutaneous exposure incidents, dental materials, radiation, and noise; musculoskeletal disorders; psychological problems and dermatitis; respiratory disorders; and eye insults. Percutaneous exposure incidents remain a main concern, as exposure to serious infectious agents is a virtual risk. Minimizing percutaneous exposure incidents and their consequences should continue to be considered, including sound infection control practices, continuing education, and hepatitis B vaccination. Basically, for any infection control strategies, dentists should be aware of individual protective measures and appropriate sterilization or other high-level disinfection utilities. Strained posture at work disturbs the musculoskeletal alignment and leads to stooped spine. The stooped posture also involved certain groups of muscles and joints. This may lead to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Continuous educating and appropriate intervention studies are needed to reduce the complication of these hazards. So, it is important for dentists to remain constantly up-to-date about measures on how to deal with newer strategies and dental materials, and implicates the need for special medical care for this professional group.

  10. Recent advances in occupational dermatitis. (United States)

    Holness, Dorothy Linn


    This review examined recent advances in occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to OCD. There is continuing growth in our understanding of the genetic factors, particularly related to filaggrin mutations. In spite of increased understanding of irritant exposures, the prevalence of hand eczema in workers with wet work exposures remains high at approximately 20%. Patch test database surveillance systems have documented reductions in the occurrence of sensitivity to some allergens such as chromium wherein regulatory efforts have reduced workplace exposures. These surveillance data have also documented increases in sensitivity to several allergens in particular trades, serving as an effective system to identify new exposure situations or new allergens. The impact of OCD on quality of life and mental health conditions, employment and financial aspects is increasingly documented. Progress in understanding the underreporting of OCD and the underlying reasons continues. Several groups have developed robust multidisciplinary secondary and tertiary prevention programmes and the evaluations demonstrate promise. Although several recent systematic reviews have documented the evidence for various prevention strategies, there is increasing understanding of the gaps in prevention practices in actual workplaces. Understanding of the underlying genetic and environmental agents contributing to OCD is increasing. In spite of progress with reducing exposure to some allergens, the prevalence of OCD continues to be high, particularly related to wet work. New prevention programmes are being developed and evaluated and hold promise for improved outcomes.

  11. Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers. (United States)

    Amorim, Camila Rego; de Araújo, Edna Maria; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes


    The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%), 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents. Knowledge of the working conditions and accidents involved in this activity can be of great importance for the adoption of traffic education policies, and to help prevent accidents by improving the working conditions and lives of these professionals.

  12. Occupation embedded in a real life: interweaving occupational science and occupational therapy. 1993 Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lecture. (United States)

    Clark, F


    This lecture presents an example of research in the genre of interpretive occupational science and demonstrates how occupational science can inform clinical practice. The innovative qualitative methodology used blended elements of the anthropological tradition of life history ethnography, ethnomethodology, the naturalistic methods used by Mattingly and Schön to study practice, and especially narrative analysis as described by Polkinghorne. The bulk of the paper is presented in the form of a narrative analysis that provides an account of a stroke survivor's personal struggle for recovery, a story that emerged from transcription, coding, and analysis of transcripts from approximately 20 hours of interview time. First, this narrative analysis provides an example of how the occupational science framework can evoke a particular kind of storytelling in which childhood occupation can be related to adult character. Storytelling of this kind is later shown to be therapeutic for the stroke survivor. Next, the narrative illustrates how rehabilitation can be experienced by the survivor as a rite of passage in which a person is moved to disability status and then abandoned. Finally, a picture is given of how occupational story making and occupational storytelling embedded in real life can nurture the human spirit to act and can become the core of clinical practice.

  13. Transitioning From Occupational Therapy Student To Practicing Occupational Therapist: First Year of Employment. (United States)

    McCombie, Randy P; Antanavage, Meredith E


    This research examined the transition from occupational therapy student to practicing occupational therapist over the course of one's first year of professional employment, as recalled by a sample of occupational therapists. Surveys were mailed to 500 occupational therapists randomly selected from membership in the American Occupational Therapy Association resulting in 202 returned surveys. Median year of graduation was 1998, ranging from 1967 to 2014. In general, respondents indicated the transition was positive. Having a mentor was related to high job satisfaction and good clinical fit, while supervising an occupational therapy assistant and low self-confidence were viewed as negative impact factors. Recent graduates presented with lower ratings of a positive transition and higher ratings of likelihood of experiencing burnout and initial job stress than earlier graduates. Recommendations for improving the transition experience are presented.

  14. Health surveillance of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation: Guidance for occupational physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Safety Report is intended mainly for occupational physicians, as well as for occupational health service personnel, to assist them in routine practice by specifying the features of work under radiation conditions, the general rules of radiological protection for occupational exposure and the organization of the medical surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to radiation. The Report is consistent with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection presented in its Publication 60 (1990) and with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources published by the IAEA in 1966. It supersedes Safety Series No.83 (Radiation Protection in Occupational Health: Manual for Occupational Physicians) published by the IAEA in 1987

  15. Occupation as marker of self:occupation in relation to self among people with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Jesper Larsen; Johannessen, Helle; la Cour, Karen


    cancer. Grounded theory guided the collection and analysis of data. RESULTS: 'Occupation as marker of self' was identified as the core category. Occupations served as markers of the participants' self (1) by mirroring their abilities and positioning of their self in the illness trajectory; and (2......) as means of expressing their self. The core category provided explanations about how the participants' experiences of occupation influenced their self-perceptions, as explained in the sub-categories 'defining the self through occupation' and 'reassessing self and accepting limitations'. CONCLUSIONS......Abstract BACKGROUND: Living with advanced cancer can have a profound impact on the person's self. A person's self is influenced by various aspects of daily life, including engagement in occupation. From an occupational perspective, little research has been done to explore how the self of people...

  16. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis


    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  17. Future preparation of occupational health nurse managers. (United States)

    Scalzi, C C; Wilson, D L; Ebert, R


    This article presents the results of a national survey of job activities of corporate level occupational health nurse managers. The survey was designed to identify the relative amount of time spent and importance attributed to specific areas of their current job. In general this sample tended to have more management experience and educational preparation than previously cited studies: over 50% had completed a graduate degree. The scores for importance and time spent were highly correlated. That is, occupational health corporate nurse managers seemed to allocate their time to job responsibilities they considered most important. Management activities related to policy, practice standards, quality assurance, staff development, and systems for client care delivery appear to represent the core responsibilities of occupational health nursing management. Curriculum recommendations for management positions in occupational health include: health policy, program planning, and evaluation; business strategy; applications of management information systems; quality assurance; and marketing.

  18. Research in biomechanics of occupant protection. (United States)

    King, A I; Yang, K H


    This paper discusses the biomechanical bases for occupant protection against frontal and side impact. Newton's Laws of Motion are used to illustrate the effect of a crash on restrained and unrestrained occupants, and the concept of ride down is discussed. Occupant protection through the use of energy absorbing materials is described, and the mechanism of injury of some of the more common injuries is explained. The role of the three-point belt and the airbag in frontal protection is discussed along with the potential injuries that can result from the use of these restraint systems. Side impact protection is more difficult to attain but some protection can be derived from the use of padding or a side impact airbag. It is concluded that the front seat occupants are adequately protected against frontal impact if belts are worn in an airbag equipped vehicle. Side impact protection may not be uniform in all vehicles.

  19. Occupation Iraqi Freedom: The Importance of Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caston, Christine J


    ... [could] freely determine their own political future. Despite the lack of an effective occupation plan to integrate the national instruments of power required to accomplish the objective, these new responsibilities would have to be...

  20. Dermatitis, an approach from occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Martínez Lomakin


    Full Text Available Occupational dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in clinical practice. Prevalence varies according to the job activities and types of exposure, with figures of up to 37% reported in the literature. Its origin may be irritant or allergic. Atopy and frequent hand washing or exposure to wetness or humidity is described has been described as risk factors, while evidence for gender and tobacco consumption, among others, is controversial. Diagnosis is based on physical examination, etiological patch testing and certification of occupational origin using standardized criteria. The condition has been associated with reduced productivity, absenteeism and occupational changes, as well as significant decreases in the quality of life of patients. Prevention is based primarily on education and restriction of exposure. These strategies are coupled with the treatment, which include the use of drugs such as topical steroids and calcineurin inhibitors.(X Close Abstract

  1. How Valid are Estimates of Occupational Illness? (United States)

    Hilaski, Harvey J.; Wang, Chao Ling


    Examines some of the methods of estimating occupational diseases and suggests that a consensus on the adequacy and reliability of estimates by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and others is not likely. (SK)

  2. Occupational Therapy Home Safety Intervention via Telehealth (United States)



    Photography can be an effective addition for education-based telehealth services delivered by an occupational therapist. In this study, photography was used as antecedent to telehealth sessions delivered by an occupational therapist focused on narrative learning about home safety. After taking photographs of past home safety challenges, six participants experienced three web-based occupational therapy sessions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed. Data were examined using content analysis. The content analysis identified the following themes: the value of photos to support learning; the value of narrative learning related to home safety education; and abstract versus concrete learners. Procedural findings are included to support future endeavors. Findings indicate that within a wellness context, home safety education for older adults can be delivered effectively via telehealth when using photography as a part of an occupational therapy intervention. PMID:27563389

  3. Is occupational stress associated with work engagement ? (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Almeid, Talita; Ortiz, Thais; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz


    The occupational stress is associated with dissatisfaction, excessive demand at work and personal factors. Those factors can reduce work performance and can predispose workers to various diseases. Workers' health may be protected if there is encouragement to face challenges, which may lessen the impact on psychological and somatic stress and thus have greater personal and professional satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and work engagement. Participated in this study 457 male and female workers of a metallurgical industry. Subjects answered personal data, and the Job Stress Scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were applied. Results showed an association between occupational stress and work engagement (P=0,001). The way the individual deals with his frustrations, or rather the work engagement, is associated with the occupational stress.

  4. Occupational Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Moreno-Chaparro


    Conclusion: The relevance of the work of occupational therapists in the adult ICU is evident since it brings benefits such as reduced stay and functional improvement of patients at discharge, which are clearly defined in different research works worldwide.

  5. Evidence for Mental Health Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hitch


    Full Text Available This article reports on the evidence for mental health occupational therapy in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013. Descriptive and inductive methods were used to address this question, with evidence from CINAHL, OTDBase, PSYCInfo, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar® included. Many articles (n = 1,747 were found that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 47 different methods were used to develop evidence for mental health occupational therapy, and evidence appeared in 300 separate peer-reviewed journals. It takes on average 7 months for an article to progress from submission to acceptance, and a further 7 months to progress from acceptance to publication. More than 95% of articles published between 2000 and 2002 were cited at least once in the following decade, and around 70% of these citations were recorded in non-occupational therapy journals. The current evidence base for mental health occupational therapy is both substantial and diverse.

  6. Casino Gaming Occupations: A Jackpot for Jobseekers. (United States)

    Tate, Patricia


    Focuses on gaming occupations in casinos, describing their duties, qualifications, training, and earnings. Also provides information about employment and outlook, benefits and drawbacks, and sources of additional information. (JOW)

  7. Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS) is part of the Clinical Information Support System (CISS) portal framework and the initial CISS partner system. OHRS...

  8. protecting miners against occupational injuries and diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    lungs, destroying the breathing ability of people who suffer from it. 4 ... the right of mineworkers to recover damages for occupational injury sustained or ..... Employees who suffer permanent disability for the purposes of COIDA as a result of.

