Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K
populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements.
Inoue, Nobutaka; Otsui, Kazunori; Yoshioka, Takayuki; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ozawa, Toru; Iwata, Sachiyo; Takei, Asumi
Objective Karoshi, which is the Japanese term for death from over-work, is usually the extreme result of cardiovascular diseases, and occupational stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis. Depression is closely associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between occupational stress and depression. Methods We enrolled 231 consecutive outpatients with lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension were enrolled. Occupational stress was measured by qualitative constructs assessing job control, job demands, and worksite social support using a job content questionnaire (JCQ). The job strain index measured by the ratio of job demands to job control was used as an indicator of the occupational stress. Depression was evaluated by the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Results A univariate linear regression analysis showed the SDS scores to be positively correlated with job demands and the job strain index and negatively correlated with job control and worksite social support. Multiple regression analyses to predict the SDS scores demonstrated that job demands were positively associated with SDS scores and job control and worksite social support were negatively associated with SDS scores after controlling for other variables. The job strain index was positively related to SDS scores. Conclusion Occupational stress expressed as the job strain index was strongly associated with depression. By simultaneously using the SDS and JCQ, the health conditions of patients could be classified based on occupational stress and mental stress, and this classification could help to promote a healthy work environment and guide individual workers.
J.O. Younge (John)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most
Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H
BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...
In general, lifestyle was not confirmed as statistically significant (at 0.05 level moderator of perceived job stress, explaining just 11% of variance. However, there are some dimensions that are significantly (P<0.05 associated with occupational stress: employees that have regular bowel movements, sleep well and evaluate that they do not eat too much perceive their work as less stressful.
Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo tropicalista magister en Epidemiología Clínica.
There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupationa...
Hocking, Clare; Kroksmark, Ulla
Abstract Occupational therapists and occupational scientists are increasingly aware of the relationship between occupation and global climate change, with some working to raise awareness of the issues and others proposing that an occupational perspective can make a valuable contribution to understanding and addressing the issues. In this discussion paper the United Nations Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles ( 1 ), which reports young adults' beliefs about everyday occupations that have a substantial impact on the environment (food, housekeeping, and transportation) is introduced. The authors argue that the survey findings are a valuable resource for occupational therapists who are concerned about global climate change and work with young adults (age 18-35), providing valuable insights into their concerns and preferences in relation to sustainability. To illustrate the insights contained in the reports, findings from four countries are presented: New Zealand and Sweden, the authors' countries of origin, and the Philippines and Lebanon which have people living in New Zealand and Sweden. Application to individual and community-based interventions to promote more sustainable lifestyles is suggested, along with studies to examine the perspectives of young adults with a disability, as their concerns and sustainability preferences might differ due to the barriers that limit their participation in educational and vocational occupations.
Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.
Full Text Available Zoonoses are discussed as occupational diseases, with special reference to animal husbandry and related activities. After quoting some historical references, occupational zoonoses are examined in relation to the evolution of the concept of occupational zoonosis, the involvement of the World Health Organization in this field, their socio-economic significance, the principal working activities, zoonoses of greatest importance (with special reference to the Mediterranean region, the evaluation of damage and risks. An outline is made of the transmission of zoonoses from farm workers to animals and the biological hazards from the environment. The present situation of occupational zoonoses and related risks in industrialised and traditional farming activities are presented and the importance of some emerging and re-emerging zoonoses for the health of workers is highlighted. The author concludes by stressing that the prevention of occupational zoonoses must be implemented jointly by both veterinary and medical services through preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance of human and animal health, risk evaluation, diagnosis of infections and prompt reporting. It is hoped that the future will offer better inter-disciplinary collaboration and that legislation will be timely and better tailored to safeguard working health and safety.
When discussing the prevalence of occupational disease, both the prescribed diseases and the diseases where occupation has an important etiological component should be considered. Available statistics indicate that there has been a substantial improvement in the control of important prescribed diseases such as lead poisoning and pneumoconiosis. In the United Kingdom in 1900 there were 1000 cases of lead poisoning with 38 fatalities. This number decreased to 49 cases in 1956 when the number again increased due to a change from clinical diagnosis to diagnosis on biochemical evidence. The number of cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis has declined since the 1950s but the number of coal miners has also been reduced by more than /sup 1///sub 3/. Industrial dermatitis is still a considerable problem. Vibration induced white fingers was mentioned as a disease with a very large occupational component but which for a variety of reasons is not prescribed for industrial injury benefit. Illnesses due to injuries to the back, to sciatica, disc disease or lumbago cause a very large amount of sickness and are often associated with heavy manual labor particularly if an awkward posture has to be adopted for the job. The average absence after a back injury in the London Docks was 61 days. Chronic bronchitis is the biggest single cause of sickness absence. Many studies have shown that the etiology is multifactorial but that hard physical work and a dusty environment in the work place are important adverse factors. Improved control of the working environment and methods of work may influence the development of chronic disease in the older worker.
Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki
Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.
Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig
Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....
Stričević, Jadranka; Papež, Breda Jesenšek
Nursing occupation was identified as a risk occupation for the development of low back pain (LBP). The aim of our study was to find out how much occupational factors influence the development of LBP in hospital nursing personnel. Non-experimental approach with a cross-sectional survey and statistical analysis. Nine hundred questionnaires were distributed among nursing personnel, 663 were returned and 659 (73.2 %) were considered for the analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistics for LBP risk was calculated by the binary logistic regression. The χ(2), influence factor, 95 % confidence interval and P value were calculated. Multivariate binary logistic regression was calculated by the Wald method to omit insignificant variables. Not performing exercises represented the highest risk for the development of LBP (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7-4.4; p 10 kg (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5-3.8; p focusing on mechanical causes and direct workload in the development of non-specific LBP, the complex approach to LBP including genetics, psychosocial environment, lifestyle and quality of life is coming more to the fore.
Background Diet, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity and smoking are among the most important lifestyle factors that influence global disease burden. In this thesis we investigate the relations of these factors with total disease burden in a large Dutch population, the EPIC-NL cohort. In this
Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them......, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences—such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances—diminish, or undermine personal...... risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible....
Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In
Full Text Available Hydatidosis is a common infestation caused by Echinococcus spp. Solitary hydatid cyst of the lung is not uncommon but coexistence of two or more pulmonary cysts are less common. These cysts may drain into the bronchial tree or very rarely into the pleural cavity which causes a poor outcome. Certain people such as slaughters, tanners, stockbreeders, shepherds, butchers, veterinarians and all whose job makes them to work closely with animals are at higher risk of the infection and developing echinococcosis. Herein, we present a 14-year-old shepherd who developed severe chest pain and hydropneumothorax following a minor trauma to his chest. He had two pulmonary hydatid cysts, one of which drained to the left pleural cavity and caused the symptoms. Another cyst was complicated during his hospital course. The patient was treated surgically, received albendazole and discharged home uneventfully. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance for the correct diagnosis and treatment of hydatid disease in hyperendemic areas and in those whose occupation might put them at a higher risk of contraction of hydatid disease.
The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.
Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser
Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.
Sokolik, L.I.; Shkondin, A.N.
Detailed etiologic and clinico-roentgenological characteristics of pneumoconiosis, as widely spread occupational disease caused by different kinds of dust, are given. The course of pneumoconiosis is discussed depending on working conditions of patients after the disease had been ascertained, as well as its complications, taking into account roentgeno-morphological types of fibrosis and the stages of the disease [ru
Full Text Available Background: The aim of the paper was to present basic statistical data on occupational diseases diagnosed in 2012. Material and Methods: The work was based on the data from "Occupational Disease Reporting Forms" received by the Central Register of Occupational Diseases in 2012. The data comprised information on nosologic units, gender and age of patients, duration of occupational exposure, sections of the national economy and voivodeships. The incidence was specified in terms of the number of cases in relation to paid employees or to employed people. Results: The number of occupational diseases accounted for 2402 cases. The incidence rate was 23 cases per 100 000 paid employees. In spite of the general decline in the number of cases, the incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases increased by 8.6%. The highest incidence was noted for infectious and parasitic diseases (6.8/100 000, pneumoconioses (5.5/100 000, hearing loss (2.1/100 000, diseases of: the peripheral nervous system (2/100 000, voice disorders (1.9/100 000 and the musculo-skeletal system pathologies (1.1/100 000. The pathologies specified above accounted in total for 84% of all occupational diseases. The industrial sectors of the national economy characterized by the highest incidence included mining and quarrying (288.3/100 000 and manufacturing (27.8/100 000. The highest incidence was recorded in the Silesian (46.2/100 000 and the lowest in the Opolskie (4.2/100 000 voivodeships. Conclusions: The downward trend in the incidence of occupational diseases continues. Different incidence of voice disorders among teachers in individual provinces suggests that uniform preventive, diagnostic and certification standards are missing. Med Pr 2013;64(3:317–326
Seaman, Danielle M; Meyer, Cristopher A; Kanne, Jeffrey P
Occupational and environmental lung disease remains a major cause of respiratory impairment worldwide. Despite regulations, increasing rates of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are being reported in the United States. Dust exposures are occurring in new industries, for instance, silica in hydraulic fracking. Nonoccupational environmental lung disease contributes to major respiratory disease, asthma, and COPD. Knowledge of the imaging patterns of occupational and environmental lung disease is critical in diagnosing patients with occult exposures and managing patients with suspected or known exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Champlin, Jay; Edwards, Rachael; Pipavath, Sudhakar
Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Mellor, Duane D; Naumovski, Nenad; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Sidossis, Labros; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes
Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is a well-established protective factor against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, diet quality is only one aspect of the overall healthy lifestyle adopted by Mediterranean populations. The latter has never been evaluated as a multi-factorial composite lifestyle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a broader picture of the Mediterranean lifestyle and its effects on CVD risk, among elderly individuals. During 2005-2015, 2,749 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled onto the study. Dietary habits, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters (sleep, smoking habits, social life and educational status) and clinical profile aspects were derived through standard procedures. The overall prevalence of the traditional CVD risk factors were 62.3% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes mellitus (type 2) and 47.7% for hypercholesterolemia. The presence of diabetes mellitus was positively predicted by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) [odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.25] and by an urban residential environment (OR =2.57, 95% CI: 1.10-6.06) after adjusting for several confounders. Presence of hypertension was predicted by increasing age (OR =1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12), increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR =1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.21), the habit of midday sleep (OR =2.07, 95% CI: 1.07-4.02) and inversely predicted by the frequency of socializing with friends (OR =0.767, 95% CI: 0.616-0.955). The estimated score in the GDS was the only independent positive predictor for the presence of hypercholesterolemia (OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21). Lifestyle parameters such as social life, midday sleep (siesta) and residential environment are strongly associated with the presence of CVD risk factors in elderly and should be part of broader CVD prevention strategies to
Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Kavakama, Jorge Issamu; Rodrigues, Reynaldo Tavares
This chapter consists of a review of the literature regarding radiographic and tomographic characteristics of the principal occupational respiratory diseases (silicosis and asbestosis). Special attention is given to the practical relevance of high-resolution computed tomography, which is the most sensitive and specific method of identifying and quantifying the extent of pleural and parenchymal lesions related to such diseases. (author)
Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír
Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (pSeventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282
Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.
Игорь Петрович Данилов
Conclusions. The relationship between the emotional and personal attitude to health and a healthy lifestyle and the development of somatic diseases in the patients with occupational diseases has been revealed.
Wagner, Malene; Nielsen, Karina; Jensen, Peter Errboe
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major cause of death for women worldwide, and thus it is important to focus on lifestyle changes to reduce the impact of the disease on women’s everyday lives. Nine women were interviewed using an explorative approach to describe women’s lifestyle changes after...... being diagnosed with IHD. Three major themes emerged; ‘Heart disease: A life-changing event’, ‘Social life – both inhibiting and promoting lifestyle changes’ and ‘Maintaining changes: An ongoing challenge and a conscious choice’. Ischemic heart disease caused anxiety, and the women strived to find...
Naveillan, F. Pedro
The article discusses the relationship between mental health and labor accidents as it pertains to accident prevention, treatment of accident victims, and their rehabilitation. It also comments briefly on mental health and occupational diseases and the scope of the field of occupational mental health from a Chilean perspective. (AG)
Smits, P. B. A.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Braam, I.; Spreeuwers, D.; Lenderink, A. F.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.
Background: Occupational diseases are under reported. Targeted education of occupational physicians (OPs) may improve their rate of reporting occupational diseases. Aim: To study the effectiveness of an active multifaceted workshop aimed at improving OPs' reporting of occupational diseases. Methods:
Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J
To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30,433 women and 7718 men aged 17-64 were used (n = 35,918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as work unit level predictors in the models. Adjustments were made for age, marital status, occupational status, job contract, smoking, and heavy drinking. Twenty five per cent of women and 27% of men had a sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak.
Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte
BACKGROUND: Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving...... inequality even in populations with equal and cost-free access to health care. Our study suggests supplementing traditional public campaigns to counter cardiovascular disease by using individualized and targeted initiatives....... these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treatment for a hypothetical cardiovascular risk, and who subsequently stated that they preferred lifestyle...
Burden of occupational disease estimation contributes to understanding of both magnitude and relative importance of different occupational hazards and provides essential information for targeting risk reduction. This review summarises recent key findings and discusses their impact on occupational regulation and practice. New methods have been developed to estimate burden of occupational disease that take account of the latency of many chronic diseases and allow for exposure trends and workforce turnover. Results from these studies have shown in several countries and globally that, in spite of improvements in workplace technology, practices and exposures over the last decades, occupational hazards remain an important cause of ill health and mortality worldwide. Major data gaps have been identified particularly regarding exposure information. Reliable data on employment and disease are also lacking especially in developing countries. Burden of occupational disease estimates form an important part of decision-making processes.
Autoimmune Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Crohn Disease (CD); Colitis, Ulcerative (UC); Arthritis, Rheumatoid (RA); Spondylarthropathies; Arthritis, Psoriatic (PsA); Psoriasis; Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS); Uveitis
Sokolik, L.I.; Shkondin, A.N.; Sergienko, N.S.; Doroshenko, A.N.; Shumakov, A.V.
Most errors in the diagnosis of occupational diseases occur due to hyperdiagnosis (37%), because data of dynamic clinico-roentgenological examination were not considered (23%). Defects in the organization of prophylactic fluorography results in untimely diagnosis of dust-induced occupational diseases. Errors also occurred because working conditions were not always considered atypical development and course were not always analyzed
Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J
Objectives To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Methods Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30 433 women and 7718 men aged 17–64 were used (n = 35 918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. Conclusions A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak. PMID:16497854
Davoodi, Somayeh; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniat; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Hosseini, Narges Shams; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza
Due to growth of occupational diseases and also increase of public awareness about their consequences, attention to various aspects of diseases and improve occupational health and safety has found great importance. Therefore, there is the need for appropriate information management tools such as registries in order to recognitions of diseases patterns and then making decision about prevention, early detection and treatment of them. These registries have different characteristics in various countries according to their occupational health priorities. Aim of this study is evaluate dimensions of occupational diseases registries including objectives, data sources, responsible institutions, minimum data set, classification systems and process of registration in different countries. In this study, the papers were searched using the MEDLINE (PubMed) Google scholar, Scopus, ProQuest and Google. The search was done based on keyword in English for all motor engines including "occupational disease", "work related disease", "surveillance", "reporting", "registration system" and "registry" combined with name of the countries including all subheadings. After categorizing search findings in tables, results were compared with each other. Important aspects of the registries studied in ten countries including Finland, France, United Kingdom, Australia, Czech Republic, Malaysia, United States, Singapore, Russia and Turkey. The results show that surveyed countries have statistical, treatment and prevention objectives. Data sources in almost the rest of registries were physicians and employers. The minimum data sets in most of them consist of information about patient, disease, occupation and employer. Some of countries have special occupational related classification systems for themselves and some of them apply international classification systems such as ICD-10. Finally, the process of registration system was different in countries. Because occupational diseases are often
Yeager, K K; Anda, R F; Macera, C A; Donehoo, R S; Eaker, E D
Using linear regression, the authors demonstrated a strong association between State-specific coronary heart disease mortality rates and State prevalence of sedentary lifestyle (r2 = 0.34; P = 0.0002) that remained significant after controlling for the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension, smoking, and overweight among the State's population. This ecologic analysis suggests that sedentary lifestyle may explain State variation in coronary heart disease mortality and reinforces the need to include physical activity promotion as a part of programs in the States to prevent heart disease. PMID:7838933
Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Surendra; Thaker, Riddhi
Preterm birth (PTB) is a significant public health concern and a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide and often contributes to various health complications later in life. More than 60% of PTBs occur in Africa and south Asia. This overview discusses the available information on occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors and their contribution to PTB and proposes new etiological explanations that underlie this devastating pregnancy complication. Several factors such as emotional, stress, social, racial, maternal anxiety, multiple pregnancies, infections during pregnancy, diabetes and high blood pressure, and in-vitro fertilization pregnancy have been shown to be associated with PTB. Data are emerging that occupational, environmental exposure and lifestyle factors might also be associated in part with PTB, however, they are at best limited and inconclusive. Nevertheless, data on heavy metals such as lead, air pollutants and particulate matters, bisphenol A, phthalate compounds, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are promising and point to higher incidence of PTB associated with exposure to them. Thus, these observations can be used to advise pregnant women or women of reproductive age to avoid such exposures and adopt positive lifestyle to protect pregnancy and normal fetal development. There is a need to conduct well-planned epidemiological studies that include all the pathology causing factors that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including PTB.
Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Surendra; Thaker, Riddhi
Preterm birth (PTB) is a significant public health concern and a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide and often contributes to various health complications later in life. More than 60% of PTBs occur in Africa and south Asia. This overview discusses the available information on occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors and their contribution to PTB and proposes new etiological explanations that underlie this devastating pregnancy complication. Several factors such as emotional, stress, social, racial, maternal anxiety, multiple pregnancies, infections during pregnancy, diabetes and high blood pressure, and in-vitro fertilization pregnancy have been shown to be associated with PTB. Data are emerging that occupational, environmental exposure and lifestyle factors might also be associated in part with PTB, however, they are at best limited and inconclusive. Nevertheless, data on heavy metals such as lead, air pollutants and particulate matters, bisphenol A, phthalate compounds, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are promising and point to higher incidence of PTB associated with exposure to them. Thus, these observations can be used to advise pregnant women or women of reproductive age to avoid such exposures and adopt positive lifestyle to protect pregnancy and normal fetal development. There is a need to conduct well-planned epidemiological studies that include all the pathology causing factors that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including PTB. PMID:29391742
Pang, Jing; Li, Ying-hua; Yang, Chong; Nie, Xue-qiong; Tao, Mao-xuan
To learn the status quo of lifestyle among women of five occupations in six provinces of China. A questionnaire was administered among 7416 women from five occupations (civil servants, teachers of elementary and high schools, technical staff, enterprise managers and physical laborers) in Beijing, Hebei, Jilin, Hubei, Ningxia and Gansu of China. The sample was selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from December 2009 to June 2010. The questionnaire information included demographic characteristics, diet, sleep habit, smoking, physical exercise. The χ(2) test was used to analyze the different in life style of different occupations. There were 7416 valid questionnaires received, and the valid rate of the questionnaires was 97.58% (7416/7682). About 38.00% (2818/7416) respondents preferred to bland diet and 28.44% (2109/7416) preferred to salty and oily food and 33.56% (2489/7416) had no preference. The proportion of sleep time between seven and eight hours per day was highest (accounting for 56.23%, 4154/7416), 25.27% (1867/7416) with sleep time less than seven hours. Among the population who had the sleep time less seven hours, teacher that had the highest rate accounted for 33.19% (531/1607) and technical staff had the lowest rate accounted for 21.05% (301/1401) (P accounting for 93.10% (6869/7416). 22.73% (1671/7416) respondents passively smoked. The proportion of always passive smoking was highest among civil servants and lowest among teachers, accounting for 26.60% (404/1531) and 18.71% (298/1607), respectively. The proportion of having no physical exercises was highest, accounting for 62.87% (4637/7416). The proportion of having three times physical exercises per week was 12.68% (935/7416). The proportion of having no physical exercises among physical laborers (66.42%, 912/1386), enterprise managers (66.64%, 987/1491) and teachers (62.40%, 999/1607) were higher than others and the proportion of having physical exercises per week among
Full Text Available Pedro Carrera-Bastos1, Maelan Fontes-Villalba1, James H O’Keefe2, Staffan Lindeberg1, Loren Cordain31Center for Primary Health Care Research, Faculty of Medicine at Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute/University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA; 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USAAbstract: It is increasingly recognized that certain fundamental changes in diet and lifestyle that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and especially after the Industrial Revolution and the Modern Age, are too recent, on an evolutionary time scale, for the human genome to have completely adapted. This mismatch between our ancient physiology and the western diet and lifestyle underlies many so-called diseases of civilization, including coronary heart disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, epithelial cell cancers, autoimmune disease, and osteoporosis, which are rare or virtually absent in hunter–gatherers and other non-westernized populations. It is therefore proposed that the adoption of diet and lifestyle that mimic the beneficial characteristics of the preagricultural environment is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of chronic degenerative diseases.Keywords: Paleolithic, hunter–gatherers, Agricultural Revolution, modern diet, western lifestyle and diseases
Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle diseases which include hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and stroke are caused by influences on the human body by the way people live their lives. This study is an effort to describe the prevalence of various lifestyle diseases; factors associated with their causation and suggest measures for improvement of the health status among the industrial workers. Materials and Methods: A total of 351 workers were included in this study. The prevalence and pattern of lifestyle diseases among industrial workers were studied. The survey had two principal components, namely, the pretested standardized questionnaire and clinical examination. Blood sugar levels were assessed by a glucometer. Results: Hypertension was the most common lifestyle disease, seen among 43.0% of workers. It was significantly related to age, socioeconomic status type 2, body mass index (BMI, and habit of tobacco chewing. Only one-fourth were aware of their blood pressure status. Other diseases brought out were diabetes type 2 mellitus (7.7% and obesity (4%. In this study, among those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 29.63% were not aware of their blood sugar status. Diabetes was significantly related to BMI and increased significantly with increase in age. Also, one-third of the study population was overweight. Conclusion: Lifestyle diseases were found to be the major causes of morbidity among the study participants. Hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight/obesity were the common morbidities. These conditions were associated with factors such as age, socioeconomic status, BMI, and history of tobacco chewing.
Andersen, Martin Marchman
In “Health, Luck and Justice” Shlomi Segall argues for a luck egalitarian approach to justice in health care. As the basis for a just distribution he suggests a principle of Reasonable Avoidability, which he takes to imply that we do not have justice-based reasons to treat diseases brought about...
Full Text Available Objective : To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150 from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150 were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results : Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P 60 years was relatively more susceptible (28%. Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%. Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion : Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention.
Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke
There is evidence that general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to exhibit sickness presenteeism than other health professional groups or other high-income earners and less likely to take sick leave. This study aims to examine the relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst GPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst GPs in 2011. Logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism. Whilst adjusting for age and gender, exercising 1 to 3 times a week (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), not having a good work-life balance (OR = 4.2), work-related sleep problems (OR = 2.55), moderate psychological distress (OR = 3.94), and poor or fair health (OR = 6.22) were associated with presenteeism. Increased burnout and reduced job satisfaction and workability due to the physical demands of the job were also associated with presenteeism. In conclusion, presenteeism amongst GPs can be addressed by implementing interventions in relation to physical activity, stress reduction, and sleep hygiene and improving work-life balance and the physical demands of the job.
dos Santos, Marcio Neres; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde
Various health complications have been identified among teachers and there is little information available about their lifestyle habits. The scope of this study was to investigate health conditions, lifestyles and occupational characteristics of municipal teachers in Bagé in the south of Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving 414 teachers was conducted by asking the teachers to fill out a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analysis techniques were employed. Most teachers were females (96.1%) and the mean age was 40.1 years (SD 9.4). Average teaching experience was 12.4 years (SD 9.5); 59% of the teachers had a degree; they taught many working hours per week (31.7 hours, SD 10.5) and 62% were absent from work at least once in the last 12 months. Self-rated heath was good (38.5%); 62.5% of them were physically active; 32.3% were overweight and 14.4% obese. They consumed hardly any fruit and vegetables (79.6%), had average stress levels of 14.9 points (SD 6.6) and 20.3% reported hypertension. Self-reported health was associated with teaching time, absenteeism, physical activity, number of meals per day, stress levels and hypertension. The prevalence of teachers who rated their health negatively was low, however several lifestyle issues were identified, which can be prejudicial to the health of these individuals.
Davoodi, Somayeh; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniat; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Hosseini, Narges Shams; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza
Introduction: Due to growth of occupational diseases and also increase of public awareness about their consequences, attention to various aspects of diseases and improve occupational health and safety has found great importance. Therefore, there is the need for appropriate information management tools such as registries in order to recognitions of diseases patterns and then making decision about prevention, early detection and treatment of them. These registries have different characteristics in various countries according to their occupational health priorities. Aim: Aim of this study is evaluate dimensions of occupational diseases registries including objectives, data sources, responsible institutions, minimum data set, classification systems and process of registration in different countries. Material and Methods: In this study, the papers were searched using the MEDLINE (PubMed) Google scholar, Scopus, ProQuest and Google. The search was done based on keyword in English for all motor engines including “occupational disease”, “work related disease”, “surveillance”, “reporting”, “registration system” and “registry” combined with name of the countries including all subheadings. After categorizing search findings in tables, results were compared with each other. Results: Important aspects of the registries studied in ten countries including Finland, France, United Kingdom, Australia, Czech Republic, Malaysia, United States, Singapore, Russia and Turkey. The results show that surveyed countries have statistical, treatment and prevention objectives. Data sources in almost the rest of registries were physicians and employers. The minimum data sets in most of them consist of information about patient, disease, occupation and employer. Some of countries have special occupational related classification systems for themselves and some of them apply international classification systems such as ICD-10. Finally, the process of registration system was
Ornish, D; Scherwitz, L W; Billings, J H; Brown, S E; Gould, K L; Merritt, T A; Sparler, S; Armstrong, W T; Ports, T A; Kirkeeide, R L; Hogeboom, C; Brand, R J
The Lifestyle Heart Trial demonstrated that intensive lifestyle changes may lead to regression of coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year. To determine the feasibility of patients to sustain intensive lifestyle changes for a total of 5 years and the effects of these lifestyle changes (without lipid-lowering drugs) on coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1986 to 1992 using a randomized invitational design. Forty-eight patients with moderate to severe coronary heart disease were randomized to an intensive lifestyle change group or to a usual-care control group, and 35 completed the 5-year follow-up quantitative coronary arteriography. Two tertiary care university medical centers. Intensive lifestyle changes (10% fat whole foods vegetarian diet, aerobic exercise, stress management training, smoking cessation, group psychosocial support) for 5 years. Adherence to intensive lifestyle changes, changes in coronary artery percent diameter stenosis, and cardiac events. Experimental group patients (20 [71%] of 28 patients completed 5-year follow-up) made and maintained comprehensive lifestyle changes for 5 years, whereas control group patients (15 [75%] of 20 patients completed 5-year follow-up) made more moderate changes. In the experimental group, the average percent diameter stenosis at baseline decreased 1.75 absolute percentage points after 1 year (a 4.5% relative improvement) and by 3.1 absolute percentage points after 5 years (a 7.9% relative improvement). In contrast, the average percent diameter stenosis in the control group increased by 2.3 percentage points after 1 year (a 5.4% relative worsening) and by 11.8 percentage points after 5 years (a 27.7% relative worsening) (P=.001 between groups. Twenty-five cardiac events occurred in 28 experimental group patients vs 45 events in 20 control group patients during the 5-year follow-up (risk ratio for any event for the control group, 2.47 [95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.20]). More regression
Nguyen, Vi; George, Jacob
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities that can range from bland liver fat (steatosis), to hepatic inflammation and liver injury (steatohepatitis). It is estimated that NAFLD will become the principal cause of liver disease in Western nations and the leading indication for liver transplantation. Advancements in disease recognition and management are therefore paramount. Although the development of new, reliable drug therapies is vital, lifestyle interventions remain the most effective treatment modality. In addition to weight loss as a primary measure of treatment success, there is growing recognition that other endpoints, including the prevention or delay of diabetes onset, reduced cardiovascular events, prevention of cancer, and improved overall mortality, are equally important outcomes that can be independently modified by lifestyle change. Moreover, NAFLD is inextricably part of a complex, systemic disease process that is linked with deeply entrenched maladaptive lifestyle behaviors. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and individualized approach to disease management will be the key to achieving any realistic population-level change. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S
Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.
Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J
Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight and physical inactivity. Increasing awareness and risk stratification of individuals with prediabetes may help physicians understand potential interventions that may help decrease the percentage of patients in their panels in whom diabetes develops. If untreated, 37% of the individuals with prediabetes may have diabetes in 4 years. Lifestyle intervention may decrease the percentage of prediabetic patients in whom diabetes develops to 20%. Long-term data also suggest that lifestyle intervention may decrease the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes for as long as 10 years. To prevent 1 case of diabetes during a 3-year period, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle intervention program. In addition, recent data suggest that the difference in direct and indirect costs to care for a patient with prediabetes vs a patient with diabetes may be as much as $7000 per year. Investment in a diabetes prevention program now may have a substantial return on investment in the future and help prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25102521
Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Hivert, Marie-France; Williams, Mark A; Briggs, Paige D; Guazzi, Marco
Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics (i.e., physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor diet, and smoking) as well as associated poor health metrics (i.e., dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) are the primary reasons for the current non-communicable disease crisis. Compared to those with the poorest of lifestyles and associated health metrics, any movement toward improving lifestyle and associated health metrics improves health outcomes. To address the non-communicable disease crisis we must: 1) acknowledge that healthy lifestyle (HL) interventions are a potent medicine; and 2) move toward a healthcare system that embraces primordial as much as, if not more than, secondary prevention with a heavy focus on HL medicine. This article introduces the Healthy Lifestyle Practitioner, focused on training health professionals to deliver HL medicine.
Rippe, J M; Crossley, S; Ringer, R
The United States is in the midst of an epidemic of obesity involving more than one third of the adult population. The prevalence of obesity increased by 40% between 1980 and 1990. Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifactorial etiology including genetics, environment, metabolism, lifestyle, and behavioral components. A chronic disease treatment model involving both lifestyle interventions and, when appropriate, additional medical therapies delivered by an interdisciplinary team including physicians, dietitians, exercise specialists, and behavior therapists offers the best chance for effective obesity treatment. Lifestyle factors such as proper nutrition, regular physical activity, and changes in eating behaviors should be coordinated by this team. This review addresses the modern epidemic of obesity, the strong association between obesity and comorbidities such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. In addition to obesity, the health risks of abdominal obesity and adult weight gain are discussed. The evidence that supports health benefits from modest weight loss (between 5% and 10% of body weight) is evaluated and the 5 key principles of effective obesity therapy are put forward. Obesity is a therapeutic challenge best met by teams of health care professionals, including dietitians and physicians, working together to deliver optimal treatment.
Seed, M J; Gittins, M; De Vocht, F; Agius, R M.
The concept of 'one airway, one disease' refers to the frequent comorbidity of asthma and rhinitis. However, only limited research has been done on this association for the diverse range of occupational respiratory sensitisers. The relative frequency of rhinitis was determined for the 15 respiratory sensitisers reported to cause at least 10 cases of rhinitis or asthma to The Health and Occupation Reporting (THOR) network between 1997 and 2006. Of 1408 cases, 1190 were sole diagnoses of asthma, 138 sole diagnoses of rhinitis and in 80 cases asthma coexisted with rhinitis. The six sensitisers for which rhinitis featured in over 15% of cases were all particulates and known to cause release of mast cell mediators, either directly or through IgE antibodies. Four of the other nine sensitisers often exist as vapours and only two have been consistently associated with IgE-mediated disease mechanisms. Particle size did not appear to correlate with the relative frequency of rhinitis. Despite its limitations this study would support the hypothesis that there are at least two mechanistic categories of respiratory sensitisation with rhinitis being relatively more common where the mechanism is IgE-mediated. Particulate nature may be another important factor to consider in future studies.
Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L
To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P Occupational groups with the highest incidence of OSD were the hair and beauty professions (70 per 100 000), followed by machine and plant operators (38 per 100 000) and health-care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
The essence of roentgeno-morphological features of locomotor system occupational diseases lies in development of dystrophic, degenerative and necrotic processes. Pathological changes take place during vibration, recoil and strain as well as under the effect of unfavourable microclimate (high humidity, cold), vibration being the most important as compared to other harmful factors. Detailed sanitary-and-hygienic and labour characteristics of working conditions of personnel, subjected to the effect of those factors as well as roentgenological characteristics of locomotor system occupational changes are given [ru
Spreeuwers, D.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.
Registries of occupational diseases in various European countries differ considerably in criteria for notification and recognition, statistical data provided and the legal and social security context. Therefore, figures on occupational diseases are not comparable between countries and are often
Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal
Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.
Hu, Sydney X; Luk, Andrew; Leong, Carmen; U, Cecilia; Van, Florence
The Macau economy and employment of residents rely heavily on the gaming industry. It is important that the working conditions in casinos are not harmful to the health of the casino employees. This study examines the correlations between work conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and occupational health problems amongst casino croupiers in Macau. Its findings will provide casino managers and policy makers with evidence and awareness of the workplace health risks for the casino workers. The data were gathered by a questionnaire survey of 1,042 croupiers, which represents roughly 5 % of the croupier population in Macau. Work conditions were measured by worker satisfaction towards the biological, chemical and physical elements in their work environments. Unhealthy lifestyles were measured by practices of excessive drinking, smoking, electronic game playing and addictive substance use as well as gambling. Occupational health problems were measured by experiences of work related illnesses or symptoms. Results showed that high percentages of respondents were dissatisfied with the work conditions. On average each croupier experienced 10 work related health problems in the past 7 days. Over 5 % of the respondents drank more than three glasses of alcohol a day, 24 % smoked cigarettes, 12 % took addictive substances, 14 % gambled in the past 7 days. The analysis showed that dissatisfaction with work conditions did not correlate with unhealthy lifestyles but were strongly and significantly correlated with stress-related occupational health problems (R = 0.377-0.479, P related policies can be introduced.
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dos Santos Silva, Isabel; De Stavola, Bianca; Pizzi, Costanza; Evans, Anthony D; Evans, Sally A
Flight crew are occupationally exposed to several potentially carcinogenic hazards; however, previous investigations have been hampered by lack of information on lifestyle exposures. The authors identified, through the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records, a cohort of 16,329 flight crew and 3,165 air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and assembled data on their occupational and lifestyle exposures. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer incidence in each occupation to that of the general population; internal analyses were conducted by fitting Cox regression models. All-cancer incidence was 20-29% lower in each occupation than in the general population, mainly due to a lower incidence of smoking-related cancers [SIR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.27-0.38) and 0.42 (0.28-0.60) for flight crew and ATCOs, respectively], consistent with their much lower prevalence of smoking. Skin melanoma rates were increased in both flight crew (SIR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.45-2.38) and ATCOs (2.66; 1.55-4.25), with rates among the former increasing with increasing number of flight hours (p-trend = 0.02). However, internal analyses revealed no differences in skin melanoma rates between flight crew and ATCOs (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.37-1.66) and identified skin that burns easily when exposed to sunlight (p = 0.001) and sunbathing to get a tan (p = 0.07) as the strongest risk predictors of skin melanoma in both occupations. The similar site-specific cancer risks between the two occupational groups argue against risks among flight crew being driven by occupation-specific exposures. The skin melanoma excess reflects sun-related behaviour rather than cosmic radiation exposure. Copyright © 2012 UICC.
Frew, Anthony J
2004 was another good year for publications on environmental and occupational disorders in our journal. The major focus is clearly on the environment and particularly on environmental risk factors for sensitization and asthma. There is a growing consensus that exposure to pets is good, provided there is enough of it. Low levels enhance sensitization, and higher levels protect against the consequences of that sensitization. Following on from previous work on cockroaches, we now see allergy to feral mice as an emergent problem--at least we now have the tools to study this properly. Emphasis seems to be swinging away from the outdoor environment as a cause of allergic disease and toward the indoor environment, which is, after all, where most of us spend most of our lives. New techniques for studying isocyanate allergy might kindle a revival of interest in the mechanisms of occupational asthma caused by low-molecular-weight compounds. But for all types of occupational allergy, prevention remains key, and it is good to see that comprehensive programs of allergen reduction can pay off in reduced rates of latex allergy in health care workers. Further work in the area of recombinant allergens is welcome but needs soon to be translated into new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This sector of allergy research remains vibrant, and the editors will continue to welcome outstanding contributions in this area.
The Schneeberg lung disease is the lung cancer, conditioned by radiation which is caused by the influence of radon and of its subsequent products. It has gained a great importance after World War II as a consequence of the intensified mining of uranium ore. From the history of the disease, lasting some centuries, the period of the twenties and thirties of this century is represented in which on one side the conception of the causal importance of radon has made its way little by little, and on the other side the disease was acknowledged as occupational disease within the first decree of occupational diseases in the former German Reich. Evaluating materials from Saxon archives it is described how the legislative preparations to the acknowledgement of the Schneeberg lung disease as occupational disease and the simultaneous research to the elucidation of nature and cause of the disease have penetrated and influenced each other. (author)
Johansson, Ann; Björklund, Anita
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a four-month occupational based health-promoting programme for older persons living in community dwellings could maintain/improve their general health and well-being. Further, the aim was to explore whether the programme facilitated the older persons' occupational adaptation. The study had a quasi-experimental design, with a non-equivalent control group combined with semi-structured interviews. The intervention group comprised 22 participants, and the control group 18. Outcomes were measured using the Short Form 36, Life Satisfaction Index-Z and Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment. Content analysis, based on concepts from the Model of Occupational Adaptation, was used to analyse the interviews. The intervention group showed statistically significant improvements in general health variables such as vitality and mental health, and positive trends for psychological well-being. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group, but the groups were not fully matched. The qualitative analysis based on Occupational Adaptation pointed out social aspects as a compliment to the overall results. Participating in meaningful, challenging activities in different environments stimulates the occupational adaptation process; this is something occupational therapists could use to empower older persons to find their optimal occupational lives.
Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Jung-Won
Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, occupational stress, and gastric disease, and the distribution of occupational stress by sociodemographic factors in the gastric disease group was examined. There was no significant association between gastric disease and total occupational stress score and its seven sub-factors. The analysis showed that risk of gastric disease was significantly higher in the Q1 group in which the stress caused by occupational discomfort among seven sub-factors was lowest than that in the Q4 group (odds ratio, 2.819; 95% confidence interval, 1.151 to 6.908). Analysis only on the gastric disease group showed that the stress score of laborers was higher in the four sub-factors than that of office workers (P occupational stress in the low-educated and laborers. It is recommended for future studies to confirm the causal relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease by large scale studies using a KOSS which appropriately reflects workplace culture.
Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Won
Background Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Methods Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, occupational stress, and gastric disease, and the distribution of occupational stress by sociodemographic factors in the gastric disease group was examined. Results There was no significant association between gastric disease and total occupational stress score and its seven sub-factors. The analysis showed that risk of gastric disease was significantly higher in the Q1 group in which the stress caused by occupational discomfort among seven sub-factors was lowest than that in the Q4 group (odds ratio, 2.819; 95% confidence interval, 1.151 to 6.908). Analysis only on the gastric disease group showed that the stress score of laborers was higher in the four sub-factors than that of office workers (P occupational stress in the low-educated and laborers. It is recommended for future studies to confirm the causal relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease by large scale studies using a KOSS which appropriately reflects workplace culture. PMID:23115706
Dayoub, Elias; Jena, Anupam B
Although health care professionals may be assumed to make healthier lifestyle choices and have better health outcomes than others because of their greater health literacy, little is known about how actual health outcomes of health care professionals compare with those of the overall population. We analyzed how trends in obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease prevalence as well as several health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and exercise) varied between health care professionals and the general US population from 2002 to 2013, using nationally representative data collected by the National Health Interview Survey. We estimated multivariate logistic regressions of each disease and behavior adjusted for age, race, sex, geographic region, and year. Although rates of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension were lower among health care professionals compared with the overall population, disease was still common among health care professionals and increased over time at a rate similar to that of the overall population. For example, obesity prevalence was lower among health care professionals but increased similarly from 2002 to 2013 (health care professionals, 20.5% in 2002 to 22.1% in 2013; other occupations, 28.4% to 31.7%; P=.64 for difference in trend). Diabetes prevalence was modestly lower among health care professionals but increased at a similar rate (health care professionals, 7.4% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2013; other occupations, 8.7% to 9.9%; P=.67 for difference in trend). Similar patterns were noted in hypertension. Coronary artery disease prevalence declined over time among health care professionals but increased for others. Health care professionals reported better health behaviors than others in smoking and physical activity but not in moderate to heavy alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Jung-Won
Background Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Methods Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between ...
The study investigates the course of the disease of persons whose occupational exposure to radiation had resulted in impairment of their professional ability and entitled them to damages under the current regulations. 35 receivers of damages were found who by answering the question form and partly giving permission to study their file at the insurance institution under the conditions of data protection made is possible to carry through this investigation. 14 receivers of damages were occupied in the technical industry, 21 in the sector of medicine. The radiation disease acknowledged as professional concerned in 30 cases the skin, in two cases the lungs and in one case each the haematopoietic system, the eyes and the pelvic organs. In 8 indemnified, acute radiation exposure had caused the disease, in 25 the time of exposure had ranged from one year to several decades. The investigation describes when and under what professional circumstances the radiation exposure took place, the course of the disease, what kind of diagnostic and therapeutical measures were carried through and what personal and professional consequences the indemnified sustained. It gives suggestions to set up a future, more effective documentation system on the basis of the experience gathered on the occasion of this investigation with the currently valid registration system, which is unsuitable for further scientific studies, and with the currently practised methods of after-care. (orig./HP) [de
Ulutasdemir, Nilgun; Kilic, Meryem; Zeki, Özge; Begendi, Fatma
It has been suggested that inappropriate working conditions and unsafe environments at construction sites, longer working hours, and inadequate workplaces adversely affect the health behaviors of workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of occupational health and safety (OHS) practices on healthy lifestyle behaviors of workers employed at a construction site of a private company in Gaziantep, Turkey. The sampling size of this descriptive study consisted of 400 employees working at the construction site between December 2014 and January 2015. In all, 341 employees still working or participating in the study during the period of this questionnaire study were included in the sampling. Data from the survey were derived from responses to questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, OHS applications, health state, and working conditions, as well as to the questions in on the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale (HLBS), under direct surveillance. Male workers with a mean age of 30.61 ± 8.68 years constituted the study population. Of the workers, 41.9% had a primary school education. The majority received professional and OHS training (65.7% and 79.2%, respectively). Although 83.9% reported using personal protective equipment (PPE), only 2.1% said they had experienced an occupational accident. Total mean score of HLBS scale was 116.91 ± 25.62 points. Workers who had positive thoughts about their jobs demonstrated healthy lifestyle behaviors (P = .0001). A positive direct correlation was detected between the training the workers received and the use of PPE (P = .0001). In all, 38.1% of the workers reported experiencing work stress at the time of the study. Mean HLBS scores of those experiencing work stress were lower than the scores for workers not experiencing stress (P < .05). Receiving OHS and professional training and using of PPE favorably affect healthy lifestyle behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
physical exercise (including walking, cycling, dancing, gardening (9. In conclusion, a worrying increase in young patients with AMI is noticed in recent years. The apparent causes are similar to those described in an elderly population, but their distribution is different. The main characteristic is an unhealthy lifestyle among youth: the overwhelming majority are smokers, sedentary and have a high-calorie diet, with a significant percentage meeting the criteria of metabolic syndrome . Therefore, programs focusing on primary and secondary prevention should be a priority in Romania, since they could reshape the cardiovascular disease spectrum.
Seixas, Diana; Lebre, Ana; Crespo, Pedro; Ferreira, Eugénia; Serra, José Eduardo; Saraiva da Cunha, José Gabriel
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen with worldwide distribution, responsible for more than 700 human cases globally reported. This infection affects mostly men, exposed to pig or pork, which leads to its usual classification as an occupational disease. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 44 years old male. According to his past medical history, the patient had chronic alcoholism and worked in a restaurant as a piglet roaster. Microbiological examination of blood and CSF revealed S. suis. After 14 days of ceftriaxone the patient fully recovered. The authors review the clinical reports previously described in Portugal. In all of them was possible to identify risk exposition to pork. We alert to this microorganism's importance in Portugal where it is probably underdiagnosed.