  9. Mexico, maquiladoras, and occupational medicine training. (United States)

    Cordes, D H; Rea, D F; Schwartz, I; Rea, J


    Industrialization and its concomitant social and environmental effects in developing countries are considered in this paper. Mexico offers one example of economic progress achieved through the promotion of industrial growth. Recognising the need for trained experts with global experience in occupational health, the University of Arizona (UA) has begun a programme to train occupational and preventive medicine residents in international aspects of occupational health in the nearby industrialized border regions of Mexico. By using the maquiladora (assembly plant) industries and the resources of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with the State of Sonora, residents observe existing problems in occupational safety and health in addition to adding to their understanding of the need for worldwide cooperation for research and reform in this field.

  10. Occupational risk involving students of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Oliveira Rocha


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents with sharps and adoption of standard precautions as biosecurity measures. Conclusion: Students healthcare represent occupational risks, such as a concern for the prevention of cross infection in the workplace, should both professionals and students of health, adopt standard precautions and biosecurity measures in the environment work.

  11. Report of Surrender and Occupation of Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    To present a comprehensive account of the surrender and occupation of Japanese-held territory as a whole, this report covers the period from cessation of hostilities on 15 August to the end of major...

  12. Occupational health management: an audit tool. (United States)

    Shelmerdine, L; Williams, N


    Organizations must manage occupational health risks in the workplace and the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) has published guidance on successful health and safety management. This paper describes a method of using the published guidance to audit the management of occupational health and safety, first at an organizational level and, secondly, to audit an occupational health service provider's role in the management of health risks. The paper outlines the legal framework in the UK for health risk management and describes the development and use of a tool for qualitative auditing of the efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of occupational health service provision within an organization. The audit tool is presented as a question set and the paper concludes with discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of using this tool, and recommendations on its use.

  13. Occupational contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. (United States)

    Doutre, Marie-Sylvie


    Irritant dermatitis and eczema are the most prevalent occupational skin diseases. Less common are immediate contact reactions such as contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. Occupational contact urticaria can be subdivided into two categories, immunological and non immunological. However, some agents can induce these two types of reactions. Contact urticaria to natural rubber latex is particularly frequent among health care personnel, but contact urticaria to a wide variety of other substances occurs in many other occupations. Among those at risk are cooks, bakers, butchers, restaurant personnel, veterinarians, hairdressers, florists, gardeners, and forestry workers. Protein contact dermatitis in some of these occupations is caused principally by proteins of animal or plant origin, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis requires careful interrogation, clinical examination and skin tests (open tests and prick tests with immediate lecture) to identify a particular contact allergen.

  14. [Occupational noise exposure and work accidents]. (United States)

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira


    The purpose of this study was to verify whether occupational noise exposure is a significant risk factor for work accidents in the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study included 600 workers aged 15-60 who suffered typical occupational accidents between May and October 2004 and were seen at the Piracicaba Orthopedics and Trauma Center. The control group comprised 822 workers, aged 15-60, who were also seen at the Center, and either had a non-occupational accident or were accompanying someone who had suffered an accident. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted with work accident as an independent variable, controlled by covariables of interest such as noise exposure. The risk of having a work accident was about twice as high among workers exposed to noise, after controlling for several covariables. Occupational noise exposure not only affected auditory health status but was also a risk factor for work accidents.

  15. Strategy for Alternative Occupant Volume Testing (United States)


    This paper describes plans for a series of quasi-static : compression tests of rail passenger equipment. These tests are : designed to evaluate the strength of the occupant volume under : static loading conditions. The research plan includes a detail...

  16. Occupation Iraqi Freedom: The Importance of Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caston, Christine J


    ... addressed by the Combatant and Joint Force Commanders. The lack of an occupation plan had a major impact on how the Combatant Commander carried out Phases IV and V of Operation Iraqi Freedom and provides relevant lessons for future operations.

  17. Secretaries' Perceived Strategies for Coping with Occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretaries' Perceived Strategies for Coping with Occupational Stress in Banks in Anambra State. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (2015) > ... Results revealed that bank secretaries perceived work functions as cause of stress; these stressors ...

  18. Occupational stress, burnout and personality in anesthesiologists. (United States)

    van der Wal, Raymond A B; Wallage, Jacqueline; Bucx, Martin J L


    There is a growing awareness of the problem of occupational stress and burnout among anesthesiologists. Occupational stress was found to be related to burnout, a process that is supposed to be moderated by personality. This article will discuss the topic of stress and burnout in relationship to anesthesiologists' personality based on recent literature. Studies among anesthesiologists are in concordance with the broader body of literature on this topic. Personality consistently influences stress appraisal and coping and consequently the development of burnout. Neuroticism, negative affectivity and cooperativeness all contribute to burnout. Strategies to alleviate stress and hence the development of burnout should not only be directed at adapting occupational or organizational factors but also at equipping anesthesiologists with psychological tools to deal with occupational stress. Furthermore, personality traits that predispose for development of burnout could be taken into consideration in resident selection procedures.

  19. Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh K.

    This work was motivated by the problem of computing optimal commonly-agreeable thermal settings in spaces with multiple occupants. In this work we propose algorithms that take into account each occupant's preferences along with the thermal correlations between different zones in a building, to arrive at optimal thermal settings for all zones of the building in a coordinated manner. In the first part of this work we incorporate active occupant feedback to minimize aggregate user discomfort and total energy cost. User feedback is used to estimate the users comfort range, taking into account possible inaccuracies in the feedback. The control algorithm takes the energy cost into account, trading it off optimally with the aggregate user discomfort. A lumped heat transfer model based on thermal resistance and capacitance is used to model a multi-zone building. We provide a stability analysis and establish convergence of the proposed solution to a desired temperature that minimizes the sum of energy cost and aggregate user discomfort. However, for convergence to the optimal, sufficient separation between the user feedback frequency and the dynamics of the system is necessary; otherwise, the user feedback provided do not correctly reflect the effect of current control input value on user discomfort. The algorithm is further extended using singular perturbation theory to determine the minimum time between successive user feedback solicitations. Under sufficient time scale separation, we establish convergence of the proposed solution. Simulation study and experimental runs on the Watervliet based test facility demonstrates performance of the algorithm. In the second part we develop a consensus algorithm for attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all occupants of a zone in a typical multi-occupant space. The information on the comfort range functions is indeed held privately by each occupant. Using occupant differentiated dynamically adjusted prices as

  20. Relationship of occupational and non-occupational stress with smoking in automotive industry workers. (United States)

    Hassani, Somayeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Bahadori, Baharak


    Tobacco use is the second cause of death and first cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Smoking in the workplace is particularly concerning. Smoking-free workplaces decrease the risk of exposure of non-smoking personnel to cigarette smoke. Recent studies have mostly focused on the effect of daily or non-occupational stressors (in comparison with occupational stress) on prevalence of smoking. Occupational stress is often evaluated in workplaces for smoking cessation or control programs, but the role of non-occupational stressors is often disregarded in this respect. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an automobile manufacturing company. The response of automotive industry workers to parts of the validated, reliable, Farsi version of Musculoskeletal Intervention Center (MUSIC)-Norrtalje questionnaire was evaluated. A total of 3,536 factory workers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The correlation of smoking with demographic factors, occupational stressors and life events was evaluated. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting for the confounding factors, cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with age, sex, level of education, job control and life events (P<0.05). The results showed that of occupational and non-occupational stressors, only job control was correlated with cigarette smoking. Non-occupational stressors had greater effect on cigarette smoking. Consideration of both non-occupational and occupational stressors can enhance the success of smoking control programs. On the other hand, a combination of smoking control and stress (occupational and non-occupational) control programs can be more effective than smoking cessation interventions alone.

  1. An examination of compensation effects in accelerometer-measured occupational and non-occupational physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Gay


    Full Text Available Self-report data suggests a large proportion of total physical activity (PA occurs at work. However, adults with higher levels of occupational PA may compensate by engaging in less non-occupational PA. The study aims were to 1 estimate the intensity, volume, and duration of PA in American adults that occurs at work, and 2 determine if those more active at work are less active outside of work. A cross-sectional sample of full-time employed adults (N=510 was recruited from Georgia city and county governments in 2013–2015. Participants wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for two weeks. In 2016, for 442 participants with complete data including work schedules and self-reported job titles, accelerometer wear minutes were classified as either occupational or non-occupational, and as sedentary, LPA (light-intensity PA, or MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA. The proportion of daily PA that occurred during work was 41.2% for total PA, 41.0% for LPA, and 39.5% for MVPA. Higher levels of occupational LPA were associated with lower levels of non-occupational LPA (r=−0.38, P<0.0001. However, higher levels of occupational MVPA were associated with higher levels of non-occupational MVPA (r=0.17, P<0.0001. These associations remained significant in a MANOVA adjusting for labor sector and other covariates. On average, employed adults get more LPA and MVPA outside of work. Adults who do more occupational MVPA do not compensate by doing less non-occupational MVPA. In contrast, adults who do more occupational LPA do compensate by doing less non-occupational LPA. Evaluations of interventions to reduce sedentary behavior should be designed to detect compensation effects. Keywords: Intensity, Work, Accelerometer

  2. Occupational exposure and ovarian cancer risk. (United States)

    Le, Nhu D; Leung, Andy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Gallagher, Richard P; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Demers, Paul A; Cook, Linda S


    Relatively little work has been done concerning occupational risk factors in ovarian cancer. Although studies conducted in occupational settings have reported positive associations, their usefulness is generally limited by the lack of information on important confounders. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed risk for developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) associated with occupational exposure while accounting for important confounders. Participants were identified through provincial population-based registries. Lifetime occupational history and information on potential confounding factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test were used to assess EOC risk with each occupation (or industry), relative to all other occupations (or industries), adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, parity, age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, family history of breast and ovarian cancer in mother and sister(s), tubal ligation, partial oophorectomy, and hysterectomy. Occupations and industries were coded according to the Canadian Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Significant excess risk was observed for several groups of teaching occupations, including SOC 27, teaching and related (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15-2.81) and SOC 279, other teaching and related (adjusted OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.35-8.49). Significant excess was also seen for a four-digit occupational group SOC 4131, bookkeepers and accounting clerks (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.30-6.80). Industrial sub-groups showing significant excess risk included SIC 65, other retail stores (adjusted OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.16-4.38); SIC 85, educational service (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.13); and SIC 863, non-institutional health services (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.13-6.52). Our study found

  3. Ensuring the quality of occupational safety risk assessment. (United States)

    Pinto, Abel; Ribeiro, Rita A; Nunes, Isabel L


    In work environments, the main aim of occupational safety risk assessment (OSRA) is to improve the safety level of an installation or site by either preventing accidents and injuries or minimizing their consequences. To this end, it is of paramount importance to identify all sources of hazards and assess their potential to cause problems in the respective context. If the OSRA process is inadequate and/or not applied effectively, it results in an ineffective safety prevention program and inefficient use of resources. An appropriate OSRA is an essential component of the occupational safety risk management process in industries. In this article, we performed a survey to elicit the relative importance for identified OSRA tasks to enable an in-depth evaluation of the quality of risk assessments related to occupational safety aspects on industrial sites. The survey involved defining a questionnaire with the most important elements (tasks) for OSRA quality assessment, which was then presented to safety experts in the mining, electrical power production, transportation, and petrochemical industries. With this work, we expect to contribute to the main question of OSRA in industries: "What constitutes a good occupational safety risk assessment?" The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that experts agree with the proposed OSRA process decomposition in steps and tasks (taxonomy) and also with the importance of assigning weights to obtain knowledge about OSRA task relevance. The knowledge gained will enable us, in the near future, to build a framework to evaluate OSRA quality for industrial sites. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. 75 FR 28659 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0012] National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and... on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH). SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee on Occupational...

  5. Occupational health physics at a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, K.E.; Easterly, C.E.; Shoup, R.L.


    Future generation of electrical power using controlled thermonuclear reactors will involve both traditional and new concerns for health protection. A review of the problems associated with exposures to tritium and magnetic fields is presented with emphasis on the occupational worker. The radiological aspects of tritium, inventories and loss rates of tritium for fusion reactors, and protection of the occupational worker are discussed. Magnetic fields in which workers may be exposed routinely and possible biological effects are also discussed

  6. The spectrosome of occupational health problems (United States)

    de Gaudemaris, Régis; Bicout, Dominique J.


    Given the increased prevalence of cancer, respiratory diseases, and reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected, the impact of the environment on the population represents a substantial public health challenge. Surveillance systems have become an essential public health decision-making tool. Networks have been constructed to facilitate the development of analyses of the multifactorial aspects of the relationships between occupational contexts and health. The aim of this study is to develop and present an approach for the optimal exploitation of observational databases to describe and improve the understanding of the (occupational) environment–health relationships, taking into account key multifactorial aspects. We have developed a spectral analysis (SA) approach that takes into account both the multi-exposure and dynamic natures of occupational health problems (OHPs) and related associations. The main results of this paper are to present the construction method of the “spectrum” and “spectrosome” of OHPs (range and structured list of occupational exposures) and describe the information contained therein with an illustrative example. The approach is illustrated using the case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from the French National Occupational Diseases Surveillance and Prevention Network database as a working example of an occupational disease. We found that the NHL spectrum includes 40 sets of occupational exposures characterized by important multi-exposures, especially solvent combinations or pesticide combinations, but also specific exposures such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formaldehyde and ionizing radiation. These findings may be useful for surveillance and the assessment of occupational exposure related to health risks. PMID:29304043

  7. Occupational therapy, professional development and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten


    The article's aim is to reflect on and contribute to developing occupational therapy as a profession. I propose an ethical interpretation of health and helping professions in general and occupational therapy in particular. According to this ethical interpretation, the essential function and mission...... principles and guidelines; it contributes to building up and preserving a shared professional identity; it puts emphasis on a client-centred perspective on professional work; and it provides a constructive framework for inter-professional co-operation....

  8. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, A.M. [Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)


    This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled.

  9. Occupational injury insurance - A strategy for prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French.......Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French....

  10. Evacuation of bedridden occupants: experimental research outcomes


    Strating, N.; van Herpen, R.; Zeiler, W.


    Bedridden building occupants in hospitals and nursing homes who are not able to rescue themselves in case of a fire emergency require assistance during an evacuation. A building emergency team usually fulfils this function and will have to remove the occupants from the room. The speed at which such an evacuation is conducted however is unknown. Experiments in practice were conducted in hospitals to obtain insight in the evacuation speed and absolute evacuation times required. Furthermore, a s...

  11. Occupancy statistics arising from weighted particle rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huillet, Thierry


    The box-occupancy distributions arising from weighted rearrangements of a particle system are investigated. In the grand-canonical ensemble, they are characterized by determinantal joint probability generating functions. For doubly non-negative weight matrices, fractional occupancy statistics, generalizing Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics, can be defined. A spatially extended version of these balls-in-boxes problems is investigated

  12. [Occupational health and safety management systems: scenarios and perspectives for occupational physicians]. (United States)

    Santantonio, P; Casciani, M; Bartolucci, G B


    This paper analyzes the role of the occupational physicians, taking into account the new Italian legislation within the frame of CSR, that puts in a new light the physicians inside the Organizations. In this context, Occupational Medicine and Workplace Health Promotion play a central role in most of the items of the Occupational Health and safety management systems, from H&S politics to training, from First Aid to audit and revision systems. From this innovative perspective, the authors try to identify the occupational physician's new challenges and opportunities.

  13. FastSLAM Using Compressed Occupancy Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Cain


    Full Text Available Robotic vehicles working in unknown environments require the ability to determine their location while learning about obstacles located around them. In this paper a method of solving the SLAM problem that makes use of compressed occupancy grids is presented. The presented approach is an extension of the FastSLAM algorithm which stores a compressed form of the occupancy grid to reduce the amount of memory required to store the set of occupancy grids maintained by the particle filter. The performance of the algorithm is presented using experimental results obtained using a small inexpensive ground vehicle equipped with LiDAR, compass, and downward facing camera that provides the vehicle with visual odometry measurements. The presented results demonstrate that although with our approach the occupancy grid maintained by each particle uses only 40% of the data needed to store the uncompressed occupancy grid, we can still achieve almost identical results to the approach where each particle filter stores the full occupancy grid.

  14. Occupational hazards to health of port workers. (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Zhan, Shuifen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan


    The aim of this article is to reduce the risk of occupational hazards and improve safety conditions by enhancing hazard knowledge and identification as well as improving safety behavior for freight port enterprises. In the article, occupational hazards to health and their prevention measures of freight port enterprises have been summarized through a lot of occupational health evaluation work, experience and understanding. Workers of freight port enterprises confront an equally wide variety of chemical, physical and psychological hazards in production technology, production environment and the course of labor. Such health hazards have been identified, the risks evaluated, the dangers to health notified and effective prevention measures which should be put in place to ensure the health of the port workers summarized. There is still a long way to go for the freight port enterprises to prevent and control the occupational hazards. Except for occupational hazards and their prevention measures, other factors that influence the health of port workers should also be paid attention to, such as age, work history, gender, contraindication and even the occurrence and development rules of occupational hazards in current production conditions.

  15. A bibliometric analysis of occupational therapy publications. (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Gutman, Sharon A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Fong, Kenneth N K


    Bibliometrics involves the statistical analysis of the publications in a specific discipline or subject area. A bibliometric analysis of the occupational therapy refereed literature is needed. A bibliometric analysis was completed of the occupational therapy literature from 1991-2014, indexed in the Science Citation Index-Expanded or the Social Sciences Citation Index. Publications were searched by title, abstract, keywords, and KeyWords Plus. Total number of article citations, citations per journal, and contributions per country, individual authors, and institution were calculated. 5,315 occupational therapy articles were published in 821 journals. It appears that there is a citation window of an approximate 10-year period between the time of publication and the peak number of citations an article receives. The top three most highly cited articles were published in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, JAMA, and Lancet. AJOT, BJOT and AOTJ published the largest number of occupational therapy articles with the United States, Australia, and Canada producing the highest number of publications. McMaster University, the University of Queensland, and the University of Toronto were the institutions that published the largest number of occupational therapy journal articles. The occupational therapy literature is growing and the frequency of article citation is increasing.

  16. Perturbation analysis for patch occupancy dynamics (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Ferraz, Goncalo; Hines, James E.


    Perturbation analysis is a powerful tool to study population and community dynamics. This article describes expressions for sensitivity metrics reflecting changes in equilibrium occupancy resulting from small changes in the vital rates of patch occupancy dynamics (i.e., probabilities of local patch colonization and extinction). We illustrate our approach with a case study of occupancy dynamics of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories. Examination of the hypothesis of system equilibrium suggests that the system satisfies equilibrium conditions. Estimates of vital rates obtained using patch occupancy models are used to estimate equilibrium patch occupancy of eagles. We then compute estimates of sensitivity metrics and discuss their implications for eagle population ecology and management. Finally, we discuss the intuition underlying our sensitivity metrics and then provide examples of ecological questions that can be addressed using perturbation analyses. For instance, the sensitivity metrics lead to predictions about the relative importance of local colonization and local extinction probabilities in influencing equilibrium occupancy for rare and common species.

  17. Role of radiology in occupational medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehmas, T.


    This review discusses the contribution of radiology to occupational medicine as well as work-related problems in radiology dept.s. Research issues are emphasized. Radiology has been used especially when diagnosing occupational respiratory and locomotive system problems and solvent-induced encephalo- and hepatopathy. The aim of research in these areas is usually to characterize occupational diseases and to identify physico-chemical hazards in the work place by comparing between groups of workers and non-exposed controls. Radiological imaging allows an objective characterization of the disease, and it may clarify the pathogenesis of the process and provide a useful epidemiological tool. Advanced statistical methods are often needed to adjust analyses for confounding variables. As the diagnostic requirements are increasing, more sensitive and sophisticated radiological methods, such as high-resolution computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, may be required for the early recognition of occupational health risks. This necessitates good cooperation between occupational health units and well-equipped imaging dept.s. Considering occupational problems in radiology departments, the increasing use of digital radiology requires ergonomic measures to control and prevent locomotive problems caused by work with computers. Radiation protection measures are still worth concern, especially in interventional radiology

  18. Information System on Occupational Exposure: Future Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Yves Gagnon; Waturu Mizumachi; Brian Ahier; Ted Lazo; Khammar Mrabit


    In response to pressures from deregulation and from ageing of the global nuclear power plant fleet, radiation protection personnel have found that occupational exposures are best managed through proper job planning, implementation and review to ensure that exposures are 'as low as reasonably achievable'(ALARA). A prerequisite for applying the principle of optimisation to occupational radiation protection is the timely exchange of data and information on dose reduction methods. To facilitate this global approach to work management, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (Nea) launched the Information System on Occupational Exposure (I.S.O.E.) in 1992. The objective of I.S.O.E. is to provide a forum for radiation protection experts from both utilities and national regulatory authorities to discuss, promote and coordinate international cooperative undertakings for the radiological protection of workers at nuclear power plants.The I.S.O.E. programme offers a variety of products in the occupational exposure area, such as: the world largest database on occupational exposure from nuclear power plants, a yearly analysis of dose trends and an overview of current developments, through I.S.O.E. Annual Reports, detailed studies, analyses, and information on current issues in operational radiation protection, through I.S.O.E. Information Sheets, a system for rapid communication of radiation protection-related information, such as effective dose reduction approaches and implementation of work management principles. A forum for discussing occupational exposure management issues through I.S.O.E. workshops, symposia and newsletters. (N.C.)

  19. Study of business ethics in occupational medicine. (United States)

    Philipp, R; Goodman, G; Harling, K; Beattie, B


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the views of specialists in occupational medicine about business ethics in occupational medicine. METHOD: A qualitative study with face to face focus groups and successive reviews of the draft consensus was undertaken of all accredited specialists in occupational medicine who were members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and of all regional specialty advisers and deputies from the Faculty of Occupational Medicine. RESULTS: There was widespread agreement for the need of a code of business ethics. In all, during the four draft stages of preparing a consensus, 72% (28/39) of members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and 31% (20/64) of regional specialty advisers and deputies provided detailed comment for inclusion in it. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus of their views was reached among study participants for issues of business ethics involving advertising, competence, qualifications, fees, commitment, changes in provider contracts, regulation, and supervision of trainees. It provides a basis for further debate. PMID:9196458

  20. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibanez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesus; Alguacil, Juan; Hera, Manuela Garcia de la; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo


    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  1. Study of business ethics in occupational medicine. (United States)

    Philipp, R; Goodman, G; Harling, K; Beattie, B


    To investigate the views of specialists in occupational medicine about business ethics in occupational medicine. A qualitative study with face to face focus groups and successive reviews of the draft consensus was undertaken of all accredited specialists in occupational medicine who were members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and of all regional specialty advisers and deputies from the Faculty of Occupational Medicine. There was widespread agreement for the need of a code of business ethics. In all, during the four draft stages of preparing a consensus, 72% (28/39) of members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and 31% (20/64) of regional specialty advisers and deputies provided detailed comment for inclusion in it. Consensus of their views was reached among study participants for issues of business ethics involving advertising, competence, qualifications, fees, commitment, changes in provider contracts, regulation, and supervision of trainees. It provides a basis for further debate.

  2. 29 CFR 570.71 - Occupations involved in agriculture. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in agriculture. 570.71 Section 570.71... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION 1-Occupations in Agriculture... agriculture. (a) Findings and declarations of fact as to specific occupations. The following occupations in...