Sanderson, Saskia C; Waller, Jo; Jarvis, Martin J; Humphries, Steve E; Wardle, Jane
To examine and compare awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer and heart disease in a single UK representative sample. Two open-ended questions about cancer and heart disease risk factors were included in a population-based survey of 1747 adults. Responses were coded for four lifestyles with established links to both diseases: smoking, eating an unhealthy diet, drinking excessive alcohol and physical inactivity. Awareness of lifestyle risk factors was low for both diseases, although higher for heart disease than cancer. The average number identified by respondents was 2.1 (heart disease) and 1.4 (cancer). The strongest predictor was education (both pUnhealthy lifestyles make a significant contribution to ill health and mortality. Increased public awareness of the links between lifestyles and commonly feared diseases might help people understand the potential health consequences of their actions and encourage them to make much-needed lifestyle changes. Efforts are needed to improve public health messages about how lifestyle risk factors impact on the chances of developing these important diseases.
In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor
In this thesis we investigated in a Dutch cohort dietary patterns and other lifestyle habits in relation with disease burden. Our aim was to define the healthiest dietary pattern in the Netherlands and provide insight in the lifestyle factors that are associated with this pattern. Quality Adjusted
Pg Khalifah Pg Ismail
Full Text Available Like most ASEAN countries, Brunei faces an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. To deal with the complexity of NCDs prevention, all perspectives - be it social, familial or occupational – need to be considered. In Brunei Darussalam, occupational health services (OHS offered by its Ministry of Health, among others, provide screening and management of NCDs at various points of service. The OHS does not only issue fitness to work certificates, but is a significant partner in co-managing patients’ health conditions, with the advantage of further management at the workplace. Holistic approach of NCD management in the occupational setting is strengthened with both employer and employee education and participation, targeting several approaches including risk management and advocating healthy lifestyles as part of a healthy workplace programme.
Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD diagnosed with identification of individuals in specific behaviors to improve health, health status and related factors to determine the levels of detection. METHODS: This descriptive study of data types of the Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GATA Hospital cardiology clinic in December 2009 - February 2010 were collected. The study group, at least 6 months before the diagnosis of CAD area, between the ages of 20-65 individuals who accept and participate in the study (n = 300 formed. Sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors of the personal information form for the 33-item, 52-item scale of a healthy lifestyle behaviors and health status of the single-item scale working group of the detection technique applied to the face-to-face interview. The aim of the study, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD for the development of health behaviors in the case of individuals diagnosed with the identification, health status and related factors to determine the levels of detection. The statistical analysis techniques such as Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis were used for the comparison. RESULTS: Of the group 57,7% were males, 46,3% were 50-59 years of age and 56,3% were higher education graduates. As regard to total Health Promotion Life-Style Profile Scale scores statistically significant differences had been found between age, gender, education, disease period, occupation and chronic condition groups. As regard to the average PHSS scores statistically significant differences had been found between age, education, body mass index, disease period, occupation, chronic condition and CAD related course groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Healthy lifestyle behaviors before planning training programs, individual models of health behavior and the behavior of individuals using the analyzed factors affecting.. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 287-298
Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M
Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.
Sara De Matteis
Full Text Available Occupational lung diseases are an important public health issue and are avoidable through preventive interventions in the workplace. Up-to-date knowledge about changes in exposure to occupational hazards as a result of technological and industrial developments is essential to the design and implementation of efficient and effective workplace preventive measures. New occupational agents with unknown respiratory health effects are constantly introduced to the market and require periodic health surveillance among exposed workers to detect early signs of adverse respiratory effects. In addition, the ageing workforce, many of whom have pre-existing respiratory conditions, poses new challenges in terms of the diagnosis and management of occupational lung diseases. Primary preventive interventions aimed to reduce exposure levels in the workplace remain pivotal for elimination of the occupational lung disease burden. To achieve this goal there is still a clear need for setting standard occupational exposure limits based on transparent evidence-based methodology, in particular for carcinogens and sensitising agents that expose large working populations to risk. The present overview, focused on the occupational lung disease burden in Europe, proposes directions for all parties involved in the prevention of occupational lung disease, from researchers and occupational and respiratory health professionals to workers and employers.
Ebele N. Anyaoku
Full Text Available Objectives – Various efforts are being made to disseminate lifestyle modification information. What is the role of health information in building patients self-efficacy in lifestyle modification? The research examined level of access to lifestyle modification information for patients with chronic diseases in two Federal Government Teaching Hospitals in South East Nigeria. It explored the relationship between self-efficacy and access to lifestyle modification information and also factors that are associated with self-efficacy when patients have access to lifestyle modification information. Methods – The research is a cross-sectional correlation study that used a questionnaire to collect data. (See Appendix A. Sample was 784 patients with chronic diseases. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients as they attended clinics in the medical and surgical outpatients’ clinics of the hospitals. Results – Findings showed access to lifestyle modification information was significantly and positively correlated with self-efficacy. Multiple Regression analysis suggest that age, type of illness, and length of treatment in the teaching hospitals were associated with self-efficacy when patients have access to lifestyle modification information. Conclusion – It will be pertinent that demographic and disease factors are considered when making lifestyle modification information available to patients for greater self-efficacy.
Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi
Objectives: To investigate the association between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle.\\ud Methods: Cross-sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30 433 women and 7718 men aged 17-64 were used (n = 35 918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as
Spigno, F; Galli, R; Casali, C; Lagattolla, N; De Lucchi, M
The authors have gone through the complaints concerning all the cases of shoulder accidents at work filed by the Genoa office of the Italian Workers' National compensation Agency (INAIL) during the two years' period 2006-2007, reviewing in particular those somehow affecting rotator components. The aim of this paper is to assess the real role played by the occupational trauma in the rotator cuff tear. The data gathered so far have shown, on the one hand, a high prevalence of pre-existing inflammatory and degenerative diseases and, on the other, a rather modest influence of the trauma which, for this reason, has usually borne, as an immediate medico-legal consequence, the rejection of a cause-effect relationship between the accident and the rotator cuff lesion, without taking into any account whether the worker was likely to be affected by an occupational disease (ex table Ministerial Decree n. 81 April 9th 2008- item 78). In such cases a systematic and in-depth investigation of the occupational case history is suggested, in order to highlight the possible pre-existence of a former biomechanical overload of the upper limbs, so as to allow the physician to detect a pathology often misdiagnosed.
Jirasek, L.; Kalensky, J.
Proposals are put forward for the amendment of the List of Occupational Diseases (Supplement to Decree No. 149/1988 of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs for the enforcement of Act No. 100/1988 on social welfare) in the field of skin diseases. This also concerns the item ''Diseases Caused by Ionizing Radiation and by Radiation with Similar Biological Effects''. Problems associated with diagnosing the skin disease, criteria of occupational diseases and disease hazards, and measures to be taken are discussed. (P.A.)
Background: Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. Objective: To ...
Full Text Available During the type-setting of the final version of the article,1 the title was misspelled on the website, page 2 of Word Document, and page 2 of PDF. The title was written as “Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiocascular Disease Among Indian Males” and the corrected title is “Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Among Indian Males.”
Hansell, A.; Ghosh, R.E.; Poole, S.; Zock, J.P.; Weatherall, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Travers, J.; Beasley, R.
Objectives: To investigate associations between respiratory disease and occupational exposures in a New Zealand urban population, the Wellington Respiratory Survey. Methods: Multiple regression analyses in a population sample of 1017 individuals aged 25 to 74 years with spirometry and questionnaire
Suarez, Ileana Frometa
A retrospective investigation of all cases of radiation workers with diseases and injuries, considered as occupational diseases caused by ionizing radiation is presented. The investigation includes all cases registered in the Institute of Occupational Health over five years period (1990-1995). The incidence of that diseases are studied, as well as the correlation between each type of source, time of exposure and annual average equivalent individual dose
Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras
Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons
Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Cahalin, Lawrence P; Briggs, Paige D; Guizilini, Solange; Daugherty, John; Chan, Wai-Man; Borghi-Silva, Audrey
The current incidence and prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is currently a cause for great concern on a global scale; future projections are no less disconcerting. Unhealthy lifestyle patterns are at the core of the NCD crisis; physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor nutrition and tobacco use are the primary lifestyle factors that substantially increase the risk of developing one or more NCDs. We have now come to recognize that healthy lifestyle interventions are a medical necessity that should be prescribed to all individuals. Perhaps the most well-established model for healthy lifestyle interventions in the current healthcare model is cardiac rehabilitation. To have any hope of improving the outlook for NCDs on a global scale, what is currently known as cardiac rehabilitation must transform into broad-based healthy lifestyle programing, with a shifted focus on primordial and primary prevention.
Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo
Full Text Available The large majority of neuroimaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients have supported the idea that lifestyle factors may protect against the clinical manifestations of AD rather than influence AD neuropathological processes (the cognitive reserve hypothesis. This evidence argues in favor of the hypothesis that lifestyle factors act as moderators between AD pathology and cognition, i.e. through indirect compensatory mechanisms. In this review, we identify emerging evidence in cognitively normal older people that relate lifestyle factors to established AD neuroimaging biomarkers. While some of these investigations are in agreement with the compensatory view of cognitive reserve, other studies have revealed new clues on the neural mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of lifestyle factors on the brain. Specifically, they provide novel evidence suggesting direct effects of lifestyle factors on AD neuropathological processes. Here, we review current findings on the effects of lifestyle factors on AD neuroimaging biomarkers in cognitively normal older people. We propose a tentative theoretical model where lifestyle factors may act via direct neuroprotective and/or indirect compensatory pathways. Importantly, we suggest that neuroprotective mechanisms may have a major role during early stages and compensatory pathways in later stages of the disease. In the absence of an effective treatment for AD and considering the potential of lifestyle factors in AD prevention, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying lifestyle effects on the brain seems crucial. We hope to provide an integrative view that may help to better understand the complex effects of lifestyle factors on AD neuropathological processes, starting from the preclinical stage.
Ding, Bangmei; Ding, Lu; Yu, Bin; Fan, Cunhua; Han, Lei; Hu, Jinmei; Zhu, Baoli
We sought to master the clinical characteristics and prognosis of hard mental lung disease, improving this disease's diagnosis and treatment quality. We recruited two suspected patients with hard mental lung disease and collected their occupational history, examination results of occupational health, and past medical records. By virtue of laboratory tests, high Kv chest radiography, CT and HRCT of chest, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and ECG examination, diagnostic report was synthesized respectively by respiratory physicians and pathologist from three different agencies. Then the report was submitted to diagnosis organizations of occupational disease, and diagnostic conclusion of occupational disease was drawn after discussion by at least three diagnosticians of occupational disease. We found that both of the two suspected patients were exposed to dusts of hard metal, and length of exposure service ranged from 8 to 9 years. Clinical manifestations were dominated by dry cough, wheezing after activities, and pathological manifestation was characteristic giant cell interstitial pneumonia. The prognosis and outcome of the disease were different. According to exact occupational exposure history, clinical manifestations, combined with the results of high Kv chest radiography, CT of chest and pathological manifestation, it can be diagnosed with hard mental lung disease.
lungs, destroying the breathing ability of people who suffer from it. 4 ... the right of mineworkers to recover damages for occupational injury sustained or ..... Employees who suffer permanent disability for the purposes of COIDA as a result of.
More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight a...
The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia (hyperlipidemia) and diabetes increases with aging, and all these conditions are risk factors of arteriosclerotic diseases such as cerebrovascular event (stroke) and myocardial infarction. The term "metabolic domino" has been used to describe the collective concept of the development and progression of these lifestyle-related diseases, the sequence of events, and the progression process of complications. Like the first tile of a domino toppling game, undesirable lifestyle such as overeating and underexercising first triggers obesity, and is followed in succession by onset of an insulin resistance state (underlied by a genetic background indigenous to Japanese) , hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and further postprandial hyperglycemia (the pre-diabetic state) , the so-called metabolic syndrome, at around the same time. On the other hand, apart from the other lifestyle-related diseases, the prevalence of osteoporosis also increases rapidly accompanying aging. Osteoporosis is known to be strongly related to disorders due to the metabolic domino such as arteriosclerosis and vascular calcification, and a new disease category called "osteo-vascular interaction" has attracted attention recently. Regarding "osteo-vascular interaction" , a close relation between bone density loss or osteoporotic changes and vascular lesion-associated lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes has been reported. Therefore, as a common preventive factor for bone mass loss or osteoporosis and lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (osteo-vascular interaction) , exercise has been recognized anew as an important non-pharmaceutical therapy that should take top priority. This article overviews the evidence of exercise therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases, from the viewpoint of health promotion, especially of
Full Text Available Occupation- and industry-based risks for stroke and ischemic heart disease may vary among Japanese working-aged men. We examined the differences in mortality rates between stroke and ischemic heart disease by occupation and industry among employed Japanese men aged 25–59 years. In 2010, we obtained occupation- and industry-specific vital statistics data from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare dataset. We analyzed data for Japanese men who were aged 25–59 years in 2010, grouped in 5-year age intervals. We estimated the mortality rates of stroke and ischemic heart disease in each age group for occupation and industry categories as defined in the national census. We did not have detailed individual-level variables. We used the number of employees in 2010 as the denominator and the number of events as the numerator, assuming a Poisson distribution. We conducted separate regression models to estimate the incident relative risk for stroke and ischemic heart disease for each category compared with the reference categories “sales” (occupation and “wholesale and retail” (industry. When compared with the reference groups, we found that occupations and industries with a relatively higher risk of stroke and ischemic heart disease were: service, administrative and managerial, agriculture and fisheries, construction and mining, electricity and gas, transport, and professional and engineering. This suggests there are occupation- and industry-based mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease for Japanese working-aged men. These differences in risk might be explained to factors associated with specific occupations or industries, such as lifestyles or work styles, which should be explored in further research. The mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease shown in the present study may reflect an excessive risk of Karoshi (death from overwork. Keywords: Occupation, Industry, Mortality
Crumrine, Janice G.; Nix, Harold L.
The findings of this second phase of a four-phase study of shrimp fishing focus on the effect of this occupation upon the family. Data were collected from a random sample of 87 boat captains, 73 wives, community personnel, and high school students in two Georgia coastal counties. The family structure reveals a traditional conception of male and…
Fung, F; Bundy, M; Kennon, R
Analysis of the 1987-1988 morbidity data of an aircraft rework facility's 6,672 employees identified 118 patients with occupational diseases. In our study, 61 cases (52%) involved eye and skin conditions. This was comparable to the State of California occupational diseases report. However, systemic conditions appeared to be higher (24% vs. 7%) in the study group, and this finding may need further investigation to clarify its significance. Patients employed as craftworkers accounted for nearly half of all reported occupational diseases. Federal workers in this facility appeared to have a higher percentage (70%) of "no time lost" when compared with that of the State of California report (54%). The utility of morbidity data in the prevention of occupational diseases is discussed.
Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Jensen, Lou; Lieberman, Deborah; Arbesman, Marian
Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Evidence-Based Practice Project. In this Evidence Connection article, we describe a case report of a person with Alzheimer's disease. The occupational therapy assessment and intervention process in the home setting is described. Findings from the systematic reviews on this topic were published in the November/December 2017 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy and in AOTA's Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders. Each article in this series summarizes the evidence from the published reviews on a given topic and presents an application of the evidence to a related clinical case. Evidence Connection articles illustrate how the research evidence from the reviews can be used to inform and guide clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge
INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle and general diseases are important for the development of periodontitis and other diseases in the oral cavity. Therefore, knowledge on lifestyle factors must be part of the dental curriculum. However, a search for information in the literature databases gave meagre results......, was sent to the chairs of the departments of periodontology in the Nordic countries. The questions concerned extent, curriculum structure, educational method, content, assessment and evaluation of the education. RESULTS: Education on lifestyle factors took place at all dental schools, but the extent......, content and placement in the curriculum varied. In some schools, more than 10 lessons were scheduled; two schools had only 3-5 lessons. The education of lifestyle factors was prioritised highest in the departments of periodontology followed by cariology and general health. Despite differences...
Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan
Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we investigated the possible potential exposure of the workers to physical and occupational hazards and determined the prevalence of occupational skin diseases at a shoe manufacturing factory in Indonesia. A cross-sectional study on the observation of the working process and an inventory and risk assessment of exposure to the chemicals used. Classification of chemicals as potential sensitizers/irritants and qualitative assessments of these chemicals were done. Workers were examined and interviewed using the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire-2002/LONG. The risk of Occupational skin diseases (OSD) at the shoe factory was mainly related to the exposure of the workers' skin to potential physical and chemical hazards in hot and humid environmental conditions. From a total of 514 workers, 8.5 % reported current OSD and 4.8 % reported a history of OSD. Occupational skin diseases were diagnosed in 29 % of the workers by dermatologists and 7.6 % had an occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Of the 39 workers with contact dermatitis, 33 consented to being patch tested, 14 (3 %) workers showed a positive results and considered as having an occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and 25 (4.9 %) had an occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD). We observed a repeated and prolonged exposure of the workers to numerous physical and chemical skin hazards at this factory.
Radder, D.L.M.; Sturkenboom, I.H.W.M.; Nimwegen, M. van; Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Vries, N.M. de
Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in
Morton, Kirsty; Pattison, Helen; Langley, Chris; Powell, Rachael
Background - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression is modifiable through lifestyle behaviors. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to facilitate self-management of cardiovascular health however research shows varied pharmacist engagement in providing lifestyle advice. Objective - This study explored community pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of providing lifestyle advice to patients with CVD. Methods - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pharmacists (1 superm...
Cole, Judith A; Smith, Susan M; Hart, Nigel; Cupples, Margaret E
Healthy lifestyles help to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) but outcomes from secondary prevention interventions which support lifestyle change have been disappointing. This study is a novel, in-depth exploration of patient factors affecting lifestyle behaviour change within an intervention designed to improve secondary prevention for patients with CHD in primary care using personalised tailored support. We aimed to explore patients' perceptions of factors affecting lifestyle change within a trial of this intervention (the SPHERE Study), using semi-structured, one-to-one interviews, with patients in general practice. Interviews (45) were conducted in purposively selected general practices (15) which had participated in the SPHERE Study. Individuals, with CHD, were selected to include those who succeeded in improving physical activity levels and dietary fibre intake and those who did not. We explored motivations, barriers to lifestyle change and information utilised by patients. Data collection and analysis, using a thematic framework and the constant comparative method, were iterative, continuing until data saturation was achieved. We identified novel barriers to lifestyle change: such disincentives included strong negative influences of social networks, linked to cultural norms which encouraged consumption of 'delicious' but unhealthy food and discouraged engagement in physical activity. Findings illustrated how personalised support within an ongoing trusted patient-professional relationship was valued. Previously known barriers and facilitators relating to support, beliefs and information were confirmed. Intervention development in supporting lifestyle change in secondary prevention needs to more effectively address patients' difficulties in overcoming negative social influences and maintaining interest in living healthily.
Carrillo Bayona, Jorge Alberto; Rivera Bernal, Aura Lucia; Ojeda Paulina; Paez Garcia, Diana Sofia
People are exposed to hundreds of substances daily, some of which may induce pulmonary injury. Occupational Lung Disease diagnosis requires 4 elements: Exposure to the harmful agent, adequate latency between exposure and beginning of the symptoms, syndrome with post-exposure abnormalities, and exclusion of other conditions which may otherwise explain signs and symptoms. Several occupational lung disease classifications based on structural or functional injury, type of agent, or both have been proposed. Generally, 5 groups are considered: Pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, toxic fumes exposure, asthma, and occupational lung infections. Conventional radiographs and in specific situations, CT, are crucial elements for the diagnosis of Occupational Lung Disease. In the patient with respiratory symptoms and altered imaging studies, the possibility of Occupational Lung Disease should be considered. Radiologist should be familiar the variety of substances that cause these entities and their radiological features. In this article Occupational Lung diseases are reviewed, including diagnostic criteria, classification, physiopathology, clinical and radiological manifestations as well as their corresponding histopathological features.
Hougaard, Majken G; Winther, Lone; Søsted, Heidi
BACKGROUND: Hairdressers are at risk for occupational skin diseases. Since 2008, an educational programme has been conducted in Danish hairdressing schools to prevent occupational skin diseases. Its effect is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the current frequency of self-reported hand eczema...... was 98 cases/1000 person-years. Contact urticaria was also more prevalent in the hairdressing apprentices (7.3% versus 4.2%, p = 0.006). Both diseases increased with increasing duration of exposure to the trade. CONCLUSION: Despite educational efforts to prevent occupational skin diseases...... in the hairdressing schools, Danish apprentices are still at increased risk for hand eczema and contact urticaria. Both diseases develop after only a few years of work in hairdressing. Further preventive strategies are warranted....
Charansonney, Olivier L; Després, Jean-Pierre
Obesity is a major health challenge facing the modern world. Some evidence points to obesity itself as the main driver of premature mortality. We propose that this view is oversimplified. For example, high levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with lower mortality, even in those who are overweight or obese. To address this issue, we combine epidemiological and physiological evidence in a new paradigm that integrates excess calorie intake, sedentary behavior, and a maladaptive response to stress. Human physiology is optimized to allow large distances to be covered on foot every day in order to find enough food to sustain brain metabolism. Furthermore, when the body is immobilized by an injury, it triggers efficient life-saving metabolic and inflammatory responses. Both these critical adaptations are, however, confounded by a sedentary lifestyle. The implications of these issues for clinical trial design and epidemiologic data analysis are discussed in this article.
... occupational diseases. 702.212 Section 702.212 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... occupational diseases. (a) For other than occupational diseases described in (b), the employee must give notice...). (b) In the case of an occupational disease which does not immediately result in disability or death...
Kozica, Samantha L; Deeks, Amanda A; Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Teede, Helena J; Moran, Lisa J
Lifestyle related diseases associated with physical inactivity and poor diet quality, represent a major health burden. This study assessed negative and positive health habits and health care utilization in healthy women (n = 50) and women with lifestyle related diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (n = 50), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (n = 44) and type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 43). A significant difference existed across groups for negative health habits (P = .012) with a trend for positive health habits (P = .06) elevated in women with PCOS. Women with DM2 had the highest amount of health care utilization including doctors office visits (P women with DM2 but there were no differences in positive health habits across sub-groups. Encouraging lifestyle modification in women with precursor diseases such as GDM and PCOS is vital in order to prevent progression to DM2.
Wada, Koji; Eguchi, Hisashi; Prieto-Merino, David
Occupation- and industry-based risks for stroke and ischemic heart disease may vary among Japanese working-aged men. We examined the differences in mortality rates between stroke and ischemic heart disease by occupation and industry among employed Japanese men aged 25-59 years. In 2010, we obtained occupation- and industry-specific vital statistics data from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare dataset. We analyzed data for Japanese men who were aged 25-59 years in 2010, grouped in 5-year age intervals. We estimated the mortality rates of stroke and ischemic heart disease in each age group for occupation and industry categories as defined in the national census. We did not have detailed individual-level variables. We used the number of employees in 2010 as the denominator and the number of events as the numerator, assuming a Poisson distribution. We conducted separate regression models to estimate the incident relative risk for stroke and ischemic heart disease for each category compared with the reference categories "sales" (occupation) and "wholesale and retail" (industry). When compared with the reference groups, we found that occupations and industries with a relatively higher risk of stroke and ischemic heart disease were: service, administrative and managerial, agriculture and fisheries, construction and mining, electricity and gas, transport, and professional and engineering. This suggests there are occupation- and industry-based mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease for Japanese working-aged men. These differences in risk might be explained to factors associated with specific occupations or industries, such as lifestyles or work styles, which should be explored in further research. The mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease shown in the present study may reflect an excessive risk of Karoshi (death from overwork).
Kolstad, Henrik A; Christensen, Michael V; Jensen, Lone Donbæk
for patients who were not working. CONCLUSIONS: Notification of an occupational disease may, as an unintended side effect, increase the risk of work disability. A cautious interpretation is warranted because data analyses may not fully have accounted for the poorer vocational prognosis already present......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze if notification of an occupational disease increases the risk of work disability. METHODS: We included 2304 patients examined at the Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, 1998-2005 and followed them for two years. A total......, occupational, and social characteristics that predict poorer vocational prognosis. Analyses that adjusted for these differences showed an increased risk of work disability following notification for patients who were working when notified at baseline (HR (adj)1.46, 95% CI 1.17-1.82). No effect was seen...
South Africa's gold mines were the first to compensate silicosis and tuberculosis as occupational diseases. They were also the first mines to introduce a state-sanctioned regime of medical surveillance. Despite those innovations, the major mining houses are currently facing class actions by former miners with occupational lung disease. The obvious reason for this medical and legislative failure is to be found in the economic fabric of South Africa's gold industry. In this article, I will argue that it is also found in the system of mine medicine, which was designed to hide rather than reveal the actual disease rates. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the characteristics of menstrual cycle (MC of Venezuelan women of childbearing age, according to socio-demographic (with emphasis on occupation and medical variables, obstetric history, chemical agents exposure and lifestyles. Material and Methods: An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study in 180 childbearing women was conducted, using a previous validated questionnaire. Results: MC duration had a median of 28.0 days, 25th percentile was at 28.0 days and the 75th percentile was 30.0 days, with a percentage of short (<24 days and long cycles (≥ 33 days of 3.9 and 2.2%, respectively. Menstrual bleeding duration had a median of 5.0 days, 25th percentile was 4.0 days and 75th percentile was 5 days. 151 women (83.9%, experienced irregularity of the MC and 146 (81.1% had irregular bleeding duration. Both irregularities were significantly greater among 20 to 34 years old and single women. A negative and significant correlation between age and duration of menstrual bleeding was detected (p = 0.035. When comparing bleeding duration with profession/occupation, a significant difference was established (Kruskal-Wallis: p < 0.05. This is consistent with some publications that show that menstrual alterations are more frequent in working women in some specific occupations and also in the ones working in shifts. According to chemical use, women that use pesticides show a significant difference between pesticides exposure and MC duration, which is consistent with previously reported studies. In the same way, there was a significant association between coffee consumption and menstrual disturbances, in both cases, bleeding and MC duration. However, there was no significance when that association was calculated based on the amount of estimated caffeine intake. Conclusions: Within the limitations concerning a descriptive study, both MC duration and bleeding, theoretically were within normal limits. However, the variability
Riha, Johanna; Karabarinde, Alex; Ssenyomo, Gerald; Allender, Steven; Asiki, Gershim; Kamali, Anatoli; Young, Elizabeth H; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Seeley, Janet
Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24), low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23), and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77). This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Full Text Available Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases.Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24, low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23, and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77.This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.
. One of the major goals of the institutions for statutory accident insurance is the prevention of occupational diseases. To perform a successful prevention work it is necessary not only to count the number of accidents or diseases in the various working fields but to look for details of the conditions of work and the human response to those conditions. The institutions for statutory accident insurance have engaged the institution for statutory accident insurance in the precision engineering and electrical industry to carry out documentation, in form of a data bank, for all cases of occupational diseases which could be caused by ionising radiation. Those are not only the cases which are accepted as occupational disease but also the cases where a suspicion of an occupational disease is announced but finally rejected. At the moment about 1700 cases are included in the data bank. For preserving the anonymity information to name and residence are deleted. Various data to one single case are linked by a case-specific key-number. Information to occupation and field of working, to details of a possible exposure to ionising radiation like kind of radiation, time and duration of radiation, exposure of the whole body or of parts of the body and whole body or organ doses are collected. Additional information refers to medical aspects like diagnosis and date of diagnosis. (Author)
van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between occupational exposure to solvents, metals and/or welding fumes and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Data of a hospital based case-control study including 444 PD patients and 876 age and sex matched controls was used. Occupational histories and lifestyle information of cases and controls were collected in a structured telephone interview. Exposures to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents and metals were estimated by linking the ALOHA+ job-exposure matrix to the occupational histories. Exposure to welding fumes was estimated using self-reported information on welding activities. No statistically significant associations with any of the studied metal and solvent exposures were found. However, for self-reported welding activities we observed non-statistically significant reduced risk estimates (third tertile cumulative exposure: OR = 0.51 (95% CI: 0.21-1.24)). The results of our study did not provide support for an increased chance on developing PD after occupational exposure to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents or exposure to metals. The results showed reduced risk estimates for welding, which is in line with previous research, but no clear explanation for these findings is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: On 3 July 2009, new law pertaining to occupational diseases (ODs became effective in Poland. The article presents opinions of the representatives of the 1st degree ODs certification entities and sanitary inspectorates on the changes in OD law and the problems that may cause difficulties and/or certification errors. Material and Methods: A questionnaire study was performed covering representatives of 20 voivodeship occupational medicine centers and 40 national district sanitary inspectorates. We received 57 completed questionnaires which were analyzed. Results: Positive opinions were expressed on changes in procedures on reporting suspected occupational diseases (50%, keeping time limits for diagnosing ODs (89.2%, and changes pertaining to entities responsible for certifying infectious ODs (92.9%. A large group of respondents (66.7% was in favor of conducting jointly an occupational exposure risk analysis by occupational medicine physicians and occupational health and safety practitioners and/or sanitary inspectors. One-third of the respondents declared that changes in the list of ODs had no influence on the certification procedure. Conclusions: New law has improved the existing procedure of ODs certification. There is a need to elaborate detailed diagnostic guidelines on and criteria for ODs identification and recognition. A panel of experts should be established by the Ministry of Health to track the latest advancements in medicine and to update the list of ODs. Conducting jointly an occupational exposure risk analysis by occupational medicine physicians and occupational health and safety practitioners and/or sanitary inspectors should become a standard. Med Pr 2014;65(4:473–483
Hansell, Anna; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Poole, Suzanne; Zock, Jan-Paul; Weatherall, Mark; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Travers, Justin; Beasley, Richard
To investigate associations between respiratory disease and occupational exposures in a New Zealand urban population, the Wellington Respiratory Survey. Multiple regression analyses in a population sample of 1017 individuals aged 25 to 74 years with spirometry and questionnaire information, including a lifetime occupational history. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with self-reported exposure to hairdressing, paint manufacturing, insecticides, welding, detergents and with ALOHA Job Exposure Matrix-assessed gases/fumes exposure. The strongest association was for hairdressing (odds ratio 6.91; 95% confidence interval: 2.02 to 23.70). Cumulative exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher FEV₁% (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration) predicted. Analyses were limited by relatively small numbers of cases. Increased risks of objectively defined respiratory disease, which have been previously documented, were not seen. Nevertheless, the study suggested increased risk of respiratory symptoms with various occupational exposures as well as likely healthy worker effect.
Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla
of Copenhagen, Denmark PARTICIPANTS: 59 616 people aged 30-60 years randomised with different age and sex randomisation ratios to an intervention group (n=11 629) and a control group (n=47 987). INTERVENTION: The intervention group was invited for screening, risk assessment, and lifestyle counselling up to four...... of group based lifestyle counselling on smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity. After five years all were invited for a final counselling session. Participants were referred to their general practitioner for medical treatment, if relevant. The control group was not invited for screening. MAIN......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...
Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla
of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 59,616 people aged 30-60 years randomised with different age and sex randomisation ratios to an intervention group (n = 11,629) and a control group (n = 47,987). INTERVENTION: The intervention group was invited for screening, risk assessment, and lifestyle counselling up...... sessions of group based lifestyle counselling on smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity. After five years all were invited for a final counselling session. Participants were referred to their general practitioner for medical treatment, if relevant. The control group was not invited for screening......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. DESIGN: Randomised controlled community based trial. SETTING: Suburbs...
The main focus of this thesis is to identify susceptibility factors in diseases affecting the motor neuron: both motor neuron disease (MND), in which primarily the cell body is affected, and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), in which primarily the axon is affected, are covered. Due to its
Full Text Available During the pa t decade, smoking habit has been identified as a major exogenous factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. It is associated not only with the development of the disease but al o with the clinical course in established disease. IBD combines absolute opposites as smoking is associated with Crohn’s disease and nonsmoking or former smoking with ulcerative colitis. The first reports of a negative association between smoking and ulcerative colitis were based on independent, clinical observations; from those studies a positive association was found between smoking and Crohn’s disease. Epidemiological studies that followed consistently showed that smokers have a reduced risk of ulcerative colitis and an increased risk of Crohn’s disease and that exsmokers have an increased risk of ulcerative colitis. In ulcerative colitis, but not in Crohn’s disease, a dose-response pattern has been demonstrated. Changes in clinical course, in disease severity and extension, and in recurrence rate indicate substantial clinical effects of smoking with a protective effect of smoking in ulcerative colitis and an aggravating effect in Crohn’s disease. There are also indications of smoking’s effects on changes in IBD epidemiology and sex distribution. The biological explanation to the finding is unknown. Smoking may aggravate Crohn’s disease by vascular effects. Theories on the protective effect in ulcerative colitis include effects on immune and inflammatory response, on mucus and on intestinal permeability. Possibly, beneficial effects in ulcerative colitis are exerted by nicotine but further studies are needed. Due to overall negative effects of smoking, IBD patients should not smoke. It seems, however, reasonable to give individual advice in patients with ulcerative colitis who have experienced a beneficial effect of ·making considering both current health status and life situation.
Salski, Witold; Wiszniewska, Marta; Salska, Agata; Tymoszuk, Diana; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta
Rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by a high prevalence and a complex pathogenesis. Work-related rhinitis (WRR) can be divided into occupational rhinitis (OR) and work-exacerbated rhinitis (WER). It is not only considered as a disease entity but also in the context of medical certification as the allergic disease associated with occupational exposure. Epidemiology of work-related rhinitis has been found to vary depending on the occupation and specific exposure, on the other hand the prevalence data may be underestimated due to the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews the issues comprising the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with work-related rhinitis. It also discusses the significance of the disease in occupational medicine, particularly in terms of preventive worker care, general principles of good practice in primary and secondary WRR prevention and the necessary directions of changes in medical certification in the cases of occupational rhinitis. Med Pr 2016;67(6):801-815. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Bresciani, M; Riva, M M; Giorgi, M; Ghezzi, L; Sidoti, C; Mosconi, G
The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of 302 occupational diseases in building workers detected by UOOML Ospedali Riuniti of Bergamo and notified to INAIL from 2000 to 2005. The 41.3% of cases were accepted as work-related. Among remaining cases (58.7%), INAIL rejected 40.9% for lack or absence of documentation. 59.1% for no adhesion to legal medicine criteria. By analysis of occupational diseases detected in the last 5 years, we found an increase of muscle-skeletal disorders, for which, now, diagnostic procedure and insurance evaluation are difficult. This work shows a wide gap between reported occupational diseases of buildings workers and compensation given by INAIL. These results underlines the need of comparison among involved institutions in order to standardize statistical and diagnostic instruments.
In some diseases caused by the profession - as a result of a job accident or a recognized occupational disease - primary and secondary bone changes occur. Therefore, X-ray diagnosing plays a key role in the so-called surgical occupational diseases. In this book, we find for the first time an extensive radiological systematisation completed by brief clinical indications and typical X-ray pictures with explanations of their coherence with the hazardous event. Beside typical bone damage occurring in specific occupational exposition, e.g. working above atmospheric pressure or chemical alterations by lead incorporation, also consequences of job accidents, for example after severe burning or electricity effects are taken into consideration. (orig./MG) [de
Loprinzi, Paul D; Branscum, Adam; Hanks, June; Smit, Ellen
To estimate the prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics and to examine the association between different combinations of healthy lifestyle characteristics and cardiovascular disease biomarkers. The prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics was estimated for the US adult population (N=4745) using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for the following parameters: being sufficiently active (accelerometer), eating a healthy diet (Healthy Eating Index based on 24-hour recalls), being a nonsmoker (serum cotinine level), and having a recommended body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Cardiovascular biomarkers included mean arterial pressure, C-reactive protein, white blood cells (WBCs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, and homocysteine. The study was conducted from August 15, 2013, through January 5, 2016. Only 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.4%) of all adults had all 4 healthy lifestyle characteristics. Participants with 3 or 4 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics had more favorable biomarker levels except for mean arterial blood pressure, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c. Having at least 1 or 2 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics was favorably associated with C-reactive protein, WBCs, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and homocysteine. For HDL-C and total cholesterol, the strongest correlate was body fat percentage. For homocysteine, a healthy diet and not smoking were strong correlates; for WBCs, diet was not a strong correlate. Although multiple healthy lifestyle characteristics are important, specific health characteristics may be more important for particular cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Chomistek, Andrea K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Eliassen, A Heather; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B
Overall mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States have declined in recent decades, but the rate has plateaued among younger women. The potential for further reductions in mortality rates among young women through changes in lifestyle is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of CHD cases and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young women that might be attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. A prospective analysis was conducted among 88,940 women ages 27 to 44 years at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study II who were followed from 1991 to 2011. Lifestyle factors were updated repeatedly by questionnaire. A healthy lifestyle was defined as not smoking, a normal body mass index, physical activity ≥ 2.5 h/week, television viewing ≤ 7 h/week, diet in the top 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and 0.1 to 14.9 g/day of alcohol. To estimate the proportion of CHD and clinical CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) that could be attributed to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle, we calculated the population-attributable risk percent. During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 456 incident CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted models, nonsmoking, a healthy body mass index, exercise, and a healthy diet were independently and significantly associated with lower CHD risk. Compared with women with no healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio for CHD for women with 6 lifestyle factors was 0.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.22). Approximately 73% (95% confidence interval: 39% to 89%) of CHD cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Similarly, 46% (95% confidence interval: 43% to 49%) of clinical CVD risk factor cases were attributable to a poor lifestyle. Primordial prevention through maintenance of a healthy lifestyle among young women may substantially lower the burden of CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College
Yan, Yuehua; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Jianbo; Xu, Li
Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. To study the incidence of dermatoses and the relevance with occupational exposure, protection awareness and protective measures among sanitation workers for better management and protection of the sanitation workers. 273 sanitation workers and 113 administrative staff from 11 streets of Wuhan were recruited. Dermatological problems were evaluated and recorded by physical examination. Occupational exposure, protection awareness, the use of protective equipments and personal history of skin disease were assessed by questionnaires. Compared with administrative staff, sanitation workers had much more occupational dermatological problems and had a much higher rate of harmful ultraviolet ray exposure. Young sanitation workers were more aware of occupational self-protection and a relatively higher rate of them using protective equipments compared with old ones. Exposure to multiple health hazards and the poor use of protective equipments are related to skin diseases in sanitation workers. Prejob training of self-protection and the use of protective equipments are recommended.
Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu
The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers' diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen's compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker's compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194.
P. Chu (Paula); A. Pandya; J.A. Salomon (Joshua A); S.J. Goldie (Sue J); Hunink, M.G.M. (M.G. Myriam)
textabstractBackground-Evidence shows that healthy diet, exercise, smoking interventions, and stress reduction reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of these lifestyle interventions for individual risk profiles and determine their rank order in reducing 10-year
de Groot, S.; Post, M. W.; Snoek, G. J.; Schuitemaker, M.; van der Woude, L. H.
Objective: To investigate: (1) the course of coronary heart disease risk factors (lipid profiles and body mass index (BMI)) in the first five years after discharge from inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and (2) the association between lifestyle (physical activity, self-care related
Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas
The role of gene x lifestyle interactions in the development of cardiometabolic diseases is often highlighted, but very few robustly replicated examples of interactions exist in the literature. The slow pace of discoveries may largely be due to interaction effects being generally small in magnitude...
Full Text Available Voice disorders are all changes in the voice quality that can be detected by hearing. Some etiological factors that contribute to the development of voice disorders are related to occupation, working environment and working conditions. In modern societies one third of the labour force works in professions with vocal loading. In such professions, voice disorders influence work ability and quality of life. For an occupational disease, the exposure to harmful factors in the workplace is essential and causes the development of a disorder in a previously healthy individual. In some European countries, voice disorders in teachers, which do not improve after proper treatment are recognized as occupational diseases. In Slovenia, no organic or functional voice disorder is listed on the current list of occupational diseases. Prevention and cure of occupational voice disorders can contribute to better safety at the workplace and improve the workers’ health. Voice professionals must also know that they are responsible for their own health and that they must actively take care of it.
Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F.; Ritz, Beate
The relationship between Parkinson disease (PD) and smoking has been examined in several studies, but little is known about smoking in conjunction with other behaviors and a family history of PD. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we studied individual and joint associations...
Background: Few diseases that confront the 21st century clinician have documented history which dates back to early human era. Methods: We reviewed how the understanding of the aetiogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis and treatment of gout including myths have evolved and discussed the implications thereof.
the 6th century AD, the role of genetics and the association of gout with an ... NIDDM and cardiovascular disease is a challenge for the 20th century and the future. ... Gout was known among the Egyptians as Podagra (foot pain) as early as.
Alexey A. Dudarev
Full Text Available Background. Official statistics tend to underestimate the incidence of occupational disease (OD nationally and regionally in Russia. Objectives. The general aim was to obtain an accurate estimate of ODs in Murmansk Oblast in 1980–2010 and to determine the rate of specific types of ODs among cohorts of workers who had been exposed to the hazardous factors causing the disease. Materials and methods. Data were retrieved from the Murmansk Oblast ODs database for the oblast and 2 enterprises – Apatite JSC and Kolskaya MSC – which contributed to more than half of the ODs in the oblast in 1980–2010. The total number of ODs and 5 specific categories (musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease were analysed. Results. The total rate of ODs among workers of main shops in both enterprises who were actually exposed to harmful factors were extremely high: the rate for Apatite JSC was 25 times higher than in Russia and 15 times higher than in Murmansk Oblast, while the rate for Kolskaya MSC was about 30 and 20 times greater than in Russia and in Murmansk Oblast, respectively; in the 2000s the difference reached 100–150 times. The rise in reported ODs in both enterprises corresponded to the time when intensive medical examinations were conducted by the Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health (KRLOH in Kirovsk. A similar pattern was also observed for the sub-categories of musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease. It is likely that the true burden of OD is even higher due to misdiagnosis, reluctance of workers concerned about job security to present for care and the lack of reliable information on working conditions needed to establish a causal link between disease and occupational exposure. Conclusions. As with many other regions across Russia, ODs in Murmansk Oblast are grossly underestimated. Serious problems exist in the Russian occupational health care system
Kawashima, Motoko; Sano, Kokoro; Takechi, Sayuri; Tsubota, Kazuo
To evaluate the effects of a 2-month lifestyle intervention for dry eye disease in office workers. Prospective interventional study (randomized controlled study). Forty-one middle-aged Japanese office workers (men, 22; women, 19; 39.2 ± 8.0 years) with definite and probable dry eye disease were enrolled and randomized to an intervention group (n = 22) and a control group (n = 19). The intervention aimed at modifying diet, increasing physical activity, and encouraging positive thinking. The primary outcome was change in dry eye disease diagnoses. Secondary outcome was change in disease parameters, including dry eye symptoms, as assessed using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score, corneal and conjunctival staining scores, tear break-up time, and Schirmer test results. A total of 36 participants (intervention group, 17; control group, 19) completed the study. The number of definite dry eye disease diagnoses decreased from four to none (p =.05), and the dry eye symptom score showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (p =.03). In contrast, the corneal and conjunctival staining scores, tear break-up time, and Schirmer test results did not differ significantly between groups. The 2-month lifestyle intervention employed in this study improved dry eye disease status among office workers, with a considerable decrease in subjective symptoms. Lifestyle intervention may be a promising management option for dry eye disease, although further investigation of long-term effects are required.
in body defense, and is predisposed to disease when subjected to ... sanitation workers in Wuhan (China) for better manage- ment and ... Symptoms of facial skin photo .... ronment, diet nutrition and working environment were also poor.
Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical c...
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the driving force behind the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in many countries. Preceding CVD many indigenous groups exhibit a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including overweight-obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In turn, modifiable lifestyle risk factors contribute to the development of this cluster of cardiometabolic conditions. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors include, but are not limited to, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Notably, these metabolic and lifestyle risk factors are relatively simple to monitor and track. The current review will look at modifiable cardiometabolic (overweight-obesity, diabetes mellitus, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure and lifestyle (physical inactivity, poor nutrition, risky alcohol behavior, and cigarette smoking risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Mβori and the United States (Native Americans. Discussion will focus on the causal relationship between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and cardiometabolic outcomes, as well as, simple measurements for tracking these risk factors.