  3. 27 CFR 479.32 - Special (occupational) tax rates. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special (occupational) tax..., AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes § 479.32 Special (occupational) tax rates. (a) Prior to January 1, 1988, the special (occupational) tax rates were as follows: Per year or fraction...

  4. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding. (United States)

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa


    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  5. Poster Abstract: Towards a Categorization Framework for Occupancy Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Jradi, Muhyiddine


    on occupancy sensing systems goes beyond basic methods, there is an increasing need for better comparison of proposed occupancy sensing systems. Developers of occupancy sensing systems are also lacking good frameworks for understanding different options when building occupancy sensing systems. This poster...

  6. [Associations of occupational safety atmosphere and behaviors with unintentional injuries]. (United States)

    Xiao, Ya-ni; Huang, Zhi-xiong; Huang, Shao-bin; Cao, Xiao-ou; Chen, Xia-ming; Liu, Xu-hua; Chen, Wei-qing


    To evaluate the associations of perception of safety atmosphere at workplace, occupational safety attitude and behaviors with occupational unintentional injury among manufacturing workers. A cross-sectional study was performed and a self-administered questionnaire was used to inquire socio-demographic characteristics, perceived safety atmosphere, occupational safety attitudes, occupational safety behaviors and occupational unintentional injuries among 10585 manufacturing workers selected from 46 enterprises in Guangdong. Structural equation modeling was applied to assess the relationship of the perception of safety atmosphere at workplace, occupational safety attitude, and occupational safety behaviors with occupational unintentional injury. Among 24 pathways supposed in structural equation model, 20 pathways (except for the attitude toward occupational safety, the attitude toward managers' support, the work posture and individual protection) were significantly related to the occupational unintentional injuries. The further analysis indicated that the perceived safety atmosphere might impact the occupational unintentional injuries by the attitude toward occupational safety and occupational safety behaviors. Workers' perception of safety atmosphere indirectly influenced on occupational unintentional injuries through occupational safety attitudes and occupational safety behaviors.

  7. [Nanosilver--Occupational exposure limits]. (United States)

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir


    Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings), textiles (sport clothes, socks), plastics and building materials (paints). Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration--the time-weighted average) for silver--a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic--inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3) does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Nanosilver – Occupational exposure limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska


    Full Text Available Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings, textiles (sport clothes, socks, plastics and building materials (paints. Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration – the time-weighted average for silver – a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic – inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3 does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects. Med Pr 2015;66(3:429–442

  9. Occupational Engagement in Low-Income Latina Breast Cancer Survivors. (United States)

    Sleight, Alix G

    This qualitative study examined the experience of occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors and suggests the potential for occupational therapy practitioners to improve health outcomes in this vulnerable and underserved population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 participants. Inductive analysis was used to code for themes and patterns related to occupational engagement and quality of life (QOL). Lack of occupational engagement negatively affected QOL, but participation in occupations such as religious activity and caregiving promoted well-being. Financial concerns and communication barriers decreased QOL. Breast cancer can have a negative impact on occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors; however, some occupations may increase QOL. Socioeconomic status and cultural values influence occupational engagement and QOL. Occupational therapy practitioners can improve health outcomes in this population through awareness of relevant sociocultural factors and attention to appropriate patient communication. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Occupation and mental health in a national UK survey. (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen Alfred; Rasul, F R; Head, J; Singleton, N


    To measure the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) by occupation in a representative sample of Great Britain and to identify occupations with increased and decreased risk of CMD. A cross-sectional interview-based survey was carried out including 5,497 working male and female respondents, 16-64 years from a stratified random survey of private households in Britain. Occupations were classified by the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) into four groups: major, sub-major, minor and constituent unit groups. Common Mental Disorder was measured by the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Major SOC groups with higher prevalence of common mental disorder included clerical and secretarial, sales, and personal and protective services whereas craft and related, 'other' professional occupations and plant and machine operatives had lower prevalence compared to 13% overall prevalence in all adults. In sub-major SOC groups managers and administrators, teaching professionals, clerical and secretarial, 'other' sales and personal service occupations had higher prevalence whereas many professional and skilled occupations had lower prevalence. Specific SOC unit groups with higher prevalence included primary and secondary teachers, welfare community, youth workers, security staff, waiters, bar staff, nurse auxiliaries and care assistants. General managers in government and large organizations (OR=2.79, 95% CI 1.41-5.54), managers in transport and storing (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.18-5.03), buyers and mobile sales persons (OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.09-5.60), sales occupations (NES) (OR=2.78, 95% CI 1.25-6.19) and clerks (NES) (OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.59-4.61) had increased risk of common mental disorder relative to specialist managers adjusting for social and financial factors and physical ill-health. Occupations with higher risk of common mental disorder may be typified by high levels of job demands, especially emotional demands and lack of job security. The reasons why occupations have low

  11. Simulation in Occupational Therapy Curricula: A literature review. (United States)

    Bennett, Sally; Rodger, Sylvia; Fitzgerald, Cate; Gibson, Libby


    Simulated learning experiences are increasingly being used in health-care education to enhance student engagement and provide experiences that reflect clinical practice; however, simulation has not been widely investigated in occupational therapy curricula. The aim of this paper was to: (i) describe the existing research about the use and evaluation of simulation over the last three decades in occupational therapy curricula and (ii) consider how simulation has been used to develop competence in students. A literature review was undertaken with searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL and ERIC to locate articles that described or evaluated the use of simulation in occupational therapy curricula. Fifty-seven papers were identified. Occupational therapy educators have used the full scope of simulation modalities, including written case studies (22), standardised patients (13), video case studies (15), computer-based and virtual reality cases (7), role-play (8) and mannequins and part-task trainers (4). Ten studies used combinations of these modalities and two papers compared modalities. Most papers described the use of simulation for foundational courses, as for preparation for fieldwork, and to address competencies necessary for newly graduating therapists. The majority of studies were descriptive, used pre-post design, or were student's perceptions of the value of simulation. Simulation-based education has been used for a wide range of purposes in occupational therapy curricula and appears to be well received. Randomised controlled trials are needed to more accurately understand the effects of simulation not just for occupational therapy students but for longer term outcomes in clinical practice. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  12. Occupational Disease Registries–Characteristics and Experiences (United States)

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniat; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Hosseini, Narges Shams; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza


    Introduction: Due to growth of occupational diseases and also increase of public awareness about their consequences, attention to various aspects of diseases and improve occupational health and safety has found great importance. Therefore, there is the need for appropriate information management tools such as registries in order to recognitions of diseases patterns and then making decision about prevention, early detection and treatment of them. These registries have different characteristics in various countries according to their occupational health priorities. Aim: Aim of this study is evaluate dimensions of occupational diseases registries including objectives, data sources, responsible institutions, minimum data set, classification systems and process of registration in different countries. Material and Methods: In this study, the papers were searched using the MEDLINE (PubMed) Google scholar, Scopus, ProQuest and Google. The search was done based on keyword in English for all motor engines including “occupational disease”, “work related disease”, “surveillance”, “reporting”, “registration system” and “registry” combined with name of the countries including all subheadings. After categorizing search findings in tables, results were compared with each other. Results: Important aspects of the registries studied in ten countries including Finland, France, United Kingdom, Australia, Czech Republic, Malaysia, United States, Singapore, Russia and Turkey. The results show that surveyed countries have statistical, treatment and prevention objectives. Data sources in almost the rest of registries were physicians and employers. The minimum data sets in most of them consist of information about patient, disease, occupation and employer. Some of countries have special occupational related classification systems for themselves and some of them apply international classification systems such as ICD-10. Finally, the process of registration system was

  13. Epidemiology of occupational injuries by nationality in Qatar: Evidence for focused occupational safety programmes. (United States)

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Consunji, Rafael; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Peralta, Ruben; Allen, Katharine A; Hyder, Adnan A


    Occupational injuries are the second leading cause of trauma admission in Qatar. Given the wide diversity of the country's migrant worker populations at risk, this study aimed to analyse and describe the epidemiology of these injuries based on the workers nationality residing in Qatar. A retrospective analysis of trauma registry data on occupational-related injuries was conducted. The analysis included all patients [aged ≥18 years] admitted to the Level I Hamad Trauma Center, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Out of 6555 trauma admissions, 2015 (30.7%) patients had occupational injury. The admitted Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was 4.3 per 100 occupational injury related trauma admissions. Overall non-fatal occupational injury rate was 37.34 per 100,000 workers, whereas fatal injury rate was 1.58 per 100,000 workers. Most of the workers experiencing occupational injuries were from Nepal (28%), India (20%) and Bangladesh (9%). Fatal occupational injuries were predominately among Indians (20%), Nepalese (19%), and Filipinos/Bangladeshis (both 8%). Filipinos had the highest admitted CFR at 8.2 deaths per 100 trauma admissions with the next highest being Indians and Indonesians (4.2 per 100 trauma admissions). During the study period, the incidence of severe occupational injuries decreased despite a simultaneous increase in the worker population within Qatar. Almost one in four occupational injuries was a major trauma (ISS≥16). Nepalese and Indian workers represented 29% and 18% of all major trauma cases. Non-fatal occupational injuries appear to follow a pattern distinct from fatal ones. High-risk worker populations as defined by those with high admitted CFRs, experiencing the most severe or fatal injuries, must be the focus of targeted risk factor analysis and occupational safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational syncarcinogenesis in the skin - combined effects of two carcinogens from the German occupational disease list. (United States)

    Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras


    Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons

  15. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors. (United States)

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M


    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  16. [The ICOH International Code of Ethics for Occupational Health Professionals]. (United States)

    Foà, V


    In the paper all the steps are described which are followed by ICOH to finalize the International Code of Ethics for Occupational Health Professionals (OHP). The Code is composed by a "Preface" in which is explained why the Occupational Health Professionals need a specific Code different from other Codes built up for general practitioners or other specializations, followed by an "Introduction" where the targets of Occupational Health are underlined and which professionals contribute to achieve the defined target. These two parts are followed by a more substantial description of the tasks and duties of the OHP. In the last part of the Code it is illustrated how to carry out the above mentioned duties. The principles inserted in the ICOH Code of Ethics have been worldwide accepted by the OHP and particularly in Italy where they have been included in the Legislative Decree 81/08.

  17. [The role of ergonomics in occupational health - past and future]. (United States)

    Izumi, Hiroyuki


    The aim of working condition and ergonomics is to control the task method and condition for the best productive activity with the highest efficiency and sustainability. The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor and its criticism by Gito Teruoka, the 1st director of The Institute for Science of Labour, are introduced for a better understanding of work condition and ergonomics in this article. Occupational physician have a duty to control working method and condition to reduce the health hazards induced by job duty. Not only the technical knowledge of medicine, but also a fundamental knowledge of manufacturing is needed for the occupational physician. The development of tools for early detection of health hazards and workload evaluation, the introduction of work management systems with cooperation between occupational physicians and technical experts of manufacturing are needed for effective control of the workplace. The strengthening of the Industrial Safety and Health Law should help to drive these improvements.

  18. Occupational allergy as a challenge to developing countries. (United States)

    Rydzynski, Konrad; Palczynski, Cezary


    A steady increase in the incidence of allergic diseases can be observed since 1950s. For such atopic diseases as bronchial asthma, pollinosis or atopic dermatitis, a significantly increased morbidity rate in the general population has been found. Strikingly enough, the highest prevalence of asthma and allergy was recorded in highly developed countries. It can thus be assumed that the high rate of asthma may be an attribute of the post-industrial societies. The prevalence of occupational allergies is thought to be in direct proportion to the rate with which allergies occur in the general population. In view of the changing environment and lifestyles in the developing countries, their communities are expected to be faced with similar negative epidemiological effects concerning allergies. To counteract the spreading of negative health effects, the following measures need to be undertaken: 1. Limitation of exposure to strong allergens. 2. Modification of the training curriculum for medical personnel and of health service infrastructure, according to new tasks and challenges. 3. Considering a possibility of introducing a system of surveillance over occupational allergies and asthma, like the Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease (SWORD) system implemented in UK. This system ensures effective cooperation between specialists in preventive medicine, occupational hygiene services and research workers dealing with occupational health that enables prompt response to emerging hazards.

  19. Creating a Future for Occupational Health. (United States)

    Peckham, Trevor K; Baker, Marissa G; Camp, Janice E; Kaufman, Joel D; Seixas, Noah S


    Economic, social, technical, and political drivers are fundamentally changing the nature of work and work environments, with profound implications for the field of occupational health. Nevertheless, researchers and practitioners entering the field are largely being trained to assess and control exposures using approaches developed under old models of work and risks. A speaker series and symposium were organized to broadly explore current challenges and future directions for the occupational health field. Broad themes identified throughout these discussions are characterized and discussed to highlight important future directions of occupational health. Despite the relatively diverse group of presenters and topics addressed, some important cross-cutting themes emerged. Changes in work organization and the resulting insecurity and precarious employment arrangements change the nature of risk to a large fraction of the workforce. Workforce demographics are changing, and economic disparities among working groups are growing. Globalization exacerbates the 'race to the bottom' for cheap labor, poor regulatory oversight, and limited labor rights. Largely, as a result of these phenomena, the historical distinction between work and non-work exposures has become largely artificial and less useful in understanding risks and developing effective public health intervention models. Additional changes related to climate change, governmental and regulatory limitations, and inadequate surveillance systems challenge and frustrate occupational health progress, while new biomedical and information technologies expand the opportunities for understanding and intervening to improve worker health. The ideas and evidences discussed during this project suggest that occupational health training, professional practice, and research evolve towards a more holistic, public health-oriented model of worker health. This will require engagement with a wide network of stakeholders. Research and

  20. Occupational stress and depression in Korean employees. (United States)

    Cho, Jung Jin; Kim, Ji Yong; Chang, Sei Jin; Fiedler, Nancy; Koh, Sang Baek; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Kang, Dong Mug; Kim, Yong Kyu; Choi, Young Ho


    The purpose of this study is to analyze what aspects of occupational stress predict depression among Korean workers, and determine which components of occupational stress or job characteristics is more strongly associated with depression. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 8,522 workers (21-65 years of age) from a nationwide sample were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographics, job characteristics, depressive symptoms measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and occupational stress assessed by the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS). Multivariate analyses show that inadequate social support (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.52, 1.66) and discomfort in occupational climate (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.18, 1.32) were more important risk factors for depression than organizational injustice, job demand and job control. Compared to the 'business activities' industries, 'recreational, cultural and sporting activities' (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.80, 6.58), 'hotel and restaurants' (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.92, 5.80), 'real estate and renting and leasing' (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.13, 4.44), 'wholesale and retail' (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.28, 2.67), 'transportation' (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.07), and 'financial institute and insurance' (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.48) industries had significantly greater risk of depression after controlling for gender, age, marital status, duration of employment and all subscale of KOSS. The finding that inadequate social support and discomfort in occupational climate is a better predictor of depressive symptoms than organizational injustice in Korea, indicates that the newly developed KOSS has cultural relevance for assessing occupational stress in Korea. Future studies need to understand factors such as "emotional labor" within certain industries where increased risk for depression is observed.

  1. Occupational rehabilitation in Singapore and Malaysia. (United States)

    Chan, Kay-Fei; Tan, Charlie W C; Yeo, Doreen S C; Tan, Heidi S K; Tan, F L; Tan, E W; Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K


    Asia is the new and favored magnet of economic attention and foreign investments after it made an almost uneventful rebound from the depths of financial crisis of 2008/2009. Not many Western observers fully understand the diversity that is Asia other than perhaps its 2 growing economic giants of China and India. Indeed many smaller countries like Singapore and Malaysia in South East Asia along with Australia and Hong Kong (a Special Administrative Region within China) look to symbiotic relationships with these two economic giants. The purpose of this discussion paper is to examine the current issues related to the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Singapore and Malaysia with a forward-looking view of how Asia's different developing societies could potentially benefit from better alignment of occupational rehabilitation practices and sharing of expertise through international collaboration and dialogue platforms. Seven therapists and one physician who are frequently involved in occupational rehabilitation services in their home countries critically reviewed the current issues in Singapore and Malaysia which included analysis of the prevalence and cost of occupational injury; overview of workers' compensation system; current practices, obstacles, and challenges in providing occupational rehabilitation and return to work practices. They also offered opinions about how to improve the occupational rehabilitation programs of their two home countries. Even though Malaysia and Singapore are two different countries, in many ways their current provision of occupational rehabilitation services and the problems they face with are very similar. There is a lot of room for systemic improvements that require government support and action. Most prominently, the training of more healthcare professionals in the assessment and rehabilitation of the injured worker should be encouraged. There could be better liaison between the many stakeholders and

  2. Spatial occupancy models for large data sets (United States)

    Johnson, Devin S.; Conn, Paul B.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Ray, Justina C.; Pond, Bruce A.


    Since its development, occupancy modeling has become a popular and useful tool for ecologists wishing to learn about the dynamics of species occurrence over time and space. Such models require presence–absence data to be collected at spatially indexed survey units. However, only recently have researchers recognized the need to correct for spatially induced overdisperison by explicitly accounting for spatial autocorrelation in occupancy probability. Previous efforts to incorporate such autocorrelation have largely focused on logit-normal formulations for occupancy, with spatial autocorrelation induced by a random effect within a hierarchical modeling framework. Although useful, computational time generally limits such an approach to relatively small data sets, and there are often problems with algorithm instability, yielding unsatisfactory results. Further, recent research has revealed a hidden form of multicollinearity in such applications, which may lead to parameter bias if not explicitly addressed. Combining several techniques, we present a unifying hierarchical spatial occupancy model specification that is particularly effective over large spatial extents. This approach employs a probit mixture framework for occupancy and can easily accommodate a reduced-dimensional spatial process to resolve issues with multicollinearity and spatial confounding while improving algorithm convergence. Using open-source software, we demonstrate this new model specification using a case study involving occupancy of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) over a set of 1080 survey units spanning a large contiguous region (108 000 km2) in northern Ontario, Canada. Overall, the combination of a more efficient specification and open-source software allows for a facile and stable implementation of spatial occupancy models for large data sets.

  3. Systematically extracting metal- and solvent-related occupational information from free-text responses to lifetime occupational history questionnaires. (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Locke, Sarah J; Tornow, Carina; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Koh, Dong-Hee; Stewart, Patricia A; Purdue, Mark; Colt, Joanne S


    Lifetime occupational history (OH) questionnaires often use open-ended questions to capture detailed information about study participants' jobs. Exposure assessors use this information, along with responses to job- and industry-specific questionnaires, to assign exposure estimates on a job-by-job basis. An alternative approach is to use information from the OH responses and the job- and industry-specific questionnaires to develop programmable decision rules for assigning exposures. As a first step in this process, we developed a systematic approach to extract the free-text OH responses and convert them into standardized variables that represented exposure scenarios. Our study population comprised 2408 subjects, reporting 11991 jobs, from a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma. Each subject completed a lifetime OH questionnaire that included verbatim responses, for each job, to open-ended questions including job title, main tasks and activities (task), tools and equipment used (tools), and chemicals and materials handled (chemicals). Based on a review of the literature, we identified exposure scenarios (occupations, industries, tasks/tools/chemicals) expected to involve possible exposure to chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene (TCE) in particular, lead, and cadmium. We then used a SAS macro to review the information reported by study participants to identify jobs associated with each exposure scenario; this was done using previously coded standardized occupation and industry classification codes, and a priori lists of associated key words and phrases related to possibly exposed tasks, tools, and chemicals. Exposure variables representing the occupation, industry, and task/tool/chemicals exposure scenarios were added to the work history records of the study respondents. Our identification of possibly TCE-exposed scenarios in the OH responses was compared to an expert's independently assigned probability ratings to evaluate whether we missed identifying

  4. Radiation hormesis at occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Zaharieva, E.; Acheva, A.


    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: The idea in favour of the auspicious effect of low dose ionizing radiation in biological systems exists for years and serves as basis of the radiation hormesis hypothesis. The results in support of this phenomenon are not accepted as reliable by ICRP. The available epidemiological data could only suppose the presence of hormetic effect because of statistics limitations and relatively high spontaneous rate of the examined effects. The present work was aimed at finding appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals and/or population to prove radiation hormesis. Methods: Blood samples were taken from more than 400 NPP workers, divided in two groups: from the 'strict regimen' area (exposed) and from the administration staff (control). Two levels of evaluation were used: 1) molecular - spontaneous and induced DNA repair by UDS, protein synthesis evaluated radio-metrically, DNA damage by SCGE - all of them in white blood cells, concentration of malonedialdehyde in blood serum; and 2) cellular - the Ly-subsets by flow cytometry, using a FacScan analyzer and immunofluorescent stained mouse monoclonal antibodies. Results: A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage was found in persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/a, compared to the control group. The highest repair capacity after a challenging dose of 2,0 Gy gamma rays as well as a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress was evaluated for persons from the same group. At doses below 200 mSv statistically different decrease of the index of CD3+4+, CD4+25+, CD4+62L+ lymphocyte populations and CD4/CD8 cell ratio was established, and increased levels of NK cells, CD57+8+ , CD8+28+ and CD8+38 were recorded. Conclusion: The present investigation showed that annual doses lower than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase

  5. Internationally Comparable Measures of Occupational Status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeboom, H.B.G.; Treiman, D.J.


    This paper provides operational procedures for coding internationally comparable measures of occupational status from the recently published International Standard Classification of Occupation 1988 (ISCO88) of the International Labor Office (ILO, 1990). We first discuss the nature of the ISCO88

  6. Representation of occupational information across resources and validation of the occupational data for health model. (United States)

    Rajamani, Sripriya; Chen, Elizabeth S; Lindemann, Elizabeth; Aldekhyyel, Ranyah; Wang, Yan; Melton, Genevieve B


    Reports by the National Academy of Medicine and leading public health organizations advocate including occupational information as part of an individual's social context. Given recent National Academy of Medicine recommendations on occupation-related data in the electronic health record, there is a critical need for improved representation. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has developed an Occupational Data for Health (ODH) model, currently in draft format. This study aimed to validate the ODH model by mapping occupation-related elements from resources representing recommendations, standards, public health reports and surveys, and research measures, along with preliminary evaluation of associated value sets. All 247 occupation-related items across 20 resources mapped to the ODH model. Recommended value sets had high variability across the evaluated resources. This study demonstrates the ODH model's value, the multifaceted nature of occupation information, and the critical need for occupation value sets to support clinical care, population health, and research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager (United States)

    Waters, Martha; McKernan, Lauralynn; Maier, Andrew; Jayjock, Michael; Schaeffer, Val; Brosseau, Lisa


    The fundamental goal of this article is to describe, define, and analyze the components of the risk characterization process for occupational exposures. Current methods are described for the probabilistic characterization of exposure, including newer techniques that have increasing applications for assessing data from occupational exposure scenarios. In addition, since the probability of health effects reflects variability in the exposure estimate as well as the dose-response curve—the integrated considerations of variability surrounding both components of the risk characterization provide greater information to the occupational hygienist. Probabilistic tools provide a more informed view of exposure as compared to use of discrete point estimates for these inputs to the risk characterization process. Active use of such tools for exposure and risk assessment will lead to a scientifically supported worker health protection program. Understanding the bases for an occupational risk assessment, focusing on important sources of variability and uncertainty enables characterizing occupational risk in terms of a probability, rather than a binary decision of acceptable risk or unacceptable risk. A critical review of existing methods highlights several conclusions: (1) exposure estimates and the dose-response are impacted by both variability and uncertainty and a well-developed risk characterization reflects and communicates this consideration; (2) occupational risk is probabilistic in nature and most accurately considered as a distribution, not a point estimate; and (3) occupational hygienists have a variety of tools available to incorporate concepts of risk characterization into occupational health and practice. PMID:26302336

  8. Differences and similarities in therapeutic mode use between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students in Norway. (United States)

    Carstensen, Tove; Bonsaksen, Tore


    The Intentional Relationship Model (IRM) is a new model of the therapeutic relationship in occupational therapy practice. Two previous studies have focused on therapist communication style, or 'mode' use, but to date no group comparisons have been reported. To explore differences between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students with regard to their therapeutic mode use. The study had a cross-sectional design, and convenience samples consisting of occupational therapists (n = 109) and of second-year occupational therapy students (n = 96) were recruited. The Self-Assessment of Modes Questionnaire was the main data collection tool. Group differences were analysed with independent t-tests. The occupational therapists responded more within the collaborative and empathizing modes than the students did. The students responded more within the advocating and instructing modes than the occupational therapists did. There may be systematic differences between occupational therapists and students concerning their therapeutic mode use. Some modes, such as the collaborating and empathizing modes, may be viewed as requiring more experience, whereas other modes, such as the advocating mode may be related to more recent rehabilitation ideologies. These factors may contribute to explaining several of the group differences observed.