Shih, I-Fan; Starhof, Charlotte; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate
Objectives This study aimed to examine whether occupational and physical activity (PA) at different ages contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a large population-based case-control study in Denmark. Methods We identified 1828 PD patients from the Danish National Hospital Register and recruited 1909 gender and year of birth matched controls from the Danish Central Population Register. Occupational and leisure-time PA were determined from a job exposure matrix based on occupational history and self-reported leisure-time information. Results No association was found for occupational PA alone in men, but higher leisure-time PA (≥5 hours/week of strenuous activities) in young adulthood (15-25 years) was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR adj ) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.90); men who engaged in high occupational and high leisure-time PA in young adulthood had the lowest PD risk (OR adj 0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81). Among women, inverse associations were found for occupation PA before age 50 (highest vs lowest, OR adj 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.06) and strenuous leisure-time PA after age 50 (OR adj 0.65, 95% CI 0.87-0.99); no clear pattern was seen for leisure and occupational PA combined. Conclusions We observed gender-specific inverse associations between occupational and leisure-time PA and PD risk; however, we cannot preclude reverse causation especially in older ages since PD has a long prodromal stage that might lead to a reduction of PA years before motor symptom onset and PD diagnosis.
Moitra, Subhabrata; Puri, Rajan; Paul, Devon; Huang, Yuh-Chin T
New technologies continue to be introduced into the workplace and the environment. These novel technologies also bring in new hazards leading to evolving patterns of established occupational and environmental diseases, as well as novel conditions never before encountered. Many of these emerging conditions have appeared in media outlets or in the literature as case reports. These sentinel cases often serve as a warning sign for subsequent outbreaks. This review will discuss environmental and occupational lung diseases and exposures from a global perspective. These diseases and exposures include environmental exposure to asbestos and lung diseases, accelerated silicosis in sandblasting jean workers, coal worker's pneumoconiosis in surface coal miners, health effects of indoor air pollution from burning of biomass fuels and exposures to heavy metals and potential health effects from hydraulic fracturing (fracking). Other emerging conditions are also discussed, including smog in developing countries, sand storms in Asia and the Middle East and respiratory illnesses from nanoparticles and man-made fibres. Clinicians must remain vigilant for potential occupational and environmental exposures, especially when evaluating patients with unusual and unique presentation, so that occupational and environmental risk factors may be identified, and monitoring and preventive measures can be implemented early.
One hundred and forty GPs were randoinly selected from a provincial sampling frame of 1 000 GPs. Main outcome measures. Knowledge of notification procedures for occupational diseases, and problems encountered with the reporting system. Results. Of a total of 109 GPs interviewed, 75% had diagnosed more than one ...
Morton, Kirsty; Pattison, Helen; Langley, Chris; Powell, Rachael
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression is modifiable through lifestyle behaviors. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to facilitate self-management of cardiovascular health however research shows varied pharmacist engagement in providing lifestyle advice. This study explored community pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of providing lifestyle advice to patients with CVD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pharmacists (1 supermarket; 7 multiple; 7 independent) recruited through multiple methods from community pharmacies across the Midlands, England. A thematic analysis was conducted using a Framework approach. Pharmacists categorized patients according to their perceptions of the patients' ability to benefit from advice. Many barriers to providing lifestyle advice were identified. Confidence to provide lifestyle advice varied, with pharmacists most comfortable providing lifestyle advice in conjunction with conversations about medicines. Some pharmacists felt lifestyle advice was an integral part of their role whilst others questioned whether pharmacists should give lifestyle advice at all, particularly when receiving no remuneration for doing so. Pharmacists viewed providing lifestyle advice as important but identified many barriers to doing so. Lifestyle advice provision was influenced by pharmacists' perceptions of patients. Professional identity and associated role conflict appeared to underpin many of the barriers to pharmacists providing lifestyle advice. Pharmacists may benefit from enhanced training to: increase their confidence to provide lifestyle advice; integrate lifestyle advice with regular pharmaceutical practice and challenge their perceptions of some patients' receptiveness to lifestyle advice and behavior change. Changes to the way UK pharmacists are remunerated may increase the provision of lifestyle advice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Vibeke; Holmskov, Uffe; Sørensen, Signe Bek
Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel diseases, IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritides, hidradenitis suppurativa, and immune-mediated uveitis, are treated with biologics targeting the pro......-inflammatory molecule tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) (i.e., TNF inhibitors). Approximately one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. Genetics and lifestyle may affect the treatment results. The aims of this multidisciplinary collaboration are to identify (1) molecular signatures of prognostic value...... to help tailor treatment decisions to an individual likely to initiate TNF inhibitor therapy, followed by (2) lifestyle factors that support achievement of optimised treatment outcome. This report describes the establishment of a cohort that aims to obtain this information. Clinical data including...
Phillips, R L; Kuzma, J W; Beeson, W L; Lotz, T
The authors examine the influence of selection versus life-style on mortality from various causes for a population of 23,000 California Seventh-Day Adventists. The data are compared with data from a control group of 112,726 other Californians. The selective factors considered include education, occupation, and marital status
Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M
The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Gustavo Artur Monzeli
Full Text Available Introduction: Parkinson disease-PD has affected an increasing number of individuals, compromising their functional skills progressively and irreversibly, requiring preventive and rehabilitative actions. Objective: To present and discuss the effect of occupational therapy intervention with a 70-year old patient diagnosed with PD. Method: This is an experience report with a single subject. An intervention plan including an exercise program for extra-care activities and home visits for observation of possible difficulties and risk of falls in the environment has been prepared. The measurement of independence was performed using the Functional Independence Measure-FIM. The intervention occurred during six months. Results: It was identified improvement in eating and writing activities. There was one score of improvement documented in FIM. Conclusion: The importance of the intervention of occupational therapy is enforced, which in this context improved the occupational performance of this subject in the daily life activities, contributing for maintaining functional performance.
Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Brøvig; Blanc, Paul; Brisman, Jonas Brisman; Miller, Martin Reginald; Pedersen, Ole Find; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Viskum, Sven
Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures. We used PubMed and Embase to identify relevant original epidemiological peer-reviewed articles, supplemented with citations identified from references in key review articles. This yielded 4528 citations. Articles were excluded for lack of lung function measurement, insufficient occupational exposure classification, lack of either external or internal referents, non-accounting of age or smoking effect, or major analytic inadequacies preventing interpretation of findings. A structured data extraction sheet was used for the remaining 147 articles. Final inclusion was based on a positive qualitative Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) score (≥2+) for study quality, yielding 25 population-wide and 34 industry/occupation-specific studies, 15 on inorganic and 19 on organic dust exposure, respectively. There was a consistent and predominantly significant association between occupational exposures and COPD in 22 of 25 population-based studies, 12 of 15 studies with an inorganic/mineral dust exposure, and 17 of 19 studies on organic exposure, even though the studies varied in design, populations, and the use of measures of exposure and outcome. A nearly uniform pattern of a dose-response relationship between various exposures and COPD was found, adding to the evidence that occupational exposures from vapors, gas, dust, and fumes are risk factors for COPD. There is strong and consistent evidence to support a causal association between multiple categories of occupational exposure and COPD, both within and across industry groups.
Full Text Available Physical activity is interrelated with health, physical fitness, and quality of life. The role physical activity plays in the context of lifestyle disease prevention is indisputable. Physical exercises of yoga (hatha yoga are a type of recreational physical activity classified as a form of body and mind fitness. Hatha yoga training consists of slow or fast and smooth entering into, holding, and exiting yoga postures called “asanas”. Besides asanas, a yoga class may also include breathing exercises (pranayama and relaxation exercises. The aim of this paper is to analyse the benefits of regular hatha yoga training in the light of scientific studies in regard to primary and secondary prevention of lifestyle diseases (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory system diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and diseases of the musculoskeletal system in particular. The results of the analysis revealed that regular hatha yoga training including pranayama (breathing exercises produced a reduction in blood pressure and heart rate, improved respiratory functions, decreased blood glucose levels and body mass, as well as improving functional fitness and self-perceived quality of life. Therefore, hatha yoga as a form of physical activity can be a useful intervention for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory system diseases, metabolic diseases, and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, including back pain.
Gupta, Tanya; Arrandale, Victoria H; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn
Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease. Evidence suggests that education and training are effective prevention strategies. In spite of these known prevention strategies, workers continue to develop OCD. Little is reported regarding the actual training experience of workers. To examine the training experience of workers with contact dermatitis to identify areas for improvement. Participants were workers being assessed for contact dermatitis in an occupational health clinic. The anonymous survey collected demographics, workplace characteristics, and education and prevention practices. Approximately 80% reported general occupational health and safety training; however, only 49% reported skin-specific training (SST). For workers reporting SST, most received information regarding exposure avoidance, hand washing, and glove use. This content was reported as helpful by at least 50%. Workers who did not receive SST indicated the most important content would be warning signs of skin problems, how to avoid exposure and skin care while using gloves. While the study was anonymous and used self-reported of training experience, the study suggests there are gaps in skin protection training. Addressing these gaps may lead to improved prevention and reduction in OCD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.
Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.
Full Text Available Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Methods: Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. Results: From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. Conclusion: The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.
Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.WE THUS REALISE THAT MORBIDITY, DISABILITY, AND DEATH ASSAIL ALL THREE SOCIETIES: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in
Melissa S. Burroughs Peña
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba.
Jørgensen, Marit E; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter
BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... was to analyze whether obesity was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances in 2 groups of genetically homogeneous Inuit who were exposed to considerable differences in lifestyle. DESIGN: We studied obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional population survey of 2311...... Inuit living in Denmark (n = 995) or Greenland (n = 1316). The participants received an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Blood tests were supplemented by structured interviews and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. RESULTS: The trend in the association between obesity and metabolic effects...
Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M
To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to assess the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the adult population of Albania, a Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe which has experienced major behavioral changes in the past two decades. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, included a population-representative sample of 845 individuals (≥18 years residing in Tirana (345 men, mean age: ; 500 women, mean age: ; response rate: 84.5%. Assessment of GERD was based on Montreal definition. Covariates included socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors with GERD. Results. The overall prevalence of GERD was 11.9%. There were no significant sex differences, but a higher prevalence among the older participants. In fully adjusted models, there was a positive relationship of GERD with smoking, physical inactivity, fried food consumption, and obesity, but not so for alcohol intake and meat consumption. Conclusion. We obtained important evidence on the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of GERD in a Western Balkans' country. Smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were strong “predictors” of GERD in this population. Findings from this study should be replicated in prospective studies in Albania and other transitional settings.
Groeneveld Iris F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among workers in the construction industry is relatively high. Improving lifestyle lowers CVD risk and may have work-related benefits. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects on physical activity (PA, diet, and smoking of a lifestyle intervention consisting of individual counseling among male workers in the construction industry with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods In a randomized controlled trial including 816 male blue- and white-collar workers in the construction industry with an elevated risk of CVD, usual care was compared to a 6-month lifestyle intervention. The intervention consisted of individual counseling using motivational interviewing techniques, and was delivered by an occupational physician or occupational nurse. In three face to face and four telephone contacts, the participant's risk profile, personal determinants, and barriers for behavior change were discussed, and personal goals were set. Participants chose to aim at either diet and PA, or smoking. Data were collected at baseline and after six and 12 months, by means of a questionnaire. To analyse the data, linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The intervention had a statistically significant beneficial effect on snack intake (β-1.9, 95%CI -3.7; -0.02 and fruit intake (β 1.7, 95%CI 0.6; 2.9 at 6 months. The effect on snack intake was sustained until 12 months; 6 months after the intervention had ended (β -1.9, 95%CI -3.6; -0.2. The intervention effects on leisure time PA and metabolic equivalent-minutes were not statistically significant. The beneficial effect on smoking was statistically significant at 6 (OR smoking 0.3, 95%CI 0.1;0.7, but not at 12 months (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4; 1.6. Conclusions Beneficial effects on smoking, fruit, and snack intake can be achieved by an individual-based lifestyle intervention among
..., Disease, and Death-Employee Or Survivor's Actions § 10.101 How and when is a notice of occupational.... The claimant may withdraw his or her claim (but not the notice of occupational disease) by so... occupational diseases sustained as a result of exposure to injurious work factors that occurs on or after...
... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist for...
... NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the availability of a draft Alert entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease from...
Elsner, P; Schliemann, S
The different definitions of skin disease in medicine and in law are frequently confusing for dermatologists. While a skin disease may be defined medically referring to the definition of health by the WHO as a pathological condition of the skin leading to a disruption of the physical, mental and social well-being of the individual, legal definitions vary depending on the field of insurance law that is referred to. In the law of private health insurance, a skin disease is defined as an anomalous condition of the skin requiring medical treatment that exists independently of the subjective judgement of the insured person and needs to be objectively confirmed by a medical evaluation. In contrast, in the law of the social health insurance, the Federal Court of Social Justice defines disease as irregular physical or mental condition, deviating from the perception of a healthy human being that requires medical treatment or leads to inability to work. Substantial bodily disfigurement may be regarded as an irregular physical condition. In the law of the statutory accident insurance, occupational skin diseases are defined under clause 5101 of the occupational disease regulation as serious or repeatedly relapsing skin diseases that have forced a person to refrain from any work activities causal for the development, the aggravation or the recurrence of the disease. The Federal Court of Social Justice interprets the term "skin disease" from the protective purpose of the law, i.e. the protection against the economic and health consequences of the exposure to harmful agents and a thereby forced change of profession. This broad interpretation of the term "skin disease" leads to the recognition of diseases of the conjunctiva of the eye or diseases of the blood vessels of the skin due to cold damage as skin diseases according to clause 5101. For the correct treatment and possibly notification of occupational skin diseases in collaboration with various insurance carriers
Lund, T.M.; Iversen, Lars; Poulsen, Kjeld B.
Occupational health, work environment, retirement, uemployment, disability pension, epidemiology, follow-up, smoking, job mobility......Occupational health, work environment, retirement, uemployment, disability pension, epidemiology, follow-up, smoking, job mobility...
Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn
Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.
Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M
To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Filosa, L.; Frusteri, L. [Risk Assessment and Prevention, Technical Advisory Dept., Italian Workers Compensation Authority, Rome (Italy)
Every year about 8000 occupational diseases are accepted in Italy by I.N.A.I.L., the Italian Workers' Compensation Authority. The occupational diseases are caused by different agents (chemical, biological, physical) but only a very little percentage resulted to be caused by non ionizing radiations. In this paper the Authors report an analysis of occupational diseases caused by non ionising radiations denounced to I.N.A.I.L. and compensated. It is discussed the Italian situation in light of the controversial studies related to the link between exposure and health effects. Because of the uncertainty about an E.M.F. - health link, the main effort is to determine the probability and seriousness of E.M.F. hazard and to realize an accurate risk assessment at workplace, which is one of the main objectives pursued by I.N.A.I.L. Technical Advisory Department for Risk Assessment and Prevention. Moreover, in this paper it is also reported the state of advancement of Italian legislation on health protection against non ionizing radiations at workplace in view of the new European Directive (2004/40/C.E.). (authors)
Filosa, L.; Frusteri, L.
Every year about 8000 occupational diseases are accepted in Italy by I.N.A.I.L., the Italian Workers' Compensation Authority. The occupational diseases are caused by different agents (chemical, biological, physical) but only a very little percentage resulted to be caused by non ionizing radiations. In this paper the Authors report an analysis of occupational diseases caused by non ionising radiations denounced to I.N.A.I.L. and compensated. It is discussed the Italian situation in light of the controversial studies related to the link between exposure and health effects. Because of the uncertainty about an E.M.F. - health link, the main effort is to determine the probability and seriousness of E.M.F. hazard and to realize an accurate risk assessment at workplace, which is one of the main objectives pursued by I.N.A.I.L. Technical Advisory Department for Risk Assessment and Prevention. Moreover, in this paper it is also reported the state of advancement of Italian legislation on health protection against non ionizing radiations at workplace in view of the new European Directive (2004/40/C.E.). (authors)
Full Text Available Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto.There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among health care workers, presenting the current Peruvian law related.
Vandenberg, Brooke E; Advocat, Jenny; Hassed, Craig; Hester, Jennifer; Enticott, Joanne; Russell, Grant
Despite emerging evidence suggesting positive outcomes of mindfulness training for the self-management of other neurodegenerative diseases, limited research has explored its effect on the self-management of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to characterize the experiences of individuals participating in a facilitated, group mindfulness-based lifestyle program for community living adults with Stage 2 PD and explore how the program influenced beliefs about self-management of their disease. Our longitudinal qualitative study was embedded within a randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of a 6-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program on patient-reported function. The study was set in Melbourne, Australia in 2012-2013. We conducted semi-structured interviews with participants before, immediately after, and 6 months following participation in the program. Sixteen participants were interviewed prior to commencing the program. Of these, 12 were interviewed shortly after its conclusion, and 9 interviewed at 6 months. Prior to the program, participants felt a lack of control over their illness. A desire for control and a need for alternative tools for managing the progression of PD motivated many to engage with the program. Following the program, where participants experienced an increase in mindfulness, many became more accepting of disease progression and reported improved social relationships and self-confidence in managing their disease. Mindfulness-based lifestyle programs have the potential for increasing both participants' sense of control over their reactions to disease symptoms as well as social connectedness. Community-based mindfulness training may provide participants with tools for self-managing a number of the consequences of Stage 2 PD.
Horsley, Harry [RGIT Ltd., Research Unit, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, I.G. [Robert Gordon Univ., School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)
Recognition is growing of the influence of the workplace on lifestyle, and its consequent effect on health. This relation between work, lifestyle and health is highly relevant to the North Sea oil and gas industry where employment often demands the adoption of, and exposure to, a lifestyle far removed from that of comparable onshore occupations. This risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) which is the largest single cause of premature adult death in Great Britain can be classified according to those that are immodifiable (eg gender), and those that result from lifestyle choices (eg smoking, diet). The demographic profile (predominant gender, age group and nationality) of the offshore workforce is thought to place it in an inherently high risk group for CHD. Anecdotal evidence further suggests that the offshore lifestyle may expose the workforce to increased CHD risk factors, particularly in terms of diet, tobacco consumption and exercise habits. The lifestyle of offshore workers may be considered as a form of occupational hazard, comparable with recognised occupational risks. A sample of 500 offshore workers undertaking survival training were surveyed using a structured questionnaire to investigate aspects of their lifestyle. Subjects compared their smoking, dietary and exercise habits between periods onshore and offshore. Analysis of results pointed to some significant differences in lifestyle between these two periods. Additional factors such as occupation status (whether directly employed or contracted), onshore alcohol consumption, and subjects` perception of job and family satisfaction were also analysed in relation to lifestyle. Results indicate the potential benefits of health promotion intervention. Opportunities for such intervention are identified and discussed within the context of caring for an efficient utilisation of the Offshore Industry`s human resources. (Author)
Janssen, V.; Gucht, V. de; Dusseldorp, E.; Maes, S.
Background: Lifestyle modification programmes for coronary heart disease patients have been shown to effectively improve risk factors and related health behaviours, quality of life, reincidence, and mortality. However, improvements in routine cardiac care over the recent years may offset the
Renke, Marcin; Parszuto, Jacek; Rybacki, Marcin; Wołyniec, Wojciech; Rutkowski, Przemysław; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja
For a number of years chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been listed in the group of lifestyle diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. It is estimated that in Poland more than 4 million people may suffer from various stages of CKD. Chronic kidney disease may also be a consequence of all the other civilization diseases. At the same time it is worth noting that nephrological problems are increasingly being taken into account in modern medical certification. The aim of this work is, among other things, to improve safe access to the labor for patients with kidney diseases. In the legislation existing in our country since 2014 it is stated that chronic renal failure is a potential health contraindication to driving. Also in the annex to the Regulation of the Minister of Health dated 9 December 2015 on health conditions required for seafarers to work on a seagoing ship, it is said that ICD-10 codes (International Classification of Diseases) corresponding to acute and chronic renal failure (N17-N19) should be taken into account when qualifying employees to work at sea. Med Pr 2018;69(1):67-75. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers’ diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen’s compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker’s compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194. PMID:24472440
Gubbi, Sriram; Schwartz, Elianna; Crandall, Jill; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Atzmon, Gil; Braunstein, Rebecca; Barzilai, Nir; Milman, Sofiya
Offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL) manifest lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of lifestyle factors in this unique cohort is not known. Our study tested whether OPEL have lesser prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle factors. Prevalence of CVD and CVD risk factors was assessed in a population of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 to 94 years. Participants included OPEL (n = 395), defined as having at least 1 parent living past the age of 95 years, and offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS, n = 450), defined as having neither parent survive to 95 years. Medical and lifestyle information was obtained using standardized questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was defined based on validated classification scores. Dietary intake was evaluated with the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (2000) in a subgroup of the study population (n = 234). Our study found no significant differences in the prevalence of obesity, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, social strata scores, and dietary intake between the 2 groups. After adjustment for age and gender, the OPEL demonstrated 29% lower odds of having hypertension (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53 to 0.95), 65% lower odds of having had a stroke (95% CI 0.14 to 0.88), and 35% lower odds of having CVD (95% CI 0.43 to 0.98), compared with OPUS. In conclusion, exceptional parental longevity is associated with lower prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and nutrition, thus highlighting the potential role of genetics in disease-free survival among individuals with exceptional parental longevity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Järbrink-Sehgal, M Ellionore; Schmidt, Peter T; Sköldberg, Filip; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Hagström, Hannes; Andreasson, Anna
The burden of diverticular disease on society is high and is increasing with an aging population. It is therefore important to identify risk factors for disease development or progression. Many lifestyle behaviors during adolescence affect risk for later disease. We searched for adolescent lifestyle factors that affect risk of diverticular disease later in life. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 43,772 men (age, 18-20 y) conscripted to military service in Sweden from 1969 through 1970, with a follow-up period of 39 years. All conscripts underwent an extensive mental and physical health examination and completed questionnaires covering alcohol consumption, smoking, and use of recreational drugs; cardiovascular fitness was assessed using an ergometer cycle at the time of conscription. Outcome data were collected from national registers to identify discharge diagnoses of diverticular disease until the end of 2009. We performed Cox regression analysis to determine whether body mass index, cardiovascular fitness, smoking, use of recreational drugs, alcohol consumption, and risky use of alcohol, at time of conscription are independent risk factors for development of diverticular disease. Overweight and obese men had a 2-fold increased risk of diverticular disease compared to normal-weight men (hazard ratio, 2.00; P diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (P = .009). Smoking (P = .003), but not use of recreational drugs (P = .11), was associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization. Risky use of alcohol, but not alcohol consumption per se, was associated with a 43% increase in risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (P = .007). In a retrospective analysis of data from 43,772 men in Sweden, we associated being overweight or obese, a smoker, a high-risk user of alcohol, and/or having a low level of cardiovascular fitness in late adolescence with an increased risk of developing diverticular
Renz, K.; Seitz, G.
The companies for social insurance against occupational accidents form part of the statutory accident insurance system, and are responsible for compensation of occupational accidents or diseases. The compensation practice adopted by them is determined by legal provisions, which are explained in this paper as a background to the discussion of individual cases and the relevant decisions. (orig.) [de
Harber, P; McCoy, J M; Howard, K; Greer, D; Luo, J
An artificial intelligence expert-based system for facilitating the clinical recognition of occupational and environmental factors in lung disease has been developed in a pilot fashion. It utilizes a knowledge representation scheme to capture relevant clinical knowledge into structures about specific objects (jobs, diseases, etc) and pairwise relations between objects. Quantifiers describe both the closeness of association and risk, as well as the degree of belief in the validity of a fact. An independent inference engine utilizes the knowledge, combining likelihoods and uncertainties to achieve estimates of likelihood factors for specific paths from work to illness. The system creates a series of "paths," linking work activities to disease outcomes. One path links a single period of work to a single possible disease outcome. In a preliminary trial, the number of "paths" from job to possible disease averaged 18 per subject in a general population and averaged 25 per subject in an asthmatic population. Artificial intelligence methods hold promise in the future to facilitate diagnosis in pulmonary and occupational medicine.
Godderis, L; Mylle, G; Coene, M; Verbeek, C; Viaene, B; Bulterys, S; Schouteden, M
Occupational health and safety (OHS) services collect a wide range of data during health surveillance. To build a 'data warehouse' to make OHS data available for research and to investigate sector-specific health problems. Medical data were extracted, transformed and loaded into the data warehouse. After validation, data on lifestyle, categorized medication use, ICD-9-CM encoded sickness absences and health complaints, collected between 2010 and 2014, were analysed with logistic regression to compare proportions between employment sectors, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and year of examination. The data set comprised 585000 employees. Average age and employment seniority were 39 ± 12 and 8 ± 9 years, respectively. BMI was 26 ± 5 kg/m(2). Health complaints, medication use and sickness absence significantly increased with BMI and age. The proportion of employees with health problems was highest in health care (64%), government (61%) and manufacturing (60%) and lowest in the service sector. In all sectors, 10% of workers reported locomotor health problems, apart from the service sector (8%) with similar results for medication consumption. Neuropsychological drugs were more frequently used by health care workers (8%). The transport sector contained the highest proportion of cardiological medication users (12%). Finally, 30-59% of employees reported at least one sickness absence episode. Sickness absence due to locomotor issues was highest in manufacturing (11%) and health care (10%), followed by government (9%) and construction (9%). Significant differences in indices of workers' health were observed between sectors. This information is now being used in the implementation of a sector-oriented health surveillance programme. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Holness, D L; Kudla, I; Brown, J; Miller, S
Occupational skin disease (OSD) is a common occupational disease. Although primary prevention strategies are known, OSDs remain prevalent in a variety of work environments including the service sector (restaurant/food services, retail/wholesale, tourism/hospitality and vehicle sales and service). To obtain information about awareness and prevention of OSD in the service sector. Focus groups and a survey were conducted with two groups. The first consisted of staff of the provincial health and safety association for the service sector and the second group comprised representatives from sector employers. Focus groups highlighted key issues to inform the survey that obtained information about perceptions of awareness and prevention of OSD and barriers to awareness and prevention. Both provincial health and safety association staff and sector employer representatives highlighted low awareness and a low level of knowledge of OSD in the sector. Barriers to awareness and prevention included a low reported incidence of OSD, low priority, lack of training materials, lack of time and cost of training, lack of management support and workplace culture. A starting point for improving prevention of OSD in the service sector is increased awareness. Identification of the barriers to awareness and prevention will help to shape an awareness campaign and prevention strategies. Building on existing experience in Europe will be important. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Angel M Dzhambov
Full Text Available Noise exposure might be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD. Unlike residential exposure, however, evidence for occupational noise is limited. Given that high-quality quantitative synthesis of existing data is highly warranted for occupational safety and policy, we aimed at conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risks of IHD morbidity and mortality because of occupational noise exposure. We carried out a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and on the Internet since April 2, 2015, in English, Spanish, Russian, and Bulgarian. A quality-scoring checklist was developed a priori to assess different sources of methodological bias. A qualitative data synthesis was performed. Conservative assumptions were applied when appropriate. A meta-analysis was not feasible because of unresolvable methodological discrepancies between the studies. On the basis of five studies, there was some evidence to suggest higher risk of IHD among workers exposed to objectively assessed noise >75–80 dB for <20 years (supported by one high, one moderate, and one low quality study, opposed by one high and one moderate quality study. Three moderate and two low quality studies out of six found self-rated exposure to be associated with higher risk of IHD, and only one moderate quality study found no effect. Out of four studies, a higher mortality risk was suggested by one moderate quality study relying on self-rated exposure and one of high-quality study using objective exposure. Sensitivity analyses showed that at higher exposures and in some vulnerable subgroups, such as women, the adverse effects were considerably stronger. Despite methodological discrepancies and limitations of the included studies, occupational noise appeared to be a risk factor for IHD morbidity. Results suggested higher risk for IHD mortality only among vulnerable subgroups. Workers exposed to high occupational noise should be considered at higher overall risk of IHD.
Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N
The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.
Teenage girls and young women, whose job it was to apply luminous paint containing radium to watches during World War I, were among the first industrial radiation poisoning victims in the United States. This paper recounts both the story of how their afflictions became recognized occupational diseases and of the tangled web of governmental-industrial-academic collusion (largely based on industrial funding of research and experts) which delayed this recognition. It shows how these industrial-academic arrangements led to the establishment of the major academic training programs in occupational medical and industrial hygiene still in existence. Using historical sources, this study provides evidence of moral lapses by medical researchers, including directly lying to the victims, withholding data on the true extent of illness and radiation contamination and of distorting evidence. The pivotal role of the Consumers League and of Dr. Alice Hamilton in establishing the truth of the radium dial painting poisonings is discussed
Chu, Paula; Pandya, Ankur; Salomon, Joshua A; Goldie, Sue J; Hunink, M G Myriam
Evidence shows that healthy diet, exercise, smoking interventions, and stress reduction reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of these lifestyle interventions for individual risk profiles and determine their rank order in reducing 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. We computed risks using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations for a variety of individual profiles. Using published literature on risk factor reductions through diverse lifestyle interventions-group therapy for stopping smoking, Mediterranean diet, aerobic exercise (walking), and yoga-we calculated the risk reduction through each of these interventions to determine the strategy associated with the maximum benefit for each profile. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. In the base-case analysis, yoga was associated with the largest 10-year cardiovascular disease risk reductions (maximum absolute reduction 16.7% for the highest-risk individuals). Walking generally ranked second (max 11.4%), followed by Mediterranean diet (max 9.2%), and group therapy for smoking (max 1.6%). If the individual was a current smoker and successfully quit smoking (ie, achieved complete smoking cessation), then stopping smoking yielded the largest reduction. Probabilistic and 1-way sensitivity analysis confirmed the demonstrated trend. This study reports the comparative effectiveness of several forms of lifestyle modifications and found smoking cessation and yoga to be the most effective forms of cardiovascular disease prevention. Future research should focus on patient adherence to personalized therapies, cost-effectiveness of these strategies, and the potential for enhanced benefit when interventions are performed simultaneously rather than as single measures. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Rijks, Jesse M; Plat, Jogchum; Dorenbos, Elke; Penders, Bas; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E
Overweight and obese children have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in which thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been suggested as an intermediary factor. However, results of cross-sectional studies are inconclusive, and intervention studies investigating changes in TSH concentrations in association with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children are scarce. To gain insight in associations of circulating TSH concentrations and cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children. Nonrandomized lifestyle intervention. Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare. Three hundred thirty euthyroid overweight and obese children. Long-term lifestyle intervention. TSH concentrations, pituitary TSH release in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and cardiovascular risk parameters. At baseline, serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations were significantly associated with serum TSH concentrations. TSH release by the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH was not associated with cardiovascular risk parameters. During lifestyle intervention, several cardiovascular risk parameters significantly improved. In children whose body mass index z score improved, changes in TSH concentrations were significantly associated with changes in TC, LDL-C, and TAG concentrations. In euthyroid overweight and obese children, circulating TSH concentrations are positively associated with markers representing increased CVD risk. Changes in TSH concentrations are also associated with changes in lipid concentrations in children with successful weight loss, which is consistent with TSH being an intermediary factor in modulating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society
Lucas, Anna; Murray, Esther; Kinra, Sanjay
To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals.
Full Text Available Objective. To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. Methods. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. Results. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. Conclusions. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals.
Pathak, Gauri; Nichter, Mark
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder linked to type II diabetes and the leading cause of female infertility worldwide. Despite being considered a "lifestyle" disease, PCOS has received scant attention in the social science literature. In India, media accounts citing prominent doctors have expressed concern that the syndrome affects a growing number of urban middle-class Indian women. The general public, doctors, and afflicted women all attribute the condition to stress, lifestyle changes, "Westernization," modernization, and disrupted circadian rhythms. These factors are associated with changes in diets, gender roles, and aspirations since 1991, when the introduction of neoliberal reforms opened up the country to processes of globalization. Women with PCOS have come to be seen as living embodiments of the biosocial stresses associated with modern urban middle-class living, and discourse about PCOS serves as commentary indexing anxieties about social and political-economic shifts in the country. In this paper, based on ethnographic fieldwork in Mumbai, India, with 141 participants from 2012 to 2014, we point to local understanding of PCOS as corresponding to an ecosocial perspective that highlights the structural vulnerabilities of urban middle-class women. Whereas most research on structural vulnerabilities and health has centered on economically and otherwise disadvantaged groups, we use PCOS as a case study to draw attention to the rise of lifestyle disorders linked to the impact of globalization and the pressures of "modern" identities and aspirations among middle-class populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alm-Roijer, Carin; Stagmo, Martin; Udén, Giggi; Erhardt, Leif
Many patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) are not managed adequately, and we often fail to reach treatment targets. To investigate if knowledge of risk factors for CHD, measured by a questionnaire, would show any relation to advice to compliance to lifestyle changes to attain treatment goals and adherence to drug therapy. Men and women event were screened consecutively (509) from the medical records. Responders (392) were interviewed, examined and received a questionnaire. Three hundred and forty-seven patients answered the questionnaire regarding their general knowledge of risk factors for CHD, compliance to lifestyle changes to attain treatment goals and adherence to drug therapy. There were statistically significant correlations between general knowledge about risk factors for CHD and compliance to certain lifestyle changes: weight, physical activity, stress management, diet, attainment of lipid level goals and the likelihood of taking prescribed blood pressure-lowering drugs. General knowledge of risk factors had no correlation to blood glucose or blood pressure levels nor on smoking habits or treatment patterns for prescribed lipid- and blood glucose-lowering drugs. Knowledge correlates to patient behaviour with respect to some risk factors, which should be recognised in preventive programs.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyles based on non-smoking, an acceptable BMI, a high fruit and vegetable intake, regular physical activity, and low/moderate alcohol intake, are associated with reductions in the incidence of certain chronic diseases, but to date there is limited evidence on cognitive function and dementia. METHODS: In 1979 healthy behaviours were recorded on 2,235 men aged 45-59 years in Caerphilly, UK. During the following 30 years incident diabetes, vascular disease, cancer and death were recorded, and in 2004 cognitive state was determined. FINDINGS: Men who followed four or five of the behaviours had an odds ratio (OR and confidence intervals (CI for diabetes, corrected for age and social class, of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.19, 1.31; P for trend with increasing numbers of healthy behaviours <0.0005. For vascular disease the OR was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.84; P for trend <0.0005, and there was a delay in vascular disease events of up to 12 years. Cancer incidence was not significantly related to lifestyle although there was a reduction associated with non-smoking (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.79. All-cause mortality was reduced in men following four or five behaviours (OR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.67; P for trend <0.005. After further adjustment for NART, the OR for men following four or five healthy behaviours was 0.36 (95% CI: 0.12, 1.09; P for trend <0.001 for cognitive impairment, and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.99; P for trend <0.02 for dementia. The adoption of a healthy lifestyle by men was low and appears not to have changed during the subsequent 30 years, with under 1% of men following all five of the behaviours and 5% reporting four or more in 1979 and in 2009. INTERPRETATION: A healthy lifestyle is associated with increased disease-free survival and reduced cognitive impairment but the uptake remains low.
Hindle, John V; Hurt, Catherine S; Burn, David J; Brown, Richard G; Samuel, Mike; Wilson, Kenneth C; Clare, Linda
Cognitive reserve theory seeks to explain the observed mismatch between the degree of brain pathology and clinical manifestations. Early-life education, midlife social and occupational activities and later-life cognitive and social interactions are associated with a more favourable cognitive trajectory in older people. Previous studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) have suggested a possible role for the effects of cognitive reserve, but further research into different proxies for cognitive reserve and longitudinal studies is required. This study examined the effects of cognitive lifestyle on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of cognition and dementia severity in people with PD. Baseline assessments of cognition, and of clinical, social and demographic information, were completed by 525 participants with PD. Cognitive assessments were completed by 323 participants at 4-year follow-up. Cognition was assessed using the measures of global cognition dementia severity. Cross-sectional and longitudinal serial analyses of covariance for cognition and binomial regression for dementia were performed. Higher educational level, socio-economic status and recent social engagement were associated with better cross-sectional global cognition. In those with normal cognition at baseline, higher educational level was associated with better global cognition after 4 years. Increasing age and low levels of a measure of recent social engagement were associated with an increased risk of dementia. Higher cognitive reserve has a beneficial effect on performance on cognitive tests and a limited effect on cognitive decline and dementia risk in PD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hindle, John V; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A; Martyr, Anthony; Bastable, Alexandra J M; Pye, Kirstie L; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C; Thomas, Enlli M; Clare, Linda
Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD. Sixty-nine people diagnosed with early PD without dementia were recruited as part of the Bilingualism as a protective factor in Age-related Neurodegenerative Conditions study. Participants completed a battery of tests of executive function. The Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire was completed as a comprehensive assessment of lifelong cognitive lifestyle. Non-parametric correlations compared clinical measures with executive function scores. Cross-sectional analyses of covariance were performed comparing the performance of low and high cognitive reserve groups on executive function tests. Correlational analyses showed that better executive function scores were associated with younger age, higher levodopa dose and higher Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire scores. Higher cognitive reserve was associated with better motor function, but high and low cognitive reserve groups did not differ in executive function. Cognitive reserve, although associated with global cognition, does not appear to be associated with executive function. This differential effect may reflect the specific cognitive profile of PD. The long-term effects of cognitive reserve on executive function in PD require further exploration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans
Objectives Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses
Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice.
Bolormaa, Norov; Narantuya, Luvsanbazar; de Courten, Maximilian
The overall aim is to determine the prevalence of lifestyle related risk factors for noncommunicable disease (NCD) in Mongolia. The prevalence of NCD risk factors was survey in among 15-64 years old population, using the World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach for NCD surveillance...... blood pressure. In regard to body mass index risk categories, 31.6% (+/- 0.1 CI) of the population aged 15-64 years was overweight and obese. The prevalence of people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and elevated blood cholesterol level were 12.5% (+/- 0.05 CI) and 7.0% (+/- 0.01 CI) among 25...
Khavandi, Kaivan; Brownrigg, Jack; Hankir, Mohammed; Sood, Harpreet; Younis, Naveed; Worth, Joy; Greenstein, Adam; Soran, Handrean; Wierzbicki, Anthony; Goldsmith, David J
In recent decades we have seen a surge in the incidence of diabetes in industrialized nations; a threat which has now extended to the developing world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant microvascular and macrovascular disease, with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has cast uncertainty on the benefits of very tight glycaemic goals in these individuals. The natural history of disease follows an insidious course from disordered glucose metabolism in a pre-diabetic state, often with metabolic syndrome and obesity, before proceeding to diabetes mellitus. In the research setting, lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical intervention targeted against obesity and glycaemia has shown that metabolic disturbances can be halted and indeed regressed if introduced at an early stage of disease. In addition to traditional anti-diabetic medications such as the glinides, sulphonylureas and the glitazones, novel therapies manipulating the endocannabinoid system, neurotransmitters, intestinal absorption and gut hormones have shown dual benefit in weight loss and glycaemic control normalisation. Whilst these treatments will not and should not replace lifestyle change, they will act as invaluable adjuncts for weight loss and aid in normalising the metabolic profile of individuals at risk of diabetes. Utilizing novel therapies to prevent diabetes should be the focus of future research, with the aim of preventing the challenging microvascular and macrovascular complications, and ultimately cardiovascular death.
Mahler, V.; Aalto-Korte, K.; Alfonso, J. H.; Bakker, J. G.; Bauer, A.; Bensefa-Colas, L.; Boman, A.; Bourke, J.; Bubaš, M.; Bulat, P.; Chaloupka, J.; Constandt, L.; Danielsen, T. E.; Darlenski, R.; Dugonik, A.; Ettler, K.; Gimenez-Arnau, A.; Gonçalo, M.; Johansen, J. D.; John, S. M.; Kiec-Swierczynska, M.; Koch, P.; Kohánka, V.; Krecisz, B.; Larese Filon, F.; Ljubojević, S.; Macan, J.; Marinović, B.; Matura, M.; Mihatsch, P. W.; Mijakoski, D.; Minov, J.; Pace, J.; Pesonen, M.; Ramada Rodilla, J. M.; Rast, H.; Reljic, V.; Salavastru, C.; Schuster, C.; Schuttelaar, M. L.; Simon, D.; Spiewak, R.; Jurakic Tončić, R.; Urbanček, S.; Valiukevičienė, S.; Weinert, P.; Wilkinson, M.; Uter, W.
Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal diseases,
Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dort E; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt
Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treatment for a hypothetical cardiovascular risk, and who subsequently stated that they preferred lifestyle changes to medication. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between barriers to lifestyle changes and relevant covariates. A total of 45% of respondents were identified with at least one barrier to introducing 30 min extra exercise daily, 30% of respondents reported at least one barrier to dietary change, and among smokers at least one barrier to smoking cessation was reported by 62% of the respondents. The perception of specific barriers to lifestyle change depended on sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. We observed a considerable heterogeneity between different social groups in the population regarding a number of barriers to lifestyle change. Our study demonstrates that social inequality exists in the ability to take appropriate preventive measures through lifestyle changes to stay healthy. This finding underlines the challenge of social inequality even in populations with equal and cost-free access to health care. Our study suggests supplementing traditional public campaigns to counter cardiovascular disease by using individualized and targeted initiatives.