  9. A client-centred, occupation-based occupational therapy programme for adults with psychiatric diagnoses. (United States)

    Schindler, Victoria P


    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a client-centred, occupation-based occupational therapy programme for individuals with psychiatric diagnoses. The study took place in a college campus. A pre-test/post-test design was used. There were 38 participants which included college students and community members who desired to attend college, work and/or address life skill goals. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used as a pre- and post-test measure. Goals were based on problems identified in the COPM, reflected academic, vocational, life skill, and leisure goals, and were systematically addressed weekly through activities developed by the participant and a graduate occupational therapy student who acted as a mentor. The Participant Overall Satisfaction Scale was completed by each participant. A case study was used to describe the programme in more depth. The results support that the client-centred, occupation-based occupational therapy programme increased client scores on satisfaction and performance of occupational performance problems identified on the COPM. Further research is recommended to explore how client-centred occupational therapy programmes can be effective in improving academic, vocational and life skill goals. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis: a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macan, Jelena; Rimac, Davor; Kežić, Sanja; Varnai, Veda Marija


    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the clinical course and prognosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), including potential effects of genetic and environmental factors. Eighty-two patients with previously defined ACD acquired occupationally (OACD) or non-occupationally (NOACD) were

  11. Sampling scales define occupancy and underlying occupancy-abundance relationships in animals (United States)

    Robin Steenweg; Mark Hebblewhite; Jesse Whittington; Paul Lukacs; Kevin McKelvey


    Occupancy-abundance (OA) relationships are a foundational ecological phenomenon and field of study, and occupancy models are increasingly used to track population trends and understand ecological interactions. However, these two fields of ecological inquiry remain largely isolated, despite growing appreciation of the importance of integration. For example, using...

  12. 78 FR 64504 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or..., Number 177, Pages 56235-56236. Contact Person for More Information: Price Connor, Ph.D., NIOSH Health...

  13. Occupation and its relationship with health and wellbeing: the threshold concept for occupational therapy. (United States)

    Fortune, Tracy; Kennedy-Jones, Mary


    We introduce the educational framework of 'threshold concepts' and discuss its utility in understanding the fundamental difficulties learners have in understanding ways of thinking and practising as occupational therapists. We propose that the relationship between occupation and health is a threshold concept for occupational therapy because of students' trouble in achieving lasting conceptual change in relation to their understanding of it. The authors present and discuss key ideas drawn from educational writings on threshold concepts, review the emerging literature on threshold concepts in occupational therapy, and pose a series of questions in order to prompt consideration of the pedagogical issues requiring action by academic and fieldwork educators. Threshold concepts in occupational therapy have been considered in a primarily cross-disciplinary sense, that is, the understandings that occupational therapy learners grapple with are relevant to learners in other disciplines. In contrast, we present a more narrowly defined conception that emphasises the 'bounded-ness' of the concept to the discipline. A threshold concept that captures the essential nature of occupational therapy is likely to be (highly) troublesome in terms of a learner's acquisition of it. Rather than simplifying these learning 'jewels' educators are encouraged to sit with the discomfort that they and the learner may experience as the learner struggles to grasp them. Moreover, they should reshape their curricula to provoke such struggles if transformative learning is to be the outcome. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. International survey of occupational health nurses' roles in multidisciplinary teamwork in occupational health services. (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; Kono, Keiko; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Peurala, Marjatta; Radford, Jennifer; Staun, Julie


    Access to occupational health services for primary prevention and control of work-related injuries and illnesses by the global workforce is limited (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). From the WHO survey of 121 (61%) participating countries, only one-third of the responding countries provided occupational health services to more than 30% of their workers (2013). How services are provided in these countries is dependent on legal requirements and regulations, population, workforce characteristics, and culture, as well as an understanding of the impact of workplace hazards and worker health needs. Around the world, many occupational health services are provided by occupational health nurses independently or in collaboration with other disciplines' professionals. These services may be health protection, health promotion, or both, and are designed to reduce health risks, support productivity, improve workers' quality of life, and be cost-effective. Rantanen (2004) stated that basic occupational health services must increase rather than decline, especially as work becomes more complex; workforces become more dynamic and mobile, creating new models of work-places; and jobs become more precarious and temporary. To better understand occupational health services provided by occupational health nurses globally and how decisions are made to provide these services, this study examined the scope of services provided by a sample of participating occupational health nurses from various countries. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Occupancy estimation and the closure assumption (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Betts, Matthew G.


    1. Recent advances in occupancy estimation that adjust for imperfect detection have provided substantial improvements over traditional approaches and are receiving considerable use in applied ecology. To estimate and adjust for detectability, occupancy modelling requires multiple surveys at a site and requires the assumption of 'closure' between surveys, i.e. no changes in occupancy between surveys. Violations of this assumption could bias parameter estimates; however, little work has assessed model sensitivity to violations of this assumption or how commonly such violations occur in nature. 2. We apply a modelling procedure that can test for closure to two avian point-count data sets in Montana and New Hampshire, USA, that exemplify time-scales at which closure is often assumed. These data sets illustrate different sampling designs that allow testing for closure but are currently rarely employed in field investigations. Using a simulation study, we then evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates to changes in site occupancy and evaluate a power analysis developed for sampling designs that is aimed at limiting the likelihood of closure. 3. Application of our approach to point-count data indicates that habitats may frequently be open to changes in site occupancy at time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, with 71% and 100% of species investigated in Montana and New Hampshire respectively, showing violation of closure across time periods of 3 weeks and 8 days respectively. 4. Simulations suggest that models assuming closure are sensitive to changes in occupancy. Power analyses further suggest that the modelling procedure we apply can effectively test for closure. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our demonstration that sites may be open to changes in site occupancy over time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, combined with the sensitivity of models to violations of the closure assumption, highlights the importance of properly addressing

  16. Radiation exams in occupational medical evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelsleichter, A.M.; Hunh, A.; Nandi, D.M.


    Introduction: In occupational medicine, medical care must be geared toward the prevention of worker health. However, occupational medical exams often seek only through rigorous screening, reduce absenteeism, and thus increase productivity. To meet this goal, many institutions include radiological examinations indiscriminately in their medical and expert evaluations, contrary to the principle of justification. Objective: To provide a reflection about the presence of radiological exams in occupational medical evaluations. Methodology: Literary review including legislation related to the research topic. Results: Portaria 453/98 ANVISA prohibits the performance of radiological examinations for employment or expert purposes, except in cases where the exam may bring a benefit to the health of the individual examined or to society. However, in some situations the Norma Regulamentadora number 7 of the Ministry of Labor and Employment provides for radiological exams as a parameter for monitoring occupational exposure. Article 168 of the Consolidation of Labor Laws also prescribes that additional examinations may be required, at the medical discretion, to determine the physical and mental fitness of the employee for the job. Conclusion: Although there are legal provisions that prohibit and others that allow radiological exams in medical occupational evaluations, companies and institutions should take into account that any radiological exam has a risk involved and should not request them in a compulsory and indiscriminate manner. Radiological exams are only permissible to elucidate the diagnostic hypothesis produced by clinical evaluation, in order to provide a real benefit for the individual

  17. [Occupational injury, a public health priority]. (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclos, Jordi; Benach, Joan; Serra, Consol


    The aim of this review is to stimulate new ideas and actions for the prevention of this important public health problem. In 2002 and 2003, respectively, the number of non-fatal occupational injuries was 971,406 and 906,638. Thus, every day in Spain there are more than 2500 non-fatal and between 2 and 3 fatal occupational injuries. Although the profile of the at-risk worker population has changed greatly over the past decade, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the risk of occupational injury still centers on blue collar workers, whether qualified or nonqualified, in the primary and secondary sectors of economic activity. The most common mechanisms of occupational injuries are overexertion for non-fatal injuries and traffic-related for fatal events. The adverse health consequences of new types of employment, which emphasize flexibility and deregulation of the labour market, are exemplified by the association between temporary employment and increased risk of occupational injury. New injury prevention programs have emerged in the last decade, but they appear to have had limited impact. Preventive activities should focus both on working conditions at the company level (micro) as well as on employment and industrial public policies (macro). Greater evaluation is needed of these latter policies.

  18. Occupational Therapy Employers’ Perceptions of Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki C. Mason


    Full Text Available Background: The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS patient satisfaction survey, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Initiative in the Affordable Care Act (ACA are affecting expectations of professionalism in health care. These initiatives and shifts in expectations are especially concerning for occupational therapists whose services historically have not been well understood. Method: Eighteen supervisory and managerial occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed regarding perceptions of professionalism in occupational therapy employees. The semi-structured interview guide explored professionalism in occupational therapists’ interactions with patients and co-workers and in an employer’s organization. Results: The participants identified three categories: patient or client-centeredness; collaboration and teamwork; and respect for the profession, department, and company. Conclusion: Data indicate that occupational therapy employers desire therapists who can effectively explain and demonstrate the value of OT, advocate for a patient, and understand the importance of communication and respect in interactions with patients, families, and co-workers. Investigating employers’ perceptions can yield a more complete picture of the specific behaviors associated with professionalism; enhance the process and product of professional development education; and contribute to the goals of patient-centered care, quality, patient safety, and improved reimbursement under the ACA’s value-based purchasing.

  19. Occupational skin disease in Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L


    To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P Occupational groups with the highest incidence of OSD were the hair and beauty professions (70 per 100 000), followed by machine and plant operators (38 per 100 000) and health-care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Green, L.E.; Lowe, W.H.


    1. Stream ecosystems exhibit a highly consistent dendritic geometry in which linear habitat units intersect to create a hierarchical network of connected branches. 2. Ecological and life history traits of species living in streams, such as the potential for overland movement, may interact with this architecture to shape patterns of occupancy and response to disturbance. Specifically, large-scale habitat alteration that fragments stream networks and reduces connectivity may reduce the probability a stream is occupied by sensitive species, such as stream salamanders. 3. We collected habitat occupancy data on four species of stream salamanders in first-order (i.e. headwater) streams in undeveloped and urbanised regions of the eastern U.S.A. We then used an information-theoretic approach to test alternative models of salamander occupancy based on a priori predictions of the effects of network configuration, region and salamander life history. 4. Across all four species, we found that streams connected to other first-order streams had higher occupancy than those flowing directly into larger streams and rivers. For three of the four species, occupancy was lower in the urbanised region than in the undeveloped region. 5. These results demonstrate that the spatial configuration of stream networks within protected areas affects the occurrences of stream salamander species. We strongly encourage preservation of network connections between first-order streams in conservation planning and management decisions that may affect stream species.