McKeagney, T F P; Addley, K; Asanati, K
Respiratory physicians are likely to encounter occupational lung disease (OLD) in their daily practice. To assess the profile of cases being encountered by general respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland (NI) and determine satisfaction with training, confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD. An online survey of all consultant respiratory physicians currently practising in NI. Questions assessed the numbers of new cases seen over the preceding year, case type, satisfaction with specialist registrar training in OLD and degree of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. Of the 40 consultants identified, the response rate was 80% (n = 32) with 94% of respondents (n = 30) indicating they had dealt with patients suspected of having occupation-related respiratory symptoms. The most commonly encountered OLDs were pleural plaques (91% of respondents), occupational asthma (88%), asbestosis (84%), non-asbestosis pulmonary fibrosis (76%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (67%) and mesothelioma (66%). Just over one third of consultants (36%, n = 10) indicated a lack of confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD with almost half (48%) dissatisfied with OLD training as a registrar and a further 78% (n = 25) indicating they would value additional training in OLD as a consultant. The majority of respiratory consultants in NI encountered OLD in their day to day practice and half were dissatisfied with their specialist registrar training in OLD and express a lack of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. This highlights the need for additional training at both registrar and consultant level. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Gupta, Rajeev; Misra, Anoop; Pais, Prem; Rastogi, Priyanka; Gupta, V P
There is a wide disparity in prevalence and cardiovascular disease mortality in different Indian states. To determine significance of various nutritional factors and other lifestyle variables in explaining this difference in cardiovascular disease mortality we performed an analysis. Mortality data were obtained from the Registrar General of India. In 1998 the annual death rate for India was 840/100,000 population. Cardiovascular diseases contribute to 27% of these deaths and its crude mortality rate was 227/100,000. Major differences in cardiovascular disease mortality rates in different Indian states were reported varying from 75-100 in sub-Himalayan states of Nagaland, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim to a high of 360-430 in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Goa. Lifestyle data were obtained from national surveys conducted by the government of India. The second National Family Health Survey (26 states, 92,447 households, 301,984 adults) conducted in 1998-1999 reported on various demographic and lifestyle variables and India Nutrition Profile Study reported dietary intake of 177,841 adults (18 states, 75,229 men, 102,612 women). Cardiovascular disease mortality rates were correlated with smoking, literacy levels, prevalence of stunted growth at 3-years (as marker of fetal undernutrition), adult mean body mass index, prevalence of overweight and obesity, dietary consumption of calories, cereals and pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots, tubers and other vegetables, milk and milk products, fats and oils, and sugar and jaggery. As a major confounder in different states is poverty, all the partial correlation coefficients were adjusted for illiteracy, fertility rate and infant mortality rate. There was a significant positive correlation of cardiovascular disease mortality with prevalence of obesity (R=0.37) and dietary consumption of fats (R=0.67), milk and its products (R=0.27) and sugars (R=0.51) and negative correlation with green leafy vegetable intake
Bollyky, Thomas J; Templin, Tara; Andridge, Caroline; Dieleman, Joseph L
The amount of international aid given to address noncommunicable diseases is minimal. Most of it is directed to wealthier countries and focuses on the prevention of unhealthy lifestyles. Explanations for the current direction of noncommunicable disease aid include that these are diseases of affluence that benefit from substantial research and development into their treatment in high-income countries and are better addressed through domestic tax and policy measures to reduce risk-factor prevalence than through aid programs. This study assessed these justifications. First, we examined the relationships among premature adult mortality, defined as the probability that a person who has lived to the age of fifteen will die before the age of sixty from noncommunicable diseases; the major risk factors for these diseases; and country wealth. Second, we compared noncommunicable and communicable diseases prevalent in poor and wealthy countries alike, and their respective links to economic development. Last, we examined the respective roles that wealth and risk prevention have played in countries that achieved substantial reductions in premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases. Our results support greater investment in cost-effective noncommunicable disease preventive care and treatment in poorer countries and a higher priority for reducing key risk factors, particularly tobacco use. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Drew W. R. Halliday
Full Text Available Objective: Increased intraindividual variability (IIV in function has been linked to various age-related outcomes including cognitive decline and dementia. Most studies have operationalized IIV as fluctuations across trials (e.g., response latencies for a single task, with comparatively few studies examining variability across multiple tasks for a given individual. In the present study, we derive a multivariable operationalization of dispersion across a broad profile of neuropsychological measures and use this index along with degree of engaged lifestyle to predict risk of cognitive impairment. Participants and Methods: Participants (n = 60 were community-dwelling older adults aged 65+ years (M = 74.1, SD = 6.5 participating in a cross-sectional investigation of risk factors for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and probable Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Participants were classified into three subgroups based on test performance and clinical judgement. Healthy controls (n = 30 scored better than −1 SD relative to existing norms on all classification measures, in the absence of memory complaints or functional impairments. The a-MCI group (n = 23 had self- or informant-reported memory complaints and scored 1 SD or more below the mean for at least one memory task while scoring better than 1 SD below the mean for all other cognitive domains, in the absence of functional impairments. The AD group (n = 7 scored at least 2 SD below the mean for two cognitive domains (including memory with impairments in functioning. Measures spanned a range of cognitive domains (episodic memory, executive function, language, with the derived dispersion estimates reflecting variability across an individual’s neuropsychological profile relative to the group average. Further, an Activities Lifestyle Questionnaire, indexing social, cognitive, and physical behaviors, was administered to assess the protective benefits of engaged lifestyle. Results: Multinomial
Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Brischetto, Daniela; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M
Fatty liver is associated with alcohol habits and/or overweight/obesity. We challenged several lifestyle features associated with fatty liver and, particularly, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among them, sleep shortage as a result of nightlife habits and a preference for plus-size fashion were assessed. The latter consists of fashionable plus-sized clothing for actual individuals' size and reflects a frequent attitude of some social or age groups, conceivably indicating more global and widespread trend and behaviour. We studied a group of 708 non-diabetic youngsters, 458 women and 250 men, 21.72 ± 3.71 years old (range 15-35 years), referred for minor digestive ailments for clinical assessment, ultrasound detection of fatty liver and nutritional counselling. Details of personal history regarding lifestyle, food intake frequency and alcohol intake, dietary and physical exercise profile, sleep duration and clothing preferences were recorded. The prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort of youngsters is 67/708 (9.4%). Even if it is quantitatively very low in both groups, the average alcohol intake, always below 20 g/day, is greater in NAFLD subjects (5.83 ± 4.32 g) vs. subjects with normal liver (2.02 ± 3.20 g). The number of meals/day and adherence to a Mediterranean diet profile are smaller in NAFLD subjects. By multiple regression, BMI, sedentary life, plus-sized clothing for their actual size, sleep shortage and lower frequency of daily food intake are associated with the presence of NAFLD. Onset and continuation of fatty liver disease, beyond food and exercise quantity and quality, with their effects on obesity, may also be associated with other aspects of lifestyle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Physical exercise has been established as a low-cost, safe, and effective way to manage chronic intractable pain. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH using a mouse model of neuropathic pain (NPP. Epigenetic changes in activated microglia and maintained GABA synthesis in the spinal dorsal horn may contribute to EIH. Voluntary exercise (VE, a strong reward for animals, also induced EIH, which may be due in part to the activation of dopamine (DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA. VE increases the expression of pCREB in dopaminergic neurons in the VTA, which would enhance dopamine production, and thereby contributes to the activation of the mesolimbic reward system in NPP model mice. We demonstrated that neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, a major input source of rewarding stimuli to the VTA, were activated by exercise.Chronic pain is at least partly attributed to sedentary and inactive lifestyle as indicated by the Fear-avoidance model. Therefore, chronic pain could be recognized as a lifestyle-related disease. Physical activity/inactivity may be determined by genetic/epigenetic and neural factors encoded in our brain. The hypothalamus and reward system is closely related in the axis of food intake, energy metabolism and physical activity. Understanding the interactions between the mesolimbic DA system and the hypothalamus that sense and regulate energy balance is thus of significant importance. For example, proopiomelanocortin neurons and melanocortin 4 receptors may play a role in connecting these two systems. Therefore, in a certain sense, chronic pain and obesity may share common behavioral and neural pathology, i.e. physical inactivity, as a result of inactivation of the mesolimbic DA system. Exercise and increasing physical activity in daily life may be important in treating and preventing chronic pain, a life-style related disease. Keywords: Exercise
Full Text Available Background: Poor medication management may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of Aboriginal people in Australia. Yet while there is extensive literature about the perceptions of healthcare providers on this issue, there is limited information on the perceptions of Aboriginal people themselves. Objectives: To investigate the perceptions of a group of Aboriginal people attending a Victorian regional Aboriginal Health Service (AHS with diagnosed medical conditions requiring medications, of their lifestyle, disease management and medication usage. Methods: Data was collected through one to one in depth interviews using a semi-structured ‘yarning’ process. Twenty patients were invited to participate in the study and were interviewed by Aboriginal Health Workers in a culturally appropriate manner. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Our results show that the majority of participants perceived that changes in lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, and smoking cessation would help improve their health. Most patients reported having been counselled on their medicines, and while the majority reported adherence and acknowledgement of the efficacy of their medicines, there was a lack of clarity regarding long term maintenance on regimens. Finally, while the majority reported taking over the counter products, some did not see the need to inform their doctor about this, or chose not to. Conclusion: Chronic illness was perceived as common in families and community. Patients relied mostly on their health care professionals as sources for their drug information. Patients may have benefited from further counselling in the area of complementary and other over the counter medicines, as well as on the necessity of maintenance of regimes for chronic disease management. Finally, lifestyle changes such as dietary improvements and smoking cessation were identified as
Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dort e; Jarb?l, Dorte Ejg; S?ndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt
BACKGROUND: Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics.METHODS: Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treat...
Fan, C Y; Li, X D; Wen, W; Wang, Y Y; Zhang, Y; Lang, L
To investigate the characteristics of 136 patients with occupational diseases, to summarize key techniques used in field investigation, and to provide a scientific basis for the development of standard operating procedures for field investigation of occupational disease diagnosis. Field investigation and routine data analysis were performed to analyze the cases diagnosed by Guangdong Provincial Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment from January 2009 to December 2014. A total of 136 cases of occupational diseases were diagnosed by Guangdong Provincial Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment from 2009 to 2014, and there were 66 cases of leukemia, 18 cases of suspected occupational benzene poisoning, 12 cases of suspected occupational handarm vibration disease, and 11 cases of suspected pneumoconiosis. Of all these patients, 41.91% were engaged in at least three types of work, 70.59% were exposed to at least three types of chemicals, 25.74% experienced changes in technical processes and chemicals, and 47.06% had disputes on the chemicals they were exposed to during verification by both parties. Occupational hazard factors were detected. Most samples (358)were used to measure benzene concentration in workplace air, among which 11.7% had a benzene concentration of >6.00 mg/m(3)(exceeding standard), 13.41% had a benzene concentration of 3.26~6.00 mg/m(3), 75.42% had a benzene concentration ofoccupational hand-arm vibration disease, suspected pneumoconiosis, and suspected occupational noiseinduced hearing loss had high overstandard rates (100%, 93.8%, and 83.3%, respectively). Field investigation of occupational disease diagnosis reveals large numbers of cases of leukemia, suspected occupational benzene poisoning, suspected occupational hand-arm vibration disease, and suspected pneumoconiosis. The key aspects of field investigation include confirmation of the history of occupational exposure, identification of occupational hazard
Full Text Available Our aim was to study how significant psychosocial factors are in occupational stress and cardiovascular diseases evolvement in workers employed at petrochemical production; we also intended to work out a set of preventive measures. Our hygienic and social-psychological research enabled us to detect factors causing stress evolvement in workers employed at petrochemical production. These factors included chemical impact, noise, unfavorable microclimate, labor hardness and labor intensity. High level of risk for their own lives and responsibility for safety of others, as well as work under time deficiency conditions with increased responsibility for the final results, were the most significant psychosocial factors for workers. In the course of questioning we detected that 74 % machine operators, 63 % tool men working with controllers and automatic devices, and 57 % repairmen mentioned having stress at work. Here 38 % workers gave a subjective estimation of their professional activity as having apparent "stress nature". The questioning revealed that 48 % workers with various occupations had increased parameters as per anxiety scale (HADS; 23 % workers had increased parameters as per depressions scale (HADS. Primary hypertension was the most widely spread nosologic form among chronic non-infectious diseases; it was found in 46.1 % operators and in 45.2 % repairmen dealing with processing stations repair. 30.1 % tool men working with controllers and automatic devices had average occupational causation of primary hypertension by production factors. We detected direct relation between hyperlipidemia and age and working period. We created foundation for preventive measures and worked out a program aimed at increasing resistance to stress at corporate and individual level. It will provide significant social effect and later on economic one. To overcome social stress we need to create safe working conditions at workplaces and to increase labor motivation
Yokoyama, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu; Homma, Yukio; Takeda, Masayuki; Gotoh, Momokazu; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Akino, Hironobu; Hayashi, Koichi; Yonemoto, Koji
The objective of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship of nocturnal polyuria in patients with common lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder, with special attention to hypertension. After baseline assessment, patients recorded 24-hour urinary frequency/volume, blood pressure and heart rate for 3 days. They were stratified into 4 groups based on mean blood pressure, including no hypertension, and controllable, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension, respectively. The 2,353 eligible patients, who had urinary urgency once or more per week and 1 or more nocturnal toilet visits, were enrolled from 543 sites in Japan. Of these patients complete data, including the 24-hour frequency volume chart, were collected from 1,271. Multivariable analyses showed a statistically significant association of nocturnal polyuria with increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p polyuria in women alone (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia were significantly associated with nocturnal polyuria in men alone (p polyuria was significantly associated with age, male gender, and untreated hypertension in patients with lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder. The association between hypertension and nocturnal polyuria was significant in women alone. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kataoka, T.; Sakoda, A.; Yoshimoto, M.; Nakagawa, S.; Toyota, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Yamato, K.; Ishimori, Y.; Kawabe, A.; Hanamoto, K.; Taguchi, T.; Yamaoka, K.
Our previous studies showed the possibility that activation of the anti-oxidative function alleviates various oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. Results showed that, low-dose X-ray irradiation activated superoxide dismutase and inhibits oedema following ischaemia-reperfusion. To alleviate ischaemia-reperfusion injury with transplantation, the changes of the anti-oxidative function in liver graft using low-dose X-ray irradiation immediately after exenteration were examined. Results showed that liver grafts activate the anti-oxidative function as a result of irradiation. In addition, radon inhalation enhances the anti-oxidative function in some organs, and alleviates alcohol-induced oxidative damage of mouse liver. Moreover, in order to determine the most effective condition of radon inhalation, mice inhaled radon before or after carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) administration. Results showed that radon inhalation alleviates CCl 4 -induced hepatopathy, especially prior inhalation. It is highly possible that adequate activation of anti-oxidative functions induced by low-dose irradiation can contribute to preventing or reducing oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. (authors)
Diepgen, T L; Drexler, H; Elsner, P; Schmitt, J
With the revision of the German Ordinance on Occupational Diseases, skin cancer due to UV irradiation was amended as a new occupational disease to the list of occupational diseases in Germany. The new occupational disease BK 5103 has the following wording: "Squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis of the skin caused by natural UV irradiation". Actinic keratoses are to be considered as multiple according to this new occupational diseases if they occur as single lesions of more than five annually, or are confluent in an area > 4 cm(2) (field cancerization). It is estimated that more than 2.5 million employees are exposed to natural UV irradiation due to their work (outdoor workers) in Germany and therefore have an increased risk of skin cancer. In this article the medical and technical prerequisites which have to be fulfilled for this new occupational disease in Germany are introduced.
Egger, G; Katz, D; Sagner, M; Dixon, J; Stevens, J
Changes in patterns of living result in changes in the nature and causes of disease. The industrial revolution of the late 18th century, and the technological revolution of the late 20th century are cases in point. The former was associated with a decline in infectious diseases; the latter with an increase in lifestyle and environmentally induced chronic diseases . Health practices are typically modified to deal with such changes, hence the recent rise in interest in lifestyle-oriented forms of clinical practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In this commentary, the pathogenesis of alveolitis is examined and elucidated by animal models. The use of broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) and Ga-67 citrate whole-body scanning as a measure of the activity of alveolar inflammation in workers is discussed. Gallium scan indices have been reported to be elevated in asbestosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis; diseases which may now be evaluated at earlier, potentially reversible stages. Research in emphysema and other lung diseases associated with α 1 antitrypsin deficiency may help explain why coal miners develop focal emphysema. Furthermore, investigation of genetic factors may reveal why workers with similar exposures have a different susceptibility for the development of pneumoconiosis or lung cancer. Occupational asthma may not respond to removal of the worker from exposure because reactive airways may be a predisposing factor for chronic ashthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. A continuing challenge will be disease risk in new industries such as electronics and alternate energy industries and new diseases in worker groups not previously studied, such as the variety of pneumoconioses among dental laboratory technicians who work with exotic metal alloys. 52 references
Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der
A substantial proportion of the patients treated by occupational therapists have a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to describe the outlines of occupational therapy treatment for three specific groups of chronic diseases: progressive neurological diseases, cerebrovascular accident and
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [FR Doc. 2011...
Venema, A.; Steenbeek, R.; Dam, L. van; Vroome, E. de
Objectives: Occupational diseases are common and result in a substantial disease burden and high sickness absence. Reliable data on the incidence and a better understanding of the risk factors will help to develop preventive measures. Methods: Several sources of measuring occupational diseases were
... recommendations to the Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training...
Mahler, V.; Aalto-Korte, K.; Alfonso, J. H.; Bakker, J. G.; Bauer, A.; Bensefa-Colas, L.; Boman, A.; Bourke, J.; Bubas, M.; Bulat, P.; Chaloupka, J.; Constandt, L.; Danielsen, T. E.; Darlenski, R.; Dugonik, A.; Ettler, K.; Gimenez-Arnau, A.; Goncalo, M.; Johansen, J. D.; John, S. M.; Kiec-Swierczynska, M.; Koch, P.; Kohanka, V.; Krecisz, B.; Filon, F. Larese; Ljubojevic, S.; Macan, J.; Marinovic, B.; Matura, M.; Mihatsch, P. W.; Mijakoski, D.; Minov, J.; Pace, J.; Pesonen, M.; Rodilla, J. M. Ramada; Rast, H.; Reljic, V.; Salavastru, C.; Schuster, C.; Schuttelaar, M. L.; Simon, D.; Spiewak, R.; Toncic, R. Jurakic; Urbancek, S.; Valiukeviciene, S.; Weinert, P.; Wilkinson, M.; Uter, W.
Background: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal
Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure.
O'Doherty, Mark G.; Cairns, Karen; O'Neill, Vikki
-state Markov models to calculate the independent and joint effects of smoking, physical activity, obesity and alcohol consumption on LE with and without CVD. Men and women aged 50 years who have a favourable lifestyle (overweight but not obese, light/moderate drinker, non-smoker and participates in vigorous......-free” years, though a healthy lifestyle was also associated with extra years lived after a CVD event. There are sizeable benefits to LE without CVD and also for survival after CVD onset when people favour a lifestyle characterized by salutary behaviours. Remaining a non-smoker yielded the greatest extra years...... physical activity) lived between 7.4 (in Tromsø men) and 15.7 (in ESTHER women) years longer than those with an unfavourable lifestyle (overweight but not obese, light/moderate drinker, smoker and does not participate in physical activity). The greater part of the extra life years was in terms of “disease...
Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti
Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.
Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti
Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases
Manschot, A; van Oostrom, S H; Smit, H A; Verschuren, W M M; Picavet, H S J
To study whether being diagnosed with a cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with improvements in lifestyles. We used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, a prospective study among 6386 Dutch men and women initially aged 20-59years who were examined four times over 15years (1987-2007). Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the effect of a self-reported diagnosis of CVD (n=403) or DM (n=221) on smoking, alcohol consumption, weight, diet and physical activity. Self-reported diagnosis of CVD increased rates of smoking cessation (OR=2.2, 95%CI 1.6 - 3.1). Adults reporting a diagnosis of DM (relatively) decreased weight (3.2%, 95%CI 2.2 - 4.2), (relatively) decreased energy intake (4.2%, 95%CI 0.7 - 7.7), decreased energy percentage from saturated fat (0.4%, 95%CI 0.0 - 0.9) and increased fish consumption (2.8 g/day, 95%CI 0.4 - 5.1). A self-reported diagnosis of CVD or DM was not associated with changes in physical activity. A diagnosis of CVD or DM may act, along with possible effects of medical treatment, as a trigger to adopt a healthier lifestyle in terms of smoking cessation, healthier diet and weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nash, Mark S; Kressler, Jochen
Problems posed by obesity-related endocrine diseases embody a national health crisis. Caloric excess and sedentary lifestyle from which they develop also pose significant challenges for rehabilitation providers. Almost two thirds of the U.S. population are currently overweight or obese, a number that has increased by >10% within the last decade and is expected to grow. An overweight body habitus is strongly associated with clinical hazards, including cardiometabolic syndrome, diabetes hypertension, and coronary artery disease. The component health risks of the cardiometabolic syndrome include coalescing of risk factors that predict a health calamity unless effective interventions can be developed and widely adopted. Obesity by itself is now considered an American Diabetes Association-qualified disability, but it is also disturbingly prevalent in other physical disability groupings of adults and children. This monograph describes successes of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a National Institutes of Health multisite randomized controlled trial that reported significant weight reduction and a 58% decreased incidence of type-2 diabetes accompanying 1 year of structured lifestyle intervention. This treatment benefit (1) exceeded that of metformin pharmacotherapy, (2) was so powerful that the trial was closed before reaching endpoints, and (3) was judged cost-effective for the patient and society. The DPP roadmap incorporating physical activity, diet, and behavioral approaches has been widely adapted to specific community, faith, racial, ethnic, school, and national populations with excellent outcomes success. The lockstep physical activity approach, activity prescription, and long-term success of the program are described and compared with other programs to illustrate effective countermeasures for the pandemics of obesity and obesity-related cardioendocrine disease. We will illustrate adaptation of the DPP for a cohort of persons with disability from spinal cord
Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel
The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases.
Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders
Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using a combinat......Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using...
Kang, J H-E; Kang, J Y
Several lifestyle and dietary factors are commonly cited as risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and modification of these factors has been advocated as first-line measures for the management of GORD. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 2005 to the present relating to the effect of these factors and their modification on GORD symptoms, physiological parameters of reflux as well as endoscopic appearances. Conflicting results existed for the association between smoking, alcohol and various dietary factors in the development of GORD. These equivocal findings are partly due to methodology problems. There is recent good evidence that weight reduction and smoking cessation are beneficial in reducing GORD symptoms. Clinical and physiological studies also suggest that some physical measures as well as modification of meal size and timing can also be beneficial. However, there is limited evidence for the role of avoiding alcohol and certain dietary ingredients including carbonated drinks, caffeine, fat, spicy foods, chocolate and mint.
Heberlein, I.; Ludin, H.; Scholz, J.; Vieregge, P.
Present personality traits (Freiburg personality inventory, FPI-R), depression (von Zerssen's depression scale), and self assessed state of health were evaluated in 15 twin pairs (six monozygotic and nine dizygotic; mean age 62.5 years) discordant for idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in 17 unrelated healthy control subjects. The twins had additional questionnaire based interviews on premorbid lifestyle. For disability, twins with Parkinson's disease scored lower on FPI-R than controls in "achievement orientation" and "extraversion", higher in "inhibitedness", "somatic complaints", and "emotionality". They scored higher for depression and for state of health than unaffected twins and controls. For zygosity, monozygotic twins scored lower than dizygotic twins in "achievement orientation", "aggressiveness", and "strain". Monozygotic twins had less "achievement orientation" and "extraversion" and more "somatic complaints" than controls. Monozygotic twins had a lower within pair difference than dizygotic twins in "social orientation". During premorbid times the affected twin with later Parkinson's disease was estimated to have been "less often the leader" in the twin pair. Although small in sample size, this twin study indicates a genetic impact for some personality features beyond the Parkinson's disease motor syndrome. PMID:9489545
Bayog, Maria Lg; Waters, Catherine M
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among all racial and ethnic populations in the USA. Cardiovascular risks and cardioprotective factors have been disparately estimated among Asian American subpopulations. The study's purpose was to describe the cardiometabolic risks and lifestyle health behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease, considering age and gender, in Filipinos, the second largest Asian American population. Secondary analysis was conducted of behavioral (smoking, walking, body mass index and soda, fast food and fruit/vegetable consumption), cardiometabolic (hypertension and diabetes) and heart disease variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. The metropolitan sample of Filipino American adults included 57.3% women and had a mean age of 47.9 ± 18.3 years ( n = 555). Among the sample, 7.4% had heart disease, 38.9% had hypertension, 16.6% had diabetes, 12.4% smoked cigarettes, 83.2% were insufficiently active, 54.2% were overweight/obese, 21.8% routinely ate fast food, 13.2% routinely drank soda and 90.3% did not meet the fruit/vegetable consumption recommendation. Age (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.0, p Filipino American population. A multidisciplinary, chronic care model that is population-specific, emphasizes integrated, comprehensive care and provides linkages between primary healthcare and community resources is recommended for practice.
Chapple, Iain L C; Bouchard, Philippe; Cagetti, Maria Grazia
Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors, such as a requir......Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors...... to periodontal diseases and caries susceptibility, with an attributable risk estimated to be up to 50%. The genetics literature for periodontal disease is more substantial than for caries and genes associated with chronic periodontitis are the vitamin D receptor (VDR), Fc gamma receptor IIA (Fc...... or composition, smoking, carbohydrate intake). Identification of these factors is crucial in the prevention of both diseases as well as in their management. AIM: To systematically appraise the scientific literature to identify potential risk factors for caries and periodontal diseases. METHODS: One systematic...
Mudd-Martin, Gia; Martinez, Maria C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C
Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community-academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. The community-based participatory research was conducted with communities in Kentucky, which has a rapidly growing Latino population. This growth underscores the need for socioculturally appropriate health resources. Su Corazon, Su Vida (Your Heart, Your Life) is a Spanish-language, healthy lifestyle educational program to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. Twenty natural leaders from an urban Latino community in Kentucky participated in sociocultural tailoring of the program and development of a genomics and family history module. The tailored program was presented to 22 participants to explore implementation feasibility and assess appropriateness for community use. Preintervention and postintervention assessments of genomic knowledge and lifestyle behaviors and qualitative postintervention evaluations were conducted. Postintervention improvements in health-promoting lifestyle choices and genomic knowledge specific to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes suggested that the program may be effective in reducing risk. Feedback indicated the program was socioculturally acceptable and responsive to community needs. These findings indicated that a tailored healthy lifestyle program integrating genomics and family history education was socioculturally appropriate and may feasibly be implemented to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in a Latino community with limited health care resources. The project highlights contributions of community-based processes in tailoring
M. H. Lotfi
Full Text Available Adverse lifestyle changes like rapid change in dietary habits coupled with decreased physical activity and increasing rates of alcohol and tobacco consumption can increase Coronary Artery Disease risk factors and its mortality even higher than the rates predicted. To evaluate the role of Adverse Lifestyle changes factors in the causation of CAD, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in an urban area of East Delhi from April 2002 to December 2003. A total of 500 subjects with age group 30-75 (250 cases and 250 controls, were included in this study. To obtain more validate comparisons, 250 controls also was selected from community of East Delhi. The tool of enquiry was a pre-tested and pre-coded questionnaire. A confidence level of 95% and study power of 80% were considered for the interpretation of possible significant findings. Sexwise stratified analysis was separately done for male and female subjects using Multiple Logistic Regression. Comparison of male cases with their counterparts in both control groups indicated that milk consumption, using saturated oils for cooking medium, and tobacco consumption could account for as CAD independent predictors (P < 0.001. The comparison of female cases with their counterparts in both control groups also showed that majority of those significantly were nuts consumer (P < 0.01. Male cases compared to males in hospital group and female cases compared with females in community control group significantly were nuts consumer and used saturated oils in their cookings respectively (P < 0.01. Our study showed that dietary factors such as consumption of milk, nuts, saturated oils and smoking, as misbehavior factor, could play an important role in the causation of Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD in urban area of East Delhi, India.
Regulation No. 504/2006 Coll. of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic dated as of August 18, 2006 on the method of reporting, registration and recording of sickness occupational hazards and occupational disease
Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic pursuant to par. 30 section 3 point b of the Act no. 124/2006 Coll. safety and health at work and amending certain laws provides the method of reporting occupational diseases and the threat of occupational disease. Occupational disease and risk of occupational disease notified in writing on a form which appears in the Annex, the Clinical Occupational Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Department of Clinical occupational medicine and clinical toxicology or occupational medicine clinic and clinical toxicology in Bratislava, Martin or Kosice (as 'specialized work'), which is an occupational disease and risk of occupational disease admitted. This Regulation came into force on October 1, 2006.
Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Karasek, Robert; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G David
It is unclear whether a healthy lifestyle mitigates the adverse effects of job strain on coronary artery disease. We examined the associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with the risk of coronary artery disease. We pooled individual-level data from 7 cohort studies comprising 102 128 men and women who were free of existing coronary artery disease at baseline (1985-2000). Questionnaires were used to measure job strain (yes v. no) and 4 lifestyle risk factors: current smoking, physical inactivity, heavy drinking and obesity. We grouped participants into 3 lifestyle categories: healthy (no lifestyle risk factors), moderately unhealthy (1 risk factor) and unhealthy (2-4 risk factors). The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease (defined as first nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac-related death). There were 1086 incident events in 743,948 person-years at risk during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. The risk of coronary artery disease among people who had an unhealthy lifestyle compared with those who had a healthy lifestyle (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.98; population attributable risk 26.4%) was higher than the risk among participants who had job strain compared with those who had no job strain (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.47; population attributable risk 3.8%). The 10-year incidence of coronary artery disease among participants with job strain and a healthy lifestyle (14.7 per 1000) was 53% lower than the incidence among those with job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle (31.2 per 1000). The risk of coronary artery disease was highest among participants who reported job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle; those with job strain and a healthy lifestyle had half the rate of disease. A healthy lifestyle may substantially reduce disease risk among people with job strain.
Leigh, J P; Miller, T R
The objective of this report is to describe workers' job-related diseases and the occupations associated with those diseases. The methods include aggregation and analysis of job-related disease and occupation data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Supplementary Data System (SDS) for 1985 and 1986--the last years of data available with workers' compensation categories: death, permanent total, permanent partial, and temporary total and partial. Diseases are ranked according to their contribution to the four workers' compensation (WC) categories and also ranked within occupations according to the number of cases. Occupations are ranked according to their contribution to specific diseases within one of the four categories. The following diseases comprise the greatest numbers of deaths: heart attacks, asbestosis, silicosis, and stroke. Within the permanent total category, the diseases with the greatest contributions are heart attack, silicosis, strokes, and inflammation of the joints. For the permanent partial category, they are hearing loss, inflammation of joints, carpal tunnel syndrome, and heart attacks. For the temporary total and partial category, they are: inflammation of joints, carpal tunnel syndrome, dermatitis, and toxic poisoning. Hearing loss or inflammation of joints are associated with more than 300 occupations. Circulatory diseases comprise a larger share of job-related diseases than is generally acknowledged. Occupations contributing the most heart attack deaths are truck drivers, managers, janitors, supervisors, firefighters, and laborers. Ratios of numbers of deaths to numbers of disabilities are far higher for illnesses than injuries. Occupations that are consistent in their high ranking on most lists involving a variety of conditions include nonconstruction laborers, janitors, and construction laborers. The large SDS, though dated, provides a tentative national look at the broad spectrum of occupational diseases as defined by WC and the
The imposition of legal proof requirements to detect occupational disease and the burden that this places on compensation claimants and the medical profession are examined, along with various court decisions, present legislation, and revision proposals to improve disease diagnosis and the legal treatment of occupationally disabled workers. (MF)
O'Keefe, Evan L; DiNicolantonio, James J; Patil, Harshal; Helzberg, John H; Lavie, Carl J
Within the next 15years, India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation. Due to the rapid pace of urbanization and modernization fueling population growth, in conjunction with a genetic predisposition to insulin resistance, India is suffering a rising epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and stroke. In addition to the genetic predisposition, major negative lifestyle factors are contributing to the alarming outbreak of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among the Asian Indian population; these factors include: 1) a diet high in added sugar, refined grains and other processed foods, 2) physical inactivity, 3) vitamin D deficiency (VDD), and 4) smoking/pollution. These risk factors are all highly modifiable, and steps to improve these issues should be taken urgently to avoid a worsening NCD crisis among the inhabitants of the South Asian subcontinent as well as for people with Asian Indian ethnicity worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD and cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD are a large and growing problem in low- and middle-income populations. Secondary prevention, which can reduce the risk of recurrent CVD includes changes in lifestyle, pharmacological interventions and revascularization procedures. The aim of the first phase of this project was to perform situation analysis and identify gaps in secondary prevention of major cardiovascular diseases. This study estimated the physicians' awareness and the patients' knowledge and behavior towards CVD and CeVD complications. It also assessed the efficacy of methods for decreasing recurrent events. methods: A sample of consecutive patients was selected from the outpatient units of the health care facilities selected for the study. Stratified random sampling of primary and secondary private and public health care facilities in cities and villages was performed to select 449 eligible cases. A total of 257 men and 192 women were selected. The inclusion criteria were as follows: Age above 21 years, established diagnosis of CVD and/or CeVD defined as any of the following alone or in combination with others: previous myocardial infarction, stable/unstable angina, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA, and/or carotid arterectomy. The patients were included if their first event had occurred more than a month, but no earlier than three years before the study. results: The prevalence of high systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 40.1% and 26.9% respectively in MI patients, and 70.1% and 51.2% respectively in CeVD patients. In most of the patients, fasting blood sugar and total cholesterol were within the normal range. Among MI patients, 93.9%, 68.5% and 48.2% were already taking aspirin, beta-blockers and statins, respectively. Among CeVD patients, 79.9%, 61.1% and 23.2% were taking aspirin, beta
Kandula, Namratha R; Dave, Swapna; De Chavez, Peter John; Bharucha, Himali; Patel, Yasin; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned
South Asians (Asian Indians and Pakistanis) are the second fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S.) and have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-salient, community-based healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce ASCVD risk among South Asians. Through an academic-community partnership, medically underserved South Asian immigrants at risk for ASCVD were randomized into the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study. The intervention group attended 6 interactive group classes focused on increasing physical activity, healthful diet, weight, and stress management. They also received follow-up telephone support calls. The control group received translated print education materials about ASCVD and healthy behaviors. Primary outcomes were feasibility and initial efficacy, measured as change in moderate/vigorous physical activity and dietary saturated fat intake at 3- and 6-months. Secondary clinical and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. Participants' (n = 63) average age was 50 (SD = 8) years, 63 % were female, 27 % had less than or equal to a high school education, one-third were limited English proficient, and mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (SD ± 5). There were no significant differences in change in physical activity or saturated fat intake between the intervention and control group. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant weight loss (-1.5 kg, p-value = 0.04) and had a greater sex-adjusted decrease in hemoglobin A1C (-0.43 %, p-value culturally-salient, community-based lifestyle intervention was feasible for engaging medically underserved South Asian immigrants and more effective at addressing ASCVD risk factors than print health education materials. NCT01647438, Date of Trial Registration: July 19, 2012.
Centis, Elena; Moscatiello, Simona; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Bellentani, Stefano; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Calugi, Simona; Petta, Salvatore; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio
Healthy diet and physical activity are the treatment cornerstones of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); their effectiveness is however limited by difficulties in implementing lifestyle changes. We aimed at determining the stage of change and associated psychological factors as a prerequisite to refine strategies to implement behavior changes. We studied 138 consecutive NAFLD patients (73% male, age 19-73 years). The diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy in 64 cases (steatohepatitis, 47%). All cases completed the validated EMME-3 questionnaire, consisting of two parallel sets of instruments (for diet and physical activity, respectively) and providing stages of change according to transtheoretical model. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with stages making behavioral changes more demanding. The individual profiles were variable; for diet, no cases had precontemplation as prevalent stage of change (highest score in individual profiles); 36% had contemplation. For physical activity, 50% were classified in either precontemplation or contemplation. Minor differences were recorded in relation to associated metabolic complications or steatohepatitis. Logistic regression identified male sex (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-12.08) and age (1.70; 1.20-2.43 per decade) as the independent parameters predicting precontemplation or contemplation for diet. No predictors were identified for physical activity. NAFLD cases have scarce readiness to lifestyle changes, particularly with regard to physical activity. Defining stages of change and motivation offers the opportunity to improve clinical care of NAFLD people through individual programs exploiting the powerful potential of behavioral counseling, an issue to be tested in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koot, B. G. P.; van der Baan-Slootweg, O. H.; Vinke, S.; Bohte, A. E.; Tamminga-Smeulders, C. L. J.; Jansen, P. L. M.; Stoker, J.; Benninga, M. A.
Lifestyle intervention is the only established therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The optimal treatment schedule and predictors of response of this treatment have not been established in children. We aimed to evaluate the 2-year efficacy of an inpatient versus ambulatory
Groeneveld, I.F.; Proper, K.I.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Mechelen, W.V.
Objective: The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials
Groeneveld, Iris F.; Proper, Karin I.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Hildebrandt, Vincent H.; van Mechelen, Willem
The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCT) that met the
Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Tao; Tang, Liu; Li, Jian; Lan, Yajia
To analyze the relationship between occupational stress and diseases in secondary school teachers in a city of Sichuan Province, and to provide a basis for the evaluation of the long-term effects of occupational stress in teachers. With secondary school teachers as the target population, the stratified cluster sampling was adopted to conduct three studies among 780, 119, and 689 secondary school teachers in a city of Sichuan Province in 1999, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and working ability index (WAI) were used to investigate occupational stress and diseases in secondary school teachers. The variation of occupational stress in secondary school teachers was compared between different periods and the relationship between the intensity of stress and diseases was evaluated, on the basis of which the variation of the relationship over time was analyzed. There were significant differences in occupational stress in secondary school teachers between different periods (Pstress and psychological stress were significantly higher in 2009 than in 1999 (Poccupational stress in 2009 changed with cardiovascular, respiratory, and mental diseases. The incidence of abnormal psychological stress was a risk factor for all chronic, respiratory, and mental diseases (OR: 1.88, 2.25, and 5.91). The time dependence of odds ratio was only found in the risk of respiratory diseases: occupational stress resulted in a significant increase in the risk of respiratory diseases over time (Pstress was a risk factor for mental diseases (OR=2.31). The intensity of occupational stress in secondary school teachers changes over time. Occupational stress elevates the risks of certain diseases and has a time-dependent effect on the risk of respiratory diseases. Occupational stress in secondary school teachers needs more attention and effective prevention.
García Gómez, Montserrat; Castañeda López, Rosario; Herrador Ortiz, Zaida; Simón Soria, Fernando
According to official statistics, men suffer more occupational diseases (OD) than women. Nevertheless, the unequal distribution and participation in the labor markets between men and women should be kept in mind. The purpose was to assess the gender impact in the recognition of OD in Spain, examining interaction and confounding factors. An incidence study of the occupational diseases declared through the official OD reporting forms from 1999 to 2009, provided by the General Subdirectorate of Social and Labor Statistics of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, was conducted. The variables included were: reporting year, sex, age, occupation and economic activity of the company. Rates and crude relative risks (cRR) by these variables were calculated. Adjusted RR were also computed by using multivariate Poisson regression. During the study period a total of 243,310 OD were reported in Spain, with a sex ratio of men to women of 1.07. Correlation existed between occupation and business activity, thus the OD rates and RR were computed by these variables separately. By occupation, men had a crude RR of 1.067 (95%CI:1.058 to 1.076) versus women, while wen the analysis was adjusted by all the variables, the RR was 0.507 (95%CI:0.502 to 0.512). By economic activity of the company, the sense of risk was reversed too in the adjusted analysis (cRR=1.065, 95%CI:1.056 to 1.074 versus 0.632, 95%CI:0.626 to 0.638). Although crude OD rates were lower in women than in men during the period 1999-2009 in Spain, when these rates were adjusted by company activity or worker occupation, age and year of OD declaration, RRs become almost 50% higher in women than in men for the majority of occupations and types of company activity.
Ding, H M; Zhou, X P; Huang, J Z
Objective: To investigate the cause of occupational exposure among 136 nurses in a tertiary infectious disease hospital, and puts forward the prevention strategy. Methods: A total of 136 nurses exposed to occupational exposure between 2014 and 2016 were included in the study. Analysis was conducted from the years of work of nurses, exposure routes, and the pathogens. Results: The nurses suffer from the highest risk of occupational exposures (73.91%) .Nurses working for less than 5 years and interns are most likely to suffer occupational exposure (45.59% and 35.29% respectively) . Occupational exposure was mainly caused by needle injuries, in which infusion was the main route of occupational exposure (36.76%) . The improper treatment of needle pulling after infusion is the main link of needle puncture (36.76%) . Occupational exposure pathogens were mainly HBV (63.24%) . Conclusion: Nursing staff is the high-risk group of occupational exposure. Irregular operation, lack of awareness of protection, improper disposal after the needle withdrawal and poor safety assessment of the operating environment are the main causes of occupational exposure. It is suggested to strengthen the training of occupational safety and protection, enhance clinical nurses occupational safety protection consciousness, standardize medical operation, so as to prevent the occurrence of occupational exposure.
Tang, X Z; Zeng, Q; Liu, D S
Objective: To perform a cost-benefit analysis of the occupational disease reporting system in China, and to provide a basis for effective resource allocation. Methods: The data on the cost of occupational diseases were collected from China Health Statistics Yearbook 2013, the estimated benefit data were collected from published articles in China and foreign countries, and the probability data were collected from the occupational diseasereports published by health and family planning administrative departments. Adecision-making tree was used for the cost-benefit analysis. Results: The estimated cost of occupational disease reporting was about 102.47 million yuan/year, consisting of a cost of reporting in national medical institutions of 1.25 million yuan/year, a management cost of 30.35 million yuan/year, a management cost in local public health institutions of 69.80 million yuan/year, a management cost in national public health institutions of 370 thousand yuan/year, and a cost of construction and maintenance of reporting system of 700 thousand yuan/year. The results of the decision tree analysis showed that when an occupational disease monitoring system was established, the incremental input for occupational disease monitoring and prevention/control was 2.1 billion yuan/year, the output was 6.5 billion yuan/year, and the benefit of occupational disease reporting system was 4.4 billion yuan/year. Conclusion: The benefit of occupational disease reporting system depends on the cost-benefit of occupational disease prevention and control measures, and proper prevention and control measures are extremely important for improving the benefit of occupational disease reporting system.
Siurin, S A; Chashchin, V P; Frolova, N M
The study covered data on 977 cases of occupational diseases in 615 workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area. Findings are high risk of occupational diseases in workers engaged into electrolysis production of aluminium, all nickel reprocessing and pyrometallic copper reprocessing (GR 7.02-10.0). Electrolysis operators and anode operators of aluminium production are more prone to occupational diseases, with bone and muscular disorders (46.8%) prevalent in the morbidity structure. Respiratory diseases are more prevalent (68.2-100%) in the occupational morbidity structure of copper-nickelindustry workers. Conclusion is made on mandatory improvement of the work conditions and more effective individual protective means against occupational hazards in workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area.
Visser, M. J.; Rhebergen, M. D. F.; Kezic, S.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Willems, D. L.; Verberk, M. M.
Genetic research has opened up possibilities for identification of persons with an increased susceptibility for occupational disease. However, regulations considering the ethical issues that are inevitably associated with the use of genetic tests for susceptibility for occupational diseases are
N. V. Sivas
Full Text Available The principles of competent approach in the teaching of the medical university students in the disease prevention and healthy lifestyle are given in the article. For the formation of competence in the disease prevention and healthy lifestyles the pedagogical integral technology is used, developed by integrating content and disciplines of the medical education and Physical Culture. Further formation of competences in the preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle is being accomplished through the project method of teaching based on active projects. Advantages of the assessment of the competence of the medical university students in disease prevention and healthy lifestyle in the form of an authentic representational portfolio are given in the article. Modern assessment activity in education is focused on personal achievements of students, which may be reflected in different versions of portfolio. Authentic assessment is the most convenient and reliable in the case of the competence assessment, since it focuses primarily on the practical results of activity takes into account and promotes initiative, personal potential of the student, provides an opportunity to see the results and to obtain an assessment of achievements, allows not only to generate individual educational trajectory, but also to monitor the level of development of the educational content. The article reveals the content of the authentic representational portfolio and provides recommendations on its design and evaluation.
Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Eriksen, Louise; Tolstrup, Janne S
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Occupational heavy lifting is known to impose a high cardiovascular strain, but the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) from occupational heavy lifting is unknown. The objective was to investigate the association between occupational heavy lifting and risk of IHD and all...... cardiovascular disease at baseline. Conventional risk factors for the outcomes IHD and all-cause mortality were controlled for in Cox analyses. RESULTS: Among men, heavy lifting was associated with increased risk for IHD (hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95 % Confidence interval (95 % CI): 1.15, 2.02), while a decreased...... risk was associated with occupational (HR: 0.50, 95 % CI: 0.37, 0.68) and leisure time (HR: 0.73, 95 % CI: 0.56, 0.95) physical activity. Referencing men with high occupational physical activity and no heavy lifting, men with high occupational physical activity and heavy lifting did not have...
Spreeuwers, D.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Beurden, M. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.
AIM: To assess the need for quality improvement of diagnosing and reporting of noise-induced occupational hearing loss and occupational adjustment disorder. METHODS: Performance indicators and criteria for the quality of diagnosing and reporting were developed. Self-assessment questionnaires were
Lakerveld, J.; Bot, S.D.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kingo, L.; Nijpels, G.
Effective, cost-effective, safe, and feasible interventions to improve lifestyle behavior in at-risk populations are needed in primary care. In the Hoorn Prevention Study, the authors implemented a theory-based lifestyle intervention in which trained practice nurses used an innovative combination of
Henk F. van der Molen
Full Text Available Effective interventions to reduce work-related exposures are available for many types of work-related diseases or injuries. However, knowledge of the impact of these interventions on injury or disease outcomes is scarce due to practical and methodological reasons. Study designs are considered for the evaluation of occupational health interventions on occupational disease or injury. Latency and frequency of occurrence of the health outcomes are two important features when designing an evaluation study with occupational disease or occupational injury as an outcome measure. Controlled evaluation studies—giving strong indications for an intervention effect—seem more suitable for more frequently occurring injuries or diseases. Uncontrolled evaluation time or case series studies are an option for evaluating less frequently occurring injuries or diseases. Interrupted time series offer alternatives to experimental randomized controlled trials to give an insight into the effectiveness of preventive actions in the work setting to decision and policy makers.
Machovcová, A; Fenclová, Z; Pelclová, D
The healthcare sector ranked in second place among economic sectors in the Czech Republic, with about 11.4 % of all occupational diseases in 2009. Skin diseases constituted about 20 % of all occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the causes and trends in allergic and irritant-induced skin diseases in the healthcare sector. The data concerning occupational skin diseases (Chapter IV of the Czech List of Occupational Diseases, non-infectious skin illnesses) in the healthcare sector were analyzed from the Czech National Registry of Occupational Diseases from 1997 until 2009. The trends in the total counts and most frequent causes were evaluated. During the past 13 years, a total of 545 skin diseases were acknowledged in healthcare workers. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 464 (85 %), irritant contact dermatitis in 71 (13 %) and contact urticaria in 10 subjects (2 %). Ninety-five percent of the patients were females. The overall incidence in individual years varied between 1.0 and 2.9 cases per 10,000 full-time employees per year. Disinfectants were the most frequent chemical agents causing more than one third of all allergic skin diseases (38 %), followed by rubber components (32 %) and cleaning agents (10 %). A general downward trend of diagnosed cases of occupational skin diseases in heath care workers in the Czech Republic over the past 13 years was demonstrated.
Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
To estimate the risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) in relation to occupational exposures, lifestyle factors and diabetes mellitus. We conducted a case-control study nested in a register-based cohort study of the Danish working population. For each of 3000 first-time cases of surgery for SIS, two age-matched and sex-matched controls were drawn. Cases and controls received a questionnaire on job history and other factors. Job histories were combined with a psychosocial job exposure matrix (JEM) and the updated Shoulder JEM, which provided exposure intensities on measurement scales. Ten-year cumulative exposures to upper arm elevation >90°, repetitive shoulder movements, forceful shoulder exertions and hand-arm vibrations (HAVs) were estimated. We used conditional logistic regression. There were 5396 persons (60%) who answered the questionnaire. For occupational mechanical exposures, the adjusted OR (OR adj ) ranged from 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.5 for HAVs) to 2.5 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.5 for force) among men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.5 for HAVs) to 2.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.9 for force) among women. No statistically significant associations were found for occupational psychosocial factors. Body mass index (BMI) and pack-years of smoking showed OR adj up to 2.0. Diabetes mellitus showed OR adj of 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2) for men and 2.2 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.4) for women. Our findings add to the evidence of an increased risk of surgery for SIS in relation to occupational cumulative mechanical exposures, even when an increased risk in relation to BMI, smoking and diabetes mellitus is taken into account. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Gans, Kim M.; Salkeld, Judith; Risica, Patricia Markham; Lenz, Erin; Burton, Deborah; Mello, Jennifer; Bell, Johanna P.
Objective To examine the relationship between job type, weight status and lifestyle factors that are potential contributors to obesity including, diet, physical activity and perceived stress among employees enrolled in the Working on Wellness (WOW) project. Methods Randomly selected employees at 24 worksites completed a baseline survey (n=1700); some also an in-person survey and anthropometric measures (n=1568). Employees were classified by US Labor standards as: white collar (n=1297), blue collar (n=303), or service worker (n=92), 8 unknown. Associations were analyzed using Chi-Square, GLM procedures, and adjusted for demographics using Logistic Regression. Results In unadjusted models, BMI of service workers was higher than white collar workers; F&V intake was higher for service and blue collar than white collar; white collar workers reported highest stress levels in job and life. However, in models adjusted for demographics, the only significant difference was to physical activity (i.e., MET/min per week), with blue collar workers reporting higher levels of physical activity than service workers, who reported higher levels than the white collar workers. Conclusions Future research should further examine the relationship between health and job status to corroborate the results of the current study and to consider designing future worksite health promotion interventions that are tailored by job category. PMID:26461872
Zeng, Wu; Stason, William B; Fournier, Stephen; Razavi, Moaven; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Bhalotra, Sarita M; Shepard, Donald S
This study reports outcomes of a Medicare-sponsored demonstration of two intensive lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease: the Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute (MBMI) and the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease® (Ornish). This multisite demonstration, conducted between 2000 and 2008, enrolled Medicare beneficiaries who had had an acute myocardial infarction or a cardiac procedure within the preceding 12 months or had stable angina pectoris. Health and economic outcomes are compared with matched controls who had received either traditional or no cardiac rehabilitation following similar cardiac events. Each program included a 1-year active intervention of exercise, diet, small-group support, and stress reduction. Medicare claims were used to examine 3-year outcomes. The analysis includes 461 elderly, fee-for-service, Medicare participants and 1,795 controls. Cardiac and non-cardiac hospitalization rates were lower in participants than controls in each program and were statistically significant in MBMI (P costs of $3,801 and $4,441 per participant for the MBMI and Ornish Programs, respectively, were offset by reduced health care costs yielding non-significant three-year net savings per participant of about $3,500 in MBMI and $1,000 in Ornish. A trend towards lower mortality compared with controls was observed in MBMI participants (P = .07). Intensive, year-long LMPs reduced hospitalization rates and suggest reduced Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is more common worldwide and no certain treatment apart from lifestyle modification has been established yet. Available data consistently show that energy intake is significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in individuals with no evidence of fatty liver. Changing nutritional behaviors seems to be the primary approach for treatment, simultaneously addressing all the clinical and biochemical defects. This study was aimed to examine the effects of two different composition of low energy diet (diet I vs. diet II on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 44 ultrasonography-proven overweight non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were divided into two groups and received two low-energy diets (-500 kcal less than energy requirement individually inc. diet I (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 55:25:20 and diet II (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 40:40:20 for six weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical measures as well as liver enzymes were assessed after 12 hours fasting.Results: After diet I and diet II, weight decreased significantly (%1.82 and %2.45, respectively. Liver enzymes and echogenicity decreased significantly by both diet I and diet II. Mean of triglyceride concentration decreased (%18.09 after diet II (P=0.023, while there was no significant change after diet I. Significant correlations were found between changes in aspartate aminotransferase with triglyceride and LDL-C diet I.Conclusion: Low energy diets can decrease liver enzymes regardless of their composition, while diet II seems to be more effective than diet I in reduction of weight and triglyceride level.
This Royal Order, made in implementation of the Act of 24 December 1963 on compensation for damage resulting from occupational diseases and prevention thereof, as amended by an Act fo 24 December 1968, lists the occupational diseases giving rise to compensation and includes those caused by ionizing radiations. The Order came into force on 1 July 1969 and repealed a previous Order of 18 January 1964 which laid down a first list of such diseases giving rise to compensation. (NEA) [fr
Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate
To study the influence of occupational pesticide use on Parkinson's disease (PD) in a population with information on various occupational, residential, and household sources of pesticide exposure. In a population-based case control study in Central California, we used structured interviews to collect occupational history details including pesticide use in jobs, duration of use, product names, and personal protective equipment use from 360 PD cases and 827 controls. We linked reported products to California's pesticide product label database and identified pesticide active ingredients and occupational use by chemical class including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. Employing unconditional logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PD and occupational pesticide use. Ever occupational use of carbamates increased risk of PD by 455%, while organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide use doubled risk. PD risk increased 110-211% with ever occupational use of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Using any pesticide occupationally for >10years doubled the risk of PD compared with no occupational pesticide use. Surprisingly, we estimated higher risks among those reporting use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Our findings provide additional evidence that occupational pesticide exposures increase PD risk. This was the case even after controlling for other sources of pesticide exposure. Specifically, risk increased with occupational use of carbamates, OPs, and OCs, as well as of fungicides, herbicides, or insecticides. Interestingly, some types of PPE use may not provide adequate protection during pesticide applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.603 Section 702.603 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not Immediately Result in Death or Disability § 702.603 Determining the payrate for compensating occupational disease...
... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.604 Section 702.604 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not Immediately Result in Death or Disability § 702.604 Determining the amount of compensation for occupational disease...
Nienhaus, Albert; Skudlik, Christoph; Seidler, Andreas
We assessed the occupational hazards in veterinary practice by analysing accident insurance data in order to stimulate strategies to prevent occupational accidents and diseases in veterinarians and their staff. Approximately 10,000 veterinary practices comprising about 27,500 veterinarians and their staff are covered by the Institution of Statutory Accident Insurance of the Health and Welfare Service (BGW). Each year about 2,000 accident and occupational disease claims are filed by these veterinarians and their staff. The claims for the 5-year period from 1998 to 2002 are analysed in this paper. For 2002, the incidence rate for accidents in the workplace was 105.4 per 1,000 full-time workers, a rate 2.9-times higher than for general practitioners of human medicine. When only severe accidents resulting in a loss of work time of more than 3 days were analysed, the relative risk increased to 9.2. Approximately 66% of the reported accidents are due to scratches, bites, or kicks from animals. Claims of occupational disease are filed 2.7-times more often by veterinarians and their staff than by general practitioners and their staff. The occupational diseases filed most often concern the skin (39%), followed by allergic respiratory diseases (30.5%), and infectious diseases (19.1%). Prevention strategies for veterinarians should focus on accidents caused by animals. The prevention of occupational diseases should focus on skin diseases, respiratory disease, and infections.
Papali, Alfred; Hines, Stella E
Although the process of taking an occupational and environmental history has remained largely the same, the context in which it is done has changed dramatically over recent years. This review examines the role of the occupational and environmental history in the context of the changing nature of medical practice and discusses methods for evaluating patients with contemporary exposure-related respiratory illnesses. Surveillance for occupational lung disease using mnemonic devices, screening questions and the use of structured questionnaires can significantly increase the likelihood and accuracy of detection. Electronic health records likewise can be adapted to include the most important elements of the occupational and environmental history. The emergence of new technologies and industries will lead to respiratory diseases in novel occupational and environmental contexts. Using the methods described herein can make detecting these diseases easier and less time-consuming.
Weston, Kassia S; Wisløff, Ulrik; Coombes, Jeff S
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Dozens cases of diseases are submitted to judgement as occupational diseases every year in the Czech Republic. Patients or attending physicians suggest that these cases are caused by occupational ionizing radiation. Only a part of these cases is qualified as occupational disease. The term 'occupational disease' is rather a juridical term which underlies the right to financial compensation. The causal association with exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be indisputably verified by expert medical opinion. Most diseases, which are proposed as occupational disease, are malignant tumors of the lungs. Total majority of judged cases are lung cancers from radioactive agents. In 2002, a total of 33 cases of lung cancer in former uranium or ore miners have been acknowledged as occupational diseases. The decision about occupational disease is derived from probabilistic approach based on estimation of probability of causation of irradiation on disease origin (methodical guideline No. 15 of Ministry of Health Bulletin, part 9, 1998). The presented paper gives a general information about all judged causes of occupational diseases in former uranium and ore miners in the Czech Republic in 2002. A total of 72 cases were submitted to judgement of conditions of disease origin to the National Radiation Protection Institute in 2002. 67 cases were lung cancers, 1 case was chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, basaliom, cancer of larynx and cancer of nasal septum. The probability of causation was assessed as prevailing in 32 cases of lung cancer, borderline in 5 cases and low in other 30 cases of lung cancer. The probability of causation was prevailing in both cases of myeloid leukemia. (author)
Chang, Shun-Chiao; Glymour, Maria; Cornelis, Marilyn; Walter, Stefan; Rimm, Eric B; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D
Higher social integration is associated with lower cardiovascular mortality; however, whether it is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), especially in women, and whether associations differ by case fatality are unclear. This study sought to examine the associations between social integration and risk of incident CHD in a large female prospective cohort. Seventy-six thousand three hundred and sixty-two women in the Nurses' Health Study, free of CHD and stroke at baseline (1992), were followed until 2014. Social integration was assessed by a simplified Berkman-Syme Social Network Index every 4 years. End points included nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD. Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two incident CHD events occurred throughout follow-up. Adjusting for demographic, health/medical risk factors, and depressive symptoms, being socially integrated was significantly associated with lower CHD risk, particularly fatal CHD. The most socially integrated women had a hazard ratio of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.73) of developing fatal CHD compared with those least socially integrated ( P for trend social integration and nonfatal myocardial infarction risk were largely explained by health-promoting behaviors, particularly through differences in cigarette smoking; however, the association with fatal CHD risk remained after accounting for these behaviors and, thus, may involve more direct biological mechanisms. Social integration is inversely associated with CHD incidence in women, but is largely explained by lifestyle/behavioral pathways. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Clemente, M; Goggiamani, A
The authors analyze the budget accident at work and occupational diseases in the construction industry through the data banks Inail. This analysis is carried out by comparing the data for this sector of economic activity (classification of economic activities ATECO 2002) with those general with particular attention to how an event, occurrence, mortality, by plotting the trends of this phenomenon than in previous years. It also analyzes the phenomenon of the complaints of occupational diseases with the comparison with the general data as well as with the analysis of the most frequent types of occupational diseases in this sector in the last two years.
van der Molen, Henk F.; de Vries, Sanne C.; Stocks, S. Jill; Warning, Jan; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
To estimate incidence and trends in incidence of occupational diseases (ODs) in the Dutch construction sector. In a dynamic prospective cohort over a 5-year period (2010-2014), ODs assessed by occupational physicians (OPs) participating in a voluntary construction workers health surveillance (WHS)
van der Molen, Henk F.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Smits, Paul B. A.; Schop, Astrid; Moeijes, Fred; Spreeuwers, Dick; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Objective To report the annual incidence of occupational diseases (ODs) in economic sectors in The Netherlands. Methods In a 5-year prospective cohort study (2009-2013), occupational physicians were asked to participate in a sentinel surveillance system for OD notification. The inclusion criteria
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose is to present the incidence of occupational diseases and their causal factors in the sections and divisions of the national economy in Poland. Material and Methods: The analysis is based on the cases of occupational diseases obligatorily reported in 2009-2011 from all over the country to the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Data is presented as absolute numbers and average annual incidence rates per 100 000 persons employed in NACE-classified sections and divisions. Results: The average annual incidence of occupational diseases was 20.6 cases per 100 000 of employed people. The highest rates were recorded in mining and quarrying (337.8, the production of metals (169.8, non-metallic mineral products (81.6, motor vehicles and transport equipment (59.7, chemicals (30.1. Specific situation in which high incidence rate is due to a single disease prevails in forestry, where tick-borne diseases represent 96.3% of all recorded cases, in education, where chronic voice disorders account for 96.5% of cases, and in human health and social work activities, where infectious diseases with the dominant hepatitis C represent 68.2% of the cases. The most common causes of occupational diseases in sections and industrial divisions with the highest incidence included: industrial dust, noise and vibration. In the manufacturing industry asbestos was the cause of 20.5% of occupational diseases and 55% of occupational cancers. Conclusions: Careful monitoring of working conditions and implementing health prevention programs should be exercised in sections and divisions of the national economy where a high risk of occupational diseases has been found. Med Pr 2013;64(2:161–174
Gómez Torrijos, Elisa; Rodríguez Sanchez, Joaquín; Diaz Perales, Araceli; García, R.; Feo-Brito, F.; García, C.; Pineda, Fernando; Quirce, Santiago
Bakers are repeatedly exposed to wheat flour (WF) and may develop sensitization and occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma to WF allergens.1 Several wheat proteins have been identified as causative allergens of occupational respiratory allergy in bakery workers.1 Testing of IgE reactivity in patients with different clinical profiles of wheat allergy (food allergy, wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and baker's asthma) to salt-soluble and salt-insoluble protein fractions fro...
Dozens cases of disease of former or present uranium and ore miners are submitted to judgment as occupational diseases every year in the Czech Republic. Patients or attending physicians suggest that these cases are caused by occupational ionizing radiation. Only a part of these cases is qualified as occupational disease. The term 'occupational disease' is rather juridical term which underlies the right to financial compensation. The causal association with exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be indisputably verified by expert medical opinion. Most diseases in uranium and ore miners, which are proposed as occupational disease, are malignant tumors. The majority of judged cases are lung cancers from radioactive agents. The lecture gives general information about all judged cases of occupational diseases in former uranium and ore miners in the Czech Republic in the years 2002 - 2013. In the period 2002-13 were 40-80 cases submitted to judgment as potential occupational disease every year. (authors)
Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.
Full Text Available Magnus Kentson,1,2 Per Leanderson,3 Petra Jacobson,4,5 Hans Lennart Persson4,5 1Division of Medicine, Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden; 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKE, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, 5Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden Background: The prevalence of individuals deficient in vitamin D (defined as a serum level of the stable metabolite 25(OHD <50 nmol/L is increasing in countries with low annual ultraviolet (UV radiation and among individuals unable to perform outdoor activities, for example, COPD patients. Objective: To assess the role of vitamin D deficiency, independently of seasonal variation, the peak annual value of 25(OHD was measured in subjects with advanced COPD ± long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT and lung healthy control subjects. A method to grade the individual annual UV light exposure was designed and tested. Subjects and methods: Sixty-six Caucasians with advanced COPD (28 with LTOT and 47 control subjects were included, and the levels of 25(OHD were determined in late summer/early fall when the annual peak was assumed. Questionnaires about COPD symptoms, general health, lifestyle, dietary habits and QoL were used to collect data. Lung function tests and blood sampling were performed. Results: The peak annual 25(OHD of COPD subjects was significantly lower than in the control subjects, but there was no significant difference between COPD patients with and without LTOT. Ongoing vitamin D supplementation was the single most important intervention to maintain 25(OHD levels ≥50 nmol/L. Among vitamin D-deficient COPD subjects, 25(OHD correlated positively with forced expiratory volume in 1 second as % predicted, Modified British Medical Research
Skibola, Christine F; Slager, Susan L; Berndt, Sonja I; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case-control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rhee, Kyung Yong; Choe, Seong Weon
The management system of occupational diseases in Korea can be assessed from the perspective of a surveillance system. Workers' compensation insurance reports are used to produce official statistics on occupational diseases in Korea. National working conditions surveys are used to monitor the magnitude of work-related symptoms and signs in the labor force. A health examination program was introduced to detect occupational diseases through both selective and mass screening programs. The Working Environment Measurement Institution assesses workers' exposure to hazards in the workplace. Government regulates that the employer should do health examinations and working conditions measurement through contracted private agencies and following the Occupational Safety and Health Act. It is hoped that these institutions may be able to effectively detect and monitor occupational diseases and hazards in the workplace. In view of this, the occupational management system in Korea is well designed, except for the national survey system. In the future, national surveys for detection of hazards and ill-health outcomes in workers should be developed. The existing surveillance system for occupational disease can be improved by providing more refined information through statistical analysis of surveillance data.
Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan
Purpose Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we
Jung, James K H; Feinstein, Saul G; Palma Lazgare, Luis; Macleod, Jill S; Arrandale, Victoria H; McLeod, Christopher B; Peter, Alice; Demers, Paul A
The Occupational Disease Surveillance System (ODSS) was established in Ontario, Canada by linking a cohort of workers with data created from Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) claims to administrative health databases. The aim of this study was to use ODSS to identify high-risk industry and occupation groups for lung cancer in Ontario. Workers in the WSIB lost time claims database were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry using subjects' health insurance numbers, name, sex, birthdate and death date (if applicable). Several occupations and industries known to be at increased risk were outlined a priori to examine whether ODSS could replicate these associations. Age-adjusted, sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard models compared the risk of lung cancer within one industry/occupation versus all other groups in the cohort. Workers with a lung cancer diagnosis prior to cohort entry were excluded for analysis, leaving 2 187 762 workers for analysis. During the 1983 to 2014 follow-up, 34 661 workers in the cohort were diagnosed with lung cancer. Among expected high-risk industries, elevated risks were observed among workers in quarries/sand pits and construction industries for both sexes, and among males in metal mines, iron foundries, non-metallic mineral products industries and transportation industries. Excess risk was also observed among occupations in drilling/blasting, other mining/quarrying, mineral ore treating, excavating/grading/paving, truck driving, painting, bus driving and construction. This current surveillance system identified several established high-risk groups for lung cancer and could be used for ongoing surveillance of occupational lung cancer in Ontario. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Alrabadi, Nizar Issa
Foods do certainly play an important role in human health. This cross sectional study investigated the effect of lifestyle food on chronic diseases. In specific, it compared these diseases between vegetarians and non- vegetarians in Jordan in 2012. Questionnaires were distributed and the responses of 97 vegetarians and 97 non-vegetarians were analyzed. Chi-square and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. In particular, chronic diseases including Diabetes, Hypertension, and Obesity were more prevalence among non-vegetarians compared to vegetarian respondents. PMID:23283037
van Wier, Marieke F; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Bot, Sandra D M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Nijpels, Giel; van Tulder, Maurits W
BACKGROUND: Cost-effectiveness studies of lifestyle interventions in people at risk for lifestyle-related diseases, addressing 'real-world' implementation, are needed. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of a primary care intervention from a societal perspective, compared with provision of
Nse, Odunaiya; Quinette, Louw; Okechukwu, Ogah
Well developed and validated lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors questionnaires is the key to obtaining accurate information to enable planning of CVD prevention program which is a necessity in developing countries. We conducted this review to assess methods and processes used for development and content validation of lifestyle CVD risk factors questionnaires and possibly develop an evidence based guideline for development and content validation of lifestyle CVD risk factors questionnaires. Relevant databases at the Stellenbosch University library were searched for studies conducted between 2008 and 2012, in English language and among humans. Using the following databases; pubmed, cinahl, psyc info and proquest. Search terms used were CVD risk factors, questionnaires, smoking, alcohol, physical activity and diet. Methods identified for development of lifestyle CVD risk factors were; review of literature either systematic or traditional, involvement of expert and /or target population using focus group discussion/interview, clinical experience of authors and deductive reasoning of authors. For validation, methods used were; the involvement of expert panel, the use of target population and factor analysis. Combination of methods produces questionnaires with good content validity and other psychometric properties which we consider good.
Phillips, Karen P; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Dow, Darcie; Amaratunga, Carol A
This paper is a report of a qualitative study of emergency and critical care nurses' perceptions of occupational response and preparedness during infectious respiratory disease outbreaks including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. Healthcare workers, predominantly female, face occupational and personal challenges in their roles as first responders/first receivers. Exposure to SARS or other respiratory pathogens during pregnancy represents additional occupational risk for healthcare workers. Perceptions of occupational reproductive risk during response to infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were assessed qualitatively by five focus groups comprised of 100 Canadian nurses conducted between 2005 and 2006. Occupational health and safety issues anticipated by Canadian nurses for future infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were grouped into four major themes: (1) apprehension about occupational risks to pregnant nurses; (2) unknown pregnancy risks of anti-infective therapy/prophylaxis; (3) occupational risk communication for pregnant nurses; and (4) human resource strategies required for pregnant nurses during outbreaks. The reproductive risk perceptions voiced by Canadian nurses generally were consistent with reported case reports of pregnant women infected with SARS or emerging influenza strains. Nurses' fears of fertility risks posed by exposure to infectious agents or anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis are not well supported by the literature, with the former not biologically plausible and the latter lacking sufficient data. Reproductive risk assessments should be performed for each infectious respiratory disease outbreak to provide female healthcare workers and in particular pregnant women with guidelines regarding infection control and use of anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis.
Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A; Daviglus, Martha L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique
The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifestyle remains unclear. We quantified the association of changes in lifestyle profiles over 5 years with risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. Lifestyle factors (ie, diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption) and body mass index were assessed and dichotomized as healthy/unhealthy among 5263 adults ages 26 to 66 in 1993-1997 and 5 years later (1998-2002). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to quantify associations of change in lifestyle with fatal/nonfatal CVD and all-cause mortality that occurred 8 to 15 years after 1998-2002. Independent of baseline lifestyles, each decrement in number of healthy lifestyle factors was, on average, associated with 35% higher risk of CVD (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.63) and 37% higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.70); no association was noted with increase in the number of healthy lifestyle factors (P>0.5). Individuals who maintained 4 to 5 healthy lifestyle factors had 2.5 times lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.63) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.22-0.73) than those who maintained only 0 to 1 healthy lifestyle factor. Our findings suggest that the benefits of healthy lifestyles may be easier lost than gained over a 5-year period. This underscores the need for efforts to promote maintenance of healthy lifestyles throughout the life course. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Sardella, Chiara; Cappellani, Daniele; Urbani, Claudio; Manetti, Luca; Marconcini, Giulia; Tomisti, Luca; Lupi, Isabella; Rossi, Giuseppe; Scattina, Ilaria; Lombardi, Martina; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Marcocci, Claudio; Martino, Enio; Bogazzi, Fausto
The primary objective of this study is to identify the predictors of comorbidities and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) that can develop after diagnosis of acromegaly. The role of therapy for acromegaly in the event of such complications was also evaluated. Retrospective cohort study was conducted on 200 consecutive acromegalic patients in a tertiary referral center. The following outcomes were evaluated: diabetes, hypertension and MACE. Each patient was included in the analysis of a specific outcome, unless they were affected when acromegaly was diagnosed, and further classified as follows: (i) in remission after adenomectomy (Hx), (ii) controlled by somatostatin analogues (SSA) (SSAc) or (iii) not controlled by SSA (SSAnc). Data were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. After diagnosis of acromegaly, diabetes occurred in 40.8% of patients. The SSAnc group had a three-fold higher risk of diabetes (HR: 3.32, P = 0.006), whereas the SSAc group had a 1.4-fold higher risk of diabetes (HR: 1.43, P = 0.38) compared with the Hx group. Hypertension occurred in 35.5% of patients, after diagnosis. The determinants of hypertension were age (HR: 1.06, P = 0.01) and BMI (HR: 1.05, P = 0.01). MACE occurred in 11.8% of patients, after diagnosis. Age (HR: 1.09, P = 0.005) and smoking habit (HR: 5.95, P = 0.01) were predictors of MACE. Conversely, therapy for acromegaly did not influence hypertension or MACE. After diagnosis of acromegaly, control of the disease (irrespective of the type of treatment) and lifestyle are predictors of comorbidities and major adverse cardiovascular events. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.
Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Mosca, Lori
To determine whether caregiver burdens are associated with lifestyle behaviors 1 year following the hospitalization of a family member with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prospective follow-up study of National Heart Lung and Blood Institute sponsored Family Intervention Trial for Heart Health participants. Hospital-based recruitment/baseline visit with 1-year follow-up. Family members of hospitalized CVD patients (N = 423; 67% female; 36% racial/ethnic minority; mean age 49 years). Systematic evaluation at 1 year to determine heart-healthy diet (defined as caregiver burdens (five domains: employment, financial, physical, social, and time; Caregiver Strain Questionnaire). Logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Heart-healthy diet was less frequent among caregivers citing feeling overwhelmed (odds ratio [OR] = .50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .26-.97), sleep disturbance (OR = .51; 95% CI = .27-.96), financial strain (OR = .41; 95% CI = .20-.86), upsetting behavior (OR = .48; 95% CI = .25-.92), and/or time demands (OR = .47; 95% CI = .26-.85) as burdens. Physical activity was less frequent among caregivers reporting financial strain (OR = .32; 95% CI = .13-.81) or upsetting patient behavior (OR = .33; 95% CI = .15-.76) as burdens. The most commonly cited caregiver burdens included changes in personal plans (39%), time demands (38%), and sleep disturbance (30%). Caregiver burdens were associated with nonachievement of heart-healthy diet and physical activity behaviors among family caregivers 1 year after patient discharge. When developing heart-health promotion interventions, caregiver burden should be considered as a possible barrier to prevention among family members of CVD patients.
Full Text Available Occupational diseases affect more and more people every year. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO, in 2000 an estimated amount of at least 160 million people became ill as a result of occupational-related hazards or injuries. Globally, occupational deaths, diseases and injuries account for an estimated loss of 4% of the Gross Domestic Product. Important substances that are related to occupational diseases are isocyanates and their products. These substances, which are used in a lot of different industrial processes, are not only toxic and irritant, but also allergenic. Although the exposure to higher concentrations could be monitored and restricted by technical means, very low concentrations are difficult to monitor and may, over time, lead to allergic reactions in some workers, ending in an occupational disease. In order to prevent the people from sickening, the mechanisms underlying the disease, by patho-physiological and genetical means, have to be known and understood so that high risk groups and early signs in the development of an allergic reaction could be detected before the exposure to isocyanates leads to an occupational disease. Therefore, this paper reviews the so far known facts concerning the patho-physiologic appearance and mechanisms of isocyanate-associated toxic reactions and possible genetic involvement that might trigger the allergic reactions.
Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Said, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Bin Aziz; Sathiakumar, Nalini
In the absence of systematic occupational disease surveillance, other data collected by governmental agencies or industry is useful in the identification of occupational diseases and their control. We examined data on occupational diseases reported by non-governmental employees to the national workers' social security organization in Malaysia, 2002-2006. The overall incidence rate of occupational disease was 2.8 per 100,000 workers. There was an increase in the annual number and rates of occupational disease over time. The most frequently reported conditions were hearing impairment (32%) and musculoskeletal disorders (28%). Workers in the non-metallic manufacturing industry had the highest average incidence rate of hearing impairment (12.7 per 100,000 workers) and musculoskeletal disorders (3.5 per 100,000 workers), compared to all other industries. Preventive measures should focus on safety education, engineering control and workplace ergonomics. Enforcing workplace standards and incorporating an ongoing surveillance system will facilitate the control and reduction of occupational disease.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...
Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind
The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.
Full Text Available Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.
This article reviews some common occupational health problems among health workers due to exposure to hazardous or pathogenic biological, chemical and physical agents in the line of duty. Highlighted biological agents are pathogenic viruses, bacteria etc; chemical agents are laboratory reagents, mercury and ...
Li, Hongmei; Lin, Mingjing; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Jing; Zou, Jianfang
To investigate the relationship between the quality of life (QOL) and disability level in patients with occupational disease and to investigate the influencing factors for QOL. A total of 255 patients with occupational disease were selected from three specialized hospitals dedicated to occupational disease and the department of occupational medicine of one comprehensive hospital using cluster sampling from December 2013 to May 2014. A survey was carried out using WHOQOL-BREF and general questionnaire (including disability level), and statistical analysis was also performed using t test, F test, analysis of variance, and multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The QOL scores of patients with occupational diseases, from high to low, were social domain (11.48 ± 2.86), psychological domain (10.60 ± 2.28), physiological domain (10.54 ± 1.65), and environmental domain (10.50 ± 2.55), scores of which were significantly lower than the normal levels (Poccupational diseases of different disability levels (P>0.05). Also, QOL showed no significant differences between stage I, II and III patients with pneumoconiosis (P>0.05). The patients with pneumoconiosis were divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups, and the QOL scores of patients with mild pneumoconiosis in psychological and environmental domains were significantly higher than those of the patients with moderate or severe pneumoconiosis (Poccupational poisoning was divided into mild, moderate and severe groups, and the three groups showed no significant differences in QOL score (P>0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the QOL score of each domain was mainly influenced by the degree of lung injury, complications, course of disease, age of onset, income, and employment status. The QOL of patients with occupational disease is significantly reduced, and disability level cannot accurately reflect their QOL. The treatment of patients with occupational disease should focus on their complications, and at
Dunkler, Daniela; Kohl, Maria; Heinze, Georg; Teo, Koon K; Rosengren, Annika; Pogue, Janice; Gao, Peggy; Gerstein, Hertzel; Yusuf, Salim; Oberbauer, Rainer; Mann, Johannes F E
This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes.
Altamirano-Diaz, Luis; Rombeek, Meghan; De Jesus, Stefanie; Welisch, Eva; Prapavessis, Harry; Dempsey, Adam A; Fraser, Douglas; Miller, Michael R; Norozi, Kambiz
Children with overweight/obesity and congenital heart disease (CHD) are at increased cardiovascular risk. A lifestyle intervention may help reduce these risks. We sought to determine the feasibility of a smartphone-based lifestyle intervention to improve cardiovascular health outcomes in children with overweight/obesity and CHD. We examined the effect of bi-weekly nutrition and fitness counseling delivered via smartphone over 12 months. Thirty-four youth, previously diagnosed with CHD and with overweight or obesity, participated in the intervention. They were divided into two groups depending on whether the heart disease required surgical correction (operated, n = 19) or not (non-operated, n = 15). Anthropometry, body composition cardiorespiratory exercise capacity, and cardio-metabolic risk factors were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Statistically significant decreases in waist circumference (WC), body mass index z -score, WC z -score, and waist to height ratio z -score were observed at 6 and 12 months in the operated group. A significant linear increase in lean body mass was observed in both groups. The study also had a high retention rate and a low attrition rate. The observed changes in anthropometry were positive with significant improvement to some cardiovascular and metabolic risk indicators. However, this was only observed in the operated group suggesting that other factors, such as perception of condition and self-efficacy, may influence lifestyle behaviors. The results from this pilot study clearly demonstrate the feasibility to perform a larger controlled study on remote lifestyle intervention in children with congenital heart defects and overweight or obesity.
Full Text Available BackgroundChildren with overweight/obesity and congenital heart disease (CHD are at increased cardiovascular risk. A lifestyle intervention may help reduce these risks. We sought to determine the feasibility of a smartphone-based lifestyle intervention to improve cardiovascular health outcomes in children with overweight/obesity and CHD.MethodsWe examined the effect of bi-weekly nutrition and fitness counseling delivered via smartphone over 12 months. Thirty-four youth, previously diagnosed with CHD and with overweight or obesity, participated in the intervention. They were divided into two groups depending on whether the heart disease required surgical correction (operated, n = 19 or not (non-operated, n = 15. Anthropometry, body composition cardiorespiratory exercise capacity, and cardio-metabolic risk factors were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.ResultsStatistically significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, body mass index z-score, WC z-score, and waist to height ratio z-score were observed at 6 and 12 months in the operated group. A significant linear increase in lean body mass was observed in both groups. The study also had a high retention rate and a low attrition rate.ConclusionThe observed changes in anthropometry were positive with significant improvement to some cardiovascular and metabolic risk indicators. However, this was only observed in the operated group suggesting that other factors, such as perception of condition and self-efficacy, may influence lifestyle behaviors. The results from this pilot study clearly demonstrate the feasibility to perform a larger controlled study on remote lifestyle intervention in children with congenital heart defects and overweight or obesity.
Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki
Background: This study was designed to evaluate whether changes in lifestyle behaviors are correlated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: The subjects consisted of 316 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or renal dysfunction or dialysis treatment. The following lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire: habitual moderate exercise, daily physical activity, walking speed, eating speed, late-night din...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence for associations between occupational factors and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD is inconsistent. We assessed the risk of PD associated with various occupational factors in Japan. Methods We examined 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD. Control subjects were 369 inpatients and outpatients without neurodegenerative disease. Information on occupational factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Relative risks of PD were estimated using odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs based on logistic regression. Adjustments were made for gender, age, region of residence, educational level, and pack-years of smoking. Results Working in a professional or technical occupation tended to be inversely related to the risk of PD: adjusted OR was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.32-1.06, P = 0.08. According to a stratified analysis by gender, the decreased risk of PD for persons in professional or technical occupations was statistically significant only for men. Adjusted ORs for a professional or technical occupation among men and women were 0.22 (95% CI: 0.06-0.67 and 0.99 (0.47-2.07, respectively, and significant interaction was observed (P = 0.048 for homogeneity of OR. In contrast, risk estimates for protective service occupations and transport or communications were increased, although the results were not statistically significant: adjusted ORs were 2.73 (95% CI: 0.56-14.86 and 1.74 (95% CI: 0.65-4.74, respectively. No statistical significance was seen in data concerning exposure to occupational agents and the risk of PD, although roughly a 2-fold increase in OR was observed for workers exposed to stone or sand. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that occupational factors do not play a substantial etiologic role in this population. However, among men, professional or technical occupations may decrease the risk of PD.
Haaxma, Charlotte A; Borm, George F; van der Linden, Dimitri; Kappelle, Arnoud C; Bloem, Bastiaan R
Parkinson's disease (PD) is preceded by a premotor phase of unknown duration. Dopaminergic degeneration during this phase may lead to subtle cognitive and behavioural changes, such as decreased novelty seeking. Consequently, premotor subjects might be most comfortable in jobs that do not require optimal dopamine levels, leading to an overrepresentation in structured and predictable occupations, or an underrepresentation in artistic occupations. In a case-control study, 750 men with PD (onset ≥40 years) and 1300 healthy men completed a validated questionnaire about their lifetime occupational status. Occupations were classified using the RIASEC model. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the conventional and artistic categories, both for the most recent occupation before symptom onset, and for the very first occupation. Because farming has been associated with a PD risk, ORs were calculated separately for farming. A reduced risk of PD was found for men with an artistic occupation late in life (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.53), while an artistic first occupation did not prevent PD (OR 0.72, CI 0.32-1.59). Conventional occupations showed no increased risk (recent: OR 1.07, CI 0.70-1.64; first: OR 1.14, CI 0.77-1.71). In support of previous reports, farming was associated with an increased risk of PD (recent: OR 2.6, CI 1.4-4.6; first: OR 2.7, CI 1.6-4.5). PD patients were older than controls, but various statistical corrections for age all lead to similar results. Artistic occupations late in life are associated with a reduced risk of subsequent PD, perhaps because this reflects a better preserved dopaminergic state. No initial occupation predicted PD, suggesting that the premotor phase starts later in life.
Shih, I-Fan; Starhof, Charlotte; Lassen, Christina Funch
alone in men, but higher leisure-time PA (≥5 hours/week of strenuous activities) in young adulthood (15-25 years) was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.90); men who engaged in high occupational and high leisure-time PA in young...... adulthood had the lowest PD risk (OR adj0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81). Among women, inverse associations were found for occupation PA before age 50 (highest vs lowest, OR adj0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.06) and strenuous leisure-time PA after age 50 (OR adj0.65, 95% CI 0.87-0.99); no clear pattern was seen for leisure...
Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; Graff, Maud J; Borm, George F; Veenhuizen, Yvonne; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Munneke, Marten; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W
To evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial including process and potential impact of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease. Process and outcome were quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated in an exploratory multicentre, two-armed randomized controlled trial at three months. Forty-three community-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease and difficulties in daily activities, their primary caregivers and seven occupational therapists. Ten weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to the Dutch guidelines of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease versus no occupational therapy in the control group. Process evaluation measured accrual, drop-out, intervention delivery and protocol adherence. Primary outcome measures of patients assessed daily functioning: Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Primary outcome for caregivers was caregiver burden: Zarit Burden Inventory. Participants' perspectives of the intervention were explored using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Inclusion was 23% (43/189), drop-out 7% (3/43) and unblinding of assessors 33% (13/40). Full intervention protocol adherence was 74% (20/27), but only 60% (71/119) of baseline Canadian Occupational Performance Measure priorities were addressed in the intervention. The outcome measures revealed negligible to small effects in favour of the intervention group. Almost all patients and caregivers of the intervention group were satisfied with the results. They perceived: 'more grip on the situation' and used 'practical advices that make life easier'. Therapists were satisfied, but wished for a longer intervention period. The positive perceived impact of occupational therapy warrants a large-scale trial. Adaptations in instructions and training are needed to use the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure as primary outcome measure.
Xie, Manxia; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Yimei
To investigate the status and risk factors for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in an infectious disease hospital, and to provide a scientific basis for targeted preventive and control measures. The occupational exposure of 395 medical workers in our hospital was monitored from January 2012 to December 2014, among whom 79 individuals with occupational exposure were subjected to intervention and the risk factors for occupational exposure were analyzed. The high-risk group was mainly the nursing staff (69.6%). The incidence of hematogenous occupational exposure was high in medical personnel with a working age under 3 years, aged under 25 years, and at the infection ward, accounting for 63.3%, 72.1%, and 72.2%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Treponema pallidum, and human immunodeficiency virus were the primary exposure sources. Sharp injury was the major way of injury (91.1%), with needle stick injury accounting for the highest proportion (86.1%). Injury occurred on the hand most frequently (91.1%). The high-risk links were improper disposal during or after pulling the needle, re-capturing the needle, and processing waste, accounting for 46.8%, 17.7%, and 12.7%, respectively. Seventy-nine professionals with occupational exposure were not infected. The main risk factor for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in the infectious disease hospital is needle stick injury. Strengthening the occupational protection education in medical staff in infectious disease hospital, implementing protective measures, standardizing operating procedures in high-risk links, and enhancing the supervision mechanism can reduce the incidence of occupational exposure and infection after exposure.
Martinsen, Unni; Bentzen, Hege; Holter, Morag Kelly; Nilsen, Tove; Skullerud, Hallvard; Mowinckel, Petter; Kjeken, Ingvild
Aim The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of individualized occupational therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Additionally, the authors wanted to explore the occupational problems experienced in daily life by individuals with COPD. Methods A total of 52 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (occupational therapy) or control group (treatment as usual). The primary outcome was assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and participants were assessed at baseline and after four and 12 months. Results There were no treatment effects on occupational performance or satisfaction with performance, as measured by the COPM. However, we found a significant effect in favour of the intervention group at exertion when performing an individually chosen activity, and in the activity dimension of St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. A total of 595 occupational problems were reported, most frequently within mobility, active recreation, and household management. Conclusions The results show that, compared with the usual care, individualized occupational therapy did not improve occupational performance or satisfaction with performance. Small but significant changes in activity performance in favour of the intervention group were found in some of the secondary outcomes.
Biglari, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Maryam; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Abbasi, Milad
Of all work stressors, occupational stress is the leading cause of many disorders among workers. Drivers are classified as a high risk group for work related stress. This study set out to determine the relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among drivers. Two hundred and twenty two Ilam's intercity drivers were selected for the study. For measuring work stress, the Osipow work stress questionnaire was used. After a 10-h fasting period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded. Intravenous blood samples were taken to determine cholesterol, triglyceride and blood glucose levels. The independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation test were used to assess the relationship between variables and occupational stress. Seventy-one percent of the intercity drivers suffered from average to acute stress, and 3.1% of them suffered from acute stress. There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.254) among the drivers. Nevertheless, the Pearson's correlation test demonstrated a strong relationship between work stress and blood glucose (p stress were observed in the Ilam's intercity drivers. Occupational stress may have effect on blood glucose levels but the results did not suggest a considerable relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among intercity drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):895-901. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Frigerio, R; Elbaz, A; Sanft, K R; Peterson, B J; Bower, J H; Ahlskog, J E; Grossardt, B R; de Andrade, M; Maraganore, D M; Rocca, W A
To investigate the association of Parkinson disease (PD) with education and occupations using a case-control study design. The authors used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. The authors collected information about education and occupations using two independent sources of data: a review of the complete medical records in the system and a telephone interview. Occupations were coded using the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification. Subjects with 9 or more years of education were at increased risk of PD (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.1 to 3.6; p = 0.02), and there was a trend of increasing risk with increasing education (test for linear trend, p = 0.02; medical records data). Physicians were at significantly increased risk of PD using both sources of occupational data. By contrast, four occupational groups showed a significantly decreased risk of PD using one source of data: construction and extractive workers (e.g., miners, oil well drillers), production workers (e.g., machine operators, fabricators), metal workers, and engineers. These associations with increased or decreased risk did not change noticeably after adjustment for education. Subjects with higher education and physicians have an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD), while subjects with some occupations presumed to involve high physical activity have a decreased risk of PD.
Rubinstein, Sofia; Wang, Chengwei; Qu, Wenchun
Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations.
Bensefa-Colas, L; Telle-Lamberton, M; Faye, S; Bourrain, J-L; Crépy, M-N; Lasfargues, G; Choudat, D; Momas, I
Occupational contact urticaria (OCU) is an occupational contact dermatitis that can cause serious health consequences and disability at work. To describe OCU and its temporal trends by the main causal agents and activity sectors in a nationwide scheme in France. Using data from the French National Network for Occupational Disease Vigilance and Prevention (RNV3P), we described OCU reported during the period 2001-10 and analysed the temporal trends of OCU and OCU attributed to the most frequent agents over the study period. Trends analyses were supported by reporting odds ratios using a logistic regression model with reference to 2001, or with time as a continuous variable. During the study period, 251 cases of OCU were reported in RNV3P, half of which were due to natural rubber latex, in particular in the health and social work activity sector (HSW). The number of these cases declined significantly over the study period (19% per year), and particularly after 2006. Conversely, the other causes of OCU did not decrease. Using surveillance data from a French national network, this study has found that there was a significant decline in OCU due to natural rubber latex, particularly in the HSW, when powdered latex gloves were banned from French hospitals. Our results show the effectiveness of this preventive measure, and suggest that this practice should be extended to other sectors. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.
Higgins, Claire L; Palmer, Amanda M; Cahill, Jennifer L; Nixon, Rosemary L
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of developing occupational skin disease (OSD). To ascertain the causes of OSD in Australian HCWs in a tertiary referral clinic. A retrospective review was performed of patients assessed at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne from 1993 to 2014. Of 685 HCWs assessed in the clinic over a period of 22 years, 555 (81.0%) were diagnosed with OSD. The most common diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (79.1%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) (49.7%). Natural rubber latex allergy was also relatively frequent (13.0%). The major substances causing ACD were rubber glove chemicals (thiuram mix and tetraethylthiuram disulfide), preservatives (formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and isothiazolinones), excipients in hand cleansers, which are hard-to-avoid weak allergens, and antiseptics. ACD caused by commercial hand cleansers occurred more frequently than ACD caused by alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs). Occupational ICD was mostly caused by water/wet work and hand cleansers, and environmental irritants such as heat and sweating. Understanding the causes of OSD in HCWs is important in order to develop strategies for prevention. We suggest that skin care advice should be incorporated into hand hygiene education. The use of ABHRs should be encouraged, weak allergens in skin cleansers should be substituted, and accelerator-free gloves should be recommended for HCWs with OSD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Passey Megan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease accounts for a large burden of disease, but is amenable to prevention through lifestyle modification. This paper examines patient and practice predictors of referral to a lifestyle modification program (LMP offered as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT of prevention of vascular disease in primary care. Methods Data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 36 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organisations were used. In each practice, 160 eligible high risk patients were invited to participate. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Intervention practice staff were trained in screening, motivational interviewing and counselling and encouraged to refer high risk patients to a LMP involving individual and group sessions. Data include patient surveys; clinical audit; practice survey on capacity for preventive care; referral records from the LMP. Predictors of referral were examined using multi-level logistic regression modelling after adjustment for confounding factors. Results Of 301 eligible patients, 190 (63.1% were referred to the LMP. Independent predictors of referral were baseline BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.87 95%CI:1.10, 7.47, physical inactivity (OR 2.90 95%CI:1.36,6.14, contemplation/preparation/action stage of change for physical activity (OR 2.75 95%CI:1.07, 7.03, rural location (OR 12.50 95%CI:1.43, 109.7 and smaller practice size (1–3 GPs (OR 16.05 95%CI:2.74, 94.24. Conclusions Providing a well-structured evidence-based lifestyle intervention, free of charge to patients, with coordination and support for referral processes resulted in over 60% of participating high risk patients being referred for disease prevention. Contrary to expectations, referrals were more frequent from rural and smaller practices suggesting that these practices may be more ready to engage with these programs. Trial registration ACTRN
Passey, Megan E; Laws, Rachel A; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; McKenzie, Suzanne; Powell-Davies, Gawaine; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F
Cardiovascular disease accounts for a large burden of disease, but is amenable to prevention through lifestyle modification. This paper examines patient and practice predictors of referral to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) offered as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of prevention of vascular disease in primary care. Data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 36 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organisations were used. In each practice, 160 eligible high risk patients were invited to participate. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Intervention practice staff were trained in screening, motivational interviewing and counselling and encouraged to refer high risk patients to a LMP involving individual and group sessions. Data include patient surveys; clinical audit; practice survey on capacity for preventive care; referral records from the LMP. Predictors of referral were examined using multi-level logistic regression modelling after adjustment for confounding factors. Of 301 eligible patients, 190 (63.1%) were referred to the LMP. Independent predictors of referral were baseline BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.87 95%CI:1.10, 7.47), physical inactivity (OR 2.90 95%CI:1.36,6.14), contemplation/preparation/action stage of change for physical activity (OR 2.75 95%CI:1.07, 7.03), rural location (OR 12.50 95%CI:1.43, 109.7) and smaller practice size (1-3 GPs) (OR 16.05 95%CI:2.74, 94.24). Providing a well-structured evidence-based lifestyle intervention, free of charge to patients, with coordination and support for referral processes resulted in over 60% of participating high risk patients being referred for disease prevention. Contrary to expectations, referrals were more frequent from rural and smaller practices suggesting that these practices may be more ready to engage with these programs. ACTRN12607000423415.
Campion, K M
Occupational skin disease is a common problem among health care workers (HCWs). The prevalence of occupational skin disease in HCWs has been reported in several international studies, but not in the UK. To estimate the prevalence of occupational skin disease in a population of UK HCWs and to explore possible causative factors. Clinical and non-clinical HCWs attending for an influenza vaccine during October and November 2013 were invited to complete a brief skin questionnaire. Data from staff who stated their skin had suffered as a result of work were compared with data from staff who did not, to explore differences in potential causative factors. A total of 2762 questionnaires were analysed. The estimated prevalence of occupational skin disease was 20% for clinical and 7% for non-clinical staff. In total, 424 clinical staff stated their skin had been made worse by work. There were statistically significant differences between clinical staff with and without reported skin symptoms regarding a history of eczema, frequent hand washing and moisturizer use but no statistically significant difference in the relative proportions of soap and alcohol hand gel use. Non-clinical staff reported significantly more use of soap relative to alcohol gel than clinical staff. This study demonstrated the prevalence of occupational skin disease in a population of UK HCWs. More work is indicated to explore if the ratio of soap and alcohol gel reported in this study are typical and whether this has any impact on the development of occupational skin disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Paulin, Laura M; Diette, Gregory B; Blanc, Paul D; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D; Kanner, Richard E; Belli, Andrew J; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R Graham; Hansel, Nadia N
Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (-26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (-3.3; P Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may influence disease burden.
Burdorf, Alex; Dahhan, M.; Swuste, Paul
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational background of cases with an asbestos-related disease and to present overall mesothelioma risks across industries with historical exposure to asbestos. METHODS: For the period 1990-2000, cases were collected from records held by two law firms. Information on jobs held, previous employers, activities performed and specific products used were obtained from patients themselves or next of kin. Branches of industry and occupations were coded and t...
Full Text Available Background: The Vascular lifestyle-Intervention and Screening in phArmacies (VISA study investigates diet and lifestyle factors associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. As part of the study methodology, a short Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, the VISA-FFQ, was adapted from the Norwegian NORDIET-FFQ. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the VISA-FFQ and its ability to estimate intakes of foods and lifestyle factors in screening for elevated risk of CVD. The evaluation included assessment of relative validity of intake of milk fat and assessment of reproducibility of several foods and lifestyle factors. Design: Relative validity of milk fat estimated from the VISA-FFQ was assessed in 307 participants by comparing estimated dietary intake of the fatty acids pentadecanoic acid (15:0 and heptadecanoic acid (17:0, from milk fat with whole blood biomarkers 15:0 and 17:0. Reproducibility was evaluated in 122 participants by comparing consistency in intakes of different foods and lifestyle factors reported by the VISA-FFQ and administered twice with a 4-week interval. Results: Dietary 15:0 milk fat estimated from the VISA-FFQ correlated positively with whole blood 15:0 (r = 0.32, P < 0.05. Men presented higher correlations than women did. Acceptable and consistent reproducibility (r = 0.44–0.94 and no large difference between test and retest was observed for most beverages, milk products, spreads on bread and meat (all of which included food items categorised into at least two fat categories and also for eggs, fruits and vegetables, nuts, pasta and rice, dessert/sweets, smoking and physical activity. Reproducibility did not consistently meet a satisfactory standard (r ≤ 0.41 or large difference between test and retest for unsweetened cereals, fatty fish, cakes, oils, white-, bread, crispbread and rice. Conclusion: The validity of the VISA-FFQ was acceptable for intake of milk fat, and there was an overall satisfactory
Leonard, J.F.; Templeton, P.A.
The chest radiograph is extensively used in evaluating workers at risk for developing occupational lung disease. Other pulmonary imaging techniques used in conjunction with the initial chest radiograph include conventional computed tomography, high resolution computed tomography, and gallium scintigraphy. This chapter evaluates the use of these techniques and their appropriate applications in the pneumoconioses, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, berylliosis, and hard metal diseases.65 references
De Marchis, Paola; Verso, Maria Gabriella; Tramuto, Fabio; Amodio, Emanuele; Picciotto, Diego
Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among several known risk factors, researchers also focus their attention on the chronic exposure to air pollution. There is much evidence that exposure to air pollution, especially to ultrafine particles, can damage the endothelium and can favour cardiovascular diseases in the general population. Occupational exposition could be an additive risk factor for the cardiovascular system. This article presents a scientific review of the linkage between occupational exposure to air pollution and ischemic heart disease. A scientific review was undertaken, followed by PRISMA Statements. Observational studies were selected from several scientific databases, likesuch as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Nioshtic-2 and Reserchgate, searching for selected key words: police workers, professional drivers, mail carriers, filling station attendants, road cleaners, garage workers, motor vehicles and engine maintenance. All the key words were combined with "Boolean Operators" with the following words: cardiovascular (or cardiac) disease, cardiovascular function, cardiovascular system, ischemic heart disease, coronary disease, myocardial infarction. During the systematic research, the focus was on retrospective and prospective studies from January 1990 - December 2014. Both the retrospective and prospective studies showed an increased risk of ischemic heart disease in occupationally occupied people exposed to air pollution. Only one study presented a ly minor risk. The findings of this systematic review suggest a possible linkage between occupational exposure to urban air pollution, especially to motor exhaust and particulate, and ischemic heart disease.
Halama, J.; Becker-Stone, S.; Halama, J.M.
Occupational diseases resulting from exposure to vinyl chloride (VC) include angiosarcoma of the liver and other neoplasms. Among workers exposed to VC we have found capillary abnormalities in the extremities, with scleroderma and Raynaud syndrome, acro-osteolysis, neurological and psychiatric diseases and chromosome abnormalities, as well as abnormal liver metabolism and haematological findings.(orig.)
Wang, Chuangshi; Li, Wei; Yin, Lu; Bo, Jian; Peng, Yaguang; Wang, Yang
The study aimed to explore the gap of prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors including smoking cessation, quitting drinking, physical activity and healthy eating between Chinese adults with and without cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study is a cross-sectional component of Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE)-China study, which recruited ~46,000 participants from 70 rural and 45 urban communities between 2005 and 2009. Participants were divided into disease (with CVDs) and control (without any diseases) groups. The adjusted rates were estimated for different strata by the generalized, linear mixed-effects model, including community as a random effect with additional adjustment for age, sex, education and income. Among 40,490 participants, healthy lifestyle behaviors (disease group versus control group: urban areas: 7.8% versus 8.1%; rural areas: 3.4% versus 3.2%). The rates of smoking cessation and quitting drinking were significantly higher in disease group for both urban and rural residents (Phealthy lifestyle behaviors except physical activity in low-income regions (Phealthy eating among rural residents from low-income regions (Phealthy lifestyle behaviors, but it still indicated a large gap between the actual and ideal adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which called for the promotion of population-wide strategies to modify lifestyle behaviors in addition to individual health-care intervention strategies.
Alharbi, Muaddi; Gallagher, Robyn; Kirkness, Ann; Sibbritt, David; Tofler, Geoffrey
The benefits of exercise and weight reduction for overweight or obese people with coronary heart disease and/or diabetes mellitus are well recognised. The Healthy Eating and Exercise Lifestyle Program demonstrated these outcomes at 4 months, but longer-term outcomes are not yet reported. To determine whether positive weight, body mass index, waist and exercise duration outcomes were sustained in the long term (12 months) and to identify the independent predictors of these outcomes at 4 and 12 months. Longitudinal design, combining data of all Healthy Eating and Exercise Lifestyle Program participants (intervention and wait-list control, n = 134). Participants had a body mass index between 27 and 39 kg/m(2) and had completed cardiac rehabilitation and/or diabetes education programmes. Healthy Eating and Exercise Lifestyle Program intervention included an active phase of two 1-hour group-based supervised structured exercise sessions every week for 4 months and four 90-minute group information and support sessions. The maintenance phase included one 90-minute group-based booster information session and three 15-minute goal-focused telephone follow-up calls over 8 months. Participants had statistically significant reductions from baseline in weight, body mass index and waist circumference and improvements in exercise duration and capacity at 4 and 12 months. Time, self-efficacy, depressive symptoms and male gender were independent predictors for body mass index, waist and/or exercise duration (p Healthy Eating and Exercise Lifestyle Program was an effective programme to achieve and sustain weight loss and increase exercise participation over 1 year. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.
Groeneveld, Iris F; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; van Mechelen, Willem
The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCT) that met the following inclusion criteria: (i) targeted at workers; (ii) aimed at increasing physical activity and/or improving diet; and (iii) measured body weight, body fat, blood pressure, blood lipids and/or blood glucose. We used a nine-item methodological quality list to determine the quality of each study. A best-evidence system was applied, taking into account study quality and consistency of effects. Our review included 31 RCT, describing a diversity of interventions (eg counseling, group education, or exercise). Of these studies, 18 were of high quality. Strong evidence was found for a positive effect on body fat, one of the strongest predictors of CVD risk. Among populations "at risk", there was strong evidence for a positive effect on body weight. Due to inconsistencies in results between studies, there was no evidence for the effectiveness of interventions on the remaining outcomes. We found strong evidence for the effectiveness of workplace lifestyle-based interventions on body fat and, in populations at risk for CVD, body weight. Populations with an elevated risk of CVD seemed to benefit most from lifestyle interventions; supervised exercise interventions appeared the least effective intervention strategy. To gain better insight into the mechanisms that led to the intervention effects, the participants' compliance with the intervention and the lifestyle changes achieved should be reported in future studies.
Felipe de Carvalho Aguinaga
Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused by a fungus of the genus Sporothrix, which is found in soil. It can be acquired by trauma to the skin. Bone and joint lesions are very rare. The city of Rio de Janeiro is undergoing an epidemic transmitted by cats, and this should be an alert for the risk to professionals in contact with these animals. The patient was a veterinarian who developed occupational sporotrichosis with osteoarticular involvement transmitted by a cat during a consultation.
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We report results of environmental microbiological sampling in an office building whose occupants referred different symptoms ascribable to the air conditioning system.
Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was detected in water samples drawn from the cooling tower with counts that ranged from 1.4 x105 to 1.5x107 CFU/L.
This biological agent is classified in the second risk group according to Italian law (D.Lgs. 626/94, consequently proper control measures in order to re-establish acceptable hygienic environment conditions and to assure healthy workplace are needed.
Full Text Available Masahito Hitosugi,1,2 Katsuo Hamada,2 Kazutaka Misaka2 1Department of Legal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Nagareyama Central Hospital, Nagareyama, Chiba, Japan Abstract: The fermented soybean product natto is a popular traditional food in Japan and is considered a health supplement. NKCP®, a natto-derived dietary food supplement whose main component is bacillopeptidase F, has antithrombotic, fibrinolytic, and blood pressure-lowering effects. We examined whether daily intake of NKCP® effectively improves subjective symptoms in patients with lifestyle diseases in this cross-over, double-blind study. Fermented soya extract with subtilisin NAT (nattokinase as the main component was used as an active placebo. A 4-week course of NKCP® significantly decreased the visual analog scale (VAS score for shoulder stiffness from 42.3 to 32.4 (P=0.009, the VAS score for low back pain from 25.5 to 18.8 (P=0.02, and the VAS score for coldness of the extremities from 33.1 to 25.7 (P=0.002. However, no significant difference was found in the VAS score for headache. After a 4-week course of active placebo, no significant changes in the VAS score were found for any symptoms. The significant improvement in the symptoms secondary to blood flow disturbance was caused by the improvement in blood flow by NKCP®. The use of dietary supplements based on the Japanese traditional food natto helps to relieve subjective symptoms for patients with lifestyle diseases receiving medical care. Keywords: bacillopeptidase F, Japanese traditional food, lifestyle disease, subjective symptom, supplement
Ramachandran, Hadassah Joann; Wu, Vivien Xi; He, Hong-Gu; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Wenru
The objectives of the study were to investigate awareness, knowledge, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and their correlates to coronary heart disease (CHD) among working women in Singapore. CHD is the leading cause of death for women globally, yet women are unaware of this or the associated risk factors that make them vulnerable to CHD. A cross-sectional descriptive study with a quota sample of 200 working women was conducted in Singapore. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, including the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire-2, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and a section on Awareness of CHD. Participants demonstrated suboptimal awareness of CHD being the leading cause of death among women and the risk factors associated with morbidity. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were found to be affected by age, ethnicity, marital status, income status, presence of chronic diseases, and working groups. Health care providers should systematically evaluate women at risk for CHD and provide both gender-sensitive and age-specific education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Britel, Manon; Pérol, Olivia; Blois Da Conceiçao, Stéphanie; Ficty, Manon; Brunet, Houria; Avrillon, Virginie; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Béatrice
The proportion of lung cancers with an occupational origin has been estimated to be between 10 and 20%. They are largely under-reported, as 60% are not compensated as occupational disease. Although most patients are not familiar with the process of compensation, other factors could explain this under-reporting. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that could impact patients with occupational lung cancer to claim for compensation. We conducted a case study involving semi-structured interviews with eight lung cancer patients enrolled in a cohort designed to systematically screen occupational exposures and propose claims for compensation to work-related cancer patients. Seven interviewed patients were familiar with occupational cancers, but most of them did not believe that past exposure could be related to their current disease. Patients associated compensation claims with a long and complex procedure for an abstract purpose. Several patients expressed a certain attachment to their employers. Interviewed patients often considered compensation claims to be a grievance procedure against the employers whom they did not consider to be responsible for their disease. Lung cancer is itself an obstacle to compensation considering the aggressive treatments and related adverse events, the poor medium-term prognosis and the predominant role of smoking in the etiology of the disease. Patients mentioned the financial compensation and the role of healthcare professionals as key elements to motivate them to claim for compensation.
Full Text Available Rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by a high prevalence and a complex pathogenesis. Work-related rhinitis (WRR can be divided into occupational rhinitis (OR and work-exacerbated rhinitis (WER. It is not only considered as a disease entity but also in the context of medical certification as the allergic disease associated with occupational exposure. Epidemiology of work-related rhinitis has been found to vary depending on the occupation and specific exposure, on the other hand the prevalence data may be underestimated due to the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews the issues comprising the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with work-related rhinitis. It also discusses the significance of the disease in occupational medicine, particularly in terms of preventive worker care, general principles of good practice in primary and secondary WRR prevention and the necessary directions of changes in medical certification in the cases of occupational rhinitis. Med Pr 2016;67(6:801–815
Zoeckler, Jeanette M; Cibula, Donald A; Morley, Christopher P; Lax, Michael B
Few occupational researchers have examined "return to work" among patients with work-related respiratory diseases. In addition, prior studies have emphasized individual patient characteristics rather than a more multi-dimensional approach that includes both clinical and structural factors. A retrospective chart review identified patients with occupational respiratory diseases in the Occupational Health Clinical Center, Syracuse, NY between 1991 and 2009. We assessed predictors of work status using an exploratory, sequential mixed methods research design, multinomial (n = 188) and Cox regressions (n = 130). The findings suggest that patients with an increased number of diagnoses, non-union members, and those who took more than a year before clinical presentation had significantly poorer work status outcomes, after adjusting for age, education level, and relevant diagnoses. Efforts to prevent slow return to work after developing occupational respiratory disease should recognize the importance of timely access to occupational health services, disease severity, union membership, and smoking status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arrandale, Victoria H; Bornstein, Stephen; King, Andrew; Takaro, Timothy K; Demers, Paul A
Registries are one strategy for collecting information on occupational exposure and disease in populations. Recently leaders in the Canadian occupational health and safety community have shown an interest in the use of occupational exposure registries. The primary goal of this study was to review a series of Canadian exposure registries to identify their strengths and weaknesses as a tool for tracking occupational exposure and disease in Canada. A secondary goal was to identify the features of an exposure registry needed to specifically contribute to prevention, including the identification of new exposure-disease relationships. A documentary review of five exposure registries from Canada was completed. Strengths and limitations of the registries were compared and key considerations for designing new registries were identified. The goals and structure of the exposure registries varied considerably. Most of the reviewed registries had voluntary registration, which presents challenges for the use of the data for either surveillance or epidemiology. It is recommended that eight key issues be addressed when planning new registries: clear registry goal(s), a definition of exposure, data to be collected (and how it will be used), whether enrolment will be mandatory, as well as ethical, privacy and logistical considerations. When well constructed, an exposure registry can be a valuable tool for surveillance, epidemiology and ultimately the prevention of occupational disease. However, exposure registries also have a number of actual and potential limitations that need to be considered.
Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia
Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.
Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L; Loria, Catherine M; Colangelo, Laura A; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M
A low cardiovascular disease risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with the presence of the low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study sample consisted of 3154 black and white participants 18 to 30 years of age at year 0 (1985-1986) who attended the year 0, 7, and 20 examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors defined at years 0, 7, and 20 included average body mass index risk profile at year 20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2%, and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 healthy lifestyle factors, respectively (P for trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve the adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults.
ROLAND IOSIF MORARU
Full Text Available Occupational Health and Safety management is more and more strongly related to the costs of occupational injuries and illnesses, as a top priority in most companies. The present article presents a synthesis of authors’ attempts to identify the elements which should be taken into account in determining the cost of occupational injuries and diseases at the national level, with a focus on basic influence factors. Our aim is to help companies managers to emphasize the economic costs of not improving workplace safety and health – to employers, to workers and to society as a whole – and to inform decision-makers on further developments to be considered in the occupational risk management processes.
Full Text Available The paper outlines the data obtained in the course of long-term research dedicated to studying the extent to which re-productive system pathologies in workers with high-risk occupations are occupationally induced. Their peculiarity is joint impacts of various occupational factors (for example, impacts exerted by chemicals together with physical and biological factors, and labor hardness and intensity as well on a female body. Our research goal was to examine the extent to which reproductive system pathologies in workers with high-risk occupations were occupationally induced. To achieve it, we applied statistical estimate of correlation between health disorders and work. Our occupational group included a number of occupations with harmful or hazardous working conditions in civil en-gineering, metallurgy, chemical industry, polymer-processing industry, and health care as well. As a rule, working condi-tions class of workers from the examined groups varied from 3.1 to 3.3; and occupation with permissible working conditions were used as a comparative group. The research results revealed that there are certain occupations with high risk of reproductive health disorders evolvement and infants development pathologies evolvement. They are: – model makers and checkers in civil engineering and crane operators at a metallurgic plant; – analysts at chemical analysis laboratories, chemical engineers in chemical industry (including petrochemical plants, polymer-processing plants, and organic synthesis plants; – surgeons, obstetrician-gynecologists, midwives, surgical nurses working in in-patient departments. Estimate of correlation and occupational dependence of reproductive system diseases on working conditions revealed that women with harmful working conditions (3.1–3.3 hazard class had defective pregnancies or labor pathologies which had strong and average correlation with working conditions. Health disorders in newborns were estimated as per very
Squamous cell carcinomas are the most frequent malignancies of the inner nose, followed by adenocarcinomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, and other malignant neoplasms. Carcinomas of the nose can be recognized as occupational diseases if there has been a professional exposition to ionizing rays, certain arsenic compounds, hexavalent chrome compounds, nickel, oak or beech wood dust. The sources of danger relevant in industrial medicine are indicated. At present, adenocarcinomas induced by dust of wood are of special significance: 16 out of 22 carcinomas of the nose recognized as occupational diseases between 1978 and 1986 are due to oak and beech wood dust.
Abbott, Robert D; Ross, G Webster; White, Lon R; Sanderson, Wayne T; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Kashon, Michael; Sharp, Dan S; Masaki, Kamal H; Curb, J David; Petrovitch, Helen
Increased westernization with Japanese migration to the U. S. in the early 20(th) century is thought to have altered the risk of cardiovascular disease. Whether similar effects include changes in the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not clear. This report describes the relations between environmental, life-style, and physical attributes and the incidence of PD that have been observed in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Beginning in 1965, environmental, life-style, and physical attributes were recorded at selected examinations in a cohort of 8,006 Japanese-American men. Subjects were followed for clinical PD. During 30 years of follow- up, PD was observed in 137 men. Overall incidence (7.1/10,000 person-years) was generally higher than in Asia and similar to rates observed in Europe and the U. S. Precursors of PD included constipation, adiposity, years worked on a sugar or pineapple plantation, years of exposure to pesticides, and exposure to sugar cane processing. Factors showing an inverse association with PD included coffee intake and cigarette smoking. Among dietary factors, carbohydrates increased the risk of PD while the intake of polyunsaturated fats appeared protective. Total caloric intake, saturated and monounsaturated fats, protein, niacin, riboflavin, beta-carotene, vitamins A, B, and C, dietary cholesterol, cobalamin, alpha-tocopherol, and pantothenic acid showed no clear relation with clinical PD. Findings suggest that several environmental, life-style, and physical attributes appear to be precursors of PD. Whether patterns of precursors can be used to identify individuals at high risk of future PD or can broaden the scope of early interventions or recruitment into neuroprotective trials warrants further study.
Sagner, Michael; Arena, Ross; McNeil, Amy; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Hills, Andrew P; De Silva, H Janaka; Karunapema, R P Palitha; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Arambepola, Carukshi; Puska, Pekka
The current burden and future escalating threat of chronic diseases, constitutes the major global public health challenge. In Sri Lanka, cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of annual deaths. Data from Sri Lanka also indicate a high incidence and prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes; 1 in 5 adults have elevated blood sugar in Sri Lanka. It is well established that chronic diseases share four primary behavioral risk factors: 1) tobacco use; 2) unhealthy diet; 3) physical inactivity; and 4) harmful use of alcohol. Evidence has convincingly shown that replacing these behavioral risk factors with the converse, healthy lifestyle characteristics, decrease the risk of poor outcomes associated with chronic disease by 60 to 80%. In essence, prevention or reversal of these behavioral risk factors with effective healthy lifestyle programing and interventions is the solution to the current chronic disease crisis. Expert commentary: Healthy lifestyle is medicine with global applicability, including Sri Lanka and the rest of the South Asia region. This policy statement will discuss the chronic disease crisis in Sri Lanka, its current policies and action implemented to promote healthy lifestyles, and further recommendations on preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle initiatives that are needed to move forward.
Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Graff, Maud J; Borm, George F; Adang, Eddy M M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Munneke, Marten
Occupational therapists may have an added value in the care of patients with Parkinson's disease whose daily functioning is compromised, as well as for their immediate caregivers. Evidence for this added value is inconclusive due to a lack of rigorous studies. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of occupational therapy in improving daily functioning of patients with Parkinson's disease. A multicenter, assessor-blinded, two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted, with evaluations at three and six months. One hundred ninety-two home-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease and with an occupational therapy indication will be assigned to the experimental group or to the control group (2:1). Patients and their caregivers in the experimental group will receive ten weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to recent Dutch guidelines. The intervention will be delivered by occupational therapists who have been specifically trained to treat patients according to these guidelines. Participants in the control group will not receive occupational therapy during the study period. The primary outcome for the patient is self-perceived daily functioning at three months, assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Secondary patient-related outcomes include: objective performance of daily activities, self-perceived satisfaction with performance in daily activities, participation, impact of fatigue, proactive coping skills, health-related quality of life, overall quality of life, health-related costs, and effectiveness at six months. All outcomes at the caregiver level will be secondary and will include self-perceived burden of care, objective burden of care, proactive coping skills, overall quality of life, and care-related costs. Effectiveness will be evaluated using a covariance analysis of the difference in outcome at three months. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will be conducted, as
Hitosugi, Masahito; Hamada, Katsuo; Misaka, Kazutaka
The fermented soybean product natto is a popular traditional food in Japan and is considered a health supplement. NKCP®, a natto-derived dietary food supplement whose main component is bacillopeptidase F, has antithrombotic, fibrinolytic, and blood pressure-lowering effects. We examined whether daily intake of NKCP® effectively improves subjective symptoms in patients with lifestyle diseases in this cross-over, double-blind study. Fermented soya extract with subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) as the main component was used as an active placebo. A 4-week course of NKCP® significantly decreased the visual analog scale (VAS) score for shoulder stiffness from 42.3 to 32.4 (P=0.009), the VAS score for low back pain from 25.5 to 18.8 (P=0.02), and the VAS score for coldness of the extremities from 33.1 to 25.7 (P=0.002). However, no significant difference was found in the VAS score for headache. After a 4-week course of active placebo, no significant changes in the VAS score were found for any symptoms. The significant improvement in the symptoms secondary to blood flow disturbance was caused by the improvement in blood flow by NKCP®. The use of dietary supplements based on the Japanese traditional food natto helps to relieve subjective symptoms for patients with lifestyle diseases receiving medical care. PMID:25653551
Wilczyńska, Urszula; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila
The whole spectrum of disorders of the hematopoietic tissue, eye and skin induced by ionizing radiation covers complex pathologies termed as a postirradiation syndrome, as well as various malignancies. The aim of this work is to present the data on incidence of occupational diseases with ionizing radiation as a causative agent. The work is based on the data compiled from "Occupational Diseases Reporting Forms" for the years 1971-2006 collected in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. The incidence of certified occupational diseases with ionizing radiation as a causative agent is expressed in absolute numbers and the rate per 100 000 employees. The data comprise information on disease entities, gender, age, exposure duration and the branch of national economy. In total, 599 diseases (0.2% of all occupational diseases) were diagnosed as those induced by ionizong radiation. Annual incidence rates per 100,000 employees fell within the range of 0.0-0.7. Miners formed the major (51.9%) occupational group affected by ionizing radiation. They were followed by health care (34.3%) and construction (6.4%) workers. Cancers made over 50% of pathologies located at 28 sites. These included cancers of lung (59.2%), skin (10.0%) and hematopoietic tissue (8.7%). Almost all (99.35) diseases recorded in the mining industry were cancers. Non-cancer diseases were more frequent in health care workers, among them postradiation cataract occupied the first place. A great deal of reported cancer sites give rise to controversy in terms of the cause-effect association with ionizing radiation exposure and also due to incomplete data on exposure level. Postradiation cancers among health care workers have not been registered over recent years, which means that occupational exposure surveillance carried out for many years proves to be effective. Distant effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, revealed in workers of no longer existing uranium mine, appeared to be a particular problem
Wilczynska, U.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.
The whole spectrum of disorders of the hematopoietic tissue, eye and skin induced by ionizing radiation covers complex pathologies termed as a postirradiation syndrome, as well as various malignancies. The aim of this work is to present the data on incidence of occupational diseases with ionizing radiation as a causative agent. The work is based on the data compiled from 'Occupational Diseases Reporting Forms' for the years 1971-2006 collected in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. The incidence of certified occupational diseases with ionizing radiation as a causative agent is expressed in absolute numbers and the rate per 100 000 employees. The data comprise information on disease entities, gender, age, exposure duration and the branch of national economy. In total, 599 diseases (0.2% of all occupational diseases) were diagnosed as those induced by ionizing radiation. Annual incidence rates per 100 000 employees fell within the range of 0.0-0.7. Miners formed the major (51.9%) occupational group affected by ionizing radiation. They were followed by health care (34.3%) and construction (6.4%) workers. Cancers made over 50% of pathologies located at 28 sites. These included cancers of lung (59.2%), skin (10.0%) and hematopoietic tissue (8.7%). Almost all (99.35) diseases recorded in the mining industry were cancers. Non-cancer diseases were more frequent in health care workers, among them postradiation cataract occupied the first place. A great deal of reported cancer sites give rise to controversy in terms of the cause-effect association with ionizing radiation exposure and also due to incomplete data on exposure duration. Postradiation cancers among health care workers have not been registered over recent years, which means that occupational exposure surveillance carried out for many years proves to be effective. Distant effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, revealed in workers of no longer existing uranium mine, appeared to be a particular problem
Takada, Toshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eiichi
Occupational and environmental lung diseases are a group of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of harmful particles, mists, vapors or gases. Mineralogical analysis is not generally required in the diagnosis of most cases of these diseases. Apart from minerals that are encountered rarely or only in specific occupations, small quantities of mineral dusts are present in the healthy lung. As such when mineralogical analysis is required, quantitative or semi-quantitative methods must be employed. An electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer (EPMA-WDS) enables analysis of human lung tissue for deposits of elements by both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. Since 1993, we have analyzed 162 cases of suspected occupational and environmental lung diseases using an EPMA-WDS. Our institute has been accepting online requests for elemental analysis of lung tissue samples by EPMA-WDS since January 2011. Hard metal lung disease is an occupational interstitial lung disease that primarily affects workers exposed to the dust of tungsten carbide. The characteristic pathological findings of the disease are giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) with centrilobular fibrosis, surrounded by mild alveolitis with giant cells within the alveolar space. EPMA-WDS analysis of biopsied lung tissue from patients with GIP has demonstrated that tungsten and/or cobalt is distributed in the giant cells and centrilobular fibrosing lesion in GIP. Pneumoconiosis, caused by amorphous silica, and acute interstitial pneumonia, associated with the giant tsunami, were also elementally analyzed by EPMA-WDS. The results suggest that commonly found elements, such as silicon, aluminum, and iron, may cause occupational and environmental lung diseases. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Across the globe, skin disorders represent a frequent occupational concern for many health professionals including veterinarians and there is a serious impact of skin diseases on their lives and careers. But little is known about the prevalence and distribution of skin diseases (especially occupational within this important professional group across Asia, especially India. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study carried out over a period of one year in which veterinarians and veterinary workers of Kashmir valley were screened for various skin diseases and occupational dermatoses. Results: The study group comprised 910 veterinarians and associated workers working across the valley with the majority being males; 846 workers (93%. The mean age of the group was 38.53 years. Out of these, 267 veterinarians and associated workers (29.3% were found to have skin lesions. Of the 267 cases, 165 (61.80% had non-infectious lesions, while the rest had 102 (38.20% had infectious skin diseases. The main non-infectious lesions included friction-related disorders, eczemas, pigmentary disorders, papulosquamous disorders, and many others; while the infectious lesions were of fungal, bacterial, viral, and parasitic etiology. Fungal infections, eczemas, and melasma were more common in them, indicating an occupational etiology. Conclusion: A huge group of skin diseases was seen in veterinarians and veterinary workers, with some diseases showing an occupational nature. To reduce the burden of skin diseases in this particular group, proper prevention measures need to be instituted at work places by veterinary governing bodies of the state.
Andersen, Vibeke; Holmskov, Uffe; Sørensen, Signe Bek
Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel diseases, IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritides, hidradenitis suppurativa, and immune-mediated uveitis, are treated with biologics targeting the pro...
Andersen, Vibeke; Holmskov, Uffe; Sørensen, Signe Bek
Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel diseases, IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritides, hidradenitis suppurativa, and immune-mediated uveitis, are treated with biologics targeting the pro...
ings support the proposal that the WCC establish a network ofaccess points for ... tional diseases is more complex than for accidents.' The ... 2) and therefore till potentially of working age. Four (7%) were ..... 5: Social Safety Nexs. Stellenbosch: ...
Csendes, Attila; Burdiles, Patricio
In most patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, treatment is medical. Among the main elements involved in treatment are general dietary measures, lifestyle habits, and patients' attitudes to symptom control. The present article summarizes the scientific foundations that support these measures: head elevation during nighttime sleep, smoking cessation, losing weight, avoiding rigorous exercise, and reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption. Dietary therapy is mainly based on avoiding fatty foods, chocolate, coffee, mint, and irritating fizzy drinks. Although each patient's response to these measures is highly individual, the mechanisms through which symptoms are reproduced is gradually becoming clearer: a large percentage of patients with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease will gain considerable relief simply by eliminating some of these habits.
Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E
Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. © 2013 APJPH.
Reeves, Suzanne; McLachlan, Emma; Bertrand, Julie; Antonio, Fabrizia D; Brownings, Stuart; Nair, Akshay; Greaves, Suki; Smith, Alan; Taylor, David; Dunn, Joel; Marsden, Paul; Kessler, Robert; Howard, Robert
See Caravaggio and Graff-Guerrero (doi:10.1093/awx023) for a scientific commentary on this article.Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimer's disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimer's disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = 28; 69-92 years; 41 blood samples, five pretreatment scans, 19 post-treatment scans); and (iii) 18F-fallypride imaging of an antipsychotic free Alzheimer's disease control group (n = 10, 78-92 years), to provide additional pretreatment data. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to describe pharmacokinetic-occupancy curves in caudate, putamen and thalamus. Model outputs were used to estimate threshold steady state blood concentration and occupancy required to elicit a clinically relevant response (>25% reduction in scores on delusions, hallucinations and agitation domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and extrapyramidal side effects (Simpson Angus Scale scores > 3). Average steady state blood levels were low (71 ± 30 ng/ml), and associated with high D2/3 occupancies (65 ± 8%, caudate; 67 ± 11%, thalamus; 52 ± 11%, putamen). Antipsychotic clinical response occurred at a threshold concentration of 20 ng/ml and D2/3 occupancies of 43% (caudate), 25% (putamen), 43
Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K
There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anthony S Gunnell
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors have been implicated in ischaemic heart disease (IHD development however a limited number of longitudinal studies report results stratified by cardio-protective medication use. PURPOSE: This study investigated the influence of self-reported lifestyle factors on hospitalisation for IHD, stratified by blood pressure and/or lipid-lowering therapy. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 14,890 participants aged 45+ years and IHD-free was identified from the Western Australian Health and wellbeing Surveillance System (2004 to 2010 inclusive, and linked with hospital administrative data. Adjusted hazard ratios for future IHD-hospitalisation were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: Current smokers remained at higher risk for IHD-hospitalisation (adjusted HR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.22-2.03 after adjustment for medication use, as did those considered overweight (BMI=25-29 kg/m(2; adjusted HR=1.28; 95% CI: 1.04-1.57 or obese (BMI of ≥30 kg/m(2; adjusted HR=1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.66. Weekly leisure-time physical activity (LTPA of 150 minutes or more and daily intake of 3 or more fruit/vegetable servings reduced risk by 21% (95% CI: 0.64-0.97 and 26% (95% CI: 0.58-0.96 respectively. Benefits of LTPA appeared greatest in those on blood pressure lowering medication (adjusted HR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.31-0.82 [for LTPA=150 mins]. IHD risk in smokers was most pronounced in those taking neither medication (adjusted HR=2.00; 95% CI: 1.41-2.83. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the contribution of previously reported lifestyle factors towards IHD hospitalisation, even after adjustment for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication use. Medication stratified results suggest that IHD risks related to LTPA and smoking may differ according to medication use.
Bosma-den Boer Margarethe M
Full Text Available Abstract Serhan and colleagues introduced the term "Resoleomics" in 1996 as the process of inflammation resolution. The major discovery of Serhan's work is that onset to conclusion of an inflammation is a controlled process of the immune system (IS and not simply the consequence of an extinguished or "exhausted" immune reaction. Resoleomics can be considered as the evolutionary mechanism of restoring homeostatic balances after injury, inflammation and infection. Under normal circumstances, Resoleomics should be able to conclude inflammatory responses. Considering the modern pandemic increase of chronic medical and psychiatric illnesses involving chronic inflammation, it has become apparent that Resoleomics is not fulfilling its potential resolving capacity. We suggest that recent drastic changes in lifestyle, including diet and psycho-emotional stress, are responsible for inflammation and for disturbances in Resoleomics. In addition, current interventions, like chronic use of anti-inflammatory medication, suppress Resoleomics. These new lifestyle factors, including the use of medication, should be considered health hazards, as they are capable of long-term or chronic activation of the central stress axes. The IS is designed to produce solutions for fast, intensive hazards, not to cope with long-term, chronic stimulation. The never-ending stress factors of recent lifestyle changes have pushed the IS and the central stress system into a constant state of activity, leading to chronically unresolved inflammation and increased vulnerability for chronic disease. Our hypothesis is that modern diet, increased psycho-emotional stress and chronic use of anti-inflammatory medication disrupt the natural process of inflammation resolution ie Resoleomics.
Mattioli, Stefano; Zanardi, Francesca; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Cooke, Robin MT; Mancini, Gianpiero; Fierro, Mauro; Santangelo, Chiara; Farioli, Andrea; Fucksia, Serenella; Curti, Stefania; Verbeek, Jos
Objective To identify efficient PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles regarding putative occupational determinants of conditions not generally considered to be work related. Methods Based on MeSH definitions and expert knowledge, we selected as candidate search terms the four MeSH terms describing ‘occupational disease’, ‘occupational exposure’, ‘occupational health’ and ‘occupational medicine’ (DEHM) alongside 22 other promising terms. We first explored overlaps between the candidate terms in PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportions of articles containing potentially pertinent information regarding occupational aetiology in order to formulate two search strategies (one more ‘specific’, one more ‘sensitive’). We applied these strategies to retrieve information on the possible occupational aetiology of meningioma, pancreatitis and atrial fibrillation. Results Only 20.3% of abstracts were retrieved by more than one DEHM term. The more ‘specific’ search string was based on the combination of terms that yielded the highest proportion (40%) of potentially pertinent abstracts. The more ‘sensitive’ string was based on the use of broader search fields and additional coverage provided by other search terms under study. Using the specific string, the numbers of abstracts needed to read to find one potentially pertinent article were 1.2 for meningioma, 1.9 for pancreatitis and 1.8 for atrial fibrillation. Using the sensitive strategy, the numbers needed to read were 4.4 for meningioma, 8.9 for pancreatitis and 10.5 for atrial fibrillation. Conclusions The proposed strings could help health care professionals explore putative occupational aetiology for diseases that are not generally thought to be work related. PMID:19819858
A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Dahhan; P. Swuste (Paul)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational background of cases with an asbestos-related disease and to present overall mesothelioma risks across industries with historical exposure to asbestos. METHODS: For the period 1990-2000, cases were collected from records held by
Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (between 3 and 3000 hz) is one potential risk factor for Alzheimer disease. this critical meta-analysis of the published epidemiologic work suggests the existence of an association in a very heterogeneous dataset. It looks for potential sources of error, examines the areas of uncertainty, and calls for the pursuit of further research. (author)
Tan, Q; Tu, H W; Gu, C H; Li, X D; Li, R Z; Wang, M; Chen, S G; Cheng, Y J; Liu, Y M
Objective: To explore the occupational disease spatial distribution characteristics in Guangzhou and Foshan city in 2006-2013 with Geographic Information System and to provide evidence for making control strategy. Methods: The data on occupational disease diagnosis in Guangzhou and Foshan city from 2006 through 2013 were collected and linked to the digital map at administrative county level with Arc GIS12.0 software for spatial analysis. Results: The maps of occupational disease and Moran's spatial autocor-relation analysis showed that the spatial aggregation existed in Shunde and Nanhai region with Moran's index 1.727, -0.003. Local Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis pointed out the "positive high incidence re-gion" and the "negative high incidence region" during 2006~2013. Trend analysis showed that the diagnosis case increased slightly then declined from west to east, increase obviously from north to south, declined from? southwest to northeast, high in the middle and low on both sides in northwest-southeast direction. Conclusions: The occupational disease is obviously geographical distribution in Guangzhou and Foshan city. The corresponding prevention measures should be made according to the geographical distribution.
Swaen, G.M.H.; Slangen, J.J.M.; Ott, M.G.; Kusters, E.; van den Langenbergh, G.; Arends, J.W.; Zober, A.
The objective of this study was to identify occupational exposures that might be etiologically linked to an unusual cluster of ten cases of Hodgkin's disease. The cases were identified within the active workforce of a large chemical manufacturing firm over a 23-year period by the medical director of
de Buy Wenniger, Lucas J. Maillette; Culver, Emma L.; Beuers, Ulrich
Evidence is mounting that the immune system of patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) shows indications of chronic antigenic stimulation. Hypothesizing a possible role for occupational antigenic exposure, we observed in two independent cohorts of patients with IgG4-RD that the majority had had
Mocevic, Emina; Kristiansen, Pernille; Bonde, Jens Peter
PURPOSE: Air pollution has been linked to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), but less is known about occupational exposure to welding fumes and the risk of IHD. The objective of this paper was to review the epidemiological evidence on causal links between welding fume exposure...
van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between occupational exposure to solvents, metals and/or welding fumes and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Data of a hospital based case-control study including 444 PD patients and 876 age and sex
Miedema, H. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Koes, B. W.; Burdorf, A.
BackgroundUntil recently, no evidence-based criteria were available to determine the work-relatedness of low back pain (LBP) in an individual worker. Incidence figures for LBP that can be qualified as occupational disease (OD) are scarce. We studied the trend in the number of OD notifications due to
Objective medical labour examination and judgement of labour rehabilitation of patients are based on the results of comprehensive roentgenological examination. Roentgenological pictures of different occupational diseases taking into account working conditions and concrete labour sanitary-and-hygienic characteristics are discussed [ru
Zhu, Xiaojun; Li, Tao; Liu, Mengxuan
To evaluate the monitoring and early warning functions of the occupational disease reporting system right now in China, and to analyze their influencing factors. An improved audit tool (ODIT) was used to score the monitoring and early warning functions with a total score of 10. The nine indices were completeness of information on the reporting form, coverage of the reporting system, accessibility of criteria or guidelines for diagnosis, education and training for physicians, completeness of the reporting system, statistical methods, investigation of special cases, release of monitoring information, and release of early warning information. According to the evaluation, the occupational disease reporting system in China had a score of 5.5 in monitoring existing occupational diseases with a low score for release of monitoring information; the reporting system had a score of 6.5 in early warning of newly occurring occupational diseases with low scores for education and training for physicians as well as completeness of the reporting system. The occupational disease reporting system in China still does not have full function in monitoring and early warning. It is the education and participation of physicians from general hospitals in the diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases and suspected occupational diseases that need to be enhanced. In addition, the problem of monitoring the incidence of occupational diseases needs to be solved as soon as possible.
Frometa Suarez, I.
Medical monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation enables evaluation of their state of health, as well as early detection of general or somatic diseases which are considered as a criterion of unfitness for work, and which may or may not be related to the exposure conditions. A retrospective study is presented of all the cases of workers suspected to be suffering from radiation-related diseases which were referred for specialized study to the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IMT) during 1990-95. The incidence of the diseases and affected tissues is described, as well as the relationship between the time of manifestation and the type of source, the exposure time and the recorded dose levels. Diseases of the haemolymphopoietic system predominated, being observed in individuals exposed to medical radiodiagnostic sources. (author)
Lang, V; Lauffer, F; Fincan, Y; Biedermann, T; Zink, A
Skin diseases affect 30-70% of the world population, and globally, skin cancer rates are continuously increasing. In this respect, prevention programs and early detection of skin diseases are of particular importance. To screen sewer workers for skin diseases with regard to their work-related risk. Employees of the municipal utilities in Munich (Münchner Stadtentwässerung) underwent a whole-body examination of the skin, conducted by two dermatologists. In addition, all employees completed a paper-based questionnaire on risk behavior and preventive measures. We examined 81 employees (79 men, 2 women, mean age 45.7 ± 9.5 years). Skin lesions in need of treatment were found in 30.9% (n = 25): the most frequent diagnosis was mycosis pedis (16.1%). In addition, one employee was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two with actinic keratoses. According to the questionnaire, 43.5% of the employees had undergone a physician-led skin cancer screening in the past, whereas sun-protection practices were rarely applied. According to our findings, employee skin cancer screening seems to be beneficial for the detection of work-related skin diseases and is associated with a high participation rate. Furthermore, the study suggests that sewer workers have a high rate of mycosis pedis, possibly a work-related effect.