  1. Occupational medicine changes with the times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.


    The activities of the occupation health physicians also at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center have experienced a change in focus over the past few decades, the causes of which are in the working environment and in work processes. The causes and conditions of diseases at work must be recognized and preventive measures instituted, but there is also need to design the working environment in terms of occupational physiology and industrial hygiene so as to meet human requirements. This includes the use of sociological and psychological concepts and methods in modern occupational medicine. This recognition necessitates the appropriate efforts to be made both in scientific research and in daily medical practive. Modern working life is determined by the joint action of physical and psychological impacts, with more and more importance attaching to psychosensoric impacts. As a result of this development, occupational health physicians spend increasingly more time and effort in medical consulting and on problems in occupational medicine, social medicine, and ergonomics. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Gender bias in an occupational therapy text. (United States)

    Reese, C C


    Willard and Spackman's Occupational Therapy does not create an awareness and understanding of the role of women in the field of occupational therapy. Nor does the text include general policy statements or reflections on how gender bias affects our work. What is our true consciousness as women therapists? Maria Mies (1983) wrote that women consent to their own oppression or subordination through silence. "Only when there is a rupture in the 'normal' life of a woman, a divorce, an end of a relationship, is there a chance for her to become conscious of her true condition which had been unconsciously submerged in a patriarchal system" (p. 125). True consciousness occurs in occupational therapy when practitioners avoid the use of activities or occupation in therapy. This is our "rupture". I believe the profession needs to develop a policy statement discussing gender concerns in our theory and practice linked to the progress made by women scientists in anthropology, psychology, sociology, history, and literature. It is critical to good treatment that the gender role factor be included in our research on the generic impact of activity on the individual and small group. As female occupational therapists we have the opportunity to make a significant imprint on a gender-based understanding of the health value of activities in our daily lives.

  3. Activities in the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jô Benetton


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the concept and use of the instrument named ‘activities’ in occupational therapy, sustained by the propositions of the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method (DOTM. Initially, we present general aspects related to the activities in the DOTM such as the option for the name ‘activities’, its conceptual definition, use as a tool, and active participation in the dynamic of triadic relationship. Further, it approaches the character of activities: therapeutic, educational and social qualities, which distinguish this peculiar occupational therapy. Moreover, the paper highlights the use of activities as a tool, both as a central element of the processes that should underpin clinical reasoning (observation, information, association, setting up space of historicity, and construction of narrative, and as an element belonging to diagnostic procedures, to the course of clinical process, and to evaluation. Finally, we present our understanding of what we call resources in DOTM, and its intrinsic connection with the possibility of performing ‘activities’. For the creation of DOTM, occupational therapy, as a practice focused on the uniqueness of the case, was made the object of study in order to promote knowledge construction. The conceptual and instrumental framework presented in this work held this effort. We hope that this study could be useful for initial and continuing training in Occupational Therapy as well as for enriching the debate on the use of ‘activities’ in our profession.

  4. Behavioral, neurophysiological, and descriptive changes after occupation-based intervention. (United States)

    Skubik-Peplaski, Camille; Carrico, Cheryl; Nichols, Laurel; Chelette, Kenneth; Sawaki, Lumy


    We evaluated the effects of occupation-based intervention on poststroke upper-extremity (UE) motor recovery, neuroplastic change, and occupational performance in 1 research participant. A 55-yr-old man with chronic stroke and moderately impaired UE motor function participated in 15 sessions of occupation-based intervention in a hospital setting designed to simulate a home environment. We tested behavioral motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Stroke Impact Scale, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and neuroplasticity (transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]) at baseline and at completion of intervention. We collected descriptive data on occupational participation throughout the study. All behavioral outcomes indicated clinically relevant improvement. TMS revealed bihemispheric corticomotor reorganization. Descriptive data revealed enhanced occupational performance. Occupation-based intervention delivered in a hospital-based, homelike environment can lead to poststroke neuroplastic change, increased functional use of the affected UE, and improved occupational performance. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Simulation of annual electric lighting demand using various occupancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Svendsen, Svend


    This paper describes an investigation of the effect on electric lighting demand of applying occupancy models of various resolution to climate-based daylight modelling. The lighting demand was evaluated for a building zone with the occupant always present, with occupancy corresponding to absence...... factors, based on an estimated annual mean occupancy, based on estimated 1-hour mean occupancy, and based on 2-min occupancy intervals. The results showed little difference in the annual electric lighting demand when the same occupancy profile was used every day, as opposed to when profiles were used...... where occupancy varied every day. Furthermore, the results showed that annual electric lighting demand was evaluated slightly conservatively when a mean absence factor was applied as opposed to using dynamic occupancy profiles....

  6. The Environmental Impact on Occupational Therapy Interventions. (United States)

    Skubik-Peplaski, Camille Louise; Howell, Dana; Hunter, Elizabeth


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the environment influenced the intervention choices occupational therapists made for patients recovering from a stroke in an inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Three occupational therapists were observed providing intervention for six patients over a 16-month period. Treatment spaces included a therapy gym, gym with kitchen combination, and a home-like space. Furniture was added to the therapy gym to be more home-like midway through the study. Observations included therapist selection of treatment location and interventions, and observational data of the environment and interactions among therapists and patients. This study found that inpatient rehabilitation environments did influence interventions. The occupational therapists provided therapy in the standard therapy gym environment most often, whether it was enhanced to be more home-like or not, and predominately used preparatory methods.

  7. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.


    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the outcome of the NESC assessment. NASA/TM-2013-217380, "Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events." supercedes this document.

  8. [Quality assurance in occupational health services]. (United States)

    Michalak, J


    The general conditions influencing the quality assurance and audit in Polish occupational health services are presented. The factors promoting or hampering the implementation of quality assurance and audits are also discussed. The major influence on the transformation of Polish occupational health services in exorted by employers who are committed to cover the costs of the obligatory prophylactic examination of their employees. This is the factor which also contributes to the improvement of quality if services. The definitions of the most important terms are reviewed to highlight their accordance with the needs of occupational health services in Poland. The examples of audit are presented and the elements of selected methods of auditing are suggested to be adopted in Poland.

  9. Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus E


    Occupational contact dermatitis is often of multifactorial origin, and it is difficult to determine the relative significance of the various contributing factors. Contact allergies are relevant in 20-50% of recognised occupational contact dermatitis cases. The reported frequency in different...... of the reported contact allergies is often uncertain. Many occupational contact dermatitis patients with documented contact allergies develop chronic eczema, in spite of work changes and attempted allergen avoidance. Recognition/non-recognition of a notified case may be based on circumstantial evidence, because......-effect relationships to be established with increased certainty. For prevention of allergic contact dermatitis it was a major step forward, with mandatory ingredient labelling of cosmetic products. However, improved labelling of the presence of contact allergens in household and industrial products is needed...

  10. Occupational thyroid dose during cardiovascular examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Kayama, Jiro; Hatori, Noboru; Takahashi, Noboru; Koyama, Ichiro; Shiraishi, Akihisa; Otake, Hidenori; Miyazawa, Yasushi


    Medical system has been recently divided into many divisions where appropriate examinations and treatments are performed by specialists in each field. Special and complicated radiologic examinations such as cardiovascular angiography are performed by specialists. An occupational exposure dose tends to increase and to be limited to some specialized physicians and technicians. Therefore, efficient protective equipment and clothing have to be seriously considered so as to decrease the occupational exposure dose. The thyroid gland is not protected by any of the conventional protectors. We have tried to decrease the occupational exposure doses by improving the conventional protector and utilizing various other materials. The paper is a report on the effectiveness of the methods used and the results. (author)

  11. [Overdiagnosis and defensive medicine in occupational medicine]. (United States)

    Berral, Alessandro; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio


    In clinical medicine since some years overdiagnosis is giving rise to growing attention and concern. Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of a "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. It is a side effect of testing for early forms of disease which may turn people into patients unnecessarily and may lead to treatments that do no good and perhaps do harm. Overdiagnosis occurs when a disease is diagnosed correctly, but the diagnosis is irrelevant. A correct diagnosis may be irrelevant because treatment for the disease is not available, not needed, or not wanted. Four drivers engender overdiagnosis: 1) screening in non symptomatic subjects; 2) raised sensitivity of diagnostic tests; 3) incidental overdiagnosis; 4) broadening of diagnostic criteria for diseases. "Defensive medicine" can play a role. It begs the question of whether even in the context of Occupational Medicine overdiagnosis is possible. In relation to the double diagnostic evaluation peculiar to Occupational Medicine, the clinical and the causal, a dual phenomenon is possible: that of overdiagnosis properly said and what we could define the overattribution, in relation to the assessment of a causal relationship with work. Examples of occupational "diseases" that can represent cases of overdiagnosis, with the possible consequences of overtreatment, consisting of unnecessary and socially harmful limitations to fitness for work, are taken into consideration: pleural plaques, alterations of the intervertebral discs, "small airways disease", sub-clinical hearing impairment. In Italy the National Insurance for occupational diseases (INAIL) regularly recognizes less than 50% of the notified diseases; this might suggest overdiagnosis and possibly overattribution in reporting. Physicians dealing with the diagnosis of occupational diseases are obviously requested to perform a careful, up-to-date and active investigation. When applying to the diagnosis of occupational diseases, proper

  12. [Preventing occupational eye trauma (Geneva, Switzerland)]. (United States)

    Ngondi, C Emole; Chastonay, P; Dosso, A


    Occupational eye trauma causes injuries with often serious socioprofessional, medical-legal, and economic consequences, not only for workers themselves, but also for employers. In spite of today's legislation and the efforts to encourage prevention, the frequency of occupational ocular accidents remains relatively high despite how easy it is to protect the eyes. In this study, the reasons that these accidents persist despite the progress made in preventive measures was investigated. From January to July 2005, we analyzed the parameters related to 175 occupational eye injuries. All patients agreed to take part in this study, which was carried out in the emergency unit of the Ophthalmology Clinic at Geneva University Hospital. Additional data was collected in companies. Construction workers were the most exposed (41.1%). The activity with the greatest risk was grinding (19.4%). The most affected structure of the eye was the cornea (84%), 72.6% patients were not equipped with ocular protection at the time of the accident, and 17.4% wore poorly adapted eye protection. This can be explained by negligence, lack of awareness, etc. Overall, workers, employers, and the legislation in force are all responsible. Our results are comparable with those found in the literature, with certain particularities because heavy industry was underrepresented in our sample. Analysis of the law on the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases shows that the worker is not sufficiently aware of his responsibilities. To our knowledge, the legal aspects treated herein have not been studied. As done in certain studies, we emphasize the importance of preventive ophthalmologic examinations as well as improvement of both working conditions and worker awareness in the workplace. Primary prevention must be reinforced. Information campaigns within the workplace aimed at workers and revision of the laws on occupational safety are some of the recommendations that are proposed to control

  13. Analysis of touch used by occupational therapy practitioners in skilled nursing facilities. (United States)

    Morris, Douglas; Henegar, J; Khanin, S; Oberle, G; Thacker, S


    Instrumental touch is identified as having purposeful physical contact in order to complete a task. Expressive touch is identified as warm, friendly physical contact and is not solely for performing a task. Expressive touch has been associated with improved client status, increased rapport and greater gains made during therapy. The purpose of the study was to observe the frequency of expressive and instrumental touch utilized by an occupational therapist during an occupational therapy session. Thirty-three occupational therapy professionals, including occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants, employed at skilled nursing facilities in southwest Florida were observed. Data were collected on the Occupational Therapy Interaction Assessment. The results of the data analysis showed a positive relationship between the gender of the therapist and the frequency of expressive touch. The data also showed that a large majority of touches were instrumental touch and pertained to functional mobility. The results of the study can contribute to a better understanding of the holistic aspects of occupational therapy. By the use of more expressive touch, occupational therapy practitioners may have a positive, beneficial effect on both the client and the therapy process as a whole. Further research is needed to determine the effect an occupational therapy setting has on the frequency of instrumental and expressive touch. A larger sample size and a distinction between evaluation and treatment sessions would benefit future studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases]. (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S


    Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.