Wang, Huan-qiang; Li, Tao; Qi, Fang; Wu, Rui; Nie, Wu; Yu, Chen
To investigate the qualifications and current situations of the medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China and to provide a reference for developing relevant policies. Work reports and questionnaires survey were used to investigate the qualifications of all medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China and their acceptance and diagnosis of occupational disease cases from 2006 to 2010. The rate for the work reports was 100%, and the response rate for the questionnaires was 71.0%. By the end of 2010, in the 31 provincial-level regions (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) in China, there had been 503 medical and health institutions which were qualified for providing occupational disease diagnosis, including 207 centers for disease control and prevention, accounting for 41.2%, 145 general hospitals, accounting for 28.8%, 69 enterprise-owned hospitals, accounting for 13.7%, and 64 institutes or centers for occupational disease prevention and control, accounting for 12.7%; 4986 certified doctors got the qualification for providing occupational disease diagnosis, with 9.4 certified doctors on average in each institution, and there was 0.65 certified doctor per 100 000 employees. In addition, 16.5% of the institutions got all the qualifications for diagnosing 9 occupational diseases, and 17.1% of the institutions got the qualification for diagnosing one occupational disease. Each certified doctor accepted diagnosis of 16.8 cases of occupational diseases on average every year. A national occupational disease diagnosis network has been established in China, but the imbalance in regional distribution and specialty programs still exists among the qualified medical and health institutions and certified doctors. It is essential to further strengthen the development of regional qualified medical and health institutions and training of qualified
Full Text Available Sofia Rubinstein,1 Chengwei Wang,1 Wenchun Qu2 1Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY, USA; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Objective: Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. Materials and methods: This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. Results: After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. Conclusion: This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations. Keywords: CKD, risk factors, occupations
Esquirol, Yolande; Tully, Mark; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Fogarty, Damian; Ferrieres, Jean; Quinn, Michael; Hughes, Maria; Kee, Frank
Chronic kidney disease is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The impact of occupational or non-occupational physical activity (PA) on moderate decreases of renal function is uncertain. We aimed to identify the potential association of PA (occupational and leisure-time) on early decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to determine the potential mediating effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease. From the PRIME study analyses were conducted in 1058 employed men. Energy expended during leisure, work and commuting was calculated. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the link between types of PA and moderate decrements of eGFR determined with the KDIGO guideline at the baseline assessment. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to explore the potential effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease, ascertained during follow-up over 10 years. For these employed men, and after adjustment for known confounders of GFR change, more time spent sitting at work was associated with increased risk of moderate decline in kidney function, while carrying objects or being active at work was associated with decreased risk. In contrast, no significant link with leisure PA was apparent. No potential mediating effect of occupational PA was found for the relationship between eGFR and coronary heart disease. Occupational PA (potential modifiable factors) could provide a dual role on early impairment of renal function, without influence on the relationship between early decrease of e-GFR and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laws, Rachel A; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Jayasinghe, Upali W; McKenzie, Suzanne; Passey, Megan; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F
Previous research suggests that lifestyle intervention for the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are effective, however little is known about factors affecting participation in such programs. This study aims to explore factors influencing levels of participation in a lifestyle modification program conducted as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of CVD prevention in primary care. This concurrent mixed methods study used data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 30 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organizations. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 16) and control (n = 14) groups. In each practice up to 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years old, were invited to participate. Intervention practice staff were trained in lifestyle assessment and counseling and referred high risk patients to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) consisting of two individual and six group sessions over a nine month period. Data included a patient survey, clinical audit, practice survey on capacity for preventive care, referral and attendance records at the LMP and qualitative interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the LMP. Multi-level logistic regression modelling was used to examine independent predictors of attendance at the LMP, supplemented with qualitative data from interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the program. A total of 197 individuals were referred to the LMP (63% of those eligible). Over a third of patients (36.5%) referred to the LMP did not attend any sessions, with 59.4% attending at least half of the planned sessions. The only independent predictors of attendance at the program were employment status - not working (OR: 2.39 95% CI 1.15-4.94) and having high psychological distress (OR: 2.17 95% CI: 1.10-4.30). Qualitative data revealed that physical access to the program was a barrier, while GP/practice endorsement of the program and
Judith A. Cole
Full Text Available The effectiveness of lifestyle interventions within secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine their effectiveness and included randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, in primary care or community settings, with a minimum follow-up of three months, published since 1990. 21 trials with 10,799 patients were included; the interventions were multifactorial (10, educational (4, psychological (3, dietary (1, organisational (2, and exercise (1. The overall results for modifiable risk factors suggested improvements in dietary and exercise outcomes but no overall effect on smoking outcomes. In trials that examined mortality and morbidity, significant benefits were reported for total mortality (in 4 of 6 trials; overall risk ratio (RR 0.75 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.65, 0.87, cardiovascular mortality (3 of 8 trials; overall RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.47, 0.84, and nonfatal cardiac events (5 of 9 trials; overall RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.55, 0.84. The heterogeneity between trials and generally poor quality of trials make any concrete conclusions difficult. However, the beneficial effects observed in this review are encouraging and should stimulate further research.
Cole, Judith A.; Smith, Susan M.; Hart, Nigel; Cupples, Margaret E.
The effectiveness of lifestyle interventions within secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine their effectiveness and included randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, in primary care or community settings, with a minimum follow-up of three months, published since 1990. 21 trials with 10,799 patients were included; the interventions were multifactorial (10), educational (4), psychological (3), dietary (1), organisational (2), and exercise (1). The overall results for modifiable risk factors suggested improvements in dietary and exercise outcomes but no overall effect on smoking outcomes. In trials that examined mortality and morbidity, significant benefits were reported for total mortality (in 4 of 6 trials; overall risk ratio (RR) 0.75 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.65, 0.87)), cardiovascular mortality (3 of 8 trials; overall RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.47, 0.84)), and nonfatal cardiac events (5 of 9 trials; overall RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.55, 0.84)). The heterogeneity between trials and generally poor quality of trials make any concrete conclusions difficult. However, the beneficial effects observed in this review are encouraging and should stimulate further research. PMID:21197445
Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki
This study was designed to evaluate whether changes in lifestyle behaviors are correlated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The subjects consisted of 316 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or renal dysfunction or dialysis treatment. The following lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire: habitual moderate exercise, daily physical activity, walking speed, eating speed, late-night dinner, bedtime snacking, skipping breakfast, and drinking and smoking habits. The subjects were divided into four categories according to the change in each lifestyle behavior from baseline to the end of follow-up (healthy-healthy, unhealthy-healthy, healthy-unhealthy and unhealthy-unhealthy). A multivariate analysis showed that, with respect to habitual moderate exercise and late-night dinner, maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle resulted in a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for the incidence of CKD than maintaining a lifestyle (OR 8.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-15.40 for habitual moderate exercise and OR 4.00; 95% CI, 1.38-11.57 for late-night dinner). In addition, with respect to bedtime snacking, the change from a healthy to an unhealthy lifestyle and maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle resulted in significantly higher OR for incidence of CKD than maintaining a healthy lifestyle (OR 4.44; 95% CI, 1.05-13.93 for healthy-unhealthy group and OR 11.02; 95% CI, 2.83-26.69 for unhealthy-unhealthy group). The results of the present study suggest that the lack of habitual moderate exercise, late-night dinner, and bedtime snacking may increase the risk of CKD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel; Pavlínek, Petr; Dzurova, Dagmar
The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in Czechia. The objective of this study has been to analyze the occurrence of occupational diseases (OD) in the automotive industry during the period from 2001 till 2014. Data on OD cases was retrieved from the National Registry of OD. Further, we conducted a survey in automotive companies with focus on occupational health services and positions of the companies in global production networks (GPNs). An analysis of OD distribution in the automotive industry was performed (age, gender, company size and its role in GPNs, regional distribution of studied companies, and regional unemployment rate), and was accompanied by assessment of the quality and range of occupational health services. Employees older than 40 years old have nearly 2.5 times higher probability of OD occurrence as compared with employees younger than 40 years old (odds ratio (OR) = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-2.85). Occupational diseases occurrence probability was 3 times higher for women than for men (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 2.55-3.55). Occupational diseases incidence rates increased with the size of the company (0 OD/10 000 employees in micro enterprises to 57 OD/10 000 employees in large enterprises). A particularly steep rise in OD incidents in the automotive industry was observed in the Plzeň Region between 2001 and 2011. An association between OD incidents and the unemployment rate was not statistically confirmed. A statistically significant increase in OD incidents dependent on company size may be arguably attributed to a higher quality of occupational medical services in bigger companies, which ensures better detection and diagnosis of OD. In the Plzeň Region, the rapid increase in OD incidents was mainly caused by a change in the production process of automobile textiles in one factory due to the introduction of a glue containing isocyanates, which are potent allergising agents. This led to an increase in
Liubchenko, P N; Dmitruk, L I; Rogatkin, D A; Karpov, V N; Shumskaia, O V
The article deals with results of microhemodynamics assessment through new methods of noninvasive laser diagnostics--doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry ("Spectrotest" device)--in vibration disease patients to verify origin of angiodystonic and angiospastic syndromes. The methods enable to define type of microcirculatory disorder, to evaluate quantity of revealed changes, to assess blood content of superficial tissues in fingers, blood oxygenation. Spastic type of microcirculation is indicative to include ACF inhibitors into treatment complex.
Background: Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been crosssectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective: The aims of t...
Dozens cases of disease of former or present uranium and ore miners are submitted to judgment as occupational diseases every year in the Czech Republic. Patients or attending physicians suggest that these cases are caused by occupational ionizing radiation. Only a part of these cases is qualified as occupational disease, nevertheless they can cause many juridical problems. The term 'occupational disease' is rather juridical term which underlies the right to financial compensation. The causal association with exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be indisputably verified by expert medical opinion. Most diseases in uranium and ore miners, which are proposed as occupational disease, are malignant tumors. The majority of judged cases are lung cancers from radioactive agents. The poster gives general information about all judged cases of occupational diseases in former uranium and ore miners in the Czech Republic in the years 2002 -2007. It also provides short information about standards of professional radiation exposure assessment valid in the other countries. Most frequent diseases were lung cancers. Nevertheless the rate of lung cancers acknowledged as occupational disease decreases during the last two decades. Non-melanoma skin cancers are on the second place. The rate of skin cancers increases. We can explain this fact by better diagnostics and by new method which allows more precious assessment of the skin dose. The method is used since 2005. Leukemias are on the third place (1-2 cases in the year). (authors)
Dozens cases of disease of former or present uranium and ore miners are submitted to judgment as occupational diseases every year in the Czech Republic. Patients or attending physicians suggest that these cases are caused by occupational ionizing radiation. Only a part of these cases is qualified as occupational disease, nevertheless they can cause many juridical problems. The term 'occupational disease' is rather juridical term which underlies the right to financial compensation. The causal association with exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be indisputably verified by expert medical opinion. Most diseases in uranium and ore miners, which are proposed as occupational disease, are malignant tumors. The majority of judged cases are lung cancers from radioactive agents. The poster gives general information about all judged cases of occupational diseases in former uranium and ore miners in the Czech Republic in the years 2002-2007. It also provides short information about standards of professional radiation exposure assessment valid in the other countries. Most frequent diseases were lung cancers. Nevertheless the rate of lung cancers acknowledged as occupational disease decreases during the last two decades. Non-melanoma skin cancers are on the second place. The rate of skin cancers increases. We can explain this fact by better diagnostics and by new method which allows more precious assessment of the skin dose. The method is used since 2005. Leukemias are on the third place (1-2 cases in the year). (authors)
Curtin, Kimberley D; Berry, Tanya R; Courneya, Kerry S; McGannon, Kerry R; Norris, Colleen M; Rodgers, Wendy M; Spence, John C
Ethnic minority groups including Asians in Canada have different knowledge and perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer compared with the ethnic majority group. Examine relationships between perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer, and lifestyle behaviors for Canadian women with British and with South Asian ancestry. Women with South Asian ( n = 170) and with British ( n = 373) ancestry ( M age = 33.01, SD = 12.86) reported leisure time physical activity, intended fruit and vegetable consumption, disease perceptions (ability to reduce risk, control over getting the diseases, and influence of family history), and demographic information. Mann-Whitney tests and multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between lifestyle behaviors and disease perceptions, with ancestry explored as a possible moderator. Participants with South Asian ancestry believed they had greater ability to reduce their risk and have control over getting breast cancer than participants with British ancestry. Family history influences on getting either disease was perceived as higher for women with British ancestry. Age was positively related to all three perceptions in both diseases. Intended fruit and vegetable consumption was positively related to perceptions of ability to reduce risk and control of both diseases, but was stronger for women with South Asian ancestry regarding perceptions of breast cancer. Leisure time physical activity was positively related to perceptions of control over getting heart disease for women with British ancestry. Women's disease perceptions can vary by ancestry and lifestyle behaviors. Accurate representation of diseases is essential in promoting effective preventative behaviors.
Occupational therapy practitioners play a significant role in supporting adults with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders, as well as their caregivers, through all phases of the disease process. This editorial highlights the systematic reviews completed in collaboration with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project that summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice for this population. Readers are encouraged to translate and integrate this updated knowledge into everyday practice. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Kramer, Desre M; Holness, D Linn; Haynes, Emily; McMillan, Keith; Berriault, Colin; Kalenge, Sheila; Lightfoot, Nancy
Miners work in highly hazardous environments, but surprisingly, there are more fatalities from occupational diseases, including cancers, than from fatalities from injuries. Over the last few decades, the mining environment has become safer with fewer injuries and less exposure to the toxins that lead to occupational disease. There have been improvements in working conditions, and a reduction in the number of workers exposed, together with an overall improvement in the health of miners. This study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the impetus for change to reduce occupational exposures or toxins at the industry level. It focuses on one mining community in Sudbury, Ontario, with a high cancer rate, and its reduction in occupational exposures. It explored the level of awareness of occupational exposures from the perspective of industry and worker representatives in some of the deepest mines in the world. Although awareness may be necessary, it is often not a sufficient impetus for change, and it is this gap between awareness and change that this study explored. It examined the awareness of occupational disease as an impetus to reducing toxic exposures in the mining sector, and explores other forces of change at the industrial and global levels that have led to an impact on occupational exposures in mining. From 2014 and 2016, 60 interviews were conducted with individuals who were part of, or witness to the changes in mining in Sudbury. From these, 12 labour and 10 industry interviews and four focus groups were chosen for further analysis to gain a deeper understanding of industry and labour's views on the changes in mining and the impact on miners' health from occupational exposures. The results from this subsection of the data is the focus for this paper. The themes that emerged told a story about Sudbury. There is awareness of occupational exposures, but this awareness is dwarfed in comparison to the attention that is given to the tragic fatal injuries
Jahrami, Haitham Ali; Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam Ezzat; Saif, Zahraa Qassim; Hammad, Laila Habib
Acquired dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors of patients with schizophrenia may affect their life expectancy, disease complications and prognosis. The objectives of the current study were to assess the dietary habits and other lifestyle behaviors for Bahraini patients with schizophrenia, and to determine their associations with different medical comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted during the period of March to December 2016. A sample of 120 cases were recruited from the Psychiatric Hospital, Bahrain and age-sex-matched with 120 controls. Controls were recruited from primary health centres, and were free from serious mental illness. Dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors including smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were assessed using a questionnaire. All medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify dietary and lifestyle risk factors that are associated with one or more disease comorbidities. Cases had higher prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake, excessive dietary intake, and decreased physical activity (all Prisk for developing chronic medical conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cases were three times more likely to have up to three or more medical comorbidities compared with controls. Excessive dietary intake and decreased physical activity were identified as the main risk factors. Excessive caloric intake and decreased physical activity represent the main dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with comorbidities among patients with schizophrenia in Bahrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Past practice to accept a uniform organ burden of 200 WLM for giving a medical opinion on cancer as an occupational disease does no longer correspond to international tendencies. Moreover, in case of different age of incidence such a procedure does not allow for the established facts of an age specific doubling rate of the normal lung cancer incidence rate. On the basis of the ICRP risk conception a simple model has been developed for the time-dependent realization of the life-time risk. This is used for calculating the minimum accumulated dose necessary for confirming diseases or death as an occupational disease. The calculation method starts from different age-groups and takes into account the different age at the beginning of exposure and the different duration of exposure. The organ burden is given by WLM values with the conversion factor 1 WLM = 1 rem effective
After World War II, Japan has imported food from other countries to solve malnutrition, and then dietitians provided nutrition education to people for effective food utilization. Flour and skimmed milk imported from the United State were distributed to the school lunch program. Dietitians were trained to encourage the people to adapt western style dietary habits. The western style dietary habit issues have been brought since in 1980's as overeating and obesity have been considered as nation's health problems. In the 1990's, the prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related diseases became key objects for the nation. Government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as a preventive policy of the lifestyle-related disease in 2000. In 2006, the middle survey for the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but it did not bring a good result as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top" for practical and easy mean to improve eating habits. Dietitians are in the process of developing new nutrition education using this tool. In 2005, the nine specific targets' Basic Law on Dietary Education "Shoku-Iku" was enacted to promote childhood dietary education. The Ministry of Education and Science started the new education to become a teacher called "diet and nutrition teacher" on the professional education programs of registered dietitian in university. "Diet and nutrition teachers" have already started teaching in some schools. From now, the roles of dietitians are not only supervising food preparation and planning meals but also nutrition education as teachers.
Full Text Available In case of appearance of a chronic disease, which affects every sixth in ten adults, it is necessary to provide proper medical treatment as well as to deal with emotional responses to the disease (anger, frustration, sadness and to control them. It is also necessary for the individual to preserve or transform the roles he plays at work, in the family and among friends. When searching for suitable strategies for control of the disease and one’s life, medical staff plays an important role. Patients should be offered quality medical education programs, focusing not only on the characteristics of the chronic disease and treatment options, but also dealing with the anxiety experienced by individuals facing the disease, as well as its impact on other spheres of their lives. Research shows that empathy in the communication of the medical staff with the diseased plays a significant role in all these tasks.
Sánchez, F; Aguilar, M; Porta, R; Urbano, F; Martínez, I; Bonaventura, I; Ribó, J M
A minor stroke does not cause sufficient alarm in patients to change their lifestyles. 46 patients who suffered strokes in the previous 2 years were contacted by telephone, recording rehabilitation programs, medical therapy and modification of dietary habits. It was discovered that only 50% of those requiring motor rehabilitation actually received such treatment; and only one of twenty carried on speech exercises. Subsequent ischemic events were reported by 22 patients: 12 of whom had strokes, 8 ischemic myocardial attacks and two patients suffered both conditions. The majority of patients followed the prescribed medical treatment and advice badly. Of the 46 patients reviewed, 31 were hypertensive and only 16 follow recommended diets. Out of 15 smokers only, 6 gave up, and from 21 with dislypemia only 10 modified their diets. Of all patients only the most severely affected complied satisfactorily to medical treatments; a possible explanation for this would be that the contact between patients and physician (neurologist and family doctors) was discontinued immediately after the patients discharge from hospital. It is recommended therefore that steps be taken to insure better communication between neurologist, general practitioner and patient; thereby improving prognosis.
Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Graff, Maud J L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Veenhuizen, Yvonne; Munneke, Marten; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W
There is insufficient evidence to support use of occupational therapy interventions for patients with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy of occupational therapy in improving daily activities of patients with Parkinson's disease. We did a multicentre, assessor-masked, randomised controlled clinical trial in ten hospitals in nine Dutch regional networks of specialised health-care professionals (ParkinsonNet), with assessment at 3 months and 6 months. Patients with Parkinson's disease with self-reported difficulties in daily activities were included, along with their primary caregivers. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to the intervention or control group by a computer-generated minimisation algorithm. The intervention consisted of 10 weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to national practice guidelines; control individuals received usual care with no occupational therapy. The primary outcome was self-perceived performance in daily activities at 3 months, assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (score 1-10). Data were analysed using linear mixed models for repeated measures (intention-to-treat principle). Assessors monitored safety by asking patients about any unusual health events during the preceding 3 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01336127. Between April 14, 2011, and Nov 2, 2012, 191 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=124) or the control group (n=67). 117 (94%) of 124 patients in the intervention group and 63 (94%) of 67 in the control group had a participating caregiver. At baseline, the median score on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was 4·3 (IQR 3·5-5·0) in the intervention group and 4·4 (3·8-5·0) in the control group. At 3 months, these scores were 5·8 (5·0-6·4) and 4·6 (4·6-6·6), respectively. The adjusted mean difference in score between groups at 3 months was in favour of the intervention group (1·2; 95% CI 0·8-1·6
... develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive lifestyle ... By not getting regular exercise, you raise your risk of Obesity Heart diseases, including coronary artery disease ...
Lunde, Pernille; Nilsson, Birgitta Blakstad; Bergland, Astrid; Kværner, Kari Jorunn; Bye, Asta
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for 70% of all deaths in a year globally. The four main NCDs are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic pulmonary diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Fifty percent of persons with NCD do not adhere to prescribed treatment; in fact, adherence to lifestyle interventions is especially considered as a major challenge. Smartphone apps permit structured monitoring of health parameters, as well as the opportunity to receive feedback. The aim of this study was to review and assess the effectiveness of app-based interventions, lasting at least 3 months, to promote lifestyle changes in patients with NCDs. In February 2017, a literature search in five databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Research Premier, and Cochrane Reviews and Trials) was conducted. Inclusion criteria was quantitative study designs including randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials that included patients aged 18 years and older diagnosed with any of the four main NCDs. Lifestyle outcomes were physical activity, physical fitness, modification of dietary habits, and quality of life. All included studies were assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration`s risk of bias tool. Meta-analyses were conducted for one of the outcomes (glycated hemoglobin, HbA 1c ) by using the estimate of effect of mean post treatment with SD or CI. Heterogeneity was tested using the I 2 test. All studies included in the meta-analyses were graded. Of the 1588 records examined, 9 met the predefined criteria. Seven studies included diabetes patients only, one study included heart patients only, and another study included both diabetes and heart patients. Statistical significant effect was shown in HbA 1c in 5 of 8 studies, as well in body weight in one of 5 studies and in waist circumference in one of 3 studies evaluating these outcomes. Seven of the included studies were included in the meta-analyses and demonstrated significantly overall effect on HbA 1c on a short
Riva, Michele Augusto; Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo
Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline.
Fingerhut, M.; Driscoll, T.; Nelson, D.I.; Concha-Barrientos, M.; Punnett, L.; Pruss-Ustin, A.; Steenland, K.; Leigh, J.; Corvalan, C. [NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
The World Health Organization conducted a comparative risk assessment to ascertain the contributions of 26 risk factors to the global burden of disease. Five occupational risk factors accounted for an estimated 37% of back pain, 16% of hearing loss, 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11% of asthma, 9% of lung cancer, 8% of injuries, and 2% of leukemia worldwide. Virtually all cases of silicosis, asbestosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis were work-related. Contaminated sharps injuries accounted for 40% of hepatitis B, 40% of hepatitis C, and 4% of HIV/AlDS infections among health care workers. Data limitations, primarily in developing countries, prevented the inclusion of other major occupational risk factors. These selected occupational risks accounted for about 850,000 deaths and 24 million years of healthy life lost each year. The deaths due to these selected occupational risk factors constitute only 43% of the International Labour Organization's estimate of 2 million deaths worldwide due to work-related risks.
This study addresses two issues currently under critical discussion in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the relative neglect of women and the individualised nature of key risk factors. It focuses on the North Karelia project (NKP), a community programme aimed at coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention in a predominantly rural Finnish region in the early 1970s, that is, during a period when the epidemiological understanding of CVD still was relatively new and actively promoted. Adopting the notions of lay epidemiology and coronary candidacy, culturally mediated explanatory models lay people use to assess who is likely to develop heart disease and why, the study shows that locals targeted by the project critically engaged with both of these bias. Based on the rich materials resulting from project activities the study shows, first, how many locals subsumed the individualised and lifestyle-based approach to CHD prevention promoted by NKP under a more general framework emphasising the health effects of ongoing structural changes in the area, and second, how women constructed themselves as viable coronary candidates. The case supports the position in the current discussions on lay expertise that wants to integrate lay experiences more firmly into epidemiological studies and public health. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
A growing incidence of the voice organ occupational diseases has recently become one of major health problems. There is a need to objective diagnostic examinations performed in teachers who apply for occupational disease certification. The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of larynx vocal efficiency test during noise load in diagnosis of the voice organ occupational diseases in teachers.
Norton, Maria C; Dew, Jeffrey; Smith, Heeyoung; Fauth, Elizabeth; Piercy, Kathleen W; Breitner, John C S; Tschanz, JoAnn; Wengreen, Heidi; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen
To identify distinct behavioral patterns of diet, exercise, social interaction, church attendance, alcohol consumption, and smoking and to examine their association with subsequent dementia risk. Longitudinal, population-based dementia study. Rural county in northern Utah, at-home evaluations. Two thousand four hundred ninety-one participants without dementia (51% male, average age 73.0 ± 5,7; average education 13.7 ± 4.1 years) initially reported no problems in activities of daily living and no stroke or head injury within the past 5 years. Six dichotomized lifestyle behaviors were examined (diet: high ≥ median on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scale; exercise: ≥5 h/wk of light activity and at least occasional moderate to vigorous activity; church attendance: attending church services at least weekly; social Interaction: spending time with family and friends at least twice weekly; alcohol: currently drinking alcoholic beverages ≥ 2 times/wk; nonsmoker: no current use or fewer than 100 cigarettes ever). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns among these behaviors. Proportional hazards regression modeled time to dementia onset as a function of behavioral class, age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E status. Follow-up averaged 6.3 ± 5.3 years, during which 278 cases of incident dementia (200 Alzheimer's disease (AD)) were diagnosed. LCA identified four distinct lifestyle classes. Unhealthy-religious (UH-R; 11.5%), unhealthy-nonreligious (UH-NR; 10.5%), healthy-moderately religious (H-MR; 38.5%), and healthy-very religious (H-VR; 39.5%). UH-NR (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.54, P = .028), H-MR (HR = 0.56, P = .003), and H-VR (HR = 0.58, P = .005) had significantly lower dementia risk than UH-R. Results were comparable for AD, except that UH-NR was less definitive. Functionally independent older adults appear to cluster into subpopulations with distinct patterns of lifestyle behaviors with different levels of risk for subsequent
Brouwer, Maartje; Koeman, Tom; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kromhout, Hans; Schouten, Leo J; Peters, Susan; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel
We investigated the association between six occupational exposures (ie, pesticides, solvents, metals, diesel motor emissions (DME), extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and electric shocks) and Parkinson's disease (PD) mortality in a large population-based prospective cohort study. The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer enrolled 58,279 men and 62,573 women aged 55-69 years in 1986. Participants were followed up for cause-specific mortality over 17.3 years, until December 2003, resulting in 402 male and 207 female PD deaths. Following a case-cohort design, a subcohort of 5,000 participants was randomly sampled from the complete cohort. Information on occupational history and potential confounders was collected at baseline. Job-exposure matrices were applied to assign occupational exposures. Associations with PD mortality were evaluated using Cox regression. Among men, elevated HRs were observed for exposure to pesticides (eg, ever high exposed, HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.88) and ever high exposed to ELF-MF (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36). No association with exposure duration or trend in cumulative exposure was observed for any of the occupational exposures. Results among women were unstable due to small numbers of high-exposed women. Associations with PD mortality were observed for occupational exposure to pesticides and ELF-MF. However, the weight given to these findings is limited by the absence of a monotonic trend with either duration or cumulative exposure. No associations were found between PD mortality and occupational exposure to solvents, metals, DME or electric shocks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. DESIGN: The design was a prospective cohort study. METHODS...... for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD.......: This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15...
Full Text Available With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (–1.05%, p = 0.096. However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047 for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was –2.83% (p = 0.001. In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (–5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (–6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001, total cholesterol (–0.36 vs. –0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005, fasting plasma glucose (–0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001, BMI (–0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m2; p < 0.001, and waist hip ratio (–0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001. Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.
Ruiz-Nunez, Begona; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.
In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An
Møller, Trine Kjeldgaard Tang; Nielsen, Tina-Thea; Andersen, René
This study compares the effects of team-sport training, for sedentary men with lifestyle diseases, with fitness training in a pragmatic set-up in a community health centre (CHC). Thirty-two men in the fitness group (FiG) and 36 men in the team-sport group (TsG) completed the training and trained...
Groeneveld, I.F.; Proper, K.I.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Mechelen, W. van
Background: The prevalence of overweight and elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among workers in the construction industry is relatively high. Improving lifestyle lowers CVD risk and may have work-related benefits. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects on physical activity
Scattergood, Donna M
The Essential Vitality Program blends holistic nursing, functional medicine, and health coaching to promote lifestyle changes that modify risk factors of costly chronic disease. Karl is a client who experienced enhanced vitality, decreased chronic pain and medications use, and improved meaningful functioning, by partnering with a holistic nurse coach.
Peerbhoy, D.; Majumdar, A. J.; Wightman, N. A.; Brand, V. L.
Objective: To document the lifestyle health impacts (activity, diet and physiological), along with the operational success and challenges, of a programme for families presenting one or more coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. Design: Data are based on a wider evaluation of a government-funded community initiative conducted in a deprived area…
Verbeek Jos HAM
Full Text Available Abstract Background- The aim of the study was to develop quality indicators that can be used for quality assessment of registries of occupational diseases in relation to preventive policy on a national level. The research questions were: 1. Which indicators determine the quality of national registries of occupational diseases with respect to their ability to provide appropriate information for preventive policy? 2. What are the criteria that can distinguish low quality from high quality? Methods- First, we performed a literature search to assess which output of registries can be considered appropriate for preventive policy and to develop a set of preliminary indicators and criteria. Second, final indicators and criteria were assessed and their content validity was tested in a Delphi study, for which experts from the 25 EU Member States were invited. Results- The literature search revealed two different types of information output to be appropriate for preventive policy: monitor and alert information. For the evaluation of the quality of the monitor and alert function we developed ten indicators and criteria. Sixteen of the twenty-five experts responded in the first round of the Delphi study, and eleven in the second round. Based on their comments, we assessed the final nine indicators: the completeness of the notification form, coverage of registration, guidelines or criteria for notification, education and training of reporting physicians, completeness of registration, statistical methods used, investigation of special cases, presentation of monitor information, and presentation of alert information. Except for the indicator "coverage of registration" for the alert function, all the indicators met the preset requirements of content validity. Conclusion- We have developed quality indicators and criteria to evaluate registries for occupational diseases on the ability to provide appropriate information for preventive policy on a national level
Chae, Hyeseon; Min, Kyungdoo; Youn, kanwoo; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Kyungran; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk
Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. ...
Unemployed persons are often on the margins of the healthcare system and under the radar of safety and health organisations, as no systematic records are kept of occupational diseases caused by exposure at previous work place. Law in Slovenia requires that asbestos-related occupational diseases are verified by establishing the causal relationship between exposure at work and its effect on the worker. This report describes a case of verifying occupational pleural disease in an unemployed carpenter who was referred for consultation with occupational health specialist as part of the regular procedure for the unemployed registered at the Employment Service of Slovenia. At the consultation it turned out that the carpenter had been exposed to asbestos when he worked as a teenage apprentice. The diagnosis of the bilateral pleural disease and asbestosis was confirmed by X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Because he had no record of exposure in that period, we analysed his past working environment for minerals and found chrysotile in all asbestos board samples. The case was presented to an interdisciplinary committee, which verified his disease as occupational. This case points to the need of adopting guidelines for occupational health specialists providing counsel to the national employment service so that the number of unrecorded occupational diseases is minimised and their treatment is covered by the state.
Cherry, Katie E.; Walvoord, Ashley A. G.; Hawley, Karri S.
The authors trained 4 older adults with probable Alzheimer's disease to recall a name-face-occupation association using the spaced retrieval technique. Six training sessions were administered over a 2-week period. On each trial, participants selected a target photograph and stated the target name and occupation at increasingly longer retention…
Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Hendriks, Jan C M; Graff, Maud J L; Adang, Eddy M M; Munneke, Marten; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Bloem, Bastiaan R
A large randomized clinical trial (the Occupational Therapy in Parkinson's Disease [OTiP] study) recently demonstrated that home-based occupational therapy improves perceived performance in daily activities of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. We performed an economic evaluation over a 6-month period for both arms of the OTiP study. Participants were 191 community-dwelling PD patients and 180 primary caregivers. The intervention group (n = 124 patients) received 10 weeks of home-based occupational therapy; the control group (n = 67 patients) received usual care (no occupational therapy). Costs were assessed from a societal perspective including healthcare use, absence from work, informal care, and intervention costs. Health utilities were evaluated using EuroQol-5d. We estimated cost differences and cost utility using linear mixed models and presented the net monetary benefit at different values for willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life-year gained. In our primary analysis, we excluded informal care hours because of substantial missing data for this item. The estimated mean total costs for the intervention group compared with controls were €125 lower for patients, €29 lower for caregivers, and €122 higher for patient-caregiver pairs (differences not significant). At a value of €40,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained (reported threshold for PD), the net monetary benefit of the intervention per patient was €305 (P = 0.74), per caregiver €866 (P = 0.01) and per patient-caregiver pair €845 (P = 0.24). In conclusion, occupational therapy did not significantly impact on total costs compared with usual care. Positive cost-effectiveness of the intervention was only significant for caregivers. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Lastovkova, Andrea; Carder, Melanie; Rasmussen, Hans Martin; Sjoberg, Lars; Groene, Gerda J de; Sauni, Riitta; Vevoda, Jiri; Vevodova, Sarka; Lasfargues, Gerard; Svartengren, Magnus; Varga, Marek; Colosio, Claudio; Pelclova, Daniela
The risk of psychological disorders influencing the health of workers increases in accordance with growing requirements on employees across various professions. This study aimed to compare approaches to the burnout syndrome in European countries. A questionnaire focusing on stress-related occupational diseases was distributed to national experts of 28 European Union countries. A total of 23 countries responded. In 9 countries (Denmark, Estonia, France, Hungary, Latvia, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia and Sweden) burnout syndrome may be acknowledged as an occupational disease. Latvia has burnout syndrome explicitly included on the List of ODs. Compensation for burnout syndrome has been awarded in Denmark, France, Latvia, Portugal and Sweden. Only in 39% of the countries a possibility to acknowledge burnout syndrome as an occupational disease exists, with most of compensated cases only occurring in recent years. New systems to collect data on suspected cases have been developed reflecting the growing recognition of the impact of the psychosocial work environment. In agreement with the EU legislation, all EU countries in the study have an action plan to prevent stress at the workplace.
Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Bord, Shiran; Dror-Lavi, Gali; Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Buch, Assaf; Webb, Muriel; Yeshua, Hanny; Nimer, Assy; Shibolet, Oren
To describe the relationships between non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) patient's disease consequences and treatment perceptions, self-efficacy, and healthy lifestyle maintenance. A cross-sectional study among 146 ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD patients who visited the fatty liver clinic at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Eighty-seven of these individuals, participated in a clinical trial of physical activity and underwent fasting blood tests, analyzed at the same lab. Exclusion criteria included positivity for serum HBsAg or anti-HCV antibodies; fatty liver suspected to be secondary to hepatotoxic drugs; excessive alcohol consumption (≥ 30 g/d in men or ≥ 20 g/d in women) and positive markers of genetic or immune-mediated liver diseases. Patients were asked to complete a self-report structured questionnaire, assembled by the Israeli Center for Disease Control. Nutrition habits were measured using six yes/no questions (0 = no, 1 = yes) adopted from the national survey questionnaire. Participants in the clinical trial completed a detailed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting their habitual nutritional intake during the past year. Self-efficacy was assessed by the Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire, emotional representation, degree of illness understanding, timeline perception, treatment perception and symptoms were measured by the Brief Illness Perception questionnaire. Illness consequences were measured by the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview questionnaire. A path analysis was performed to describe the interrelationships between the patients' illness perceptions, and assess the extent to which the data fit a prediction of nutritional habits. The study sample included 54.1% men, with a mean age of 47.76 ± 11.68 years (range: 20-60) and mean body mass index of 31.56 ± 4.6. The average perceived nutrition habits score was 4.73 ± 1.45 on a scale between 0-6, where 6 represents the healthiest eating habits. Most of the study
Brattig, Birte; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert; Peters, Claudia
Physiotherapists are exposed to diverse occupational demands. Until now, little has been known about the interaction between occupational stress and the job satisfaction of physiotherapists. This paper aims to examine their work-related stress and job satisfaction. It will analyse accidents at work and occupational diseases of physiotherapists along with work-related physical and psychosocial stress and job satisfaction. We analysed routine data of the German Institute for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) on accidents at work and occurring en route to/from work as well as occupational diseases of physiotherapists. Work-related stress and job satisfaction were examined in a cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to be completed by subjects themselves. Between 2007 and 2011, 1,229 cases of occupational disease were reported to the BGW. The majority of reports involved skin diseases (73%). Stumbles and falls were the most frequent causes of accidents at work (42.9%). Eighty-five physiotherapists all over Germany took part in the survey. They experience high quantitative demands at work. The main physical demands consist of a torso posture between 45° and 90° and high hand activity. Of the 85 subjects, 51% suffer from complaints of the musculoskeletal system in the neck and thoracic spine area and 24% have skin diseases. Most physiotherapists (88%) are satisfied with their work overall. This is aided by a high degree of influence on their work and breaks, by practical application of skills and expert knowledge, high regard for their profession, varied work and a good atmosphere at work. Reservations tend to be about statutory regulations and the social benefits provided by the German healthcare system. Overall, despite high demands and stress relating to the adequacy of resources, the majority of physiotherapists surveyed seem to be satisfied with their job. The main focus of action to promote the
Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie
Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich
Fagerstedt, Sara [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy [Department of Medicine Solna, Translational Immunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Mie, Axel [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Alm, Johan [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)
Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich
Schmitt, Jochen; Diepgen, Thomas L
UV-induced skin cancer is not yet included in the German ordinance on occupational diseases and can only be notified and recognized acknowledged as "virtually-certain" occupational disease. The objective of the study was to analyze notified and acknowledged cases of occupational skin cancer due to UV-irradiation in Germany between 2005 and 2011. All notified cases of occupational skin cancer due to UV-irradiation have been analyzed which have been registered by the German Statutory accident insurance as of May 2012 were analyzed. The data analyze was descriptive stratified annually for presenting time trends.Data analysis was descriptive, stratified by year to defect time trends. Notified cases have increased annually with a total of 548 registered cases of occupational skin cancer induced by UV-irradiation between 2005 and 2011, and 74 recognized acknowledged cases. In 56 cases the procedure was not yet finished. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease) were most frequent and have been the most frequentlyobserved in 333 notified cases. and between 15.6 % and 24.9 % have been recognizedof cases with SCC and actinic keratosis were recognized, respectively. 184 patients with basal cell carcinoma were notified but only 6.5 % recognized acknowledged and only 3 cases with exclusive basal cell carcinoma. Out of 50 notified patients with Mmelanoma only one was recognizedacknowledged. The results are in good agreement with the proposal of the German Minister of labor to establish UV-induced skin cancer as a new occupational disease. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Scott, Kenneth A; Browning, Raymond C
Occupational physical activity (OPA) is an occupational exposure that impacts worker health. OPA is amenable to measurement and modification through the hierarchy of controls. Occupational exposure scientists have roles in addressing inadequate physical activity, as well as excessive or harmful physical activity. Occupational health researchers can contribute to the development of novel OPA exposure assessment techniques and to epidemiologic studies examining the health impacts of physical activity at work. Occupational health practitioners stand to benefit from understanding the strengths and limitations of physical activity measurement approaches, such as accelerometers in smartphones, which are already ubiquitous in many workplaces and in some worksite health programs. This comprehensive review of the literature provides an overview of physical activity monitoring for occupational exposure scientists. This article summarizes data on the public health implications of physical activity at work, highlighting complex relationships with common chronic diseases. This article includes descriptions of several techniques that have been used to measure physical activity at work and elsewhere, focusing in detail on pedometers, accelerometers, and Global Positioning System technology. Additional subjective and objective measurement strategies are described as well.
Khare, Manorama M; Cursio, John F; Locklin, Cara A; Bates, Nancy J; Loo, Ryan K
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Hispanic women in the United States. In 2001, the Illinois Department of Public Health received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to implement the enhanced WISEWOMAN program (IWP) to address the disproportionate CVD risk among uninsured and underinsured women enrolled in the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. This paper presents the results of the Spanish-language arm of the IWP. Spanish speaking IWP participants were recruited from two sites, and randomized into either the minimum intervention (MI) or the enhanced intervention (EI) group. Both groups received CVD risk factor screening and educational handouts. The EI group also received an integrated 12-week nutrition and physical activity lifestyle change intervention. Of the 180 Spanish-speaking immigrants in this sample, 90 (50%) received the EI and 90 (50%) received the MI. At baseline there were no significant differences between group demographics or clinical values. At post-intervention, the EI group showed improvements in fat intake, fiber intake, moderate intensity physical activity, and total physical activity. At 1 year only the change in fiber intake remained. A significant improvement was also seen in body mass index (BMI) at the 1-year follow-up. The IWP Spanish-language arm was moderately successful in addressing risk factors for CVD in this population. The behavior changes that sustained up to a year were an increase in fiber intake and a decrease in BMI.
Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Karahalios, Amalia; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Mehta, Amar J; Miedinger, David; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Matheson, Melanie C
Due to contradictory literature we have performed a systematic review and meta-analyse of population-based studies that have used Job Exposure Matrices to assess occupational exposure and risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Two researchers independently searched databases for published articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed, and results pooled for COPD and chronic bronchitis for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes using a fixed and random effect model. Five studies met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed low exposure to mineral dust, and high exposure to gases/fumes were associated with an increased risk of COPD. We also found significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis for low and high exposure to biological dust and mineral dust. Expert commentary: The relationship between occupational exposure assessed by the JEM and the risk of COPD and chronic bronchitis shows significant association with occupational exposure. However, the heterogeneity of the meta-analyses suggests more wide population-based studies with older age groups and longitudinal phenotype assessment of COPD to clarify the role of occupational exposure to COPD risk.
Teschke, Kay; Marion, Stephen A; Tsui, Joseph K C; Shen, Hui; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Harris, M Anne
We used a population-based sample of 403 Parkinson's disease cases and 405 controls to examine risks by occupation. Results were compared to a previous clinic-based analysis. With censoring of jobs held within 10 years of diagnosis, the following had significantly or strongly increased risks: social science, law and library jobs (OR = 1.8); farming and horticulture jobs (OR = 2.0); gas station jobs (OR = 2.6); and welders (OR = 3.0). The following had significantly decreased risks: management and administration jobs (OR = 0.70); and other health care jobs (OR = 0.44). These results were consistent with other findings for social science and farming occupations. Risks for teaching, medicine and health occupations were not elevated, unlike our previous clinic-based study. This underscores the value of population-based over clinic-based samples. Occupational studies may be particularly susceptible to referral bias because social networks may spread preferentially via jobs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Katsagoni, Christina N; Papatheodoridis, George V; Papageorgiou, Maria-Vasiliki; Ioannidou, Panagiota; Deutsch, Melanie; Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Fragopoulou, Elisabeth; Kontogianni, Meropi D
Several lifestyle habits have been described as risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Given that both healthy and unhealthy habits tend to cluster, the aim of this study was to identify lifestyle patterns and explore their potential associations with clinical characteristics of individuals with NAFLD. One hundred and thirty-six consecutive patients with ultrasound-proven NAFLD were included. Diet and physical activity level were assessed through appropriate questionnaires. Habitual night sleep hours and duration of midday naps were recorded. Optimal sleep duration was defined as sleep hours ≥ 7 and ≤ 9 h/day. Lifestyle patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Eight components were derived explaining 67% of total variation of lifestyle characteristics. Lifestyle pattern 3, namely high consumption of low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fish, and optimal sleep duration was negatively associated with insulin resistance (β = -1.66, P = 0.008) and liver stiffness (β = -1.62, P = 0.05) after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, energy intake, smoking habits, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Lifestyle pattern 1, namely high consumption of full-fat dairy products, refined cereals, potatoes, red meat, and high television viewing time was positively associated with insulin resistance (β = 1.66, P = 0.005), although this association was weakened after adjusting for adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α. A "healthy diet-optimal sleep" lifestyle pattern was beneficially associated with insulin resistance and liver stiffness in NAFLD patients independent of body weight status and energy intake.
Health promotion is predicted to have a major impact on occupational therapy practice. Keeping people well and promoting a healthy life-style will be the focus for the future. Many companies and agencies are taking the lead by instituting employee assistance programs (EAPs). With the de-emphasis on long-term hospital care, many occupational therapists will be seeking employment with community health programs. This paper advocates a role for occupational therapists in health promotion and disease prevention in an EAP. A description of EAPs and the contributions that occupational therapists can make to these programs is offered. Practice and education considerations for occupational therapists' roles in EAPs are provided.
Full Text Available Most Western chronic diseases are closely tied to lifestyle behaviors, and many are preventable. Despite the well-distributed knowledge of these detrimental behaviors, effective efforts in disease prevention have been lacking. Many of these chronic diseases are related to obesity and type 2 diabetes, which have doubled in incidence during the last 35 years. The Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP is a community-based, comprehensive lifestyle modification approach to health that has shown success in addressing this problem. This pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness of CHIP in an underserved, rural, and vulnerable Appalachian population. Two hundred fourteen participants in CHIP collectively demonstrated significant reductions in body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose. If these results can be repeated in other at-risk populations, CHIP has the potential to help reduce the burden of preventable and treatable chronic diseases efficiently and cost-effectively.
Nic Suibhne, Treasa
Obesity and overweight are major public health issues. Although traditionally associated with weight loss, there is now evidence that increasing Body Mass Index (BMI) and overweight are emerging features of Crohn\\'s disease (CD) and may be associated with more severe disease course. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients with CD compared with matched healthy controls and to identify disease-specific and generic factors associated with current BMI in this group.
McCaig, R.H.; Webb, G.A.M.
The statutory compensation scheme for occupational diseased in the UK is described, with particular reference to the prescription of diseases caused by exposure to ionising radiation. Only a small number of awards have been made under the statutory scheme. There also exists in UK a non statutory agreement between two of the major employers of radiation workers and their staff and trade unions. This provides an alternative to the statutory scheme or to legal action and is proving to be a satisfactory mechanism for settlements to be reached. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a very common disorder worldwide, comprised of reflux esophagitis (RE and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD. As more than half of GERD patients are classified into the NERD group, precise evaluation of bothersome epigastric symptoms is essential. Nevertheless, compared with many reports targeting endoscopic reflux esophagitis, large-scale studies focusing on GERD symptoms have been very scarce. Methods To elucidate lifestyle factors affecting GERD symptoms, 19,864 healthy adults in Japan were analyzed. Sub-analyses of 371 proton pump inhibitor (PPI users and 539 histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA users were also performed. Using the FSSG (Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD score as a response variable, 25 lifestyle-related factors were univariately evaluated by Student's t-test or Pearson's correlation coefficient, and were further analyzed with multiple linear regression modelling. Results Average FSSG scores were 4.8 ± 5.2 for total subjects, 9.0 ± 7.3 for PPI users, and 8.2 ± 6.6 for H2RA users. Among the total population, positively correlated factors and standardized coefficients (β for FSSG scores are inadequate sleep (β = 0.158, digestive drug users (β = 0.0972 for PPI, β = 0.0903 for H2RA, and β = 0.104 for others, increased body weight in adulthood (β = 0.081, dinner just before bedtime (β = 0.061, the habit of midnight snack (β = 0.055, lower body mass index (β = 0.054, NSAID users (β = 0.051, female gender (β = 0.048, lack of breakfast (β = 0.045, lack of physical exercise (β = 0.035, younger age (β = 0.033, antihyperglycemic agents non-users (β = 0.026, the habit of quick eating (β = 0.025, alcohol drinking (β = 0.025, history of gastrectomy (β = 0.024, history of cardiovascular disease (β = 0.020, and smoking (β = 0.018. Positively correlated factors for PPI users are female gender (β = 0.198, inadequate sleep (β = 0.150, lack of breakfast
Montani, David; Lau, Edmund M; Descatha, Alexis; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Andujar, Pascal; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Girerd, Barbara; Zendah, Inès; Le Pavec, Jerome; Seferian, Andrei; Perros, Frédéric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Fadel, Elie; Soubrier, Florent; Sitbon, Oliver; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension characterised by predominant remodelling of pulmonary venules. Bi-allelic mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) gene were recently described as the major cause of heritable PVOD, but risk factors associated with PVOD remain poorly understood. Occupational exposures have been proposed as a potential risk factor for PVOD, but epidemiological studies are lacking.A case-control study was conducted in consecutive PVOD (cases, n=33) and pulmonary arterial hypertension patients (controls, n=65). Occupational exposure was evaluated via questionnaire interview with blinded assessments using an expert consensus approach and a job exposure matrix (JEM).Using the expert consensus approach, PVOD was significantly associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents (adjusted OR 12.8, 95% CI 2.7-60.8), with trichloroethylene being the main agent implicated (adjusted OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.4-49.4). JEM analysis independently confirmed the association between PVOD and trichloroethylene exposure. Absence of significant trichloroethylene exposure was associated with a younger age of disease (54.8±21.4 years, p=0.037) and a high prevalence of harbouring bi-allelic EIF2AK4 mutations (41.7% versus 0%, p=0.015).Occupational exposure to organic solvents may represent a novel risk factor for PVOD. Genetic background and environmental exposure appear to influence the phenotypic expression of the disease. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.
Background A low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with presence of the low CVD risk profile in middle age. Methods and Results The CARDIA study sample consisted of 3,154 black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at Year 0 (Y0, 1985-86) who attended the Year 0, 7 and 20 (Y0, Y7 and Y20) examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors (HLFs) defined at Y0, Y7 and Y20 included: 1) Average BMI risk profile at Y20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2% and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 HLFs, respectively (p-trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults. PMID:22291127
Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to find temporal trends in the associations between cardiovascular disease and occupational risk factors in the context of the Canadian population. Methods: Population data were analyzed from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS collected between 2001 and 2014 for trends over time between heart disease and various occupational risk factors: hours worked, physical exertion at work, and occupation type (management/arts/education, business/finance, sales/services, trades/transportations, and primary industry/processing. Results: We found no significant difference in the average number of hours worked/wk between individuals who report having heart disease in all years of data except in 2011 (F1,96 = 7.02, p = 0.009 and 2012 (F1,96 = 8.86, p = 0.004. We also found a significant difference in the degree of physical exertion at work in 2001 (F1,79 = 7.45, p = 0.008. There were statistically significant results of occupation type on self-reported heart disease from 2003 to 2014. Conclusion: Canadian data from the CCHS do not exhibit a trend toward an association between heart disease and the number of hours worked/wk. There is an association between heart disease and physical exertion at work, but the trend is inconsistent. The data indicate a trend toward an association between heart disease and occupation type, but further analysis is required to determine which occupation type may be associated with heart disease. Keywords: occupational health, occupation type, physical exertion, self-reported cardiovascular disease
Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Lalani, Saima; Azam, Iqbal Syed; Ali, Badar Sabir; Jabbar, Abdual; Dhanani, Raheem
Background. We evaluated the prevalence and clustering pattern of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related lifestyle factors and their association with CVD among patients with type 2 diabetes. We also examined the association of these factors with various socio-demographic characteristics. Methods. A total of 1000 patients with type 2 diabetes were interviewed in a cross-sectional, multi-center study in out-patient clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. Results. In this study 30.3% study participants had CVD. Majority of the patients were physically inactive and had adverse psychosocial factors. Forty percent of the study participants were exposed to passive smoking while 12.7% were current smokers. Only 8.8% of study subjects had none of the studied lifestyle factor, 27.5% had one, while 63.7% had two or three factors. CVDs were independently associated with physical inactivity, adverse psychosocial factors, passive smoking and clustering of two or three lifestyle factors. Physical inactivity was more prevalent among females and patients with no/less education. Proportion of adverse psychosocial factors were higher among females, elders and patients with no/less education. Clustering of these lifestyle factors was significantly higher among females, elderly and no/less educated patients. Conclusion. These results suggest the need of comprehensive and integrated interventions to reduce the prevalence of lifestyle factors. PMID:21837274
Emily J. Hadgkiss
Full Text Available Background. Despite evidence of the potential importance of the role of health and lifestyle behaviours in multiple sclerosis (MS outcomes, there has not been a significant focus on this area of research. Aim. We aimed to recruit an international sample of people with MS at baseline and over a five-year timeframe, examine their health and lifestyle behaviours, and determine the relationship of these behaviours to self-reported disability, disease activity, and quality of life. Methods. People with MS were recruited through web 2.0 platforms including interactive websites, social media, blogs, and forums and completed a comprehensive, multifaceted online questionnaire incorporating validated and researcher-derived tools. Results. 2519 participants met inclusion criteria for this study. This paper describes the study methodology in detail and provides an overview of baseline participant demographics, clinical characteristics, summary outcome variables, and health and lifestyle behaviours. The sample described is unique due to the nature of recruitment through online media and due to the engagement of the group, which appears to be well informed and proactive in lifestyle modification. Conclusion. This sample provides a sound platform to undertake novel exploratory analyses of the association between a variety of lifestyle factors and MS outcomes.
Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Agren, Asa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W
Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.
Vadheim, Liane M.; Brewer, Kari A.; Kassner, Darcy R.; Vanderwood, Karl K.; Hall, Taryn O.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Harwell, Todd S.
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of translating the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention into practice in a rural community. Methods: In 2008, the Montana Diabetes Control Program worked collaboratively with Holy Rosary Healthcare to implement an adapted group-based DPP lifestyle intervention. Adults at high risk for…
Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively. Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week, long screen time (≥3 h/day and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.5–7.3, 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4, and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0 odds ratio (OR of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3; p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009. The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI
Cheng, Yawen; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho; Kawakami, Norito
Health problems caused by long working hours and work stress have gained growing concerns in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. In all the three countries, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and mental disorders attributed to heavy workloads or stressful work events are considered compensable occupational diseases by workers' compensation systems. This study compared the trends of such cases and correlated the trends with changes in working hours during the period from 1980 to 2010. Data on occupational diseases were obtained from official statistics of the workers' compensation systems. Information on working hours was obtained from official statistics and national surveys of employees. While occupational cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and mental disorders attributed to work stress were increasingly compensated in all the three countries, the averaged working hours and the percentage of employees with long working hours had been in decline discordantly. Findings of this study suggested that reducing working hours alone is unlikely to reduce the problems of work stress. There is an urgent need to monitor and regulate a wider range of psychosocial work hazards. Especially, precarious employment and its associated health risks should be targeted for effective prevention of stress-related health problems in the workplace.
Almonte, Juan C; Mena, Cristián; Ortiz, Sofía; Osorio, Juan P
The Work Accidents and Occupational Diseases Act exists in Chile since 1968. It uses a single model for the understanding and management of both somatic diseases like silicosis and psychiatric disorders. During the last decade in Chile, the consultation rates due to psychiatric conditions of probable labor origin has rose over 1,000%, a factor that underscored the deficiencies of this model. The aim of this paper is to analyze the consequences of the application of this act in the psychiatric field for almost 50 years after its promulgation. This article contains an historical overview and an epistemological debate based on the authors experience dealing with clinical and administrative work both in occupational psychiatry departments and in regulatory entities. The development of occupational mental health in Chile is examined as part of an historical process that initially did not consider the relationship between work and mental suffering as relevant. The application of a single causality model in psychiatry, as well as the effects of building a psychiatric nosology upon legal rather than medical criteria is contested.
Inna Yurievna Yurova
Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of factors that may influence the attitudes of rural population with occupational diseases to medical service. The analysis is based on the results of the survey that has been conducted in Saratov region in 2013-2014. Ten experts, doctors involved in treating rural population with occupational diseases in Saratov region, formed the sample.It was revealed that refusal from pre-arranged treatment and hospitalization as well as execution of documents on disability is often determined by financial factor, i.e. unwillingness of rural population to lose their job, the only source of income. According to the experts the main factors that may influence the incidence of in- and out-patient visits in rural regions are low accessibility to medical institutions due to isolated location of many rural territories, insufficiency of professional staff able to cope with occupational pathologies in central regional hospitals, lack of medical equipment and facilities. The factors preventing health-saving behavior are as follows: life style and educational level.
Cellier, Gilles; Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Mangenot, Sophie; Barbe, Valérie; Lajus, Aurélie; Vallenet, David; Medigue, Claudine; Fegan, Mark; Allen, Caitilyn; Prior, Philippe
The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex includes R. solanacearum, R. syzygii, and the Blood Disease Bacterium (BDB). All colonize plant xylem vessels and cause wilt diseases, but with significant biological differences. R. solanacearum is a soilborne bacterium that infects the roots of a broad range of plants. R. syzygii causes Sumatra disease of clove trees and is actively transmitted by cercopoid insects. BDB is also pathogenic to a single host, banana, and is transmitted by pollinating insects. Sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that despite their phenotypic differences, these three plant pathogens are actually very closely related, falling into the Phylotype IV subgroup of the R. solanacearum species complex. To better understand the relationships among these bacteria, we sequenced and annotated the genomes of R. syzygii strain R24 and BDB strain R229. These genomes were compared to strain PSI07, a closely related Phylotype IV tomato isolate of R. solanacearum, and to five additional R. solanacearum genomes. Whole-genome comparisons confirmed previous phylogenetic results: the three phylotype IV strains share more and larger syntenic regions with each other than with other R. solanacearum strains. Furthermore, the genetic distances between strains, assessed by an in-silico equivalent of DNA-DNA hybridization, unambiguously showed that phylotype IV strains of BDB, R. syzygii and R. solanacearum form one genomic species. Based on these comprehensive data we propose a revision of the taxonomy of the R. solanacearum species complex. The BDB and R. syzygii genomes encoded no obvious unique metabolic capacities and contained no evidence of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria occupying similar niches. Genes specific to R. syzygii and BDB were almost all of unknown function or extrachromosomal origin. Thus, the pathogenic life-styles of these organisms are more probably due to ecological adaptation and genomic convergence during vertical
Blanc, Paul D; Järvholm, Bengt; Torén, Kjell
The association between occupational exposure and autoimmune disease is well recognized for silica, and suspected for other inhalants. We used a large cohort to estimate the risks of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis associated with silica and other occupational exposures. We analyzed data for male Swedish construction industry employees. Exposure was defined by a job-exposure matrix for silica and for other inorganic dusts; those with other job-exposure matrix exposures but not to either of the 2 inorganic dust categories were excluded. National hospital treatment data were linked for International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) Revision-coded diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis (seronegative and positive), systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis. The 2 occupational exposures were tested as independent predictors of prospective hospital-based treatment for these diagnoses using age-adjusted Poisson multivariable regression analyses to calculate relative risk (RR). We analyzed hospital-based treatment data (1997 through 2010) for 240,983 men aged 30 to 84 years. There were 713 incident cases of rheumatoid arthritis (467 seropositive, 195 seronegative, 51 not classified) and 128 cases combined for systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis. Adjusted for smoking and age, the 2 occupational exposures (silica and other inorganic dusts) were each associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis combined: RR 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.64) and RR 1.31 (95% CI, 1.11-1.53), respectively. Among ever smokers, both silica and other inorganic dust exposure were associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RRs 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11-1.68 and 1.42; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73, respectively), while among never smokers, neither exposure was associated with statistically
Stack, Austin G
Tobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.
Sponholtz, Todd R; Sandler, Dale P; Parks, Christine G; Applebaum, Katie M
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) carries a high public health burden yet there is limited research on occupational factors, which are examined in this retrospective case-control study. Newly diagnosed cases of CKD (n = 547) and controls (n = 508) from North Carolina provided detailed work histories in telephone interviews. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was heterogeneity in the association of CKD and agricultural work, with crop production associated with increased risk and work with livestock associated with decreased risk. Work with cutting/cooling/lubricating oils was associated with a reduced risk. CKD risk was increased for working in dusty conditions. CKD risk was reduced in subjects with occupational exposures previously reported to involve endotoxin exposure. Further, exposure to dusty conditions was consistently associated with increased risk of glomerulonephritis across industry, suggesting that research on CKD and ultrafine particulates is needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Lim, Kuang Hock; Yeo, Pei Sien; Kee, Chee Cheong; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani
Self-rated health (SRH) has been demonstrated as a valid and appropriate predictor of incident mortality and chronic morbidity. Associations between lifestyle, chronic diseases, and SRH have been reported by various population studies but few have included data from developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor SRH in Malaysia and its association with lifestyle factors and chronic diseases among Malaysian adults. This study was based on 18,184 adults aged 18 and above who participated in the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS). The NHMS was a cross-sectional survey (two-stage stratified sample) designed to collect health information on a nationally representative sample of the Malaysian adult population. Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. Two categories were used to measure SRH: "good" (very good and good) and "poor" (moderate, not good and very bad). The association of lifestyle factors and chronic diseases with poor SRH was examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Approximately one-fifth of the Malaysian adult population (20.1 %) rated their health as poor (men: 18.4 % and women: 21.7 %). Prevalence increases with age from 16.2 % (aged 18-29) to 32.0 % (aged ≥60). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, lifestyle factors associated with poor SRH included: underweight (OR = 1.29; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.57), physical inactivity (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.11-1.39), former smoker (OR = 1.38; 95 % CI: 1.12-1.70), former drinker (OR = 1.27; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.62), and current drinker (OR = 1.35; 95 % CI: 1.08-1.68). Chronic diseases associated with poor SRH included: asthma (OR = 1.66; 95 % CI: 1.36-2.03), arthritis (OR = 1.87; 95 % CI: 1.52-2.29), hypertension (OR = 1.39; 95 % CI: 1.18-1.64), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI: 1.18-1.74), and heart disease (OR = 1.85; 95 % CI: 1.43-2.39). This study indicates that several unhealthy lifestyle
... a result of occupational disease qualify for payment of the death gratuity? Yes—throughout this... caused by employment. If an employee's death results from an occupational disease incurred in connection... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a death as a result of occupational...
This thesis presents the results from a prospective industrial population cohort study on epidemiology and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in Iran. The four papers in the thesis were based on a cross-sectional survey and one-year follow-up of 18,000 employees in the car industry. The main goals of this thesis were: 1) to identify prevalence and incidence of LBP, and 2) to identify work-related exposures and lifestyle factors related to LBP. In paper I, the study gro...
Kähkönen, Outi; Kankkunen, Päivi; Saaranen, Terhi; Miettinen, Heikki; Kyngäs, Helvi; Lamidi, Marja-Leena
To test the Theory of Adherence of People with Chronic Disease with regard to adherence to treatment among patients with coronary heart disease after a percutaneous coronary intervention. Increased knowledge of the concept of adherence is needed for the development of nursing interventions and nursing guidelines for patients with coronary heart disease. A cross-sectional, multi-centre study. This study was conducted from February-December 2013 with 416 patients with coronary heart disease 4 months after undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess their adherence to treatment. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The theory explained 45% of the adherence to a healthy lifestyle and 7% of the adherence to medication. Structural equation modelling confirmed that motivation and results of care had the highest association with adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Responsibility was associated with adherence to medication. Support from next of kin, support from nurses and physicians, and motivation, co-operation, fear of complications and a sense of normality were associated with adherence. Patients who are motivated to perform self-care and consider the results of care to be important were more likely to adhere to a healthy lifestyle. Responsible patients were more likely to adhere to their medication. It is important to account for these elements as a part of secondary prevention strategies among patients with coronary heart disease after a percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oggioni, C; Cena, H; Wells, J C K; Lara, J; Celis-Morales, C; Siervo, M
Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The mutualism pattern of the dark septate endophyte (DSE Harpophora oryzae in rice roots and its biocontrol potential in rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were investigated. Fluorescent protein-expressing H. oryzae was used to monitor the colonization pattern. Hyphae invaded from the epidermis to the inner cortex, but not into the root stele. Fungal colonization increased with root tissue maturation, showing no colonization in the meristematic zone, slight colonization in the elongation zone, and heavy colonization in the differentiation zone. H. oryzae adopted a biotrophic lifestyle in roots accompanied by programmed cell death. Real-time PCR facilitated the accurate quantification of fungal growth and the respective plant response. The biocontrol potential of H. oryzae was visualized by inoculation with eGFP-tagged M. oryzae in rice. H. oryzae protected rice from M. oryzae root invasion by the accumulation of H2O2 and elevated antioxidative capacity. H. oryzae also induced systemic resistance against rice blast. This systemic resistance was mediated by the OsWRKY45-dependent salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, as indicated by the strongly upregulated expression of OsWRKY45. The colonization pattern of H. oryzae was consistent with the typical characteristics of DSEs. H. oryzae enhanced local resistance by reactive oxygen species (ROS and high antioxidative level and induced OsWRKY45-dependent SA-mediated systemic resistance against rice blast.
Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Mahfouz, Salah Al-Din Mahmoud; Selim, Noor Ahmed; Yar, Taley; Gillessen, Anton
Treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is becoming a challenge for medical profession. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly recommended but many disadvantages of these drugs are being reported, particularly when used for long term. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are important cause of acid reflux. Gastric distention in upper stomach is the strongest stimulus for generation of TLESRs and is aggravated by intake of food in between meals. In an earlier cases report, two meals a day with intake of only fluids in between was suggested as a remedy for GERD. Present pilot study was conducted on 20 patients with endoscopically proven reflux esophagitis (Los Angles Grade a, b or c), who followed our advice to take meal twice a day with consumption of only soft drinks (fruit juices, tea, coffee, water, etc) in between and no medication for two weeks. On 14th day 15 patients (75%) were free of reflux symptoms, 2 (10%) had partial improvement and 3 (15%) reported no difference. It is concluded that two meals a day with intake of only fluids in between, whenever the patient feels hungry or thirsty, is a useful dietary regimen for the management of GERD. Further investigations are needed to confirm the benefits of this physiological lifestyle change.
Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki
This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older men. The subjects included 445 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or dialysis treatment, who were not taking medications. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and were defined as follows: 1) lack of habitual moderate exercise, 2) lack of daily physical activity, 3) slow walking speed, 4) fast eating speed, 5) late-night dinner, 6) bedtime snacking, and 7) skipping breakfast. The participants were divided into four categories, which were classified into quartile distributions based on the number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (0-1, 2, 3, and ≥4 unhealthy behaviors). According to a multivariate analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, especially those related to lack of habitual moderate exercise and presence of late-night dinner and bedtime snacking may be associated with the prevalence of CKD.
Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz
The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a questionnaire including demographic healthy lifestyle questions. Analysis of the data was performed through Software SPSS version 18. The mean age of the subjects was 40.26 ± 6.05 years and, BMI mean was 25.08 ± 3.20. 96.8% of them were married and 3.1% also were single. 1% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 13.5%had moderate, 85.4% had a good lifestyle. In terms of nutrition, 2% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 23% moderate, 74% good. 76% in terms of physical activity, 29.2% smoking and 21.9% stress had a weak lifestyle. According to the results, planning for teachers in school for receiving information about healthy lifestyle is important.
Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila
To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen's κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19-0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao
Pattern of sleep duration and its correlates have rarely been reported in China. This study examined the sleep duration and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, mental health, and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 17,320 participants from Jilin province were selected and interviewed using standardized assessment tools. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Sleep duration was classified as short ( 9 h per day) and medium sleep (7-9 h per day). The mean age of the sample was 42.60 ± 10.60 y, with 51.4% being female. The mean sleep duration was 7.31 ± 1.44 h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 30.9% and 6.9% of the sample, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, current smoking, irregular meal pattern, lack of physical exercise, poor mental health, and chronic diseases or multimorbidity were positively associated with short sleep. Being married and living in rural areas were, however, negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, living in rural area, current smoking, current alcohol use and lack of physical exercise were positively associated with long sleep, while older age and lower education were negatively associated with long sleep. Given the high frequency of short sleep and its negative effect on health, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in general health care. Nationwide epidemiologic surveys in China are needed to further explore the relationship between sleep duration and health. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Full Text Available The present study evaluates the potential association of periodontal diseases among the indigenous "Garo" population in Bangladesh with their lifestyle, diabetes mellitus and routine oral health care practices. Adult males and females of the community were selected for the study. Data were recorded through one to one, face-to-face interview using a set of standard questionnaire. All teeth except the third molars were examined at 6 sites for gingival colour and swelling, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depths (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Gingival Index (GI was recorded according to Loe and Silness. The greatest score for each of the 6 sites was used for assessing the PPD and CAL. Of 240 subjects, 64% were female. The mean number of teeth present was 26, and the mean number of affected teeth was 8.9 (PPD ≥3 mm. The mean ± standard deviations of GI, PPD and CAL of the community were 0.43±0.70, 2.34±0.47 and 2.70±0.77 respectively. Betel-leaf was chewed by 75%, 57.5% were tooth brush user and remaining 42.5% used traditional ways. A statistically significant difference in PPD and CAL was found between smokers and non-smokers; tooth-brush users and non-users; diabetics and non-diabetics. PPD and CAL were significantly high among frequent betel-leaf chewers and in older age-group. Without having an access to a professional dentist or part of any oral health care awareness programme, the relatively low prevalence of periodontal diseases can possibly be attributed, in part, to the traditional eating habits of the indigenous "Garo" population.
Zhao, L; Yan, Y J
Objective: To investigate the problems encountered in the application of the standard (hereinafter referred to as standard) for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by occu-pational irritant chemicals, to provide reference for the revision of the new standard, to reduce the number of missed patients in occupational COPD, and to get rid of the working environment of those who suffer from chronic respiratory diseases due to long-term exposure to poisons., slowing the progression of the disease. Methods: Using Delphi (Delphi) Expert research method, after the senior experts to demonstrate, to under-stand the GBZ 237-2011 "occupational irritant chemicals to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary dis-ease" standard evaluation of the system encountered problems, to seek expert advice, The problems encoun-tered during the clinical implementation of the standards promulgated in 2011 are presented. Results: Through the Delphi Expert investigation method, it is found that experts agree on the content evaluation and implemen-tation evaluation in the standard, but the operational evaluation of the standard is disputed. According to the clinical experience, the experts believe that the range of occupational irritant gases should be expanded, and the operation of the problem of smoking, seniority determination and occupational contact history should be challenged during the diagnosis. Conclusions: Since the promulgation in 2011 of the criteria for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by occupational stimulant chemicals, there have been some problems in the implementation process, which have caused many occupationally exposed to irritating gases to suffer from "occupational chronic respiratory Diseases" without a definitive diagnosis.
Full Text Available Background: The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France. The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s, a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score ≥10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results: Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD.
From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard
for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic......Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need......, social and cultural tensions within it. Taking a comparative view, the collection includes studies covering four continents, including countries such as Australia, China, Norway, Denmark, Singapore, the UK and the USA. While keeping the broader lifestyle field in mind, the chapters focus on a variety...
From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard
Lifestyle journalism has experienced enormous growth in the media over the past two decades, but scholars in the fields of journalism and communication studies have so far paid relatively little attention to a field that is still sometimes seen as "not real journalism". There is now an urgent need...... for in-depth exploration and contextualisation of this field, with its increasing relevance for 21st century consumer cultures. For the first time, this book presents a wide range of studies which have engaged with the field of lifestyle journalism in order to outline the various political, economic...... of sub-fields such as travel, music, food, health, fashion and personal technology journalism. This volume provides a fascinating account of the different facets of lifestyle journalism, and charts the way forward for a more sustained analysis of the field. This book was originally published as a special...
Full Text Available Lifestyle modification is the first step in hypertension management. Our objective was to assess adherence to lifestyle recommendations by individuals who were aware of their hypertension and to identify characteristics associated with non-adherence. Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010-2012, we compared the adherence to six lifestyle recommendations of hypertensive subjects aware of the status of their condition with that of those who were not aware, based on survey regression analysis. The characteristics associated with non-adherence were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of all hypertensive subjects, <20% adhered to a healthy diet and reduced salt intake and about 80% moderated alcohol consumption and did not smoke. Half of all subjects maintained normal body weight and engaged in physical activity. Most lifestyle features of aware hypertensive Koreans did not differ greatly from those of hypertensive individuals who were not aware. Reduction in salt intake was slightly more prevalent among those aware of their hypertensive status. Obesity was more prevalent among the aware hypertensive subjects, and the prevalence of obesity increased with the duration of hypertension. Male gender, younger age, residence in a rural area, low income, and the use of antihypertensive medication were associated with non-adherence to lifestyle recommendations by hypertensive individuals. Many hypertensive Koreans do not comply with lifestyle recommendations for the management of hypertension. The association between the use of antihypertensive medications and non-adherence suggested an over-reliance on medication rather than a commitment to a healthy lifestyle. Our study highlights that efforts encouraging healthy lifestyles, as the first step in hypertension management, need to be increased.
Pacina, V.; Vich, Z.; Elterlein, E.
The aim of preventive follow-up examinations of former employees of the concern Czechoslovak Uranium Mines is to determine possible health damage of chronically exposed workers in an area that can become manifest even following a long time after leaving the high-risk working environment. In a group of 1,139 persons that had undergone preventive follow-up examinations in the years 1977 to 1980 there were 63 cases of newly detected affections that were reported as occupational diseases, and other serious affections. The system of preventive follow-up examinations represents a significant contribution to the improvement of health care of the workers. (author)
Tsuchiya, Kazuo; Toyoshima, Mikio; Kamiya, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yutaro; Baba, Satoshi; Suda, Takafumi
An 85-year-old, never-smoking man presented with exertional dyspnea. He had been exposed to silica dust in the work place. Chest computed tomography revealed bronchial wall thickening without emphysema. A pulmonary function test showed airflow obstruction without impaired gas transfer. Airway hyperresponsiveness and reversibility were not evident. A transbronchial lung biopsy showed findings suggestive of mineral dust exposure, such as fibrosis and slight pigmentation of bronchioles. He was diagnosed with non-smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to occupational exposure to silica dust. His symptoms were improved using an inhaled long-acting bronchodilator. The clinical characteristics of non-smoking COPD are discussed in this report.
Full Text Available Whereas positron emission tomography (PET with the antagonist ligand [18F]fallypride reveals the composite of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in brain, treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with the D3-prefering agonist pramipexole should result in preferential occupancy in the nucleus accumbens, where the D3-subtype is most abundant. To test this prediction we obtained pairs of [18F]fallypride PET recordings in a group of nine PD patients, first in a condition of treatment as usual with pramipexole (ON-Sifrol; 3 × 0.7 mg p.d., and again at a later date, after withholding pramipexole 48–72 h (OFF-Sifrol; in that condition the serum pramipexole concentration had declined by 90% and prolactin levels had increased four-fold, in conjunction with a small but significant worsening of PD motor symptoms. Exploratory comparison with historical control material showed 14% higher dopamine D2/3 availability in the more-affected putamen of patients OFF medication. On-Sifrol there was significant (p ˂ 0.01 occupancy at [18F]fallypride binding sites in globus pallidus (8% thalamus (9% and substantia nigra (19%, as well as marginally significant occupancy in frontal and temporal cortex of patients. Contrary to expectation, comparison of ON- and OFF-Sifrol results did not reveal any discernible occupancy in nucleus accumbens, or elsewhere in the extended striatum; present methods should be sensitive to a 10% change in dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatum; the significant findings elsewhere in the basal ganglia and in cerebral cortex are consistent with a predominance of D3 receptors in those structures, especially in substantia nigra, and imply that therapeutic effects of pramipexole may be obtained at sites outside the extended striatum.
Moldovan, H R; Voidazan, S T; John, S M; Weinert, P; Moldovan, G; Vlasiu, M A; Szasz, Z A; Tiplica, G S; Szasz, S; Marin, A C; Salavastru, C M
While legislation in most of the Eastern European countries is nowadays widely harmonized with the legal safety and health provisions of Western countries, there is still a sustained resistance to the notification of occupational skin diseases (OSD). The aim of the study was to identify the main barriers in notification and recognition of OSD in 22 Eastern European countries. An online survey was administered to key persons in the field of occupational safety and health in 22 Eastern European countries. Multiple variables of the notification system were studied, including clinical, organizational and educational issues. The main causes of underreporting OSD are ineffective enforcement of occupational safety and health legislation, contractual relationship employer-employee, long duration of the notifying process, restrictions of the notification systems in terms of who is entitled to notify an OSD, ineffective regulations in regards to the pre-employment and periodical medical examination, ineffective compensation schemes, restraints and hesitations, mainly from the doctors, inappropriate mentalities - fear of losing the jobs, fining of the employers by the authorities, stigmatization of the workers with OSD, additional costs for employers, stakeholders' lack of interest in notifying, lack of guidelines and protocols and lack of preventive programmes. The most valuable method for a proper recognition of OSD is to increase the awareness of physicians involved in the management of OSD (occupational physicians, GPs, dermatologists), as well as employers and workers. There is an urgent need to improve national legislation, to develop and promote adequate preventive programmes, emphasizing ethical, legal, economical and psychological aspects in order to achieve an increased recognition and a real reporting of OSD, and to enforce an international action plan for Eastern Europe in order to improve the notification of OSD. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and
A B Adelowo
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Non - communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developed and developing countries. Nigeria is experiencing an epidemiological transition with a double burden of communicable and non communicable diseases. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of bankers in Lagos Island Local Government Area on healthy lifestyle in relation to the prevention and control of NCDs. Material and Methods: Cross sectional descriptive design was employed. Multistage sampling technique was used to collect information from 260 consenting bankers using pretested, interviewer administered questionnaires. The questionnaire collected information on biodata, knowledge, attitude and practice. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 Results: The mean age of 260 the respondents was 33.5 ± 5.7 years. Only 26.9% had good knowledge of healthy lifestyle while 87.3% had good attitude towards healthy lifestyle. Only 9.7% consumed healthy diet, while majority 88.0% and 72.7% had good practice regarding tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption respectively. Gender was a significant predictor of alcohol use, 55.8% of the study population engaged in adequate physical activity, while very few (3.8% of the respondents engaged in healthy lifestyle. Conclusion: Although the bankers had good attitude towards healthy lifestyle, their knowledge and practice of healthy living was poor. The management of every bank should invest in periodic health promotion and wellness programs that will promote all the components of healthy living for their employees.
Kamimura, Akiko; Sin, Kai; Pye, Mu; Meng, Hsien-Wen
Refugees resettled in the US may be at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known about CVD-related issues among Karen refugees who have migrated to the US from the Thai-Myanmar border. The purpose of this study was to examine CVD-related health beliefs and lifestyle issues among Karen refugees resettled in the US. Karen refugees resettled in the US from the Thai-Myanmar border (n=195) participated in a survey study on health beliefs related to CVD, salt intake, physical activity (PA), and smoking in the fall of 2016. A high-salt diet, physical inactivity, and smoking were major lifestyle problems. Participants who adhered to a low-salt diet considered themselves to be susceptible to CVD. Most participants did not engage in regular PA. Regular PA was associated with less perceived susceptibility to CVD and greater perceived benefits of a healthy lifestyle for decreasing the likelihood of CVD. Each refugee population may require individualized strategies to promote PA and a healthy diet. Future studies should develop health education programs that are specifically designed for Karen refugees and evaluate such programs. In addition to health education programs on healthy lifestyle choices, tobacco cessation programs seem to be necessary for Karen refugees. At the same time, it is important to foster strategies to increase the utilization of preventive care among this population by promoting free or reduced-fee resources in the community to further promote their health.
Fenclova, Z.; Pelclova, D.; Lebedova, J.; Urban, P.; Petrova, K.
During 1974-1997, the incidence of occupational diseases caused by ionizing radiation in medical personnel was low (0 to 0.4 % of all notified occupational diseases, with a decreasing tendency over this period of time). There have been 136 cases of occupational diseases caused by ionizing radiation; in this, 111 cases occurred in the health care sector. Radiation dermatitis was the most frequent disease (88 cases). Physicians constituted the most affected occupational group in the 1991 - 1997 period. The age of the affected physicians lay in the range of 45 to 77. The personnel affected by radiation dermatitis had the shortest (5 years) as well as longest (46 years) exposure. Lung cancer caused by radioactive chemicals was only diagnosed in two persons in the health care sector during 1974 - 1997. It should be noted that the occupational diseases were caused by elevated exposures experienced in previous years or developed as a consequence of radiation accidents. In view of the present advanced level of protection against ionizing radiation, the numbers of this kind of disease is not expected to grow any further
Fenclová, Z.; Pelclová, D.; Urban, P.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Klusáčková, P.; Lebedová, J.
Roč. 47, č. 4 (2009), s. 443-448 ISSN 0019-8366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Hypersensitivity pneumonitis * Incidence * Branch of economic activity * Occupation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.215, year: 2009
Occupational skin diseases from 1997 to 2004 at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN: an investigation into the course and treatment of occupational skin disease 10–15 years after first consultations with a dermatologist
Full Text Available Objectives: We investigate the impact of occupational skin disease consultations among outpatients at the Dermatological Department, University Hospital, Northern Norway. Study design: From 1997 until 2004, 386 patients with occupational skin disease were examined and given advice on skin care, skin disease treatment, skin protection in further work, and on the legal rights of patients with this disease. Ten to fifteen years later, we wanted to look at these patients in terms of their work situation, the current status of their disease, the help they received from the labour offices, and their subjective quality of life. Material and methods: In the autumn of 2011 until the spring of 2012, a number of the patients examined in the period from 1997 to 2004 were selected and sent a questionnaire, which they were asked to answer and return, regarding their work situation and the progress and current status of their occupational disease. Results: A total of 153 (77% patients answered the questionnaire; 71% of these patients were still in work, and further 15% had old-age retired, 13% were working until then; 16% had retired early because of disability; 54% had changed jobs because of their occupational skin disease; 86% of the patients indicated that the skin disease had improved since our previous investigation. Conclusions: Our investigation into patients with occupational skin disease documented that the majority of patients who had received professional dermatological consultation and intervention offers were still in the labour market and had good control of their skin disease 10–15 years later. We discovered that 71% of the patients were still employed. 13% had remained in work until they became old age pensioners. Only 16% dropped out of work because of disability. These high percentages may indicate that our intervention has contributed positively to patients’ work conditions and the course of their skin disease.
Occupational skin diseases from 1997 to 2004 at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN): an investigation into the course and treatment of occupational skin disease 10-15 years after first consultations with a dermatologist.
Braun, Rosemarie; Dotterud, Lars Kåre
We investigate the impact of occupational skin disease consultations among outpatients at the Dermatological Department, University Hospital, Northern Norway. From 1997 until 2004, 386 patients with occupational skin disease were examined and given advice on skin care, skin disease treatment, skin protection in further work, and on the legal rights of patients with this disease. Ten to fifteen years later, we wanted to look at these patients in terms of their work situation, the current status of their disease, the help they received from the labour offices, and their subjective quality of life. In the autumn of 2011 until the spring of 2012, a number of the patients examined in the period from 1997 to 2004 were selected and sent a questionnaire, which they were asked to answer and return, regarding their work situation and the progress and current status of their occupational disease. A total of 153 (77%) patients answered the questionnaire; 71% of these patients were still in work, and further 15% had old-age retired, 13% were working until then; 16% had retired early because of disability; 54% had changed jobs because of their occupational skin disease; 86% of the patients indicated that the skin disease had improved since our previous investigation. Our investigation into patients with occupational skin disease documented that the majority of patients who had received professional dermatological consultation and intervention offers were still in the labour market and had good control of their skin disease 10-15 years later. We discovered that 71% of the patients were still employed. 13% had remained in work until they became old age pensioners. Only 16% dropped out of work because of disability. These high percentages may indicate that our intervention has contributed positively to patients' work conditions and the course of their skin disease.
Occupational skin diseases from 1997 to 2004 at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN): an investigation into the course and treatment of occupational skin disease 10–15 years after first consultations with a dermatologist
Braun, Rosemarie; Dotterud, Lars Kåre
Objectives We investigate the impact of occupational skin disease consultations among outpatients at the Dermatological Department, University Hospital, Northern Norway. Study design From 1997 until 2004, 386 patients with occupational skin disease were examined and given advice on skin care, skin disease treatment, skin protection in further work, and on the legal rights of patients with this disease. Ten to fifteen years later, we wanted to look at these patients in terms of their work situation, the current status of their disease, the help they received from the labour offices, and their subjective quality of life. Material and methods In the autumn of 2011 until the spring of 2012, a number of the patients examined in the period from 1997 to 2004 were selected and sent a questionnaire, which they were asked to answer and return, regarding their work situation and the progress and current status of their occupational disease. Results A total of 153 (77%) patients answered the questionnaire; 71% of these patients were still in work, and further 15% had old-age retired, 13% were working until then; 16% had retired early because of disability; 54% had changed jobs because of their occupational skin disease; 86% of the patients indicated that the skin disease had improved since our previous investigation. Conclusions Our investigation into patients with occupational skin disease documented that the majority of patients who had received professional dermatological consultation and intervention offers were still in the labour market and had good control of their skin disease 10–15 years later. We discovered that 71% of the patients were still employed. 13% had remained in work until they became old age pensioners. Only 16% dropped out of work because of disability. These high percentages may indicate that our intervention has contributed positively to patients’ work conditions and the course of their skin disease. PMID:27172061
Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs, including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel diseases, IBD, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, spondyloarthritides, hidradenitis suppurativa, and immune-mediated uveitis, are treated with biologics targeting the pro-inflammatory molecule tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF (i.e., TNF inhibitors. Approximately one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. Genetics and lifestyle may affect the treatment results. The aims of this multidisciplinary collaboration are to identify (1 molecular signatures of prognostic value to help tailor treatment decisions to an individual likely to initiate TNF inhibitor therapy, followed by (2 lifestyle factors that support achievement of optimised treatment outcome. This report describes the establishment of a cohort that aims to obtain this information. Clinical data including lifestyle and treatment response and biological specimens (blood, faeces, urine, and, in IBD patients, intestinal biopsies are sampled prior to and while on TNF inhibitor therapy. Both hypothesis-driven and data-driven analyses will be performed according to pre-specified protocols including pathway analyses resulting from candidate gene expression analyses and global approaches (e.g., metabolomics, metagenomics, proteomics. The final purpose is to improve the lives of patients suffering from CIDs, by providing tools facilitating treatment selection and dietary recommendations likely to improve the clinical outcome.
European legislation brings about a new responsibility for occupational medicine. However, with the commercial approach and the focus on sickness absence management the attention for detection and prevention of work-related health effects has been shifted away. In the last decade, the association
Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H
Research indicates occupational injuries and diseases are not evenly distributed among workers. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of compensated occupational injuries and diseases requiring medical care in the Finnish farming population. The study population consisted of 93,564 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members who were covered by the mandatory workers' compensation insurance in 2002. This population had a total of 133,207 occupational injuries and 9,148 occupational diseases over a 26-year period (1982-2008). Clustering of claims was observed. Nearly half (47.1%) of the population had no compensated claims while 52.9% had at least one; 50.9% of farmers had one or more injuries and 8.1% had one or more diseases. Ten percent of the population had half of injury cases, and 3% of the population had half of occupational disease cases. Claims frequently involved work tasks related to animal husbandry and repair and maintenance of farm machinery. Injury and disease characteristics (work activity, cause, ICD-10 code) differed between individuals with high and low personal claim rate. Injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system had a tendency to reoccur among those with high claim rate. These outcomes were often related to strenuous working motions and postures in labor-intensive animal husbandry. Analyses of longitudinal insurance data contributes to better understanding of the long-term risk of occupational injury and disease among farmers. We suggest focusing on recurrent health outcomes and their causes among high risk populations could help design more effective interventions in agriculture and other industries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H
The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for compensated occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture. The study population consisted of 78,679 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members covered by mandatory workers' compensation insurance. This population had a total of 24,424 occupational injuries and 1684 diseases from 2000 to 2004. In the 5-year period, 20.2% of the population had (one or more) injuries and 2.0% had occupational diseases. Multiple claims were common particularly among livestock producers. Using Poisson regression analyses, we identified several personal and farm-related risk factors, with relative risk estimates ranging from 1.07 to 3.08 for injuries and from 1.45 to 3.01 for diseases. Cattle-intensive geographic regions, occupational health service membership, large farm size, and farming alone were identified as risk factors for both outcomes. F