  15. Reducing occupational radiation exposures at LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattanzi, D.; Neri, C.; Papa, C.; Paribelli, S.


    The occupational radiation doses received by nuclear power plant personnel during a period of several years of operation are briefly reviewed. Comparisons are made between the data for BWRs and PWRs in order to identify the more ''critical'' reactor type, from a radiological poin; of view. Attention is also devoted to GCRs. Furthermore the areas which contribute most to personnel doses are considered and briefly reviewed. The main steps to be taken in order to reduce occupational radiation exposures at LWRs are discussed. (H.K.)

  16. Multiple myxoid cysts secondary to occupation. (United States)

    Connolly, M; de Berker, D A R


    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with eight digital myxoid cysts (DMCs) involving the fingers of both hands. They developed within 12 months of the patient starting a job that involved pushing a garment into an embroidery mould, thus exerting a downward force on the fingertips. The pressure exerted from this force could have potentially damaged the joint synovial capsule, leading to rupture and loss of synovial gel, thus inducing myxoid cysts. This case suggests that DMCs may be related to occupation, and to our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of occupationally induced DMCs.

  17. Occupational safety manual. 4. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiba, R.


    With the rapid technical development and increasing life expectancy, protection against occupational hazards has become a central economic and social problem. Consultants and others responsible for occupational safety should not only be interested in their work but also have sufficient basic knowledge. The complex subject is presented in a simplified and easily comprehensible manner, with particular regard to the practical side. The book is at the same time a textbook for basic training and a reference manual for the working practice. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M


    Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e......) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors...

  19. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.


    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  20. Target marketing strategies for occupational therapy entrepreneurs. (United States)

    Kautzmann, L N; Kautzmann, F N; Navarro, F H


    Understanding marketing techniques is one of the skills needed by successful entre renews. Target marketing is an effective method for occupational therapy entrepreneurs to use in determining when and where to enter the marketplace. The two components of target marketing, market segmentation and the development of marketing mix strategies for each identified market segment, are described. The Profife of Attitudes Toward Health Care (PATH) method of psychographic market segmentation of health care consumers is presented. Occupational therapy marketing mix strategies for each PATH consumer group are delineated and compatible groupings of market segments are suggested.

  1. Occupational diseases of skeleton and bone joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, L.I.


    The essence of roentgeno-morphological features of locomotor system occupational diseases lies in development of dystrophic, degenerative and necrotic processes. Pathological changes take place during vibration, recoil and strain as well as under the effect of unfavourable microclimate (high humidity, cold), vibration being the most important as compared to other harmful factors. Detailed sanitary-and-hygienic and labour characteristics of working conditions of personnel, subjected to the effect of those factors as well as roentgenological characteristics of locomotor system occupational changes are given [ru

  2. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease]. (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J


    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  4. Occupational Gender Composition and Wages in Sweden


    Hansen, Jörgen; Wahlberg, Roger


    We estimate the relationship between wages and occupational gender segregation in Sweden. Because of high wage equality in Sweden compared to the U.S., we expect a lower wage penalty of job femaleness in Sweden than in the U.S. Our results supports this hypothesis. We also investigate how the unexplained gender wage gap vary across occupations and find that this gap is smallest in male dominated jobs and largest in female dominated jobs. Finally, we investigate whether the female wage-experie...

  5. Radiological protection worker: occupational medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, Erick


    International Organizations involved with radiation protection are presented in the first part. Also some documents related to the radiation that have been published by these organizations. Among the analyzed contents are the radiation and their patients, how to avoid the damage of radiation, pregnancy and exposure to medical radiation, effects of radiation, recommendations for the protection and safety standards. Occupational exposure is defined as the exposure received and understood by a worker during a period of work. In addition, it shows the types of occupational exposure, the protection that workers must have with the radiation, regulations, laws and the regulatory authority that protects the medical personnel in the uses of radiology [es

  6. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)


    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  7. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.B.C.


    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  8. Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M.; Olsen, Jorn; Johansen, Preben


    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the association between occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. SUBJECTS and METHODS: A European multicenter case-control study including seven rare cases (one being MF) was conducted between 1995 and 1997. From the 118...... accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definite cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational experiences was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure...

  9. How to explore learning as an occupational experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Tine Bieber Kirkegaard; Sørensen, Marie-Louise; Østergaard, Amanda

    occupation as a theoretical concept, and learning and mastering occupation as a competence. We learn from doing, sharing the doing and developing skills through doing (1). How do we design the curriculum so that the students can embody the power and meaning of occupation? By rethinking curriculum we designed...... “Exploratorium of occupation”. A learning space to explore and do occupation. Students reflect and work on challenges, feelings, motivation, adaptation and adjustments to seek the potential of their chosen occupation. Experience is shared and participants will participate in exploring learning about occupation....

  10. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz


    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  11. Cardiovascular conditions, hearing difficulty, and occupational noise exposure within US industries and occupations. (United States)

    Kerns, Ellen; Masterson, Elizabeth A; Themann, Christa L; Calvert, Geoffrey M


    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational noise exposure, hearing difficulty and cardiovascular conditions within US industries and occupations, and to examine any associations of these outcomes with occupational noise exposure. National Health Interview Survey data from 2014 were examined. Weighted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios of self-reported hearing difficulty, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and coronary heart disease or stroke were estimated by level of occupational noise exposure, industry, and occupation. Twenty-five percent of current workers had a history of occupational noise exposure (14% exposed in the last year), 12% had hearing difficulty, 24% had hypertension, 28% had elevated cholesterol; 58%, 14%, and 9% of these cases can be attributed to occupational noise exposure, respectively. Hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and hearing difficulty are more prevalent among noise-exposed workers. Reducing workplace noise levels is critical. Workplace-based health and wellness programs should also be considered. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Occupational skin hazards and prevalence of occupational skin diseases in shoe manufacturing workers in Indonesia. (United States)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan


    Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we investigated the possible potential exposure of the workers to physical and occupational hazards and determined the prevalence of occupational skin diseases at a shoe manufacturing factory in Indonesia. A cross-sectional study on the observation of the working process and an inventory and risk assessment of exposure to the chemicals used. Classification of chemicals as potential sensitizers/irritants and qualitative assessments of these chemicals were done. Workers were examined and interviewed using the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire-2002/LONG. The risk of Occupational skin diseases (OSD) at the shoe factory was mainly related to the exposure of the workers' skin to potential physical and chemical hazards in hot and humid environmental conditions. From a total of 514 workers, 8.5 % reported current OSD and 4.8 % reported a history of OSD. Occupational skin diseases were diagnosed in 29 % of the workers by dermatologists and 7.6 % had an occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Of the 39 workers with contact dermatitis, 33 consented to being patch tested, 14 (3 %) workers showed a positive results and considered as having an occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and 25 (4.9 %) had an occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD). We observed a repeated and prolonged exposure of the workers to numerous physical and chemical skin hazards at this factory.

  13. Occupational chemical exposures: a collaboration between the Georgia Poison Center and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (United States)

    Tustin, Aaron W; Jones, Alison; Lopez, Gaylord P; Ketcham, Glenn R; Hodgson, Michael J


    In the United States, regional poison centers frequently receive calls about toxic workplace exposures. Most poison centers do not share call details routinely with governmental regulatory agencies. Worker health and safety could be enhanced if regulators such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) had the ability to investigate these events and prevent similar incidents. With this goal in mind, the Georgia Poison Center (GPC) began referring occupational exposures to OSHA in July 2014. GPC began collecting additional employer details when handling occupational exposure calls. When workers granted permission, GPC forwarded call details to the OSHA Regional Office in Atlanta. These referrals enabled OSHA to initiate several investigations. We also analyzed all occupational exposures reported to GPC during the study period to characterize the events, detect violations of OSHA reporting requirements, and identify hazardous scenarios that could form the basis for future OSHA rulemaking or guidance. GPC was informed about 953 occupational exposures between 1 July, 2014 and 7 January, 2016. Workers were exposed to 217 unique substances, and 70.3% of victims received treatment in a healthcare facility. Hydrogen sulfide was responsible for the largest number of severe clinical effects. GPC obtained permission to refer 89 (9.3%) calls to OSHA. As a result of these referrals, OSHA conducted 39 investigations and cited 15 employers for "serious" violations. OSHA forwarded several other referrals to other regulatory agencies when OSHA did not have jurisdiction. At least one employer failed to comply with OSHA's new rule that mandates reporting of all work-related hospitalizations. This collaboration increased OSHA's awareness of dangerous job tasks including hydrofluoric acid exposure among auto detailers and carbon monoxide poisoning with indoor use of gasoline-powered tools. Collaboration with the GPC generated a useful source of referrals to OSHA. OSHA

  14. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture. (United States)

    Myers, Melvin L


    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  15. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead. (United States)

    Williamson, A M; Teo, R K


    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  16. Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, A.M.; Teo, R.K.


    A set of neurobehavioural tests selected on the basis of information processing theory was used to study the effect of low level occupational lead exposure on 59 lead workers compared with a matched control group of the same number. Only one of the lead exposed group had a blood lead concentration above the current threshold limit value of 3.81 mumol/l at the time of testing (mean 2.36 mumol/l, range 1.19-3.92 mumol/l) and none had been detected above that level in the previous three years. Nevertheless, most neurobehavioural functions tested showed some impairment in the lead workers. Visual sensory function was affected and, perhaps as a consequence, sustained attention and psychomotor tasks were performed more slowly by the lead exposed group. Cognitive functions were also impaired, with sensory store memory, short term memory, and learning abilities all showing deficits in lead workers. Such cognitive deficits may also be partly due to initial degradation of the visual input. Long term memory performance compared equally with control levels possibly because of development of a compensatory strategy such as rehearsal by the lead exposed subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis relating to lead workers test performance and their lead exposure showed that performance on the sensory store memory test alone was significantly related to exposure. This was probably due to the homogeneity of the lead exposed group with regard to blood lead concentrations and the use of blood lead as a measure of chronic lead exposure.

  17. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besar, Idris [PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia)


    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings.

  18. Maternal occupational risk factors for oral clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente, C; Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; De Walle, HEK; Goujard, J; Ayme, S; Knill-Jones, R; Calzolari, E

    Objectives This study investigated the role of maternal exposures at work during pregnancy in the occurrence of oral clefts. Methods The occupational exposures of 851 women (100 mothers of babies with oral clefts and 751 mothers of healthy referents) who worked during the first trimester of

  19. Non-occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.


    An overview of non-occupational exposure is presented. The special problems in connection with assessments of collective doses (time, geographical extension, cut-off, uncertainties) are discussed. Examples of methods and principles for monitoring and dose assessments used for various sources of radiation are given and data on public exposure are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Life histories in occupational therapy clinical practice. (United States)

    Frank, G


    This article defines and compares several narrative methods used to describe and interpret patients' lives. The biographical methods presented are case histories, life-charts, life histories, life stories, assisted autobiography, hermeneutic case reconstruction, therapeutic employment, volitional narratives, and occupational storytelling and story making. Emphasis is placed the clinician as a collaborator and interpreter of the patient's life through ongoing interactions and dialogue.